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Sample records for affectively ill parents

  1. [Families Affected by Parental Illness - What Obstacles Prevent them from Claiming Help and how Could their Supply Situation be Improved?].

    PubMed

    Kühnis, Romana; Müller-Luzi, Seraina; Schröder, Martin; Schmid, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Families Affected by Parental Illness - What Obstacles Prevent them from Claiming Help and how Could their Supply Situation be Improved? Current studies describe families affected by parental mental illness as a high-risk group. Although, interventions and programs were developed, the supply situation is still insufficient. In terms of a triangulation method, the present qualitative research with problem-centered semi-structured interviews stands in addition to the results of a quantitative study. This research investigates, which factors influence the claim of help and how the supply situation could be improved. 14 mothers and fathers in inpatient psychiatric treatment were interviewed. For instance is there a small awareness level of low-threshold services, parents also talk about different fears towards helpers or financial difficulty which prevent them from seeking help. PMID:27027216

  2. Transmission and Prevention of Mood Disorders among Children of Affectively Ill Parents: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardslee, William R.; Gladstone, Tracy R. G.; O'Connor, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide a conceptual review of the literature on children of depressed parents over the past 12 years. Method: This selective review focused on published studies that delineate the diagnosis of depression in parents, have large samples, describe children 6 to 17 years old, and are methodologically rigorous. The review emphasized…

  3. Excessive Reassurance Seeking, Hassles, and Depressive Symptoms in Children of Affectively Ill Parents: A Multiwave Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abela, John R. Z.; Zuroff, David C.; Ho, Moon-Ho R.; Adams, Philippe; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined whether excessive reassurance seeking serves as a vulnerability factor to depression in a sample of high-risk youth using a multiwave longitudinal design. At Time 1, 140 children (aged 6-14) of affectively disordered parents completed measures assessing reassurance seeking and depressive symptoms. In addition, every 6…

  4. Good-Parent Beliefs of Parents of Seriously Ill Children

    PubMed Central

    Feudtner, Chris; Walter, Jennifer K.; Faerber, Jennifer A.; Hill, Douglas L.; Carroll, Karen W.; Mollen, Cynthia J.; Miller, Victoria A.; Morrison, Wynne E.; Munson, David; Kang, Tammy I.; Hinds, Pamela S.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Parents’ beliefs about what they need to do to be a good parent when their children are seriously ill influence their medical decisions, and better understanding of these beliefs may improve decision support. OBJECTIVE To assess parents’ perceptions regarding the relative importance of 12 good-parent attributes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional, discrete-choice experiment was conducted at a children’s hospital. Participants included 200 parents of children with serious illness. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Ratings of 12 good-parent attributes, with subsequent use of latent class analysis to identify groups of parents with similar ratings of attributes, and ascertainment of whether membership in a particular group was associated with demographic or clinical characteristics. RESULTS The highest-ranked good-parent attribute was making sure that my child feels loved, followed by focusing on my child’s health, making informed medical care decisions, and advocating for my child with medical staff. We identified 4 groups of parents with similar patterns of good-parent–attribute ratings, which we labeled as: child feels loved (n = 68), child’s health (n = 56), advocacy and informed (n = 55), and spiritual well-being (n = 21). Compared with the other groups, the child’s health group reported more financial difficulties, was less educated, and had a higher proportion of children with new complex, chronic conditions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Parents endorse a broad range of beliefs that represent what they perceive they should do to be a good parent for their seriously ill child. Common patterns of how parents prioritize these attributes exist, suggesting future research to better understand the origins and development of good-parent beliefs among these parents. More important, engaging parents individually regarding what they perceive to be the core duties they must fulfill to be a good parent may enable more customized and

  5. A comparison of social support and social networks of black parents and white parents with chronically ill children.

    PubMed

    Williams, H A

    1993-12-01

    Characteristics of social networks and provision of support were examined for two groups of parents of chronically ill children, one group black and one group white. Black and white parents both reported similarities in the experience of parenting a child with a chronic illness. Both sets of parents relied primarily on family networks to provide much needed support. White networks were twice as large as black networks, although black parents perceived the individuals in their networks as being more supportive. For both groups, the networks were of long duration. Network members were geographically closer to blacks. White parents discussed support mostly in terms of affect. Black parents described support as instrumental actions. Differences in income levels between blacks and whites might account for differing descriptions of support. The experience of having a chronically ill child appears to override racism in the health care system. Black parents did not perceive any problems, based on race, that affected receiving medical care for their children.

  6. Molecular genetics in affective illness

    SciTech Connect

    Mendlewicz, J.; Sevy, S.; Mendelbaum, K. )

    1993-01-01

    Genetic transmission in manic depressive illness (MDI) has been explored in twins, adoption, association, and linkage studies. The X-linked transmission hypothesis has been tested by using several markers on chromosome X: Xg blood group, color blindness, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), factor IX (hemophilia B), and DNA probes such as DXS15, DXS52, F8C, ST14. The hypothesis of autosomal transmission has been tested by association studies with the O blood group located on chromosome 9, as well as linkage studies on chromosome 6 with the Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) haplotypes and on Chromosome 11 with DNA markers for the following genes: D2 dopamine receptor, tyrosinase, C-Harvey-Ras-A (HRAS) oncogene, insuline (ins), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Although linkage studies support the hypothesis of a major locus for the transmission of MDI in the Xq27-28 region, several factors are limiting the results, and are discussed in the present review. 105 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Stress in Adolescents with a Chronically Ill Parent: Inspiration from Rolland's Family Systems-Illness Model.

    PubMed

    Sieh, D S; Dikkers, A L C; Visser-Meily, J M A; Meijer, A M

    2012-12-01

    This article was inspired by Rolland's Family Systems-Illness (FSI) model, aiming to predict adolescent stress as a function of parental illness type. Ninety-nine parents with a chronic medical condition, 82 partners, and 158 adolescent children (51 % girls; mean age = 15.1 years) participated in this Dutch study. The Dutch Stress Questionnaire for Children was used to measure child report of stress. Ill parents completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Children filled in a scale of the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment measuring the quality of parent attachment. Both parents filled in the Parent-Child-Interaction Questionnaire-Revised. We conducted multilevel regression analyses including illness type, the ill parent's depressive symptoms, family functioning (quality of marital relationship, parent-child interaction, and parent attachment), and adolescents' gender and age. Four regression analyses were performed separately for each illness type as defined by disability (Model 1), and onset (Model 2), course (Model 3), and outcome of illness (Model 4). In all models, higher adolescent stress scores were linked to lower quality of parent-child interaction and parent attachment, and adolescents' female gender. The four models explained approximately 37 % of the variance in adolescent stress between individuals and 43-44 % of the variance in adolescent stress between families. Adolescent stress was not related to parental illness type. Our results partially supported the FSI model stating that family functioning is essential in point of child adjustment to parental illness. In the chronic stage of parental illness, adolescent stress does not seem to vary depending on illness type.

  8. Sperm function in affective illness.

    PubMed

    Amsterdam, J; Winokur, A; Levin, R

    1981-04-01

    There is evidence for functional changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of patients with affective disorders. Little is known concerning spermatogenesis or sperm function in depressed men. We systematically evaluated the sperm indices in a group of depressed males complaining of diminished libido, and a healthy control group. No differences were noted in sperm parameters between the groups.

  9. Group treatment for parents of the adult mentally ill.

    PubMed

    McLean, C S; Greer, K; Scott, J; Beck, J C

    1982-07-01

    Support and education groups for the families of the mentally ill have been in existence for at least 20 years. The authors describe a group treatment program established in 1979 for parents of chronically mentally ill individuals living in the community. The goal was to help parents become less overprotective, critical, and hostile so that clients would relapse less frequently and improve their social functioning during their time in the community. The groups provided parents with information and support. Some of the results of the groups include the implementation of new hospital procedures, more effective parenting, and a parent-initiated alliance on behalf of the mentally ill in the locality. PMID:7106719

  10. Parental Smoking Affects Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

  11. How illness affects family members: a qualitative interview survey

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberg, Eve; Saada, Adrianna; Prosser, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Spillover effects of illness on family members can be substantial. The purpose of this study was to identify the domains of family members’ health and well-being that are affected when a relative has a chronic health condition. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted in February, 2012 with 49 individuals whose relatives had any of five chronic health conditions (arthritis, cancer, Alzheimer’s disease/dementia, cerebral palsy, and depression), purposively sampled to include different relationships with the ill relative (parent, child, spouse). Subjects were queried on whether and how having an ill relative affected their health and well-being; they were also asked about their caregiving responsibilities and the relative’s health. Interview data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Family members in our sample reported experiencing psychological and non-health effects from having an ill relative, and secondarily somatic effects. Effects on emotional health were most commonly reported as psychological spillover; non-health effects frequently included changes in daily activities and provision of caregiving. Spouses of patients reported the broadest range of spillover domains affected and adolescents of ill parents the fewest. Family members reported experiencing effects that were perceived as both positive and negative. Conclusions Spillover of illness onto family members encompasses a wide range of domains of health and well-being, extending beyond those included in many existing health-related quality of life measures. Outcomes measurement efforts should be expanded to adequately capture these health and well-being outcomes for analysis, to ensure that the benefits of interventions are accurately estimated and conclusions are valid. PMID:24142495

  12. Parenting interventions for childhood chronic illness: a review and recommendations for intervention design and delivery.

    PubMed

    Morawska, Alina; Calam, Rachel; Fraser, Jennifer

    2015-03-01

    Every day, thousands of children suffer the effects of chronic health conditions and families struggle with illness management and children's behavioural and emotional adjustment. Many parents experience difficulties with their caregiving role and lack confidence in their ability to manage their child's illness and ensure the child's well-being. While there is consistent evidence as to the extent and impact of childhood chronic illness, there is a paucity of evidence-based parenting approaches to help children with chronic health conditions and their families. This paper provides a narrative review of the current literature to examine relationships between chronic childhood illness, emotional and behavioural disorders and parenting. Key guidelines and recommendations for the development of evidence-based parenting programs for parents of children affected by chronic health conditions are provided.

  13. Parental Involvement of Mothers with Chronic Illness and Children's Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Fish, Marian C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how maternal chronic illnesses may affect children's academic achievement through parental involvement. A total of 189 mothers diagnosed with chronic illnesses, such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, cancer, HIV/AIDS, chronic pain, asthma, myelodysplasic syndrome, and fibromyalgia, and with a child in middle school or high…

  14. Childhood parental mental illness: living with fear and mistrust.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gillian; Peters, Kathleen; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents one major theme of findings from a doctorate study. The study used a narrative enquiry approach, to gather parenting narratives of adult children of parents with mental illness. A Partnership Model for a Reflexive Narrative for Participant and Researcher (Partnership Model) was used to invite participants into the study, while encouraging a space for reflection for both the adult children and researcher. In total, 13 adult children participants constructed their narratives of living with childhood parental mental illness, alongside their current parenting role. Their stories reflected childhood experiences of fear and emergence of mistrust of others, particularly their parent with mental illness. For some participants, fear and mistrust continued into adulthood. Many adult children reported their childhood experiences of feeling lonely and isolated. They felt unable to disclose their experiences of parental mental illness to others. In addition, participants were unable to access information about their parent's condition, leaving them feeling unprepared and unskilled, despite their childhood desire to help their parent. This furthermore, compounded their sense of fear and isolation. Early identification of children and families experiencing mental illness is important to facilitate dialogue, psychoeducation and support. Social and health professionals have an important opportunity to enhance the social integration and support for families experiencing parental mental illness, to reduce long-standing fear, isolation and mistrust.

  15. The Silent Parent: Developing Knowledge about the Experiences of Parents with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boursnell, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the lived experiences of parents with mental illness in Australia. It draws on in-depth interviews with parents (n = 10) who have mental illness and provides an analysis of national mental health policies. The analysis of the parents' narratives is essential in building a picture for those involved in the issues associated with…

  16. Positive Parenting among African American Mothers with a Serious Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; Mowbray, Carol T.; MacFarlane, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Using a sample of African American mothers (N=202) diagnosed with mental illness, the effects of poverty; maternal education; social support; maternal and social stress; current mental health; and psychiatric history were examined for effects on positive parenting. Strongest predictors of parenting attitudes were stress and current mental health.…

  17. Differential Outcomes of Adolescents with Chronically Ill and Healthy Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children grow up with a parent who has been diagnosed with a chronic medical condition (CMC) and seem to be at risk for adjustment difficulties. We examined differences in behavioral, psychosocial and academic outcomes between 161 adolescents from 101 families with a chronically ill parent and 112 adolescents from 68 families…

  18. Counseling Children of Parents with Severe Mental Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Phyllis

    1994-01-01

    Presents a crisis-oriented counseling model for middle school-aged children whose parents suffer psychotic disorders. Discusses how the nature of the illness, socioeconomic status, and family bond will influence children's needs. Asserts that all children need a school counselor who is empathic, caring, and supportive. (RJM)

  19. Long-Term Parental Illness and Children: Perils and Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Mona; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses effects of long-term parental illness, focusing on effects on children. Describes effects on family homeostasis and family coping mechanisms. Discusses school counselor's role in bringing about a more balanced viewpoint of power and sharing within the family. Recommends establishing a strong therapeutic bond, assessing what the child is…

  20. Children of chronically ill parents: Relationship between parental multiple sclerosis and childhood developmental health

    PubMed Central

    Razaz, Neda; Joseph, K.S.; Boyce, W Thomas; Guhn, Martin; Forer, Barry; Carruthers, Robert; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Tremlett, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exposure to parental chronic illness is associated with adverse developmental outcomes. Objective: We examined the association between parental multiple sclerosis (MS) and parental MS-related clinical factors on developmental health. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study in British Columbia, Canada, using linked health databases. The outcome was childhood development at 5 years of age, expressed as vulnerability on the Early Development Instrument (EDI). Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Results: MS-affected parents (n = 783) were older, more likely to be English speakers, and had higher rates of mental health morbidity (39.6% vs 22.2%, p < 0.001) than unaffected parents (n = 2988). In the adjusted models, children of mothers with MS (aOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.44–0.87), but not children of the fathers with MS, had a lower risk of vulnerability on the social development domain of the EDI. However, mental health comorbidity (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.05–2.50) and physical comorbidity (aOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.05–2.64) among mothers with MS were associated with increased vulnerability on the EDI. Conclusion: Maternal MS, but not paternal MS, was associated with lower rates of developmental vulnerability on the social development domain. However, mental and physical comorbidity among MS-affected mothers were associated with increased developmental vulnerability in children. PMID:26683589

  1. Parenting stress and impact of illness in parents of children with coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Epifanio, Maria Stella; Genna, Vitalba; Vitello, Maria Grazia; Roccella, Michele; La Grutta, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is a chronic disease which could stress patients and their family. Although, poor attention has been paid to the quality of life in CD children and to the functioning of families with CD children. The study aims to evaluate the parenting perception of the CD impact and the parenting distress level. A group of 74 parents of CD children compiled the Impact Childhood Illness Scale and the Parenting Stress Index which is also compiled by 74 parents of health children. The assessment does not reveal a significant impact of CD on patient's personal life although some critical areas emerged. Results evidenced an higher level of parenting stress in parents of CD children than parents of healthy children. CD, if suitably managed, has not a critical impact on parenting perception. Although, CD certainly put parents through an higher risk of a distress related to parenting role than parents with health children. A early identification of parenting distress in a pediatric chronic illness could facilitate the adjustment to pathology.

