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Sample records for affectively ill parents

  1. Cognitive and interpersonal predictors of stress generation in children of affectively ill parents.

    PubMed

    Shih, Josephine H; Abela, John R Z; Starrs, Claire

    2009-02-01

    Stress generation is a process in which individuals, through their depressive symptoms, personal characteristics, and/or behaviors, contribute to the occurrence of stressful life events. While this process has been well documented in adults, few studies have examined it in children. The present study examines whether cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability factors to depression contribute to stress generation in children, independent of their current depressive symptoms. Participants included 140 children (ages 6 to 14) and one of their parents. During an initial assessment, children completed self-report measures assessing cognitive and interpersonal vulnerability factors to depression. Children and their parents also completed measures assessing depressive symptoms. One year later, children and their parents participated in a semi-structured interview assessing the occurrence of stressful life events in the past year. Multi-level modeling results provided strong support for the stress generation process in children of affectively ill parents and highlight the importance of considering gender and age moderation effects. PMID:18802680

  2. [Families Affected by Parental Illness - What Obstacles Prevent them from Claiming Help and how Could their Supply Situation be Improved?].

    PubMed

    Kühnis, Romana; Müller-Luzi, Seraina; Schröder, Martin; Schmid, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Families Affected by Parental Illness - What Obstacles Prevent them from Claiming Help and how Could their Supply Situation be Improved? Current studies describe families affected by parental mental illness as a high-risk group. Although, interventions and programs were developed, the supply situation is still insufficient. In terms of a triangulation method, the present qualitative research with problem-centered semi-structured interviews stands in addition to the results of a quantitative study. This research investigates, which factors influence the claim of help and how the supply situation could be improved. 14 mothers and fathers in inpatient psychiatric treatment were interviewed. For instance is there a small awareness level of low-threshold services, parents also talk about different fears towards helpers or financial difficulty which prevent them from seeking help. PMID:27027216

  3. Transmission and Prevention of Mood Disorders among Children of Affectively Ill Parents: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardslee, William R.; Gladstone, Tracy R. G.; O'Connor, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide a conceptual review of the literature on children of depressed parents over the past 12 years. Method: This selective review focused on published studies that delineate the diagnosis of depression in parents, have large samples, describe children 6 to 17 years old, and are methodologically rigorous. The review emphasized…

  4. Molecular genetics in affective illness

    SciTech Connect

    Mendlewicz, J.; Sevy, S.; Mendelbaum, K. )

    1993-01-01

    Genetic transmission in manic depressive illness (MDI) has been explored in twins, adoption, association, and linkage studies. The X-linked transmission hypothesis has been tested by using several markers on chromosome X: Xg blood group, color blindness, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), factor IX (hemophilia B), and DNA probes such as DXS15, DXS52, F8C, ST14. The hypothesis of autosomal transmission has been tested by association studies with the O blood group located on chromosome 9, as well as linkage studies on chromosome 6 with the Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) haplotypes and on Chromosome 11 with DNA markers for the following genes: D2 dopamine receptor, tyrosinase, C-Harvey-Ras-A (HRAS) oncogene, insuline (ins), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Although linkage studies support the hypothesis of a major locus for the transmission of MDI in the Xq27-28 region, several factors are limiting the results, and are discussed in the present review. 105 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Youth adjustment to parental illness or disability: the role of illness characteristics, caregiving, and attachment.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Michael J; Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to (1) examine relations between youth adjustment and three sets of predictors: parental illness/disability characteristics, caregiving, and parent-child attachment, and (2) explore differences on these variables between youths of parental physical illness/disability and youths of parental mental illness. Eighty-one youths between 10 and 25 years of a parent with a physical illness/disability (35%) or a mental illness (43%) completed a series of self-report measures assessing perceived characteristics of the parent's illness/disability, caregiving experiences, and adjustment outcomes. Results revealed a set of predictors of poorer youth adjustment: gradual illness/disability onset, being male, isolation, lower perceived maturity, and less choice in caregiving. Youths of parental mental illness differed from youths of parental physical illness/disability on emotional distress (worry and discomfort) dimensions of caregiving. Youth-parent attachment security was associated with youth caregiving and there was a trend for attachment to vary according to parental illness/disability type. Findings highlight young caregiving as an important target for service and policy planning. PMID:21154017

  6. Many Parents Ill-Informed about Kids' Asthma Meds

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159117.html Many Parents Ill-Informed About Kids' Asthma Meds Only half surveyed knew what drugs were ... News) -- Only half of parents of children with asthma fully understand the use of their youngsters' asthma ...

  7. Group treatment for parents of the adult mentally ill.

    PubMed

    McLean, C S; Greer, K; Scott, J; Beck, J C

    1982-07-01

    Support and education groups for the families of the mentally ill have been in existence for at least 20 years. The authors describe a group treatment program established in 1979 for parents of chronically mentally ill individuals living in the community. The goal was to help parents become less overprotective, critical, and hostile so that clients would relapse less frequently and improve their social functioning during their time in the community. The groups provided parents with information and support. Some of the results of the groups include the implementation of new hospital procedures, more effective parenting, and a parent-initiated alliance on behalf of the mentally ill in the locality. PMID:7106719

  8. Parental Smoking Affects Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

  9. How illness affects family members: a qualitative interview survey

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Eve; Saada, Adrianna; Prosser, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Spillover effects of illness on family members can be substantial. The purpose of this study was to identify the domains of family members’ health and well-being that are affected when a relative has a chronic health condition. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted in February, 2012 with 49 individuals whose relatives had any of five chronic health conditions (arthritis, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease/dementia, cerebral palsy, and depression), purposively sampled to include different relationships with the ill relative (parent, child, spouse). Subjects were queried on whether and how having an ill relative affected their health and well-being; they were also asked about their caregiving responsibilities and the relative’s health. Interview data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Family members in our sample reported experiencing psychological and non-health effects from having an ill relative, and secondarily somatic effects. Effects on emotional health were most commonly reported as psychological spillover; non-health effects frequently included changes in daily activities and provision of caregiving. Spouses of patients reported the broadest range of spillover domains affected and adolescents of ill parents the fewest. Family members reported experiencing effects that were perceived as both positive and negative. Conclusions Spillover of illness onto family members encompasses a wide range of domains of health and well-being, extending beyond those included in many existing health-related quality of life measures. Outcomes measurement efforts should be expanded to adequately capture these health and well-being outcomes for analysis, to ensure that the benefits of interventions are accurately estimated and conclusions are valid. PMID:24142495

  10. Parental Involvement of Mothers with Chronic Illness and Children's Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Fish, Marian C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how maternal chronic illnesses may affect children's academic achievement through parental involvement. A total of 189 mothers diagnosed with chronic illnesses, such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, cancer, HIV/AIDS, chronic pain, asthma, myelodysplasic syndrome, and fibromyalgia, and with a child in middle school or high…

  11. Therapeutic factors in a group for parents with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Shor, Ron; Kalivatz, Zvi; Amir, Yael; Aldor, Roy; Lipot, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Parents with mental illness face many parenting related challenges that are exacerbated by the lack of services focusing on these needs. A study was conducted with 35 persons who participated in a group for parents with mental illness in Israel in order to examine the parenting related concerns the participants might bring up in a group modality, and the therapeutic factors in the group process. The findings illuminate the centrality of the parenting role in the participants lives and the value of the group modality as a tool enabling the participants to reveal their vulnerabilities. The therapeutic factors at work in the group, such as, imparting information, interpersonal learning, socialization techniques helped them deal with the difficulties of fulfilling their parenting roles at the same time they cope with their own mental illness. PMID:24962269

  12. [Awareness of illness in affective psychosis].

    PubMed

    Jarosz, M; Poprawska, I

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of analyzed clinical material several observations were attempted which were related to the patients' awareness of one's own affective psychosis. It was discovered that patients with endogenous depression considered themselves to be ill, but only in relation to depression. They usually do not perceive in themselves any psychotic illness. It was noticed that in depression past achievements appeared to be foreign to the patients. This was described in among other terms as "emotionally empty judgments". Analyzing the clinical picture of hypomanic states, stress was placed on the notion of the coexistence of logical thinking (and in some cases these thinking patterns are concerned with a feeling of heightened cognitive ability) with thinking styles based on logical errors. In all patients hypermnesia appears more important than other factors. The above mentioned phenomena are the subject of further research. PMID:1301600

  13. Talking with a child about a parent's terminal illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... htm Talking with a child about a parent's terminal illness To use the sharing features on this ... soon after you find out your cancer is terminal. Being included in this difficult transition can help ...

  14. Differential Outcomes of Adolescents with Chronically Ill and Healthy Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children grow up with a parent who has been diagnosed with a chronic medical condition (CMC) and seem to be at risk for adjustment difficulties. We examined differences in behavioral, psychosocial and academic outcomes between 161 adolescents from 101 families with a chronically ill parent and 112 adolescents from 68 families…

  15. Vulnerable Children of Mentally Ill Parents: Towards Evidence-Based Support for Improving Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretis, Manfred; Dimova, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of mental illness among parents always represents a stressor affecting the biopsychosocial development of a child. However, due to varying inherent resilience factors, not all children are affected to the same extent. The presence of evidence-based resilience factors is able to minimise or prevent the adverse effects…

  16. Variation in the spillover effects of illness on parents, spouses and children of the chronically ill

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Tara A.; Wittenberg, Eve; Lamarand, Kara; Prosser, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the broad scope of the spillover effects of illness, it is important to characterize the variability in these outcomes in order to identify relationship types in which secondary impacts of illness are particularly important to include in health economic evaluations. Purpose To examine heterogeneity in spillover effects of chronic conditions on family members by type of familial relationship with patient. Methods Adults (≥18 years) and adolescents (13-17 years) who had a parent, spouse or child in their household with a chronic condition (including Alzheimer's disease/dementia, arthritis, cancer and depression) were recruited from a U.S. national panel to participate in an on-line survey. Respondents were asked to rate the spillover effect of their family member's illness on their own health on a 0-100 scale, with lower scores indicating greater spillover. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between rating scale scores and relationship with ill family member (ill parent, child, or spouse) for each illness separately, controlling for caregiving responsibility and the health status of the ill family member. Results 1267 adults and 102 adolescents met inclusion criteria. In adjusted analyses, having a sick child was significantly (p<0.05) associated with lower rating scale scores compared to having a spouse with the same condition (cancer: -24.2; depression -9.7). Having a non-elderly or elderly adult parent with a condition, compared to a spouse, was significantly associated with lower rating scale scores for arthritis (-3.8) and depression (-5.3), but not for Alzheimer's disease/dementia or cancer. Conclusions The impact of illness on family members, measured with a rating scale, varies by relationship type for certain illnesses. Having a child with cancer, a parent with arthritis, or either with depression, is significantly associated with greater spillover, compared to having a spouse with one of these conditions. PMID

  17. Development of a measure of the impact of chronic parental illness on adolescent and adult children. The parental illness impact scale (Parkinson's disease).

    PubMed

    Schrag, Anette; Morley, David; Quinn, Niall; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2004-10-01

    Although chronic illness is likely to affect the well-being of patients' children, no assessment tools are currently available to measure this impact of parental illness. We therefore developed such an instrument based on interviews with children of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This questionnaire and other measures of psychological well-being were completed by 89 children, aged 12-48, years of patients with PD. Factor analysis revealed six domains with 38 questions. These six domains of the 'Parental Illness Impact Scale (Parkinson's disease)' or PIIS (PD) had satisfactory internal consistency and validity. Its six sub-scales correlated significantly and differentially with corresponding measures, including the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory for Adolescents (QOLIE-AD-48; r = -0.2 to 0.85), the Beck Depression Inventory (r = -0.07 to -0.40) or Birleson Depression Self-Rating Scale (r = 0.04 to -0.62), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (r = -0.01 to 0.33) as well as age (r = -0.37 to 0.28) and parent's disease duration (r = -0.31 to 0.34). The PIIS is the first instrument to assess the impact of parental illness on children. Its psychometric properties should be tested further in larger samples, including children of patients with other chronic disorders such as multiple sclerosis or chronic heart disease. PMID:15465395

  18. Hospitalized children with chronic illness: parental caregiving needs and valuing parental expertise.

    PubMed

    Balling, K; McCubbin, M

    2001-04-01

    Parents who care for a child with a chronic illness are forced to relinquish much of the control of the child's care when the child is hospitalized. By using the family systems theory as the underlying framework, the amount of control that parents of children with chronic illness wanted over their hospitalized child's care, and the degree to which parents felt health care professionals valued their expertise, was examined in a national sample of 50 parent caregivers. Participation in information sharing and technical care were areas over which parents wanted the most control. Nurses and attending physicians were rated highest in valuing parental expertise. Content analysis of an open-ended question on parental control revealed that parents felt a higher quality care was given at home than in the hospital; nurses were too busy or understaffed to provide optimal care in the hospital; and the child's control of care and decision making should increase as the child grew older. PMID:11326399

  19. Long-Term Parental Illness and Children: Perils and Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Mona; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses effects of long-term parental illness, focusing on effects on children. Describes effects on family homeostasis and family coping mechanisms. Discusses school counselor's role in bringing about a more balanced viewpoint of power and sharing within the family. Recommends establishing a strong therapeutic bond, assessing what the child is…

  20. The experience of Chinese American parents of children with life-limiting illness: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjiao; Kearney, Joan A

    2013-07-01

    Life-limiting childhood illness is a traumatic experience presenting parents with psychological, physical, and social challenges. While cultural influences affect all parents coping with the life-limiting illness and end-of-life period of their child, little is known about the experiences of Chinese American parents. The purpose of this comprehensive literature review was to describe Chinese American parents' experiences during their children's end-of-life period from a culturally informed perspective. Important themes in the literature are revealed including culture-based phenomena regarding philosophy of life and illness that can affect treatment choices, cultural mores that influence parental behaviour in Western health-care systems, specific communication patterns within families and between families and providers, certain coping risks, and gender-based roles and caregiving activities that have implications for provider communication patterns. The findings are consonant with the larger literature regarding the impact of traditional culture and values on Chinese family and health behaviours. Health professionals must be sensitive to Chinese American parents' communication styles, unspoken concerns, and unresolved cultural conflicts in American health-care settings. Educational interventions may be very helpful in this regard. PMID:24273812

  1. Parenting Stress and Impact of Illness in Parents of Children with Coeliac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Epifanio, Maria Stella; Genna, Vitalba; Vitello, Maria Grazia; Roccella, Michele; La Grutta, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic disease which could stress patients and their family. Although, poor attention has been paid to the quality of life in CD children and to the functioning of families with CD children. The study aims to evaluate the parenting perception of the CD impact and the parenting distress level. A group of 74 parents of CD children compiled the Impact Childhood Illness Scale and the Parenting Stress Index which is also compiled by 74 parents of health children. The assessment does not reveal a significant impact of CD on patient’s personal life although some critical areas emerged. Results evidenced an higher level of parenting stress in parents of CD children than parents of healthy children. CD, if suitably managed, has not a critical impact on parenting perception. Although, CD certainly put parents through an higher risk of a distress related to parenting role than parents with health children. A early identification of parenting distress in a pediatric chronic illness could facilitate the adjustment to pathology. PMID:24416498

  2. Restructuring parental attitudes--working with parents of the adult mentally ill.

    PubMed

    Dincin, J; Selleck, V; Streicker, S

    1978-01-01

    The Thresholds parents group gives the parents of clients an opportunity that has rarely been presented to them. They are able to discuss openly, with their peers, many issues that have not been expressed previously except in the greatest privacy. Often their children's mental illness has been a well-kept secret or has been handled in a guilty and shamefaced way. They do not find it easy, as a rule, to discuss mental illness in the same way they might discuss diabetes or congenital heart disease. It is an enormous relief to be open about their problems with others who are in similar circumstances. The main issues addressed in the group are a redefinition of good parenting to include mutual disengagement, emancipation, and separation; reduction of parental guilt, with its consequent implications of parents getting more out of their own lives, and a reduction of manipulation; and the handling of management issues such as money, medication, visiting, parental expectations, holidays, siblings, and parents' united front. Parents of the emotionally ill are a much maligned group. Too often they are regarded by the mental health community as enemies and not allies. Too often the suffering that they have endured is ignored. Too often parents' strengths are overlooked by mental health professionals treating their offspring. And, finally, too often basic change in the parents is demanded as a prerequisite for meaningful change in the member. PMID:734368

  3. Rockford, Ill.: Cognitive and Affective Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Thomas F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the operational tests of the two-way interactive cable television system using a firefighter training series administered to the Rockford (Illinois) fire department. Cognitive and affective measurement instruments described indicate a significant difference favoring two-way systems of in-service training programs. (JMF)

  4. [Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children?].

    PubMed

    Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Bomba, Franziska; Tönnies, Sven; Bullinger, Monika; Plass, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children? Parents with a mental disorder often display a problematic attachment style which may impact on their children's health related quality of life (HrQoL). The current study cross-sectionally examines attachment styles (BEPE) in mentally ill parents with underage children (n = 62) and the effect of attachment on their children's HrQoL (KINDL-R). Results show that secure attachment is less represented in parents with a mental health condition than in a healthy reference group. Within the clinical sample, children of mentally ill parents with a secure attachment style exhibit a higher HrQoL than children of mentally ill parents with ambivalent or avoidant attachment styles. These findings indicate not only that problematic attachment styles frequently occur in families with a mentally ill parent, but also suggest that this negatively affects the children's HrQoL. Appropriate interventions should include attachment oriented concepts. PMID:27027217

  5. Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

  6. Parents' difficulties and information needs in coping with acute illness in preschool children: a qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Kai, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify and explore difficulties parents experience with acute illness in young children and the information they seek to help them. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semi-structured one t one and group interviews with parents of preschool children. SETTING: Disadvantaged inner city community. SUBJECTS: 95 parents of preschool children. RESULTS: Parents felt disempowered when dealing with acute illness in their children because of difficulties making sense of the illness. Central to parents' difficulties were their experiences of inadequate information sharing by their general practitioners and variations in their doctors' decisions and behaviour. Disparity between parents' beliefs and expectations about illness and treatment and professionals' behaviour further frustrated parents' attempts to understand illness. Parents expressed a need for a range of accessible and specific information to support them through their negotiation of children's illness. CONCLUSIONS: Communication with parents requires greater recognition of parents' difficulties. Professionals have considerable potential to empower parents by sharing more information and skills. Such information should be consistent and address parents' concerns, beliefs, and expressed needs if this potential is to be realised. PMID:8892421

  7. Exploring the Relationship between Schizophrenia, Affective Illness, and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, James Claude

    This paper reviews literature on the relationships among schizophrenia, affective illness, and creativity. Historical perspectives on this relationship are explored and recent efforts in empirical research are discussed and critically evaluated. Results offer limited support for the proposition that schizophrenia is linked to creativity. The…

  8. Ethnic differences in caregiving duties and burdens among parents and siblings of persons with severe mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, A V; Reinhard, S C

    1995-06-01

    The policy of community care for the seriously mentally ill increases the caregiving duties and resulting burden on families with members who have a mental illness. Ethnicity is one factor that might have an important impact on the caregiving duties family members perform and the burden that results from these duties. This study uses interviews with 78 parents and 70 siblings of patients scheduled for imminent release from a state mental hospital. The findings indicate that Black and White parents have equivalent caregiving duties, but White parents report substantially more caregiver burden. Black siblings report more caregiving duties than White siblings but report less caregiver burden. These ethnic differences remain after controls for income, gender, age, diagnosis, perceived stigma, and coresidence. The results indicate that ethnicity can be a critical factor affecting levels of informal caretaking for persons with serious mental illnesses. PMID:9113139

  9. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  10. Reflections of Adults on Their School Experiences Growing up with a Severely Mentally Ill Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Marie A.

    2013-01-01

    More than five million children in the United States have a parent suffering from a severe mental illness and these children have specific experiences and needs, particularly in school. Children of mentally ill parents are at greater risk of being neglected and of developing psychological, social, emotional, and behavioral problems. They often…

  11. Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on identification,…

  12. Putting on a Happy Face: Emotional Expression in Parents of Children with Serious Illness

    PubMed Central

    Hexem, Kari R.; Miller, Victoria A.; Carroll, Karen; Faerber, Jennifer A.; Feudtner, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Context Communication is widely acknowledged as a crucial component of high-quality pediatric medical care, which is provided in situations where parents typically experience strong emotions. Objectives To explore emotion using both the LIWC and a self-report questionnaire to better understand the relationship between these two measures of emotion in a pediatric care context. Methods Sixty-nine parents of 47 children who were participants in the Decision Making in Pediatric Palliative Care Study at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia took part in this study. Parents completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and a semi-structured interview about their children and experience with medical decision making. The transcribed interviews were analyzed with the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program, which yields scores for positive and negative emotional expression. The association between LIWC and PANAS scores was evaluated using multivariate linear regression to adjust for potential confounders. Results Parents who used more positive words when speaking about their children’s illnesses and the experience of medical decision making were more likely to report lower levels of positive affect on the PANAS: a standard deviation increase in positive emotional expression was associated with an unadjusted 7.6% decrease in self-reported positive affect (P=0.01) and an adjusted 10.0% decrease in self-reported positive affect (P=0.05) after modeling for potential confounders. A standard deviation increase in negative emotional expression was associated with an adjusted 11.3% increase in self-reported negative affect (P=0.04). Conclusion The inverse relationship between parents’ positive emotional expression and their self-reported positive affect should remind both researchers and clinicians to be cognizant of the possibilities for emotional miscues, and consequent miscommunication, in the pediatric care setting. PMID:22926092

  13. Parents' help-seeking behaviours during acute childhood illness at home: A contribution to explanatory theory.

    PubMed

    Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty and anxiety surround parents' decisions to seek medical help for an acutely ill child. Consultation rates for children are rising, yet little is known about factors that influence parents' help-seeking behaviours. We used focus groups and interviews to examine how 27 parents of children under five years, from a range of socioeconomic groups in the East Midlands of England, use information to make decisions during acute childhood illness at home. This article reports findings elucidating factors that influence help-seeking behaviours. Parents reported that decision-making during acute childhood illness was influenced by a range of personal, social and health service factors. Principal among these was parents' concern to do the right thing for their child. Their ability to assess the severity of the illness was influenced by knowledge and experience of childhood illness. When parents were unable to access their general practitioner (GP), feared criticism from or had lost trust in their GP, some parents reported using services elsewhere such as Accident and Emergency. These findings contribute to explanatory theory concerning parents' help-seeking behaviours. Professional and political solutions have not reduced demand; therefore, collaborative approaches involving the public and professionals are now needed to improve parents' access to information. PMID:25296933

  14. Families Affected by Parental Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Smith, Vincent C; Wilson, Celeste R

    2016-08-01

    Children whose parents or caregivers use drugs or alcohol are at increased risk of short- and long-term sequelae ranging from medical problems to psychosocial and behavioral challenges. In the course of providing health care services to children, pediatricians are likely to encounter families affected by parental substance use and are in a unique position to intervene. Therefore, pediatricians need to know how to assess a child's risk in the context of a parent's substance use. The purposes of this clinical report are to review some of the short-term effects of maternal substance use during pregnancy and long-term implications of fetal exposure; describe typical medical, psychiatric, and behavioral symptoms of children and adolescents in families affected by substance use; and suggest proficiencies for pediatricians involved in the care of children and adolescents of families affected by substance use, including screening families, mandated reporting requirements, and directing families to community, regional, and state resources that can address needs and problems. PMID:27432847

  15. Practice Wisdom on Custodial Parenting with Mental Illness: A Strengths View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Buila, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Social work principles of strengths, empowerment, and consumer-centered care for persons with mental illness are currently being adapted to broader contexts. This article presents study findings on practice wisdom about custodial parents with mental illness, a potentially increasing group of consumers in light of mental health reform. The research…

  16. The Stigmatization of Mental Illness in Children and Parents. Data Trends #124

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" reviews theory and research on stigma and mental health with a focus on the stigmatization of mental illness in the family when either a child or a parent has a mental illness.…

  17. Young adults' childhood experiences of support when living with a parent with a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan; Gustafsson, Lisa; Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt

    2015-12-01

    There are several concerns in relation to children living with a parent suffering from a mental illness. In such circumstances, the health-care professionals need to involve the whole family, offering help to the parents on parenting as well as support for their children. These children are often helped by participating in meetings that provide them with contact with others with similar experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate young adults' childhood experiences of support groups when living with a mentally ill parent. Seven young women were chosen to participate in this study. A qualitative descriptive method was chosen. The main category emerged as 'the influence of life outside the home because of a parent's mental illness' from the two generic categories: 'a different world' and 'an emotion-filled life'. The participants' friends did not know that their parent was ill and they 'always had to…take responsibility for what happened at home'. These young adults appreciated the support group activities they participated in during their childhood, stating that the meetings had influenced their everyday life as young adults. Despite this, they associated their everyday life with feelings of being different. This study highlights the need for support groups for children whose parents suffer from mental illness. PMID:24486816

  18. Strategies and Issues in Supporting Children Whose Parents Have a Mental Illness within the School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reupert, Andrea; Maybery, Darryl

    2007-01-01

    It has been estimated that over 20 percent of children live in families where one parent has, or has had, a mental illness. Given the role of schools in children's academic as well as psychosocial development, it was considered important to identify effective strategies that school personnel have used in supporting such children. Parents and…

  19. Mentally ill mothers who have killed: three cases addressing the issue of future parenting capability.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, T; Miller, L J

    1998-05-01

    Many parents with severe and chronic mental illness lose custody of their children due to child abuse or neglect. These children may linger in foster care for long periods of time until decisions about custody are made. Recent proposals to shorten the time that children remain in the foster care system include the use of categories of abuse to guide decisions about custody. One proposal has been to "fast-track" cases involving parents with long-standing mental disorders by automatically terminating parental rights. This approach assumes that a severe and chronic mental disorder is incompatible with safe parenting. This report describes three cases of mentally ill mothers who lost custody of their children after they killed someone. The mothers were nonetheless found to be at low risk for future child maltreatment and violence according to evaluation with two current methodologies, Parenting Risk Assessment and Risk of Violence Assessment. The cases question the assumption that mental illness is incompatible with safe parenting and underscore the fact that evaluation of the parenting competency of mentally ill parents is rarely clear-cut. PMID:9603571

  20. Organisational systems and services for children of parents with mental illness and their families: processes of change and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Owen, Susanne

    2010-09-01

    Adult mental illness in the community including depression and anxiety has achieved greater public awareness and visibility in recent years and this has also resulted in increased recognition about the widespread impact on dependent children. During the past decade in Australia, policies and specific programs for infants, children and youth in terms of prevention, early intervention and promotion in relation to children of parents with a mental illness ('copmi') have been devised. However, these have generally been disconnected projects, essentially supported only by non-recurrent funding. In more recent years, systematic and interconnected responses involving a wider range of government, non-government and consumer and carer organisations to build sustainability have become the focus. However, little research about change processes affecting the organisational systems serving children of parents with mental illness and their families has been undertaken. This aim of the current study is to describe the enablers and barriers that contribute to change in systems and government and non-government organisations in relation to children of parents with a mental illness in Australia over the past decade, within the context of sustainability. The study involved interviews, focus groups and website and literature searches regarding systems change across Australian states and territories and nationally in relation to the enablers, barriers and future directions. Strategic and intentional processes within organisations, more evolutionary ongoing cross-agency processes and links to sustained changes are key systems change findings. Relevance for change in other health services is highlighted. PMID:19908136

  1. Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Eccleston, Christopher; Palermo, Tonya M; Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include parent only or parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to treat parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and/or family functioning. No comprehensive, meta-analytic reviews have been published in this area. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies that include coping strategies for parents of children/adolescents with chronic illnesses (painful conditions, cancer, diabetes mellitus, asthma, traumatic brain injury, inflammatory bowel diseases, skin diseases or gynaecological disorders). The therapy will aim to improve parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and family functioning. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsyclNFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions that included parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. The initial search was from inception of these databases to June 2011 and we conducted a follow-up search from June 2011 to March 2012. We identified additional studies from the reference list of retrieved papers and from discussion with investigators. Selection criteria Included studies were RCTs of psychological interventions that delivered treatment to parents of children and adolescents (under 19 years of age) with a chronic illness compared to active control, wait list control or treatment as usual. We excluded studies if the parent component was a coaching intervention, the aim of the intervention was health prevention/promotion, the comparator was a pharmacological treatment, the child/adolescent had an illness not listed above or the study included children with more than one type of chronic illness. Further to this, we excluded studies when the sample size of either comparator

  2. Parental HIV disclosure: from perspectives of children affected by HIV in Henan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Culturally and developmentally appropriate parental HIV disclosure (i.e., parents disclose their HIV infection to children) has been shown to be closely related with the well-being of both HIV-infected parents and their children. However, current practices and effects of parental HIV disclosure remain poorly understood in low- and middle-income countries including China. Quantitative data from 626 children affected by parental HIV (orphans and vulnerable children) in Henan, China, were collected in 2011 to examine children's perceptions and knowledge regarding their parents' HIV disclosure practices and to assess the associations of these practices with children's demographic and psychosocial factors. The data in the current study revealed that only a small proportion of children learned parental HIV infection from their parents (direct disclosure), and many of these disclosure seemed being unplanned. Among the children who were not told by their parents, at least 95% of them either knew parental illness from others (indirect disclosure) or from their own observations or suspicions. The children reported similar disclosure practices by fathers and mothers. There were minimum differences between disclosed and nondisclosed children on a number of psychosocial measures. The findings support the notion that parental HIV disclosure is a complex process and can only be beneficial if it is carefully planned. The data in the current study suggest the needs for the culturally and developmentally appropriate approach in parental HIV disclosure in order to maximize both short- and long-term benefits to children, parents, and family functioning. PMID:25465533

  3. Child and Parent Perceptions of Monitoring in Chronic Illness Management: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hafetz, Jessica; Miller, Victoria A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The management of a childhood chronic illness can be challenging because it can involve frequent and complex treatment tasks that must be carried out on a daily basis. Parental monitoring of the treatment regimen and child disclosure of health-related information may impact effective illness management but are not well understood. Methods The present study utilized qualitative methods to examine parental monitoring-related behaviors, youth disclosure of health-related information, and both perceptions about, and reactions to, these behaviors in a sample of youth diagnosed with a chronic illness (e.g. asthma, diabetes and cystic fibrosis) and parents of youth with one of these illnesses. Results Parents solicited information from youth verbally, observed symptoms, reminded youth about treatments, and tracked indicators of treatment adherence (e.g., dose counters; glucose meters). Youth reactions varied from acceptance to irritation. Youth behaviors included withholding information and freely disclosing spontaneously and in response to requests. Conclusions Findings derived from this qualitative methodology demonstrate convergence with findings from quantitative studies on this topic, add to the literature related to parental monitoring of chronic illness management, and suggest several avenues for future research. PMID:20533917

  4. Defining quality of life in the children of parents with severe mental illness: a preliminary stakeholder-led model.

    PubMed

    Bee, Penny; Berzins, Kathryn; Calam, Rachel; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Abel, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Severe parental mental illness poses a challenge to quality of life (QoL) in a substantial number of children and adolescents, and improving the lives of these children is of urgent political and public health concern. This study used a bottom-up qualitative approach to develop a new stakeholder-led model of quality of life relevant to this population. Qualitative data were collected from 19 individuals participating in focus groups or individual interviews. Participants comprised 8 clinical academics, health and social care professionals or voluntary agency representatives; 5 parents and 6 young people (aged 13-18 yrs) with lived experience of severe parental mental illness. Data underwent inductive thematic analysis for the purposes of informing a population-specific quality of life model. Fifty nine individual themes were identified and grouped into 11 key 'meta-themes'. Mapping each meta-theme against existing child-centred quality of life concepts revealed a multi-dimensional model that endorsed, to a greater or lesser degree, the core domains of generic quality of life models. Three new population-specific priorities were also observed: i) the alleviation of parental mental health symptoms, ii) improved problem-based coping skills and iii) increased mental health literacy. The identification of these priorities raises questions regarding the validity of generic quality of life measures to monitor the effectiveness of services for families and children affected by severe mental illness. New, age-appropriate instruments that better reflect the life priorities and unique challenges faced by the children of parents with severe mental illness may need to be developed. Challenges then remain in augmenting and adapting service design and delivery mechanisms better to meet these needs. Future child and adult mental health services need to work seamlessly alongside statutory education and social care services and a growing number of relevant third sector providers to

  5. Talking with a child about a parent's terminal illness

    MedlinePlus

    When a parent's cancer treatment has stopped working, you may wonder how to tell your child. Talking openly and ... through this together. Age and past experience have a lot to do with what children understand about ...

  6. [Handicapped and chronically ill patients: special effect on the affected].

    PubMed

    Rinn, F

    1997-05-01

    The Bonn coalition government's determination to reduce incidental wage costs, to be realized by way of benefit cutbacks in the social insurance systems and social assistance domain as well as increasing the burdens on insurers through higher retention and cost sharing levels, has particularly serious implications for people with disabilities and chronic illness. Apart from facing numerous direct changes for the worse, they in addition are affected by restrictive regulations applicable generally, inter alia in the labour market or the health and pension insurance schemes; adverse effects, hence, accumulate and heighten out of proportion. The implications of the Bonn austerity legislation are dealt with in the present contribution on the examples of the health-care reform acts as well as the changes to the federal social assistance act, in as far as they affect the provision and care of disabled individuals in residential or community settings. Also dealt with are various problems arising due to the integration assistance/long-term care insurance overlap. PMID:9324712

  7. Adolescent Mental Health Consumers' Self-Stigma: Associations with Parents' and Adolescents' Illness Perceptions and Parental Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tally

    2010-01-01

    Currently, little is known about adolescents' self-stigma experiences as mental health (MH) treatment recipients. Hence, this study addresses the following two questions: (a) what are adolescents' and parents' perceptions of stigma and perceptions of the cause, controllability, and anticipated outcome (illness perceptions) of adolescents' MH…

  8. Faith, Hope, and Spirituality: SUPPORTING PARENTS WHEN THEIR CHILD HAS A LIFE-LIMITING ILLNESS.

    PubMed

    Crisp, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    When a child has a life-limiting illness, parents' goals and strategies for their child's life may need to be drastically altered, especially if early death looms. This article reviews literature and research about how families employ faith, hope, spirituality, and biblical perspectives as their child becomes critically ill and faces death. Suggestions are made for best caring practices for families and children encountering this difficult journey. PMID:26817365

  9. Early Traumatic Stress Responses in Parents Following a Serious Illness in Their Child: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Claudia; Muscara, Frank; Anderson, Vicki A; McCarthy, Maria C

    2016-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature investigating the early traumatic stress responses in parents of children diagnosed with a serious illness/injury. A literature review was conducted (September 2013) using Medline, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Twenty-four studies related to parents of children hospitalized due to diagnosis of cancer, type 1 diabetes, meningococcal disease, trauma or serious injury, preterm birth and other serious illnesses requiring admission to intensive care were included. Parents were assessed for early traumatic stress symptoms within 3 months of their child's diagnosis/hospitalization. Prevalence rates of acute stress disorder in parents ranged from 12 to 63%. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder ranged from 8 to 68%. Variability was related to methodological factors including differences in study design, timing of assessments, measurement tools, and scoring protocols. Psychosocial factors rather than medical factors predicted parent distress. This review integrates and compares early traumatic reactions in parents with children suffering a range of serious illnesses. Findings suggest a high prevalence of acute and posttraumatic stress symptoms in parents. Methodological inconsistencies made comparison of early traumatic stress prevalence rates difficult. Risk factors associated with traumatic stress symptoms were identified. PMID:26296614

  10. Parent-Child Collaborative Decision Making for the Management of Chronic Illness: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Victoria A.

    2010-01-01

    Parent-child collaborative decision making (CDM) is a potentially important precursor to full decision making independence and may be particularly significant for the management of childhood chronic illnesses. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to explore the concept of CDM from the perspective of children and parents. Children (ages 8-19 years) with asthma, type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis and parents of children with these illnesses participated in focus groups and individual interviews. Participants described various ways they collaborate with one another (e.g., asking for the other's opinion; providing information). Participants viewed collaboration as beneficial, regardless of who ultimately makes the decision. Several factors emerged as potential predictors of CDM, including parent/family factors (e.g., parental time; parent-child conflict), child factors (e.g., maturity; emotional/behavioral functioning), and decision/situation factors (e.g., seriousness of the decision; extent to which the child is experiencing symptoms). These data suggest ways to enhance collaborative decision making interactions between children with a chronic illness and their parents, as well as several areas for future quantitative research. PMID:19803619

  11. Parent-child collaborative decision making for the management of chronic illness: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Victoria A

    2009-09-01

    Parent-child collaborative decision making (CDM) is a potentially important precursor to full decision-making independence and may be particularly significant for the management of childhood chronic illnesses. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to explore the concept of CDM from the perspective of children and parents. Children (ages 8-19 years) with asthma, type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis and parents of children with these illnesses participated in focus groups and individual interviews. Participants described various ways they collaborate with one another (e.g., asking for the other's opinion; providing information). Participants viewed collaboration as beneficial, regardless of who ultimately makes the decision. Several factors emerged as potential predictors of CDM, including parent/family factors (e.g., parental time; parent-child conflict), child factors (e.g., maturity; emotional/behavioral functioning), and decision/situation factors (e.g., seriousness of the decision; extent to which the child is experiencing symptoms). These data suggest ways to enhance collaborative decision-making interactions between children with a chronic illness and their parents, as well as several areas for future quantitative research. PMID:19803619

  12. Does Parental Employment Affect Children's Educational Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildberg-Hoerisch, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are…

  13. Development of the parent response to child illness (PRCI) scale.

    PubMed

    Austin, Joan K; Shore, Cheryl P; Dunn, David W; Johnson, Cynthia S; Buelow, Janice M; Perkins, Susan M

    2008-11-01

    The aims of this study were to develop an instrument to measure parents' responses and perceptions related to the onset of either seizures or asthma in a child (aged 4-14) and to assess the initial reliability and validity of the instrument. The 35-item scale developed comprised five subscales: Child Support, Family Life/Leisure, Condition Management, Child Autonomy, and Child Discipline. Subjects were parents of 224 children with new-onset seizures and 104 parents of children with new-onset asthma. Internal consistency reliabilities were stronger for Child Support, Family Life/Leisure, and Condition Management than for Child Autonomy and Child Discipline for both samples. Test-retest reliability ranged from good to fair for both samples. The associations between parent positive mood and all of the subscales for both samples in the predicted directions provided key empirical support for validity. The scale has potential for use in research and in the clinical setting. In addition, the scale has potential to be used with other conditions. PMID:18706521

  14. Problem behavior in children of chronically ill parents: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sieh, D S; Meijer, A M; Oort, F J; Visser-Meily, J M A; Van der Leij, D A V

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to examine whether children of chronically ill parents differ from norm groups in problem behavior. We report moderator effects and overall effect sizes for internalizing, externalizing and total problem behavior assessed by children and parents. In fixed effect models, we found a significant overall effect size for internalizing problem behavior (number of studies k = 19, total sample size N = 1,858, Cohen's d = .23, p < .01) and externalizing problem behavior (k = 13, N = 1,525, d = .09, p < .01) but not for total problem behavior (k = 7; N = 896). Effects for internalizing and externalizing problem behavior were larger in non-cancer studies, in samples including younger children and younger ill parents, in samples defined by low average SES and in studies including parents with longer illness duration. In addition, effects for externalizing problem behavior were larger in studies characterized by a higher percentage of ill mothers and single parents. With exclusive self-report, effect sizes were significant for all problem behaviors. Based on these results, a family-centered approach in health care is recommended. PMID:20640510

  15. Effects of preventive family service coordination for parents with mental illnesses and their children, a RCT.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Henny J; Janssens, Jan M A M; Hoencamp, Erik; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Hosman, Clemens M H

    2015-06-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as developed in the Preventive Basic Care Management (PBCM) program, improve parenting and prevent child behavioral problems? This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) compared the effectiveness of PBCM with a control condition. Ninety-nine outpatients of a community mental health center were randomized to intervention or control. Primary outcomes included parenting quality (assessed by the HOME instrument), parenting skills (parenting skills subscale of FFQ), and parenting stress (PDH). Secondary outcomes are child behavioral problems (SDQ). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 9 and 18 months. Effects were analyzed by Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Most families were single-parent families belonging to ethnic minorities. The results of the first RCT on effects of PBCM suggest that this intervention is feasible and has a positive effect on parenting skills. There was no evidence for effects on the quality of parenting and parenting stress, nor preventive effects on child behavioral problems. Replication studies in other sites, with more power, including monitoring of the implementation quality and studying a broader palette of child outcomes are needed to confirm the positive effects of PBCM. Long-term prospective studies are needed to investigate if improved parenting skills lead to positive effects in the children in the long run. PMID:25751176

  16. The Unique Effects of Parental Alcohol and Affective Disorders, Parenting, and Parental Negative Affect on Adolescent Maladjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Moira; Chassin, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Using a high-risk community sample, multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for mothers (n = 416) and fathers (n = 346) to test the unique, prospective influence of parental negative affect on adolescent maladjustment (internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and negative emotionality) 2 years later over and above parental…

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PARENT RESPONSE TO CHILD ILLNESS (PRCI) SCALE

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Joan K.; Shore, Cheryl P.; Dunn, David W.; Johnson, Cindy S.; Buelow, Janice M.; Perkins, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop an instrument to measure parents’ responses and perceptions related to the onset of either seizures or asthma in a child (ages 4 to 14 years) and to assess the initial reliability and validity of the instrument. A 35-item scale was developed with five subscales: Child Support (CS), Family Life/Leisure (FL), Condition Management (CM), Child Autonomy (CA), and Child Discipline (CD). Subjects were parents of 224 children with a new-onset seizure and 104 parents of children with new-onset asthma. Internal consistency reliabilities were stronger for CS, FL, and CM than for CA and CD for both samples. Test-retest reliability ranged from good to fair for both samples. The associations between parent positive mood and all of the subscales for both samples in the predicted directions provided key empirical support for validity. The scale has potential for use in research and in the clinical setting. In addition, the scale has potential to be used with other conditions. PMID:18706521

  18. The psychosocial experience of parents receiving care closer to home for their ill child.

    PubMed

    Spiers, Gemma; Parker, Gillian; Gridley, Kate; Atkin, Karl

    2011-11-01

    Current health policy in England regarding the management of childhood illness advocates for care to be delivered as close to home as possible. The aim of this article is to report findings from a qualitative component of a larger study evaluating models of care closer to home (CCTH) for children and young people who are ill. The focus is on parents' psychosocial experience of receiving CCTH for their ill child. A qualitative case study design was used, with four Primary Care Trusts in England as the case study sites. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 parents and one extended family caregiver of children using CCTH services within the case study sites. Interviews were conducted face-to-face and audio-recorded with permission. Data were collected in 2009. There was an overall preference for CCTH over hospital-based care where possible. The parents in this study experienced differing levels of responsibility as part of this care, and responded to this in different ways. Being supported emotionally and socially by practitioners was an important part of receiving CCTH for parents, especially when they had increased responsibility as part of this care. Developing relationships with practitioners appeared to be a medium through which parents received support. If the provision of CCTH continues to expand in line with current policy, provision of support for parents should be considered a fundamental aspect of service development. PMID:21623985

  19. Needs, expectations and consequences for children growing up in a family where the parent has a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Izabela; Zabłocka-Żytka, Lidia; Ryan, Peter; Poma, Stefano Zanone; Joronen, Katja; Viganò, Giovanni; Simpson, Wendy; Paavilainen, Eija; Scherbaum, Norbert; Smith, Martin; Dawson, Ian

    2016-08-01

    The lack of pan-European guidelines for empowering children of parents with mental illness led to the EU project CAMILLE - Empowerment of Children and Adolescents of Mentally Ill Parents through Training of Professionals working with children and adolescents. The aim of this initial task in the project was to analyse needs, expectations and consequences for children with respect to living with a parent with mental illness from the perspective of professionals and family members. This qualitative research was conducted in England, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Scotland with 96 professionals, parents with mental illness, adult children and partners of parents with mental illness. A framework analysis method was used. Results of the study highlighted that the main consequences described for children of parental mental illness were role reversal; emotional and behavioural problems; lack of parent's attention and stigma. The main needs of these children were described as emotional support, security and multidisciplinary help. Implications for practice are that professionals working with parents with mental illness should be aware of the specific consequences for the children and encourage parents in their parental role; multi-agency collaboration is necessary; schools should provide counselling and prevent stigma. PMID:27278508

  20. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  1. When children affect parents: Children's academic performance and parental investment.