  2. Ethnic differentials in parental health seeking for childhood illness in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Teerawichitchainan, Bussarawan; Phillips, James F

    2008-03-01

    Vietnam's sustained investment in primary healthcare since the onset of socialism has lowered infant and childhood mortality rates and improved life expectancy, exceeding progress achieved in other poor countries with comparable levels of income per capita. The recent introduction of user fees for primary healthcare services has generated concern that economic policies may have adversely affected health-seeking behavior and health outcomes of the poor, particularly among impoverished families who are members of socially marginalized minority groups. This paper examines this debate by analyzing parental recall of illness and care-seeking for sick children under the age of 5 years recorded by the 2001-2002 Vietnam National Health Survey. We estimate statistical models of the determinants of parental recall of incidence and response to illness among their children. Ethnic minority parents less frequently reported their children to have been sick than Kinh and Chinese parents. When they recognize an illness episode, minority parents are less likely to seek care -- whether professional consultation or self-prescribed care -- than non-minority parents. Ethnic differentials are evident in all geographic and income levels, although adverse effects of minority status are most pronounced among poor households in remote areas. Regression estimates of the effects of ethnicity and maternal education on health decisions are pronounced even when poverty effects are controlled, suggesting that social equity may have been under-emphasized in Vietnam's early health policy deliberations. Policies extending free healthcare to poor communes affect parental decisions to seek professional care or self-prescribed care among better-off parents without affecting parental decision making among the poor. Early health initiatives for the poor may therefore have failed to offset equity problems confronting impoverished ethnic minority families. PMID:18179851

  3. Toward Conceptual Clarity in a Critical Parenting Construct: Parental Monitoring in Youth with Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Templin, Thomas N.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Frey, Maureen A.

    2008-01-01

    Parental monitoring has been defined as “a set of correlated parenting behaviors involving attention to and tracking of the child's whereabouts, activities, and adaptations.” This construct is of significant interest due to its relatedness to a broad range of youth risk behaviors, including risky sexual behavior, substance abuse, and poor adherence. However, to date, measures of parental monitoring are largely absent from the chronic illness literature. The present article focuses upon two key problems in the operationalization of the monitoring construct to date: (a) poor conceptual specificity in parenting constructs such as monitoring, overprotection, and over-involvement when used to date among youth with chronic conditions and (b) the confounding of existing measures of parental monitoring with items evaluating parental knowledge of youth activities, which has resulted in a lack of data regarding the mechanisms by which parents obtain their information. Recommendations for the future development of monitoring measures are discussed. PMID:18467352

  4. [Withholding treatment in terminally-ill newborns with Islamic parents].

    PubMed

    Westra, A E; Smit, B J; Willems, D L

    2007-02-24

    End-of-life decisions for terminally-ill newborn infants are usually made with the consent of parents as well as physicians, but may occasionally involve disagreement about which decision is in the best interest of the child. Paediatricians, while acting in accordance with the principle of respecting the autonomy of the parents, may collide with their own motive of avoiding pointless suffering of the infant. Based on their religious beliefs Islamic parents may not consent to an end-of-life decision. Three newborn girls who eventually died had been suffering from a skeletal dysplasia and a serious bronchopulmonary dysplasia, serious intractable deterioration after surgery for necrotising enterocolitis, and trisomy 18 respectively. In the first two cases there was no preceding consensus between parents and physicians and the girls died after more suffering than the paediatrician found acceptable. The physicians should aspire to prevent conflict situations by paying sufficient attention to the differences in beliefs. This demands that physicians understand and respect different beliefs and that they are able to communicate on the subject of these differences. It is important to Islamic parents that the natural course allows Allah to exercise his authority over life and death, and human dignity. Doing the best for the child is often more important than respect for patient or parent autonomy. PMID:17378297

  5. [Difficult parents? The challenges of responding to the needs of psychiatrically ill parents in pediatric practice].

    PubMed

    Schechter, Daniel S; Rusconi-Serpa, Sandra

    2013-02-20

    This article discusses the interactions with so-called "difficult" parents, who often suffer from mental illness that has never been treated. The article offers recommendations to decode the emotional communication of such parents who doubt their own ability to care for their children as well as that of the pediatrician's. A clinical case is presented of a mother who "can't take it anymore" with her three-year-old son, in order to focus in greater depth on improving interactions with the physician. The authors strongly recommend assessment of what parents say about their child as well as of first-hand observations of parent-child interactions. Approaches to help the pediatrician better evaluate parental distress and associated risks to the child, while maintaining the parent-pediatrician alliance, are discussed. PMID:23477223

  6. [Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children?].

    PubMed

    Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Bomba, Franziska; Tönnies, Sven; Bullinger, Monika; Plass, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children? Parents with a mental disorder often display a problematic attachment style which may impact on their children's health related quality of life (HrQoL). The current study cross-sectionally examines attachment styles (BEPE) in mentally ill parents with underage children (n = 62) and the effect of attachment on their children's HrQoL (KINDL-R). Results show that secure attachment is less represented in parents with a mental health condition than in a healthy reference group. Within the clinical sample, children of mentally ill parents with a secure attachment style exhibit a higher HrQoL than children of mentally ill parents with ambivalent or avoidant attachment styles. These findings indicate not only that problematic attachment styles frequently occur in families with a mentally ill parent, but also suggest that this negatively affects the children's HrQoL. Appropriate interventions should include attachment oriented concepts. PMID:27027217

  7. [Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children?].

    PubMed

    Wiegand-Grefe, Silke; Bomba, Franziska; Tönnies, Sven; Bullinger, Monika; Plass, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Do Attachment Styles of Mentally Ill Parents Impact on the Health-related Quality of Life of their Children? Parents with a mental disorder often display a problematic attachment style which may impact on their children's health related quality of life (HrQoL). The current study cross-sectionally examines attachment styles (BEPE) in mentally ill parents with underage children (n = 62) and the effect of attachment on their children's HrQoL (KINDL-R). Results show that secure attachment is less represented in parents with a mental health condition than in a healthy reference group. Within the clinical sample, children of mentally ill parents with a secure attachment style exhibit a higher HrQoL than children of mentally ill parents with ambivalent or avoidant attachment styles. These findings indicate not only that problematic attachment styles frequently occur in families with a mentally ill parent, but also suggest that this negatively affects the children's HrQoL. Appropriate interventions should include attachment oriented concepts.

  8. Impact of Parental Severe Mental Illness: Ethical and Clinical Issues for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegelhoff, Sarah F.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    This article draws attention to the issue of parental severe mental illness and the ethical and clinical implications for counselors who work with this population. Parents with mental illness face a multitude of life challenges including, but not limited to, parenting difficulties, medication and hospitalization, custody and placement of their…

  9. The economic status of parents with serious mental illness in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Luciano, A; Nicholson, J; Meara, E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parents with serious mental illness may be vulnerable to financial insecurity, making successful parenting especially difficult. We explored relationships among parenting, serious mental illness and economic status in a nationally representative sample. Methods The sample included all working-age participants from the 2009 and 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 77,326). Two well-established scales of mental health distinguished participants with none, mild, moderate, and serious mental illness. We compared economic status by parenthood status and mental illness severity. Results Rates of employment were low for parents with serious mental illness (38% full-time and 17% part-time among mothers; 60% full-time and 9% part-time among fathers) compared to parents with no mental illness (50% full-time and 19% part-time among mothers; 85% full-time and 5% part-time among fathers). Mothers and fathers with serious mental illness were twice as likely to fall below the US Census poverty threshold than their peers without mental illness. Conclusion and Implications for Practice Parents with serious mental illness are less likely to be employed than those without mental illnesses and are highly likely to be living in poverty. Reducing poverty by helping parents with serious mental illness achieve better jobs and education is likely to translate into family stability and better outcomes. PMID:25000119

  10. Parents' difficulties and information needs in coping with acute illness in preschool children: a qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Kai, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify and explore difficulties parents experience with acute illness in young children and the information they seek to help them. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semi-structured one t one and group interviews with parents of preschool children. SETTING: Disadvantaged inner city community. SUBJECTS: 95 parents of preschool children. RESULTS: Parents felt disempowered when dealing with acute illness in their children because of difficulties making sense of the illness. Central to parents' difficulties were their experiences of inadequate information sharing by their general practitioners and variations in their doctors' decisions and behaviour. Disparity between parents' beliefs and expectations about illness and treatment and professionals' behaviour further frustrated parents' attempts to understand illness. Parents expressed a need for a range of accessible and specific information to support them through their negotiation of children's illness. CONCLUSIONS: Communication with parents requires greater recognition of parents' difficulties. Professionals have considerable potential to empower parents by sharing more information and skills. Such information should be consistent and address parents' concerns, beliefs, and expressed needs if this potential is to be realised. PMID:8892421

  11. Understanding Parental Grief as a Response to Mental Illness: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penzo, Jeanine A.; Harvey, Pat

    2008-01-01

    Parents who are raising children with mental illness struggle with feelings of grief and loss. Kubler-Ross' (1969) stages of grieving (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) are examined as experienced by parents raising children with chronic mental illness. Practice implications for social workers who are working with children and…

  12. Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This bulletin issue contains five papers on the theme of adults with mental illness who are parents of very young children. "Parents, Mental Illness, and the Primary Health Care of Infants and Young Children" (John N. Constantino) offers the experience of a trainee in a combined residency in pediatrics and psychiatry, focusing on identification,…

  13. Reflections of Adults on Their School Experiences Growing up with a Severely Mentally Ill Parent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Marie A.

    2013-01-01

    More than five million children in the United States have a parent suffering from a severe mental illness and these children have specific experiences and needs, particularly in school. Children of mentally ill parents are at greater risk of being neglected and of developing psychological, social, emotional, and behavioral problems. They often…

  14. Mechanisms of illness progression in the recurrent affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M

    2010-11-01

    Along with genetic vulnerability, multiple environmental factors convey liability to illness progression, including: (1) distal and proximal stressors; (2) recurrence of episodes; and (3) comorbid cocaine abuse. Recurrence of each of these can increase responsivity (sensitize) to themselves and cross-sensitize to the two other factors and drive illness progression as seen clinically in increases in cycle acceleration, severity or duration of episodes, treatment refractoriness, disability, cognitive dysfunction, and premature death. Some mechanisms appear common to all three types of sensitization, such as decreases of brain-derived neuroprotective factor (BDNF) in hippocampus and blood, as well as increases in BDNF in the nucleus accumbens, suggesting the possibility that single treatments could ameliorate several of these factors at once. A potential example is N-acetylcysteine (NAC), which decreases bipolar affective illness severity (Berk et al. Biol Psychiatry 64:468–475, 2008) and cocaine reinstatement and craving (Baker et al. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1003:349–351, 2003; LaRowe et al. Am J Addict 15:105–110, 2006). Mechanisms of illness progression also involve epigenetic changes and add further rationale to the existing empirical clinical evidence of the importance of early recognition, treatment, and prevention of affective episodes. Adequate treatment could prevent or ameliorate both the increases in pathological factors and erosion of adaptive factors that propel illness exacerbation and treatment resistance. This view of the sensitization and cross-sensitization among stressors, episodes, and abused substances should lead to a fundamental re-conceptualization of the recurrent affective disorders not as benign, isolated episodes of “mental” illness, but as severe, potentially progressive and lethal medical disorders of brain and body that deserve careful life-long monitoring and treatment.

  15. Neurobiological correlates of illness progression in the recurrent affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M; Fleming, Jaclyn; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2012-05-01

    Some clinical aspects of affective illness progression, such as episode-, stress-, and substance-induced sensitization, have been well documented in the literature, but others have received less attention. These include cognitive deficits, treatment-refractoriness, and neurobiological correlates of illness progression, which are the primary focus of this paper. We review the evidence that cognitive dysfunction, treatment resistance, medical comorbidities, and neurobiological abnormalities increase as a function of the number of prior episodes or duration of illness in the recurrent unipolar and bipolar disorders. Substantial evidence supports the view that cognitive dysfunction and vulnerability to a diagnosis of dementia in old age increases as a function of number of prior mood episodes as does non-response to many therapeutic interventions as well as naturalistic treatment. Neurobiological abnormalities that correlate with the number of mood episodes or duration of illness include: anatomical, functional, and biochemical deficits in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as amygdala hyperactivity and cortisol hyper-secretion. Some neurotrophic factors and inflammatory markers may also change with greater illness burden. Causality cannot be inferred from these correlative relationships. Nonetheless, given the potentially grave consequences of episode recurrence and progression for morbidity and treatment non-responsiveness, it is clinically wise to assume episodes are causing some of the progressive cognitive and neurobiological abnormalities. As such, earlier and more sustained long-term prophylaxis to attempt to reduce these adverse outcomes is indicated.

  16. What worries parents when their preschool children are acutely ill, and why: a qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Kai, J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify and explore parents' concerns when young children become acutely ill. DESIGN: Qualitative study making use of semi-structured one to one and group interviews with parents of preschool children. SETTING: Disadvantaged inner city community. SUBJECTS: 95 parents of preschool children. RESULTS: Fever, cough, and the possibility of meningitis were parents' primary concerns when their children became acutely ill. Parents' concerns reflected lay beliefs, their interpretation of medical knowledge, and their fears that their child might die or be permanently harmed. Parents worried about failing to recognise a serious problem. Concerns were expressed within the context of keenly felt pressure, emphasising parents' responsibility to protect their child from harm. They were grounded in two linked factors: parents' sense of personal control when faced with illness in their child and the perceived threat posed by an illness. CONCLUSIONS: Better understanding of parents' concerns may promote effective communication between health professionals and parents. Modification of parents' personal control and perceived threat using appropriate information and education that acknowledge and address their concerns may be a means of empowering parents. PMID:8892420

  17. Listening to Older Adult Parents of Adult Children with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…

  18. Parents with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness: Issues in Assessment and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerson, Barry J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on mentally ill parents and addresses conceptual issues in assessment and services. Critiques methods of assessment and recommends more appropriate and comprehensive assessment protocols. Model programs are discussed with a focus on the development of competent parenting skills combined with social supports for parents who…

  19. Talking with a child about a parent's terminal illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child will continue to live with the surviving parent after you die. The parent without cancer ... resume bedwetting or need more attention from the surviving parent. Try to be patient, and remember that ...

  20. Putting on a Happy Face: Emotional Expression in Parents of Children with Serious Illness

    PubMed Central

    Hexem, Kari R.; Miller, Victoria A.; Carroll, Karen; Faerber, Jennifer A.; Feudtner, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Context Communication is widely acknowledged as a crucial component of high-quality pediatric medical care, which is provided in situations where parents typically experience strong emotions. Objectives To explore emotion using both the LIWC and a self-report questionnaire to better understand the relationship between these two measures of emotion in a pediatric care context. Methods Sixty-nine parents of 47 children who were participants in the Decision Making in Pediatric Palliative Care Study at The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia took part in this study. Parents completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and a semi-structured interview about their children and experience with medical decision making. The transcribed interviews were analyzed with the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) program, which yields scores for positive and negative emotional expression. The association between LIWC and PANAS scores was evaluated using multivariate linear regression to adjust for potential confounders. Results Parents who used more positive words when speaking about their children’s illnesses and the experience of medical decision making were more likely to report lower levels of positive affect on the PANAS: a standard deviation increase in positive emotional expression was associated with an unadjusted 7.6% decrease in self-reported positive affect (P=0.01) and an adjusted 10.0% decrease in self-reported positive affect (P=0.05) after modeling for potential confounders. A standard deviation increase in negative emotional expression was associated with an adjusted 11.3% increase in self-reported negative affect (P=0.04). Conclusion The inverse relationship between parents’ positive emotional expression and their self-reported positive affect should remind both researchers and clinicians to be cognizant of the possibilities for emotional miscues, and consequent miscommunication, in the pediatric care setting. PMID:22926092

  1. Families Affected by Parental Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Smith, Vincent C; Wilson, Celeste R

    2016-08-01

    Children whose parents or caregivers use drugs or alcohol are at increased risk of short- and long-term sequelae ranging from medical problems to psychosocial and behavioral challenges. In the course of providing health care services to children, pediatricians are likely to encounter families affected by parental substance use and are in a unique position to intervene. Therefore, pediatricians need to know how to assess a child's risk in the context of a parent's substance use. The purposes of this clinical report are to review some of the short-term effects of maternal substance use during pregnancy and long-term implications of fetal exposure; describe typical medical, psychiatric, and behavioral symptoms of children and adolescents in families affected by substance use; and suggest proficiencies for pediatricians involved in the care of children and adolescents of families affected by substance use, including screening families, mandated reporting requirements, and directing families to community, regional, and state resources that can address needs and problems. PMID:27432847

  2. Parents' help-seeking behaviours during acute childhood illness at home: A contribution to explanatory theory.

    PubMed

    Neill, Sarah J; Jones, Caroline H D; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Roland, Damian T; Thompson, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty and anxiety surround parents' decisions to seek medical help for an acutely ill child. Consultation rates for children are rising, yet little is known about factors that influence parents' help-seeking behaviours. We used focus groups and interviews to examine how 27 parents of children under five years, from a range of socioeconomic groups in the East Midlands of England, use information to make decisions during acute childhood illness at home. This article reports findings elucidating factors that influence help-seeking behaviours. Parents reported that decision-making during acute childhood illness was influenced by a range of personal, social and health service factors. Principal among these was parents' concern to do the right thing for their child. Their ability to assess the severity of the illness was influenced by knowledge and experience of childhood illness. When parents were unable to access their general practitioner (GP), feared criticism from or had lost trust in their GP, some parents reported using services elsewhere such as Accident and Emergency. These findings contribute to explanatory theory concerning parents' help-seeking behaviours. Professional and political solutions have not reduced demand; therefore, collaborative approaches involving the public and professionals are now needed to improve parents' access to information.

  3. Parents with serious mental illness: differences in internalised and externalised mental illness stigma and gender stigma between mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Melanie; Paolini, Stefania; Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Melville, Jessica; Galletly, Cherrie; Campbell, Linda E

    2015-02-28

    Research demonstrates that people living with serious mental illness (SMI) contend with widespread public stigma; however, little is known about the specific experiences of stigma that mothers, and in particular fathers, with SMI encounter as parents. This study aimed to explore and compare the experiences of stigma for mothers and fathers with SMI inferred not only by living with a mental illness but also potential compounding gender effects, and the associated impact of stigma on parenting. Telephone surveys were conducted with 93 participants with SMI who previously identified as parents in the Second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Results indicated that mothers were more likely than fathers to perceive and internalise stigma associated with their mental illness. Conversely, fathers were more inclined to perceive stigma relating to their gender and to hold stigmatising attitudes towards others. Mental illness and gender stigma predicted poorer self-reported parenting experiences for both mothers and fathers. These findings may assist in tailoring interventions for mothers and fathers with SMI.

  4. Determinants of parental reports of children's illnesses: empirical evidence from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Subhash

    2007-09-01

    Household surveys from the developing world consistently record a generally low level of illness reporting, but the evidence that substantial differences exist in illness reporting between income groups is scanty. In contrast, a huge gap in illness reporting exists between rich and poor countries. Medical anthropologists have highlighted the differential illness perception across income groups but little is known as to what extent economic variables do determine one's illness decision. In this paper, discrete choice theory is used to explain why some parents choose to report their children's illnesses more often than others in Nepal. An empirical model is developed that depicts illness-reporting decisions as a function of inter alia, price and income. Data are drawn from Phase I of the Nepal Living Standards Survey. The results suggest that income as well as the price that parents expect to pay on treatment of their children's non-chronic ailments determine their decision to report an illness, when controlling for other variables (price responsiveness =-1.16; income responsiveness=0.23; p-value=0.00). This behaviour is theoretically consistent as parents weigh the opportunity costs of their decision (here, choosing to report an illness). Its implications are broader and raise other questions, e.g., Can we explain the difference in illness-perception rates between rich and poor countries that have different mechanisms to finance health care? PMID:17582668

  5. Parenting stress and affective symptoms in parents of autistic children.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yun; Du, YaSong; Li, HuiLin; Zhang, XiYan; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin

    2015-10-01

    We examined parenting stress and mental health status in parents of autistic children and assessed factors associated with such stress. Participants were parents of 188 autistic children diagnosed with DSM-IV criteria and parents of 144 normally developing children. Parents of autistic children reported higher levels of stress, depression, and anxiety than parents of normally developing children. Mothers of autistic children had a higher risk of depression and anxiety than that did parents of normally developing children. Mothers compared to fathers of autistic children were more vulnerable to depression. Age, behavior problems of autistic children, and mothers' anxiety were significantly associated with parenting stress.

  6. The Stigmatization of Mental Illness in Children and Parents. Data Trends #124

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" reviews theory and research on stigma and mental health with a focus on the stigmatization of mental illness in the family when either a child or a parent has a mental illness.…

  7. Problem Behavior in Children of Chronically Ill Parents: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieh, D. S.; Meijer, A. M.; Oort, F. J.; Visser-Meily, J. M. A.; Van der Leij, D. A. V.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to examine whether children of chronically ill parents differ from norm groups in problem behavior. We report moderator effects and overall effect sizes for internalizing, externalizing and total problem behavior assessed by children and parents. In fixed effect models, we found a significant overall effect size…

  8. Organisational systems and services for children of parents with mental illness and their families: processes of change and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Owen, Susanne

    2010-09-01

    Adult mental illness in the community including depression and anxiety has achieved greater public awareness and visibility in recent years and this has also resulted in increased recognition about the widespread impact on dependent children. During the past decade in Australia, policies and specific programs for infants, children and youth in terms of prevention, early intervention and promotion in relation to children of parents with a mental illness ('copmi') have been devised. However, these have generally been disconnected projects, essentially supported only by non-recurrent funding. In more recent years, systematic and interconnected responses involving a wider range of government, non-government and consumer and carer organisations to build sustainability have become the focus. However, little research about change processes affecting the organisational systems serving children of parents with mental illness and their families has been undertaken. This aim of the current study is to describe the enablers and barriers that contribute to change in systems and government and non-government organisations in relation to children of parents with a mental illness in Australia over the past decade, within the context of sustainability. The study involved interviews, focus groups and website and literature searches regarding systems change across Australian states and territories and nationally in relation to the enablers, barriers and future directions. Strategic and intentional processes within organisations, more evolutionary ongoing cross-agency processes and links to sustained changes are key systems change findings. Relevance for change in other health services is highlighted. PMID:19908136

  9. Parental HIV disclosure: from perspectives of children affected by HIV in Henan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Culturally and developmentally appropriate parental HIV disclosure (i.e., parents disclose their HIV infection to children) has been shown to be closely related with the well-being of both HIV-infected parents and their children. However, current practices and effects of parental HIV disclosure remain poorly understood in low- and middle-income countries including China. Quantitative data from 626 children affected by parental HIV (orphans and vulnerable children) in Henan, China, were collected in 2011 to examine children's perceptions and knowledge regarding their parents' HIV disclosure practices and to assess the associations of these practices with children's demographic and psychosocial factors. The data in the current study revealed that only a small proportion of children learned parental HIV infection from their parents (direct disclosure), and many of these disclosure seemed being unplanned. Among the children who were not told by their parents, at least 95% of them either knew parental illness from others (indirect disclosure) or from their own observations or suspicions. The children reported similar disclosure practices by fathers and mothers. There were minimum differences between disclosed and nondisclosed children on a number of psychosocial measures. The findings support the notion that parental HIV disclosure is a complex process and can only be beneficial if it is carefully planned. The data in the current study suggest the needs for the culturally and developmentally appropriate approach in parental HIV disclosure in order to maximize both short- and long-term benefits to children, parents, and family functioning.

  10. Parental HIV disclosure: from perspectives of children affected by HIV in Henan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Culturally and developmentally appropriate parental HIV disclosure (i.e., parents disclose their HIV infection to children) has been shown to be closely related with the well-being of both HIV-infected parents and their children. However, current practices and effects of parental HIV disclosure remain poorly understood in low- and middle-income countries including China. Quantitative data from 626 children affected by parental HIV (orphans and vulnerable children) in Henan, China, were collected in 2011 to examine children's perceptions and knowledge regarding their parents' HIV disclosure practices and to assess the associations of these practices with children's demographic and psychosocial factors. The data in the current study revealed that only a small proportion of children learned parental HIV infection from their parents (direct disclosure), and many of these disclosure seemed being unplanned. Among the children who were not told by their parents, at least 95% of them either knew parental illness from others (indirect disclosure) or from their own observations or suspicions. The children reported similar disclosure practices by fathers and mothers. There were minimum differences between disclosed and nondisclosed children on a number of psychosocial measures. The findings support the notion that parental HIV disclosure is a complex process and can only be beneficial if it is carefully planned. The data in the current study suggest the needs for the culturally and developmentally appropriate approach in parental HIV disclosure in order to maximize both short- and long-term benefits to children, parents, and family functioning. PMID:25465533

  11. Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Eccleston, Christopher; Palermo, Tonya M; Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include parent only or parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to treat parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and/or family functioning. No comprehensive, meta-analytic reviews have been published in this area. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies that include coping strategies for parents of children/adolescents with chronic illnesses (painful conditions, cancer, diabetes mellitus, asthma, traumatic brain injury, inflammatory bowel diseases, skin diseases or gynaecological disorders). The therapy will aim to improve parent behaviour, parent mental health, child behaviour/disability, child mental health, child symptoms and family functioning. Search methods We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsyclNFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions that included parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. The initial search was from inception of these databases to June 2011 and we conducted a follow-up search from June 2011 to March 2012. We identified additional studies from the reference list of retrieved papers and from discussion with investigators. Selection criteria Included studies were RCTs of psychological interventions that delivered treatment to parents of children and adolescents (under 19 years of age) with a chronic illness compared to active control, wait list control or treatment as usual. We excluded studies if the parent component was a coaching intervention, the aim of the intervention was health prevention/promotion, the comparator was a pharmacological treatment, the child/adolescent had an illness not listed above or the study included children with more than one type of chronic illness. Further to this, we excluded studies when the sample size of either comparator

  12. Parenting of Mothers with a Serious Mental Illness: Differential Effects of Diagnosis, Clinical History, and Other Mental Health Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol; Oyserman, Daphna; Bybee, Deborah; MacFarlane, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Examines the effects of mental illness on parenting in a sample of women with serious mental illness. Diagnosis had a small but significant effect on parenting attitudes and behaviors. However, current symptoms mediated the effects of diagnosis and chronicity on parenting stress, and current symptomatology and community functioning partially…

  13. Child and Parent Perceptions of Monitoring in Chronic Illness Management: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hafetz, Jessica; Miller, Victoria A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The management of a childhood chronic illness can be challenging because it can involve frequent and complex treatment tasks that must be carried out on a daily basis. Parental monitoring of the treatment regimen and child disclosure of health-related information may impact effective illness management but are not well understood. Methods The present study utilized qualitative methods to examine parental monitoring-related behaviors, youth disclosure of health-related information, and both perceptions about, and reactions to, these behaviors in a sample of youth diagnosed with a chronic illness (e.g. asthma, diabetes and cystic fibrosis) and parents of youth with one of these illnesses. Results Parents solicited information from youth verbally, observed symptoms, reminded youth about treatments, and tracked indicators of treatment adherence (e.g., dose counters; glucose meters). Youth reactions varied from acceptance to irritation. Youth behaviors included withholding information and freely disclosing spontaneously and in response to requests. Conclusions Findings derived from this qualitative methodology demonstrate convergence with findings from quantitative studies on this topic, add to the literature related to parental monitoring of chronic illness management, and suggest several avenues for future research. PMID:20533917

  14. Mental disorders in chronically ill children: case identification and parent-child discrepancy.

    PubMed

    Canning, E H

    1994-01-01

    Children, like adults and parents, depend on primary care physicians to identify, treat, or refer those with mental disorders. Mental health concerns are also germane to the growing number of chronically ill children in pediatric care. This paper focuses on: 1) the level of agreement between children and parents about the presence of a mental disorder and the impact of informant on case identification; and 2) the extent to which pediatricians agree with reports by chronically ill children and/or their parents regarding such problems. The study sample includes 112 children, ages 9 to 18, with cancer, cystic fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and insulin-dependent diabetes and a control group of 35 healthy subjects. Subject and a parent were interviewed separately using a highly standardized, structured interview that generates DSM-III-R diagnoses by computer algorithms. Pediatricians completed a questionnaire asking about the presence of any mental disorders. Agreement between parent and child was poor for both groups. In the medically ill group, more cases were identified by the parent interview than by child interview alone for all types of disorders. In contrast, children in the comparison group more often reported symptoms sufficient for a diagnosis than did their parents. The difference in prevalence between the two groups was significant only for the parent-identified cases, and physicians were more likely to recognize child-identified disorders. The choice of informant(s) has clear implications for case identification and case recognition in both clinical care and research in pediatric settings.