    PubMed

    Yurk Quadlin, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research. PMID:26004488

  2. Effect of Preventive Interventions in Mentally Ill Parents on the Mental Health of the Offspring: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, Eliane; Munder, Thomas; Egger, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Mental illness in parents affects the mental health of their children. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to prevent mental disorders or psychological symptoms in the offspring were performed. Method: The Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled…

  3. Parenting Mediates the Impact of Caregivers' Distress on Children's Well-Being in Families Affected by HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Du, Hongfei; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Parental illness imposes great challenges to children's life and mental health. Having a parent infected by HIV may further challenge children's psychological well-being. Existing studies have demonstrated a negative impact of caregiver's distress on children's well-being. Limited studies examined the potential pathways of the link. This study aims to examine whether parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness can explain the relationship between caregivers' distress and children's well-being. A community sample of children of parents living with HIV and their current caregivers (n = 754 dyads) was recruited in rural central China. Children completed the measures on their psychological well-being and perceived parental responsiveness of their caregivers. Caregivers reported on their psychological well-being, parenting stress, and parenting competence. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that caregivers' distress indirectly affect children's well-being through parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness. Parenting stress explained the impact of caregiver's distress on parental responsiveness and showed pervasive effects on parenting competence. Our findings lend credence to family-based intervention for children affected by HIV and affirm the importance of incorporating the cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of parenting practices in such intervention. PMID:26078116

  4. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  5. Treatment Choices in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Parental Illness Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Anbar, Nebal N.; Dardennes, Roland M.; Prado-Netto, Arthur; Kaye, Kelley; Contejean, Yves

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional design was employed. Parents of a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were asked to complete a modified version of the Revised Illness-Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-RA) and answer questions about information-seeking activities and treatments used. Internal consistency, construct validity, and factor structure were assessed.…

  6. Parents' Grief in the Context of Adult Child Mental Illness: A Qualitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Meg; Cobham, Vanessa; Murray, Judith; McDermott, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that parents and other family members often grieve their child or relative's mental illness. This grief appears resultant from a profound sense of loss, which has been described as complicated and nonfinite (e.g., Atkinson in "Am J Psychiatry" 151(8):1137-1139, 1994; Davis and Schultz in "Soc Sci Med" 46(3):369-379, 1998; Jones…

  7. The Effects of Prematurity and Illness on Parents' Perceptions of Their Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danko, Maribeth; And Others

    Part of a larger study investigating the longitudinal effects of prematurity, illness, and hospitalization, this study focuses on parent perceptions of their infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, with age being corrected for conceptional age at birth. It was hypothesized that neonatal condition and age of infant at the time of measurement would…

  8. The Role of Parental and Extrafamilial Social Support in the Psychosocial Adjustment of Children with a Chronically Ill Father.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotchick, Beth A.; Summers, Peter; Forehand, Rex; Steele, Ric G.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relation between social support and psychosocial adjustment in children of men with hemophilia. Results, based on 53 families, indicate that the impact of illness, not the severity of illness itself, related to children's psychosocial adjustment. Main effects were observed for parental support on child- and parent-reported…

  9. Mental illness and parenthood: being a parent in secure psychiatric care

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Fiona R; Macinnes, Douglas l; Parrott, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background Research into parenting and mental illness seldom includes forensic mental health service users, despite its relevance to therapeutic, family work and risk management. Aims This study aimed to understand the experiences of parents and the variety of parenting roles maintained during admission to a secure forensic hospital. Methods Narrative interviews with 18 parents (eight mothers and 10 fathers) at an English medium security hospital were analysed thematically, using the framework approach. The proportion of patients who are parents and their contact patterns with their children were estimated from records. Results About a quarter of men and 38% of women were parents. Parenthood was of central importance to their emotional life, spanning experiences of loss, shame and failed expectations, joy, responsibility and hope. Fewer fathers maintained contact with their children than mothers yet fatherhood remained a vital aspect of men's identities, with impact on their self-esteem. Parenting during lengthy admissions – while constrained and dependent on professional support and surveillance – ranged from sending gifts and money to visits and phone calls. Offending was seen as a particularly shameful aspect of admission, contributing to distancing from the children and difficulty explaining detention to them. Conclusions Such complex experiences call for multidisciplinary knowledge and skills. Provision of focused therapy, as well as appropriate visiting spaces, creative approaches to contact time and support for patients in explaining their mental illness and detention to their children are recommended. © 2015 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25754133

  10. Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Eccleston, Christopher; Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily; Bartlett, Jess; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include interventions directed at the parent only or at parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to improve parent, child, and family outcomes. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 8, 2012, (Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness). Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of psychological therapies that include parents of children and adolescents with chronic illnesses including painful conditions, cancer, diabetes mellitus, asthma, traumatic brain injury (TBI), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), skin diseases, or gynaecological disorders. We also aimed to evaluate the adverse events related to implementation of psychological therapies for this population. Secondly, we aimed to evaluate the risk of bias of included studies and the quality of outcomes using the GRADE assessment. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions that included parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Databases were searched to July 2014. Selection criteria Included studies were RCTs of psychological interventions that delivered treatment to parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness compared to an active control, waiting list, or treatment as usual control group. Data collection and analysis Study characteristics and outcomes were extracted from included studies. We analysed data using two categories. First, we analysed data by each individual medical condition collapsing across all treatment classes at two time points. Second, we analysed data by each individual treatment class; cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy (FT), problem solving therapy (PST) and multisystemic therapy

  11. Supported Parenting to Meet the Needs and Concerns of Mothers with Severe Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    David, Daryn H; Styron, Thomas; Davidson, Larry

    2011-04-01

    Women with serious mental illness often parent without adequate support from psychiatric and behavioral health providers. The lack of such services is significant, given that women with SMI have children at the same or higher rates as women without psychiatric disabilities. In this call to action, we argue that the need to develop supported parenting initiatives for women with SMI is necessary and long overdue. First, we describe numerous social and systemic barriers in the U.S. that have hindered the development of parenting supports for women with SMI over the last century. We next describe recent qualitative and quantitative findings regarding the parenting needs and strengths of these mothers. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future research, program development, and systems-level policy changes to support mothers with SMI in parenting most effectively. PMID:22180730

  12. Supported Parenting to Meet the Needs and Concerns of Mothers with Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    David, Daryn H.; Styron, Thomas; Davidson, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Women with serious mental illness often parent without adequate support from psychiatric and behavioral health providers. The lack of such services is significant, given that women with SMI have children at the same or higher rates as women without psychiatric disabilities. In this call to action, we argue that the need to develop supported parenting initiatives for women with SMI is necessary and long overdue. First, we describe numerous social and systemic barriers in the U.S. that have hindered the development of parenting supports for women with SMI over the last century. We next describe recent qualitative and quantitative findings regarding the parenting needs and strengths of these mothers. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future research, program development, and systems-level policy changes to support mothers with SMI in parenting most effectively. PMID:22180730

  13. Online Group Course for Parents With Mental Illness: Development and Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Speetjens, Paula AM; Arntz, Karlijn SE; Onrust, Simone A

    2010-01-01

    Background Children of parents with mental illness (COPMI) are at greater risk of developing mental disorders themselves. Since impaired parenting skills appear to be a crucial factor, we developed a facilitated 8-session preventative group course called KopOpOuders (Chin Up, Parents) delivered via the Internet to Dutch parents with psychiatric problems. The goal was to promote children’s well-being by strengthening children’s protective factors via their parents. To reach parents at an early stage of their parenting difficulties, the course is easily accessible online. The course is delivered in a secure chat room, and participation is anonymous. Objective This paper reports on (1) the design and method of this online group course and (2) the results of a pilot study that assessed parenting skills, parental sense of competence, child well-being, and course satisfaction. Method The pilot study had a pre/post design. Parenting skills were assessed using Laxness and Overreactivity subscales of the Parenting Scale (PS). Sense of parenting competence was measured with the Ouderlijke Opvattingen over Opvoeding (OOO) questionnaire, a Dutch scale assessing parental perceptions of parenting using the Feelings of Incompetence and Feelings of Competence subscales. Child well-being was assessed with the total problem score, Emotional Problems, and Hyperactivity subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Paired samples t tests were performed, and Cohen’s d was used to determine effect sizes. Intention-to-treat analyses and analyses of completers only were both performed. Course satisfaction was evaluated using custom-designed questionnaires. Results The sample comprised 48 parents with mental illness. The response rate was 100% (48/48) at pretest and 58% (28/48) at posttest. Significant improvements were found on PS Laxness and Overreactivity subscales (P < .01) and on the OOO Feelings of Incompetence and Competence subscales (P < .01) in analysis

  14. Parents as Role Models: Parental Behavior Affects Adolescents' Plans for Work Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    This study (N = 520 high-school students) investigates the influence of parental work involvement on adolescents' own plans regarding their future work involvement. As expected, adolescents' perceptions of parental work behavior affected their plans for own work involvement. Same-sex parents served as main role models for the adolescents' own…

  15. Bereaved parents' experiences of music therapy with their terminally ill child.

    PubMed

    Lindenfelser, Kathryn J; Grocke, Denise; McFerran, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate bereaved parents' experiences of music therapy with their terminally ill child. In-depth interviews were conducted with 7 bereaved parents who were recruited through a community-based palliative care program. The parent participants' experiences varied as their children who received music therapy ranged in ages from 5 months to 12 years old. The interview transcripts were analyzed using phenomenological strategies. Five global themes emerged from the analysis. These included (a) music therapy was valued as a means of altering the child's and family's perception of their situation in the midst of adversity, (b) music therapy was a significant component of remembrance, (c) music therapy was a multifaceted experience for the child and family, (d) music therapy enhanced communication and expression, and (e) parents shared perceptions of and recommendations for improving music therapy services. These emergent themes yield knowledge into the relevance of music therapy within pediatric palliative care. PMID:18959454

  16. How Parental HIV Affects Children. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The shadow cast by HIV reaches beyond individuals diagnosed with the condition. It touches the lives of family members, friends, coworkers, and many others. One group in particular that feels these effects keenly is the children of HIV-positive parents. With improved treatments that have extended the life expectancies of HIV-infected people and…

  17. Family routines and parental monitoring as protective factors among early and middle adolescents affected by maternal HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Debra A; Marelich, William D; Herbeck, Diane M; Payne, Diana L

    2009-01-01

    The influence of parenting skills on adolescent outcomes among children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS (N = 118, M age = 13) was investigated. Among families with more frequent family routines, over time adolescents showed lower rates of aggression, anxiety, worry, depression, conduct disorder, binge drinking, and increased self-concept. Among families with higher levels of parental monitoring, adolescents showed significant declines in anxiety and depression, conduct disorder, and binge drinking, along with increased self-concept. Mothers' level of illness was associated with parenting. Greater variability in parental monitoring resulted in higher levels of problem behaviors. PMID:19930345

  18. Awareness and Use of California's Paid Family Leave Insurance Among Parents of Chronically Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Mark A.; Chung, Paul J.; Elliott, Marc N.; Garfield, Craig F.; Vestal, Katherine D.; Klein, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Context In 2004, California's Paid Family Leave Insurance Program (PFLI) became the first state program to provide paid leave to care for an ill family member. Objective To assess awareness and use of the program by employed parents of children with special health care needs, a population likely to need leave. Design, Setting, and Participants Telephone interviews with successive cohorts of employed parents before (November 21, 2003-January 31, 2004; n=754) and after (November 18, 2005-January 31, 2006; n=766) PFLI began, randomly sampled from 2 children's hospitals, one in California (with PFLI) and the other in Illinois (without PFLI). Response rates were 82% before and 81% after (California), and 80% before and 74% after (Illinois). Main Outcome Measures Taking leave, length of leave, unmet need for leave, and awareness and use of PFLI. Results Similar percentages of parents at the California site reported taking at least 1 day of leave to care for their ill child before (295 [81%]) and after (327 [79%]) PFLI, taking at least 4 weeks before (64 [21%]) and after (74 [19%]) PFLI, and at least once in the past year not missing work despite believing their child's illness necessitated it before (152 [41%]) and after (156 [41%]) PFLI. Relative to Illinois, parents at the California site reported no change from before to after PFLI in taking at least 1 day of leave (difference of differences, −3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], −13% to 7%); taking at least 4 weeks of leave (1%; 95% CI, −9% to 10%); or not missing work, despite believing their child's illness necessitated it (−1%; 95% CI, −13% to 10%). Only 77 parents (18%) had heard of PFLI approximately 18 months after the program began, and only 20 (5%) had used it. Even among parents without other access to paid leave, awareness and use of PFLI were minimal. Conclusions Parents of children with special health care needs receiving care at a California hospital were generally unaware of PFLI and rarely used

  19. Why do parents use the emergency department for minor injury and illness? A cross-sectional questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, Sarah; Higginson, Ian; Ives, Andrew; Smith, Jason E

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand decision-making when bringing a child to an emergency department. Design A cross-sectional survey of parents attending with children allocated a minor triage category. Setting Emergency department in South West England, serving 450,000 people per annum. Participants All English-speaking parents/caregivers whose children attended the emergency department and were triaged as minor injury/illness. Main outcome measures Parental and child characteristics, injury/illness characteristics, advice seeking behaviour, views regarding emergency department service improvement, GP access and determinants of emergency department use. Results In sum, 373 responses were analysed. The majority of attendances were for minor injury, although illness was more common in <4 year olds. Most presentations were within 4 h of injury/illness and parents typically sought advice before attending. Younger parents reported feeling more stressed. Parents of younger children perceived the injury/illness to be more serious, reporting greater levels of worry, stress, helplessness and upset and less confidence. Parents educated to a higher level were more likely to administer first-aid/medication. Around 40% did not seek advice prior to attending and typically these were parents aged <24 and parents of <1 year olds. The main determinants of use were: advised by someone other than a GP; perceived urgency; perceived appropriateness. The need for reassurance also featured. Conclusions The findings suggest that it is difficult for parents to determine whether their child’s symptoms reflect minor conditions. Efforts should focus on building parental confidence and self-help and be directed at parents of younger children and younger parents. This is in addition to appropriate minor injury/illness assessment and treatment services. PMID:26981256

  20. An Overview of State Policies Affecting Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koshel, Jeffrey J.

    This report provides a brief overview of state policies and programs to address the problems of adolescent pregnancy and parenting. Section 1, a brief introduction, is followed by a section which examines a broad set of state policies and programs affecting at-risk youth, including pregnant teenagers and teenage parents. The state-by-state review…

  1. Parental HIV Disclosure: From Perspectives of Children Affected by HIV in Henan China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    Culturally and developmentally appropriate parental HIV disclosure (i.e., parents disclose their HIV infection to children) has been shown to be closely related with the well-being of both HIV-infected parents and their children. However, current practices and effects of parental HIV disclosure remain poorly understood in low and middle-income countries including China. Quantitative data from 626 children affected by parental HIV (orphans and vulnerable children) in Henan, China, were collected in 2011 to examine children’s perceptions and knowledge regarding their parents’ HIV disclosure practices and to assess the associations of these practices with children’s demographic and psychosocial factors. The data in the current study revealed that only a small proportion of children learned parental HIV infection from their parents (direct disclosure) and many of these disclosure seemed being unplanned. Among the children who were not told by their parents, at least 95% of them either knew parental illness from others (indirect disclosure) or from their own observations or suspicions. The children reported similar disclosure practices by fathers and mothers. There were minimum differences between disclosed and non-disclosed children on a number of psychosocial measures. The findings support the notion that parental HIV disclosure is a complex process and can only be beneficial if it is carefully planned. The data in the current study suggest the needs for the culturally and developmentally appropriate approach in parental HIV disclosure in order to maximize both short and long term benefits to children, parents, and family functioning. PMID:25465533

  2. Online support for children of parents suffering from mental illness: a case study.

    PubMed

    Drost, Louisa M; Schippers, Gerard M

    2015-01-01

    From epidemiologic research, we know that children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) have an elevated risk of developing a serious mental disorder. Aside from studies based on risk and resilience, there has been little research on the children's own perceptions. The aim of this study was to expand our understanding of key variables influencing COPMI's seeking support and to explore whether a website targeted at COPMI could help them improve their ability to cope with their circumstances and to find professional help. This case study illustrates one visitor's use of a website that was specifically designed to help COPMI. The visitor was a young adult female whose two parents both suffered from mental illness. She participated for 3 years in an intervention delivered through the website. Several things helped to inform us about her perspective on living with parents suffering from mental illness, her use of the website and the benefits she derived from using the website. These included (a) her story as she told it in the exit interview, (b) her messages to her peers and counsellors, (c) her user data and (d) the content of her chat conversations with her peers. PMID:23904177

  3. Child temperament, parent affect, and feeding in normal and overweight preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite overwhelming evidence showing that parent emotional affect impacts parenting directives and child outcomes, little research has focused on the influence of parent affect on feeding as a mechanism in shaping children's eating patterns. Utilizing an instrument characterizing parent strategies ...

  4. Relative Foster Parents of HIV-Affected Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Sally; Linsk, Nathan

    2002-01-01

    The permanency planning needs of 28 HIV-affected relative foster parents were examined. Findings indicated that the HIV-affected caregivers' greatest need was a more adequate response from social workers and therapy services for the children; nonaffected caregivers needed financial assistance most. More HIV-affected caregivers were considering…

  5. Parental perceptions of child vulnerability in a community-based sample: Association with chronic illness and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Houtzager, Bregje A; Möller, Eline L; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Last, Bob F; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence of parental perceptions of a child's vulnerability (PPCV) in a Dutch community-based sample and its relationship with children's health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Parents completed the Child Vulnerability Scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 was administered to measure HRQoL. The prevalence of PPCV was assessed in relation to socio-demographic and health-related characteristics. In a three-step multiple hierarchical regression model, the mediational role of PPCV in the association between chronic illness and HRQoL was investigated. Participants were 520 Dutch children aged 5-18 years from nine Dutch schools. In all, 69 (13.3%) had a chronic illness; 1.9% was perceived vulnerable, 3.0% in groups 5-7 and 1.7% in groups 8-12 and 13-18. Younger age of the child, presence of a chronic illness and low HRQoL were associated with PPCV. PPCV partially mediated the negative association between chronic illness and HRQoL. In conclusion, PPCV is associated with adjustment to chronic illness. More research is needed regarding the mechanisms through which PPCV affects HRQoL and to examine whether PPCV can be targeted in parenting interventions. PMID:24842887

  6. Laughing matters: Infant humor in the context of parental affect.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-08-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early during the first year of life, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5 to 7 months of age as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-participants design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect but did so significantly longer at 5 and 6 months, and more often and sooner at 7 months, when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were more likely to smile at it only when parents provided humor cues and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months of age, parental affect influenced infants' affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing. PMID:25897958

  7. [Psychosocial situation of families with chronically ill children: a survey of parent initiatives].

    PubMed

    Nehring, I; Riedel, C; Baghi, L; Moshammer-Karb, T; Schmid, R; Kries, R V

    2015-02-01

    Children with chronic illness or disabilities and their families require more support than healthy families. The working group "custodial and psychosocial supply" defined 4 theses to figure out deficits and targets of family support: 1) my child is different; 2) my child is not devisable; 3) my child needs strong helpers; and 4) my child needs safety.Based on these theses, a questionnaire for parents was designed of which 20 were sent to 34 parent initiatives in Germany each, for distribution to a random sample of member families.499/680 questionnaires were returned of which 419 could be included in the analysis. Less than 50% of the parents felt adequately and timely informed about their child's condition, and support for coping with the child's diagnosis was rarely given. Less than half of the parents reported to have been informed about the options for support within the German social system, and less than 15% were aware of instructions for clearing houses on care and support. About a third of the parents reported needs for managing family, siblings or household, but only a third of these had been offered organised and structured family support. More than 50% of the families reported restraints in participating in social life: such restraints were associated with problems in partnership and loss of friends. Half of the parents felt restraints of the family income because of their child's condition.There is need for improvement of the psychosocial condition of families with chronically ill or disabled children by better, more and timely information about the child's clinical condition, access to the social support system and availability of support services. PMID:24771100

  8. From Controlling to Letting Go: What Are the Psychosocial Needs of Parents of Adolescents with a Chronic Illness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2014-01-01

    While one of the main objectives of adolescence is to achieve autonomy, for the specific population of adolescents with a chronic illness (CI), the struggle for autonomy is accentuated by the limits implied by their illness. However, little is known concerning the way their parents manage and cope with their children's autonomy acquisition.…

  9. Extracurricular interest as a resilience building block for children affected by parental HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    Parental illness and death due to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) impose challenges to children's psychological adjustment. Positive psychology emphasizes individual's resilience in the face of adversity, trauma, and tragedy. Limited data are available regarding the factors that can cultivate resilience of children affected by HIV/AIDS. This study aims to examine the role of extracurricular interest in strengthening resilience among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Participants included 755 children orphaned by parental HIV/AIDS, 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-positive parent(s), and 404 comparison children from HIV-free families in the same community in rural China. The measures include extracurricular interest (i.e., reading, sports, music, painting, science, and playing chess) and indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., depression, loneliness, and self-esteem). Having extracurricular interest was positively associated with self-esteem and negatively associated with depression and loneliness. Having extracurricular interest attenuated the negative effect of parental HIV/AIDS on children's self-esteem and loneliness, after controlling for children's age, gender, and family socioeconomic status. The findings underscore the importance of nurturing extracurricular interest and make available of such activities to promote resilience for children affected by HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. PMID:24107136

  10. Psychological Resilience among Children Affected by Parental HIV/AIDS: A Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Sherr, Lorraine; Cluver, Lucie; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    HIV-related parental illness and death have a profound and lasting impact on a child's psychosocial wellbeing, potentially compromising the child's future. In response to a paucity of theoretical and conceptual discussions regarding the development of resilience among children affected by parental HIV, we proposed a conceptual framework of psychological resilience among children affected by HIV based on critical reviews of the existing theoretical and empirical literature. Three interactive social ecological factors were proposed to promote the resilience processes and attenuate the negative impact of parental HIV on children's psychological development. Internal assets, such as cognitive capacity, motivation to adapt, coping skills, religion/spirituality, and personality, promote resilience processes. Family resources and community resources are two critical contextual factors that facilitate resilience process. Family resources contain smooth transition, functional caregivers, attachment relationship, parenting discipline. Community resources contain teacher support, peer support, adult mentors, and effective school. The implications of the conceptual framework for future research and interventions among children affected by parental HIV were discussed. PMID:26716068

  11. Parenting Cognition and Affective Outcomes Following Parent Management Training: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Colalillo, Sara; Johnston, Charlotte

    2016-09-01

    Parent management training (PMT) is considered the gold standard in the treatment of child behavior problems. The secondary effects of these interventions, particularly on parent well-being, are infrequently studied, despite evidence that parents of children with behavior problems often experience personal difficulties. This narrative review examined the affective and parenting cognition outcomes of PMT for mothers and fathers of children ages 2-13 years, across 48 controlled treatment studies. Substantial support was found for reductions in parenting stress, and increases in perceived parenting competence following PMT. Evidence indicated fewer improvements in domains more distal from parenting, including parent depressive symptoms and marital relationship dysfunction. A number of studies suggested parent gender as a moderator of parent outcomes of PMT; however, the underrepresentation of fathers in existing research limits conclusions in this regard. Avenues for future research are highlighted to address current gaps in the literature, and to further our understanding of the ways in which both children and parents may benefit from PMT. PMID:27389605

  12. Dimensions of hallucinations and delusions in affective and nonaffective illnesses.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Ranju; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Kumar, Subodh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the dimensions of hallucinations and delusions in affective (manic episode, bipolar affective disorder, and depressive episode) and nonaffective disorders (schizophrenia, acute and transient psychotic disorders, and unspecified psychosis). Sixty outpatients divided equally into two groups comprising affective and nonaffective disorders were taken up for evaluation after screening, as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. Scores of 3 or above on delusion and hallucinatory behavior subscales of positive and negative syndrome scale were sufficient to warrant rating on the psychotic symptom rating scales with which auditory hallucination and delusion were assessed on various dimensions. Insight was assessed using the Beck cognitive insight scale (BCIS). There were no significant differences between the two groups on age, sex, marital status, education, and economic status. There were significant differences in total score and emotional characteristic subscale, cognitive interpretation subscale, and physical characteristic subscale of auditory hallucination scales in between the two groups. Correlation between BCIS-total and total auditory hallucinations score was negative (Spearman Rho -0.319; P < 0.05). Hallucinating patients, more in nonaffective group, described a negative impact of hallucinating voices along with emotional consequences on their lives which lead to distress and disruption. PMID:23997978

  13. Dimensions of Hallucinations and Delusions in Affective and Nonaffective Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Ranju; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Kumar, Subodh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the dimensions of hallucinations and delusions in affective (manic episode, bipolar affective disorder, and depressive episode) and nonaffective disorders (schizophrenia, acute and transient psychotic disorders, and unspecified psychosis). Sixty outpatients divided equally into two groups comprising affective and nonaffective disorders were taken up for evaluation after screening, as per inclusion and exclusion criteria. Scores of 3 or above on delusion and hallucinatory behavior subscales of positive and negative syndrome scale were sufficient to warrant rating on the psychotic symptom rating scales with which auditory hallucination and delusion were assessed on various dimensions. Insight was assessed using the Beck cognitive insight scale (BCIS). There were no significant differences between the two groups on age, sex, marital status, education, and economic status. There were significant differences in total score and emotional characteristic subscale, cognitive interpretation subscale, and physical characteristic subscale of auditory hallucination scales in between the two groups. Correlation between BCIS-total and total auditory hallucinations score was negative (Spearman Rho −0.319; P < 0.05). Hallucinating patients, more in nonaffective group, described a negative impact of hallucinating voices along with emotional consequences on their lives which lead to distress and disruption. PMID:23997978

  14. Clinical findings in patients with anorexia nervosa and affective illness in their relatives.

    PubMed

    Gershon, E S; Schreiber, J L; Hamovit, J R; Dibble, E D; Kaye, W; Nurnberger, J I; Andersen, A E; Ebert, M

    1984-11-01

    The most prevalent psychiatric disorders in the families of patients with anorexia nervosa are bipolar and unipolar major affective disorder. The presence of affective disorder, self-induced vomiting, or bulimia in the patient is not predictive of affective illness in the relatives. Thus these features do not define genetic heterogeneity within anorexia nervosa. There may be genetic factors shared between anorexia nervosa and affective disorders. PMID:6496786

  15. Mediators of the Association between Parental Severe Mental Illness and Offspring Neurodevelopmental Problems

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Brittany M.; Rickert, Martin E.; Class, Quetzal A.; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Parental severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with an increased risk of offspring Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We conducted a study to examine the extent to which risk of preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA) mediated this association. Methods We obtained data on offspring born 1992-2001 in Sweden (n = 870,017) through the linkage of multiple population-based registers. We used logistic and Cox regression to assess the associations between parental SMI, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and offspring ASD and ADHD, as well as tested whether adverse pregnancy outcomes served as mediators. Results After controlling for measured covariates, maternal and paternal SMI were associated with an increased risk for PTB, LBW, and SGA, as well as for offspring ASD and ADHD. These pregnancy outcomes were also associated with an increased risk of ASD and ADHD. We found that pregnancy outcomes did not mediate the association between parental SMI and offspring ASD and ADHD, as there was no substantial change in magnitude of the risk estimates after controlling for pregnancy outcomes. Conclusions Parental SMI and adverse pregnancy outcomes appear to be independent risk factors for offspring ASD and ADHD. PMID:25037304

  16. [Knowledge of family members on the rights of individuals affected by mental illness].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Vania; Barbosa, Guilherme Correa

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to understand what family members know about the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. To this end, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted. A semi-structured interview was used for data collection. Eighteen family members were interviewed at a psychosocial care center (CAPS) and a civil society organization (CSO) located in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between March and September 2013. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis and the following categories were constructed: mental health services and the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. We were able to infer that in addition to drug-based therapy, mental health services must provide therapeutic activities. Family members of those affected by mental illness were unaware of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform Law and mentioned the following rights: welfare benefits, free public transport, basic food basket and medications. PMID:26098801

  17. Navigating in an unpredictable daily life: a metasynthesis on children's experiences living with a parent with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Dam, Kristianna; Hall, Elisabeth O C

    2016-09-01

    A large group of individuals suffering from mental illness are parents living with their children. These children are invisible in the health care even though at risk for illhealth. The aim of this metasynthesis was to advance knowledge of how children of parents with mental illness experience their lives, thus contributing to the evidence of this phenomenon. The metasynthesis is following Sandelowski and Barroso's guidelines. Literature searches covering the years 2000 to 2013 resulted in 22 reports which were synthesised into the theme 'navigating in an unpredictable everyday life' and the metaphor compass. Children of parents with mental illness irrespective of age are responsible, loving and worrying children who want to do everything to help and support. Children feel shame when the parent behaves differently, and they conceal their family life being afraid of stigmatisation and bullying. When their parent becomes ill, they distance to protect themselves. The children cope through information, knowledge, frankness and trustful relationships. These children need support from healthcare services because they subjugate own needs in favour of the parental needs, they should be encouraged to talk about their family situation, and especially, young children should to be child-like, playing and seeing friends. PMID:26763757

  18. Factors Affecting Mothers' Healthcare-Seeking Behaviour for Childhood Illnesses in a Rural Nigerian Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulraheem, I. S.; Parakoyi, D. B.

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate healthcare-seeking behaviour could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to ill health. Improving mothers' care-seeking behaviour could also contribute in reducing a large number of child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This article aims to determine factors affecting healthcare-seeking…

  19. Does parenting affect children's eating and weight status?

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alison K; Birch, Leann L

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1) to assess the extent to which current evidence supports the hypothesis that parenting, via its effects on children's eating, is causally implicated in childhood obesity; and (2) to identify a set of promising strategies that target aspects of parenting, which can be further evaluated as possible components in childhood obesity prevention. Methods A literature review was conducted between October 2006 and January 2007. Studies published before January 2007 that assessed the association between some combination of parenting, child eating and child weight variables were included. Results A total of 66 articles met the inclusion criteria. The preponderance of these studies focused on the association between parenting and child eating. Although there was substantial experimental evidence for the influence of parenting practices, such as pressure, restriction, modeling and availability, on child eating, the majority of the evidence for the association between parenting and child weight, or the mediation of this association by child eating, was cross-sectional. Conclusion To date, there is substantial causal evidence that parenting affects child eating and there is much correlational evidence that child eating and weight influence parenting. There are few studies, however, that have used appropriate meditational designs to provide causal evidence for the indirect effect of parenting on weight status via effects on child eating. A new approach is suggested for evaluating the effectiveness of intervention

  20. A model for HIV disclosure of a parent's and/or a child's illness.

    PubMed

    Gachanja, Grace; Burkholder, Gary J

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevalence in Kenya remains steady at 5.6% for adults 15 years and older, and 0.9% among children aged below 14 years. Parents and children are known to practice unprotected sex, which has implications for continued HIV spread within the country. Additionally, due to increased accessibility of antiretroviral therapy, more HIV-positive persons are living longer. Therefore, the need for HIV disclosure of a parent's and/or a child's HIV status within the country will continue for years to come. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study to understand the entire process of disclosure from the time of initial HIV diagnosis of an index person within an HIV-affected family, to the time of full disclosure of a parent's and/or a child's HIV status to one or more HIV-positive, negative, or untested children within these households. Participants were purposively selected and included 16 HIV-positive parents, seven HIV-positive children, six healthcare professionals (physician, clinical officer, psychologist, registered nurse, social worker, and a peer educator), and five HIV-negative children. All participants underwent an in-depth individualized semistructured interview that was digitally recorded. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed in NVivo 8 using the modified Van Kaam method. Six themes emerged from the data indicating that factors such as HIV testing, living with HIV, evolution of disclosure, questions, emotions, benefits, and consequences of disclosure interact with each other and either impede or facilitate the HIV disclosure process. Kenya currently does not have guidelines for HIV disclosure of a parent's and/or a child's HIV status. HIV disclosure is a process that may result in poor outcomes in both parents and children. Therefore, understanding how these factors affect the disclosure process is key to achieving optimal disclosure outcomes in both parents and children. To this end, we propose an HIV disclosure model incorporating these six themes

  1. [Attachment Quality of Young Children with Mentally Ill Parents on the Example of the Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ramberg, Axel; Feldkötter, Sinja

    2015-01-01

    One of the most discussed questions in clinical literature concerns the impact of child abuse by mentally ill parents (cf. Mattejat, 1998). It's obvious that most children cannot understand such a parental behaviour and that this lack of understanding along with the lack of knowledge about their parents' emotional disorder results in childrens' fear, disorientation and uncertainty. The consequences are massive interferences in the relationship between parents and children, who could develop an anxious-resistant insecure or even a disorganized/disoriented attachment. But how does a child react, if the behaviour of its parents is ambivalent itself and alternates from abuse to care? Such a parental behaviour is described as the "Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome". This article regards the effects of a "Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome" on the childrens' attachment development. After discussing the basic assumptions about the "Munchhauen by Proxy Syndrome" and the attachment theory we draw conclusions about the syndrome's effect on childrens' attachment behaviour. PMID:26509970

  2. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-01-01

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women’s general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05). Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009), high self-reported health (p < 0.002), and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04) had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one’s health. PMID:26703697

  3. Family carers’ experience of caring for an older parent with severe and persistent mental illness

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Terence V; Bamberg, John; McCann, Flora

    2015-01-01

    While the burden of caring for older people with chronic medical illness and dementia has been well documented, considerably less is known about how carers develop the strength and resilience to sustain this important role with older family members with mental illness. The aim of the study was to understand the lived experience of primary caregivers of older people with severe and persistent mental illness, and to explore what, if anything, helps to sustain them in their caring role. An interpretative phenomenological analysis approach was adopted, and qualitative interviews were used with 30 primary caregivers. Two overarching themes, and related subthemes, were abstracted from the data. First, caring is a difficult and demanding responsibility. It affects carers adversely, emotionally, physically, socially, and financially, and their lifestyle in general. This is reflected in three subthemes: (i) physically and emotionally draining; (ii) grieving about the loss; (iii) and adverse effects on lifestyle and social relationships. Second, carers develop resilience in caring, which helps sustain them in their role, as illustrated in three subthemes: (i) caring as purposeful and satisfying; (ii) harnessing social support from others; and (iii) purposefully maintaining their own well-being. Community mental health nurses have a key role in assessing carers’ needs and supporting them in their caring role. PMID:25963281

  4. [Subjective Needs of Support in Families with a Mentally Ill Parent – A Literature Review].

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patricia; Bruland, Dirk; Bauer, Ulrich; Lenz, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Mentally ill parents are often sceptical about professional help for their children although these children face an increased risk to develop a mental disease themselves. To get a better understanding of needs and help-seeking behaviour in those families a systematic literature review was conducted. Four databases (FIS, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, PubPsych) were scanned for international and national research literature. Out of 18,057 articles 56 were included which report quantitative or qualitative studies taking the children's and parents' perspectives into account. A thematic synthesis was done to categorize the needs. Results concerning the help-seeking behaviour and the influence of demographic variables were extracted and summarized. Our results were limited by the aspect that no evaluation of study quality had been made and influences on the categorizing process by the authors' subjective perceptions are likely. There were a lot of hints regarding the needs of the families, but little report was found about help-seeking behaviour and demographic variables. The "health literacy" concept was discussed as a basis for further research in this area. PMID:27027215

  5. Retrospective reports of parental physical affection and parenting style: a study of Finnish twins.

    PubMed

    Harlaar, Nicole; Santtila, Pekka; Björklund, Johanna; Alanko, Katarina; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, Kenneth

    2008-08-01

    Individual differences in parenting behaviors are due, in part, to genetic factors. In the present study, the authors sought to determine whether the degree of genetic influence varied according to the type of parental behavior under consideration. A population-based sample of 2,334 pairs of Finnish twins provided ratings on the physical affection, control, abusiveness, and indifference shown by their father and mother during childhood. Genetic influences, shared environmental influences, and nonshared environmental influences accounted for a small-to-medium proportion (17%-30%), a small-to-large proportion (22%-44%), and a medium-to-large proportion (37%-55%) of the variance in each parenting measure, respectively. There were no significant differences in effect sizes for mothers and fathers or across the 4 types of parental behavior. The genetic results may reflect characteristic styles with which parents respond to genetically influenced behaviors of individuals (gene-environment correlations) or individual perceptions of this relationship (gene-person correlation processes). The findings have implications for intervention and prevention work with families and for interpretation of evidence for interactions between genes and parenting behaviors. PMID:18729674

  6. The PATS Peer Support Program: Prevention/Early Intervention for Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, John; Bond, Lyndal; O'Brien, Matt; Forer, Danielle; Davies, Liz

    2008-01-01

    PATS (Paying Attention to Self) is a peer support program for adolescent children of parents with a diagnosed mental illness. The program aims to promote positive mental health, reduce the likelihood of mental health difficulties, increase young people's coping skills and empower them to meet their own and their families' needs. PATS combines peer…

  7. When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

    2008-01-01

    This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

  8. Coping with the Personal Loss of Having a Parent with Mental Illness: Young Adults' Narrative Accounts of Spiritual Struggle and Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunu, Aleisha; Stein, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the personal accounts of nine young adults who have parents living with mental illness. Adults' experience of personal loss due to their parents' mental illness and perceptions of their religious faith journey and spiritual struggles are described. Overall, young adults who reported experiencing more personal loss due to…

  9. Validity of a Brief Measure of Parental Affective Attitudes in High-Risk Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated psychometric properties of the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale (FAARS) for assessing parents' thoughts and feelings about their child, coded from a 5-min speech sample. Parental affective attitudes derive from previous experiences of parenting and child behavior, representations of the parent-child…

  10. Parental Control and Affect as Predictors of Children's Display Rule Use and Social Competence with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, David J.; Parke, Ross D.

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-six fourth-grade children and their parents participated in a study of the linkages among parental control and positive affect, children's display rule use, and children's social competence with peers. Using observational measures of parental behavior and children's display rule use, it was found that parental positive affect and control…

  11. [Educational guidance for families with mentally ill parents: a bridge between youth welfare services and psychiatric care system].

    PubMed

    Schrappe, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In the last fifteen years a lot of services were established to assist children and their mentally ill parents. To improve the preventive and therapeutic interventions in favour of these families, the cooperation between all the institutions involved has to be enhanced. Family counselling centers can play an important role as a link between the psychiatric care system and the youth welfare services. By transferring the psychiatric terminology to the families' everyday language, the counsellors help the parents and the children to share their experiences with the parental illness. To implement a consultation-hour in a psychiatric clinic is an example of how educational guidance can close the gap between the two systems and strengthen the cooperation. PMID:23596903

  12. The Relations of Parental Affect and Encouragement to Children's Moral Emotions and Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Eisenburg, Nancy; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Cumberland, Amanda; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the role of observed parental affect and encouragement in children's empathy-related responding and moral behavior, specifically cheating on a puzzle activity. Finds that (1) parents' affect and encouragement positively related to children's sympathy (not empathy) and (2) boys' cheating on the puzzle correlated to parents' affect and…

  13. Information needs of parents for acute childhood illness: determining ‘what, how, where and when’ of safety netting using a qualitative exploration with parents and clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Caroline H D; Neill, Sarah; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian; Singlehurst-Mooney, Hayley; Thompson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the views of parents and clinicians regarding the optimal content, format and delivery of safety netting information for acute childhood illness. Design Qualitative study including semistructured focus groups and interviews. Setting First contact care settings, community centres, children's centres and nurseries in the Midlands, UK. Participants 27 parents from a travelling community, Asian British community and white British community. Sixteen clinicians including 10 doctors and 6 nurses from a general practice surgery, an out-of-hours service and two emergency departments (paediatric and combined adult and paediatric). Results Participants described a need for safety netting to contain information on signs and symptoms of serious and common illnesses, illness management and where and when to seek help. Resources should be basic, simple to use and contain simple symbols. A key criterion was professional endorsement of resources. Internet-based information was desired which is reliable, consistent and up-to-date. Participants described a need for different types of information: that which could be delivered during consultations, as well as more general information for parents to access before consulting a healthcare professional. Face-to-face education, written materials and digital media were suggested delivery mechanisms. Audiovisual material was preferred by families with low literacy. Participants commonly suggested internet-based and phone-based resources, but the travelling community was less comfortable with these approaches. Conclusions A multifaceted and tailored approach to safety netting is needed so that effective resources are available for parents with varying information needs, literacy levels and ability to use information technology. We have identified key aspects of content, quality criteria, format and delivery mechanisms for safety netting information from the perspectives of clinicians and parents. Resources should be

  14. Disease painting or painting disease: how does illness and hospitalisation affect children's artistry?

    PubMed

    Bayrakci, Benan; Forouz, Aria; Sahin, Ahmet B; Abali, Mustafa; Aliyeva, Gyulten Z

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous speculations about famous artists and how their perception was affected by their medical conditions. In this study, we examined how illness and hospitalisation affect children's art. A total of 157 paintings by 122 hospitalised children were interpreted by three reputed artists. Works of ill children were compared with those of a control group from an international art exhibition. We also comment on how diseases influenced the technique of famous artists to further examine the possible impact of illness on the artistry of hospitalised children. Developmental delay in painting was evident in the study group. Use of ready-made schemas was a common practice (55%). 56% of the work from patients older than eight years failed in perspective and site perception. The theme in 89% of the drawings had no human figures. Projection of self sufferings, prominent elementary lines, and reflection of distorted perception could be clearly recognised in various study materials; anxiety about assigned surgery was exhibited by scribbling. There exists a close relationship between medicine and humanities. The interpretation of fine art from a medical perspective may help to increase our appreciation of the suffering of an individual. It is obvious that diseases change the artistic style and inner perspective. The question is how do healthcare specialists view this? PMID:20120269

  15. An Online Health Prevention Intervention for Youth with Addicted or Mentally Ill Parents: Experiences and Perspectives of Participants and Providers from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bindels, Jill APM; Evers, Silvia MAA; Paulus, Aggie TG; van Asselt, Antoinette DI; van Schayck, Onno CP

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental illnesses affect many people around the world, either directly or indirectly. Families of persons suffering from mental illness or addiction suffer too, especially their children. In the Netherlands, 864,000 parents meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness or addiction. Evidence shows that offspring of mentally ill or addicted parents are at risk for developing mental disorders or illnesses themselves. The Kopstoring course is an online 8-week group course with supervision by 2 trained psychologists or social workers, aimed to prevent behavioral and psychological problems for children (aged 16 to 25 years) of parents with mental health problems or addictions. The course addresses themes such as roles in the family and mastery skills. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Kopstoring course. Objective The aim was to gain knowledge about expectations, experiences, and perspectives of participants and providers of the online Kopstoring course. Methods A process evaluation was performed to evaluate the online delivery of Kopstoring and the experiences and perspectives of participants and providers of Kopstoring. Interviews were performed with members from both groups. Participants were drawn from a sample from the Kopstoring RCT. Results Thirteen participants and 4 providers were interviewed. Five main themes emerged from these interviews: background, the requirements for the intervention, experience with the intervention, technical aspects, and research aspects. Overall, participants and providers found the intervention to be valuable because it was online; therefore, protecting their anonymity was considered a key component. Most barriers existed in the technical sphere. Additional barriers existed with conducting the RCT, namely gathering informed consent and gathering parental consent in the case of minors. Conclusions This study provides valuable insight into participants’ and

  16. Birthdates of patients affected by mental illness and solar activity: A study from Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Borelli, Albacenzina; Bellomo, Antonello; Lepore, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    PurposeThis epidemiologic study tested an hypothesized association between the year of birth of persons with major mental illnesses and solar activity over the past century. MethodsWe collected data on diagnoses and birthdates of psychiatric patients born between 1926 and 1975 (N = 1954) in south Italy for comparison to yearly solar activity as registered by the International Observatories. ResultsWe found a strong inverse correlation between high solar activity (HSA) and incidence of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in a 20-year period whereas the incidence of non-affective/non-psychotic disorders was moderately associated with HSA in the same period. ConclusionsInterpretation of the observed correlations between HSA during years of birth and the incidence of mental illnesses remains unclear, but the findings encourage further study.