  15. Does Parental Employment Affect Children's Educational Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildberg-Hoerisch, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are…

  16. Adolescent Mental Health Consumers' Self-Stigma: Associations with Parents' and Adolescents' Illness Perceptions and Parental Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moses, Tally

    2010-01-01

    Currently, little is known about adolescents' self-stigma experiences as mental health (MH) treatment recipients. Hence, this study addresses the following two questions: (a) what are adolescents' and parents' perceptions of stigma and perceptions of the cause, controllability, and anticipated outcome (illness perceptions) of adolescents' MH…

  17. Analysis of a support group for children of parents with mental illnesses: managing stressful situations.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, Brenda M; McKeever, Patricia; Seeman, Mary; Boydell, Katherine M

    2014-09-01

    We report an ethnographic analysis of a psycho-education and peer-support program for school-aged children of parents with mental illnesses. We conducted a critical discourse analysis of the program manual and observed group interactions to understand whether children shared program goals predetermined by adults, and how, or if, the intervention was responsive to their needs. Children were expected to learn mental illness information because "knowledge is power," and to express difficult feelings about being a child of a mentally ill parent that was risky. Participants used humor to manage group expectations, revealing how they made sense of their parents' problems, as well as their own. Suggestions are made for determining good mental health literacy based on children's preferences for explaining circumstances in ways they find relevant, and for supporting children's competencies to manage relationships that are important to them.

  18. The Unique Effects of Parental Alcohol and Affective Disorders, Parenting, and Parental Negative Affect on Adolescent Maladjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Moira; Chassin, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Using a high-risk community sample, multiple regression analyses were conducted separately for mothers (n = 416) and fathers (n = 346) to test the unique, prospective influence of parental negative affect on adolescent maladjustment (internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and negative emotionality) 2 years later over and above parental…

  19. Parent-Child Collaborative Decision Making for the Management of Chronic Illness: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Victoria A.

    2010-01-01

    Parent-child collaborative decision making (CDM) is a potentially important precursor to full decision making independence and may be particularly significant for the management of childhood chronic illnesses. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to explore the concept of CDM from the perspective of children and parents. Children (ages 8-19 years) with asthma, type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis and parents of children with these illnesses participated in focus groups and individual interviews. Participants described various ways they collaborate with one another (e.g., asking for the other's opinion; providing information). Participants viewed collaboration as beneficial, regardless of who ultimately makes the decision. Several factors emerged as potential predictors of CDM, including parent/family factors (e.g., parental time; parent-child conflict), child factors (e.g., maturity; emotional/behavioral functioning), and decision/situation factors (e.g., seriousness of the decision; extent to which the child is experiencing symptoms). These data suggest ways to enhance collaborative decision making interactions between children with a chronic illness and their parents, as well as several areas for future quantitative research. PMID:19803619

  20. Early Traumatic Stress Responses in Parents Following a Serious Illness in Their Child: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Claudia; Muscara, Frank; Anderson, Vicki A; McCarthy, Maria C

    2016-03-01

    A systematic review of the literature investigating the early traumatic stress responses in parents of children diagnosed with a serious illness/injury. A literature review was conducted (September 2013) using Medline, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Twenty-four studies related to parents of children hospitalized due to diagnosis of cancer, type 1 diabetes, meningococcal disease, trauma or serious injury, preterm birth and other serious illnesses requiring admission to intensive care were included. Parents were assessed for early traumatic stress symptoms within 3 months of their child's diagnosis/hospitalization. Prevalence rates of acute stress disorder in parents ranged from 12 to 63%. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder ranged from 8 to 68%. Variability was related to methodological factors including differences in study design, timing of assessments, measurement tools, and scoring protocols. Psychosocial factors rather than medical factors predicted parent distress. This review integrates and compares early traumatic reactions in parents with children suffering a range of serious illnesses. Findings suggest a high prevalence of acute and posttraumatic stress symptoms in parents. Methodological inconsistencies made comparison of early traumatic stress prevalence rates difficult. Risk factors associated with traumatic stress symptoms were identified.

  1. Measuring the internalized stigma of parents of persons with a serious mental illness: the factor structure of the parents' internalized stigma of mental illness scale.

    PubMed

    Zisman-Ilani, Yaara; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Kravetz, Shlomo; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Roe, David

    2013-03-01

    Research has revealed that approximately one third of persons with a serious mental illness (SMI) experience elevated internalized stigma, which is associated with a large number of negative outcomes. Family members of persons with SMI are also often subject to stigma, but the degree to which these experiences are internalized and lead to self-stigma has rarely been studied. The present study investigated the factor structure of a modification of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale by Ritsher, Otilingam, and Grajales (Psychiatry Res 121:31-49, 2003). A central assumption of this investigation was that the factor structure of the Parents' Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (PISMI) scale would be similar to the factor structure of the ISMI scale. A total of 194 parents of persons with SMI completed the PISMI scale. The results revealed that the PISMI scale has high internal consistency and that it is made up of three distinctive factors: discrimination experience, social withdrawal and alienation, and stereotype endorsement. These factors are similar, but not identical, to the factors that underlie the ISMI scale. This study's findings also indicate that parents' prominent reaction to self-stigma is stereotype endorsement.

  2. Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...

  3. When children affect parents: Children's academic performance and parental investment.

    PubMed

    Yurk Quadlin, Natasha

    2015-07-01

    Sociologists have extensively documented the ways that parent resources predict children's achievement. However, less is known about whether and how children's academic performance shapes parental investment behaviors. I use data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and longitudinal fixed effects models to examine how changes in teacher assessments are related to changes in the conferral of various parent resources. Overall, I find that the relationship between achievement and investment varies based on the directionality in children's achievement and the type of resource at hand. Children whose performance improves receive a broad range of enrichment resources, while declines in performance are met with corrective educational resources. Results are largely consistent whether language or math assessments are used to predict investment, and also among children whose achievement does not change over time. I discuss these patterns, along with implications for the use of parent resources in education and family research. PMID:26004488

  4. Effects of preventive family service coordination for parents with mental illnesses and their children, a RCT.

    PubMed

    Wansink, Henny J; Janssens, Jan M A M; Hoencamp, Erik; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Hosman, Clemens M H

    2015-06-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) are at increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, especially when parenting is compromised by multiple risk factors. Due to fragmented services, these families often do not get the support they need. Can coordination between services, as developed in the Preventive Basic Care Management (PBCM) program, improve parenting and prevent child behavioral problems? This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) compared the effectiveness of PBCM with a control condition. Ninety-nine outpatients of a community mental health center were randomized to intervention or control. Primary outcomes included parenting quality (assessed by the HOME instrument), parenting skills (parenting skills subscale of FFQ), and parenting stress (PDH). Secondary outcomes are child behavioral problems (SDQ). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 9 and 18 months. Effects were analyzed by Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Most families were single-parent families belonging to ethnic minorities. The results of the first RCT on effects of PBCM suggest that this intervention is feasible and has a positive effect on parenting skills. There was no evidence for effects on the quality of parenting and parenting stress, nor preventive effects on child behavioral problems. Replication studies in other sites, with more power, including monitoring of the implementation quality and studying a broader palette of child outcomes are needed to confirm the positive effects of PBCM. Long-term prospective studies are needed to investigate if improved parenting skills lead to positive effects in the children in the long run.

  5. Problem Behavior in Children of Chronically Ill Parents: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, A. M.; Oort, F. J.; Visser-Meily, J. M. A.; Van der Leij, D. A. V.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to examine whether children of chronically ill parents differ from norm groups in problem behavior. We report moderator effects and overall effect sizes for internalizing, externalizing and total problem behavior assessed by children and parents. In fixed effect models, we found a significant overall effect size for internalizing problem behavior (number of studies k = 19, total sample size N = 1,858, Cohen’s d = .23, p < .01) and externalizing problem behavior (k = 13, N = 1,525, d = .09, p < .01) but not for total problem behavior (k = 7; N = 896). Effects for internalizing and externalizing problem behavior were larger in non-cancer studies, in samples including younger children and younger ill parents, in samples defined by low average SES and in studies including parents with longer illness duration. In addition, effects for externalizing problem behavior were larger in studies characterized by a higher percentage of ill mothers and single parents. With exclusive self-report, effect sizes were significant for all problem behaviors. Based on these results, a family-centered approach in health care is recommended. PMID:20640510

  6. Parenting Mediates the Impact of Caregivers' Distress on Children's Well-Being in Families Affected by HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Du, Hongfei; Guoxiang, Zhao; Zhao, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    Parental illness imposes great challenges to children's life and mental health. Having a parent infected by HIV may further challenge children's psychological well-being. Existing studies have demonstrated a negative impact of caregiver's distress on children's well-being. Limited studies examined the potential pathways of the link. This study aims to examine whether parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness can explain the relationship between caregivers' distress and children's well-being. A community sample of children of parents living with HIV and their current caregivers (n = 754 dyads) was recruited in rural central China. Children completed the measures on their psychological well-being and perceived parental responsiveness of their caregivers. Caregivers reported on their psychological well-being, parenting stress, and parenting competence. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that caregivers' distress indirectly affect children's well-being through parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness. Parenting stress explained the impact of caregiver's distress on parental responsiveness and showed pervasive effects on parenting competence. Our findings lend credence to family-based intervention for children affected by HIV and affirm the importance of incorporating the cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of parenting practices in such intervention. PMID:26078116

  7. Parenting Mediates the Impact of Caregivers' Distress on Children's Well-Being in Families Affected by HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Du, Hongfei; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhao, Junfeng

    2015-11-01

    Parental illness imposes great challenges to children's life and mental health. Having a parent infected by HIV may further challenge children's psychological well-being. Existing studies have demonstrated a negative impact of caregiver's distress on children's well-being. Limited studies examined the potential pathways of the link. This study aims to examine whether parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness can explain the relationship between caregivers' distress and children's well-being. A community sample of children of parents living with HIV and their current caregivers (n = 754 dyads) was recruited in rural central China. Children completed the measures on their psychological well-being and perceived parental responsiveness of their caregivers. Caregivers reported on their psychological well-being, parenting stress, and parenting competence. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that caregivers' distress indirectly affect children's well-being through parenting stress, parenting competence and parental responsiveness. Parenting stress explained the impact of caregiver's distress on parental responsiveness and showed pervasive effects on parenting competence. Our findings lend credence to family-based intervention for children affected by HIV and affirm the importance of incorporating the cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of parenting practices in such intervention.

  8. The Affective Side: Parenting for Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strop, Jean

    2003-01-01

    This article describes key steps parents can take to develop an achievement orientation in gifted children: heal the gifted child within the parent; give consistent messages; develop early independence; utilize encouragement; develop multiple self-definitions; set challenging but realistic goals; and model persistence. (Author/CR)

  9. Needs, expectations and consequences for children growing up in a family where the parent has a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Izabela; Zabłocka-Żytka, Lidia; Ryan, Peter; Poma, Stefano Zanone; Joronen, Katja; Viganò, Giovanni; Simpson, Wendy; Paavilainen, Eija; Scherbaum, Norbert; Smith, Martin; Dawson, Ian

    2016-08-01

    The lack of pan-European guidelines for empowering children of parents with mental illness led to the EU project CAMILLE - Empowerment of Children and Adolescents of Mentally Ill Parents through Training of Professionals working with children and adolescents. The aim of this initial task in the project was to analyse needs, expectations and consequences for children with respect to living with a parent with mental illness from the perspective of professionals and family members. This qualitative research was conducted in England, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Scotland with 96 professionals, parents with mental illness, adult children and partners of parents with mental illness. A framework analysis method was used. Results of the study highlighted that the main consequences described for children of parental mental illness were role reversal; emotional and behavioural problems; lack of parent's attention and stigma. The main needs of these children were described as emotional support, security and multidisciplinary help. Implications for practice are that professionals working with parents with mental illness should be aware of the specific consequences for the children and encourage parents in their parental role; multi-agency collaboration is necessary; schools should provide counselling and prevent stigma.

  10. Needs, expectations and consequences for children growing up in a family where the parent has a mental illness.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Izabela; Zabłocka-Żytka, Lidia; Ryan, Peter; Poma, Stefano Zanone; Joronen, Katja; Viganò, Giovanni; Simpson, Wendy; Paavilainen, Eija; Scherbaum, Norbert; Smith, Martin; Dawson, Ian

    2016-08-01

    The lack of pan-European guidelines for empowering children of parents with mental illness led to the EU project CAMILLE - Empowerment of Children and Adolescents of Mentally Ill Parents through Training of Professionals working with children and adolescents. The aim of this initial task in the project was to analyse needs, expectations and consequences for children with respect to living with a parent with mental illness from the perspective of professionals and family members. This qualitative research was conducted in England, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland and Scotland with 96 professionals, parents with mental illness, adult children and partners of parents with mental illness. A framework analysis method was used. Results of the study highlighted that the main consequences described for children of parental mental illness were role reversal; emotional and behavioural problems; lack of parent's attention and stigma. The main needs of these children were described as emotional support, security and multidisciplinary help. Implications for practice are that professionals working with parents with mental illness should be aware of the specific consequences for the children and encourage parents in their parental role; multi-agency collaboration is necessary; schools should provide counselling and prevent stigma. PMID:27278508

  11. Parents' Psychiatric Issues May Adversely Affect Some Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adversely Affect Some Children History of antisocial disorder, suicide attempt or marijuana abuse showed the most effect, ... illness may be at higher risk for attempting suicide and/or engaging in violent behavior, a new ...

  12. Effect of Preventive Interventions in Mentally Ill Parents on the Mental Health of the Offspring: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegenthaler, Eliane; Munder, Thomas; Egger, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Mental illness in parents affects the mental health of their children. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to prevent mental disorders or psychological symptoms in the offspring were performed. Method: The Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled…

  13. Treatment Choices in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of Parental Illness Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Anbar, Nebal N.; Dardennes, Roland M.; Prado-Netto, Arthur; Kaye, Kelley; Contejean, Yves

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional design was employed. Parents of a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were asked to complete a modified version of the Revised Illness-Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-RA) and answer questions about information-seeking activities and treatments used. Internal consistency, construct validity, and factor structure were assessed.…

  14. Parents' Grief in the Context of Adult Child Mental Illness: A Qualitative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Meg; Cobham, Vanessa; Murray, Judith; McDermott, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that parents and other family members often grieve their child or relative's mental illness. This grief appears resultant from a profound sense of loss, which has been described as complicated and nonfinite (e.g., Atkinson in "Am J Psychiatry" 151(8):1137-1139, 1994; Davis and Schultz in "Soc Sci Med" 46(3):369-379, 1998; Jones…

  15. Communication about parental illness with children who have learning disabilities and behavioural problems: three case studies.

    PubMed

    Barnes, J; Kroll, L; Lee, J; Jones, A; Stein, A

    1998-11-01

    Parental illness can have a profound impact on family relationships and children's behaviour. The amount and nature of communication between parents and children about the illness can play an important role, both positively and negatively, in mediating the outcomes. When children have a disability, families can be reluctant to communicate with them about family difficulties. They are often concerned about the impact that parental unavailability may have on their child's life. This paper reports on three families in which the mother was diagnosed with breast cancer and one child in the family had a disability. The extent and specific characteristics of their communication about the maternal illness with their children, behavioural changes in the children, explanations of communication strategies and attributions of behavioural changes are described. Family coping strategies are examined with reference to Lazarus's process model of stress and coping and the use of either problem-focused or emotion-focused strategies. Implications for possible clinical interventions are proposed. In particular it is suggested that families be offered consultation about: what children might understand; ways in which to communicate effectively; and strategies for coping with the long-term implications of serious parental illness.

  16. Factors Promoting Mental Health of Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, L. M. A.; Van De Ven, M. O. M.; Van Doesum, K. T. M.; Hosman, C. M. H.; Witteman, C. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children of parents with mental illness have an elevated risk of developing a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. Yet many of these children remain mentally healthy. Objective: The present study aimed to get insight into factors that protect these children from developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Methods:…

  17. The Role of Parental and Extrafamilial Social Support in the Psychosocial Adjustment of Children with a Chronically Ill Father.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotchick, Beth A.; Summers, Peter; Forehand, Rex; Steele, Ric G.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relation between social support and psychosocial adjustment in children of men with hemophilia. Results, based on 53 families, indicate that the impact of illness, not the severity of illness itself, related to children's psychosocial adjustment. Main effects were observed for parental support on child- and parent-reported…

  18. Mental illness and parenthood: being a parent in secure psychiatric care

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Fiona R; Macinnes, Douglas l; Parrott, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background Research into parenting and mental illness seldom includes forensic mental health service users, despite its relevance to therapeutic, family work and risk management. Aims This study aimed to understand the experiences of parents and the variety of parenting roles maintained during admission to a secure forensic hospital. Methods Narrative interviews with 18 parents (eight mothers and 10 fathers) at an English medium security hospital were analysed thematically, using the framework approach. The proportion of patients who are parents and their contact patterns with their children were estimated from records. Results About a quarter of men and 38% of women were parents. Parenthood was of central importance to their emotional life, spanning experiences of loss, shame and failed expectations, joy, responsibility and hope. Fewer fathers maintained contact with their children than mothers yet fatherhood remained a vital aspect of men's identities, with impact on their self-esteem. Parenting during lengthy admissions – while constrained and dependent on professional support and surveillance – ranged from sending gifts and money to visits and phone calls. Offending was seen as a particularly shameful aspect of admission, contributing to distancing from the children and difficulty explaining detention to them. Conclusions Such complex experiences call for multidisciplinary knowledge and skills. Provision of focused therapy, as well as appropriate visiting spaces, creative approaches to contact time and support for patients in explaining their mental illness and detention to their children are recommended. © 2015 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:25754133

  19. Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness

    PubMed Central

    Eccleston, Christopher; Fisher, Emma; Law, Emily; Bartlett, Jess; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological therapies have been developed for parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Such therapies include interventions directed at the parent only or at parent and child/adolescent, and are designed to improve parent, child, and family outcomes. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 8, 2012, (Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness). Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of psychological therapies that include parents of children and adolescents with chronic illnesses including painful conditions, cancer, diabetes mellitus, asthma, traumatic brain injury (TBI), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), skin diseases, or gynaecological disorders. We also aimed to evaluate the adverse events related to implementation of psychological therapies for this population. Secondly, we aimed to evaluate the risk of bias of included studies and the quality of outcomes using the GRADE assessment. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions that included parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness. Databases were searched to July 2014. Selection criteria Included studies were RCTs of psychological interventions that delivered treatment to parents of children and adolescents with a chronic illness compared to an active control, waiting list, or treatment as usual control group. Data collection and analysis Study characteristics and outcomes were extracted from included studies. We analysed data using two categories. First, we analysed data by each individual medical condition collapsing across all treatment classes at two time points. Second, we analysed data by each individual treatment class; cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy (FT), problem solving therapy (PST) and multisystemic therapy

  20. Supported Parenting to Meet the Needs and Concerns of Mothers with Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    David, Daryn H.; Styron, Thomas; Davidson, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Women with serious mental illness often parent without adequate support from psychiatric and behavioral health providers. The lack of such services is significant, given that women with SMI have children at the same or higher rates as women without psychiatric disabilities. In this call to action, we argue that the need to develop supported parenting initiatives for women with SMI is necessary and long overdue. First, we describe numerous social and systemic barriers in the U.S. that have hindered the development of parenting supports for women with SMI over the last century. We next describe recent qualitative and quantitative findings regarding the parenting needs and strengths of these mothers. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future research, program development, and systems-level policy changes to support mothers with SMI in parenting most effectively. PMID:22180730

  1. Parents as Role Models: Parental Behavior Affects Adolescents' Plans for Work Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    This study (N = 520 high-school students) investigates the influence of parental work involvement on adolescents' own plans regarding their future work involvement. As expected, adolescents' perceptions of parental work behavior affected their plans for own work involvement. Same-sex parents served as main role models for the adolescents' own…

  2. Online Group Course for Parents With Mental Illness: Development and Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Speetjens, Paula AM; Arntz, Karlijn SE; Onrust, Simone A

    2010-01-01

    Background Children of parents with mental illness (COPMI) are at greater risk of developing mental disorders themselves. Since impaired parenting skills appear to be a crucial factor, we developed a facilitated 8-session preventative group course called KopOpOuders (Chin Up, Parents) delivered via the Internet to Dutch parents with psychiatric problems. The goal was to promote children’s well-being by strengthening children’s protective factors via their parents. To reach parents at an early stage of their parenting difficulties, the course is easily accessible online. The course is delivered in a secure chat room, and participation is anonymous. Objective This paper reports on (1) the design and method of this online group course and (2) the results of a pilot study that assessed parenting skills, parental sense of competence, child well-being, and course satisfaction. Method The pilot study had a pre/post design. Parenting skills were assessed using Laxness and Overreactivity subscales of the Parenting Scale (PS). Sense of parenting competence was measured with the Ouderlijke Opvattingen over Opvoeding (OOO) questionnaire, a Dutch scale assessing parental perceptions of parenting using the Feelings of Incompetence and Feelings of Competence subscales. Child well-being was assessed with the total problem score, Emotional Problems, and Hyperactivity subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Paired samples t tests were performed, and Cohen’s d was used to determine effect sizes. Intention-to-treat analyses and analyses of completers only were both performed. Course satisfaction was evaluated using custom-designed questionnaires. Results The sample comprised 48 parents with mental illness. The response rate was 100% (48/48) at pretest and 58% (28/48) at posttest. Significant improvements were found on PS Laxness and Overreactivity subscales (P < .01) and on the OOO Feelings of Incompetence and Competence subscales (P < .01) in analysis

  3. How Parental HIV Affects Children. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The shadow cast by HIV reaches beyond individuals diagnosed with the condition. It touches the lives of family members, friends, coworkers, and many others. One group in particular that feels these effects keenly is the children of HIV-positive parents. With improved treatments that have extended the life expectancies of HIV-infected people and…

  4. Bereaved parents' experiences of music therapy with their terminally ill child.

    PubMed

    Lindenfelser, Kathryn J; Grocke, Denise; McFerran, Katrina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate bereaved parents' experiences of music therapy with their terminally ill child. In-depth interviews were conducted with 7 bereaved parents who were recruited through a community-based palliative care program. The parent participants' experiences varied as their children who received music therapy ranged in ages from 5 months to 12 years old. The interview transcripts were analyzed using phenomenological strategies. Five global themes emerged from the analysis. These included (a) music therapy was valued as a means of altering the child's and family's perception of their situation in the midst of adversity, (b) music therapy was a significant component of remembrance, (c) music therapy was a multifaceted experience for the child and family, (d) music therapy enhanced communication and expression, and (e) parents shared perceptions of and recommendations for improving music therapy services. These emergent themes yield knowledge into the relevance of music therapy within pediatric palliative care.

  5. Parental Explicit Heuristics in Decision-making for Children With Life-threatening Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Renjilian, Chris B.; Womer, James W.; Carroll, Karen W.; Kang, Tammy I.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify and illustrate common explicit heuristics (decision-making aids or shortcuts expressed verbally as terse rules of thumb, aphorisms, maxims, or mantras and intended to convey a compelling truth or guiding principle) used by parents of children with life-threatening illnesses when confronting and making medical decisions. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional observational study of 69 parents of 46 children who participated in the Decision-making in Pediatric Palliative Care Study between 2006 and 2008 at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. Parents were guided individually through a semistructured in-depth interview about their experiences and thoughts regarding making medical decisions on behalf of their ill children, and the transcribed interviews were qualitatively analyzed. RESULTS: All parents in our study employed explicit heuristics in interviews about decision-making for their children, with the number of identified explicit heuristics used by an individual parent ranging from tens to hundreds. The heuristics served 5 general functions: (1) to depict or facilitate understanding of a complex situation; (2) to clarify, organize, and focus pertinent information and values; (3) to serve as a decision-making compass; (4) to communicate with others about a complex topic; and (5) to justify a choice. CONCLUSIONS: Explicit heuristics played an important role in decision-making and communication about decision-making in our population of parents. Recognizing explicit heuristics in parent interactions and understanding their content and functions can aid clinicians in their efforts to partner with parents in the decision-making process. PMID:23319524

  6. Why do parents use the emergency department for minor injury and illness? A cross-sectional questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, Sarah; Higginson, Ian; Ives, Andrew; Smith, Jason E

    2016-01-01

    Objective To understand decision-making when bringing a child to an emergency department. Design A cross-sectional survey of parents attending with children allocated a minor triage category. Setting Emergency department in South West England, serving 450,000 people per annum. Participants All English-speaking parents/caregivers whose children attended the emergency department and were triaged as minor injury/illness. Main outcome measures Parental and child characteristics, injury/illness characteristics, advice seeking behaviour, views regarding emergency department service improvement, GP access and determinants of emergency department use. Results In sum, 373 responses were analysed. The majority of attendances were for minor injury, although illness was more common in <4 year olds. Most presentations were within 4 h of injury/illness and parents typically sought advice before attending. Younger parents reported feeling more stressed. Parents of younger children perceived the injury/illness to be more serious, reporting greater levels of worry, stress, helplessness and upset and less confidence. Parents educated to a higher level were more likely to administer first-aid/medication. Around 40% did not seek advice prior to attending and typically these were parents aged <24 and parents of <1 year olds. The main determinants of use were: advised by someone other than a GP; perceived urgency; perceived appropriateness. The need for reassurance also featured. Conclusions The findings suggest that it is difficult for parents to determine whether their child’s symptoms reflect minor conditions. Efforts should focus on building parental confidence and self-help and be directed at parents of younger children and younger parents. This is in addition to appropriate minor injury/illness assessment and treatment services. PMID:26981256

  7. Grandparents Affected by Parental Divorce: A Population at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.; Perrin, Novella

    1993-01-01

    When parents divorce, grandparents who have bonded with children may be affected, especially when denied visitation. Grandparenting roles and styles, family dynamics affecting grandparenthood, and other factors affecting the grandparent-grandchild bond are examined. Legal and ethical issues are discussed. Implications for counselors and human…

  8. Dysfunctional remembered parenting in oncology outpatients affects psychological distress symptoms in a gender-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Kouzoupis, Anastasios V; Lyrakos, Dimitrios; Kokras, Nikolaos; Panagiotarakou, Meropi; Syrigos, Kostas N; Papadimitriou, George N

    2012-12-01

    Evidence suggests that gender differences appear in a variety of biological and psychological responses to stress and perhaps in coping with acute and chronic illness as well. Dysfunctional parenting is also thought to be involved in the process of coping with stress and illness; hence, the present study aimed to verify whether dysfunctional remembered parenting would influence psychological distress in a gender-specific manner in patients suffering from cancer. Patients attending an outpatient oncology clinic completed the Remembered Relationships with Parents (RRP), Hospital Anxiety and Depression and Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scales and the National Cancer Center Network Distress Thermometer. Although no baseline gender differences were detected, a multivariate analysis confirmed that anxiety and depression symptoms of men and women suffering from cancer are differentially affected by the RRP Control and Alienation scores. Women with remembered parental alienation and overprotection showed significantly more anxiety symptoms than men, whereas men were more vulnerable to remembered alienation than overprotection with regard to the Distress Thermometer scores. These results suggest that remembered dysfunctional parenting is crucially, and in a gender-specific manner, involved in the coping strategy adopted by male and female cancer patients.

  9. Online support for children of parents suffering from mental illness: a case study.

    PubMed

    Drost, Louisa M; Schippers, Gerard M

    2015-01-01

    From epidemiologic research, we know that children of parents with a mental illness (COPMI) have an elevated risk of developing a serious mental disorder. Aside from studies based on risk and resilience, there has been little research on the children's own perceptions. The aim of this study was to expand our understanding of key variables influencing COPMI's seeking support and to explore whether a website targeted at COPMI could help them improve their ability to cope with their circumstances and to find professional help. This case study illustrates one visitor's use of a website that was specifically designed to help COPMI. The visitor was a young adult female whose two parents both suffered from mental illness. She participated for 3 years in an intervention delivered through the website. Several things helped to inform us about her perspective on living with parents suffering from mental illness, her use of the website and the benefits she derived from using the website. These included (a) her story as she told it in the exit interview, (b) her messages to her peers and counsellors, (c) her user data and (d) the content of her chat conversations with her peers.

  10. Laughing matters: Infant humor in the context of parental affect.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-08-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early during the first year of life, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5 to 7 months of age as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-participants design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect but did so significantly longer at 5 and 6 months, and more often and sooner at 7 months, when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were more likely to smile at it only when parents provided humor cues and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months of age, parental affect influenced infants' affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing.

  11. Laughing matters: Infant humor in the context of parental affect.

    PubMed

    Mireault, Gina C; Crockenberg, Susan C; Sparrow, John E; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-08-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early during the first year of life, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5 to 7 months of age as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-participants design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect but did so significantly longer at 5 and 6 months, and more often and sooner at 7 months, when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were more likely to smile at it only when parents provided humor cues and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months of age, parental affect influenced infants' affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing. PMID:25897958

  12. Laughing Matters: Infant Humor in the Context of Parental Affect

    PubMed Central

    Mireault, Gina C.; Crockenberg, Susan C.; Sparrow, John E.; Cousineau, Kassandra; Pettinato, Christine; Woodard, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Smiling and laughing appear very early in the first year, but little is known about how infants come to appraise a stimulus as humorous. This short-term longitudinal study explored infant humor perception from 5- to 7-months as a function of parental affect during an absurd event. Using a within-subjects design, parents alternated smiling/laughing with emotional neutrality while acting absurdly toward their infants. Group comparisons showed that infants (N = 37) at all ages smiled at the event regardless of parental affect, but significantly longer at 5 and 6 months , and more often and sooner at 7 months when parents provided humor cues. Similarly, sequential analyses revealed that after gazing at the event, 7-month-olds were only more likely to smile at it when parents provided humor cues, and were comparatively more likely to look away when parents were neutral. Thus, starting at 5 months, parental affect influenced infants’ affect toward an absurd event, an effect that was magnified at 7 months. These results are discussed in the context of emotional contagion, regulation, and the emergence of social referencing. PMID:25897958

  13. Parental perceptions of child vulnerability in a community-based sample: Association with chronic illness and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Houtzager, Bregje A; Möller, Eline L; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Last, Bob F; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the prevalence of parental perceptions of a child's vulnerability (PPCV) in a Dutch community-based sample and its relationship with children's health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Parents completed the Child Vulnerability Scale and a socio-demographic questionnaire. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 was administered to measure HRQoL. The prevalence of PPCV was assessed in relation to socio-demographic and health-related characteristics. In a three-step multiple hierarchical regression model, the mediational role of PPCV in the association between chronic illness and HRQoL was investigated. Participants were 520 Dutch children aged 5-18 years from nine Dutch schools. In all, 69 (13.3%) had a chronic illness; 1.9% was perceived vulnerable, 3.0% in groups 5-7 and 1.7% in groups 8-12 and 13-18. Younger age of the child, presence of a chronic illness and low HRQoL were associated with PPCV. PPCV partially mediated the negative association between chronic illness and HRQoL. In conclusion, PPCV is associated with adjustment to chronic illness. More research is needed regarding the mechanisms through which PPCV affects HRQoL and to examine whether PPCV can be targeted in parenting interventions.