  17. Partnership in mental health and child welfare: social work responses to children living with parental mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Mental illness is an issue for a number of families reported to child protection agencies. Parents with mental health problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. A recent study undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria, Australia) found that the children of parents with mental health problems comprised just under thirty percent of all new child protection applications brought to the Court and referred to alternative dispute resolution, during the first half of 1998. This paper reports on the study findings, which are drawn from a descriptive survey of 228 Pre-Hearing Conferences. A data collection schedule was completed for each case, gathering information about the child welfare concerns, the parents' problems, including mental health problems, and the contribution by mental health professionals to resolving child welfare concerns. The study found that the lack of involvement by mental health social workers in the child protection system meant the Children's Court was given little appreciation of either a child's emotional or a parent's mental health functioning. The lack of effective cooperation between the adult mental health and child protection services also meant decisions made about these children were made without full information about the needs and the likely outcomes for these children and their parents. This lack of interagency cooperation between mental health social work and child welfare also emerged in the findings of the Icarus project, a cross-national project, led by Brunel University, in England. This project compared the views and responses of mental health and child welfare social workers to the dependent children of mentally ill parents, when there were child protection concerns. It is proposed that adult mental health social workers involve themselves in the assessment of, and interventions in, child welfare cases when appropriate, and share essential information about

  18. Positive Interventions for Children with Chronic Illness: Parents' and Teachers' Concerns and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, Shiona

    2004-01-01

    Schools today are faced with increasing numbers of students with chronic illness. Medical advances, which improve health and prolong life, and increased incidence levels among some illnesses have led to this increase. Children with a chronic illness are more likely to encounter academic, social and emotional difficulties. The challenge facing…

  19. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level II Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  20. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level I Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  1. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    PubMed

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors. PMID:24282537

  2. Human Infant Faces Provoke Implicit Positive Affective Responses in Parents and Non-Parents Alike

    PubMed Central

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H.; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors. PMID:24282537

  3. Informing social work practice through research with parent caregivers of a child with a life-limiting illness.

    PubMed

    Cadell, Susan; Kennedy, Kimberly; Hemsworth, David

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric palliative care is an evolving field of practice in social work. As such, research plays a critical role in informing best social work practices in this area. For parents, caring for a child with a life-limiting illness (LLI) is a stressful experience that compounds the usual challenges of parenting. The negative aspects of caring for a child with an LLI are well documented. In the face of such adversity, parent caregivers can also experience positive changes caring for children with even the most serious conditions. This article presents results from a research study of posttraumatic growth in parents who are caring for a child with a LLI. Using mixed methods, two overarching themes were prominent in both the quantitative and qualitative data. The first describes stress related to financial burden associated with caregiving. The second theme concerns the posttraumatic growth experienced by the parent caregivers. The quantitative and qualitative data have been woven together to underscore issues and parental perspectives related to these two themes. This provides a unique and important platform for parent caregivers' experiences that can inform the work of social workers and other pediatric palliative care professionals. PMID:23194170

  4. Risk of emotional disorder in offspring of depressed parents: gender differences in the effect of a second emotionally affected parent.

    PubMed

    Landman-Peeters, Karlien M C; Ormel, Johan; Van Sonderen, Eric L P; Den Boer, Johan A; Minderaa, Ruud B; Hartman, Catharina A

    2008-01-01

    In offspring of depressed parents a second parent with emotional problems is likely to increase risk of emotional disorder. This effect may however differ between sons and daughters and between offspring of depressed fathers and offspring of depressed mothers. In adolescent and young-adult offspring of parents with major depressive disorder, this study examined the effects of a second affected parent, offspring gender, gender of the depressed parent and their interactions on risk of depression and anxiety disorder. We found that daughters had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than sons and that offspring of depressed mothers had a higher risk of anxiety than offspring of depressed fathers. In addition to these main effects, we found an interaction between parent and offspring gender inasmuch that sons of depressed fathers had the lowest risk of depression and anxiety relative to the other groups. A second affected parent tended to increase risk of depression and significantly increased risk of anxiety. However, this effect of a second affected parent on offspring anxiety was most prominent in daughters when the second affected parent was the father, whereas risk in sons did not increase if the father was affected as well. Our results indicate that paternal and maternal depression similarly and additively increase daughters' risk of emotional disorder, but that sons' risk only increases with maternal depression. Intergenerational transmission of emotional disorder seems strongest when the female gender is involved, either in the form of a daughter or a depressed mother. PMID:17941098

  5. WHEN PARENTS WITH SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS LOSE CONTACT WITH THEIR CHILDREN: ARE PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS OR SUBSTANCE USE TO BLAME?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

    2009-01-01

    This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant’s entry into the project. Severe substance abuse was documented as present or absent for the 6-month interval preceding each interview. Results revealed that incidence of severe substance abuse was repeatedly associated with less frequent parent-child contact, even after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, gender, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Neither psychiatric diagnosis nor symptom severity predicted frequency of child contact when substance abuse was taken into account. Mental health agencies offering parenting classes for adults with serious mental illness should incorporate substance use interventions to reduce loss of child custody and strengthen parent-child relationships. PMID:20011665

  6. Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration.

    PubMed

    Shlafer, Rebecca J; Poehlmann, Julie

    2010-07-01

    This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver-child and incarcerated parent-child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children's behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children's behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment. PMID:20582847

  7. Does Decisional Conflict Differ Across Race and Ethnicity Groups? A Study of Parents Whose Children Have a Life-Threatening Illness

    PubMed Central

    Sberna-Hinojosa, Melanie; Baron-Lee, Jacqueline; Curtis, Charlotte; Huang, I-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Children with life-threatening illnesses and their families may face a myriad of medical decisions in their lifetimes. Oftentimes these complicated medical decisions cause disagreements among patients, families, and providers about what is the best course of action. Although no evidence exists, it is possible that conflict may affect subgroups of the population differently. This study aims to investigate how decisional conflict varies among racial and ethnic subgroups. Sample: Two hundred sixty-six surveys were completed with parents whose children have a life-threatening illness. All children lived in Florida and were enrolled in the Medicaid program. The Decisional Conflict Scale, overall and broken down into its five distinct subscales, was used to assess parental decision-making. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted. Subgroup analyses were conducted on Latino respondents. Results: Our bivariate results suggest that minority parents report less Effective Decision Making (p<0.05) and report less Support in Decision Making (p<0.05) compared to white, non-Hispanic parents. For the subgroup analysis, we found that those who identify as Mexican American and Central/South American report having greater Uncertainty in Choosing Options (p<0.05) and less Values Clarity (p<0.05) as compared to Puerto Rican or Cuban Americans. Results from the multivariate analyses suggest that those whose primary language is not English are associated with greater Uncertainty in Choosing Options (p<0.05). Values Clarity was lower for children who were diagnosed with their life-threatening condition at birth (p<0.05) as compared to children diagnosed at a later time. Conclusions: Our study is the first to describe racial and ethnic differences in decisional conflict of parents of children with life-threatening illnesses. Significant differences exist by race, ethnicity, language spoken, and diagnosis time across several subdomains of

  8. How communication affects prescription decisions in consultations for acute illness in children: a systematic review and meta-ethnography

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Communication within primary care consultations for children with acute illness can be problematic for parents and clinicians, with potential misunderstandings contributing to over–prescription of antibiotics. This review aimed to synthesise the evidence in relation to communication and decision making in consultations for children with common acute illness. Methods A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SSCI, SIGLE, Dissertation Express and NHS economic evaluation databases was conducted. Studies of primary care settings in high income countries which made direct observations of consultations and reported qualitative data were included. Included studies were appraised using the process recommended by the Cochrane Qualitative Methods Group. Credibility was assessed as high for most studies but transferability was usually assessed low or unclear. Data were synthesised using a meta–ethnographic approach. Results Thirty–five papers and 2 theses reporting on 13 studies were included, 7 of these focussed on children with respiratory tract infections (RTI) and the remaining 6 included children with any presenting illness. Parent communication focussed on their concerns and information needs, whereas clinician communication focussed on diagnosis and treatment decisions. During information exchanges, parents often sought to justify the need for the consultation, while clinicians frequently used problem minimising language, resulting in parents and clinicians sometimes talking at cross–purposes. In the context of RTIs, a range of parent communication behaviours were interpreted by clinicians as indicating an expectation for antibiotics; however, most were ambiguous and could also be interpreted as raising concerns or requests for further information. The perceived expectation for antibiotics often changed clinician decision making into clinician–parent negotiation. Conclusions Misunderstandings occurred due to parents and clinicians

  9. The Effects of Being an Only Child, Family Cohesion, and Family Conflict on Behavioral Problems among Adolescents with Physically Ill Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Jia-Na; Liu, Guang-Cong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine the parental physical illness’ effect on behavioral problems among adolescents, and the effects of being an only child, family cohesion, and family conflict on behavioral problems among adolescents with physically ill parents in Liaoning province, China. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2009. A questionnaire including two dimensions of the Family Environment Scale (family cohesion and family conflict), self-reported Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and demographic factors was distributed to the subjects. Results: Among the 5220 adolescents, 308 adolescents lived with physically ill parents. The adolescents with physically ill parents had more behavioral problems than adolescents with healthy parents. Among the girls who lived in families with physically ill parents, the SDQ score and the prevalence of SDQ syndromes were higher in the girls with siblings than the girls without siblings after adjusting for variables; the effect of family cohesion on SDQ was significant after adjusting for variables. Conclusion: Interventions targeting family cohesion may be effective to reduce behavioral problems of adolescents with physically ill parents. PMID:26404347

  10. Exertional heat illness: a review of the syndrome affecting racing Thoroughbreds in hot and humid climates.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, M A; Dart, A J; Jeffcott, L B

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic heat produced by Thoroughbred racehorses during racing can rapidly elevate core body temperature (1°C/min). When environmental conditions are hot and humid, the normal physiological cooling mechanisms become ineffective. The heat accumulated may exceed a critical thermal maximum (estimated to be 42°C), which may trigger a complex pathophysiological cascade with potentially lethal consequences. This syndrome has been labelled exertional heat illness (EHI). EHI is described in humans, but has not been well documented in Thoroughbred racehorses. The clinical signs described in racehorses would suggest that the pathophysiological events affecting the central nervous (CNS) and gastrointestinal systems are similar to those described in humans. Clinical signs are progressive and include signs of endotoxaemia and increasing levels of CNS dysfunction. Initially, horses that may be mildly irritable (agitated, randomly kicking out) may progress to unmanageable (disorientation, severe ataxia, falling) and ultimately convulsions, coma and death. Currently, the approach to treatment is largely empirical and involves rapid and effective cooling, administration of drugs to provide sedation, administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to ameliorate the effects of endotoxaemia and glucocorticoids to stabilise cell membranes and reduce the effects of inflammation on the CNS. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about EHI in Thoroughbred racehorses, suggests a likely pathophysiology of the syndrome in horses based on the current literature on heat illness in humans and horses, and outlines current treatment strategies being used to treat racehorses with clinical signs of EHI. PMID:27349884

  11. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. PMID:25681294

  12. An actor-partner interdependence analysis of associations between affect and parenting behavior among couples.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Kyle W; Lovejoy, M Christine; Oddi, Kate B

    2014-03-01

    Prior studies evaluating associations between parental affect and parenting behavior have typically focused on either mothers or fathers despite evidence suggesting that affect and parenting behavior may be interdependent among couples. This study addressed this gap in the literature by evaluating associations between self-reported affect and parenting behavior using an actor-partner interdependence analysis among a sample of 53 mother-father dyads of 3- to 5-year-old children. Results suggested that mothers' and fathers' negative affect, as well as mothers' and fathers' positive affect, were positively associated. Both mothers' and fathers' negative affect were negatively associated with fathers' positive affect. Mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior, and supportive/engaged parenting behavior, were positively associated. Furthermore, mothers' negative affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior while mothers' positive affect was negatively associated with mothers' harsh/negative behavior and positively associated with mothers' supportive/engaged behavior. Fathers' negative affect was positively associated with fathers' supportive/engaged parenting behavior, while fathers' positive affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' supportive/engaged behavior. Results highlight the importance of conceptualizing and measuring characteristics of both mothers and fathers, if applicable, when researching the dynamics of interpersonal relationships within families. PMID:24438316

  13. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Volunteer Sponsor's Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This handbook was developed for volunteer group leaders participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning). Project BEST-PAL was developed especially for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting, with a primary objective being…

  14. Bullying Affects Us Too: Parental Responses to Bullying at Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Gary; Crisp, Beth R.

    2008-01-01

    Preschool age children are often thought of as too young to be able to engage in bullying behaviours. However, when it does occur, there are ramifications not only for the child but also for parents and siblings. This paper explores this issue by reporting on an exploratory study involving interviews with four parents whose child had experienced…

  15. Variations in Maternal 5-HTTLPR Affect Observed Sensitive Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cents, Rolieke A. M.; Kok, Rianne; Tiemeier, Henning; Lucassen, Nicole; Székely, Eszter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the genetic determinants of sensitive parenting. Two earlier studies examined the effect of the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on sensitive parenting, but reported opposite results. In a large cohort we further examined whether 5-HTTLPR is a predictor of observed maternal sensitivity and whether…

  16. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    PubMed

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting. PMID:25956587

  17. Boundary Ambiguity in Parents with Chronically Ill Children: Integrating Theory and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Holm, Kristen E.

    2007-01-01

    This article integrates theory and research related to boundary ambiguity in parents of children with a chronic health condition. We propose that boundary ambiguity is a risk factor for psychological distress in these parents. Clinical applications and a case example highlight how boundary ambiguity can be assessed and managed in clinical settings…

  18. Associations Between Infant Negative Affect and Parent Anxiety Symptoms are Bidirectional: Evidence from Mothers and Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about child-based effects on parents’ anxiety symptoms early in life despite the possibility that child characteristics may contribute to the quality of the early environment and children’s own long-term risk for psychological disorder. We examined bidirectional effects between parent anxiety symptoms and infant negative affect using a prospective adoption design. Infant negative affect and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms were assessed at child ages 9, 18, and 27 months. Birth parent negative affect was assessed at child age 18 months. More anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents at child age 9 months predicted more negative affect in infants 9 months later. More infant negative affect at child age 9 months predicted more anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents 18 months later. Patterns of results did not differ for adoptive mothers and adoptive fathers. Birth parent negative affect was unrelated to infant or adoptive parent measures. Consistent with expectations, associations between infant negative affect and rearing parents’ anxiety symptoms appear to be bidirectional. In addition to traditional parent-to-child effects, our results suggest that infants’ characteristics may contribute to parent qualities that are known to impact childhood outcomes. PMID:26696939

  19. Survey of Parents in a Predominately Latino Elementary School to Determine Factors that Affect Parental Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenstab, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Present research has shown that parental involvement has a large effect on student achievement. The current study utilized both casual-comparative and correlation methodology and identified variables that influence parental involvement. A review of literature with respect to parental involvement was presented. The study utilized survey data from…

  20. X-linkage in bipolar affective illness. Perspectives on genetic heterogeneity, pedigree analysis and the X-chromosome map.

    PubMed

    Baron, M; Rainer, J D; Risch, N

    1981-06-01

    The search for genetic markers is a powerful strategy in psychiatric genetics. The present article examines four areas relevant to discrepancies among X-linkage studies in bipolar affective disorder. These are questions of ascertainment, analytic methods, the X-chromosome map and genetic heterogeneity. The following conclusions are reached: (a) Positive linkage findings cannot be attributed to ascertainment bias or association between affective illness and colorblindness. (b) The possibility that falsely positive linkage results were obtained by using inappropriate analytic methods is ruled out. (c) Reported linkages of bipolar illness to colorblind and G6PD loci are compatible with known map distances between X-chromosome loci. Linkage to the Xg antigen remains uncertain. (d) The discrepancy among the various data sets on affective illness and colorblindness is best explained by significant linkage heterogeneity among pedigrees informative for the two traits. PMID:6454708

  1. Supporting children when a parent has a life-threatening illness: the role of the community practitioner.

    PubMed

    Fearnley, Rachel

    2012-12-01

    The last two decades have seen an academic and practice based shift in the acknowledgment that children require support following the death of a significant person. However, the needs of children who are living amidst parental life threatening illness are not, as yet, so clearly recognised or acknowledged. These children are often forgotten and their needs are frequently peripheral, if not absent, within the clinical setting. The current study adopted qualitative methodology to explore children's experiences when living with a parent who is dying. A total of 36 people were interviewed, including children, their parents and professionals. The findings highlighted the importance of age appropriate information sharing with the children and the significant role professionals have in facilitating conversations either directly or through supporting the parents to hold these 'difficult' discussions. This paper offers an overview of the vital role community practitioners have in supporting the children of patients. It argues that they often have a more in-depth knowledge of the family and its functioning and that consequently they can add a different dimension to the care provided. PMID:23304891

  2. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  3. Second-Generation Antipsychotics and Tardive Syndromes in Affective Illness: A Public Health Problem With Neuropsychiatric Consequences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Food and Drug Administration–approved information and public advertisements belie neurodegenerative risks for second-generation antipsychotics in affective illness. Package inserts label tardive syndromes “potentially reversible” while uniformly omitting patient counseling for long-term neurodegenerative side effects. I found that only 2 of 78 outpatients exposed to second-generation antipsychotics reported awareness of tardive syndromes. Updated literature challenges safety advantages of atypical versus typical antipsychotics. Physician and patient information regarding tardive syndromes from second-generation antipsychotics approved for affective illness is inadequate. PMID:25521884

  4. Second-generation antipsychotics and tardive syndromes in affective illness: a public health problem with neuropsychiatric consequences.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Frederick M

    2015-02-01

    Food and Drug Administration-approved information and public advertisements belie neurodegenerative risks for second-generation antipsychotics in affective illness. Package inserts label tardive syndromes "potentially reversible" while uniformly omitting patient counseling for long-term neurodegenerative side effects. I found that only 2 of 78 outpatients exposed to second-generation antipsychotics reported awareness of tardive syndromes. Updated literature challenges safety advantages of atypical versus typical antipsychotics. Physician and patient information regarding tardive syndromes from second-generation antipsychotics approved for affective illness is inadequate. PMID:25521884

  5. Parents' Psychiatric Issues May Adversely Affect Some Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... attempted suicide, or who had struggled with antisocial personality disorder or marijuana abuse, were found to face ... and mood disorders, schizophrenia, anxiety, Alzheimer's-related dementia, personality disorders, substance abuse and attempted suicide. Parental histories ...

  6. Parental instrumental feeding, negative affect, and binge eating among overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B

    2015-04-01

    Parental instrumental feeding (i.e., rewarding children with food for perceived correct behaviors and punishing by taking away food for perceived incorrect behaviors) and negative affect are independently associated with binge eating in adulthood. However, less is known about interactions between these variables and binge eating. This study examined the relationship of retrospective reports of parental feeding practices and negative affect to binge eating. Participants were 165 overweight and obese undergraduate students at a large Mid-Atlantic University. High parental instrumental feeding strengthened the relationship between negative affect and binge eating. Also, individuals who reported low parental feeding practices reported similar binge eating regardless of negative affect. These findings suggest that overweight and obese individuals whose parents used more instrumental feeding practices are most likely to engage in binge eating in response to negative affect. PMID:25682364

  7. Ebola or Not? Evaluating the Ill Traveler From Ebola-Affected Countries in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, Jessica K.; Kozarsky, Phyllis E.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Guarner, Jeannette; Steinberg, James P.; Anderson, Evan; Jacob, Jesse T.; Meloy, Patrick; Gillespie, Darria; Espinoza, Tamara R.; Isakov, Alexander; Vanairsdale, Sharon; Baker, Esther; Wu, Henry M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2014–2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa had global impact beyond the primarily affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Other countries, including the United States, encountered numerous patients who arrived from highly affected countries with fever or other signs or symptoms consistent with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods. We describe our experience evaluating 25 travelers who met the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for a person under investigation (PUI) for EVD from July 20, 2014 to January 28, 2015. All patients were triaged and evaluated under the guidance of institutional protocols to the emergency department, outpatient tropical medicine clinic, or Emory's Ebola treatment unit. Strict attention to infection control and early involvement of public health authorities guided the safe evaluation of these patients. Results. None were diagnosed with EVD. Respiratory illnesses were common, and 8 (32%) PUI were confirmed to have influenza. Four patients (16%) were diagnosed with potentially life-threatening infections or conditions, including 3 with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and 1 with diabetic ketoacidosis. Conclusions. In addition to preparing for potential patients with EVD, Ebola assessment centers should consider other life-threatening conditions requiring urgent treatment, and travelers to affected countries should be strongly advised to seek pretravel counseling. Furthermore, attention to infection control in all aspects of PUI evaluation is paramount and has presented unique challenges. Lessons learned from our evaluation of potential patients with EVD can help inform preparations for future outbreaks of highly pathogenic communicable diseases. PMID:26925428

  8. Ebola or Not? Evaluating the Ill Traveler From Ebola-Affected Countries in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Jessica K; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Kraft, Colleen S; Guarner, Jeannette; Steinberg, James P; Anderson, Evan; Jacob, Jesse T; Meloy, Patrick; Gillespie, Darria; Espinoza, Tamara R; Isakov, Alexander; Vanairsdale, Sharon; Baker, Esther; Wu, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa had global impact beyond the primarily affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Other countries, including the United States, encountered numerous patients who arrived from highly affected countries with fever or other signs or symptoms consistent with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods.  We describe our experience evaluating 25 travelers who met the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for a person under investigation (PUI) for EVD from July 20, 2014 to January 28, 2015. All patients were triaged and evaluated under the guidance of institutional protocols to the emergency department, outpatient tropical medicine clinic, or Emory's Ebola treatment unit. Strict attention to infection control and early involvement of public health authorities guided the safe evaluation of these patients. Results.  None were diagnosed with EVD. Respiratory illnesses were common, and 8 (32%) PUI were confirmed to have influenza. Four patients (16%) were diagnosed with potentially life-threatening infections or conditions, including 3 with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and 1 with diabetic ketoacidosis. Conclusions.  In addition to preparing for potential patients with EVD, Ebola assessment centers should consider other life-threatening conditions requiring urgent treatment, and travelers to affected countries should be strongly advised to seek pretravel counseling. Furthermore, attention to infection control in all aspects of PUI evaluation is paramount and has presented unique challenges. Lessons learned from our evaluation of potential patients with EVD can help inform preparations for future outbreaks of highly pathogenic communicable diseases. PMID:26925428

  9. Parenting styles and emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Thammawijaya, Panithee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (standardized beta [B]=-0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more likely to perceive their parents as caring (B=0.48, p=0.002). Children who scored lower on their self-esteem reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=-0.30, p=0.030), and children reporting higher levels of stress reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=0.12, p=0.010). Children reporting caring parenting style were significantly more likely to report higher emotional intelligence (B=0.66, p=0.001). Parenting styles play an important role in the emotional intelligence. Identifying and testing interventions to help parents improve their parenting styles, while helping their HIV-affected children cope with stress and self-esteem, are essential in promoting mental health of HIV-affected children in Thailand. PMID:23651471

  10. Parenting Styles and Emotional Intelligence of HIV-affected Children in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Thammawijaya, Panithee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (Standardized beta [B] = −0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more likely to perceive their parents as caring (B = 0.48, p = 0.002). Children who scored lower on their self-esteem reported their parents to be more overprotective (B = −0.30, p = 0.030), and children reporting higher levels of stress reported their parents to be more overprotective (B = 0.12, p = 0.010). Children reporting caring parenting style were significantly more likely to report higher emotional intelligence (B = 0.66, p = 0.001). Parenting styles play an important role in the emotional intelligence. Identifying and testing interventions to help parents improve their parenting styles, while helping their HIV-affected children cope with stress and self-esteem, are essential in promoting mental health of HIV-affected children in Thailand. PMID:23651471

  11. Treatment of affective illness in the elderly with drugs and electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Jenike, M A

    1989-01-01

    Affective illness is common, frequently debilitating, and sometimes life-threatening in the elderly. Considerations pertaining to treatment with heterocyclic drugs, MAOIs, lithium, psychostimulants and thyroid hormone, as well as ECT, have been reviewed. Amitriptyline and imipramine cause significant orthostatic hypotension and probably should be avoided in the elderly. In addition, amitriptyline is extremely anticholinergic. Amoxapine is essentially a neuroleptic sequelae, including tardive dyskinesia. If a patient has had a prior positive response or has a relative who had a good outcome from a particular drug, it may be best to begin treatment with that drug. Initial choice of antidepressant can be based largely on the clinical picture. For example, if a depressed patient is sleeping much more than usual, try a potentially activating agent like desipramine or protriptyline. if, on the other hand, the patient is unable to sleep, a more sedating agent like nortriptyline, maprotiline, trimipramine, or trazodone should be tried. Risks and side effects of these drugs, as well as their use in cardiac patients, have been reviewed in detail. Many clinicians avoid MAOIs in elderly patients because of fear of adverse reactions. This fear is largely unfounded. Precautions, side effects, and specific recommendations have been outlined. Using lithium in the elderly requires special precautions because of decreased GFR and potential interactions with concomitantly used drugs. This paper has discussed possible side effects and toxicity. The usage of psychostimulants, such as methylphenidate and amphetamine, to treat medically ill depressed patients is reviewed. These agents are also sometimes useful in demented individuals or in patients with abulic frontal lobe syndromes. Poststroke depressions are common, and recent evidence indicates that they can be adequately treated. Stroke patients have many difficulties dealing with rehabilitation and should not be forced to suffer

  12. Context and Opportunity: Multiple Perspectives on Parenting by Women With a Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Barrow, Susan M.; Alexander, Mary Jane; McKinney, Jacki; Lawinski, Terese; Pratt, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Objective The capabilities framework and a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach frame this study. We consider the real opportunities for parenting available for women with serious mental health diagnoses, despite complications posed by their own capacity, material constraints, social network disruptions, and, by law, custom and policy related to mental health conditions and child custody decisions. Method We convened focus groups with mothers currently living in shelters apart from their children, service providers in supported housing programs, grandmothers caring for children of mothers with mental health and substance use problems, and a policy discussion with mental health administrators. Qualitative analyses explored common and divergent perspectives on parenting experiences and aspirations of particularly marginalized mothers. Results Perspectives of mothers and other stakeholders converged in recognizing the parenting challenges facing mothers experiencing homelessness and mental health and substance use problems, but their views on the implications of this diverged sharply. Mothers’ current aspirations were limited by contextual obstacles to maintaining contact with children; other stakeholders saw contact as risky and reunification as improbable. All stakeholders described systemic barriers to supporting contact and ongoing mothering roles. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Evidence-based parenting interventions require facilitating policy contexts that do not foreclose parenting possibilities for mothers whose current challenges dictate modest immediate parenting goals. CBPR amplifies voices of lived experience to demonstrate what is possible over time for mothers with complex lives and histories. These become possibilities that a person can imagine for herself and are essential to inform the evidence base for practice and policy. PMID:24978622

  13. Guide to Children Affected by Parental Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Leah

    2010-01-01

    A conservative estimate is that one in six children in school today has a parent dependent on or addicted to alcohol or other drugs. This places these students at high risk for social and emotional problems, as well as for school failure, drug use, and delinquency. Schools, however, are a logical place to reach them. Identifying children of those…

  14. Maternal depression and the heart of parenting: respiratory sinus arrhythmia and affective dynamics during parent-adolescent interactions.

    PubMed

    Connell, Arin M; Hughes-Scalise, Abigail; Klostermann, Susan; Azem, Talla

    2011-10-01

    Maternal depression is associated with problematic parenting and the development of emotional and behavior problems in children and adolescents. While emotional regulatory abilities are likely to influence emotional exchanges between parents and teens, surprisingly little is known about the role of emotion regulation during parent-child interactions, particularly in high-risk families. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been widely linked to emotion regulatory abilities in recent research, and the current study investigated RSA and maternal depression in relation to dyadic flexibility, as well as mutuality of negative and positive affect displayed during three discussion tasks between 59 mother-adolescent pairs (age 11-17 years). Dyadic flexibility was predicted by the interaction of maternal depression, maternal RSA, and teen RSA, with higher maternal RSA predicting greater dyadic flexibility, particularly in highest risk dyads (i.e., elevated maternal depression and lower teen RSA). Teen RSA interacted with maternal depression to predict mutual negative affect, serving as a protective factor. Finally, maternal and teen RSA interacted to predict mutual positive affect, with maternal RSA buffering against low teen RSA to predict higher mutual positive affect. Results support the role of RSA in affectively laden interactions between parents and adolescents, particularly in the face of maternal depression. PMID:21875198

  15. Psychopathic Personality and Negative Parent-to-Child Affect: A Longitudinal Cross-lag Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies that have explored the relationship between parenting style and children’s antisocial behavior have generally found significant bidirectional effects, whereby parenting behaviors influence their child’s antisocial outcomes, but a child’s behaviors also lead to changes in parenting style. Methods The present study investigated the genetic and environmental underpinnings of the longitudinal relationship between negative parent-to-child affect and psychopathic personality in a sample of 1,562 twins. Using a biometrical cross-lag analysis, bidirectional effects were investigated across two waves of assessment when the twins were ages 9–10 and 14–15, utilizing both caregiver and youth self-reports. Results Results demonstrated that negative parental affects observed at ages 9–10 influenced the child’s later psychopathic personality at ages 14–15, based on both caregiver and youth self-reports. For these ‘parent-driven effects’, both genetic and non-shared environmental factors were important in the development of later psychopathic personality during adolescence. There were additional ‘child-driven effects’ such that children’s psychopathic personality at ages 9–10 influenced negative parent-to-child affect at ages 14–15, but only within caregiver reports. Conclusions Thus, children’s genetically influenced psychopathic personality seemed to evoke parental negativity at ages 14–15, highlighting the importance of investigating bidirectional effects in parent-child relationships to understand the development of these traits. PMID:24223446

  16. Examining the Meaning Attached to Mental Illness and Mental Health Services Among Justice System-Involved Youth and Their Parents

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Amy C.; Kelly, Brian L.; Vidalon, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    A large percentage of youth involved in the juvenile justice system experience mental health problems, yet many do not receive mental health care. In this study, we used a process-focused framework of mental health decision making to gain insight into the use of mental health services among these youth. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine youth and nine parents participating in a program servicing youth with mental health problems who have been in detention. Themes related to problem recognition, the decision to seek and participate in services, subjective norms, and juvenile justice system involvement emerged. Most families acknowledged their youth was having problems, but few defined those problems in mental health terms. This did not prevent them from seeking services, although some were not able to access adequate services until the justice system became involved. Participants were aware of negative attitudes about mental illness, and might have limited their social networks to shield themselves. PMID:19638602

  17. Factors affecting exits from homelessness among persons with serious mental illness and substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielian, Sonya; Bromley, Elizabeth; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Kern, Robert S.; Goldenson, Nicholas I.; Danley, Megan E.; Young, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to understand the housing trajectories of homeless consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) and co-occurring substance use disorders (SUD) and to identify factors that best-predicted achievement of independent housing. Methods Using administrative data, we identified homeless persons with SMI and SUD admitted to a residential rehabilitation program from 12/2008-11/2011. On a random sample (n=36), we assessed a range of potential predictors of housing outcomes, including symptoms, cognition, and social/community supports. We used the Residential Time-Line Follow-Back (TLFB) Inventory to gather housing histories since exiting rehabilitation and identify housing outcomes. We used recursive partitioning to identify variables that best-differentiated participants by these outcomes. Results We identified three housing trajectories: stable housing (n=14); unstable housing (n=15); and continuously engaged in housing services (n=7). Using recursive partitioning, two variables (symbol digit modalities test (SDMT), a neurocognitive speed of processing measure and Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS)-relationships subscale, which quantifies symptoms affecting relationships) were sufficient to capture information provided by 26 predictors to classify participants by housing outcome. Participants predicted to continuously engage in services had impaired processing speeds (SDMT score<32.5). Among consumers with SDMT score≥32.5, those predicted to achieve stable housing had fewer interpersonal symptoms (BASIS-relationships score<0.81) than those predicted to have unstable housing. This model explains 57% of this sample's variability and 14% of this population's variability in housing outcomes. Conclusion As cognition and symptoms influencing relationships predicted housing outcomes for homeless adults with SMI and SUD, cognitive and social skills trainings may be useful for this population. PMID:25919839

  18. Family functioning and illness perception of parents of children with atopic dermatitis, living without skin symptoms, but with psychosomatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Kanán-Cedeño, E G; Guillén Martínez, E; Campos Garibay, M J

    2011-03-01

    Emotional factors and a recurrent psychosomatic environment, have been implicated in the evolution of atopic dermatitis. These, in turn, affect the disease. This study was under taken to evaluate the functioning of families with a child that has atopic dermatitis without skin symptoms and the parents' perceptions of their child's disease.Semi-quantitative and cross-sectional study in which questionnaires were applied: one to study family functioning (Espejel et al. scale) and the second to determine aspects of parental perception of their child's atopic dermatitis. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the categories of the Family Function Scale.The most affected categories of family functioning were authority, handling of disruptive conduct, communication, and negative affect. The most significant positive correlations between the categories of family functioning were: authority and support, r=0.867, p<.001; disruptive conduct and communication, r=0.798, p<.001; and support and communication, r=0.731, p<.001. Of the parents, 66.4% thought that the pharmacotherapy used for their child's atopic dermatitis was not effective, and 33.3% of parents stated that the disease had affected their child's daily activities.In families of children with atopic dermatitis, various family environment factors facilitate the recurrence of symptoms even when no cutaneous lesions have been found on the child. The identification and use of family resources to face this disease are aspects that should be taken into consideration during the psychotherapeutic management of these families, putting emphasis on the most affected functional categories of these families in a strategy that should be implanted in a multi-disciplinary context. PMID:21358017

  19. Direct observations of parenting and real-time negative affect among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Melanie J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Participants were 9th- and 10th-grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months via ecological momentary assessment. Among both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for nonsmokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects. PMID:23153193

  20. Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: Enhancing, and dampening positive affect

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Allen, Nicholas B.; Davis, Betsy; Hunter, Erin; Leve, Craig; Sheeber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compared parental socialization of adolescent positive affect in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Participants were 107 adolescents (42 boys) aged 14 - 18 years and their parents. Half of the participants met criteria for major depressive disorder and the others were demographically matched adolescents without emotional or behavioral disorders. Results based on multi-source questionnaire and interview data indicated that mothers and fathers of depressed adolescents were less accepting of adolescents’ positive affect and more likely to use strategies that dampen adolescents’ positive affect than were parents of healthy adolescents. Additionally, fathers of depressed adolescents exhibited fewer responses likely to enhance the adolescents’ positive affect than were fathers of healthy adolescents. These findings build on those of previous work in examining parental responses to adolescent emotions, focusing on positive emotions and including both mothers and fathers. PMID:23942826

  1. How does direct to consumer advertising affect the stigma of mental illness?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Kosyluk, Kristin A; Fokuo, J Konadu; Park, Jin Hee

    2014-10-01

    Stigma interferes with life goals of people with mental illness. Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) may impact stigmatizing attitudes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of psychiatric medication DTCA on the stigmatizing and affirming attitudes of the general population versus individuals self-identified with mental illness. Participants (n = 272) were randomly assigned to watch a DTCA about Cymbalta, an antidepressant, embedded in two other advertisements for non-pharmaceutical products. Participants completed measures of stigmatizing and affirming attitudes before and after viewing this DTCA. Results indicate that the Cymbalta DTCA worsened the attitudes of the general public. These participants were less likely to offer help, endorse recovery, and agree with self-determination attitudes towards people with mental illness following viewing the DTCA. The self-identified group reported less blame, less dangerousness, less social avoidance, more pity, and greater willingness to help after viewing the DTCA. Moreover, there was significant improvement in their endorsement of recovery. Results suggest that DTCAs about psychiatric medication may increase the public's stigma towards people with mental illness but reduce stigma among individuals who identify as having a mental illness. Findings are somewhat limited by selection biases and self-report. Implications for further development of DTCAs are considered. PMID:24488184

  2. Helping Aging Parents of Adult Children with Serious Mental Illness1

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Allan V.; Scogin, Forrest; MacNeil, Gordon; Leeper, James; Wimberly, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript reports the results of a study that pilot tested a home-delivered, multi-dimensional problem-solving intervention aimed at helping aging parental caregivers of adult children with schizophrenia. The results indicate that the participants (N=5) who received the 10-session intervention showed increased life satisfaction and emotional well being, and reduced feelings of burden, compared to those participants in the control group (N=10). If a planned larger scale evaluation of the intervention provides evidence of its effectiveness, practitioners could have a valuable new treatment tool to provide assistance to this caregiver population. PMID:20953330

  3. The Impact of Parental Bipolar Affective Disorder on Adolescent Behaviour--Positive Messages to Young People, Parents, Teachers and Other Professionals Working with Children Whose Parents Suffer from Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olliver-Kneafsey, Kate; Thornton, Ev; Williamson, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    The impact of parental mental health difficulties on the developing child is well evidenced and documented. In this article Kate Olliver-Kneafsey, Ev Thornton and Wendy Williamson suggest that despite the difficulties young people face when parental mental illness is a feature of family life, it is not all gloom and doom, and give some important…

  4. How does AIDS illness affect women's residential decisions? Findings from an ethnographic study in a Cape Town township.

    PubMed

    Bray, Rachel

    2009-06-01

    This paper explores the nature and consequences of residential decision-making for women on treatment for AIDS illness in a poor urban settlement in South Africa. Drawing on ethnographic data collected over a two-year period, it points to the subtle shifts in 'householding' practices and kinship relationships prompted by women's individual experiences and understanding of their HIV status, illness and treatment. Women's decisions to move or to arrange that other family members move can be explained by pre-existing threats to individual wellbeing or family residential security. But an HIV diagnosis can intensify a mother's thoughts and actions in relation to residential and emotional security, in particular on behalf of her children. In a context where extended periods of childcare by rural relatives is common, mothers with AIDS illness may gather all their children in their home to offer direct care, achieve intimacy and facilitate disclosure. They are likely to avoid making frequent contact with, and demands on, their elderly parents. Siblings are favoured as co-residents and confidants in disclosure, but their long-term support is contingent on reciprocity. Partners, where present, are valued for economic, social and emotional security. Women attempt to balance their children's nurturing, in the short and long term, with care of the self. Their efforts do not always succeed and can incur high costs to their wellbeing and relationships with their children. PMID:25875568

  5. A brief intervention affects parents' attitudes toward using less physical punishment.

    PubMed

    Chavis, Antwon; Hudnut-Beumler, Julia; Webb, Margaret W; Neely, Jill A; Bickman, Len; Dietrich, Mary S; Scholer, Seth J

    2013-12-01

    Consecutive English and Spanish speaking caregivers of 6-24 month old children were randomly assigned to either a control or intervention group. Parents in the intervention group were instructed to view at least 4 options to discipline a child in an interactive multimedia program. The control group participants received routine primary care with their resident physician. After the clinic visit, all parents were invited to participate in a research study; the participation rate was 98% (258/263). The key measure was the Attitudes Toward Spanking (ATS) scale. The ATS is correlated with parents' actual use of physical punishment. Parents with higher scores are more likely to use physical punishment to discipline their children. Parents in the intervention group had an ATS score that was significantly lower than the ATS score of parents in the control group (median=24.0, vs. median=30; p=0.043). Parents in the control group were 2 times more likely to report that they would spank a child who was misbehaving compared with parents in the intervention group (16.9% vs. 7.0%, p=0.015). In the short-term, a brief intervention, integrated into the primary care visit, can affect parents' attitudes toward using less physical punishment. It may be feasible to teach parents to not use physical punishment using a population-based approach. The findings have implications for how to improve primary care services and the prevention of violence. PMID:23859768

  6. Filial piety and parental responsibility: an interpretive phenomenological study of family caregiving for a person with mental illness among Korean immigrants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the strong influence of culture on family involvement in disease management, few studies have examined how immigrant families care for persons with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine how immigrant families organize their world to care for a mentally ill person in the United States. The current analysis focused on how Confucian notions of filial piety and parental obligation shape caregiving in Korean immigrant families. Methods Participants in this interpretive phenomenological study were comprised of six Korean immigrant women caring for a family member with mental illness. Participants provided narratives that illustrate challenges and opportunities in caring for their mentally ill family member. Results Three family caregiving patterns were discerned. Insulating from the outside world describes a family’s effort to accept a member's illness and to manage it within the family. Prioritizing education over well-being concerns parental commitment to the Confucian priority of educating one’s children. Reciprocating the sacrifice describes how a family adapts and enacts filial piety. Conclusion The findings of this study warrant further study to examine the influence of Confucianism among Korean American families. The three patterns of caregiving are strongly aligned with Confucian notion of family and family engagement. These patterns may help health providers to anticipate the needs of and provide individualized, culturally appropriate mental health care for patients with mental illness and their families of Korean origin. PMID:23256876

  7. Neurobehavioral deficits in offspring of schizophrenic parents: liability indicators and predictors of illness.

    PubMed

    Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L

    2000-01-01

    High-risk research in schizophrenia incorporates several different strategies for studying individuals who are defined by different criteria as being at risk for future development of schizophrenia. Variables from a wide range of domains have been included in these studies. Several reviews of high-risk research have attempted to cover the field broadly, whereas others have been more sharply focused on research subjects defined by specific criteria or on particular classes of variables. Among the review articles and collections of project reports on high-risk research in the past two decades are: Watt et al. [1984: Children at risk for schizophrenia: a longitudinal perspective]; Nuechterlein and Dawson [1984: Schizophr Bull 10:160-203]; Nuechterlein [1986: J Child Psychol Psychiatr 27:133-144]; Erlenmeyer-Kimling and Cornblatt [1987: J Psychiatr Res 26:405-426]; Goldstein and Tuma [1987: Schizophr Bull 13:369-371]; Asarnow [1988: Schizophr Bull 14:613-631]; Moldin and Erlenmeyer-Kimling [1994: Schizophr Bull 20:25-29]; Mirsky [1995: Schizophr Bull 21:179-182]; Gooding and Iacono [1995: Manual of developmental psychopathology] McNeil [1995: Epidemiol Rev 17:107-112] Olin and Mednick [1996: Schizophr Bull 22:223-240]; Cornblatt and Obuchowski [1997: Intl Rev Psychiatry 9:437-447]. This paper presents an overview of findings from recent (the past decade and a half) prospective studies of children of schizophrenic parents, with a focus on neurobehavioral (neurocognitive, neuromotor, and neurophysiological) variables that may reflect aspects of the genetic liability to schizophrenia and related disorders. The few neuroimaging studies on children of schizophrenic parents are also briefly mentioned. Because of space limitations, the overview is not intended as a comprehensive or detailed review of this area of high-risk research. PMID:10813806

  8. The relationship between parental mental illness and/or substance use disorder on adolescent substance use disorder: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Hedden, Sarra L

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental comorbid mental illness and substance use disorder (SUD) and adolescent SUD. Nationally representative parent-child data pooled over six years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) was utilized in this study. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to determine whether adolescents living with parents who have mental health disorders and/or substance use disorder are themselves more likely to have SUD while controlling for potential confounding variables. The results show that comorbid AMI-SUD in mothers is significantly associated with adolescent SUD after controlling for potential confounders. However, comorbid AMI-SUD in fathers is not associated with adolescent SUD when other controls are included in the model. The association of parental comorbid AMI-SUD with adolescent SUD indicates that parental behavioral health treatment may be a preventive measure to protect their children and may function as an important deterrent to adolescent SUD. PMID:27070095

  9. The moral experience of parents regarding life-support decisions for their critically-ill children: a preliminary study in France.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Franco A; Canouï, Pierre; Hubert, Philippe; Farrell, Catherine; Leclerc, Francis; Doussau, Amélie; Seguin, Marie-Josée; Lacroix, Jacques

    2006-03-01

    The common paediatric critical care practice in France is for physicians (rather than parents) to maintain the ultimate responsibility for lifesupport decisions in children. Some French literature asserts that it is inappropriate for parents to bear such responsibilities because they do not have the required knowledge and should be protected from feeling culpable for such decisions. The aim of this grounded theory preliminary study was to examine the moral experience of parents of critically-ill children that required life-support decisions in France. A convenience purposive sample of seven parents was recruited in Paris. Five principal themes emerged as significant from these interviews: (1) a need for more information; (2) physicians should be responsible for life-support decisions; (3) the child's concerns and wishes need to be better heard; (4) maternal guilt; and (5) physicians require better training in parent communication. These findings raise important issues for clinical practice and further research in France. PMID:16464934

  10. Parental age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-05-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  11. Parental Age Affects Somatic Mutation Rates in the Progeny of Flowering Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  12. "Is it half full or half empty?" Affective responses to chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Myrna; Nutini, Jean; Musa, Donald; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Albert, Steven M