  14. The role of illness perceptions in the attachment-related process of affect regulation.

    PubMed

    Vilchinsky, Noa; Dekel, Rachel; Asher, Zvia; Leibowitz, Morton; Mosseri, Morris

    2013-01-01

    Based on the predictions of the attachment theory and the Common Sense Model of illness perceptions, the current study focused on the role played by illness perceptions in explaining the path linking attachment orientations to negative affect during recovery from cardiac illness. We predicted two putative mechanisms: (1) illness perceptions would mediate the direct association between attachment-related insecurity (especially attachment anxiety) and levels of distress at follow-up and (2) illness perceptions would interact with attachment orientations (attachment avoidance in particular) in explaining patients' distress. The sample consisted of 111 male patients admitted to the Cardiac Care Unit of the Meir Medical Center, located in the central region of Israel. Patients completed a measure of attachment orientations during hospitalization (baseline). One month later, patients' illness perceptions were measured. Patients' depression and anxiety symptoms were measured at baseline and at the six-month follow-up. The associations between attachment-related anxiety and anxiety symptoms at follow-up were fully mediated by illness perceptions. Attachment-related avoidance was found to interact with illness perceptions in the prediction of depressive symptoms at follow-up. The findings shed light on the possible dynamics among personality, cognitive appraisals, and affect regulation efforts when coping with illness.

  15. Extracurricular interest as a resilience building block for children affected by parental HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    Parental illness and death due to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) impose challenges to children's psychological adjustment. Positive psychology emphasizes individual's resilience in the face of adversity, trauma, and tragedy. Limited data are available regarding the factors that can cultivate resilience of children affected by HIV/AIDS. This study aims to examine the role of extracurricular interest in strengthening resilience among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Participants included 755 children orphaned by parental HIV/AIDS, 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-positive parent(s), and 404 comparison children from HIV-free families in the same community in rural China. The measures include extracurricular interest (i.e., reading, sports, music, painting, science, and playing chess) and indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., depression, loneliness, and self-esteem). Having extracurricular interest was positively associated with self-esteem and negatively associated with depression and loneliness. Having extracurricular interest attenuated the negative effect of parental HIV/AIDS on children's self-esteem and loneliness, after controlling for children's age, gender, and family socioeconomic status. The findings underscore the importance of nurturing extracurricular interest and make available of such activities to promote resilience for children affected by HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. PMID:24107136

  16. Psychological Resilience among Children Affected by Parental HIV/AIDS: A Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Sherr, Lorraine; Cluver, Lucie; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    HIV-related parental illness and death have a profound and lasting impact on a child's psychosocial wellbeing, potentially compromising the child's future. In response to a paucity of theoretical and conceptual discussions regarding the development of resilience among children affected by parental HIV, we proposed a conceptual framework of psychological resilience among children affected by HIV based on critical reviews of the existing theoretical and empirical literature. Three interactive social ecological factors were proposed to promote the resilience processes and attenuate the negative impact of parental HIV on children's psychological development. Internal assets, such as cognitive capacity, motivation to adapt, coping skills, religion/spirituality, and personality, promote resilience processes. Family resources and community resources are two critical contextual factors that facilitate resilience process. Family resources contain smooth transition, functional caregivers, attachment relationship, parenting discipline. Community resources contain teacher support, peer support, adult mentors, and effective school. The implications of the conceptual framework for future research and interventions among children affected by parental HIV were discussed. PMID:26716068

  17. Extracurricular interest as a resilience building block for children affected by parental HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Tam, Cheuk Chi; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2014-01-01

    Parental illness and death due to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) impose challenges to children's psychological adjustment. Positive psychology emphasizes individual's resilience in the face of adversity, trauma, and tragedy. Limited data are available regarding the factors that can cultivate resilience of children affected by HIV/AIDS. This study aims to examine the role of extracurricular interest in strengthening resilience among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Participants included 755 children orphaned by parental HIV/AIDS, 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-positive parent(s), and 404 comparison children from HIV-free families in the same community in rural China. The measures include extracurricular interest (i.e., reading, sports, music, painting, science, and playing chess) and indicators of psychological adjustment (i.e., depression, loneliness, and self-esteem). Having extracurricular interest was positively associated with self-esteem and negatively associated with depression and loneliness. Having extracurricular interest attenuated the negative effect of parental HIV/AIDS on children's self-esteem and loneliness, after controlling for children's age, gender, and family socioeconomic status. The findings underscore the importance of nurturing extracurricular interest and make available of such activities to promote resilience for children affected by HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings.

  18. Was the "nervous illness" of Schreber a case of affective disorder?

    PubMed

    Lipton, A A

    1984-10-01

    The available historical information concerning Freud's subject Daniel Paul Schreber's life, family, and the phenomenology of his illness is reviewed. The author challenges the traditional diagnosis of paranoid schizophrenia in favor of a diagnosis of affective disorder.

  19. From Controlling to Letting Go: What Are the Psychosocial Needs of Parents of Adolescents with a Chronic Illness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2014-01-01

    While one of the main objectives of adolescence is to achieve autonomy, for the specific population of adolescents with a chronic illness (CI), the struggle for autonomy is accentuated by the limits implied by their illness. However, little is known concerning the way their parents manage and cope with their children's autonomy acquisition.…

  20. Mediators of the Association between Parental Severe Mental Illness and Offspring Neurodevelopmental Problems

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Brittany M.; Rickert, Martin E.; Class, Quetzal A.; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Parental severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with an increased risk of offspring Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We conducted a study to examine the extent to which risk of preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and small for gestational age (SGA) mediated this association. Methods We obtained data on offspring born 1992-2001 in Sweden (n = 870,017) through the linkage of multiple population-based registers. We used logistic and Cox regression to assess the associations between parental SMI, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and offspring ASD and ADHD, as well as tested whether adverse pregnancy outcomes served as mediators. Results After controlling for measured covariates, maternal and paternal SMI were associated with an increased risk for PTB, LBW, and SGA, as well as for offspring ASD and ADHD. These pregnancy outcomes were also associated with an increased risk of ASD and ADHD. We found that pregnancy outcomes did not mediate the association between parental SMI and offspring ASD and ADHD, as there was no substantial change in magnitude of the risk estimates after controlling for pregnancy outcomes. Conclusions Parental SMI and adverse pregnancy outcomes appear to be independent risk factors for offspring ASD and ADHD. PMID:25037304

  1. Managing communication with young people who have a potentially life threatening chronic illness: qualitative study of patients and parents

    PubMed Central

    Young, Bridget; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Windridge, Kate C; Heney, David

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To examine young people's and parents' accounts of communication about cancer in childhood. Design Semistructured interviews analysed using the constant comparative method. Setting Paediatric oncology unit. Participants 13 families, comprising 19 parents (13 mothers, six fathers) and 13 patients aged 8-17 years, recruited from one paediatric oncology unit. The patients had cancer or brain tumour. Results Most parents described acting in an executive-like capacity, managing what and how their children were told about their illness, particularly at the time of diagnosis. Their accounts were shaped by concerns to manage their identity as strong and optimistic parents and to protect their child's wellbeing. The patients identified elements of their parents' role that both facilitated and constrained their communication, and while they welcomed their parents' involvement, some expressed unease with the constraining aspects of their parents' role. Some young people described feeling marginalised in consultations and pointed to difficulties they experienced in encounters with some doctors. Conclusions There are difficulties in managing communication with young people who have a chronic, life threatening illness. Health professionals need to be aware of how the social positioning of young people (relative to adults) and the executive role of parents can contribute to the marginalisation of young people and hamper the development of successful relationships between themselves and young patients. What is already known on this topicThe BMA has supported the principle of open communication with young patientsYoung people are sometimes excluded from participating in consultations and parents are reluctant to communicate openly with their seriously ill childrenWhat this study addsParents take on an executive-like role, managing what and how their children are told about their illnessesThis role both facilitates and constrains communication with young peopleSome young

  2. Navigating in an unpredictable daily life: a metasynthesis on children's experiences living with a parent with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Dam, Kristianna; Hall, Elisabeth O C

    2016-09-01

    A large group of individuals suffering from mental illness are parents living with their children. These children are invisible in the health care even though at risk for illhealth. The aim of this metasynthesis was to advance knowledge of how children of parents with mental illness experience their lives, thus contributing to the evidence of this phenomenon. The metasynthesis is following Sandelowski and Barroso's guidelines. Literature searches covering the years 2000 to 2013 resulted in 22 reports which were synthesised into the theme 'navigating in an unpredictable everyday life' and the metaphor compass. Children of parents with mental illness irrespective of age are responsible, loving and worrying children who want to do everything to help and support. Children feel shame when the parent behaves differently, and they conceal their family life being afraid of stigmatisation and bullying. When their parent becomes ill, they distance to protect themselves. The children cope through information, knowledge, frankness and trustful relationships. These children need support from healthcare services because they subjugate own needs in favour of the parental needs, they should be encouraged to talk about their family situation, and especially, young children should to be child-like, playing and seeing friends. PMID:26763757

  3. [Knowledge of family members on the rights of individuals affected by mental illness].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Vania; Barbosa, Guilherme Correa

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to understand what family members know about the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. To this end, a qualitative exploratory study was conducted. A semi-structured interview was used for data collection. Eighteen family members were interviewed at a psychosocial care center (CAPS) and a civil society organization (CSO) located in a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, between March and September 2013. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis and the following categories were constructed: mental health services and the rights of individuals affected by mental illness. We were able to infer that in addition to drug-based therapy, mental health services must provide therapeutic activities. Family members of those affected by mental illness were unaware of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform Law and mentioned the following rights: welfare benefits, free public transport, basic food basket and medications. PMID:26098801

  4. Factors affecting health seeking behavior for common childhood illnesses in Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Webair, Hana Hasan; Bin-Gouth, Abdulla Salim

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Appropriate medical care seeking could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to ill health. This study aims to determine factors affecting health seeking behavior (HSB) for childhood illnesses, thereby improving child survival. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out from January 11 to April 2, 2012. A total of 212 caretakers of children under the age of 5 years participated. Caretakers who visited the vaccination unit in the Shehair Health Center during the study period and had a child with a history of diarrhea, fever, cough, and/or difficulty of breathing during the last 14 days were included. The data were collected by interviewing caretakers and the answers were reported in pretested structured questionnaires. Results Medical care was sought for about half of the sick children (n=109, 51.42%). Seeking medical care was frequently initiated for illnesses that did not improve or worsened. The major reasons for not seeking medical care were “illness was mild” (n=40, 38.83%) and “illness is not for medical treatment” (n=32, 31.07%). The caretakers sought medical care significantly more when they had a higher level of school education (POR [prevalence odds ratio] 5.85, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 2.34–14.61), when the illness was perceived as severe (POR 5.39, 95% CI: 2.81–10.33), and when the child had difficulty of breathing (POR 2.93, 95% CI: 1.10–7.80). Conclusion For the preventable childhood illnesses with existing interventions, appropriate HSB prevalence is low. Symptom type, caretakers’ education, and perception of illness severity are the predictors of HSB. Educational improvement of the mothers, introduction of community based integrated management of childhood illness, and in-depth research are imperative to improve mothers’ HSB. PMID:24187490

  5. Allostatic load in parents of children with developmental disorders: moderating influence of positive affect.

    PubMed

    Song, Jieun; Mailick, Marsha R; Ryff, Carol D; Coe, Christopher L; Greenberg, Jan S; Hong, Jinkuk

    2014-02-01

    This study examines whether parents of children with developmental disorders are at risk of elevated allostatic load relative to control parents and whether positive affect moderates difference in risk. In all, 38 parents of children with developmental disorders and 38 matched comparison parents were analyzed. Regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between parent status and positive affect: parents of children with developmental disorders had lower allostatic load when they had higher positive affect, whereas no such association was evident for comparison parents. The findings suggest that promoting greater positive affect may lower health risks among parents of children with developmental disorders.

  6. Does parenting affect children's eating and weight status?

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alison K; Birch, Leann L

    2008-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity among children has increased dramatically. Although the etiology of childhood obesity is multifactorial, to date, most preventive interventions have focused on school-aged children in school settings and have met with limited success. In this review, we focus on another set of influences that impact the development of children's eating and weight status: parenting and feeding styles and practices. Our review has two aims: (1) to assess the extent to which current evidence supports the hypothesis that parenting, via its effects on children's eating, is causally implicated in childhood obesity; and (2) to identify a set of promising strategies that target aspects of parenting, which can be further evaluated as possible components in childhood obesity prevention. Methods A literature review was conducted between October 2006 and January 2007. Studies published before January 2007 that assessed the association between some combination of parenting, child eating and child weight variables were included. Results A total of 66 articles met the inclusion criteria. The preponderance of these studies focused on the association between parenting and child eating. Although there was substantial experimental evidence for the influence of parenting practices, such as pressure, restriction, modeling and availability, on child eating, the majority of the evidence for the association between parenting and child weight, or the mediation of this association by child eating, was cross-sectional. Conclusion To date, there is substantial causal evidence that parenting affects child eating and there is much correlational evidence that child eating and weight influence parenting. There are few studies, however, that have used appropriate meditational designs to provide causal evidence for the indirect effect of parenting on weight status via effects on child eating. A new approach is suggested for evaluating the effectiveness of intervention

  7. Factors Affecting Mothers' Healthcare-Seeking Behaviour for Childhood Illnesses in a Rural Nigerian Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdulraheem, I. S.; Parakoyi, D. B.

    2009-01-01

    Appropriate healthcare-seeking behaviour could prevent a significant number of child deaths and complications due to ill health. Improving mothers' care-seeking behaviour could also contribute in reducing a large number of child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. This article aims to determine factors affecting healthcare-seeking…

  8. [Attachment Quality of Young Children with Mentally Ill Parents on the Example of the Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ramberg, Axel; Feldkötter, Sinja

    2015-01-01

    One of the most discussed questions in clinical literature concerns the impact of child abuse by mentally ill parents (cf. Mattejat, 1998). It's obvious that most children cannot understand such a parental behaviour and that this lack of understanding along with the lack of knowledge about their parents' emotional disorder results in childrens' fear, disorientation and uncertainty. The consequences are massive interferences in the relationship between parents and children, who could develop an anxious-resistant insecure or even a disorganized/disoriented attachment. But how does a child react, if the behaviour of its parents is ambivalent itself and alternates from abuse to care? Such a parental behaviour is described as the "Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome". This article regards the effects of a "Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome" on the childrens' attachment development. After discussing the basic assumptions about the "Munchhauen by Proxy Syndrome" and the attachment theory we draw conclusions about the syndrome's effect on childrens' attachment behaviour. PMID:26509970

  9. [Subjective Needs of Support in Families with a Mentally Ill Parent – A Literature Review].