    2009-09-01

    Using a combined qualitative/quantitative approach, we interviewed 132 older African-Americans and whites with either osteoarthritis of the hip or knee (OAK/OAH) or ischemic heart disease (IHD) to address two questions: 1) What types of reactions to illness are expressed by this group of older adults who have OA or IHD? 2)? Are there differences in the characteristics of the respondents who respond more positively than those who respond more negatively? The responses were coded to illustrate those that reflected positive, negative, or combined (positive/negative) statements. The majority of the respondents, who were categorized as positive or combined, approached the illness experience with statements illustrating their ability to cope with their illness and adapt their lifestyles to the limitations imposed by the disease such as acceptance, feeling that others were worse off, or changing their lifestyles to adapt to their limitations. Those expressing negative reactions to their illness were fewer in number and responded with terms reflecting loss of identity, physical limitations, and other disease symptoms. The differences were more pronounced between the positive and negative groups where the latter were somewhat more likely to be African-American and female and significantly more likely to have less income, greater perceived disease severity, and more disability. We should look to the larger group in both the positive only and combined responses to explore how culture may play a role in perceptions of subjective well-being and the importance of "the local worlds of experience" experienced by both men and women, and African-Americans and whites. This study illustrates that using a simple, open-ended question that stimulates older people to narrate their reactions to having a chronic illness may allow clinicians to identify the persons most at-risk and intervene appropriately. PMID:19340567

  13. “Is it Half Full or Half Empty?” Affective Responses to Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Myrna; Nutini, Jean; Musa, Donald; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Albert, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a combined qualitative/quantitative approach, we interviewed 132 older African–Americans and whites with either osteoarthritis of the hip or knee (OAK/OAH) or ischemic heart disease (IHD) to address two questions: 1) What types of reactions to illness are expressed by this group of older adults who have OA or IHD? 2)? Are there differences in the characteristics of the respondents who respond more positively than those who respond more negatively? The responses were coded to illustrate those that reflected positive, negative, or combined (positive/negative) statements. The majority of the respondents, who were categorized as positive or combined, approached the illness experience with statements illustrating their ability to cope with their illness and adapt their lifestyles to the limitations imposed by the disease such as acceptance, feeling that others were worse off, or changing their lifestyles to adapt to their limitations. Those expressing negative reactions to their illness were fewer in number and responded with terms reflecting loss of identity, physical limitations, and other disease symptoms. The differences were more pronounced between the positive and negative groups where the latter were somewhat more likely to be African–American and female and significantly more likely to have less income, greater perceived disease severity, and more disability. We should look to the larger group in both the positive only and combined responses to explore how culture may play a role in perceptions of subjective well-being and the importance of “the local worlds of experience” experienced by both men and women, and African–Americans and whites. This study illustrates that using a simple, open-ended question that stimulates older people to narrate their reactions to having a chronic illness may allow clinicians to identify the persons most at-risk and intervene appropriately. PMID:19340567

  14. Cognitive and Interpersonal Predictors of Stress Generation in Children of Affectively Ill Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Josephine H.; Abela, John R. Z.; Starrs, Claire

    2009-01-01

    Stress generation is a process in which individuals, through their depressive symptoms, personal characteristics, and/or behaviors, contribute to the occurrence of stressful life events. While this process has been well documented in adults, few studies have examined it in children. The present study examines whether cognitive and interpersonal…

  15. Secondary disclosure of parental HIV status among children affected by AIDS in Henan, China.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng; Stanton, Bonita

    2012-09-01

    For children affected by AIDS, one psychological challenge is whether or how to disclose their parents' HIV status to others (secondary disclosure). The current study, utilizing data from 962 rural children affected by AIDS in central China, examines children's perceptions regarding secondary disclosure (intention of disclosure, openness, and negative feelings) and their association with children's demographic and psychosocial factors. The findings indicated that a high proportion of children preferred not to disclose parental HIV status to others, would not like to tell the truth to others in the situations of having to talk about parental HIV, and also had strong negative feelings about the disclosure. The study findings confirmed that keeping secrecy of parental HIV infection was associated with higher level of negative psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, loneliness, perceived stigma, and enacted stigma), and children's age was strongly associated with both their perceptions of secondary disclosure and psychological measures. PMID:22845686

  16. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  17. Evaluating workforce developments to support children of mentally ill parents: implementing new interventions in the adult mental healthcare in Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Camilla; van Doesum, Karin T M

    2012-01-01

    Background According to new Norwegian laws, mental healthcare for adults are obligated to assess all patients who are parents and to act on their children's needs. This article describes the study protocol of implementing the interventions Family Assessment and Child Talks for children of patients in the adult psychiatry of the University Hospital of Northern Norway. The project is designed to evaluate the process of changes in clinical practice due to the implementation of two interventions. The interventions to be implemented are a standardised Family Assessment Form and the intervention called Child Talks. The family assessment form is an intervention to identify children of mentally ill parents and their needs. The intervention Child Talks is a health-promoting and preventive intervention where the mental health workers talk with the family about the situation of the children and their needs. Methods/design There are two groups of participants in this study: (1) mental health workers in the clinic (N=220) and (2) patients who are parents (N=200) receiving treatment in the clinic. (1) In the evaluation of clinical practice, the authors use a pre-test, post-test and 1-year follow-up design. At pre-test, the authors evaluate status quo among mental health workers in the clinic regarding knowledge, attitudes, collaborative routines and clinical practice related to families with parental mental illness. After the pre-test is finished, the project move on to implement the interventions Family Assessment Form and Child Talks in the clinic. At post-test and 1-year follow-up, the authors evaluate the impact of implementing the Family Assessment Form in terms of how many children were identified and offered Child Talks in the clinic or referred to other services for additional support. (2) In the evaluation of parents/patients experience with the interventions, the authors use a pre-test post-test design. To identify children of mentally ill patients, the authors collect

  18. Factors affecting illness in the developing world: chronic disease, mental health and traditional medicine cures.

    PubMed

    Douthit, Nathan T; Astatk, Hailemariam Alemu

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a 24-year-old Ethiopian woman with a medical history of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. She suffers from chronic liver failure and portal hypertension. She has been hospitalised for 'hysteria' in the past but did not receive follow-up, outpatient treatment or psychiatric evaluation. After discontinuing her medications and leaving her family to use holy water, a religious medicine used by many Ethiopians, she was found at a nearby monastery. She was non-communicative and difficult to arouse. The patient was rushed to nearby University of Gondar Hospital where she received treatment for hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Her illness is the result of neglected tropical disease, reliance on traditional medicine as opposed to biomedical services and the poor state of psychiatric care in the developing world. PMID:27485874

  19. How diabetic patients' ideas of illness course affect non-adherent behaviour: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Wen An; Chie, Wei-Chu; Lew-Ting, Chih-Yin

    2007-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is becoming more prevalent and its successful management relies on patients' self-care behaviours. Measures focusing on patients' perceptions can be effective behavioural interventions. Aim To gain insight into the perceptions of patients with diabetes, especially ideas of the illness course and perceived severity, and their impacts on self-care behaviour. Design of study Qualitative approach with in-depth patient interviews (n = 22) and seven focus groups (n = 53). Setting A rural town in Taiwan. Method The interview protocol was mainly derived from Kleinman's explanatory model. Purposive sampling strategies of maximum variation were used. The transcript of the interviews was analysed with editing and immersion/crystallisation styles. Results Diabetes is regarded as an incurable, inevitably deteriorating disorder of sugar metabolism with many chronic complications. Patients thought that renal injury, followed by blindness, leg amputation, and poor peripheral circulation, were the most frequent complications. They also assessed their perceived severity of the disease at specific points in time through different indicators in their daily lives, such as sugar level, presence of complications, and medications used. Patients felt that these aspects progressed concurrently and that the illness course followed a unidimensional process. The ever-increasing doses of medication was considered by these patients to be a side-effect of the drugs taken. Conclusion Physicians should clarify with their patients that the risks of uraemia, blindness, and leg amputation are less prevalent than expected and that patients should pay more attention to cardiovascular complications. Certain oral hypoglycaemic agents may not cause a vicious cycle of ever-increasing doses of medication and the drugs that need to be taken should not be seen as indicators of severity but, rather, measures taken to prevent the diabetes becoming severe in the future. PMID:17394733

  20. Marital Quality, Maternal Depressed Affect, Harsh Parenting, and Child Externalising in Hong Kong Chinese Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Schwartz, David; Farver, Joann M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study used a family systems approach to examine harsh parenting, maternal depressed affect, and marital quality in relation to children's externalising behaviour problems in a sample of 158 Hong Kong primary school children. At two time points, peers and teachers provided ratings of children's externalising behaviours, and mothers…

  1. Maternal Attributions, Affect, and Parenting in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Comparison Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hoza, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to simultaneously examine maternal attributions, affect, and parenting in mothers of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using a multimethod approach (vignettes, confederate child video clips, and video clips of mother's own child). Of the participants, 23 were 7- to 12-year-old…

  2. Factors Affecting Parental Control over Children's Television Viewing: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Lynne Schafer; Walsh, R. Patricia

    1980-01-01

    Presents 10 questions pertaining to the amount of control over television viewing in the home to 100 families. Preliminary evidence included indications that (1) viewing habits are affected by the number of sets in the house and (2) parents who frequently watch television exert greater influence over their children's use. (MER)

  3. The Mediating Effects of Parenting Behaviors on Maternal Affect and Reports of Children's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karazsia, Bryan T.; Wildman, Beth G.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting behaviors have received ample support as a mediator of the relationship between maternal affect and child behavior problems. The majority of these research efforts were based on a uni-dimensional conceptualization of maternal mood, even though decades of theory and research suggest that mood is multidimensional. We examined the mediating…

  4. The Role of Child Negative Affect in the Relations between Parenting Styles and Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between parenting styles and children's negative affect in the prediction of reticent, solitary-active, and rough-and-tumble play behaviours were examined. The present study involved 98 children, their mothers and their preschool teachers. Participants (53 boys and 45 girls) were a mean age of 3.83 years (standard deviation = 0.69).…

  5. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  6. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  7. Associations Between Coping and Diurnal Cortisol Among Children Affected by Parental HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang; Ren, Xuequn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prior research has shown that early-life adversity is associated with physical health problems, but little is known about the health-related effects of coping in the context of having a parent with HIV/AIDS. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between positive and negative coping strategies and diurnal cortisol among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS. Method Six hundred and forty-five children aged 8-15 affected by parental HIV/AIDS provided 4 saliva samples per day over three days (two weekdays and one weekend day) to assess diurnal cortisol. Positive and negative coping strategies were measured via self-report prior to saliva collection. Possible confounds of the associations between coping and diurnal cortisol also were assessed, including age, gender, socioeconomic status, parenting quality, parental death, other stressful life events, sleep quality, and perceived health status. Results Greater positive coping (e.g., problem-solving, cognitive reframing) was associated with children's higher morning cortisol (p = .028), whereas greater negative coping (e.g., fighting, breaking things) was independently associated with lower morning cortisol (p = .032) and a flatter diurnal cortisol slope (p = .005). These associations remained significant after controlling for potential confounds. Neither positive coping nor negative coping interacted with stressful life circumstances—assessed via both stressful life events and parental death from HIV/AIDS—to predict cortisol (all p's > .27). Conclusion These findings indicate the extent to which a child's coping strategy is associated with indicators of stress biology in the context of having a parent with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25581701

  8. Being parents with epilepsy: thoughts on its consequences and difficulties affecting their children

    PubMed Central

    Gauffin, Helena; Flensner, Gullvi; Landtblom, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Parents with epilepsy can be concerned about the consequences of epilepsy affecting their children. The aim of this paper is to describe aspects of what it means being a parent having epilepsy, focusing the parents’ perspectives and their thoughts on having children. Methods Fourteen adults aged 18–35 years with epilepsy and subjective memory decline took part in focus-group interviews. The interviews were conducted according to a semi-structured guideline. Material containing aspects of parenthood was extracted from the original interviews and a secondary analysis was done according to a content-analysis guideline. Interviews with two parents for the Swedish book Leva med epilepsi [To live with epilepsy] by AM Landtblom (Stockholm: Bilda ide; 2009) were analyzed according to the same method. Results Four themes emerged: (1) a persistent feeling of insecurity, since a seizure can occur at any time and the child could be hurt; (2) a feeling of inadequacy – of not being able to take full responsibility for one’s child; (3) acknowledgment that one’s children are forced to take more responsibility than other children do; and (4) a feeling of guilt – of not being able to fulfill one’s expectations of being the parent one would like to be. Conclusion The parents with epilepsy are deeply concerned about how epilepsy affects the lives of their children. These parents are always aware that a seizure may occur and reflect on how this can affect their child. They try to foresee possible dangerous situations and prevent them. These parents were sad that they could not always take full responsibility for their child and could not live up to their own expectations of parenthood. Supportive programs may be of importance since fear for the safety of the child increases the psychosocial burden of epilepsy. There were also a few parents who did not acknowledge the safety issue of their child – the authors believe that it is important to identify these

  9. Common and unique associations of adolescents' affective and cognitive empathy development with conflict behavior towards parents.

    PubMed

    Van Lissa, Caspar J; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-02-01

    Adolescents' development of two empathy dimensions, affective empathic concern and cognitive perspective taking, may be associated with shifts towards more constructive behaviors in conflict with parents. This six-year longitudinal study (ages 13-18) used multivariate latent growth curve modeling to investigate correlations between the developmental trajectories of adolescents' (N = 497) empathic dispositions and trajectories of their conflict behaviors towards both parents. There were some similarities between the associations of both empathy dimensions with conflict behaviors. Both empathy dimensions were associated with reduced conflict escalation with mothers, and increased problem solving with both parents. However, these associations were consistently stronger for perspective taking than for empathic concern. Furthermore, higher levels of compliance with mothers in early adolescence were uniquely associated with over-time increasing empathic concern. Perspective taking was uniquely associated with decreased withdrawal from conflicts. Perspective taking thus appears to be more strongly associated with a pattern of constructive conflict behaviors. PMID:26760479

  10. Autism spectrum disorders: perceptions of genetic etiology and recurrence risk among Taiwanese parents of affected children.

    PubMed

    Chen, L S; Li, C; Wang, C H; Amuta, A; Li, M; Huang, T Y; Dhar, S U; Talwar, D; Jung, E

    2015-08-01

    In Taiwan, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are an emerging public health concern. The ongoing scientific progress for understanding the genetic etiology of ASD makes it increasingly important to examine how parents of children with ASD perceive the causes and recurrence risk of having another child with ASD. These perceptions may influence their family planning, attitudes toward genetic services, and willingness to take their children for ASD genetic testing. However, previous studies addressing this issue were conducted primarily in Western countries. As culture might shape an individual's views of genetic/genomic disorders, this first-of-its-kind study examined the perceptions of the genetic etiology for ASD and the recurrence risk among Taiwanese parents of children affected with ASD. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted among 39 parents having at least one child with ASD. Although the majority of participants believed that ASD has a genetic link, less than half perceived genetic factors as the cause of their own child's ASD. Moreover, most participants articulated their recurrence risk incorrectly. Some parents were concerned about their doctors' limited genomic competencies. To provide parents with better education, counseling, and support for making reproductive decisions, ASD-related genomic education among Taiwanese physicians is needed. PMID:25267333

  11. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  12. How Children Understand Parental Mental Illness: “You don’t get life insurance. What’s life insurance?”

    PubMed Central

    Mordoch, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To understand how children living with parental mental illness (PMI) understand mental illness (MI) and what they want to tell other children. Method: The study design was a secondary analysis of a grounded theory study exploring Canadian children’s perceptions of living with PMI. Interviews from 22 children, ages 6 – 16, living with a parent with depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia receiving treatment for the MI, were re-read, coded and analyzed along with data categories, their properties, field notes and memos from the original data. Results: Children revealed that they had limited understanding of MI and received few factual explanations of what was happening. Limited information on MI caused undue hardship. Younger children worried about their parent dying, while older children also were concerned about developing MI. Children offered suggestions for other children in similar circumstances. Conclusions: This study raises awareness of children living with PMI and identifies them as a population requiring services. It incorporates children’s perceptions of what they know and need to know. Children require assistance to understand and to respond to PMI. Mental health and primary health care clinicians have opportunities to assist these children within collaborative care models developed in conjunction with school services. PMID:20119563

  13. The acceptability and feasibility of the Baby Triple P Positive Parenting Programme on a mother and baby unit: Q-methodology with mothers with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Butler, Hannah; Hare, Dougal; Walker, Samantha; Wieck, Angelika; Wittkowski, Anja

    2014-10-01

    New mothers with severe mental illness (SMI) frequently experience significant difficulties in caring for their babies. There are no structured, evidence-based interventions that guide health professionals to help these women improve early parenting. The extensively researched and effective Triple P Positive Parenting Programme has recently been expanded to families with children less than 1 year old, which provides an opportunity to develop the intervention for women with severe postnatal mental illness. This study explored the views of mothers with SMI about the acceptability and feasibility of Baby Triple P (Baby TP) in the setting of a psychiatric Mother and Baby Unit (MBU). An 88-item Q-sort was conducted with a purposive sample of 15 mothers using Q-methodology. Three main factors were identified: 'what we need', 'what we want' and 'we can do it'. A consensus was noted with general agreement about the benefits of Baby TP, and suitability of the MBU environment to accommodate Baby TP. Baby TP was viewed as an acceptable and feasible parenting intervention and deemed positive and non-stigmatising. Mothers requested more staff awareness and knowledge about the programme so that they were supported in learning and generalising skills. PMID:24827076

  14. The effect of parental loss on cognitive and affective interference in adolescent boys from a post-conflict region.

    PubMed

    Mueller, S C; Baudoncq, R; De Schryver, M

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of early-life stressors such as parental loss on cognitive-affective processing during adolescence, especially in regions chronically affected by war and armed conflict. Here, we tested 72 male adolescents living in Northern Uganda (ages 14-19), 52 of whom still had both of their parents and 20 participants who had experienced parental loss. Participants completed a classic color-naming Stroop task as well as an affective interference task, the opposite emotions test (OET). Adolescents with parental loss showed a decrease in performance over time, especially on the Stroop task. Critically, this decrement in performance was positively associated with reported symptoms of trauma, but only in the parental loss group. The current data suggest a difficulty in maintaining cognitive control performance in youths with experience of parental loss. The findings are discussed in relation to traumatic stress and mental health in post-conflict regions. PMID:25899130

  15. [Parenting].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Contributions to this theme issue of a bulletin on infants aged birth to three, point out that becoming a parent is an evolving process and that infants' meanings to their parents shape parenting behavior and the capacity to change. Articles also examine the challenge of how to support parents as they come to, and continue in, the process of…

  16. Shared Illness and Social Support Within Two HIV-Affected African American Communities.

    PubMed

    Mosack, Katie E; Stevens, Patricia E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Wendorf, Angela R

    2016-09-01

    A key source of resiliency within HIV-affected African American communities is informal social support. Data from dyadic conversations and focus groups were used to address the following research question: What are HIV-positive African Americans' social support experiences within their informal social networks in response to HIV-related problems? Circumstances that exacerbated HIV-related problems included others' fear of contagion, reticence to be involved, judgment and rejection, and disregard for privacy Support from HIV-negative others buffered the impact of problems when others communicate interest, take the initiative to help, or make a long-term investment in their success. Support from other HIV-positive persons was helpful given the shared connection because of HIV, the opportunity to commiserate about what is mutually understood, and the fight for mutual survival Based on these findings, we offer suggestions for future research and social network interventions aimed at bolstering connections between HIV-positive peers, reducing stigma, and improving family support. PMID:26515921

  17. International Adaptation: Psychosocial and parenting experiences of caregivers who travel to the United States to obtain acute medical care for their seriously ill child

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Rachel; Ludi, Erica; Pao, Maryland; Wiener, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing trend of travel for medical purposes, little is known about the experience of parents and other caregivers who come to the United States specifically to obtain medical treatment for their seriously ill child. In this exploratory, descriptive qualitative study, we used a semi-structured narrative guide to conduct in-depth interviews with 22 Spanish or English-speaking caregivers about the challenges encountered and adaptation required when entering a new medical and cultural environment. Caregivers identified the language barrier and transnational parenting as challenges while reporting hospital staff and their own families as major sources of support. Using the results of the study as a guide, clinical and program implications are provided and recommendations for social work practice discussed. PMID:23947542

  18. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  19. Parenting styles and parents' perspectives on how their own emotions affect the functioning of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli

    2014-03-01

    The grounded theory method was used to analyze the parenting styles used by caregivers to rear children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to investigate parents' experiences regarding how to help their child overcome the symptoms. Thirty-two parents from 28 families of children with ASD in mainland China were interviewed. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed four patterns of parenting styles which varied in affiliation to the roles of caretaker and coach. Based on their experience, a sizable group of parents perceived that their own emotions influence the child's emotions and his/her symptoms. The results suggest the value of developing intervention programs on emotion regulation and positive parenting for the parents of children with ASD. PMID:24400727

  20. Validity of information on atopic disease and other illness in young children reported by parents in a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The longitudinal birth cohort study is the preferred design for studies of childhood health, particularly atopic disease. Still, prospective data collection depends on recollection of the medical history since the previous visit representing a potential recall-bias. We aimed to ascertain the quality of information on atopic disease and other health symptoms reported by parental interview in a closely monitored birth cohort study. Possible bias from symptom severity and socioeconomics were sought. Methods Copenhagen study on Asthma in Childhood (COPSAC) is a clinical birth cohort study of 411 children born of asthmatic mothers from 1999 to 2001. Child health is monitored at six-monthly visits with particular emphasis on atopic symptoms and infections. Data from the first three study years on 260 children was compared with records from their family practitioner as an external reference. Results A total of 6134 medical events were reported at the COPSAC interviews. Additional 586 medical events were recorded by family practitioners but not reported at the interview. There were no missed events related to asthma, eczema or allergy. Respiratory, infectious and skin related symptoms showed completeness above 90%, other diseases showed lower completeness around 77%. There was no meaningful influence from concurrent asthma or socioeconomics. Conclusions The COPSAC study exhibited full sensitivity to the main study objectives, atopic disease, and high sensitivity to respiratory, infectious and skin related illness. Our findings support the validity of parental interviews in longitudinal cohort studies investigating atopic disease and illness in childhood. PMID:23088330

  1. "External Conditions Affecting a Harmonious Family": Lessons Learned from a School-Based Parent Education Programme in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk-Fong, Pattie Yuk Yee

    2013-01-01

    This article documents a parent education presentation on "External conditions affecting a harmonious family" within a school-based parent education programme in Hong Kong. The presentation adopted an eco-systems approach for understanding families and argued for the need to include the external conditions for a harmonious family as an important…

  2. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Process Manual for Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This manual describes and evaluates the implementation of Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parent Affective Learning), Brevard Community College's special demonstration training project intended to return adults who have dropped out of the educational system back into the learning environment by bringing them to parenting classes…

  3. Social ecological factors associated with future orientation of children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Heath, Melissa Allen; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui

    2016-07-01

    From a social ecological perspective, this study examined the effects of stigma (societal level), trusting relationships with current caregivers (familial level), and self-esteem (individual level) on future orientation of children affected by HIV infection and AIDS. Comparing self-report data from 1221 children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS and 404 unaffected children, affected children reported greater stigma and lower future orientation, trusting relationships, and self-esteem. Based on structural equation modeling, stigma experiences, trusting relationships, and self-esteem had direct effects on future orientation, with self-esteem and trusting relationships partially mediating the effect of stigma experiences on children's future orientation. Implications are discussed. PMID:25370572

  4. Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lao Parents and Teachers Association, Minneapolis, MN.

    This collection presents advice to help parents help their children succeed in school. Information sheets are included from many sources, in English and translated into Lao by the Lao Parents and Teachers Association. The emphasis is on the elementary grades, although some of the materials are useful for parents of high school students. The…

  5. Parent-of-origin Effect in Schizophrenia and Non-affective Psychoses: Evidence from Dermatoglyphics

    PubMed Central

    Divakaran, Anjith; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C.; Kalmadi, Sunil V.; Narayan, Vidya; Rao, Naren P.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aims at examining “parent-of-origin effect” (POE) in dermatoglyphic patterns among patients with schizophrenia and non-affective psychoses. Materials and Methods: Dermatoglyphic comparison was carried out for schizophrenia patients (n=200) and healthy controls (HC) (n=100). In addition, the effect of family history and POE was examined in the dermatoglyphic pattern. Results: Schizophrenia patients compared to HC had significantly lower left total finger ridge count (LTFRC) (t=3.63, P<0.001), right total finger ridge count (RTFRC) (t=4.86, P<0.001), and absolute finger ridge count (ATFRC) (t=4.80, P<0.001) compared to HC. It was also noted that patient group had significantly higher average number of arches (t=2.20, P=0.03). The comparison between the same sex POE group and the opposite sex POE group revealed that significant differences exist in LTFRC (t=2.91, P<0.01) and ATFRC (t=2.30, P=0.02). The same sex group also had lesser number of whorls compared to opposite sex group (t=2.04, P=0.04). Conclusions: The same sex parental inheritance group seem to be more developmentally compromised than the opposite sex parental inheritance group indicating a significant POE. Complex epigenetic mechanisms along with hormonal modulation could explain the sex specific disease phenotype expression, which is a plausible explanation as in the present study. PMID:24249928

  6. Parent Information Nights: An Elementary School Principal's Search to Increase Parent Input and Affect the Learning-at-Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Although the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires schools to create initiatives to increase parental involvement, the development, implementation, and effectiveness of these initiatives are left to the individual schools and their leadership teams. This qualitative study focused on a program designed to increase parental involvement and…

  7. The roles of adolescent attentional bias and parental invalidation of sadness in significant illness: a comparison between eating disorders and chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Scalise, Abby; Connell, Arin

    2014-08-01

    Biopsychosocial conceptualizations of eating disorders (EDs) suggest the combination of an individual's emotional vulnerability and invalidating environment increases the likelihood of developing pervasive emotion dysregulation, and subsequent use of ED behaviors to regulate emotion (Haynos & Fruzetti, 2011; Safer, Telch, & Chen, 2009). The current study aimed to provide initial support for this model in adolescent EDs, through examining the interaction between an adolescent's emotional vulnerability, indexed by attentional biases for emotions, and an invalidating family environment. Specifically, we examined the ability of this interaction to discriminate youth with EDs from a comparison group of youth with chronic pain diagnoses, who were used to control for the presence of non-specific effects of having any illness. Fifty adolescent girls (25 with EDs and 25 with chronic pain) completed an emotional dot-probe task assessing attentional biases for emotional faces, and parents completed the Emotions as a Child Scale (Magai, 1996; Klimes-Dougan et al., 2007) to assess response to teen emotion. Results showed that teen angry attentional bias moderated the relationship between parental response to sadness and teen ED status: for teens with high attention bias towards angry faces, maladaptive parental response to sadness predicted increased odds of ED status versus chronic pain status. PMID:25064305

  8. Effects of parent-child affective quality during high school years on subsequent substance use

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Linda S.; Spoth, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The literature indicates that the quality of affective relationships between youth and parents is associated with lower levels of a range of problem behaviors during childhood, early and late adolescence. While the protective effect of parental monitoring on substance use in the high school and post high school years has been demonstrated, there is a knowledge gap concerning effects of parent-child affective quality (PCAQ) during the same periods. We tested a conceptual theoretical model to examine the effects of PCAQ on substance use following high school. The sample was from a RCT that assessed adolescents in rural Iowa from the seventh grade through two years after high school (N=456). We specified direct effects of PCAQ in 12th grade on drunkenness, smoking and illicit drug use during the two years immediately following high school graduation. We also specified the effects of early substance use initiation (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use reported at baseline) on later use. The direct effect of PCAQ in 12th grade on substance use was significant for all substances during at least one of the two years past graduation (ypg). Results were: drunkenness 1 ypg, β=−.126, p<.05; smoking 1 ypg, β=−.119, p<.05; 2 ypg, β=−.146, p<.05; illicit drug use 2 ypg, β=−.165, p<.05. Some significant indirect effects of PCAQ at baseline, via PCAQ at 12th grade, were found. Results also indicated significant direct effects of early initiation on two of the three substances, albeit with a different pattern of effects over time for each substance by years post high school. Importantly, while early initiation remains the strongest predictor of long-term tobacco and illicit drug use, results show how PCAQ might reduce its harmful effects. PMID:24634896

  9. Parental environmental exposure leads to glycometabolic disturbances that affect fertilization of eggs in the silkworm Bombyx mori: the parental transcript legacy.

    PubMed

    Tao, H; Liu, H J; Cheng, Y Q; Sima, Y H; Yin, W M; Xu, S Q

    2015-01-01

    Parental transcript legacy plays an important role in fertilization and development of the early embryo. Parental environmental exposure affects the fertilization of eggs, but the underlying biochemical mechanism is largely unresolved. In this study, the parental environmental effects on fertilization of eggs were explored in the silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori), an ideal lepidopteran animal model. The results showed that the rate of fertilization decreased after the parents were exposed to a poor environment at 32 °C with continuous illumination for 72 h on days 6-9 of the pupal stage, which is a key period for germ cell maturation. This was likely attributable to lower energy charge values, obstructed nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) regeneration and inactive tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), leading to accumulation of large amounts of pyruvic acid and lactic acid. This effect was related to energy metabolism via glycolysis; in particular disruption of pyruvate metabolism. In conclusion, this study showed parental exposure to an abnormal environment during germ cell maturation affected glycolysis and the subsequent fertilization of eggs via the parental transcript legacy in B. mori. PMID:25240789

  10. Psychosocial burden of sickle cell disease on parents with an affected child in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Mba, Caryl Zameyo; Mbanya, Dora; Ngogang, Jeanne; Ramesar, Raj; Angwafo, Fru F

    2014-04-01

    The chronicity of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) could impair the quality of life of caregivers. We performed a quantitative study to assess various indices of psychosocial burden on Cameroonian parents (N = 130) with at least one living SCD-affected child. Demographic and medical information were obtained from the participants and the review of the patients' medical records. The survey instrument included a 38-item stress factors scale using Likert-type statements, evaluating general perceptions of stress and five main specific stressors: disease factors (clinical severity), hospital factors, financial factors, family factors (life/dynamic) and SCD-child factors (perceived quality of life). The items pertaining to burden involved four response options with increasing severity: 0, 1, 2 or 3. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used for analysis. Participants were typically aged 38 years, urban dwellers (89%), female (80%), married (60.2%), employed (61.7%) and had secondary/tertiary education (82%). Median age of SCD-affected children was 9 years. The median age at diagnosis of SCD was 6 months; 47.8% had more than 3 painful crises per year. The majority of participants (88.3%) experienced moderate to severe difficulty coping with SCD. On a 0-3 scale, median score of SCD clinical severity was the major factor to undermine the coping ability of parents (2.2); vaso-occlusive painful events (>3 per year) was the disease-related stressor that most impacted their coping ability. The family life dynamic was the least stressful (0.7). Unemployment affected all the stressors' categories. Stressors scores also increased with female, single, low education level, age of SCD-affected children or more than 3 children in the family. In Cameroon, there is an urgent need to implement practices that ensure affordable access to health-care and activities that would reduce SCD morbidity. PMID:23881472

  11. Treating the Cause of Illness Rather than the Symptoms: Parental Causal Beliefs and Treatment Choices in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardennes, Roland M.; Al Anbar, Nebal N.; Prado-Netto, Arthur; Kaye, Kelley; Contejean, Yves; Al Anbar, Nesreen N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the relationship between causal beliefs on autism (CBA) and treatment choices. Design and methods: A cross-sectional design was employed. Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were asked to complete the Lay-Beliefs about Autism Questionnaire (LBA-Q) and answer questions about treatments used. Only items…

  12. Parenting asthmatic children: identification of parenting challenges.

    PubMed

    Morawska, Alina; Stelzer, Jennifer; Burgess, Scott

    2008-08-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood, affecting up to 14% of children. Poor asthma management and non-adherence to treatment regimens are a pervasive problem in this population and are related to exacerbation of symptoms. Effective management of pediatric asthma involves a complex set of interactions between the parent and child, yet there is a paucity of literature examining these interactions. The main purpose of this study was to identify the child behavior and asthma management tasks parents experience difficulty with. It was hypothesized that the more asthma behavior problems reported, the more problems parents experience in asthma management tasks. Participants in this study were 255 parents of 2-to 10-year-old asthmatic children, recruited via an advertisement placed in school newsletters throughout Australia. Results indicated that the most problematic child asthma behaviors were oppositional behavior, hyperactivity, and aggression, and anxiety was also identified by parents as a concern. The main problematic asthma parenting tasks were entrusting the school, entrusting caregivers, identifying unique symptoms, and identifying and avoiding triggers. More problem asthma behaviors were associated with higher levels of parenting difficulty and more general levels of behavior problems. Parents who reported more dysfunctional parenting styles reported more difficulties with their child's asthma behavior. Based on the results it is suggested that an appropriate parenting intervention program would target basic behavioral management skills, in addition to applying these behavior management principles to asthma management. PMID:18612898

  13. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziff, Barry, Ed.; Hostettler, Karen, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The newsletter of the California Association for the Gifted includes the following brief articles on parenting: "Your Challenge, Their Lives" (Barry Ziff); "Courage to Be Who I Am, Unafraid" (Elizabeth Meckstroth); "Attribution: A Key to Encouraging More Responsible Behavior in the Gifted" (Saundra Sparling); "A Parent's Perspective" (Carolyn…

  14. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markun, Patricia Maloney, Ed.

    This document contains 11 articles which are concerned with the education and development of people who are, or will be, parents. The term "parenting" is used to emphasize the need to help fathers and mothers to deal effectively with their own children. Also, the term reflects the growing awareness that child rearing is the function of many…

  15. The Impact of Organizational Factors and Government Policy on Psychiatric Nurses' Family-Focused Practice With Parents Who Have Mental Illness, Their Dependent Children, and Families in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Grant, Anne; Reupert, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Government policy and organizational factors influence family-focused practice (FFP) in adult mental health services. However, how these aspects shape psychiatric nurses' practice with parents who have mental illness, their dependent children, and families is less well understood. Drawing on the findings of a qualitative study, this article explores the way in which Irish policy and organizational factors might influence psychiatric nurses' FFP, and whether (and how) FFP might be further promoted. A purposive sample of 14 psychiatric nurses from eight mental health services completed semi-structured interviews. The analysis was inductive and presented as thematic networks. Both groups described how policies and organizational culture enabled and/or hindered FFP, with differences between community and acute participants seen. This study indicates a need for policies and organizational supports, including child and family skills training, to promote a whole family approach in adult mental health services. PMID:27090512

  16. Self- Versus Parent-Ratings of Industriousness, Affect, and Life Satisfaction in Relation to Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; Davies, Janet E.; MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents consult with schools on how to help their children succeed, but schools rarely consult with parents, even though most parents have considerable expertise concerning their children's thoughts, feelings, and abilities. Aims: This study compares the prediction of academic achievement from self- and parent-ratings of feelings…

  17. A Call for Policy Action in Sub-Saharan Africa to Rethink Diagnostics for Pregnancy Affected by Sickle Cell Disease: Differential Views of Medical Doctors, Parents and Adult Patients Predict Value Conflicts in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Samia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a debilitating illness that affects the life expectancy of patients. It is possible to test for SCD before birth, to allow for reproductive options to parents. However, under Cameroonian Law, voluntary abortion is a criminal offense and medical abortion is permitted only “…if it is done by an authorized professional and justified by the need to save the mother from grave health jeopardy.” The objective of the present study was to compare the views of Cameroonian doctors, parents with at least one living SCD-affected child, and adult SCD patients, regarding prenatal genetic diagnosis and termination of SCD-affected pregnancy. We conducted a quantitative sociological survey of 110 doctors, 130 parents, and 89 adult patients. The majority accepted the prenatal genetic diagnosis for SCD (78.7%, 89.8%, and 89.2%, respectively). Parents (62.5%) were more in favor of termination of SCD-affected pregnancy, than doctors and adults patients (36.1% and 40.9% acceptance, respectively). Parents and patients who found medical abortion acceptable cited fear to have a SCD-affected child (98.1 and 88.9%) and the poor quality of the affected child's health (92.6% and 81.5%). The data underscore the urgency of policy action to place emphasis on: premarital screening, early detection and care of SCD, socio-economic measures to assist SCD-affected families, appropriateness to consider maternal distress due to fetal anomalies in medical abortion legislation. These novel findings signal potential value-based conflicts on the horizon, and can usefully inform the future policy actions in the African continent as OMICS biotechnologies are increasingly employed in global health. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt in sub-Saharan Africa to attempt to triangulate the views of multiple stakeholders towards prenatal diagnosis of SCD and termination of an affected pregnancy. PMID:24754796

  18. A Psychometric Analysis of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children-Parent Version in a School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebesutani, Chad; Okamura, Kelsie; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was the 1st to examine the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children-Parent Version (PANAS-C-P) using a large school-based sample of children and adolescents ages 8 to 18 (N = 606). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor (correlated) model of positive affect (PA) and negative…

  19. How attendance and quality of participation affect treatment response to parent management training.

    PubMed

    Nix, Robert L; Bierman, Karen L; McMahon, Robert J

    2009-06-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group leader ratings. Parent outcomes were based on interviewer ratings, behavioral observations, parent reports, and teacher ratings. Results of hierarchical linear models suggested that few family characteristics predicted attendance in this efficacy trial and that attendance was not related to changes in parenting over the year. However, several family characteristics predicted quality of participation in parent management training, and this in turn predicted changes in parental perceptions, warmth, physical punishment, and school involvement. From a clinical perspective, these findings suggest that it is not enough to get parents to attend sessions; it is also necessary to facilitate their active engagement in the therapeutic process. PMID:19485585

  20. Standards of practice for the adult mental health workforce: meeting the needs of families where a parent has a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Goodyear, Melinda; Hill, Terri-Lee; Allchin, Becca; McCormick, Francis; Hine, Rochelle; Cuff, Rose; O'Hanlon, Brendan

    2015-04-01

    This article outlines the development of practice standards for the adult mental health workforce for addressing the needs of families where a parent has a mental illness (FaPMI). The practice standards recommended here were formulated using a modified cooperative inquiry process with a group of senior clinical leaders in adult mental health services in Australia, following consultation with the available literature and policy documents. The aim of the project was to generate, align, and operationalize family-inclusive practice standards within the core activities of the adult mental health workforce and integrate into the continuum of care and recovery for service users who are parents of dependent children. As part of a modified Delphi method, the standards were also ranked by the senior clinical leaders to determine what they believe to be essential and recommended practices for the adult mental health workforce they manage. We argue that developing practice standards that provide practical and realistic expectations of the adult mental health service workforce enable services and workers to better adapt practice to respond to FaPMI. PMID:25619407

  1. Infant Affect and Affect Regulation during the Still-Face Paradigm with Mothers and Fathers: The Role of Infant Characteristics and Parental Sensitivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braungart-Rieker, Julia; Garwood, Molly Murphy; Powers, Bruce P.; Notaro, Paul C.

    1998-01-01

    Examined parents' and 4-month-old infants' behavior during face-to-face interactions. Results indicated that mothers and fathers were equally sensitive to their infants, and that infants' affect and regulatory behaviors were stable across mother-infant and father-infant situations in the still-face model. (BC)

  2. When Parents' Affection Depends on Child's Achievement: Parental Conditional Positive Regard, Self-Aggrandizement, Shame and Coping in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and…

  3. Prompting Students' Context-Generating Cognitive Activity in Ill-Structured Domains: Does the Prompting Mode Affect Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Pantelis M.; Demetriadis, Stavros N.; Stamelos, Ioannis G.; Tsoukalas, Ioannis A.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the impact of question prompts that guide students to focus on context-related issues when learning through cases in an ill-structured domain. Three groups of undergraduate students studied cases during a lab-session time period using a web-based environment. The first group studied without any question…

  4. Opinions of Teachers and Parents Concerning Contemporary Issues Affecting Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry E.; Reddick, Thomas L.

    A random selection of 700 parents and teachers representing rural central Tennessee schools was surveyed in order to make their opinions available to policy makers. Usable responses were returned by 196 parents and 224 teachers. Parents opposed increasing public school funds through a lottery; teachers approved. Both groups believed that prayer…

  5. Identifying Aspects of Parental Involvement that Affect the Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulette-McIntyre, Ovella; Bagaka's, Joshua G.; Drake, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    This study identified parental practices that relate positively to high school students' academic performance. Parents of 643 high school students participated in the study. Data analysis, using a multiple linear regression model, shows parent-school connection, student gender, and race are significant predictors of student academic performance.…

  6. How Attendance and Quality of Participation Affect Treatment Response to Parent Management Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Robert L.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group…

  7. Testing Whether and when Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents' alcohol-related consequences on adolescents' substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents' own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent's…

  8. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Catherine M.; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (Mage = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  9. [How do Affected Children and Adolescents Experience their Short Stature, and what is the Point of View of their Parents?].

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sommer, Rachel; Petzold, Sophie; Bullinger-Naber, Monika

    2014-01-01

    How do Affected Children and Adolescents Experience their Short Stature, and what is the Point of View of their Parents? Despite a large number of publications on the psychosocial situation of short statured children and their parents only a few qualitative studies focus on the perspective of the affected families. Within the European QoLISSY study ("Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth") an instrument to assess the health related quality of life of short statured children was developed. The aim of this project was to examine the self-perceived quality of life of the children themselves in comparison to their parents' perspective. During the development of the QoLISSY instrument, focus groups were conducted as a first step of this study. A total of 23 short statured children and 31 parents participated and discussed their experiences in separate groups with trained moderators. The discussions were analyzed qualitatively und results were used to generate a first list of items for the questionnaire to be developed. While parents focused on socio-emotional problems, children talked much more about their growth hormone treatment and problems in their social environment. In comparison to other studies children rated their quality of life worse than their parents. Not only medical treatment but also a psychological and socio-emotional intervention seems to be indicated. PMID:25524035

  10. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  11. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spock, Benjamin; And Others

    Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946 first edition. Eda…

  12. Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Lisa; Mueller, Andrea

    This guide contains 15 learning activities that can be used in parenting classes, especially for adults with limited literacy skills. Activities include quotations for discussion and suggestions for conducting group discussions and writing lessons. The following activities are included: interpreting quotations about raising children; positive…

  13. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nystrand, M.; Dowling, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring. PMID:25253454

  14. High-Altitude Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... altitude illness: Acute mountain sickness High-altitude pulmonary edema (also called HAPE), which affects the lungs High-altitude cerebral edema (also called HACE), which affects the brain These ...

  15. Multiculturalism, chronic illness, and disability.

    PubMed

    Groce, N E; Zola, I K

    1993-05-01

    To gain at least an initial understanding of the underlying beliefs and attitudes in a cross-cultural situation, we believe that the three key points discussed in this paper should prove a significant point of departure: 1. Traditional beliefs about the cause of chronic illness or disability will play a significant role in determining family and community attitudes toward individuals with a disability and will influence when, how, and why medical input is sought. 2. The expectation of survival on the part of parents and community will have an effect on the amount of time, energy, and cooperation shown by family and community for the individual who has an impairment. 3. The expectations by family and community for the social role(s) and individual with a chronic illness or disability will hold will affect a broad range of issues, including education, social integration, and independence. Furthermore, although chronic illness and disability are often considered as issues distinct from the full range of problems encountered in society for immigrant and minority groups, in fact, these issues could not be more closely tied. The frequently discussed concerns within the ethnic and minority community about the role of the family, integration and acculturation, social articulation with the greater American society, stress, cross-cultural misunderstanding, and outright prejudice can all compound the problems encountered for the chronically ill or disabled individual in a multicultural society. PMID:8479830

  16. Personality Predispositions to Depression in Children of Affectively-Ill Parents: The Buffering Role of Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abela, John R. Z.; Fishman, Michael B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Young, Jami F.

    2012-01-01

    A major theory of personality predispositions to depression posits that individuals who possess high levels of self-criticism and/or dependency are vulnerable to developing depression following negative life events. The goal of the current study was to test this theory of personality predispositions and the self-esteem buffering hypothesis in a…

  17. Parent-Child Engagement in Decision Making and the Development of Adolescent Affective Decision Capacity and Binge Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Palmer, Paula H.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate how parents’ engagement of their child in everyday decision-making influenced their adolescent’s development on two neuropsychological functions, namely, affective decision-making and working memory, and its effect on adolescent binge-drinking behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 192 Chinese adolescents. In 10th grade, the adolescents were tested for their affective decision-making ability using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Questionnaires were used to assess perceived parent-child engagement in decision-making, academic performance and drinking behavior. At one-year follow-up, the same neuropsychological tasks and questionnaires were repeated. Results indicate that working memory and academic performance were uninfluenced by parent-child engagement in decision-making. However, compared to adolescents whose parents made solitary decisions for them, adolescents engaged in everyday decision-making showed significant improvement on affective decision capacity and significantly less binge-drinking one year later. These findings suggest that parental engagement of children in everyday decision-making might foster the development of neurocognitive functioning relative to affective decision-making and reduce adolescent substance use behaviors. PMID:21804682

  18. Family Routines and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors among Early and Middle Adolescents Affected by Maternal HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Payne, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of parenting skills on adolescent outcomes among children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS (N = 118, M age = 13) was investigated. Among families with more frequent family routines, over time adolescents showed lower rates of aggression, anxiety, worry, depression, conduct disorder, binge drinking, and increased self-concept. Among…

  19. Homicidal parents.

    PubMed

    Bourget, D; Bradford, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes a series of 13 cases of parents who have killed their children. A review of the literature suggests that child murder is infrequent and committed in most instances by the parents. Most attention has been directed to the universal phenomenon of child abuse. The killing of a child in our culture is viewed much more seriously than the killing of a newborn infant, legally defined as infanticide. Only a few authors have reported on the former, and their studies tend to demonstrate that a higher proportion of these crimes are perpetrated by mothers. Homicidal behaviour in parents may also be associated with common forms of psychiatric disorders and may manifest as the extended suicide phenomenon (homicide reported with major depressive illness). Attributes of both parents and the children are also significant factors to be considered. In a retrospective study the relevant demographic and clinical data of a series of 13 cases are reviewed. The diagnostic classification using DSM-III-R is discussed in detail. A higher incidence of maternal perpetrators was found and is consistent with previous studies. Exposure to a variety of psychosocial stresses appears to have been a major factor. Similarly the suicidal history and behaviour of the subjects is significant. Affective disorder appears to be an important diagnostic category. Finally, the role of psychiatric and other social agencies is considered in relation to the murder of children. A better understanding of this phenomenon is indicated in order to help us deal with families at risk. PMID:2340456

  20. Factors Affecting Parent-Child Relationships One Year After Positive Newborn Screening for Cystic Fibrosis or Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Brown, Roger L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Examine factors that mediate parent-infant relationships 12 months after positive newborn screening (NBS). Method We examined effects of infant diagnosis, parents’ perceptions of child vulnerability and child attachment, parental depression and anxiety on parent-infant feeding interactions for 131 mothers and 118 fathers of 131 infants whose NBS and diagnostics confirmed cystic fibrosis (CF, n=23), congenital hypothyroidism (CH, n=35), CF carrier status (CF-C, n=38), or healthy, normal NBS (H, n=35). Results Separate composite indicator structural equation models for mothers and fathers showed neonatal diagnosis was not associated with increased anxiety or depression. In comparison to the H group, CF group parents reported higher perceptions of child vulnerability (p< 0.001, p=0.002); and CF-C group fathers viewed their children as more attached (p=0.021). High maternal perception of child vulnerability was associated with low perceptions of child attachment (p=0.001) which was associated with task-oriented feeding behavior (p=0.016, p=0.029). Parental task-oriented feeding behavior was associated with less positive (p< 0.001, p< 0.001) and more negative interactions (p< 0.001, p= 0.001) with their infants. High paternal perception of child vulnerability was associated with negative parent interactions (p< 0.001). High parental affective involvement and verbalization was associated with high infant affective expressiveness, communicative skills, and social responsiveness (mothers’ p< 0.001, fathers’ p< 0.001). High parental negative affect and/or inconsistent and intrusive behavior was associated with infant dysregulation and irritability (mothers’ p< 0.001, fathers’ p< 0.001). Conclusion The severity of conditions identified through NBS can affect parents’ perceptions of their child’s vulnerability and attachment. Infant feeding problems in the context of chronic health conditions, like CF, could represent signs of more deeply rooted

  1. AFFECT OF PARENTAL REJECTION ON NEGATIVE ATTENTION-SEEKING CLASS ROOM BEHAVIORS

    PubMed Central

    Peretti, Peter O.; Clark, Denise; Johnson, Pat

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Of concern to teachers are students displaying classroom behaviors which are disruptive in attaining pupil success in learning and teacher success in teaching. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors. It was also conducted to find out what particular parent might be more rejecting toward the respondents, and, what specific negative attention-seeking behaviors might be overtly demonstrated in the classroom by sex of subject. Results indicated a significant influence of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors, the father as a more rejecting parent, and differences in observed behaviors by sex of subject. PMID:21847284

  2. Child Psychopathic Traits Moderate Relationships between Parental Affect and Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Michelle T.; Chen, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies show that children with psychopathic traits may be less responsive to parenting. Although harsh/inconsistent parenting is associated with increased problem behaviors in children low on psychopathic traits, children high on psychopathic traits show consistently high levels of problem behavior regardless of negative…

  3. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  4. Factors Affecting Parental Decision-Making Regarding Interventions for Their Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Elizabeth Baltus

    2014-01-01

    Due to the numerous interventions available for children with autism, parents are faced with challenging decisions regarding treatments from the time of diagnosis and throughout their child's life. This exploratory qualitative study investigated the reasons behind parents' decisions about interventions for their child with autism.…

  5. Sociometric Status Differences in Affect Sequences in Preschool Children's Play with Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, James L.; Parke, Ross D.

    This study examined the interchange of emotional cues during interactions between parents and their popular or rejected children. Participants were 28 4- and 5-year-old preschool children and their parents. Children were selected as popular or unpopular using a sociometric nomination procedure conducted in their preschool or day care classroom.…

  6. Does the Availability of Parental Health Insurance Affect the College Enrollment Decision of Young Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Juergen; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Rhoads, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether the college enrollment decision of young individuals (student full-time, student part-time, and non-student) depends on health insurance coverage via a parent's family health plan. Our findings indicate that the availability of parental health insurance can have significant effects on the probability that a young…

  7. Restrictive and Supportive Parenting: Effects on Children's School Affect and Emotional Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annear, Karen D.; Yates, Gregory C. R.

    2010-01-01

    In this project upper primary school students were surveyed about their general liking for school, and reasons for going to school. Their parents were asked to respond on a questionnaire indicating their restrictiveness and also support for their child's autonomy. Data were collected from 92 middle SES two-parent families and analysed using…

  8. Parent Expectations for Adolescent Transitions: What They Are and How They Affect Their Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Christy L.; And Others

    Two samples of parents and one of teachers were interviewed to determine (1) what parents of early adolescents believe about adolescence as a developmental period and what they expect for their own adolescents' development; (2) junior high school teachers' beliefs about adolescent development; (3) evidence for the effects of personal experience…

  9. Does food insecurity affect parental characteristics and child behavior? Testing mediation effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Oshima, Karen M Matta; Kim, Youngmi

    2010-01-01

    Using two waves of data from the Child Development Supplement in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study investigates whether parental characteristics (parenting stress, parental warmth, psychological distress, and parent's self-esteem) mediate household food insecurity's relations with child behavior problems. Fixed-effects analyses examine data from a low-income sample of 416 children from 249 households. This study finds that parenting stress mediates the effects of food insecurity on child behavior problems. However, two robustness tests produce different results from those of the fixed-effects models. This inconsistency suggests that household food insecurity's relations to the two types of child behavior problems need to be investigated further with a different methodology and other measures. PMID:20873019

  10. Does a Physician’s Attitude toward a Patient with Mental Illness Affect Clinical Management of Diabetes? Results from a Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Lisa C; Litman, Heather J; Borba, Christina PC; Vincenzi, Brenda; Henderson, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether physician’s attitudes toward patients with comorbid mental illness affect management of a chronic disease. Data Source A total of 256 primary care physicians interviewed in 2010. Study Design This randomized factorial experiment entailed physicians observing video vignettes of patient-actors with poorly controlled diabetes. Patients were balanced across age, gender, race, and comorbidity (schizophrenia with bizarre or normal affect, depression, eczema). Data Collection Physicians completed structured and semistructured interviews plus chart notes about clinical management and attitudes. Principal Findings Physicians reported more negative attitudes for patients with schizophrenia with bizarre affect (SBA). There were few differences in clinical decisions measured quantitatively or in charting, but qualitative data revealed less trust of patients with SBA as reporters, with more reliance on sources other than engaging the patient in care. Physicians often alerted colleagues about SBA, thereby shaping expectations before interactions occurred. Conclusions Results are consistent with common stereotypes about people with serious mental illness. Vignettes did not include intentional indication of unreliable reporting or danger. Reducing health care disparities requires attention to subtle aspects of managing patients—particularly those with atypical affect—as seemingly slight differences could engender disparate patient experiences over time. PMID:25487069

  11. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Serious Illness When Your Child's in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Caring for Siblings of Seriously Ill Children Preparing Your Child for Surgery Managing Home Health Care Marriage Advice for Parents of Children ...

  12. Internalizing behavior in adolescent girls affects parental emotional overinvolvement: a cross-lagged twin study.

    PubMed

    Moberg, Therese; Lichtenstein, Paul; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direction and the etiology of the association between different parenting styles (parental emotional overinvolvement [EOI] and parental criticism) and internalizing behavior from adolescence to early adulthood. A longitudinal genetically informative cross-lagged design was applied to a population-based sample of Swedish twins contacted at age 16-17 (n = 2369) and at age 19-20 (n = 1705). Sex-limitation modelling revealed different effects for boys and girls. For girls, genetic influences on internalizing problems at age 16-17 independently explained 2.7% of the heritability in parental EOI at age 19-20. These results suggest that emotionally overinvolved and self-sacrificing parental behavior stems in part from daughters (but not sons) genetic predisposition for internalizing behavior. These findings highlight the importance of genetically influenced child-driven effects underlying the parenting-internalizing association, and clarify that the role of such effects may differ depending on sex, type of parenting and developmental period. PMID:20680431

  13. Testing Whether and When Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents’ alcohol-related consequences on adolescents’ substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents’ own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent’s alcohol-related consequences differentially predicts the adolescent’s own substance involvement. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether adolescents showed elevated rates of alcohol, heavy alcohol, marijuana and other illegal drug use (a) at the same time that parents showed alcohol-related consequences (time-varying effects), (b) if parents showed greater alcohol-related consequences during the child’s adolescence (proximal effects), and (c) if parents had a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism that predated the child’s adolescence (distal effects). We tested these effects in a high-risk sample of 451 adolescents assessed over three waves beginning at ages 11–15 from 1988 to 1991 (53 % male, 71 % non-Hispanic Caucasian, 54 % children of alcoholic parents and 46 % matched controls). Strong and consistent distal effects of parent alcoholism on adolescent’s substance use were found, though no additional risk was associated with proximal effects. Limited time-varying effects were also found. The importance of differentiating the timing effects of parent alcoholism in identifying underlying mechanisms of risk for adolescent substance use is discussed. PMID:22886384

  14. Gastrointestinal Illness among Triathletes Swimming in Non-Polluted versus Polluted Seawater Affected by Heavy Rainfall, Denmark, 2010-2011

    PubMed Central

    Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Kuhn, Katrin Gaardbo; Erichsen, Anders Christian; Mølbak, Kåre; Ethelberg, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the frequency of extreme rainfall and subsequent flooding across the world. Climate change models predict that such flooding will become more common, triggering sewer overflows, potentially with increased risks to human health. In August 2010, a triathlon sports competition was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, shortly after an extreme rainfall. The authors took advantage of this event to investigate disease risks in two comparable cohorts of physically fit, long distance swimmers competing in the sea next to a large urban area. An established model of bacterial concentration in the water was used to examine the level of pollution in a spatio-temporal manner. Symptoms and exposures among athletes were examined with a questionnaire using a retrospective cohort design and the questionnaire investigation was repeated after a triathlon competition held in non-polluted seawater in 2011. Diagnostic information was collected from microbiological laboratories. The results showed that the 3.8 kilometer open water swimming competition coincided with the peak of post-flooding bacterial contamination in 2010, with average concentrations of 1.5x104 E. coli per 100 ml water. The attack rate of disease among 838 swimmers in 2010 was 42% compared to 8% among 931 swimmers in the 2011 competition (relative risk (RR) 5.0; 95% CI: 4.0-6.39). In 2010, illness was associated with having unintentionally swallowed contaminated water (RR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.8-3.4); and the risk increased with the number of mouthfuls of water swallowed. Confirmed aetiologies of infection included Campylobacter, Giardia lamblia and diarrhoeagenic E. coli. The study demonstrated a considerable risk of illness from water intake when swimming in contaminated seawater in 2010, and a small but measureable risk from non-polluted water in 2011. This suggests a significant risk of disease in people ingesting small amounts of flood water following extreme rainfall in urban areas. PMID

  15. A brief intervention may affect parents' attitudes toward using less physical punishment.

    PubMed

    Scholer, Seth J; Hamilton, Emma C; Johnson, Melissa C; Scott, Theresa A

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-six parents in a preschool and pediatric clinic participated in a randomized study of a brief parenting intervention. The Attitudes Toward Spanking (ATS) scale was measured at baseline, and, on average, 4 months postintervention. Higher ATS scores are correlated with increased use of physical punishment. In the intervention group, there was a 2.7-point decrease in the ATS score at follow-up compared with baseline (P = 0.01). There was no decrease in the ATS in the control group. Brief interventions may shift parental attitudes toward using less physical punishment and have implications for improving anticipatory guidance within primary care and early education. PMID:20216353

  16. Differences and similarities in the trajectories of self-esteem and positive and negative affect in persons with chronic illness: an explorative longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139) or COPD (n=97) participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. Results Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points. Conclusion An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed for persons with morbid obesity, but not for persons with COPD. Initial higher levels of self-esteem in the participants with COPD may indicate that they are less troubled with low self-esteem than people with morbid obesity are. The pattern of reduced negative affect for both groups during follow-up is promising. PMID:27574438

  17. Parents' Readiness to Change Affects BMI Reduction Outcomes in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jakubowski, Karen P.; Black, Jessica J.; El Nokali, Nermeen E.; Belendiuk, Katherine A.; Hannon, Tamara S.; Arslanian, Silva A.; Rofey, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence supports the importance of parental involvement for youth's ability to manage weight. This study utilized the stages of change (SOC) model to assess readiness to change weight control behaviors as well as the predictive value of SOC in determining BMI outcomes in forty adolescent-parent dyads (mean adolescent age = 15 ± 1.84 (13–20), BMI = 37 ± 8.60; 70% white) participating in a weight management intervention for adolescent females with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Adolescents and parents completed a questionnaire assessing their SOC for the following four weight control domains: increasing dietary portion control, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, decreasing dietary fat, and increasing usual physical activity. Linear regression analyses indicated that adolescent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was not predictive of adolescent change in BMI from baseline to treatment completion. However, parent change in total SOC from baseline to treatment completion was predictive of adolescent change in BMI, (t(24) = 2.15, p = 0.043). Findings support future research which carefully assesses adolescent and parent SOC and potentially develops interventions targeting adolescent and parental readiness to adopt healthy lifestyle goals. PMID:22970350

  18. Alloparenting experience affects future parental behavior and reproductive success in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Stone, Anita Iyengar; Mathieu, Denise; Griffin, Luana; Bales, Karen Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the function of alloparental behavior in cooperatively breeding species. We examined whether alloparental experience as juveniles enhanced later parental care and reproductive success in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a cooperatively breeding rodent. Juveniles cared for one litter of siblings (1EX), two litters of siblings (2EX) or no siblings (0EX). As adults, these individuals were mated to other 0EX, 1EX or 2EX voles, yielding seven different pair combinations, and we recorded measures of parental behaviors, reproductive success, and pup development. As juveniles, individuals caring for siblings for the first time were more alloparental; and as adults, 0EX females paired with 0EX males spent more time in the nest with their pups. Taken together, these results suggest that inexperienced animals spend more time in infant care. As parents, 1EX males spent more time licking their pups than 2EX and 0EX males. Pups with either a 1EX or 2EX parent gained weight faster than pups with 0EX parents during certain developmental periods. While inexperienced animals may spend more time in pup care, long-term benefits of alloparenting may become apparent in the display of certain, particularly important parental behaviors such as licking pups, and in faster weight gain of offspring. PMID:19732810

  19. How Do You Feel? Self-esteem Predicts Affect, Stress, Social Interaction, and Symptom Severity during Daily Life in Patients with Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    JUTH, VANESSA; SMYTH, JOSHUA M.; SANTUZZI, ALECIA M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-esteem has been demonstrated to predict health and well-being in a number of samples and domains using retrospective reports, but little is known about the effect of self-esteem in daily life. A community sample with asthma (n = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) completed a self-esteem measure and collected Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data 5x/day for one week using a palmtop computer. Low self-esteem predicted more negative affect, less positive affect, greater stress severity, and greater symptom severity in daily life. Naturalistic exploration of mechanisms relating self-esteem to physiological and/or psychological components in illness may clarify causal relationships and inform theoretical models of self-care, well-being, and disease management. PMID:18809639

  20. Does parental consent for birth control affect underage pregnancy rates? The case of Texas.

    PubMed

    Girma, Sourafel; Paton, David

    2013-12-01

    Previous work based on conjectural responses of minors predicted that the 2003 Texas requirement for parental consent for state-funded birth control to minors would lead to a large increase in underage pregnancies. We use state- and county-level data to test this prediction. The latter allow us to compare the impact of parental consent in counties with and without state-funded family planning clinics. We control for characteristics systematically correlated with the presence of state-funded clinics by combining difference-in-difference estimation with propensity score-weighted regressions. The evidence suggests that the parental consent mandate led to a large decrease in attendance at family planning clinics among teens but did not lead to an increase in underage pregnancies. PMID:23765262

  1. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  2. Neurophysiological processing of emotion and parenting interact to predict inhibited behavior: an affective-motivational framework

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, Ellen M.; Huselid, Rebecca F.; DeCicco, Jennifer M.; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2013-01-01

    Although inhibited behavior problems are prevalent in childhood, relatively little is known about the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predict a child's ability to regulate inhibited behavior during fear- and anxiety-provoking tasks. Inhibited behavior may be linked to both disruptions in avoidance-related processing of aversive stimuli and in approach-related processing of appetitive stimuli, but previous findings are contradictory and rarely integrate consideration of the socialization context. The current exploratory study used a novel combination of neurophysiological and observation-based methods to examine whether a neurophysiological measure sensitive to approach- and avoidance-oriented emotional processing, the late positive potential (LPP), interacted with observed approach- (promotion) and avoidance- (prevention) oriented parenting practices to predict children's observed inhibited behavior. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old (N = 32) typically-developing children (M = 75.72 months, SD = 6.01). Electroencephalography was continuously recorded while children viewed aversive, appetitive, or neutral images, and the LPP was generated to each picture type separately. Promotion and prevention parenting were observed during an emotional challenge with the child. Child inhibited behavior was observed during a fear and a social evaluation task. As predicted, larger LPPs to aversive images predicted more inhibited behavior during both tasks, but only when parents demonstrated low promotion. In contrast, larger LPPs to appetitive images predicted less inhibited behavior during the social evaluative task, but only when parents demonstrated high promotion; children of high promotion parents showing smaller LPPs to appetitive images showed the greatest inhibition. Parent-child goodness-of-fit and the LPP as a neural biomarker for emotional processes related to inhibited behavior are discussed. PMID:23847499

  3. Neurophysiological processing of emotion and parenting interact to predict inhibited behavior: an affective-motivational framework.

    PubMed

    Kessel, Ellen M; Huselid, Rebecca F; Decicco, Jennifer M; Dennis, Tracy A

    2013-01-01

    Although inhibited behavior problems are prevalent in childhood, relatively little is known about the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predict a child's ability to regulate inhibited behavior during fear- and anxiety-provoking tasks. Inhibited behavior may be linked to both disruptions in avoidance-related processing of aversive stimuli and in approach-related processing of appetitive stimuli, but previous findings are contradictory and rarely integrate consideration of the socialization context. The current exploratory study used a novel combination of neurophysiological and observation-based methods to examine whether a neurophysiological measure sensitive to approach- and avoidance-oriented emotional processing, the late positive potential (LPP), interacted with observed approach- (promotion) and avoidance- (prevention) oriented parenting practices to predict children's observed inhibited behavior. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old (N = 32) typically-developing children (M = 75.72 months, SD = 6.01). Electroencephalography was continuously recorded while children viewed aversive, appetitive, or neutral images, and the LPP was generated to each picture type separately. Promotion and prevention parenting were observed during an emotional challenge with the child. Child inhibited behavior was observed during a fear and a social evaluation task. As predicted, larger LPPs to aversive images predicted more inhibited behavior during both tasks, but only when parents demonstrated low promotion. In contrast, larger LPPs to appetitive images predicted less inhibited behavior during the social evaluative task, but only when parents demonstrated high promotion; children of high promotion parents showing smaller LPPs to appetitive images showed the greatest inhibition. Parent-child goodness-of-fit and the LPP as a neural biomarker for emotional processes related to inhibited behavior are discussed. PMID:23847499

  4. Decompression illness.

    PubMed

    Vann, Richard D; Butler, Frank K; Mitchell, Simon J; Moon, Richard E

    2011-01-01

    Decompression illness is caused by intravascular or extravascular bubbles that are formed as a result of reduction in environmental pressure (decompression). The term covers both arterial gas embolism, in which alveolar gas or venous gas emboli (via cardiac shunts or via pulmonary vessels) are introduced into the arterial circulation, and decompression sickness, which is caused by in-situ bubble formation from dissolved inert gas. Both syndromes can occur in divers, compressed air workers, aviators, and astronauts, but arterial gas embolism also arises from iatrogenic causes unrelated to decompression. Risk of decompression illness is affected by immersion, exercise, and heat or cold. Manifestations range from itching and minor pain to neurological symptoms, cardiac collapse, and death. First-aid treatment is 100% oxygen and definitive treatment is recompression to increased pressure, breathing 100% oxygen. Adjunctive treatment, including fluid administration and prophylaxis against venous thromboembolism in paralysed patients, is also recommended. Treatment is, in most cases, effective although residual deficits can remain in serious cases, even after several recompressions. PMID:21215883

  5. Overview of Constitutional Developments Affecting Individual and Parental Liberty Interests in Elementary and Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, William D.

    In the midst of a trend toward uniformity of education, parents, teachers, community groups, and government groups are struggling for control over what that education shall be. Regarding problems concerning religious and ethical education, the courts' interpretations of the establishment clause ultimately conflict with interpretations of the free…

  6. The Affective Structure of Supportive Parenting: Depressive Symptoms, Immediate Emotions, and Child-Oriented Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Theodore; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Meunier, Leah N.; Miller, Pamela C.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the maternal concerns and emotions that may regulate one form of sensitive parenting, support for children's immediate desires or intentions. While reviewing a videotape of interactions with their 1-year-olds, mothers who varied on depressive symptoms reported concerns and emotions they had during the interaction. Emotions…

  7. Parents as a Resource: Communication Quality Affects the Relationship between Adolescents' Internet Use and Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Markus; Holtz, Peter; Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of parent-adolescent communication quality, as perceived by the adolescents, on the link between adolescents' Internet use and loneliness, controlling for perceived family support in general terms. Adolescents (N = 216, M[subscript age] = 15.80 years) provided data on Internet use, loneliness, Internet-related…

  8. Children's Perceptions of Parental Attitude Affecting Breakfast Skipping in Primary Sixth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tereza Sy; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Griffiths, Sian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Breakfast skipping is an international public health concern. This study investigated the prevalence of breakfast skipping among primary sixth-grade students in Hong Kong and the impact of students' perceptions of parental attitudes on breakfast skipping. Methods: A total of 426 students aged 10-14 years in 4 local schools participated…

  9. Violence on Television: How Teachers Can Help Parents Affect Positive Change. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVey, Mary D.

    1999-01-01

    Reports that exposure to televised violence results in increased aggressive attitudes and behaviors, desensitization toward real violence, and unrealistic fears of victimization. Maintains that teachers can effect change by being knowledgeable about the impact of television, communicating to parents ways in which negative effects can be reduced,…

  10. Issues Affecting the Efficacy of Programs for Children with Incarcerated Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merenstein, Beth; Tyson, Ben; Tilles, Brad; Keays, Aileen; Rufffolo, Lyndsay

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that intervening in the lives of children with an incarcerated parent to preserve and strengthen positive family connections can yield constructive societal benefits in the form of reduced recidivism, less intergenerational criminal justice system involvement and the promotion of healthy child development (Christian, 2009). Since…

  11. The Real Power of Parental Reading Aloud: Exploring the Affective and Attentional Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Kit

    2012-01-01

    Reading with an adult plays an important role in developing children's oral language skills, phonological awareness and print knowledge. Parental reading aloud is also an indicator of children's later academic success, which suggests that the practice may be further linked to children's development of broader academic skills and behaviour, such as…

  12. Parents' Perceptions of Curricular Issues Affecting Children's Weight in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnan, Judy; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Boardley, Debra

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Ohio parents' perceptions of the role of elementary schools in preventing childhood overweight. In the United States, overweight is the most widespread health threat facing children and adolescents. Schools may be a useful point of intervention in addressing the escalating prevalence of childhood overweight…

  13. The Development of Louis MACRO (Mother and Child Risk Observation) Forms: Assessing Parent-Infant-Child Risk in the Presence of Maternal Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Andrea; And Others

    1997-01-01

    An Australian study of 110 mother-infant dyads and 85 mother-toddler dyads in which the mothers were mentally ill evaluated the effectiveness of the Mother and Child Risk Observation (MACRO). Results found that MACRO offers a convenient framework for assessing risk and interpreting the impact of maternal mental illness upon children. (Author/CR)

  14. Parent-of-origin genetic background affects the transcriptional levels of circadian and neuronal plasticity genes following sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Tinarelli, Federico; Garcia-Garcia, Celina; Nicassio, Francesco; Tucci, Valter

    2014-01-01

    Sleep homoeostasis refers to a process in which the propensity to sleep increases as wakefulness progresses and decreases as sleep progresses. Sleep is tightly organized around the circadian clock and is regulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The homoeostatic response of sleep, which is classically triggered by sleep deprivation, is generally measured as a rebound effect of electrophysiological measures, for example delta sleep. However, more recently, gene expression changes following sleep loss have been investigated as biomarkers of sleep homoeostasis. The genetic background of an individual may affect this sleep-dependent gene expression phenotype. In this study, we investigated whether parental genetic background differentially modulates the expression of genes following sleep loss. We tested the progeny of reciprocal crosses of AKR/J and DBA/2J mouse strains and we show a parent-of-origin effect on the expression of circadian, sleep and neuronal plasticity genes following sleep deprivation. Thus, we further explored, by in silico, specific functions or upstream mechanisms of regulation and we observed that several upstream mechanisms involving signalling pathways (i.e. DICER1, PKA), growth factors (CSF3 and BDNF) and transcriptional regulators (EGR2 and ELK4) may be differentially modulated by parental effects. This is the first report showing that a behavioural manipulation (e.g. sleep deprivation) in adult animals triggers specific gene expression responses according to parent-of-origin genomic mechanisms. Our study suggests that the same mechanism may be extended to other behavioural domains and that the investigation of gene expression following experimental manipulations should take seriously into account parent-of-origin effects. PMID:24446504

  15. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Bonde, Jens Peter; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-06-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were collected in order to establish the levels of marker organohalogen compounds. We selected, as the representative of these compounds, the most persistent metabolite of DDT, i.e. p,p'-DDE, the most frequently detected PCB congener - CB-153, and PFOS and PFOA as the representatives of PFASs. The results show that in case of all compounds under study the highest concentrations were present always in men in relation to the levels detected in the blood serum of their female partners, regardless of the country of origin of the couple. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of the studied compounds in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and Poland, while for PFOA - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds. PMID:25836759

  16. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children's story recall

    PubMed Central

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Beyer, Alisa M.; Curtis, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers' memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot and Semb, 2008). In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children's story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to “read or tell the story” as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after 1 week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore, in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers' story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children's processing of the illustrations. PMID:25101018

  17. Do Beliefs of Inner-City Parents About Disease and Vaccine Risks Affect Immunization?

    PubMed Central

    Trauth, Jeanette M.; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Musa, Donald; Mainzer, Hugh; Nutini, Jean F.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to understand how low income, inner-city parents of preschool children think about childhood diseases and prevention and the impact that this has on late receipt of vaccines. Methods. Parents of all children born between 1/1/91 and 5/31/95, whose child received medical assistance and their health care at one of four inner-city, primary care clinics in Pittsburgh, PA., completed a telephone interview and gave consent for a vaccine record review. The main outcome measures were lateness for first and third diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccines (DTP) and not receiving at least 4 DTP, 3 polio virus containing and 1 measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) doses by 19 months. Results. 483 parents participated. Fifteen percent of children were late for the first DTP, 52% for the third DTP and, 40% had not received at least 4 DTP, 3 polio and 1 MMR by 19 months of age. Statistically significant factors associated with lateness at 19 months included: having three or more children, having two children, beliefs regarding the severity of immunization side effects and, being African American. Conclusions. The results of this study indicate that a combination of life circumstances as well as cognitive factors were associated with late immunization.

  18. Health and Illness in a Connected World: How Might Sharing Experiences on the Internet Affect People's Health?

    PubMed Central

    Ziebland, Sue; Wyke, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Context The use of the Internet for peer-to-peer connection has been one of its most dramatic and transformational features. Yet this is a new field with no agreement on a theoretical and methodological basis. The scientific base underpinning this activity needs strengthening, especially given the explosion of web resources that feature experiences posted by patients themselves. This review informs a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (UK) research program on the impact of online patients’ accounts of their experiences with health and health care, which includes the development and validation of a new e-health impact questionnaire. Methods We drew on realist review methods to conduct a conceptual review of literature in the social and health sciences. We developed a matrix to summarize the results, which we then distilled from a wide and diverse reading of the literature. We continued reading until we reached data saturation and then further refined the results after testing them with expert colleagues and a public user panel. Findings We identified seven domains through which online patients’ experiences could affect health. Each has the potential for positive and negative impacts. Five of the identified domains (finding information, feeling supported, maintaining relationships with others, affecting behavior, and experiencing health services) are relatively well rehearsed, while two (learning to tell the story and visualizing disease) are less acknowledged but important features of online resources. Conclusions The value of first-person accounts, the appeal and memorability of stories, and the need to make contact with peers all strongly suggest that reading and hearing others’ accounts of their own experiences of health and illnesss will remain a key feature of e-health. The act of participating in the creation of health information (e.g., through blogging and contributing to social networking on health topics) also influences patients

  19. A Developmental Analysis of the Factorial Validity of the Parent-Report Version of the Adult Responses to Children’s Symptoms in Children Versus Adolescents With Chronic Pain or Pain-Related Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Melanie; Palermo, Tonya M.; Essner, Bonnie; Zhou, Chuan; Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Sherman, Amanda L.; Walker, Lynn S.

    2015-01-01

    The widely used Adult Responses to Children’s Symptoms measures parental responses to child symptom complaints among youth aged 7 to 18 years with recurrent/chronic pain. Given developmental differences between children and adolescents and the impact of developmental stage on parenting, the factorial validity of the parent-report version of the Adult Responses to Children’s Symptoms with a pain-specific stem was examined separately in 743 parents of 281 children (7–11 years) and 462 adolescents (12–18 years) with chronic pain or pain-related chronic illness. Factor structures of the Adult Responses to Children’s Symptoms beyond the original 3-factor model were also examined. Exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation was conducted on a randomly chosen half of the sample of children and adolescents as well as the 2 groups combined to assess underlying factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the other randomly chosen half of the sample to cross-validate factor structure revealed by exploratory factor analyses and compare it to other model variants. Poor loading and high cross loading items were removed. A 4-factor model (Protect, Minimize, Monitor, and Distract) for children and the combined (child and adolescent) sample and a 5-factor model (Protect, Minimize, Monitor, Distract, and Solicitousness) for adolescents was superior to the 3-factor model proposed in previous literature. Future research should examine the validity of derived subscales and developmental differences in their relationships with parent and child functioning. PMID:25451623

  20. Filicide: Mental Illness in Those Who Kill Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sandra M.; Shaw, Jenny J.; Abel, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. Method All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997–2006) were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. Results 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66%) perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27%) and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%), most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. Conclusion In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research. PMID:23593128

  1. Learning from the ground up: responding to children affected by parental incarceration.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Susan D; O'Brien, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in the fall of 2007, Illinois' Division of Mental Health began piloting an early intervention program targeting children of incarcerated parents. The pilot program was situated within a community-based agency on the Westside of Chicago with a high number of currently and formerly incarcerated community members. This article describes the program theory upon which the pilot program was based, the perceived benefits from the perspective of participants and the service provider agency, lessons learned, and recommendations for making incarceration-sensitive interventions a routine part of children's mental health services. PMID:22239377

  2. Children's view of a major depression affecting a parent in the family.

    PubMed

    Hedman Ahlström, Britt; Skärsäter, Ingela; Danielson, Ella

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate, from the children's perspective, the meaning for family life of a parent suffering a major depression disorder. Eight children and young adults were interviewed. Phenomenological-hermeneutic analysis generated two themes: (1) "Being a rescuing observer" with the subthemes, "Being attentive" and "Being considerate," and (2) "Being a frustrated observer" with the subthemes, "feeling discomfort" and "being out of it." Children's lives alternate between responsibility and loneliness as they wait for reciprocity in family life to return to normal. Children need support in order to manage their sense of responsibility and loneliness adequately. PMID:21859406

  3. The Aftermath of Childhood Suicide: Influences on the Perception of the Parent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Lawrence G.; And Others

    Many factors affect the way in which others view the parents of a child who has committed suicide. A study of adult responses to newspaper accounts of a child's death revealed the parents were viewed more negatively when the child's death was due to suicide than when the child's death was a result of illness. In addition, the presence of…

  4. [Parental attitude and adjustment to childhood epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Ju, S H; Chang, P F; Chen, Y J; Huang, C C; Tsai, J J

    1990-01-01

    Parental attitude and adjustment were examined in 20 epileptic children (ages 6.8-16.6 yrs), using semi-structured interview. The results indicated that parental understandings of epilepsy were generally poor and incorrect. Fifteen (75%) of 20 parents had their own interpretations of causality and 19 (95%) had unrealistic hope for early and complete cure. Parents tended to overprotect and overrestrict their children. Sixteen (80%) concealed the illness for fear of social prejudice, therefore the social support systems were generally poorly utilized. As in other chronic diseases, all parents went through feelings of shock, denial, anger, guilt, fear, anxiety and depression. Family relationships were not affected much, however, poor communications were commonly found between parents and children. Thirteen (65%) parents never talked to their children about epilepsy. We concluded that parents of epileptic children showed negative attitudes toward their children and had difficulties in their psychosocial adjustment probably related to social stigmata and misunderstanding of the illness. Therefore, communication between physician and parents in both medical and psychosocial aspects should be encouraged. PMID:2275364

  5. Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior and parenting in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, J.; Cluver, L.; Boyes, M.; Kuo, C.; Casale, M.

    2014-01-01

    Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than non-affected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child wellbeing. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and non-affected caregiver-child dyads (n = 2,477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27.7% AIDS-ill caregivers; 7.4% child AIDS-orphanhood). Multiple mediation analyses tested an ecological model with poverty, caregiver depression, perceived social support, and child behavior problems as potential mediators of the association of HIV/AIDS with positive parenting. Results indicate that familial HIV/AIDS’s association to reduced positive parenting was consistent with mediation by poverty, caregiver depression and child behavior problems. Parenting interventions that situate positive parenting within a wider ecological framework by improving child behavior problems and caregiver depression may buffer against risks for poor child mental and physical health outcomes in families affected by HIV/AIDS and poverty. PMID:23930647

  6. Familiarity with and affective responses to foods in 8-11-year-old children. The role of food neophobia and parental education.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Sari; Oerlemans, Patty; Tuorila, Hely

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated whether the familiarity with and affective responses to foods are predicted by the individual trait food neophobia and by parental education in school children. The cross-sectional data collection involved children (N=208, 8- and 11-year-old) from Helsinki, and their parents. A questionnaire assessing children's food neophobia with Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), and familiarity with and affective responses to 36 foods was completed by parents. Children with low FNS were familiar with a larger number of foods than those with high FNS. High FNS was associated with low pleasantness assessment of most food groups, including cheese, fruit/vegetables, fish, starch/cereals, and ethnic/exotic. Children of well educated parents had tasted a larger number of foods, thus displaying lower behavioral neophobia, and had lower FNS scores than children of less educated parents. Both low FNS scores and high parental education predicted the number of tasted foods. Parental education was not associated with pleasantness ratings (exception: cheese). To conclude, high food neophobia lowers the pleasantness ratings of foods, and parental education moderates behavioral neophobia. PMID:22326884

  7. Affect and Maternal Parenting as Predictors of Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li; Chen, Xinyin; Chen, Huichang; Cui, Liying; Li, Miao

    2006-01-01

    Emotional control has traditionally been emphasized in Chinese culture. The primary purpose of the study was to examine the relevance of early affect to social functioning in Chinese children. A sample of children, initially at two years of age, and their mothers in the People's Republic of China participated in this two-year longitudinal study.…

  8. Comorbid LD and ADHD in Childhood: Socioemotional and Behavioural Adjustment and Parents' Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how vulnerability and protective factors at the individual level (child's disabilities; patterns of attachment), and at the family level (fathers'/mothers' affect), help explain differences in socioemotional and behavioural adjustment among children aged 8-12 years with comorbid learning disability (LD) and attention…

  9. Differential susceptibility in youth: evidence that 5-HTTLPR x positive parenting is associated with positive affect ‘for better and worse'

    PubMed Central

    Hankin, B L; Nederhof, E; Oppenheimer, C W; Jenness, J; Young, J F; Abela, J R Z; Smolen, A; Ormel, J; Oldehinkel, A J

    2011-01-01

    Positive affect has been implicated in the phenomenological experience of various psychiatric disorders, vulnerability to develop psychopathology and overall socio-emotional functioning. However, developmental influences that may contribute to positive affect have been understudied. Here, we studied youths' 5-HTTLPR genotype and rearing environment (degree of positive and supportive parenting) to investigate the differential susceptibility hypothesis (DSH) that youth carrying short alleles of 5-HTTLPR would be more influenced and responsive to supportive and unsupportive parenting, and would exhibit higher and lower positive affect, respectively. Three independent studies tested this gene–environment interaction (GxE) in children and adolescents (age range 9–15 years; total N=1874). In study 1 (N=307; 54% girls), positive/supportive parenting was assessed via parent report, in study 2 (N=197; 58% girls) via coded observations of parent–child interactions in the laboratory and in study 3 (N=1370; 53% girls) via self report. Results from all the three studies showed that youth homozygous for the functional short allele of 5-HTTLPR were more responsive to parenting as environmental context in a ‘for better and worse' manner. Specifically, the genetically susceptible youth (that is, S'S' group) who experienced unsupportive, non-positive parenting exhibited low levels of positive affect, whereas higher levels of positive affect were reported by genetically susceptible youth under supportive and positive parenting conditions. These GxE findings are consistent with the DSH and may inform etiological models and interventions in developmental psychopathology focused on positive emotion, parenting and genetic susceptibility. PMID:22833190

  10. Older Parent – Child Relationships in Six Developed Nations: Comparisons at the Intersection of Affection and Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Merril; Gans, Daphna; Lowenstein, Ariela; Giarrusso, Roseann; Bengtson, Vern L.

    2014-01-01

    Intergenerational solidarity and ambivalence paradigms suggest that emotional relationships between generations consist of both positive and negative sentiments. We applied latent class analysis to measures of affection and conflict in 2,698 older parent – child relationships in 6 developed nations: England, Germany, Israel, Norway, Spain, and the United States (Southern California). The best fitting model consisted of 4 latent classes distributed differently across nations but with a cross-nationally invariant measurement structure. After controlling for demographics, health, coresidence, contact, and support, the following classes were overrepresented in corresponding nations: amicable (England), detached (Germany and Spain), disharmonious (United States), ambivalent (Israel). We discuss policy and cultural differences across societies that may explain why the prevalence of particular emotional types varied by nation. PMID:26203197

  11. Mothers' Attributions Regarding the Behavior of Chronically Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.

    Parents of chronically ill children are faced with the difficult task of being vigilant and yet not overprotective of their children. The literature suggests that parents hold a positive bias toward their ill children. Attribution theory gives a framework in which to study parents' ideas about their children's behavior. A study was conducted to…

  12. Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Child Health and Illness Profile (CHIP) Child-Edition, Parent Report Form (CHIP-CE/PRF)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to assess the reliability, and the content, construct, and convergent validity of the Spanish version of the CHIP-CE/PRF, to analyze parent-child agreement, and compare the results with those of the original U.S. version. Methods Parents from a representative sample of children aged 6-12 years were selected from 9 primary schools in Barcelona. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a convenience subsample of parents from 2 schools. Parents completed the Spanish version of the CHIP-CE/PRF. The Achenbach Child Behavioural Checklist (CBCL) was administered to a convenience subsample. Results The overall response rate was 67% (n = 871). There was no floor effect. A ceiling effect was found in 4 subdomains. Reliability was acceptable at the domain level (internal consistency = 0.68-0.86; test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.69-0.85). Younger girls had better scores on Satisfaction and Achievement than older girls. Comfort domain score was lower (worse) in children with a probable mental health problem, with high effect size (ES = 1.45). The level of parent-child agreement was low (0.22-0.37). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the parent version of the Spanish CHIP-CE has acceptable psychometric properties although further research is needed to check reliability at sub-domain level. The CHIP-CE parent report form provides a comprehensive, psychometrically sound measure of health for Spanish children 6 to 12 years old. It can be a complementary perspective to the self-reported measure or an alternative when the child is unable to complete the questionnaire. In general, the results are similar to the original U.S. version. PMID:20678198

  13. Parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (296 double orphans and 459 single orphans), 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. The trusting relationship with current caregivers was measured with a 15-item scale (Cronbach's α = 0.84) modified from the Trusting Relationship Questionnaire developed by Mustillo et al. in 2005 (Quality of relationships between youth and community service providers: Reliability and validity of the trusting relationship questionnaire. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 577-590). The psychosocial measures include rule compliance/acting out, anxiety/withdrawal, peer social skills, school interest, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future. Group mean comparisons using analysis of variance suggested a significant association (p < 0.0001) between the trusting relationship with current caregivers and all the psychosocial measures, except anxiety and depression. These associations remained significant in General Linear Model analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, family socioeconomic status, orphan status (orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children), and appropriate interaction terms among factor variables. The findings in the current study support the global literature on the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial development. Future prevention intervention efforts to improve AIDS orphans' psychosocial well-being will need to take into consideration the quality of the child's attachment relationships with current caregivers and help their current caregivers to improve the quality of care for

  14. Parental Loss, Trusting Relationship with Current Caregivers and Psychosocial Adjustment among Children Affected by AIDS in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    Objective to examine the relationship between parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (296 double orphans and 459 single orphans), 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. The trusting relationship with current caregivers was measured with a 15-item scale (Cronbach alpha=.84) modified from the Trusting Relationship Questionnaire (TRQ) developed by Mustillo and colleagues (2005). The psychosocial measures include rule compliance/acting out, anxiety/withdrawal, peer social skills, school interest, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future. Results Group mean comparisons using ANOVA suggested a significant association (p<.0001) between the trusting relationship with current caregivers and all the psychosocial measures except anxiety and depression. These associations remained significant in General Linear Model analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, family SES, orphan status (orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children), and appropriate interaction terms among factor variables. Discussion The findings in the current study support the global literature on the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial development. Future prevention intervention efforts to improve AIDS orphans' psychosocial well-being will need to take into consideration the quality of the child's attachment relationships with current caregivers and help their current caregivers to improve the quality of care for these children. Future study is needed to explore the possible reasons for the lack of association between a trusting relationship and some internalizing symptoms such as anxiety and depression among children affected by HIV

  15. Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... people in the U.S. get sick from contaminated food. Common culprits include bacteria, parasites and viruses. Symptoms ... are the most common cause of foodborne illness. Foods may have some bacteria on them when you ...

  16. Heat Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... high humidity, sweating just isn't enough. Your body temperature can rise to dangerous levels and you can ... include Heatstroke - a life-threatening illness in which body temperature may rise above 106° F in minutes; symptoms ...

  17. Foodborne Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some parasites and chemicals also cause foodborne illnesses. Bacteria Bacteria are tiny organisms that can cause infections of the GI tract. Not all bacteria are harmful to humans. Some harmful bacteria may ...

  18. Heat Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... humidity, sweating just isn't enough. Your body temperature can rise to dangerous levels and you can ... Heatstroke - a life-threatening illness in which body temperature may rise above 106° F in minutes; symptoms ...