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patricia; Bruland, Dirk; Bauer, Ulrich; Lenz, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Mentally ill parents are often sceptical about professional help for their children although these children face an increased risk to develop a mental disease themselves. To get a better understanding of needs and help-seeking behaviour in those families a systematic literature review was conducted. Four databases (FIS, PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, PubPsych) were scanned for international and national research literature. Out of 18,057 articles 56 were included which report quantitative or qualitative studies taking the children's and parents' perspectives into account. A thematic synthesis was done to categorize the needs. Results concerning the help-seeking behaviour and the influence of demographic variables were extracted and summarized. Our results were limited by the aspect that no evaluation of study quality had been made and influences on the categorizing process by the authors' subjective perceptions are likely. There were a lot of hints regarding the needs of the families, but little report was found about help-seeking behaviour and demographic variables. The "health literacy" concept was discussed as a basis for further research in this area.

  10. Knowledge and Attitude of Parents of Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Towards the Illness

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Shahrokh; Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Noorazar, Seyed Gholamreza; Rahmani Ivrigh, Sina; Abdi, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Background The knowledge and attitude of parents about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a public health issue in which management and rehabilitation approaches may be influenced. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the parents of children with ADHD towards this disorder in Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods The current cross-sectional study evaluated 295 parents of children and adolescents with ADHD referred to psychiatric clinics of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The subjects were diagnosed based on Kiddie schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-aged children (K-SADS) and recruited according to a convenience sampling method in the first five months of 2014. The parents’ knowledge and attitude towards ADHD was studied by a researcher-made questionnaire. Results The overall knowledge of parents was 66% in which 76.72% were aware of related signs and symptoms and 43.38% were able to identify the aberrations. Meanwhile, 44.62% of the parents knew the etiology and 54.75% had information about treatment strategies. In addition, 33.55%, 37.91%, 25.52% were aware of ADHD consequences, diagnosis and prevalence dimensions, respectively. Moreover, 82.72% of the parents had a positive attitude towards ADHD. A positive correlation was found between parents’ attitude towards ADHD and their overall knowledge (identification, etiology, treatment, consequences and prevalence dimensions), ranging from 0.12 to 0.36 (P < 0.50). Age, gender, and place of residence did not have a correlation with parents’ knowledge and attitude towards ADHD. Parent’s education level only had a positive correlation with the knowledge of symptoms, with a value of 0.19 (P < 0.01). Parents with a higher overall knowledge, knowledge of ADHD symptoms, and prevalence rates accepted combination therapy (P < 0.05). Conclusions While the overall knowledge of parents regarding ADHD was favorable, they were mostly

  11. Family carers’ experience of caring for an older parent with severe and persistent mental illness

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Terence V; Bamberg, John; McCann, Flora

    2015-01-01

    While the burden of caring for older people with chronic medical illness and dementia has been well documented, considerably less is known about how carers develop the strength and resilience to sustain this important role with older family members with mental illness. The aim of the study was to understand the lived experience of primary caregivers of older people with severe and persistent mental illness, and to explore what, if anything, helps to sustain them in their caring role. An interpretative phenomenological analysis approach was adopted, and qualitative interviews were used with 30 primary caregivers. Two overarching themes, and related subthemes, were abstracted from the data. First, caring is a difficult and demanding responsibility. It affects carers adversely, emotionally, physically, socially, and financially, and their lifestyle in general. This is reflected in three subthemes: (i) physically and emotionally draining; (ii) grieving about the loss; (iii) and adverse effects on lifestyle and social relationships. Second, carers develop resilience in caring, which helps sustain them in their role, as illustrated in three subthemes: (i) caring as purposeful and satisfying; (ii) harnessing social support from others; and (iii) purposefully maintaining their own well-being. Community mental health nurses have a key role in assessing carers’ needs and supporting them in their caring role. PMID:25963281

  12. Validity of a Brief Measure of Parental Affective Attitudes in High-Risk Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated psychometric properties of the Family Affective Attitude Rating Scale (FAARS) for assessing parents' thoughts and feelings about their child, coded from a 5-min speech sample. Parental affective attitudes derive from previous experiences of parenting and child behavior, representations of the parent-child…

  13. Parental Control and Affect as Predictors of Children's Display Rule Use and Social Competence with Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, David J.; Parke, Ross D.

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-six fourth-grade children and their parents participated in a study of the linkages among parental control and positive affect, children's display rule use, and children's social competence with peers. Using observational measures of parental behavior and children's display rule use, it was found that parental positive affect and control…

  14. The PATS Peer Support Program: Prevention/Early Intervention for Adolescents Who Have a Parent with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, John; Bond, Lyndal; O'Brien, Matt; Forer, Danielle; Davies, Liz

    2008-01-01

    PATS (Paying Attention to Self) is a peer support program for adolescent children of parents with a diagnosed mental illness. The program aims to promote positive mental health, reduce the likelihood of mental health difficulties, increase young people's coping skills and empower them to meet their own and their families' needs. PATS combines peer…

  15. When Parents with Severe Mental Illness Lose Contact with Their Children: Are Psychiatric Symptoms or Substance Use to Blame?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

    2008-01-01

    This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month…

  16. Children as Next of Kin: A Scoping Review of Support Interventions for Children Who Have a Parent with a Serious Physical Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Järkestig Berggren, Ulrika; Hanson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Young children and adolescents who have a parent with a serious physical illness require information and support to cope with their everyday lives. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarise and disseminate the research findings of interventions that support children in families with a serious physically ill parent. The review also aimed…

  17. Coping with the Personal Loss of Having a Parent with Mental Illness: Young Adults' Narrative Accounts of Spiritual Struggle and Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maunu, Aleisha; Stein, Catherine H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the personal accounts of nine young adults who have parents living with mental illness. Adults' experience of personal loss due to their parents' mental illness and perceptions of their religious faith journey and spiritual struggles are described. Overall, young adults who reported experiencing more personal loss due to…

  18. Factors Affecting the Quality of Life and the Illness Acceptance of Pregnant Women with Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bień, Agnieszka; Rzońca, Ewa; Kańczugowska, Angelika; Iwanowicz-Palus, Grażyna

    2015-12-22

    The paper contains an analysis of the factors affecting the quality of life (QoL) and the illness acceptance of diabetic pregnant women. The study was performed between January and April, 2013. It included 114 pregnant women with diabetes, hospitalized in the High Risk Pregnancy Wards of several hospitals in Lublin, Poland. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. The research instruments used were: The WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire and the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS). The women's general quality of life was slightly higher than their perceived general health. A higher quality of life was reported by women with a very good financial standing, very good perceived health, moderate self-reported knowledge of diabetes, and also by those only treated with diet and stating that the illness did not interfere with their lives (p < 0.05). Women with a very good financial standing (p < 0.009), high self-reported health (p < 0.002), and those treated with by means of a diet (p < 0.04) had a higher acceptance of illness. A higher acceptance of illness contributes to a higher general quality of life and a better perception of one's health.

  19. Social support for South Asian Muslim parents with life-limiting illness living in Scotland: a multiperspective qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gaveras, Eleni Margareta; Kristiansen, Maria; Worth, Allison; Irshad, Tasneem; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore experiences of social support needs among South Asian Muslim patients with life-limiting illness, living in Scotland, who are parents of young children. Design Secondary analysis of data from a multiperspective, longitudinal Scottish study involving in-depth semistructured interviews with patients, their nominated carers and healthcare professionals. Data were analysed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Setting Edinburgh, Scotland. Participants South-Asian Muslim patients with life-limiting illness with children under the age of 18 (n=8), their carer (n=6) and their healthcare professional. Main outcome measures Access and provision of social support in palliative care. Results Open-ended qualitative interviews identified four main themes: (1) parental sadness over being unable to provide tangible support; (2) parental desire to continue to provide emotional support; (3) limited availability of informal social support networks; and (4) differing perspectives between healthcare professionals and patients on patient access to social support sources, with a subtheme being the capacity of male carers to provide social support. South-Asian parents at the end of life had limited access to extended-network support. Gender roles appeared as challenging for healthcare providers who at times overestimated the amount of support a female carer could provide and underestimated the amount of support male carers provided. Implications for practice include the need for greater awareness by healthcare providers of the social support needs of ethnic minority and migrant parents with life-limiting illnesses and especially an awareness of the importance of the role of male and female carers. Further research is needed to explore how the timing of migration impacts the need for and availability of tangible and emotional informal social support among ethnic minority parents with life-limiting illness. PMID:24503303

  20. The Relations of Parental Affect and Encouragement to Children's Moral Emotions and Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinrad, Tracy L.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Eisenburg, Nancy; Fabes, Richard A.; Shepard, Stephanie A.; Cumberland, Amanda; Guthrie, Ivanna K.; Murphy, Bridget C.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the role of observed parental affect and encouragement in children's empathy-related responding and moral behavior, specifically cheating on a puzzle activity. Finds that (1) parents' affect and encouragement positively related to children's sympathy (not empathy) and (2) boys' cheating on the puzzle correlated to parents' affect and…

  1. Human Infant Faces Provoke Implicit Positive Affective Responses in Parents and Non-Parents Alike

    PubMed Central

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H.; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors. PMID:24282537

  2. Human infant faces provoke implicit positive affective responses in parents and non-parents alike.

    PubMed

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; De Falco, Simona; Bornstein, Marc H; Caria, Andrea; Buffolino, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Human infants' complete dependence on adult caregiving suggests that mechanisms associated with adult responsiveness to infant cues might be deeply embedded in the brain. Behavioural and neuroimaging research has produced converging evidence for adults' positive disposition to infant cues, but these studies have not investigated directly the valence of adults' reactions, how they are moderated by biological and social factors, and if they relate to child caregiving. This study examines implicit affective responses of 90 adults toward faces of human and non-human (cats and dogs) infants and adults. Implicit reactions were assessed with Single Category Implicit Association Tests, and reports of childrearing behaviours were assessed by the Parental Style Questionnaire. The results showed that human infant faces represent highly biologically relevant stimuli that capture attention and are implicitly associated with positive emotions. This reaction holds independent of gender and parenthood status and is associated with ideal parenting behaviors.

  3. An Online Health Prevention Intervention for Youth with Addicted or Mentally Ill Parents: Experiences and Perspectives of Participants and Providers from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bindels, Jill APM; Evers, Silvia MAA; Paulus, Aggie TG; van Asselt, Antoinette DI; van Schayck, Onno CP

    2015-01-01

    Background Mental illnesses affect many people around the world, either directly or indirectly. Families of persons suffering from mental illness or addiction suffer too, especially their children. In the Netherlands, 864,000 parents meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness or addiction. Evidence shows that offspring of mentally ill or addicted parents are at risk for developing mental disorders or illnesses themselves. The Kopstoring course is an online 8-week group course with supervision by 2 trained psychologists or social workers, aimed to prevent behavioral and psychological problems for children (aged 16 to 25 years) of parents with mental health problems or addictions. The course addresses themes such as roles in the family and mastery skills. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Kopstoring course. Objective The aim was to gain knowledge about expectations, experiences, and perspectives of participants and providers of the online Kopstoring course. Methods A process evaluation was performed to evaluate the online delivery of Kopstoring and the experiences and perspectives of participants and providers of Kopstoring. Interviews were performed with members from both groups. Participants were drawn from a sample from the Kopstoring RCT. Results Thirteen participants and 4 providers were interviewed. Five main themes emerged from these interviews: background, the requirements for the intervention, experience with the intervention, technical aspects, and research aspects. Overall, participants and providers found the intervention to be valuable because it was online; therefore, protecting their anonymity was considered a key component. Most barriers existed in the technical sphere. Additional barriers existed with conducting the RCT, namely gathering informed consent and gathering parental consent in the case of minors. Conclusions This study provides valuable insight into participants’ and

  4. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level I Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  5. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level II Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  6. Partnership in mental health and child welfare: social work responses to children living with parental mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Rosemary

    2004-01-01

    Mental illness is an issue for a number of families reported to child protection agencies. Parents with mental health problems are more vulnerable, as are their children, to having parenting and child welfare concerns. A recent study undertaken in the Melbourne Children's Court (Victoria, Australia) found that the children of parents with mental health problems comprised just under thirty percent of all new child protection applications brought to the Court and referred to alternative dispute resolution, during the first half of 1998. This paper reports on the study findings, which are drawn from a descriptive survey of 228 Pre-Hearing Conferences. A data collection schedule was completed for each case, gathering information about the child welfare concerns, the parents' problems, including mental health problems, and the contribution by mental health professionals to resolving child welfare concerns. The study found that the lack of involvement by mental health social workers in the child protection system meant the Children's Court was given little appreciation of either a child's emotional or a parent's mental health functioning. The lack of effective cooperation between the adult mental health and child protection services also meant decisions made about these children were made without full information about the needs and the likely outcomes for these children and their parents. This lack of interagency cooperation between mental health social work and child welfare also emerged in the findings of the Icarus project, a cross-national project, led by Brunel University, in England. This project compared the views and responses of mental health and child welfare social workers to the dependent children of mentally ill parents, when there were child protection concerns. It is proposed that adult mental health social workers involve themselves in the assessment of, and interventions in, child welfare cases when appropriate, and share essential information about

  7. Positive Interventions for Children with Chronic Illness: Parents' and Teachers' Concerns and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiu, Shiona

    2004-01-01

    Schools today are faced with increasing numbers of students with chronic illness. Medical advances, which improve health and prolong life, and increased incidence levels among some illnesses have led to this increase. Children with a chronic illness are more likely to encounter academic, social and emotional difficulties. The challenge facing…

  8. Birthdates of patients affected by mental illness and solar activity: A study from Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventriglio, Antonio; Borelli, Albacenzina; Bellomo, Antonello; Lepore, Alberto

    2011-04-01

    PurposeThis epidemiologic study tested an hypothesized association between the year of birth of persons with major mental illnesses and solar activity over the past century. MethodsWe collected data on diagnoses and birthdates of psychiatric patients born between 1926 and 1975 (N = 1954) in south Italy for comparison to yearly solar activity as registered by the International Observatories. ResultsWe found a strong inverse correlation between high solar activity (HSA) and incidence of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in a 20-year period whereas the incidence of non-affective/non-psychotic disorders was moderately associated with HSA in the same period. ConclusionsInterpretation of the observed correlations between HSA during years of birth and the incidence of mental illnesses remains unclear, but the findings encourage further study.