  19. Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior, and parenting in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Jamie M; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Kuo, Caroline; Casale, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than nonaffected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child well-being. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and nonaffected caregiver-child dyads (n=2477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27.7% AIDS-ill caregivers; 7.4% child AIDS-orphanhood). Multiple mediation analyses tested an ecological model with poverty, caregiver depression, perceived social support, and child behavior problems as potential mediators of the association of HIV/AIDS with positive parenting. Results indicate that familial HIV/AIDS's association to reduced positive parenting was consistent with mediation by poverty, caregiver depression, and child behavior problems. Parenting interventions that situate positive parenting within a wider ecological framework by improving child behavior problems and caregiver depression may buffer against risks for poor child mental and physical health outcomes in families affected by HIV/AIDS and poverty. PMID:23930647

  20. The Role of Social Support in Negative and Positive Affect of Parents of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arm, Jennifer R.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research on parents of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) people is significantly dated and has tended to focus on the experiences of parents as they learn they have a GLB child. This study sought to update and extend the research literature on parents of GLB people, by exploring associations between stress, social support, GLB related social…

  1. An analogue investigation of the relationships among perceived parental criticism, negative affect, and borderline personality disorder features: the role of thought suppression.

    PubMed

    Cheavens, Jennifer S; Zachary Rosenthal, M; Daughters, Stacey B; Nowak, Jennifer; Kosson, David; Lynch, Thomas R; Lejuez, C W

    2005-02-01

    The current study examined the relationships among biological predisposition, social environment, emotion regulation, and features characteristic of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). Using an analogue sample, we examined whether thought suppression mediated the relationship of negative affective intensity/reactivity and perceived parental criticism with a composite of BPD features including impulsivity, interpersonal sensitivity, and aggression. Results indicated that thought suppression fully mediated the relationship between negative affect intensity/reactivity and BPD features and partially mediated the relationship between BPD features and perceived parental criticism. Clinical implications, directions for further research, and limitations of the present study are discussed. PMID:15629754

  2. Jovenes con Discapacidades y Enfermedades Cronicas: Una Guia Introductoria para Joyenes y Padres. Revisiones de CYDLINE (Youth with Disabilities and Chronic Illnesses: An Introductory Guide for Youth and Parents. CYDLINE Reviews). Parents. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This bibliography covers a wide range of issues related to the needs of adolescents and young adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities and their families. For each item in the bibliography, information provided includes author, title, source, date, and abstract. Price information is given when available. Materials include books, audiotapes,…

  3. Authoritarian parenting and youth depression: Results from a national study.

    PubMed

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent illness affecting youth across the nation. The study purpose was to examine depression and authoritarian parenting among youth from 12 to 17 years of age. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed in the present study. All participants in the present study were youth (N = 17,399) nationwide. The results revealed that 80.6% of youth participants reported having five or more depressive symptoms. Parenting styles based on depression significantly differed among males, females, 12-13-year-olds, 14-15-year-olds, and 16-17-year-olds. Specifically, those who reported experiencing authoritarian parenting practices were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts who experienced authoritative parenting practices. Emphasizing the role of the parents and teaching positive parenting practices and authoritative parenting styles may increase success of prevention programs. PMID:26939843

  4. Children of mentally ill parents—a pilot study of a group intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. Method: This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Results: Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. Discussion: This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26539129

  5. Do Parental Attributions Affect Treatment Outcome in a Parenting Program? An Exploration of the Effects of Parental Attributions in an RCT of Stepping Stones Triple P for the ASD Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Koa; Sofronoff, Kate; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted in conjunction with a randomised controlled trial of the parenting program Stepping Stones Triple P for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Fifty-nine families with a child with ASD participated. This study focussed upon the role of parental attributions in predicting treatment outcome. Stepping…

  6. Responding to Students' Chronic Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.; Glaser, Sarah E.; Stern, Melissa; Sferdenschi, Corina; McCabe, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic illnesses are long-term or permanent medical conditions that have recurring effects on everyday life. Large and growing number of students have chronic illnesses that affect their emotional development, physical development, academic performance, and family interactions. The primary error in educating those students is assuming that the…

  7. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    PubMed

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals. PMID:26444362

  8. "My Greatest Joy and My Greatest Heart Ache:" Parents' Own Words on How Having a Child in the Autism Spectrum Has Affected Their Lives and Their Families' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Barbara J.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    Parents of children in the autism spectrum wrote an open-ended answer via an online questionnaire to the question, "How has your child in the autism spectrum affected your life and your family's life?" (N = 493). Using a qualitative content analysis, 15 negative themes and 9 positive themes were identified. Themes are subsumed into five clusters:…

  9. The Nuclear Family: Correspondence in Cognitive and Affective Reactions to the Threat of Nuclear War among Older Adolescents and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    In order to assess the relationship between family members' cognitive and affective responses to nuclear war issues, 317 college students and their parents independently completed a multifaceted questionnaire that included items concerning personal reactions, predictions, opinions, and attitudes about nuclear war. (Author/LMO)

  10. "A remarkable experience of god, shaping us as a family": parents' use of faith following child's rare disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Hillary N; Whisenhunt, Allison; Cheng, Joy; Dimitriou, Sophia; Young, Lisa R; Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    A child's chronic illness can lead parents to utilize different types of coping, including religious beliefs and practices. Previous studies have generally focused on life-shortening diagnoses. The present study explored parental use of faith when the diagnosis was not life-shortening, using grounded-theory qualitative methodology. Data were collected using semi-structured telephone interviews with N = 12 parents of children diagnosed with Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI); approximately 50% of the diagnosed population in the United States at the time of the interview. Participants used faith to cope and make meaning in five ways: parents believed NEHI happened for a reason; beliefs provided resilience; parents were sustained by faith communities; beliefs affected parents' behavior; and beliefs developed over time. The results suggest that chaplains develop means for universal screening for spiritual struggle; educating congregational clergy how to support families in which a child has a chronic illness; and assisting parents construct meaning of their experience. PMID:25569780

  11. Exploring Personality Features in Patients with Affective Disorders and History of Suicide Attempts: A Comparative Study with Their Parents and Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fresán, Ana; Sarmiento, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are important candidate predictors of suicidal behavior. Several studies have reported an association between personality/temperament traits and suicidal behavior, suggesting personality traits as intermediary phenotypes related to suicidal behavior. Thus, it is possible that suicide attempts can be accounted for by increased familial rates of risk personality traits. The aim of this work was to evaluate personality traits in affective disorder patients with attempted suicide and to compare them with the personality trait scores of their parents. In addition, ITC scores in the two groups were compared with a healthy control sample. The patients evaluated met the DSM-IV criteria for major depression disorder or dysthymia and had a documented history of suicide attempts. Psychiatric diagnoses of patients and parents were done according to the SCID-I and the personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. We analyzed 49 suicide attempt subjects and their parents (n = 95) and 89 control subjects. We observed that temperament and character dimensions were similar between patients and their parents (P > 0.05). In particular, we observed that high HA and low P, SD, and CO were shared among families. Our study is the first to report that the personality traits of affective disorder patients with a history of attempted suicide are shared between patients and their parents. PMID:24724019

  12. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  13. Understanding of Affective False Beliefs, Perceptions of Parental Discipline, and Classroom Behavior in Children from Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes-Lonergan, Heather A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined preschoolers' performance on false belief tasks and perceptions of parental discipline. Found that children performed better on questions about their own false beliefs than on questions about others' false beliefs. Overall, children performed below average on false belief measures; and children expected parents in hypothetical scenarios…

  14. Loving your child to death: Considerations of the care of chronically ill children and euthanasia in Emil Sher’s Mourning Dove

    PubMed Central

    Mukhida, Karim

    2007-01-01

    How do parents cope when their child is ill or dying, and when he or she is experiencing constant pain or suffering? What do parents think of the contributions that medical professionals make to the care of their chronically or terminally ill child? Is it possible for a parent to love a child so much that they wish their child to be dead? The purpose of the present paper is to explore these questions and aspects of the care of chronically or terminally ill children using Mourning Dove’s portrayal of one family’s attempt to care for their ill daughter. Mourning Dove, a play written by Canadian playwright Emil Sher, was inspired by the case of Saskatchewan wheat farmer Robert Latimer who killed his 12-year-old daughter, Tracy, who suffered with cerebral palsy and had begun to experience tremendous pain. Rather than focusing on the medical or legal aspects of the care of a chronically ill child, the play offers a glimpse into how a family copes with the care of such a child and the effect the child’s illness has on the family. The reading and examination of nonmedical literature, such as Mourning Dove, serves as a useful means for medical professionals to better understand how illness affects and is responded to by patients and their families. This understanding is a prerequisite for them to be able to provide complete care of children with chronic or terminal illnesses and their families. PMID:19043501

  15. Care taker blogs in caregiver fabricated illness in a child: a window on the caretaker's thinking?

    PubMed

    Brown, Ana N; Gonzalez, Gioia R; Wiester, Rebecca T; Kelley, Maureen C; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2014-03-01

    Three recently diagnosed cases of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child at Seattle Children's Hospital shed light on a new manifestation of their caretakers' attention seeking. The patients' mothers were actively blogging about their children's reputed illnesses. Although it is not uncommon for parents of chronically ill children to blog about their child's medical course, specific themes in these blogs of parents suspected of medically abusing their children were noted. In particular, gross distortions of the information parents had received from medical providers were presented online, describing an escalation of the severity of their children's illnesses. The mothers reported contacting palliative care teams and Wish organizations, independently from their medical providers' recommendations. They sought on-line donations for their children's health needs. We believe these blogs provide additional direct evidence of the suspected caregivers' fabrications. Although we have not performed formal content analysis, blogs might also provide insight into the caretakers' motivations. Protective Services and/or police investigators could consider querying the internet for blogs related to children at risk for caregiver-fabricated illness in a child. These blogs, if viewed in parallel with the children's medical records, could assist medical diagnosis and legal documentation of medical fabrication and assist in protective planning for the affected children. PMID:24393290

  16. Pre-conception to parenting: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature on motherhood for women with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Clare; Jones, Ian; Howard, Louise M

    2013-06-01

    The majority of women with a severe mental illness (SMI) become pregnant and have children. The aim of this systematic review and meta-synthesis was to examine the qualitative research on the experiences of motherhood in women with SMI from preconception decision making to being a mother. The experiences of the health professionals treating women with SMI were also reviewed. Eleven databases were searched for papers published up to April 25, 2012, using keywords and mesh headings. A total of 23 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria on the views of women with SMI, eight reported the views of health professionals including one which reported both. The meta-synthesis of the 23 studies on women's views produced two overarching themes Experiences of Motherhood and Experiences of Services. Sub-themes included the following: Guilt, Coping with Dual Identities, Stigma, and Centrality of Motherhood. Four themes emerged from the synthesis of the eight papers reporting the views of health professionals: Discomfort, Stigma, Need for education, and Integration of services. An understanding of the experiences of pregnancy and motherhood for women with SMI can inform service development and provision to ensure the needs of women and their families are met. PMID:23525788

  17. Family affection as a protective factor against the negative effects of perceived Asian values gap on the parent-child relationship for Asian American male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong S; Vo, Leyna P; Tsong, Yuying

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether family affection (i.e., affective responsiveness, affectionate communication, and affective orientation) protected against the negative effects of perceived parent-child Asian values gap on the quality of their parent relationships for 259 female and 77 male Asian American college students. Asian values gap was higher for women than men, and inversely related to a perceived healthy parent-child relationship for both genders. Participants rated the relationship with their mothers as more positive and affectionate than with their fathers. Both parents were reported to communicate more supportive affection than verbal and nonverbal affection. Affective responsiveness was identified as a protective factor in the father-son relationship whereas verbal affection protected the mother-daughter relationship. The study also revealed that daughters' affective orientation had beneficial effects on the father-daughter relationship at lower levels of Asian values gap. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19209977

  18. Biallelic mutations in huntington disease: A new case with just one affected parent, review of the literature and terminology.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Wendy R; Peñaherrera, Maria S; Robinson, Wendy P; Milunsky, Jeff M; Nicholson, Jane M; Albin, Roger L

    2015-05-01

    Patients with biallelic mutations for Huntington disease (HD) are rare. We present a 46-year-old female with two expanded Huntingtin (HTT) alleles with just one known affected parent. This is the first reported patient with molecular studies performed to exclude HTT uniparental disomy (UPD). The proband had biparental inheritance of HTT alleles (42/44 CAG repeats). Given the negative UPD results, the proband's unaffected mother either had a reduced penetrance allele that expanded into the full mutation range during transmission to our patient or an unknown full HTT mutation and died before symptom onset, unlikely given no family history of HD and asymptomatic at age 59. We made the novel observation in our literature review that most patients with biallelic HD did not have two full HTT mutations. Most had one HTT allele that was in the intermediate or reduced penetrance ranges or 40 CAG repeats, the lowest limit of the full mutation range. Although the number of patients is small, when an allele in these size ranges was present, generally the age of HD onset was in the 50s. If the second HTT allele had >45 repeats, then onset was typically 20s-30s. While similar ages of onset have been reported for patients with one or two HTT mutations, patients with biallelic mutations may have later onset if an expanded HTT allele has ≤40 CAG repeats. Finally, we propose that "biallelic mutations" or "compound heterozygosity" are more accurate descriptive terms than "homozygosity" when there are two non-identical expanded HTT alleles. PMID:25736541

  19. Face shape of unaffected parents with cleft affected offspring: combining three-dimensional surface imaging and geometric morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, SM; Naidoo, SD; Bardi, KM; Brandon, CA; Neiswanger, K; Resick, JM; Martin, RA; Marazita, ML

    2009-01-01

    Objective Various lines of evidence suggest that face shape may be a predisposing factor for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P). In the present study, 3D surface imaging and statistical shape analysis were used to evaluate face shape differences between the unaffected (non-cleft) parents of individuals with CL/P and unrelated controls. Methods Sixteen facial landmarks were collected from 3D captures of 80 unaffected parents and 80 matched controls. Prior to analysis, each unaffected parent was assigned to a subgroup on the basis of prior family history (positive or negative). A geometric morphometric approach was utilized to scale and superimpose the landmark coordinate data (Procrustes analysis), test for omnibus group differences in face shape, and uncover specific modes of shape variation capable of discriminating unaffected parents from controls. Results Significant disparity in face shape was observed between unaffected parents and controls (p < 0.01). Notably, these changes were specific to parents with a positive family history of CL/P. Shape changes associated with CL/P predisposition included marked flattening of the facial profile (midface retrusion), reduced upper facial height, increased lower facial height and excess interorbital width. Additionally, a sex-specific pattern of parent-control difference was evident in the transverse dimensions of the nasolabial complex. Conclusions The faces of unaffected parents from multiplex cleft families display meaningful shape differences compared with the general population. Quantitative assessment of the facial phenotype in cleft families may enhance efforts to discover the root causes of CL/P. PMID:19840279

  20. On the Agenda: Oregon's Chronically Ill Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This report describes the current status and needs of chronically ill children and their families in Oregon. An introductory chapter outlines the history of educational services for children with severe health needs, defines the term "chronically ill," reports on prevalence, and outlines trends. a survey of 49 parents of chronically ill children…

  1. [For a coordination of the supportive care for people affected by severe illnesses: proposition of organization in the public and private health care centres].

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Ivan; Boureau, François; Bugat, Roland; Chassignol, Laurent; Colombat, Philippe; Copel, Laure; d'Hérouville, Daniel; Filbet, Marylène; Laurent, Bernard; Memran, Nadine; Meynadier, Jacques; Parmentier, Gérard; Poulain, Philippe; Saltel, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Wagner, Jean-Philippe

    2004-05-01

    The concept of continuous and global care is acknowledged today by all as inherent to modern medicine. A working group gathered to propose models for the coordination of supportive care for all severe illnesses in the various private and public health care centres. The supportive care are defined as: "all care and supports necessary for ill people, at the same time as specific treatments, along all severe illnesses". This definition is inspired by that of "supportive care" given in 1990 by the MASCC (Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer): "The total medical, nursing and psychosocial help which the patients need besides the specific treatment". It integrates as much the field of cure with possible after-effects as that of palliative care, the definition of which is clarified (initial and terminal palliative phases). Such a coordination is justified by the pluridisciplinarity and hyperspecialisation of the professionals, by a poor communication between the teams, by the administrative difficulties encountered by the teams participating in the supportive care. The working group insists on the fact that the supportive care is not a new speciality. He proposes the creation of units. departments or pole of responsibility of supportive care with a "basic coordination" involving the activities of chronic pain, palliative care, psycho-oncology, and social care. This coordination can be extended, according to the "history" and missions of health care centres. Service done with the implementation of a "unique counter" for the patients and the teams is an important point. The structure has to comply with the terms and conditions of contract (Consultation, Unit or Centre of chronic pain, structures of palliative care, of psycho-oncology, of nutrition, of social care). A common technical organization is one of the interests. The structure has to set up strong links with the private practitioners, the networks, the home medical care (HAD) and the nurses

  2. [Informing members of families affected by fragile X syndrome of this diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Carrasco, M

    2001-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder that may seriously affect the development of patients. One of the hardest tasks for the professionals of medicine is to tell the parents that their child is suffering a serious illness that may cause some permanent handicap. This normally implies drastic changes in live projects and expectations for the parents. The knowledge of diagnosis and the supply of information to the parents give rise to an important emotional impact on both parents and the rest of the family. In general terms, the patient implies more than a single ill person--a genetic illness such as FXS, which causes serious cognitive and behavioural disturbances, implies three situations that the family has to face: on one hand, the family has to accept a new world that had never been known; a son or daughter with a genetic disorder unknown not only for them, but also for most of the professionals they have visited before having a diagnosis, and in many cases with special needs and serious behavioural disturbances. On the other hand, the family must accept that the diagnosis may not be restricted to the patient, because some other members of the family could be suffering from the same illness. Finally, they have to face the fact that one of the parents has transmitted the illness, that is, 'the genetic guilt' in the illness of their son or daughter. PMID:12447818

  3. Parental Ploidy Strongly Affects Offspring Fitness in Heteroploid Crosses among Three Cytotypes of Autopolyploid Jacobaea carniolica (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sonnleitner, Michaela; Weis, Birgit; Flatscher, Ruth; García, Pedro Escobar; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Winkler, Manuela; Schönswetter, Peter; Hülber, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive interactions among cytotypes in their contact zones determine whether these cytotypes can co-exist and form stable contact zones or not. In autopolyploids, heteroploid cross-compatibilities might depend on parental ploidy, but tests of this hypothesis in autopolyploid systems with more than two ploidies are lacking. Here, we study Jacobaea carniolica, which comprises diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid individuals regularly forming contact zones. Seeds obtained from in situ cross-pollinations within and among cytotypes were subjected to DNA flow cytometry and greenhouse germination experiments. Hybrid fitness and parental effects on hybrid fitness were tested with regression models comparing fitness parameters of early life stages. Irrespective of the direction of crosses, seed viability and seedling survival in diploid-polyploid crosses were substantially lower than in tetraploid-hexaploid crosses. In contrast, seedling growth traits indicated neither transgressive character expression nor any selection against hybrid offspring. Congruent with a model of genome dosage effects, these traits differed between reciprocal crosses, especially of diploids and tetraploids, where trait values resembled those of the maternal parent. The strong effect of parental ploidy on offspring fitness in heteroploid crosses may cause contact zones involving exclusively polyploid cytotypes to be less stable over longer terms than those involving diploids and polyploids. PMID:24265735

  4. What Parents Don't Know and How It May Affect Their Children: Qualifying the Disclosure-Adjustment Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frijns, Tom; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has identified adolescent disclosure to parents as a powerful predictor of adolescent adjustment. We propose, however, that the common operationalization of adolescent disclosure incorporates the two separate constructs of disclosure and secrecy, and predicted that the disclosure-adjustment link can largely be explained by the…

  5. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    PubMed

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects. PMID:24983655

  6. Teachers' and Caregivers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Educational Experiences of Children Affected by Parental AIDS in Western Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepkemboi, Grace; Aldridge, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe the perceptions of teachers and caregivers concerning gender differences in the educational experiences of children influenced by the HIV status of their parents or orphaned by AIDS in 7 orphanage schools of Western Kenya. 12 teachers and 8 caregivers participated in the study. Data were…

  7. Parental Grief Following the Brain Death of a Child: Does Consent or Refusal to Organ Donation Affect Their Grief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellali, Thalia; Papadatou, Danai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the grieving process of parents who were faced with the dilemma of donating organs and tissues of their underage brain dead child, and to explore the impact of their decision on their grief process. A grounded theory methodology was adopted and a semi-structured interview was conducted with 11 bereaved…

  8. The Influence of Rurality and Parental Affect on Kindergarten Children's Social and Behavioral Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Susan M.; Koziol, Natalie A.; Clarke, Brandy L.; Rispoli, Kristin M.; Coutts, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Children's early academic achievement is supported by positive social and behavioral skills, and difficulties with these skills frequently gives way to underachievement. Social and behavioral problems often arise as a product of parent-child interactional patterns and environmental influences. Few studies have examined the…

  9. Parental broader autism subphenotypes in ASD affected families: Relationship to gender, child's symptoms, SSRI treatment and platelet serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Francis, S.M.; Guter, S.; Anderson, G.M.; Cook, E; Jacob, S.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between parental broader autism phenotype (BAP) scores, gender, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment, serotonin (5HT) levels and the child's symptoms were investigated in a family study of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The Broader Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) was used to measure the BAP of 275 parents. Fathers not taking SSRIs (F-SSRI; N = 115) scored significantly higher on BAP Total and Aloof subscales compared to mothers not receiving treatment (M-SSRI; N = 136.) However, mothers taking SSRIs (M+SSRI; N = 19) scored higher than those not taking medication on BAP Total and Rigid subscales, and they were more likely to be BAPQ Total, Aloof and Rigid positive. Significant correlations were noted between proband autism symptoms and parental BAPQ scores such that Total, Aloof and Rigid subscale scores of F-SSRI correlated with proband restricted repetitive behavior (RRB) measures on the ADOS, CRI and RBS-R. However, only the Aloof subscale score of M+SSRI correlated with proband RRB on the ADOS. The correlation between the BAPQ scores of mothers taking SSRIs and child scores, as well as the increase in BAPQ scores of this group of mothers requires careful interpretation and further study because correlations would not withstand multiple corrections. As expected by previous research, significant parent-child correlations were observed for 5HT levels. However 5HT levels were not correlated with behavioral measures. Study results suggest that the expression of the BAP varies not only across parental gender, but also across individuals using psychotropic medication and those who do not. PMID:23956104

  10. Parental qualities as perceived by borderline personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, R L; Mann, L S; Wise, T N; Segall, E A

    1985-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of parental qualities to the borderline personality disorder. The Parental Bonding Inventory is used to compare four parental qualities (caring mother, caring father, overprotective father, and overprotective mother) across three groups (borderline personality disorders, assorted psychiatric controls and normal controls). The major finding was that the borderline patients perceived their parents to be significantly less caring and more overprotective than both the psychiatric control or nonclinical control groups. This study was verified previous reports that patients diagnosed with an affective illness (in either the borderline group or psychiatric control group) reported no significant differences on the inventory. Pinpointing parental characteristics which antecede mental disorders may be an important first step in devising primary preventive interventions for adult disorders. PMID:4077030

  11. Perceived patient-parent relationships and neural representation of parents in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Hae-Jeong; Chun, Ji Won; Kang, Jee In; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2013-04-01

    Having a relationship with one's parents is a fundamental social interaction and is a significant environmental factor in the long-term course of illness in schizophrenia. We explored subjective reports regarding the communicative relationship with parents and the implicit behavioral and neural responses of patients toward stimuli that referred to parents. Fourteen outpatients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy volunteers with living parents were scanned using a functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an imaginary sentence completion test that involved contemplation of their mothers and fathers. In patients with schizophrenia, subjective reports of better communicative fluency with one's mother were associated with faster response time and lower incomplete rate, reflecting favorable responses toward mothers. Relative to control participants, patients with schizophrenia demonstrated greater neural activation in the superior temporal sulcus and the parahippocampal gyrus for parental stimuli. When patients with schizophrenia contemplated their mothers, activities in these regions were associated with a level of negative symptoms or affective ambivalence in patients. The results indicated that parental cues are processed in a more socially driven manner, and that perceived communicative relationships with one's parents can be used to estimate implicit responses, especially in relation to mothers in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, the findings of the current study suggest that affective ambivalence toward one's mother is one such implicit response and emphasize the importance of prudent family interventions in the psychiatric rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. PMID:22678652

  12. Methionine splanchnic uptake is increased in critically ill children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During critical illness the splanchnic area is profoundly affected. There is no information on splanchnic uptake of amino acids in vivo, in critically ill children. Methionine splanchnic uptake in critically ill children will differ from estimates in healthy adults. We studied 24 critically ill chil...

  13. Parental stress affects the emotions and behaviour of children up to adolescence: a Greek prospective, longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bakoula, Chryssa; Kolaitis, Gerasimos; Veltsista, Alexandra; Gika, Artemis; Chrousos, George P

    2009-11-01

    Systematic research about the continuity of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence is limited, but necessary to design effective prevention and intervention strategies. We used a population-based representative sample of Greek adolescents, followed-up from birth to the age of 18 years, to assess early influences on and the persistence of mental health problems in youth. We examined the role of peripartum, early development and parental characteristics in predicting mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Results suggest a strong relationship between behavioural problems in childhood and adolescence for both genders, while emotional problems were more likely to persist in boys. Age and sex-specific models revealed significant positive associations between higher scores on the behavioural and emotional problems scales and higher frequency of accidents in preschool years, physical punishment in early childhood, lack of parental interest in child's school and activities, and perceived maternal stress in all children. Perceived paternal stress was associated with higher scores on the Total and Internalizing problems scales in the total population. Our results suggest that early interventions are necessary as mental health problems strongly persist from childhood to late adolescence. The adverse effects of parental stress and poor care-giving practices on child's psychopathology need to be recognised and improved. PMID:19206015

  14. How Many Families in Child Welfare Services Are Affected by Parental Substance Use Disorders? A Common Question that Remains Unanswered

    PubMed Central

    Seay, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Associated with extensive negative outcomes for children, parental substance use disorders are a major concern within the child welfare system. Obtaining actual prevalence rate data has been difficult, however, and there are no recent published reports on this issue. Using a systematic search, this paper examines: (1) Prevalence estimates of parental substance use disorders in the child welfare population; (2) the types of child welfare involvement for reported prevalence estimates; and (3) how prevalence information is being collected. Prevalence rates were found to have a wide range, from 3.9% to 79%, with regional prevalence estimates being higher than national estimates. Prevalence rates of parental substance use disorders varied by type of child welfare involvement of the family and method of data collection. This study points out the need for improvements in prevalence estimates in the United States and national data collection procedures to ensure that child welfare and substance abuse treatment systems are adequately responding to children and families with substance use disorders. PMID:26827475

  15. I'll know what you're like when i see how you feel: how and when affective displays influence behavior-based impressions.

    PubMed

    Ames, Daniel R; Johar, Gita V

    2009-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that targets' displays of emotion shape perceivers' impression of those targets. Prior research has highlighted generalization effects, such as an angry display prompting an impression of hostility. In two studies, we went beyond generalization to examine the interaction of displays and behaviors, finding new evidence of augmenting effects (behavior-correspondent inferences are stronger when behavior is accompanied by positive affect) and discounting effects (such inferences are weaker when behavior is accompanied by negative affect). Thus, the same display can have different effects on impressions depending on the behavior it accompanies. We found evidence that these effects are mediated by ascribed intentions and that they have a boundary: When behaviors and affective displays are repeated, the augmenting and discounting power of displays appears to wane. PMID:19368697

  16. The Challenge of Caring for Mildly Ill Children: A Canadian National Childcare Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyzoi, E.; Babb, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    This Canadian study of the care of mildly ill children in licensed childcare facilities compares director and parent preferences for eight models of care, exclusionary practices for ill children by directors, and preferred backup care options of parents. It also investigates anticipated usage and willingness of parents to pay for emergency…

  17. Personal perception of chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Dean, P R

    1999-04-01

    Nurses caring for patients in the home must see them as a complex collection of many parts that require a holistic approach. With the plethora of therapies blending the relationship between mind and body, patients are seeking to be treated as a whole person rather than a physical illness. A diagnosis of cancer or other serious illness affects the physical, psychologic, spiritual, and economic aspects of the person's life, and patients with these diagnoses know the illness and its treatment will decrease many of their normal activities and limit their effectiveness. Because of this disruption, chronic illness causes stress and anxiety in both patient and the family. Therefore nurses must be ready to assess, intervene, and monitor the ongoing progress of both patient and family. PMID:10418394

  18. Sexuality and chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Elaine E

    2013-11-01

    Sexual function is often affected in individuals living with chronic illness and their partners, and multiple comorbidities increase the likelihood of sexual dysfunction. This review focuses on the areas of cardiovascular disease, respiratory conditions, and cancer, all areas for which there are practical, evidence-based strategies to guide sexual counseling. Although nurses have been reluctant to address the topic of sexuality in practice, a growing number of studies suggest that patients want nurses to address their concerns and provide resources to them. Thus, nurses must be proactive in initiating conversations on sexual issues to fill this gap in practice. PMID:24066783

  19. Metabolism and Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Sestan-Pesa, Matija; Horvath, Tamas L

    2016-02-01

    Over the past century, overwhelming evidence has emerged pointing to the hypothalamus of the central nervous system (CNS) as a crucial regulator of systemic control of metabolism, including appetite and feeding behavior. Appetite (or hunger) is a fundamental driver of survival, involving complex behaviors governed by various parts of the brain, including the cerebral cortex. Here, we provide an overview of basic metabolic principles affecting the CNS and discuss their relevance to physiological and pathological conditions of higher brain functions. These novel perspectives may well provide new insights into future research strategies to facilitate the development of novel therapies for treating mental illness. PMID:26776095

  20. Illness theodicies in the New Testament.

    PubMed

    Price, R M

    1986-12-01

    The New Testament writers advocate or at least mention six different religious explanations for the origin of sickness. First, Satan may thus victimize the innocent. Second, God may send sickness as a punishment for the sufferer's sins. Third, God may send sickness to punish one's parents' sins. Fourth, God may so punish one's own sins committed in a previous life. Fifth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by subsequent healing. Sixth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by sustaining the sufferer through the illness instead of healing it. PMID:24301694

  1. Nature versus Nurture: How Parent Galaxy Environments Affect the Rates and Properties of their Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Melissa Lynn

    2010-08-01

    Supernovae of Type Ia, SNe Ia, are currently the most powerful tool of modern cosmology, but their progenitor scenario is not yet well constrained. Recent studies of SN Ia rates in radio-loud early-type galaxies, and members of rich clusters, suggest a possible influence on SN Ia explosions outside of the established correlation with the age of the parent galaxy's stellar population (via the current specific star formation rate, sSFR). These rates were used to show that the characteristics of SN Ia progenitor systems may be inconsistent with theoretical expectations of the most popular scenarios. The astrophysical question of this thesis is: do parent galaxy and environment influence the rates and properties of Type Ia supernovae, and, if so, how? Towards this end, we combine the database of Type Ia supernovae from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope's Supernova Legacy Survey with publicly available catalogs including: galaxy photometric and spectroscopic redshifts, radio and infrared sources, and members of galaxy groups and clusters. This is the most comprehensive set of multi-wavelength host properties and environment parameters for intermediate redshift Type Ia supernovae yet compiled. We present the SNLS SN Ia rate per unit mass in a variety of parent galaxy and environment samples. We also statistically assess the probability of discrepancies between our rates, those of previous works at low redshift, rates in the general population of galaxies, and predictions of established empirical SN Ia rate models. In general, we do not find statistically significant evidence for SN Ia rate enhancements over the general population in galaxies which are radio-loud, infrared-bright, or associated with galaxy groups and clusters. In cases where we do find a suggestive rate enhancement, it is always with less than 2-sigma confidence. These rates agree with established empirical rate models, which in turn are consistent with theoretical expectations of the most plausible

  2. Ratings of self and parents by youth: are they affected by family status, gender, and birth order?

    PubMed

    Parish, T S

    1991-01-01

    In the present study, 648 youths from across the state of Kansas voluntarily evaluated themselves and their parents using the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children. Self-concept was found to be significantly higher for those from intact families in comparison with those from divorced remarried families. Evaluations of mothers were significantly higher for those from intact and divorced nonremarried families as compared with those from divorced remarried families. The ratings of fathers by youths from intact families were significantly more favorable than the ratings by those from either divorced nonremarried or divorced remarried families. Interestingly, gender by family status two-way interaction effects were also found for self-concept and ratings of fathers. Possible explanations for these findings, and their implications, are discussed. PMID:2048465

  3. Non-supportive Parenting Affects Telomere Length in Young Adulthood Among African Americans: Mediation through Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of age related changes at the cellular level associated with heightened mortality risk. The effect of non-supportive parenting (NSP) during late adolescence and young adulthood on TL 5 years later was examined in a sample of N = 183 young adult African Americans to determine if effects of NSP on TL were mediated by substance use. Results indicated that the effect of caregiver reported NSP on diminished TL was mediated by escalation of drinking and smoking in young adulthood, even after controlling effects of socioeconomic status risk, gender, BMI, young adult stress, and intervention status. Results suggest that prevention of NSP may influence later physical health consequences by influencing substance use trajectory. PMID:25485673

  4. Cultural Variation in Implicit Mental Illness Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Bobby K.; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2013-01-01

    Culture shapes how individuals perceive and respond to others with mental illness. Prior studies have suggested that Asians and Asian Americans typically endorse greater stigma of mental illness compared to Westerners (White Europeans and Americans). However, whether these differences in stigma arise from cultural variations in automatic affective reactions or deliberative concerns of the appropriateness of one’s reactions to mental illness remains unknown. Here we compared implicit and explicit attitudes toward mental illness among Asian and Caucasian Americans. Asian Americans showed stronger negative implicit attitudes toward mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans, suggesting that cultural variation in stigma of mental illness can be observed even when concerns regarding the validity and appropriateness of one’s attitudes toward mental illness are minimized. Asian Americans also explicitly endorsed greater desire for social distance from mental illness relative to Caucasian Americans. These findings suggest that cultural variations in mental illness stigma may arise from cultural differences in automatic reactions to mental illness, though cultural variations in deliberative processing may further shape differences in these immediate reactions to mental illness. PMID:24311820

  5. Assessment of quality of life of the children and parents affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet: preliminary results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development in therapeutic strategies has increased survival of children affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet (IEMRD). These diseases have mild- and long-term consequences on the health. Little is known about the impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and their families. The aims of this study were: to compare the QoL of the children and parents affected by IEMRD with the QoL of the general population and one pathology associated with long-term consequences. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study was performed at the French Reference Center for inborn metabolic disorders (Marseille, France). Inclusion criteria were: a child with a diagnosis of organic aciduria, urea cycle defect, or maple syrups urine disease (MSUD). Socio-demographics, clinical data, and QoL were recorded. Results Twenty-one of 32 eligible families were included during a planned routine visit. Ten (47%, 95% CI 27-69%) children were affected by organic aciduria, six (29%, 95% CI 10-48%) by urea cycle defects, and five (24%, 95% CI 6-42%) by MSUD. Among the younger children, the general well-being was significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (58 ± 16 versus 76 ± 15, p = 0.012), and among the older children, the leisure activities were significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (29 ± 18 versus 62 ± 22, p < 10-3), while the relationships with teachers were better (76 ± 23 versus 60 ± 23, p = 0.01). The physical QoL score was lower in the parents than in the French norms (66 ± 21 versus 75 ± 1, p = 0.05). Factors modulating QoL were: eating and neurologic disorders, enteral nutrition, and feeding modalities. Conclusion The children and the parents of children affected presented altered ‘physical’ and ‘social’ QoL scores compared with the norms and patients with leukemia and their families. Future studies based on larger cohort

  6. Psychiatric illness and sexual function.

    PubMed

    Segraves, R T

    1998-05-01

    Impaired sexual function has been noted to occur in various psychiatric illnesses. In affective disorders, disturbances of libido, erection and orgasm have been reported. Disordered sexual behavior has also been noted in patients with schizophrenia and anorexia nervosa. Clinical speculation suggests that anxiety disorders may also be associated with a higher prevalence of sexual problems. PMID:9647976

  7. Parental Whole Life Cycle Exposure to Dietary Methylmercury in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Affects the Behavior of Offspring.

    PubMed

    Mora-Zamorano, Francisco X; Klingler, Rebekah; Murphy, Cheryl A; Basu, Niladri; Head, Jessica; Carvan, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an established neurotoxicant of concern to fish-eating organisms. While most studies have focused on the fish consumers, much less is known about the effects of MeHg on the fish themselves, especially following exposures to chronic and environmentally relevant scenarios. Here we evaluated the behavioral effects of developmental MeHg insult by exposing parental generations of zebrafish to an environmentally realistic MeHg dietary concentration (1 ppm) and two higher concentrations (3 and 10 ppm) throughout their whole life span. Upon reaching adulthood, their offspring were analyzed through a series of behavioral tests, including the visual-motor response (VMR) assay, analysis of spontaneous swimming and evaluation of foraging efficiency. The VMR assay identified decreased locomotor output in the 6 day postfertilization (dpf) offspring of fish exposed to 3 and 10 ppm MeHg. However, in a second test 7 dpf fish revealed an increase in locomotor activity in all MeHg exposures tested. Increases in locomotion continued to be observed until 16 dpf, which coincided with increased foraging efficiency. These results suggest an association between MeHg and hyperactivity, and imply that fish chronically exposed to MeHg in the wild may be vulnerable to predation. PMID:27023211

  8. Caring for mentally ill people.

    PubMed Central

    van Os, J.; Neeleman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Despite legislation to harmonise mental health practice throughout Europe and convergence in systems of training there remains an extraordinary diversity in psychiatric practice in Europe. Approaches to tackling substance misuse vary among nations; statistics on psychiatric morbidity are affected by different approaches to diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders; attitudes towards mental illness show definite international differences. Everywhere, though, mental health care for patients with psychotic illnesses is a "cinderella service," and there is a general move towards care falling increasingly on the family and the community. PMID:7987157

  9. Illness beliefs in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kinderman, Peter; Setzu, Erika; Lobban, Fiona; Salmon, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Beliefs about health and illness shape emotional responses to illness, health-related behaviour and relationships with health-care providers in physical illness. Researchers are beginning to study the illness beliefs of people with psychosis, primarily using models developed in relation to physical illness. It is likely that modifications to these models will be necessary if they are to apply to mental disorders, and it is probable that some of the assumptions underlying the models will be inappropriate. In particular, different dimensions of understanding may be present in mental illness in comparison to those identified in physical illness. The present study examines the beliefs of 20 patients in the UK diagnosed with schizophrenia, including 10 currently psychotic inpatients and 10 outpatients in remission, about their experiences, using qualitative interviews and thematic analysis. Patients currently experiencing psychosis did not identify their experiences as separable 'illnesses' and did not have 'illness beliefs'. Patients currently in a period of remission appraised their experiences as distinct from their own normal behaviour, but used conceptual frameworks of understanding that deviated significantly from conventional 'health belief' models. Patients' ways of understanding mental illness did not parallel those described in physical illnesses. Methods for assessing beliefs about mental illness should therefore not be transferred directly from studies of beliefs about physical illness, but should be tailored to the nature of patients' beliefs about mental illness. PMID:16777306

  10. Sample Length Affects the Reliability of Language Sample Measures in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence From Parent-Elicited Conversational Samples

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which sample length affected the reliability of total number of words (TNW), number of different words (NDW), and mean length of C-units in morphemes (MLCUm) in parent-elicited conversational samples for 3-year-olds. Method Participants were sixty 3-year-olds. A 22-min language sample was collected from each child during free play with the parent in the laboratory. Samples of 1, 3, 7, and 10 min were extracted from the 22-min samples. TNW, NDW, and MLCUm were computed from each shorter sample and the 22-min sample. TNW and NDW were adjusted by number of minutes for comparisons. The differences and correlations between each shorter sample cut and the 22-min sample on MLCUm and adjusted TNW and NDW were computed. Results The shorter samples and the 22-min samples significantly differed in adjusted TNW and NDW, but not in MLCUm. TNW reached an acceptable reliability level (i.e., r = .90) in 7-min samples. NDW and MLCUm approached the acceptable reliability level (rs = .88) in 7-min samples and reached it in 10-min samples. Conclusion For conversational language samples with similar collection procedures, samples of 7 to 10 min are desirable for calculating TNW, NDW, and MLCUm in 3-year-olds. PMID:25615272

  11. The Effects of Parents' Psychiatric Disorders on Children's High School Dropout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farahati, F.; Marcotte, D. E.; Wilcox-Gok, V.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effect of parents' mental illness on the schooling of their children. Finds that parents' mental illnesses increase the probability of high school dropout of children, though these effects differ markedly with disease. Also finds that parental mental illness has more consistently negative effects on girls than on boys. (Contains…

  12. Outbreak of Mass Sociogenic Illness in a School Feeding Program in Northwest Bangladesh, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Farhana; Kundu, Subodh Kumar; Islam, Md Saiful; Hasan, S. M. Murshid; Khatun, Asma; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Alamgir, A. S. M.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010, an acute illness outbreak was reported in school students eating high-energy biscuits supplied by the school feeding programme in northwest Bangladesh. We investigated this outbreak to describe the illness in terms of person, place and time, develop the timeline of events, and determine the cause and community perceptions regarding the outbreak. Methods We defined case-patients as students from affected schools reporting any two symptoms including abdominal pain, heartburn, bitter taste, and headache after eating biscuits on the day of illness. We conducted in-depth interviews and group discussions with students, teachers, parents and community members to explore symptoms, exposures, and community perceptions. We conducted a questionnaire survey among case-patients to determine the symptoms and ascertain food items eaten 12 hours before illness onset, and microbiological and environmental investigations. Results Among 142 students seeking hospital care, 44 students from four schools qualified as case-patients. Of these, we surveyed 30 who had a mean age of 9 years; 70% (21/30) were females. Predominant symptoms included abdominal pain (93%), heartburn (90%), and bitter taste (57%). All students recovered within a few hours. No pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Shigella or Salmonella spp. were isolated from collected stool samples. We found no rancid biscuits in schools and storage sites. The female index case perceived the unusually darker packet label as a “devil’s deed” that made the biscuits poisonous. Many students, parents and community members reported concerns about rumors of students dying from biscuit poisoning. Conclusions Rapid onset, followed by rapid recovery of symptoms; female preponderance; inconsistent physical, microbiological and environmental findings suggested mass sociogenic illness rather than a foodborne or toxic cause. Rumours of student deaths heightening community anxiety apparently propagated this outbreak. Sharing

  13. Technology, Society, and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    SE Keefe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise. PMID:23346519

  14. Early Intermodal Integration in Offspring of Parents With Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Gamma, Franziska; Goldstein, Jill M.; Seidman, Larry J.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Buka, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying early developmental indicators of risk for schizophrenia is important for prediction and possibly illness prevention. Disturbed intermodality has been proposed as one important neurodevelopmental risk for schizophrenia. Early intermodal integration (EII) is the infant’s ability to link motility and perception and to relate perception across modalities. We hypothesized that infants of parents with schizophrenia would have more EII abnormalities than infants of healthy parents and that infants of parents with affective psychosis would be intermediate in severity. The New England Family Study high-risk sample, ascertained from community populations, was utilized. Eight-month-old infants of parents with schizophrenia (n = 58), affective psychoses (n = 128), and healthy controls (n = 174) were prospectively assessed. Diagnoses of parents were determined 30 years later blind to offspring data. EII measures were grouped into 3 domains characterizing different aspects of infant development: (1) one’s own body, (2) objects, and (3) social interactions. Results demonstrated that body- and object-related EII abnormalities were significantly increased for infants of parents with schizophrenia compared with control infants and not significantly increased for infants of parents with affective psychoses. EII abnormalities in relation to social interactions were significantly increased in infants of parents with schizophrenia and affective psychoses. Thus, body- and object-related EII abnormalities were most severe in infants of parents with schizophrenia, supporting the importance of intermodality dysfunction as an early indicator of the vulnerability to schizophrenia. Future research should evaluate how this dysfunction evolves with development and its associations with other psychopathological and neurodevelopmental deficits in youth at risk for psychosis. PMID:23986303

  15. [Parenting capacity of mothers with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, A; Spyropoulou, A; Zervas, I

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the pregnancy rates of mothers with schizophrenia do not differ significantly from those of the general population. Mothers' severe mental illness, combined with poor social support and comorbidity, may significantly affect her parenting capacity. However, the poor quality of parenting by psychotic mothers should not be taken for granted, in advance. Some of them may become excellent parents while other may abuse their children and finally lose custody because of this. The parenting capacity is significantly influenced by the existing insight of patient-parent's disease. Assessing the parenting capacity comprises the measurement of insight and of the risk of child abuse as well. Factors associated with increased risk for child abuse are: (a) active psychiatric symptomatology, (b) history of violent behavior in the past, (c) maternal history of abuse during childhood, (d) dangerous domestic environment, (e) stressful events and poor social support to the mother and (f) unrealistic parental expectations. These factors should be assessed both clinically and by using the appropriate psychometric tools. Tools which have been widely used for this purpose are: (a) "Schedule for Assessment of Insight-SAI", (b) "Childhood Trauma Interview", (c) "Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment Inventory-HOME" and "Home Screening Questionnaire -HSQ", (d) "Parental Stress Inventory-PSI", "Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire-SPSQ", "Arizona Social Support Inventory" (e) "Parent Opinion Questionnaire-POQ". Interventions to ensure a more adequate parenting capacity should be focused on family planning: mothers with severe mental illness have poor knowledge about reproductive and contraception issues. Their pregnancies are mostly not planned. It is important for the family planning to be tailored according to the specific needs of schizophrenic mothers and to take into account the following issues: (a) the severity and the duration

  16. Foster Parent Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Graham; Morrissette, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Research findings regarding foster-parent stress and implications for counselors and counselor educators are discussed. Eleven significant themes are reported from a qualitative and quantitative study of rural foster parents (N=156). Stressful events that affect the well-being of foster parents and their relationships with children and…

  17. Consumer Informatics in Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Tetzlaff, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To explore the informatic requirements in the home care of chronically ill patients. Design: A number of strategies were deployed to help evoke a picture of home care informatics needs: A detailed questionnaire evaluating informational needs and assessing programmable technologies was distributed to a clinic population of parents of children with cancer. Open ended questionnaires were distributed to medical staff and parents soliciting a list of questions asked of medical staff. Parent procedure training was observed to evaluate the training dialog, and parents were observed interacting with a prototype information and education computer offering. Results: Parents' concerns ranged from the details of managing day to day, to conceptual information about disease and treatment, to management of psychosocial problems. They sought information to solve problems and to provide emotional support, which may create conflicts of interest when the material is threatening. Whether they preferred to be informed by a doctor, nurse, or another parent depended on the nature of the information. Live interaction was preferred to video, which was preferred to text for all topics. Respondents used existing technologies in a straightforward way but were enthusiastic about the proposed use of computer technology to support home care. Multimedia solutions appear to complement user needs and preferences. Conclusion: Consumers appear positively disposed toward on-line solutions. On-line systems can offer breadth, depth and timeliness currently unattainable. Patients should be involved in the formation and development process in much the same way that users are involved in usercentered computer interface design. A generic framework for patient content is presented that could be applied across multiple disorders. PMID:9223035

  18. Studying Physically Ill Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Rosalie F.; Kahana, Eva

    Research with older persons suffering from physical illness presents numerous challenges to gerontologists. Issues of conceptualization pertaining to the definition of illness, its location in the research paradigm, and the context in which illness occurs must be addressed prior to dealing with methodological problems. Access to physically ill…

  19. Anticipation or ascertainment bias in schizophrenia? Penrose`s familial mental illness sample

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, A.S. |; Husted, J.

    1997-03-01

    Several studies have observed anticipation (earlier age at onset [AAO] in successive generations) in familial schizophrenia. However, whether true anticipation or ascertainment bias is the principal originating mechanism remains unclear. In 1944 L.S. Penrose collected AAO data on a large, representative sample of familial mental illness, using a broad ascertainment strategy. These data allowed examination of anticipation and ascertainment biases in five two-generation samples of affected relative pairs. The median intergenerational difference (MID) in AAO was used to assess anticipation. Results showed significant anticipation in parent-offspring pairs with schizophrenia (n = 137 pairs; MID 15 years; P = .0001) and in a positive control sample with Huntington disease (n = 11; P = .01). Broadening the diagnosis of the schizophrenia sample suggested anticipation of severity of illness. However, other analyses provided evidence for ascertainment bias, especially in later-AAO parents, in parent-offspring pairs. Aunt/uncle-niece/nephew schizophrenia pairs showed anticipation (n = 111; P = .0001), but the MID was 8 years and aunts/uncles had earlier median AAO than parents. Anticipation effects were greatest in pairs with late-AAO parents but remained significant in a subgroup of schizophrenia pairs with early parental AAO (n = 31; P = .03). A small control sample of other diseases had MID of 5 years but no significant anticipation (n = 9; F = .38). These results suggest that, although ascertainment-bias effects were observed in parent-offspring pairs, true anticipation appears to be inherent in the transmission of familial schizophrenia. The findings support investigations of unstable mutations and other mechanisms that may contribute to true anticipation in schizophrenia. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. The role of parenting in affecting the behavior and adaptive functioning of young children of HIV-infected mothers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Eloff, Irma; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W C

    2014-03-01

    Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers' psychological functioning, parenting, and children's behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent-child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent-child dysfunction are associated with children's behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach. PMID:23892768

  1. Migraine in affectively ill Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    DILSAVER, STEVEN C.; BENAZZI, FRANCO; OEDEGAARD, KETIL J.; FASMER, OLE B.; AKISKAL, KAREEN K.; AKISKAL, HAGOP S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of migraine headache among depressed Latino adolescents of Mexican American origin. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first study of the prevalence of migraine among depressed adolescents of any ethnic/racial background. In a mental health clinic for the indigent, 132 consecutive Latino adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive episode were compared with a sample of adolescents with other mental disorders. Logistic regression was used to test for associations and control for confounding effects. The prevalence of migraine headache among depressed adolescents was 6 times greater than that of the comparison patients (OR = 5.98, z = 2.35, p = 0.019). This finding is consistent with previously published reports involving adult samples, in which the prevalence of migraine was found to exceed that in the general population. However, contrary to what we previously found in Latino adults, the prevalence of migraine was not higher in bipolar than in unipolar adolescents. PMID:20157635

  2. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Increases Infant Acute Respiratory Illness Severity, but not Childhood Asthma.

    PubMed

    Valet, Robert S; Carroll, Kecia N; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Minton, Patricia A; Woodward, Kimberly B; Liu, Zhouwen; Hartert, Tina V

    2014-03-01

    It is unknown whether gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) during infancy affects infant bronchiolitis severity or childhood asthma inception. Four hundred thirty-two infants presenting with acute respiratory illness due to bronchiolitis or upper respiratory infection were studied. The primary exposure was the parental report of a previous GERD diagnosis. Outcomes included bronchiolitis severity at initial presentation and childhood asthma diagnosis at age 4. Infants with parentally reported GERD had a higher bronchiolitis severity score (range=0-12, clinically significant difference=0.5), indicating more severe disease, than infants without reported GERD (median 5.5 [interquartile range 3.5-9.0] among those with reported GERD versus 4.0 [1.0-7.0] among those without, P=0.005). This association persisted after adjusting for infant age, race, gender, and secondhand smoke exposure by a propensity score (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-3.46, P=0.02). The parental report of GERD during infancy was not associated with the parental report of asthma diagnosis at age 4. GERD during infancy may contribute to acute respiratory illness severity, but is not associated with asthma diagnosis at age 4. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24669353

  3. Chronically Ill Children in America: Background and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Nicholas; And Others

    The report examines chronic illness in children and considers issues and recommendations for change in public policies and programs affecting chronically ill children and their families. The background chapter notes the significance of the problem, reviews 11 diseases that are representative of the severe chronic illnesses of childhood: juvenile…

  4. A novel test for testing the optimally weighted combination of rare and common variants based on data of parents and affected children.

    PubMed

    Sha, Qiuying; Zhang, Shuanglin

    2014-02-01

    With the development of sequencing technologies, the direct testing of rare variant associations has become possible. Many statistical methods for detecting associations between rare variants and complex diseases have recently been developed, most of which are population-based methods for unrelated individuals. A limitation of population-based methods is that spurious associations can occur when there is a population structure. For rare variants, this problem can be more serious, because the spectrum of rare variation can be very different in diverse populations, as well as the current nonexistence of methods to control for population stratification in population-based rare variant associations. A solution to the problem of population stratification is to use family-based association tests, which use family members to control for population stratification. In this article, we propose a novel test for Testing the Optimally Weighted combination of variants based on data of Parents and Affected Children (TOW-PAC). TOW-PAC is a family-based association test that tests the combined effect of rare and common variants in a genomic region, and is robust to the directions of the effects of causal variants. Simulation studies confirm that, for rare variant associations, family-based association tests are robust to population stratification although population-based association tests can be seriously confounded by population stratification. The results of power comparisons show that the power of TOW-PAC increases with an increase of the number of affected children in each family and TOW-PAC based on multiple affected children per family is more powerful than TOW based on unrelated individuals. PMID:24382753

  5. "If God wills...next year I will send her back to school": The Effects of Child and Parental Illness on School Participation in Rural Ethiopia. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkin, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Rural Ethiopian children, and members of their households, often suffer from common and preventable but debilitating illnesses, such as malaria, parasite infection and worms. Enrolment rates in Ethiopia are high, but school attendance is patchy, children often drop out of school (although they sometimes return), and grade repetition is common.…

  6. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…

  7. Five dramas of illness.

    PubMed

    Frank, Arthur W

    2007-01-01

    First-person narratives of illness experience are dramatic: the narrator, who is also the sufferer, is caught in conflicts of forces that permit understanding more than control. Among the dramas of illness, five occur frequently in autobiographical accounts of illness. These dramas overlap and have varying emphases in different people's stories. They are the drama of genesis (what instigated the illness); the drama of emotion work (what emotional displays are required or prohibited); the drama of fear and loss; the drama of meaning; and finally, the drama of self. This five-drama framework can focus critical and clinical attention on which conflicting forces the ill person is working to reconcile, what makes that work difficult, and how conceiving of one's illness as a drama can be a source of meaning and value. PMID:17660632

  8. Heat-related illnesses.

    PubMed

    Khosla, R; Guntupalli, K K

    1999-04-01

    The majority of clinicians will encounter patients with heat-related illness in one form or the other. Early recognition and management are important to prevent morbidity and mortality. In children and elderly, the clinical signs may be subtle and in such situations a sound knowledge of heat-related illnesses is crucial. Besides diagnosing and treating heat-related illnesses, it is equally important to know how to prevent them as they are easily preventable. PMID:10331127

  9. Parental caregiving of children with cancer and family impact, economic burden: nursing perspectives.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phoebe D; Williams, Kirstin A; Williams, Arthur R

    2014-03-01

    Pediatric cancer diagnoses affect the entire family: parents, well siblings, the ill child, and others. The objective of this study was to review nursing studies on parental caregiving of children with cancer, family impact, and costs. The study used inclusion/exclusion criteria and family systems theory, self/dependent-care, and symptom management (monitoring, alleviation) concepts. Regarding "levels of evidence," 3 studies were Level II; 7 were Level IV; 7 were Level VI; 1 review was Level V and the second was Level I. Of 19 studies: 11 were qualitative; 4, quantitative; 2 were mixed methods. Content analysis themes were: Parental caregiving and family impact, economic burden. Conclusions were that (a) qualitative studies are predominant; findings supported quantitative findings; (b) quantitative nursing studies are less common: found one longitudinal, randomized controlled trial (RCT) focused on outcomes of an intervention for well siblings and parents, implemented by Clinical Nurse Specialists, CNSs; (c) few quantitative studies with large samples were found, especially ones with theoretical models of the family system and measures of illness impact on families; and (d) "mixed methods" longitudinal nursing research is illustrated. There is a need for "evidence-based" practice (EBP) nursing studies of interventions focused on parent education/support/assistance; respite care, and increasing family/well sibling knowledge/other information on the child's illness. PMID:24261317

  10. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Hosang, Georgina M.; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. Aims To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Method Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Results We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Conclusions Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. PMID:25359927

  11. Impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's psychological well-being: a systematic review of global literature.

    PubMed

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming

    2013-09-01

    This review examines the global literature regarding the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's psychological well-being. Fifty one articles reporting quantitative data from a total of 30 studies were retrieved and reviewed. Findings were mixed but tended to show that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had poorer psychological well-being in comparison with children from HIV-free families or children orphaned by other causes. Limited longitudinal studies suggested a negative effect of parental HIV on children's psychological well-being in an early stage of parental HIV-related illness and such effects persisted through the course of parental illness and after parental death. HIV-related stressful life events, stigma, and poverty were risk factors that might aggravate the negative impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children. Individual coping skills, trusting relationship with caregivers and social support were suggested to protect children against the negative effects of parental HIV/AIDS. This review underlines the vulnerability of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Culturally and developmentally appropriate evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to promote the psychological well-being of children affected by HIV/AIDS. PMID:22972606

  12. Reassessing Parent Involvement: Involving Language Minority Parents in School Work at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel-White, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    Parental involvement has been promoted by politicians and educators as the cure all for academic ills in the American educational system. Programs have been funded and structured to involve all parents in schools in ways valued by middle class parents to the exclusion of language minority families, their language, and their culture. These middle…

  13. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

  14. Adult Neurogenesis and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Timothy J; Cameron, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that adult neurogenesis, the production of new neurons in adulthood, may play a role in psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. Medications and other treatments for mental disorders often promote the proliferation of new neurons; the time course for maturation and integration of new neurons in circuitry parallels the delayed efficacy of psychiatric therapies; adverse and beneficial experiences similarly affect development of mental illness and neurogenesis; and ablation of new neurons in adulthood alters the behavioral impact of drugs in animal models. At present, the links between adult neurogenesis and depression seem stronger than those suggesting a relationship between new neurons and anxiety or schizophrenia. Yet, even in the case of depression there is currently no direct evidence for a causative role. This article reviews the data relating adult neurogenesis to mental illness and discusses where research needs to head in the future. PMID:25178407

  15. Improving mental health of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes: protocol for a randomized controlled trial of the Nothing Ventured Nothing Gained online adolescent and parenting support intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Management of Type 1 diabetes comes with substantial personal and psychological demands particularly during adolescence, placing young people at significant risk for mental health problems. Supportive parenting can mitigate these risks, however the challenges associated with parenting a child with a chronic illness can interfere with a parent’s capacity to parent effectively. Interventions that provide support for both the adolescent and their parents are needed to prevent mental health problems in adolescents; to support positive parent-adolescent relationships; and to empower young people to better self-manage their illness. This paper presents the research protocol for a study evaluating the efficacy of the Nothing Ventured Nothing Gained online adolescent and parenting intervention which aims to improve the mental health outcomes of adolescents with Type 1 diabetes. Method/Design A randomized controlled trial using repeated measures with two arms (intervention and wait-list control) will be used to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of the online intervention. Approximately 120 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes, aged 13–18 years and one of their parents/guardians will be recruited from pediatric diabetes clinics across Victoria, Australia. Participants will be randomized to receive the intervention immediately or to wait 6 months before accessing the intervention. Adolescent, parent and family outcomes will be assessed via self-report questionnaires at three time points (baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months). The primary outcome is improved adolescent mental health (depression and anxiety). Secondary outcomes include adolescent behavioral (diabetes self-management and risk taking behavior), psychosocial (diabetes relevant quality of life, parent reported child well-being, self-efficacy, resilience, and perceived illness benefits and burdens); metabolic (HbA1c) outcomes; parent psychosocial outcomes (negative affect and fatigue, self

  16. The influence of differential response and other factors on parent perceptions of child protection involvement.

    PubMed

    Merkel-Holguin, Lisa; Hollinshead, Dana M; Hahn, Amy E; Casillas, Katherine L; Fluke, John D

    2015-01-01

    As Child Protective Services (CPS) agencies examine how to produce better outcomes with the families they serve, child welfare literature has increasingly focused on the perspectives, emotional responses, and engagement of CPS-involved parents or other primary caregivers. Despite this encouraging trend, the construct of engagement is ill-defined and our understanding of precursors to and factors affecting parent engagement is limited. This article extends the literature by presenting a conceptual framework for examining engagement and associating the identified constructs with parent outcomes. Using data from a survey of parents who were randomly assigned to receive either an assessment response (AR) or investigation response (IR) in two states' Differential Response CPS systems, a factor analysis on 12 commonly assessed emotional responses reported by parents indicated that parents responded with three primary emotions: positive affect, worry, or anger and that these responses varied by their receipt of AR or IR. Further, the results of multivariate analyses indicate that pathway assignment (AR or IR), parents' assessments of the quality of the casework they received, and other parent or household factors contribute to differences observed on the three emotional response factors identified. PMID:25499559

  17. Authoritative Parenting, Parenting Stress, and Self-Care in Pre-Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B.; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R.; Streisand, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495

  18. Authoritative parenting, parenting stress, and self-care in pre-adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R; Streisand, Randi

    2012-09-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning. PMID:22350495

  19. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. PMID:26315665

  20. Family Functioning and Child Behavioral Problems in Households Affected by HIV and AIDS in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Tonya R; Kidman, Rachel; Nice, Johanna; Ikamari, Lawrence

    2015-08-01

    HIV places acute stressors on affected children and families; especially in resource limited contexts like sub-Saharan Africa. Despite their importance, the epidemic's potential consequences for family dynamics and children's psychological health are understudied. Using a population-based sample of 2,487 caregivers and 3,423 children aged 8-14 years from the Central Province of Kenya, analyses were conducted to examine whether parental illness and loss were associated with family functioning and children's externalizing behaviors. After controlling for demographics, a significant relationship between parental illness and externalizing behaviors was found among children of both genders. Orphan status was associated with behavioral problems among only girls. Regardless of gender, children experiencing both parental loss and illness fared the worst. Family functioning measured from the perspective of both caregivers and children also had an independent and important relationship with behavioral problems. Findings suggest that psychological and behavioral health needs may be elevated in households coping with serious illness and reiterate the importance of a family-centered approach for HIV-affected children. PMID:25205474

  1. Common Illness and Preschooler’s Experiences in Child Care

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Gordon, Rachel; Crosnoe, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The majority of young American children regularly spend time in non-parental care settings. Such arrangements are associated with their experiences of common childhood illnesses. Why this linkage exits, how it varies across the socioeconomic spectrum, and whether it has implications for how parents arrange care are all important theoretical and policy issues. This study, therefore, applied a fixed effects design within structural equation modeling to data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1, 364). Results revealed that children were sick more often when cared for in a center and had more peer exposure in their primary care settings, although this latter association was observed only among children of the least educated mothers. Net of such factors, children in multiple arrangements did not experience more illness, but illnesses tended to decrease subsequent peer exposure as parents changed children’s care arrangements. PMID:23956356

  2. Anxiety/Stress among Mothers Living with HIV: Effects on Parenting Skills & Child Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Armistead, Lisa; Herbeck, Diane M.; Payne, Diana L.

    2010-01-01

    Parental HIV infection has been associated with negative outcomes for children, and parenting skills appear to be one mechanism operating in that association. The present study focuses on the relations between maternal stress, parenting, and child functioning among families where the mother is living with HIV. Sixty-nine mothers with at least one child between 6 and 12 years old completed questionnaires at the baseline assessment of an intervention designed to facilitate maternal disclosure of HIV status. Respondents were assessed using multiple measures of stress/anxiety, and parenting skills and child outcomes, including the Parenting Stress Index, the RAND Mental Health Inventory, the Family Routines Questionnaire, and the Child Behavior Checklist. Covariance structural modeling was used to assess the variable relationships, with latent constructs created for maternal anxiety/stress, parenting skills, and child problem behaviors (both direct and indirect effects were evaluated, with a model-based bootstrap used to verify model stability). Results demonstrated that maternal stress was negatively associated with a broad range of parenting skills, and that parenting skills were negatively associated with child problem behaviors. Mothers living with HIV who are anxious about their own health and functioning, and who were more stressed in their parental role, were more likely to exhibit poorer parenting skills—specifically to engage children less frequently in family routines (e.g., eating meals together, having a bedtime routine), poorer parent-child communication, and poorer and less consistent parenting discipline. Not uncommonly, mothers living with HIV experience a range of stressors above and beyond those related to their illness (e.g., poverty, residence in high risk and low resource communities, discrimination). Results demonstrate the need for interventions designed to decrease maternal stress and enhance parenting skills for families affected by HIV. PMID

  3. Parental Age and Lifespan Influence Offspring Recruitment: A Long-Term Study in a Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6–12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  4. Parental age and lifespan influence offspring recruitment: a long-term study in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  5. [Asthma and cost of illness].

    PubMed

    Beyhun, N Ercüment; Cilingiroğlu, Nesrin

    2004-01-01

    The basic aim of the activities concerning health is to implement the initiatives for people to attain the best health status and sustain it. That's why these initiatives have to be chosen from the ones that consume minimum resource and affect life quality and duration in most beneficial way. Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic disorders. Asthma brings significant direct and indirect costs to societies. To decrease the burden of asthma, it is necessary to emphasize its effects related to morbidity, mortality and material losses. Therefore, countries should give priority to cost of illness studies. PMID:15558364

  6. Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home Water Pollution Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Print this Page Air Pollution ...

  7. Mass Psychogenic Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... been exposed to something harmful. An outbreak of mass psychogenic illness is a time of anxiety and worry. During an outbreak, a lot of media coverage and the presence of ambulances or emergency ...

  8. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  9. Symptoms of Tickborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease , southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) , Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) , ehrlichiosis , and tularemia can result ... or neurologic symptoms. The rash seen with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) varies greatly from person to ...

  10. Illness anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Somatic symptom disorder; Somatic symptom and related disorders; Hypochondriasis ... Illness anxiety disorder is different from somatic symptom disorder. With somatic symptom disorder, the person has physical pain or other ...

  11. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer treatment options. Search on the website of local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. ...

  12. Gender Effects in Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Anne P.; Grossman, Frances K.

    The literature on how parent gender influences responses to children has grown enormously in the past decade; mothers and fathers have been found to differ on many dimensions and to be similar on just as many. Conflicting evidence also exists on how a child's gender affects parenting style. This paper reports some important gender differences in…

  13. Parenting: An Ecological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom, Ed.; Okagaki, Lynn, Ed.

    This book examines various aspects of parenting and influences on parents, including such key contexts affecting child development as school, neighborhood, and culture. After a forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner and a preface by Tom Luster and Lynn Okagaki, which together help to introduce the topics to be discussed, the book is divided into nine…

  14. Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, Ed

    The paper discusses the rationale and guidelines for parent involvement in HCEEP (Handicapped Children's Early Education Program) projects. Ways of assessing parents' needs are reviewed, as are four types of services to meet the identified needs: parent education, direct participation, parent counseling, and parent provided programs. Materials and…

  15. Treating feverish illness in children aged under five years.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Penny

    2014-12-01

    Fever is the most likely reason for a child to be taken to the doctor and, occasionally, the signs may indicate the start of serious illness. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has issued a quality standard for the care of feverish illness in children aged under five years, designed to ensure that no such cases are missed. Carers, usually parents, should be offered written and verbal advice if it is judged that they can safely take the child home and are happy to do so. The traffic light system is designed to assist assessment of the child on presentation and throughout the illness journey. PMID:25487400

  16. Parental Care Aids, but Parental Overprotection Hinders, College Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Matthew B.; Pierce, John D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students who have troublesome relationships with their parents show higher risk factors for poorer college adjustment. In the present study, we focused on the balance between two key aspects of parenting style, parental care and overprotection, as they affect the transition to college life. Eighty-three undergraduate…

  17. Parenting Stress, Parental Reactions, and Externalizing Behavior From Ages 4 to 10

    PubMed Central

    Mackler, Jennifer S.; Kelleher, Rachael T.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O’Brien, Marion

    2014-01-01

    The association between parenting stress and child externalizing behavior, and the mediating role of parenting, has yielded inconsistent findings; however, the literature has typically been cross-sectional and unidirectional. In the current study the authors examined the longitudinal transactions among parenting stress, perceived negative parental reactions, and child externalizing at 4, 5, 7, and 10 years old. Models examining parent effects (parenting stress to child behavior), child effects (externalizing to parental reactions and stress), indirect effects of parental reactions, and the transactional associations among all variables, were compared. The transactional model best fit the data, and longitudinal reciprocal effects emerged between parenting stress and externalizing behavior. The mediating role of parental reactions was not supported; however, indirect effects suggest that parenting stress both is affected by and affects parent and child behavior. The complex associations among parent and child variables indicate the importance of interventions to improve the parent–child relationship and reducing parenting stress. PMID:26778852

  18. Parental Monitoring or an Invasion of Privacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A parent's goal is to be sure each teen stays safe, makes responsible decisions, and respects others. But the influence of peers, the temptation of freedom, access to alcohol and other drugs, and unsupervised activities cause parents to fear that their teen may be ill-equipped to negotiate the complicated world. The transition from dependence to…

  19. Adaptation to bipolar disorder and perceived risk to children: a survey of parents with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a common condition associated with significant morbidity and reduced quality of life. In addition to challenges caused by their mood symptoms, parents affected with BPD harbor concerns about the mental health of their children. Among adult parents who perceive themselves to have BPD, this study aims to examine participants’ coping methods; identify predictors of adaptation; assess parental perceptions of risks for mood disorders among their children; and describe the relationships among illness appraisals, coping, adaptation to one’s own illness, and perceived risk to one’s children. Methods Parents who self-identified as having BPD completed a web-based survey that assessed dispositional optimism, coping, perceived illness severity, perceived etiology of BPD, perceived risk to offspring, and adaptation to BPD. Participants had at least one unaffected child who was 30 years of age or below. Results 266 parents were included in the analysis. 87% of parents endorsed a “somewhat greater” or “much greater” risk for mood disorders in one’s child(ren) than someone without a family history. Endorsing a genetic/familial etiology to BPD was positively correlated with perceived risk for mood disorders in children (rs = .3, p < 0.01) and active coping with BDP (r = .2, p < 0.01). Increased active coping (β = 0.4, p < 0.001) and dispositional optimism (β = 0.3, p < 0.001) were positively associated with better adaptation, while using denial coping was negatively associated with adaptation (β = −0.3, p < 0.001). The variables explained 55.2% of the variance in adaptation (F = 73.2, p < 0.001). Coping mediated the effect of perceived illness severity on adaptation. Conclusions These data inform studies of interventions that extend beyond symptom management and aim to improve the psychological wellbeing of parents with BPD. Interventions targeted at illness perceptions and

  20. Mental and Physical Health Outcomes in Parents of Children with Burn Injuries as Compared with Matched Controls.

    PubMed

    Enns, Jessica; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Khan, Sazzadul; Chateau, Dan; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Stone, James; Doupe, Malcolm; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric burn injuries are common, and the stress of caring for them can affect caregivers' health. This study's objective was to examine the rates of common mental and physical disorders of parents of burn-injured children (cases) compared with matched controls (controls). This is a population-based study linking the Regional Pediatric burn registry with administrative health information. Pediatric burn cases were matched 1:5 with control children from the general population based on age, sex, and geographical location then parents identified. One thousand and twenty-six parental cases and 4858 controls were identified. International Classification of Disease codes were used to identify diagnoses of common mental and physical disorders. Using rates of disease 2 years before and 2 years after the date of burn, the changes in the relative rates of health outcomes were compared between the cases and the controls. The cases had higher rates of postinjury mental and physical illness compared with the matches. However, it was found that controls also had increased rates postindex date and additionally cases had increased rates of preinjury illnesses. There was no difference in the relative rates of illnesses between the groups from pre- to post-index date. The higher rate of illness in cases postinjury could be explained by preinjury illness, and similar rate increases in the control cohort. Evaluation of the effect of a child's burn injury on parents should take into context the preexisting health of the parent. Socioeconomic factors associated with increased risk of burns may also be associated with adverse health outcomes. PMID:26361326

  1. A Growth Curve Analysis of the Joint Influences of Parenting Affect, Child Characteristics and Deviant Peers on Adolescent Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Paulo; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    This study purports that parental rejection and warmth are critical to the development of adolescent drug use, and investigates a model that also considers children's vulnerability and deviant peer affiliations. It tests mediation through the proximal risk factor of deviant peers. Poisson growth curve modeling was used to examine participants from…

  2. Peer Relationships Among Chronically Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    As new treatments allow chronically ill children to live longer, the relationship between the child's psychological state and his physical condition becomes paramount. Diabetics (N=42) between the ages of 10 and 21 answered questions about their disease. While most respondents did not feel that diabetes had affected relationships with peers,…

  3. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  4. Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg illness.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Armond S; Schmalstieg, Frank C

    2007-05-01

    When Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address, he was weak and dizzy; his face had a ghastly colour. That evening on the train to Washington, DC, he was febrile and weak, and suffered severe headaches. The symptoms continued; back pains developed. On the fourth day of the illness, a widespread scarlet rash appeared that soon became vesicular. By the tenth day, the lesions itched and peeled. The illness lasted three weeks. The final diagnosis, a touch of varioloid, was an old name for smallpox that was later used in the 20th century to denote mild smallpox in a partially immune individual. It was unclear whether Lincoln had been immunized against smallpox. Indeed, this review suggests that Lincoln had unmodified smallpox and that Lincoln's physicians tried to reassure the public that Lincoln was not seriously ill. Indeed, the successful conclusion of the Civil War and reunification of the country were dependent upon Lincoln's presidency. PMID:17551612

  5. Beethoven's creative illness.

    PubMed

    Bower, H

    1989-03-01

    One phase of Beethoven's life, between his 45th and 50th year, characterized by very low creativity and overwhelming stress situations, is subjected to a psychiatric interpretation. The historical background is briefly sketched and 5 precipitating stress factors are outlined. The symptoms of his illness are described, using Beethoven's letters as source material. A brief discussion of Beethoven's musical style prior to and after his illness is based on quotations from three eminent musical scholars. A resume of Beethoven's physical and psychological disorders during his life are given and the conclusion is reached that between 1815 and 1820, Beethoven experienced a creative illness which was psychotic in type, ended in recovery and radically changed his musical creativity. PMID:2649058

  6. Family Functioning as a Constituent Aspect of a Child's Chronic Illness.

    PubMed

    Cipolletta, Sabrina; Marchesin, Valentina; Benini, Franca

    2015-01-01

    This study explored how family functioning may contribute to trace a child's illness trajectory. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 33 parents of children in care at a hospice in northern Italy. We also examined the medical records of the children, and interviewed the physician who cared for them. Data analysis was based on the grounded theory approach. Different illness progressions corresponded to the different ways with which families experienced the illness: possibility, focus on illness, denial, and anger. Clinical interventions should involve the whole family and take into account their role in the construction of illness trajectories. PMID:25682020

  7. Affectional Patterns of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a shift with age in affection (1) from parents to friends, (2) from one parent to the other, and (3) from same-sex to opposite-sex friends. Subjects, eighth graders and eleventh graders, completed the Measurement of Family Affective Structure. (Author)

  8. Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2013-01-01

    While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…

  9. Development and Psychometric Testing of the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Gisladottir, Margret; Svavarsdottir, Erla Kolbrun

    2016-08-01

    Illness beliefs affect how individuals and families deal with illness. A valid and reliable instrument has not yet been developed to measure "illness beliefs" in family nursing research and clinical practice. This article describes the purpose, reliability, validity, and the potential clinical and research applications of a new instrument, the Iceland-Family Illness Beliefs Questionnaire (ICE-FIBQ). The ICE-FIBQ is a short, self-report measure of an individual's beliefs about illness. Drawing from an advanced nursing practice model called the Illness Beliefs Model, the instrument was developed to measure illness beliefs about (a) cause of illness, that is, etiology; (b) control of illness on family and control of family on illness; (c) effect of illness on the individual and family; (d) illness suffering; and (e) support received from health care professionals during illness. The instrument was tested on 139 family caregivers of adolescents/youth with an illness or a disorder. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the original questionnaire from eight to seven items with a one-factor solution (Cronbach's α = .780). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the one-factor solution (Cronbach's α = .789). Further research is needed to determine concurrent validity with other illness belief/illness perception scales and if the instrument is sensitive to capture change in illness beliefs following family nursing intervention. PMID:27496811

  10. Young Children's Predictions of Illness: Failure To Recognize Probabilistic Causation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalish, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined whether preschoolers viewed outcomes of familiar causes of illness as definite or probabilistic. Findings indicated that children judged that a common cause would affect all group members the same, and believed they could definitely predict illness outcomes in a single case, contrasting with adults' variable and…

  11. Get Well Care: Guidelines for Programs Serving Mildly Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Ellen Orton, Ed.

    Although child care programs for mildly ill children are proliferating around the country, very few states have developed regulations for these types of programs, and no states have developed standards or guidelines. Based upon this concern, a group of medical and early childhood professionals, parents, and directors of programs for mildly ill…

  12. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  13. Alienation and Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobasa, Suzanne C.

    Reviews of studies of four groups (business executives, lawyers, Army officers, and working women) which demonstrate the health-damaging effects of alienation in certain life situations show that, when under stress, members of these groups who feel alienated fall ill, medically and/or psychiatrically. Three models are described which may explain…

  14. Mozart's illnesses and death.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P J

    1983-01-01

    Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with death from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his death. PMID:6352940

  15. [Gustave Flaubert's illness].

    PubMed

    Gastaut, H; Gastaut, Y

    1982-01-01

    All those interested in Gustave Flaubert's illness, during his lifetime as well as after his death, have agreed that he had epilepsy. The one important exception is Jean-Paul Sartre, who, in the 2800 pages of his "Idiot de la famille" claimed that Flaubert was a hysteric with very moderate intelligence who somatized his neurosis in the form of seizures. These, in Sartre's views, were moreover probably hysterical, but possibly epileptic resulting from the existence of a psychogenic epilepsy bred from the neurosis. The basis for this neurosis could have originated at the time of Gustave's birth, as this occurred between those of two brothers who both died young, and as his mother had wished for a daughter. Further development of the neurosis might have taken place during a temporary phase of learning difficulties, exaggerated and exploited by his father to make his youngest son the idiot of a family in which the eldest son was the dauphin. Destroyed in this way, Gustave would have sought refuge in passivity and could have developed a hatred for his father and for his elder brother, who he would have liked to kill before killing himself. But, unable to carry out his wishes and desiring both to die and to survive, Gustave, adolescent, might have chosen the pathway of "false deaths", as exemplified by the seizures. Modern epileptology data enables not only to confirm the epileptic etiology and to discount the hysterical nature of the fits, but also: 1. to establish precise details of the site and nature of the cerebral lesions responsible for the attacks: neonatal atrophy or vascular malformation of the occipitotemporal cortex of the left hemisphere, the only lesion capable of provoking: a) the phosphenes marking the onset of the seizures; b) the intellectual manifestations (forced thoughts or flight of ideas), affective features (panic terror), and psychosensory (ecmnesic hallucinations) or psychomotor (confusional automatism) symptoms accompanying some attacks; c) the

  16. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part II. The vulnerable child syndrome and its relation to parental overprotection.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Shonkoff, J P; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C

    1995-08-01

    Parents who are excessively concerned about their child's health are often characterized as being overprotective. We hypothesized that parental overprotection is independent of parental perception of child vulnerability to illness or injury despite their presumed interchangeability. A community-based sample of 892 parents (92% white, 84% married, 88% middle-upper socioeconomic status, 90% mothers) completed a three-part protocol (clinical background data, the Child Vulnerability Scale, and the Parent Protection Scale). Correlates of high parental perception of child vulnerability included a medical condition in the child, a history of life-threatening illness or injury, and the child being seen for a sick visit. Correlates of high parental overprotection included younger age of child and parent. Only 20% of those parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective. PMID:7593660

  17. Living Arrangements and Social Support: Effects on the Well-Being of Mothers with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Hollingsworth, Leslie; Goodkind, Sara; Oyserman, Daphna

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the effects of living arrangements on the well-being of mothers with a serious mental illness. Analyses of data from a National Institute of Mental Health-funded study of an urban, primarily African American sample of 379 mothers with mental illness revealed few differences in parenting or social functioning between mothers…

  18. Gulf War Illness: Challenges Persist

    PubMed Central

    Nettleman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the United States and coalition forces entered Kuwait and Iraq. Actual combat was of remarkably short duration: less than 1 week of sustained ground activity and 6 weeks of air missions. Thus, it was surprising when approximately 200,000 returning US veterans were affected by a chronic multi-symptom illness that came to be known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There were many challenges in investigating GWI, not least of which was that it took several years before the condition was officially taken seriously. There were multiple exposures to potentially causal agents on and off the battlefield, but these exposures were documented incompletely if at all, leaving epidemiologists to rely on self-report for information. In the past 2 years, significant controversy has arisen over the future directions of the field. Despite these challenges, several studies have implicated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide in the genesis of the condition. The story of GWI can inform research into other conditions and guide future work on veterans' health. PMID:26330683

  19. Gulf War Illness: Challenges Persist.

    PubMed

    Nettleman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the United States and coalition forces entered Kuwait and Iraq. Actual combat was of remarkably short duration: less than 1 week of sustained ground activity and 6 weeks of air missions. Thus, it was surprising when approximately 200,000 returning US veterans were affected by a chronic multi-symptom illness that came to be known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There were many challenges in investigating GWI, not least of which was that it took several years before the condition was officially taken seriously. There were multiple exposures to potentially causal agents on and off the battlefield, but these exposures were documented incompletely if at all, leaving epidemiologists to rely on self-report for information. In the past 2 years, significant controversy has arisen over the future directions of the field. Despite these challenges, several studies have implicated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide in the genesis of the condition. The story of GWI can inform research into other conditions and guide future work on veterans' health. PMID:26330683

  20. Mood lability among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and community controls

    PubMed Central

    Birmaher, Boris; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Axelson, David A; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Fan, Jieyu; Iyengar, Satish; Ha, Wonho; Diler, Rasim S; Goldstein, Tina; Brent, David; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Sakolsky, Dara; Kupfer, David J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Early identification of bipolar disorder (BP) symptomatology is crucial for improving the prognosis of this illness. Increased mood lability has been reported in BP. However, mood lability is ubiquitous across psychiatric disorders and may be a marker of severe psychopathology and not specific to BP. To clarify this issue, this study examined the prevalence of mood lability and its components in offspring of BP parents and offspring of community control parents recruited through the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study. Methods Forty-one school-age BP offspring of 38 BP parents, 257 healthy or non-BP offspring of 174 BP parents, and 192 offspring of 117 control parents completed a scale that was developed to evaluate mood lability in youth, i.e., the Children’s Affective Lability Scale (CALS). Results A factor analysis of the parental CALS, and in part the child CALS, revealed Irritability, Mania, and Anxiety/Depression factors, with most of the variance explained by the Irritability factor. After adjusting for confounding factors (e.g., parental and offspring non-BP psychopathology), BP offspring of BP parents showed the highest parental and child total and factor scores, followed by the non-BP offspring of BP parents, and then the offspring of the controls. Conclusions Mood lability overall and mania-like, anxious/depressed, and particularly irritability symptoms may be a prodromal phenotype of BP among offspring of parents with BP. Prospective studies are warranted to clarify whether these symptoms will predict the development of BP and/or other psychopathology. If confirmed, these symptoms may become a target of treatment and biological studies before BP develops. PMID:23551755

  1. Posttraumatic Growth in Parents and Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Picoraro, Joseph A.; Womer, James W.; Kazak, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pediatric medical experiences are potentially traumatic but may lead to psychological growth. Objective: The study objective was to synthesize the published literature regarding posttraumatic growth (PTG) in parents and patients with serious pediatric illness (SPI) into a conceptual model. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Sociological Abstracts in December 2012 to identify articles on stress or trauma caused by medical events with PTG as an outcome, reviewing articles pertaining to the pediatric population. We additionally reviewed articles outside pediatric medicine that described a model of PTG. Results: Of the 605 articles identified, 55 met inclusion criteria, 26 of which examined parents or pediatric patients. Parents and children may experience PTG following medical trauma through a combination of cognitive and affective processing of their subjective experience. Components of SPI-PTG are unclear, but may include greater appreciation of life, improved interpersonal relationships, greater personal strength, recognition of new possibilities in one's life course, spiritual or religious growth, and reconstruction of a positive body image. Individual characteristics, and the level of social support, may affect the likelihood that SPI-PTG will occur. SPI-PTG in siblings and other family members has not been well studied. Conclusions: SPI-PTG is an important but understudied and inadequately understood phenomenon affecting children with SPI and their family members. Research should focus on clarifying SPI-PTG domains, creating measurement instruments, assessing SPI-PTG across the pediatric age range and among family members, and improving our understanding of and ability to positively intervene regarding the cognitive processes of rumination, sense making, and benefit finding. PMID:24443768

  2. An unexplained illness in West Otago.

    PubMed

    Poore, M; Snow, P; Paul, C

    1984-06-13

    An apparent epidemic of undiagnosed illness in a rural general practice was investigated. The aims were to describe the illness, the characteristics of the people affected, and to look for possible causes. The patients were questioned about their symptoms, and both patients and controls matched for age and sex, were questioned about possible aetiological factors. Twenty-eight cases were identified; all but three were less than 45 years of age; there were equal numbers of females and males. The most commonly experienced symptoms were tiredness, mood and sleep disturbances, headache, and joint or muscle pains. Results of the case-control study suggested that pollution of the water supply, zoonotic infections, contact with agricultural chemicals, and self-dosing with selenium were unlikely to be causes of this illness. An unidentified virus was regarded as the most likely cause. PMID:6589518

  3. Pain management in critically ill obese patients.

    PubMed

    Astle, Sonia M

    2009-09-01

    Achieving pain control in critically ill patients is a challenging problem for the health care team, which becomes more challenging in morbidly obese patients. Obese patients may experience drug malabsorption and distribution, which may lead to either subtherapeutic or toxic drug levels. To manage pain effectively for the critically ill obese patient, nurses must have an understanding of how obesity alters a patient's physiologic response to injury and illness. In addition, nurses must be knowledgeable about physiologic pain mechanisms, types and manifestations of pain, differing patterns of drug absorption and distribution, pharmacokinetic properties of analgesic medications, and pain management strategies. This article explores factors affecting pharmacokinetics in obese patients, trends in pain management, and treatment strategies for the obese patient. PMID:19840712

  4. Parents Often Don't Get Rid of Leftover Prescription Opioids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158859.html Parents Often Don't Get Rid of Leftover Prescription ... Percocet, for surgery or illness, about half of parents say they keep the leftover medicine on hand. " ...

  5. Physical Illness, Psychiatric Illness, and the Acceptability of Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deluty, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Assessed whether attitudes toward suicide vary as function of type of illness that precipitates suicide. College students (N=455) responded to scenarios of suicide victim. Evaluations of suicide were most favorable when it occurred in response to terminal physical illness; less favorable in response to chronic, non-terminal physical illness; and…

  6. Vaccines Stop Illness | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... like polio and meningitis will affect their children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  7. Single-Parent Families: Myth and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verzaro, Marce; Hennon, Charles B.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the myths surrounding single-parent families. Discusses lifestyles, parental roles, parent-child relationships, psychological development of the child, and how these concerns affect home economics programs (knowledge, skills, coping patterns, teaching methods, the role of 4-H, stereotypes, and teachers' communication with parents). (CT)

  8. What Do Children with Chronic Diseases and Their Parents Think About Pediatricians? A Qualitative Interview Study.

    PubMed

    Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Marcinowicz, Ludmiła; Abramowicz, Paweł; Abramowicz, Magdalena

    2016-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine how pediatric patients and their parents perceive health care during hospital stays, what are their expectations of doctor behaviors, and which components of care do they consider to be the most important. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was carried out using the open interview technique. Twenty-six parents and 22 children undergoing hospital treatment participated. Results Our analysis identified two major themes: (1) doctor verbal and non-verbal behaviors, which included informing and explaining, conversations on topics other than the illness, tone of voice and other behaviors; and (2) perceived strategies used by doctors. This category included claims of doctors' intentional use of medical jargon to avoid addressing parental questions directly. Parents admitted that they did not understand medical vocabulary, but they also thought they might understand more of the medical issues if the doctor spoke using terms comprehensible to them. Conlcusions Our study shows the importance of interpersonal relationship affecting patient perception of quality of pediatric care. Parents of pediatric patients perceive that doctors behave in ways that deflect parents' questions and avoid providing them with medical information. Such behaviors include doctors excusing themselves by saying they are busy and using medical jargon. Medical students and doctors should be trained to communicate effectively with patients and their parents and develop skills to convey information in a simple and comprehensible way. PMID:27008175

  9. Immunological dysfunction, vaccination and Gulf War illness

    PubMed Central

    Peakman, Mark; Skowera, Ania; Hotopf, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    One candidate cause of Gulf War illness is vaccination against infectious diseases including medical counter-measures against biological weapons. One influential theory has suggested that such mass-vaccination caused a shift in immune response to a Type 2 cytokine pattern (Th2), which it was suggested was accompanied by a chronic fatigue syndrome-like illness. This article critically appraises this theory. We start by examining epidemiological evidence, which indicates that single vaccines are unlikely to be a substantial cause of Gulf War illness, but that there was a modest relationship with multiple vaccines, which was strongest in those vaccinated while deployed to the Gulf. These relationships may be affected by recall bias. We conclude by examining the results of immunological studies carried out in veterans or in a relevant setting in vitro. The balance of evidence from immunological studies on veterans returning from the War, including those developing multi-symptom illness, is that the immune response has not become polarized towards Th2. In summary, the epidemiological evidence for a multiple vaccine effect on Gulf War-related illness remains a potentially important aetiological lead, but mechanistic studies available at this stage do not identify any immunological basis for it. PMID:16687270

  10. [Decompression illness: minor symptoms, major consequences].

    PubMed

    Gho, J M I H Ing Han; Kramer, Irene Fleur; van Hulst, Rob A; Kramer, William L M

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, diving is being performed ever more frequently; it is thus important to take diving injuries into consideration in patients presenting with even minor complaints after diving. Every dive is risky and could result in decompression illness, barotrauma and/or death. We report on two cases of decompression illness: a 30-year old man, an occupational diver, and a 46-year old man, an experienced diver, who were both clinically suspected of having decompression illness and were treated with hyperbaric oxygen in a recompression chamber. Both were eventually symptom-free after several treatments. Decompression illness is caused by a reduction in ambient pressure, which results in intra- or extravascular bubbles. Symptoms vary and are dependent on the site affected: from minor pain to neurological symptoms and death. If patients are suspected of having diving injuries, we recommend contacting a centre specialised in diving and hyperbaric medicine. Recompression in a hyperbaric chamber is the definitive treatment for decompression illness and should be performed as soon as possible. PMID:22951132

  11. Wounded, Ill, and Injured Challenges.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    The Washington Post articles of February 2007 led to a close examination of the care provided Wounded Warriors at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Subsequent reports by the President's Commission, Independent Review Group, and Defense Health Board all recommended ways to improve care. Joint Task Force National Capital Region Medical was established to implement the recommended improvements in Warrior care, and the recommendations of the Base Realignment and Closure Commission to close Walter Reed and realign the staff into a new Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and Fort Belvoir Community Hospital. It accomplished these tasks, maintained existing wounded, ill, and injured care, and safely transferred patients during the height of the fighting season in Afghanistan. It successfully accomplished its mission through engaged leadership, establishing an appropriate environment for Warrior care, careful management of casualty flow, and robust communication with all parties affected by the changes. The lessons learned in Warrior care should be considered when planning future military medical operations. PMID:27215871

  12. Prevention of Ill Health

    PubMed Central

    Muir, D. C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose and possibilities of prevention in the workplace are described. A problem solving approach begins by identifying physical, chemical or organizational factors in the work environment and personal health factors in the individual worker. Consulting experts may be required to assist in the process. Methodical assessment of the value of collecting data or of intervention policies will be required as increasing emphasis is placed on the development of truly effective preventive health policies. Major success so far must be credited to engineering and industrial hygiene endeavors. However, the occupational health professional is the only member of the team with knowledge of individual workers' health and who can thus render appropriate advice. With the employment of handicapped, disabled or recently ill workers, the physician's role will become increasingly important in the prevention of ill health at work. PMID:21289686

  13. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  14. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. PMID:11579183

  15. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  16. Images of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, Mark F.

    1992-01-01

    The images we as physicians retain of our patients have a bearing on the evolution of our clinical behaviour and attributes. These images can enhance our diagnostic and therapeutic skills, increase our capacity to care for people with incurable diseases, and offer insights into our own emotional response. A recollection of five people with Parkinson's disease offers a college of images to give us further insights into the meaning of illness-for the patient and the physician. PMID:20469529

  17. Explanatory style and illness.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C; Seligman, M E

    1987-06-01

    Explanatory style is an individual difference that influences people's response to bad events. The present article discusses the possibility that a pessimistic explanatory style makes illness more likely. Several studies suggest that people who offer internal, stable, and global explanations for bad events are at increased risk for morbidity and mortality. We tentatively conclude that passivity, pessimism, and low morale foreshadow disease and death, although the process by which this occurs is unclear. PMID:3612470

  18. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  19. Suicide in the Medically Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Douglas; Kleespies, Phillip

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between medical illness and suicide seems to be multi-faceted. While medical illness is not the sole determinant of suicide, certain illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS and brain cancers, do appear to elevate the risk of suicide. Possible effective prevention efforts include education of primary care providers, and improved medication…

  20. Parental Expressed Emotion and Youth Psychopathology: New Directions for an Old Construct

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Levels of parental expressed emotion (EE) are prospectively associated with the symptomatic course of a range of childhood psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the literature linking parental EE to youth psychopathology and proposes a novel framework for understanding its mechanisms of action. We find that, despite noteworthy methodological limitations, parental EE is linked consistently to a more deleterious course of mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders in youth. Its mechanism of action is unknown. Models of “toxic family stress” (referring to frequent, sustained, and uncontrollable stress without protective influences) provide one framework for understanding how high EE environments interact with individual biological vulnerabilities to promote illness onset and recurrence. Research aimed at understanding biological responses (e.g., stress reactivity, arousal) to familial EE is needed. Such work may inform efforts to understand how EE affects the course of psychiatric disorders and may guide the development of novel interventions emphasizing emotion regulation strategies. PMID:25552241

  1. Parental Expressed Emotion and Youth Psychopathology: New Directions for an Old Construct.

    PubMed

    Peris, Tara S; Miklowitz, David J

    2015-12-01

    Levels of parental expressed emotion (EE) are prospectively associated with the symptomatic course of a range of childhood psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the literature linking parental EE to youth psychopathology and proposes a novel framework for understanding its mechanisms of action. We find that, despite noteworthy methodological limitations, parental EE is linked consistently to a more deleterious course of mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders in youth. Its mechanism of action is unknown. Models of "toxic family stress" (referring to frequent, sustained, and uncontrollable stress without protective influences) provide one framework for understanding how high EE environments interact with individual biological vulnerabilities to promote illness onset and recurrence. Research aimed at understanding biological responses (e.g., stress reactivity, arousal) to familial EE is needed. Such work may inform efforts to understand how EE affects the course of psychiatric disorders and may guide the development of novel interventions emphasizing emotion regulation strategies. PMID:25552241

  2. A review of factors associated with mental health in siblings of children with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Incledon, Emily; Williams, Lauren; Hazell, Trevor; Heard, Todd R; Flowers, Alexandra; Hiscock, Harriet

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews the literature on modifiable factors associated with mental health in siblings of children with chronic illness. Three clinical databases were searched. A total of 17 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several key themes emerged from the review. Better sibling mental health was associated with camp attendance, perceived parent/peer support, illness education and enhancing control through cognitive coping strategies and routine. Parental and sibling psychoeducation interventions and social support may enhance children's mental health when their sibling has a chronic illness. PMID:24270987

  3. The Effect of Children on Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambert, Anne-Marie

    Though not a new concept, child effect has yet to be integrated into mainstream research. This book offers a review of what is already "known" but generally ignored in the area of how children affect their parents, what kinds of children most affect their parents, and what characteristics in parents make them especially vulnerable to child effect.…

  4. Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post

  5. Motherhood in women with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Benders-Hadi, Nikole; Barber, Mary; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of motherhood among inpatient females at a large state psychiatric hospital in suburban New York, as well as develop an understanding of the characteristics and needs of this unique population. Data on motherhood status was gathered from October 2010 through April 2011 via medical records. Data on custody status, frequency of contacts with children, and effect of mental illness on parenting was assessed through patient surveys and focus groups. 38.5 % of female inpatients were found to be mothers, almost half of whom reported at least weekly contact with children despite their inpatient status. The majority of identified mothers reported having maintained custody of their minor children and expressed great pride at being primary caretakers for their children, yet also emphasized the challenging effects of stigma associated with mental illness and parenting. A significant proportion of women at this psychiatric hospital were found to be mothers. Although acknowledged by some clinicians at the individual level, motherhood appears to remain a forgotten role systemically. Determining motherhood status and recognizing the varied roles our patients have is one more way mental health providers can model and promote recovery-oriented care. PMID:22576070

  6. Diversity of Outcomes Among Adolescent Children of Mothers With Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; Allen -Meares, Paula; MacFarlane, Peter; Hart-Johnson, Tamera

    2004-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness are an at-risk population according to research on psychiatric outcomes using White, middle-class samples of depressed parents and infants and preschool children. The current study expands this evidence by exploring within-group heterogeneity across psychosocial outcomes, in a racially diverse, low-income…

  7. Family Stress with Chronic Childhood Illness: Cystic Fibrosis, Neuromuscular Disease, and Renal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holroyd, Jean; Guthrie, Donald

    1986-01-01

    Parents of children with neuromuscular disease, cystic fibrosis, and renal disease were compared with parents of control subjects matched by age to the clinical cases. The three clinical groups exhibited different patterns of stressful response, consistent with the nature of their illnesses and the requirements for care imposed on the families.…

  8. Parenting Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2005-01-01

    Parenting is a subject about which people typically hold strong opinions, but about which too little solid information or considered reflection exists. And clearly critical questions about parenting abound. Moreover, the family generally, and parenting specifically, are today in a greater state of flux, question, and re-definition than perhaps…

  9. Parental overprotection and its relation to perceived child vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1997-04-01

    A study of 280 parents with a child age 5-10 years examined the relation between and correlates of parental overprotection (less education, younger child age, being an only child) and parental perception of increased child vulnerability (history of life-threatening illness, child medical condition, first child). One-third of parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective. PMID:9142367

  10. Sleep in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: How Are Measures of Parent Report and Actigraphy Related and Affected by Sleep Education?

    PubMed

    Veatch, Olivia J; Reynolds, Ann; Katz, Terry; Weiss, Shelly K; Loh, Alvin; Wang, Lily; Malow, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common in children with autism, resulting in a great need for effective treatments. To evaluate treatments for sleep disturbance in this population, it is critical to understand the relationship between measures of sleep captured by parent report and objective measures. The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and actigraphy-measured data from 80 children with autism and sleep-onset delay were evaluated. Reported problems with sleep-onset delay were concurrent with sleep duration problems in 66% of children, night wakings in 72% of children, and bedtime resistance in 66% of children; 38% of children were reported to have problems with all CSHQ insomnia domains. Actigraphy-measured sleep duration was correlated with estimates using CSHQ-reported bed and wake times. PMID:26619899

  11. Parents Helping Parents: Mutual Parenting Network Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkinson, Charles H.; Redmond, Robert F.

    Guidelines for mutual parenting are provided in this handbook. "Mutual parenting" means that everyone in the community shares the responsibility for the safety and well-being of the community's youngsters. Several topics are discussed in the 15 brief chapters of the handbook. Chapters 1 through 3 focus on the formation of a mutual parenting…

  12. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from two Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semi-structured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants’ consideration of three critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship-building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network involuntary disclosure could happen without participants’ permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations where they experienced little discriminatory treatment and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  13. Mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence

    2013-07-01

    Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PMID:23647389

  14. Nine Steps to More Effective Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... more fulfilled as a parent. Boosting Your Child's Self-Esteem Kids start developing their sense of self as ... and actions as a parent affect their developing self-esteem more than anything else. Praising accomplishments, however small, ...

  15. Differences in health care utilization between parents who perceive their child as vulnerable versus overprotective parents.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-06-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders. PMID:8782954

  16. Children with chronic illnesses: factors influencing family hardiness.

    PubMed

    Woodson, Kenneth D; Thakkar, Sunny; Burbage, Michelle; Kichler, Jessica; Nabors, Laura

    2015-03-01

    The current study assessed factors related to family hardiness in families of children coping with medical procedures related to a chronic illness. Participants were 68 parents of children with chronic illnesses, who were receiving complex medical treatment at a local hospital. Parents completed a scale assessing family hardiness and a semi-structured interview assessing their positive and negative coping strategies and those of their child. A linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between several predictors, including child age, number of medical conditions for the child, family income, number of positive and negative parent and child coping strategies, and family hardiness (outcome variable). Results indicated that parents of older children and children who exhibited negative coping strategies reported lower family hardiness. Older children may have had their chronic illness for a longer period of time, which could be wearing for the children and their families. Results of this study suggested that negative child coping may have deleterious effects on the family, and nurses and other health professionals should provide ideas for positive child coping and consider collaboration with mental health providers when they identify children facing emotional problems. PMID:25555039

  17. Effectiveness of exome and genome sequencing guided by acuity of illness for diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Soden, Sarah E.; Saunders, Carol J.; Willig, Laurel K.; Farrow, Emily G.; Smith, Laurie D.; Petrikin, Josh E.; LePichon, Jean-Baptiste; Miller, Neil A.; Thiffault, Isabelle; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Twist, Greyson; Noll, Aaron; Heese, Bryce A.; Zellmer, Lee; Atherton, Andrea M.; Abdelmoity, Ahmed T.; Safina, Nicole; Nyp, Sarah S.; Zuccarelli, Britton; Larson, Ingrid A.; Modrcin, Ann; Herd, Suzanne; Creed, Mitchell; Ye, Zhaohui; Yuan, Xuan; Brodsky, Robert A.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) affect more than 3% of children and are attributable to single-gene mutations at more than 1000 loci. Traditional methods yield molecular diagnoses in less than one-half of children with NDD. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and whole-exome sequencing (WES) can enable diagnosis of NDD, but their clinical and cost-effectiveness are unknown. One hundred families with 119 children affected by NDD received diagnostic WGS and/or WES of parent-child trios, wherein the sequencing approach was guided by acuity of illness. Forty-five percent received molecular diagnoses. An accelerated sequencing modality, rapid WGS, yielded diagnoses in 73% of families with acutely ill children (11 of 15). Forty percent of families with children with nonacute NDD, followed in ambulatory care clinics (34 of 85), received diagnoses: 33 by WES and 1 by staged WES then WGS. The cost of prior negative tests in the nonacute patients was $19,100 per family, suggesting sequencing to be cost-effective at up to $7640 per family. A change in clinical care or impression of the pathophysiology was reported in 49% of newly diagnosed families. If WES or WGS had been performed at symptom onset, genomic diagnoses may have been made 77 months earlier than occurred in this study. It is suggested that initial diagnostic evaluation of children with NDD should include trio WGS or WES, with extension of accelerated sequencing modalities to high-acuity patients. PMID:25473036

  18. Changing the tide: stigma, school youth, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha

    2015-03-01

    Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders. PMID:25816446

  19. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6–17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors. PMID:26899475

  20. Locating legacy in illness.

    PubMed

    Froude, Cameron Kiely

    2016-06-01

    The author, a licensed marriage and family therapist, describes her work with Sofia, an eight-year-old Puerto Rican female with chronic and persistent abdominal pain and leg paralysis with no known organic cause. Sofia's mother, Ana, was also seen by the author. Over the course of several weeks, the family shared stories of painful medical procedures and extreme dietary plans prescribed to them by doctors to identify the etiology of Sofia's illness. Ana described her simultaneous relief and frustration when each test result indicated that there was no organic cause for Sofia's debilitating pain. They talked about the push and pull Ana's family experienced as they prayed simultaneously for abnormal and normal test results. The author told Sofia's pediatrician that she would begin to create a community genogram with the family in their next meeting. She explained that the purpose of the community genogram was to illustrate the social and historical contexts of families' lives. They learned that a seminal narrative in Sofia's family legacy connected deep understanding of others with embodiment of their immediate experience. Sofia's illness became one part of her and her family's legacy and cultural tapestry. Ana described the renewed connections that she and Sofia shared with their family members. As Sofia and Ana spoke with their family members more often, Sofia's leg paralysis and stomach pains decreased. Sofia began attending school regularly and visiting less with her pediatrician. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27270250

  1. Heat-related illness.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jonathan A; Stewart, Lynsey K

    2011-06-01

    Heat-related illness is a set of preventable conditions ranging from mild forms (e.g., heat exhaustion, heat cramps) to potentially fatal heat stroke. Hot and humid conditions challenge cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms. Once core temperature reaches 104°F (40°C), cellular damage occurs, initiating a cascade of events that may lead to organ failure and death. Early recognition of symptoms and accurate measurement of core temperature are crucial to rapid diagnosis. Milder forms of heat-related illness are manifested by symptoms such as headache, weakness, dizziness, and an inability to continue activity. These are managed by supportive measures including hydration and moving the patient to a cool place. Hyperthermia and central nervous system symptoms should prompt an evaluation for heat stroke. Initial treatments should focus on lowering core temperature through cold water immersion. Applying ice packs to the head, neck, axilla, and groin is an alternative. Additional measures include transporting the patient to a cool environment, removing excess clothing, and intravenous hydration. Delayed access to cooling is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with heat stroke. Identification of at-risk groups can help physicians and community health agencies provide preventive measures. PMID:21661715

  2. Transitional care for seriously mentally ill persons: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rose, Linda E; Gerson, Linda; Carbo, Cynthia

    2007-12-01

    This article reports the results of a pilot study of a nurse-based in-home transitional care intervention for seriously mentally ill persons. The goals of the intervention were to address the lack of continuity of care in existing programs and to meet the immediate postdischarge needs of severely mentally ill persons. This article focuses primarily on the applicability and feasibility of the intervention for this population, given the challenges of engaging seriously mentally ill patients in a community-based protocol and the complexity of their illnesses. Factors that are important to community adjustment postdischarge were identified: caregiver concerns and health status impeding illness management, lack of structure/involvement in daily activities, structural and functional factors affecting adherence, and presence of symptoms after discharge. Use of an advanced practice nurse to provide transitional care can offer an alternative to patients who might otherwise be left poorly treated or untreated in the community setting. PMID:18037440

  3. Parenting with Mild Intellectual Deficits: Parental Expectations and the Educational Attainment of Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined how the educational expectations that parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children's attainment, and how parents' own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2,712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a…

  4. Perceived Parenting Style and Adolescent Adjustment: Revisiting Directions of Effects and the Role of Parental Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan; Ozdemir, Metin

    2012-01-01

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have…

  5. School Achievement at the Secondary Level: Influence of Parenting Style and Parent Involvement in Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslandes, R.; Royer, E.; Turcotte, D.; Bertrand, R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies the influence of parenting style and parental involvement in schooling on academic achievement at the secondary level. Finds that parental acceptance, affective support, supervision, and granting psychological autonomy contributed to school achievement. Indicates that parents retain substantial influence over their adolescent's school…

  6. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Methods An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4 years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9 months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6 months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. Ethics and dissemination The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  7. Identification of quantitative trait loci affecting ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in an interspecific F1 poplar cross and differential expression of genes in ectomycorrhizas of the two parents: Populus deltoides and Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Labbe, Jessy L; Jorge, Veronique; Vion, Patrice; Marcais, Benoit; Bastien, Catherine; Tuskan, Gerald A; Martin, Francis; Le Tacon, F

    2011-01-01

    A Populus deltoides Populus trichocarpa F1 pedigree was analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting ectomycorrhizal development and for microarray characterization of gene networks involved in this symbiosis. A 300 genotype progeny set was evaluated for its ability to form ectomycorrhiza with the basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor. The percentage of mycorrhizal root tips was determined on the root systems of all 300 progeny and their two parents. QTL analysis identified four significant QTLs, one on the P. deltoides and three on the P. trichocarpa genetic maps. These QTLs were aligned to the P. trichocarpa genome and each contained several megabases and encompass numerous genes. NimbleGen whole-genome microarray, using cDNA from RNA extracts of ectomycorrhizal root tips from the parental genotypes P. trichocarpa and P. deltoides, was used to narrow the candidate gene list. Among the 1,543 differentially expressed genes (p value 0.05; 5.0-fold change in transcript level) having different transcript levels in mycorrhiza of the two parents, 41 transcripts were located in the QTL intervals: 20 in Myc_d1, 14 in Myc_t1, and seven in Myc_t2, while no significant differences among transcripts were found in Myc_t3. Among these 41 transcripts, 25 were overrepresented in P. deltoides relative to P. trichocarpa; 16 were overrepresented in P. trichocarpa. The transcript showing the highest overrepresentation in P. trichocarpa mycorrhiza libraries compared to P. deltoides mycorrhiza codes for an ethylene-sensitive EREBP-4 protein which may repress defense mechanisms in P. trichocarpa while the highest overrepresented transcripts in P. deltoides code for proteins/genes typically associated with pathogen resistance.

  8. The microbiome and critical illness.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    The central role of the microbiome in critical illness is supported by a half century of experimental and clinical study. The physiological effects of critical illness and the clinical interventions of intensive care substantially alter the microbiome. In turn, the microbiome predicts patients' susceptibility to disease, and manipulation of the microbiome has prevented or modulated critical illness in animal models and clinical trials. This Review surveys the microbial ecology of critically ill patients, presents the facts and unanswered questions surrounding gut-derived sepsis, and explores the radically altered ecosystem of the injured alveolus. The revolution in culture-independent microbiology has provided the tools needed to target the microbiome rationally for the prevention and treatment of critical illness, holding great promise to improve the acute and chronic outcomes of the critically ill. PMID:26700442

  9. Telling Adolescents a Parent Is Dying

    PubMed Central

    Burke Draucker, Claire; Christ, Grace H.; Murray Mayo, M.; Heim, Kim; Parish, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: When a parent is terminally ill, one of the major challenges facing families is informing children of the parent's condition and prognosis. This study describes four ways in which parents disclose information about a parent's life-threatening illness to their adolescent children. Methods: We audio-recorded and transcribed 61 individual interviews with hospice patients who were recruited from a large hospice in northeastern Ohio, their spouses/partners, and their adolescent children. The interviews were coded and analyzed using a constant comparison approach. Results and Conclusions: Families inform adolescents about the progression of a parent's terminal illness in characteristic ways that remain fairly consistent throughout the illness, and are aimed at easing the adolescents' burden and distress. The families engaged in the process of disclosure in one of four ways: measured telling, skirted telling, matter-of-fact telling, and inconsistent telling. These results will inform the development of interventions that assist families with disclosure and are tailored to each family's communication style. PMID:24745829

  10. Why Parents Matter: Parental Investment and Child Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Nigel

    There has been a recent academic controversy over whether parental child-rearing has any real effect on how offspring turn out. This book is a comprehensive collection of the experimental evidence establishing that parental treatment does affect child outcomes. Also included are natural experiments, as in the case of children raised in…

  11. Protein requirement in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2016-05-01

    How much protein do critically ill patients require? For the many decades that nutritional support has been used there was a broad consensus that critically ill patients need much more protein than required for normal health. Now, however, some clinical investigators recommend limiting all macronutrient provision during the early phase of critical illness. How did these conflicting recommendations emerge? Which of them is correct? This review explains the longstanding recommendation for generous protein provision in critical illness, analyzes the clinical trials now being claimed to refute it, and concludes with suggestions for clinical investigation and practice. PMID:26914090

  12. Chronic illness in the workplace: stigma, identity threat and strain.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Barnes-Farrell, Janet L

    2014-10-01

    Chronic illness affects a large and growing number of workers in the United States and globally. Stigmatization (devaluation) at work based on chronic illness may be stressful for individuals and therefore may lead to negative psychological consequences (i.e. strains). In order to better understand stressful experiences of stigma for workers with chronic illnesses, a model of stigma-related identity threat (perceptions that one is at risk of being treated negatively at work because of chronic illness) was tested on a sample of 203 working adults with chronic illnesses. The following variables related to workers' perceptions of chronic illness-related identity threat: workers' boundary flexibility (flexibility in managing their work and life), their meta-perceptions of devaluation (perceptions of others' devaluation of them based on illness) and their job self-efficacy (feelings of confidence related to performing their job). In turn, perceptions of identity threat related to both feelings of psychological strain and (lower levels of) perceived work ability. Surprisingly, neither stigma centrality (how fundamental illness is to one's identity) nor supervisor support related to workers' identity threat perceptions. PMID:23955842

  13. Neuroinflammation and psychiatric illness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence support the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric illness. While systemic autoimmune diseases are well-documented causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, synaptic autoimmune encephalitides with psychotic symptoms often go under-recognized. Parallel to the link between psychiatric symptoms and autoimmunity in autoimmune diseases, neuroimmunological abnormalities occur in classical psychiatric disorders (for example, major depressive, bipolar, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorders). Investigations into the pathophysiology of these conditions traditionally stressed dysregulation of the glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems, but the mechanisms causing these neurotransmitter abnormalities remained elusive. We review the link between autoimmunity and neuropsychiatric disorders, and the human and experimental evidence supporting the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in selected classical psychiatric disorders. Understanding how psychosocial, genetic, immunological and neurotransmitter systems interact can reveal pathogenic clues and help target new preventive and symptomatic therapies. PMID:23547920

  14. Components of implicit stigma against mental illness among Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Huang, Xiting; Jackson, Todd; Chen, Ruijun

    2012-01-01

    Although some research has examined negative automatic aspects of attitudes toward mental illness via relatively indirect measures among Western samples, it is unclear whether negative attitudes can be automatically activated in individuals from non-Western countries. This study attempted to validate results from Western samples with Chinese college students. We first examined the three-component model of implicit stigma (negative cognition, negative affect, and discriminatory tendencies) toward mental illness with the Single Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT). We also explored the relationship between explicit and implicit stigma among 56 Chinese university college students. In the three separate SC-IATs and the combined SC-IAT, automatic associations between mental illness and negative descriptors were stronger relative to those with positive descriptors and the implicit effect of cognitive and affective SC-IATs were significant. Explicit and implicit measures of stigma toward mental illness were unrelated. In our sample, women's overall attitudes toward mental illness were more negative than men's were, but no gender differences were found for explicit measures. These findings suggested that implicit stigma toward mental illness exists in Chinese students, and provide some support for the three-component model of implicit stigma toward mental illness. Future studies that focus on automatic components of stigmatization and stigma-reduction in China are warranted. PMID:23029366

  15. The determinants of parenting: a process model.

    PubMed

    Belsky, J

    1984-02-01

    This essay is based on the assumption that a long-neglected topic of socialization, the determinants of individual differences in parental functioning, is illuminated by research on the etiology of child maltreatment. Three domains of determinants are identified (personal psychological resources of parents, characteristics of the child, and contextual sources of stress and support), and a process model of competent parental functioning is offered on the basis of the analysis. The model presumes that parental functioning is multiply determined, that sources of contextual stress and support can directly affect parenting or indirectly affect parenting by first influencing individual psychological well-being, that personality influences contextual support/stress, which feeds back to shape parenting, and that, in order of importance, the personal psychological resources of the parent are more effective in buffering the parent-child relation from stress than are contextual sources of support, which are themselves more effective than characteristics of the child. PMID:6705636

  16. Intrafamilial conflict and parental investment: a synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Geoff A; Royle, Nick J; Hartley, Ian R

    2002-01-01

    We outline and develop current theory on how inherent genetic conflicts of interest between the various family members can affect the flow of parental investment from parents to offspring, and discuss the problems for empirical testing that this generates. The parental investment pattern realized in nature reflects the simultaneous resolution of all the conflicts between the family players. This depends on the genetic mechanism, the mating system and reproductive constraints, on whether extra demand by progeny affects current or future sibs, and particularly on the behavioural mechanisms underlying demand (begging or solicitation) and supply (provision of parental investment by parents). The direction of deviation from the optimal parental investment for the parent(s) depends on the slope of what we term the 'effect of supply on demand', the mechanism that determines how changes in food supply affect begging levels. If increasing food increases begging (positive slope), less parental investment is supplied than the parental optimum and if increasing food decreases begging (negative slope), more parental investment is supplied. The magnitude of deviation depends on both the 'effect of supply on demand' and on the 'effect of demand on supply' (the mechanism determining how changes in begging affect food supply, which always has a positive slope). We conclude that it will often be impossible to deduce the extent of underlying conflict by establishing the amount of parental investment given relative to the ideal optimum for the parent. Some possible directions for future research are discussed. PMID:11958698

  17. Transgender People (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical appearances. What society expects of men, women, boys, and girls also affects what we feel about ourselves. Every ... learning that their son wants to be a girl (or their daughter wants to be a boy) can be shocking. In the beginning, parents may ...

  18. PARENTAL ALLERGY TO FARM ALLERGENS NAD ALLERGIC ILLNESSES IN CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent literature has reported low asthma and/or atopy prevalence or associated symptoms in rural/agricultural populations. We found relatively high rates of childhood asthma (16%), atopy (36%), and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) (45%) in a completely rural cohort. The high...

  19. Many Parents Ill-Informed about Kids' Asthma Meds

    MedlinePlus

    ... recently in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology . Among roughly 200 children who were supposed to ... colleagues said. SOURCE: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology , news release, May 20, 2016 HealthDay Copyright (c) ...

  20. Nicole: Suicide and Terminal Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Judith M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents case summary of 58-year-old woman, terminally ill with cancer, who is contemplating suicide. Includes comments from Kjell Rudestam from the Fielding Institute and from Margaret Battin from the University of Utah who debate appropriate responses to people who contemplate suicide because of terminal illness. (NB)

  1. Valuing Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Eugenia Proctor

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a young faculty member commented that e-mail and inexpensive long distance rates were hampering her first-year students' development by making it too easy for them to stay in touch with their parents. Similarly, Judith Shapiro, president of Barnard College, argued in her August 22, 2002, New York Times op-ed piece, "Keeping Parents Off…

  2. Leadership Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes how three principles of leadership presented by Heifetz (1994) in "Leadership Without Easy Answers" can be translated into the leadership parenting of young children. Focuses on distinguishing between child-rearing issues that require parents to act as trainers versus those demanding a problem-solving role, on responding to children's…

  3. Parents' Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, George C.

    A psychologist discusses efforts at the Boston Center for Blind Children to help parents adjust to the demands of their multiply-handicapped, visually-impaired children. The following programs are found to be helpful: an infant home visiting program (see EC 062 470)in which parents develop their role through participating in an individualized…

  4. Parent Express.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Elise, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Intended for use by parents of infants and toddlers, this series of 27 8-page month-by-month newsletters provides research-based information on infant and child development and care from 0 to 36 months. Topics in the series for infants include: becoming a parent; getting ready for child birth; the newborn child; and characteristics of the child at…

  5. Mental Illness Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... population. Research on mental health epidemiology shows that mental disorders are common throughout the United States, affecting tens ... available on the prevalence, treatment, and costs of mental disorders for the population of the United States, in ...

  6. Child-parent shared decision making about asthma management.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Victoria; Smith, Joanna; Ormandy, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Aim To explore and describe child-parent shared decision making for the management of childhood asthma. Methods A qualitative, descriptive, interview-based study was undertaken. Eight children and nine parents participated. The framework approach underpinned data analysis. Findings A dynamic model of the way children and parents transfer, shift and share asthma management decisions was uncovered. Asthma management decisions between children and parents were non-linear, with responsibility transferring from parent to child under different conditions. Children made a range of decisions about their asthma, often sharing decisions with their parents. However, during acute illness episodes, children often relied on parents to make decisions about their asthma. Conclusion Neither the child nor parent has complete autonomy over asthma management decisions. Decision making is a dynamic, shifting and shared process, dependent on contextual factors and child and parent decision preferences. PMID:27156418

  7. Positive Parenting for High-Risk Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devall, Esther L.

    2004-01-01

    Teen, single, divorced, foster, abusive, substance affected, and incarcerated parents and their children participated in intensive parenting education classes lasting 9 to 24 weeks. Participants were primarily single (58%), Hispanic (60%), and female (60%). Parents showed significant increases in empathy and knowledge of positive discipline…

  8. Complementary and alternative approaches used by parents of children with epilepsy on epilepsy management.

    PubMed

    Işler, Ayşegül; Turan, Fatma Dilek; Gözüm, Sebahat; Oncel, Selma

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the complementary and alternative approaches used by parents of children with epilepsy on epilepsy management. This descriptive study included a total of 304 parents of children with epilepsy aged between 0 and 18years evaluated at the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Akdeniz University Hospital in Turkey between January and May 2013. Data were collected by using a questionnaire developed by the researchers. It was determined that all the parents use complementary and alternative approaches for their children with epilepsy, and the most common approaches are praying (99.3%); keeping their children away from the effects of smoking (79.8%); feeding their children walnuts (79.6%), butter (59.2%), and bone marrow (58.6%); providing their children with good quality sleep (58.6%); and enabling their children to play games (51%). The approaches commonly applied during seizures include praying (96.2%), comforting their children in their arms and showing affection (55.6%), waiting for seizures to finish at home (45.7%), and laying children on their side (41.1%). Of parents, 98% stated that alternative approaches enable them to control their child's seizures, 100% said that alternative approaches have no adverse effect, and 98.4% stated that they will continue to use these approaches. The children's approaches to cope with epilepsy included looking after pets (72.7%), listening to music (70.1%), watching television (64.5%), playing games (55.3%), praying (51%), and spending time with friends (48.7%). Most of the approaches used by parents and children with epilepsy for the management of illness are determined to consist of complementary approaches that may contribute to management of epilepsy. Knowing the approaches of parents and children with epilepsy that could adversely affect disease management is important for educating parents and children to avoid these potentially harmful interventions. PMID:24462737

  9. Examining the interaction of parental involvement and parenting style in predicting adherence in youth with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Landers, Sara E.; Friedrich, Elizabeth A.; Jawad, Abbas F.; Miller, Victoria A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This study examined whether aspects of parenting style (specifically, warmth, autonomy support, and coercion) moderated the association between parental involvement and adherence in youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods Children ages 8–16 years with type 1 diabetes and a parent completed assessments of parental involvement, parenting style, and adherence. Results Parent autonomy support and coercion were associated with adherence but warmth was not. Child report of more parental involvement was associated with better adherence. Warmth, autonomy support, and coercion were not moderators. Discussion The findings underscore the importance of parental involvement, operationalized as responsibility for diabetes tasks, and parenting style, specifically coercion and autonomy support, for adherence in pediatric chronic illness management. Longitudinal research is needed to better understand how and why dimensions of involvement (e.g., responsibility, monitoring, support) vary over time and whether they impact outcomes differentially. PMID:26866945

  10. Treatment of suspected heat illness.

    PubMed

    Eichner, E R

    1998-06-01

    1. Despite advances in the art and science of fluid balance, exertional heat illness -- even life-threatening heat stroke -- remains a threat for some athletes today. 2. Risk factors for heat illness include: being unacclimatized, unfit, or hypohydrated; certain illnesses or drugs; not drinking in long events; and a fast finishing pace. 3. Heat cramps typically occur in conditioned athletes who compete for hours in the sun. They can be prevented by increasing dietary salt and staying hydrated. 4. Early diagnosis of heat exhaustion can be vital. Early warning signs include: flushed face, hyperventilation, headache, dizziness, nausea, tingling arms, piloerection, chilliness, incoordination, and confusion. 5. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of heat illness include: confusion preventing self-diagnosis; the lack of trained spotters; rectal temperature not taken promptly; the problem of "seek not, find not;" and the mimicry of heat illness. 6. Heat stroke is a medical emergency. Mainstays of therapy include: emergency on-site cooling; intravenous fluids; treating hypoglycemia as needed; intravenous diazepam for seizures or severe cramping or shivering; and hospitalizing if response is slow or atypical. 7. The best treatment is prevention. Tips to avoiding heat illness include: rely not on thirst; drink on schedule; favor sports drinks; monitor weight; watch urine; shun caffeine and alcohol; key on meals for fluids and salt; stay cool when you can; and know the early warning signs of heat illness. PMID:9694424

  11. Consequences of caring for a child with a chronic disease: Employment and leisure time of parents.

    PubMed

    Hatzmann, Janneke; Peek, Niels; Heymans, Hugo; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha

    2014-12-01

    Chronically ill children require several hours of additional care per day compared to healthy children. As parents provide most of this care, they have to incorporate it into their daily schedule, which implies a reduction in time for other activities. The study aimed to assess the effect of having a chronically ill child on parental employment and parental leisure activity time, and to explore the role of demographic, social, and disease-related variables in relation to employment and leisure activities. Outcomes of 576 parents of chronically ill children and 441 parents of healthy school children were analyzed with multivariate regression. Having a chronically ill child was negatively related with family employment, maternal labor force participation, and leisure activity time. Use of child care was positively related to family and maternal employment of the total group of parents. Within parents of chronically ill children, most important finding was the negative relation of dependency of the child on daily care and low parental educational level with family and maternal employment. In conclusion, parents of chronically ill children, mothers in particular, are disadvantaged in society probably due to the challenge of combining child care with work and leisure time. PMID:23990657

  12. Chronic illness: the importance of support for families caring for a child with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Coyne, I T

    1997-03-01

    The effect of chronic life-threatening illness on the family is one of the major problems confronting the health-care system today. Increasingly, parents have the major responsibility for the daily management of their child's condition. There is evidence that many parents lack the professional help and support which could ameliorate some of their problems. It is important that nurses have an understanding of how families cope with the burden of caring for a chronically ill child. Health professionals need clear guidelines on how to support these families in their role as primary care-givers. This paper examines how families of children with cystic fibrosis adapt to the illness in order to provide indicators for nursing practice and to enhance the care and support provided for these families. Effective coping strategies include: assigning meaning to the illness, sharing the burden, denial of diagnosis and incorporating therapy in a schedule. PMID:9188350

  13. Recognising and managing decompression illness.

    PubMed

    Caton-Richards, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Seen primarily in scuba divers who have breathed compressed air, decompression illness is a rare but potentially fatal condition. Prompt recognition and treatment of the illness, and urgent referral of patients to hyperbaric chambers, can mean the difference between full recovery and paralysis or death. This article describes decompression illness and how to recognise it, and discusses the treatment that patients require for the best chance of recovery with no adverse effects. It also includes a case study of a patient who developed this condition after a dive. PMID:24219686

  14. Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cheek Rash Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses References Parvovirus B19 and Other Illnesses Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... disease is the most common illness caused by parvovirus B19 infection. Learn More Parvovirus B19 infection can cause ...

  15. The relationship between parental depressive symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Sieh, Dominik Sebstian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    It is evident that parental depressive symptoms negatively influence adolescent behavior and various psychosocial outcomes. Certain family types like families with a chronically ill parent and single parent families are more vulnerable to parental depressive symptoms. However, the relationship between these symptoms, family type, and adolescent functioning remains largely unclear. This study examined relations between self-report of parental depressive symptoms and adolescent functioning in 86 two-parent families including a parent with a chronic medical condition, 94 families with healthy single parents, and 69 families with 2 healthy parents (comparison group). Parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Adolescents filled in the Youth Self-Report measuring problem behavior, and other instruments measuring psychosocial outcomes (stress, grade point average, school problems, and self-esteem). Multilevel analyses were used to examine the effects of family type, parental depressive symptoms, adolescents' gender and age, and interaction effects on adolescent functioning. The results indicated that adolescents with chronically ill and single parents had a lower grade point average (p<.01) than the comparison group. Adolescents of single parents reported more internalizing problems (p<.01) and externalizing problems (p<.05) than children from the other family types. Parental depressive symptoms were strongly related to child report of stress (p<.001). Adolescents of depressed chronically ill parents were particularly vulnerable to internalizing problems (interaction effect, p<.05). Older children and girls, and especially older girls, displayed more internalizing problems and stress. It can be concluded that growing up with a chronically ill parent in a family with 2 parents may have less impact on adolescent problem behavior than growing up in a single parent family. Health practitioners are encouraged to be attentive to the unique and combined influence of

  16. Disutility of illness for caregivers and families: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Eve; Prosser, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Caring for an ill or disabled family member imposes a well-documented burden on the caregiver. The benefits of a health intervention may be underestimated if “spillover” effects on family members are not captured, resulting in inaccurate conclusions of economic evaluations. Objective To provide an estimate of, and to summarize measurement approaches for, the spillover disutility of illness on family members, relatives, and caregivers, through a systematic review of the literature. Methods The medical (PubMED), psychology (PsycINFO) and economics (EconLit) literatures were searched from inception through February, 2012 for published studies measuring spillover disutility of illness on family members and caregivers. Inclusion criteria were (1) studies using preference-based measures of health-related quality of life, and (2) studies reporting spillover disutility, or (3) studies reporting data from which a spillover disutility could be inferred. Results Fifteen studies were included in this review: 7 reported estimates of spillover disutility and 8 reporting data from which disutility could be inferred. Three studies found no disutility associated with spillover while 12 found measurable effects as large as −0.718 (and two found evidence of positive spillover in subsets of their samples). Generic (indirect) utility instruments were primarily used to measure spillover, including the EQ-5D, QWB and HUI (n=13), though two studies used modified versions of the time trade-off technique. Illnesses studied included childhood disorders (e.g., spina bifida, congenital malformations), diseases of the elderly (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease and dementia), physically disabling conditions (e.g., arthritis, multiple sclerosis), and medical conditions such as cancer and stroke. The persons affected by spillover included parents, grandparents, spouses/partners, other family caregivers, and household members. Conclusions There is a limited literature on the spillover

  17. Self-management interventions for chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stanton; Steed, Liz; Mulligan, Kathleen

    An increasing number of interventions have been developed for patients to better manage their chronic illnesses. They are characterised by substantial responsibility taken by patients, and are commonly referred to as self-management interventions. We examine the background, content, and efficacy of such interventions for type 2 diabetes, arthritis, and asthma. Although the content and intensity of the programmes were affected by the objectives of management of the illness, the interventions differed substantially even within the three illnesses. When comparing across conditions, it is important to recognise the different objectives of the interventions and the complexity of the issues that they are attempting to tackle. For both diabetes and asthma, the objectives are concerned with the underlying control of the condition with clear strategies to achieve the desired outcome. By contrast, strategies to deal with symptoms of pain and the consequences of disability in arthritis can be more complex. The interventions that were efficacious provide some guidance as to the components needed in future programmes to achieve the best results. But to ensure that these results endure over time remains an important issue for self-management interventions. PMID:15500899

  18. Total parenting.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In this essay, Richard Smith observes that being a parent, like so much else in our late-modern world, is required to become ever more efficient and effective, and is increasingly monitored by the agencies of the state, often with good reason given the many recorded instances of child abuse and cruelty. However, Smith goes on to argue, this begins to cast being a parent as a matter of "parenting," a technological deployment of skills and techniques, with the loss of older, more spontaneous and intuitive relations between parents and children. Smith examines this phenomenon further through a discussion of how it is captured to some extent in Hannah Arendt's notion of "natality" and how it is illuminated by Charles Dickens in his classic novel, Dombey and Son. PMID:20662172

  19. The Relationship between Age and Illness Duration in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Elizabeth; Brown, Abigail; McManimen, Stephanie; Jason, Leonard A; Newton, Julia L; Strand, Elin Bolle

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness, but it is unclear if patient age and illness duration might affect symptoms and functioning of patients. In the current study, participants were categorized into four groups based upon age (under or over age 55) and illness duration (more or less than 10 years). The groups were compared on functioning and symptoms. Findings indicated that those who were older with a longer illness duration had significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than those who were younger with a shorter or longer illness duration and the older group with a shorter illness duration. The results suggest that older patients with an illness duration of over 10 years have significantly higher levels of mental health functioning than the three other groups. For symptoms, the younger/longer illness duration group had significantly worse immune and autonomic domains than the older/longer illness group. In addition, the younger patients with a longer illness duration displayed greater autonomic and immune symptoms in comparison to the older group with a longer illness duration. These findings suggest that both age and illness duration need to be considered when trying to understand the influence of these factors on patients. PMID:27110826

  20. Mental Illness and Mental Health Defenses: Perceptions of the Criminal Bar.

    PubMed

    Frierson, Richard L; Boyd, Mary S; Harper, Angela

    2015-12-01

    As the number of state mental hospital beds declines, persons with persistent mental illness are increasingly encountered by those working in the legal system. Attorneys may have little experience in working with this population. This research involved a 32-item written survey of the 492 members of the criminal bar in South Carolina. Demographic variables were surveyed, and attorneys were asked to define two common terms describing mental illnesses (delusion and psychosis) and the legal criteria for verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity and guilty but mentally ill. They were also asked to identify the most severe mental illness (schizophrenia). Attitudes about these verdicts and about working with defendants who are mentally ill were also surveyed. Results indicate that attorneys are fairly knowledgeable about mental illness, but not verdicts involving mental illness, particularly the verdict of guilty but mentally ill. Most attorneys prefer to work with clients who do not have mental illness. However, as they become more experienced interacting with defendants who are affected by mental illness, they become more knowledgeable and are more willing to defend them. A large majority believe that their law school education about mental illness was inadequate. When comparing attorney occupations, public defenders were the most knowledgeable about mental illness and mental health defenses, followed by prosecutors and private defense attorneys. Judges were the least knowledgeable group. PMID:26668226