  9. Subgroups of physically abusive parents based on cluster analysis of parenting behavior and affect.

    PubMed

    Haskett, Mary E; Scott, Susan Smith; Ward, Caryn Sabourin

    2004-10-01

    Cluster analysis of observed parenting and self-reported discipline was used to categorize 83 abusive parents into subgroups. A 2-cluster solution received support for validity. Cluster 1 parents were relatively warm, positive, sensitive, and engaged during interactions with their children, whereas Cluster 2 parents were relatively negative, disengaged or intrusive, and insensitive. Further, clusters differed in emotional health, parenting stress, perceptions of children, and problem solving. Children of parents in the 2 clusters differed on several indexes of social adjustment. Cluster 1 parents were similar to nonabusive parents (n = 66) on parenting and related constructs, but Cluster 2 parents differed from nonabusive parents on all clustering variables and many validation variables. Results highlight clinically relevant diversity in parenting practices and functioning among abusive parents.

  10. Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration.

    PubMed

    Shlafer, Rebecca J; Poehlmann, Julie

    2010-07-01

    This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver-child and incarcerated parent-child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children's behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children's behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment.

  11. Oral health conditions affect functional and social activities of terminally-ill cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D.J.; Epstein, J.B.; Yao, Y.; Wilkie, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Oral conditions are established complications in terminally-ill cancer patients. Yet despite significant morbidity, the characteristics and impact of oral conditions in these patients are poorly documented. The study objective was to characterize oral conditions in terminally-ill cancer patients to determine the presence, severity, and the functional and social impact of these oral conditions. Methods This was an observational clinical study including terminally-ill cancer patients (2.5–3 week life expectancy). Data were obtained via the Oral Problems Scale (OPS) that measures the presence of subjective xerostomia, orofacial pain, taste change, and the functional/social impact of oral conditions and a demographic questionnaire. A standardized oral examination was used to assess objective salivary hypofunction, fungal infection, mucosal erythema, and ulceration. Regression analysis and t test investigated the associations between measures. Results Of 104 participants, most were ≥50 years of age, female, and high-school educated; 45% were African American, 43% Caucasian, and 37% married. Oral conditions frequencies were: salivary hypofunction (98%), mucosal erythema (50%), ulceration (20%), fungal infection (36%), and other oral problems (46%). Xerostomia, taste change, and orofacial pain all had significant functional impact; p<.001, p=.042 and p<.001, respectively. Orofacial pain also had a significant social impact (p<.001). Patients with oral ulcerations had significantly more orofacial pain with a social impact than patients without ulcers (p=.003). Erythema was significantly associated with fungal infection and with mucosal ulceration (p<.001). Conclusions Oral conditions significantly affect functional and social activities in terminally-ill cancer patients. Identification and management of oral conditions in these patients should therefore be an important clinical consideration. PMID:24232310

  12. WHEN PARENTS WITH SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS LOSE CONTACT WITH THEIR CHILDREN: ARE PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS OR SUBSTANCE USE TO BLAME?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Danson; Macias, Rosemarie Lillianne; Gold, Paul B.; Barreira, Paul; Fisher, William

    2009-01-01

    This study compared parental psychiatric symptom severity, and the absence or presence of severe substance abuse, as predictors of contact with minor children for a representative sample of adults with diagnoses of serious mental illness (N = 45). Child contact and psychiatric symptom severity were measured during regularly scheduled 6-month research interviews over a total 30-month period following each participant’s entry into the project. Severe substance abuse was documented as present or absent for the 6-month interval preceding each interview. Results revealed that incidence of severe substance abuse was repeatedly associated with less frequent parent-child contact, even after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, gender, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Neither psychiatric diagnosis nor symptom severity predicted frequency of child contact when substance abuse was taken into account. Mental health agencies offering parenting classes for adults with serious mental illness should incorporate substance use interventions to reduce loss of child custody and strengthen parent-child relationships. PMID:20011665

  13. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    PubMed

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  14. You are such a bad child! Appraisals as mechanisms of parental negative and positive affect.

    PubMed

    Gavita, Oana Alexandra; David, Daniel; DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Although parent cognitions are considered important predictors that determine specific emotional reactions and parental practices, models on the cognitive strategies for regulating parental distress or positive emotions are not well developed. Our aim was to investigate the nature of cognitions involved in parental distress and satisfaction, in terms of their specificity (parental or general) and their processing levels (inferential or evaluative cognitions). We hypothesized that parent's specific evaluative cognitions will mediate the impact of more general and inferential cognitive structures on their affective reactions. We used bootstrapping procedures in order to test the mediation models proposed. Results obtained show indeed that rather specific evaluative parental cognitions are mediating the relationship between general cognitions and parental distress. In terms of the cognitive processing levels, it seems that when parents hold both low self-efficacy and parental negative global evaluations for the self/child, this adds significantly to their distress.

  15. You are such a bad child! Appraisals as mechanisms of parental negative and positive affect.

    PubMed

    Gavita, Oana Alexandra; David, Daniel; DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Although parent cognitions are considered important predictors that determine specific emotional reactions and parental practices, models on the cognitive strategies for regulating parental distress or positive emotions are not well developed. Our aim was to investigate the nature of cognitions involved in parental distress and satisfaction, in terms of their specificity (parental or general) and their processing levels (inferential or evaluative cognitions). We hypothesized that parent's specific evaluative cognitions will mediate the impact of more general and inferential cognitive structures on their affective reactions. We used bootstrapping procedures in order to test the mediation models proposed. Results obtained show indeed that rather specific evaluative parental cognitions are mediating the relationship between general cognitions and parental distress. In terms of the cognitive processing levels, it seems that when parents hold both low self-efficacy and parental negative global evaluations for the self/child, this adds significantly to their distress. PMID:24846787

  16. An actor-partner interdependence analysis of associations between affect and parenting behavior among couples.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Kyle W; Lovejoy, M Christine; Oddi, Kate B

    2014-03-01

    Prior studies evaluating associations between parental affect and parenting behavior have typically focused on either mothers or fathers despite evidence suggesting that affect and parenting behavior may be interdependent among couples. This study addressed this gap in the literature by evaluating associations between self-reported affect and parenting behavior using an actor-partner interdependence analysis among a sample of 53 mother-father dyads of 3- to 5-year-old children. Results suggested that mothers' and fathers' negative affect, as well as mothers' and fathers' positive affect, were positively associated. Both mothers' and fathers' negative affect were negatively associated with fathers' positive affect. Mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior, and supportive/engaged parenting behavior, were positively associated. Furthermore, mothers' negative affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' harsh/negative parenting behavior while mothers' positive affect was negatively associated with mothers' harsh/negative behavior and positively associated with mothers' supportive/engaged behavior. Fathers' negative affect was positively associated with fathers' supportive/engaged parenting behavior, while fathers' positive affect was positively associated with mothers' and fathers' supportive/engaged behavior. Results highlight the importance of conceptualizing and measuring characteristics of both mothers and fathers, if applicable, when researching the dynamics of interpersonal relationships within families.

  17. The Effects of Being an Only Child, Family Cohesion, and Family Conflict on Behavioral Problems among Adolescents with Physically Ill Parents

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Jia-Na; Liu, Guang-Cong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine the parental physical illness’ effect on behavioral problems among adolescents, and the effects of being an only child, family cohesion, and family conflict on behavioral problems among adolescents with physically ill parents in Liaoning province, China. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2009. A questionnaire including two dimensions of the Family Environment Scale (family cohesion and family conflict), self-reported Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and demographic factors was distributed to the subjects. Results: Among the 5220 adolescents, 308 adolescents lived with physically ill parents. The adolescents with physically ill parents had more behavioral problems than adolescents with healthy parents. Among the girls who lived in families with physically ill parents, the SDQ score and the prevalence of SDQ syndromes were higher in the girls with siblings than the girls without siblings after adjusting for variables; the effect of family cohesion on SDQ was significant after adjusting for variables. Conclusion: Interventions targeting family cohesion may be effective to reduce behavioral problems of adolescents with physically ill parents. PMID:26404347

  18. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Volunteer Sponsor's Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This handbook was developed for volunteer group leaders participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning). Project BEST-PAL was developed especially for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting, with a primary objective being…

  19. Variations in Maternal 5-HTTLPR Affect Observed Sensitive Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cents, Rolieke A. M.; Kok, Rianne; Tiemeier, Henning; Lucassen, Nicole; Székely, Eszter; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Lambregtse-van den Berg, Mijke P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the genetic determinants of sensitive parenting. Two earlier studies examined the effect of the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) on sensitive parenting, but reported opposite results. In a large cohort we further examined whether 5-HTTLPR is a predictor of observed maternal sensitivity and whether…

  20. Demographics Affecting Parental Expectations from Early Deaf Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingber, Sara; Dromi, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Parent participation in rehabilitation programs for children with special needs requires program designers to accommodate each family's particular needs and characteristics. This study investigated maternal reports on various characteristics of 50 Israeli deaf preschoolers, their parents, and families, and examined these characteristics' links…

  1. Bullying Affects Us Too: Parental Responses to Bullying at Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Gary; Crisp, Beth R.

    2008-01-01

    Preschool age children are often thought of as too young to be able to engage in bullying behaviours. However, when it does occur, there are ramifications not only for the child but also for parents and siblings. This paper explores this issue by reporting on an exploratory study involving interviews with four parents whose child had experienced…

  2. Exertional heat illness: a review of the syndrome affecting racing Thoroughbreds in hot and humid climates.

    PubMed

    Brownlow, M A; Dart, A J; Jeffcott, L B

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic heat produced by Thoroughbred racehorses during racing can rapidly elevate core body temperature (1°C/min). When environmental conditions are hot and humid, the normal physiological cooling mechanisms become ineffective. The heat accumulated may exceed a critical thermal maximum (estimated to be 42°C), which may trigger a complex pathophysiological cascade with potentially lethal consequences. This syndrome has been labelled exertional heat illness (EHI). EHI is described in humans, but has not been well documented in Thoroughbred racehorses. The clinical signs described in racehorses would suggest that the pathophysiological events affecting the central nervous (CNS) and gastrointestinal systems are similar to those described in humans. Clinical signs are progressive and include signs of endotoxaemia and increasing levels of CNS dysfunction. Initially, horses that may be mildly irritable (agitated, randomly kicking out) may progress to unmanageable (disorientation, severe ataxia, falling) and ultimately convulsions, coma and death. Currently, the approach to treatment is largely empirical and involves rapid and effective cooling, administration of drugs to provide sedation, administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to ameliorate the effects of endotoxaemia and glucocorticoids to stabilise cell membranes and reduce the effects of inflammation on the CNS. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about EHI in Thoroughbred racehorses, suggests a likely pathophysiology of the syndrome in horses based on the current literature on heat illness in humans and horses, and outlines current treatment strategies being used to treat racehorses with clinical signs of EHI. PMID:27349884

  3. Associations Between Infant Negative Affect and Parent Anxiety Symptoms are Bidirectional: Evidence from Mothers and Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about child-based effects on parents’ anxiety symptoms early in life despite the possibility that child characteristics may contribute to the quality of the early environment and children’s own long-term risk for psychological disorder. We examined bidirectional effects between parent anxiety symptoms and infant negative affect using a prospective adoption design. Infant negative affect and adoptive parent anxiety symptoms were assessed at child ages 9, 18, and 27 months. Birth parent negative affect was assessed at child age 18 months. More anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents at child age 9 months predicted more negative affect in infants 9 months later. More infant negative affect at child age 9 months predicted more anxiety symptoms in adoptive parents 18 months later. Patterns of results did not differ for adoptive mothers and adoptive fathers. Birth parent negative affect was unrelated to infant or adoptive parent measures. Consistent with expectations, associations between infant negative affect and rearing parents’ anxiety symptoms appear to be bidirectional. In addition to traditional parent-to-child effects, our results suggest that infants’ characteristics may contribute to parent qualities that are known to impact childhood outcomes. PMID:26696939

  4. Children's affective responses, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies in response to the negative affect of parents and peers.

    PubMed

    Creasey, G; Ottlinger, K; Devico, K; Murray, T; Harvey, A; Hesson-McInnis, M

    1997-10-01

    Although research has linked difficulties in parent mood functioning to developmental problems in children, little work has examined why such a link occurs. Following current social-cognitive perspectives on children's cognitive appraisals to negative parent affect, it was hypothesized that children would show more intense affective responses, less confidence, and less active coping strategies in response to parent, as opposed to peer, negative affect. In the current study, young children (N = 39) were read experimental vignettes portraying peers and parents in either happy, sad, or angry emotional states. Children were then interviewed about their affective responses, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies to each vignette. Beyond experiencing more negative affective responses to parent, compared to peer negative affect, children felt they could do little to help themselves when faced with paternal distress and frequently indicated they would engage in avoidant coping strategies (e.g., hiding) to make themselves feel better when confronted with parent sadness. This study has implications for more industrious future research, as well as intervention projects that involve assisting children who live in households marked by high levels of negative adult affect. PMID:9344486

  5. Attachment and caregiving relationships in families affected by parental incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal, mixed method study focused on 57 families of children who participated in a mentoring program for children of incarcerated parents. Children ranged in age from 4 to 15 years. Monthly interviews were conducted with children, caregivers, and mentors during the first six months of program participation, and questionnaires were administered at intake and six months to assess caregiver–child and incarcerated parent–child relationships, contact with incarcerated parents, and children’s behavior problems. Although some children viewed their incarcerated parents as positive attachment figures, other children reported negative feelings toward or no relationship with incarcerated parents. In addition, our assessments of children nine years old and older revealed that having no contact with the incarcerated parent was associated with children reporting more feelings of alienation toward that parent compared to children who had contact. Children’s behavior problems were a primary concern, often occurring in a relational context or in reaction to social stigma associated with parental imprisonment. PMID:20582847

  6. Maternal Affective Illness in the Perinatal Period and Child Development: Findings on Developmental Timing, Mechanisms, and Intervention.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Monk, Catherine; Burke, Anne S

    2016-03-01

    Maternal mental illness is one of the most reliable risks for clinically significant child adjustment difficulties. The research literature in this area is very large and broad and dates back decades. In this review, we consider recent research findings on maternal mental illness and child development by focusing particularly on affective illness the perinatal period. We do this because maternal affective illness in the perinatal period is common; recent evidence suggests that pre- and postpartum maternal depression may have lasting effects on child behavioral and somatic health; research in the perinatal period raises acute and compelling questions about mechanisms of transmission and effect; and perinatal-focused interventions may offer distinct advantages for benefitting mother and child and gaining insights into developmental mechanisms. Throughout the review, we attend to the increasing integration of psychological and biological models and the trans-disciplinary approach now required for clinical investigation.

  7. Maternal early-life trauma and affective parenting style: the mediating role of HPA-axis function.

    PubMed

    Juul, Sarah H; Hendrix, Cassandra; Robinson, Brittany; Stowe, Zachary N; Newport, D Jeffrey; Brennan, Patricia A; Johnson, Katrina C

    2016-02-01

    A history of childhood trauma is associated with increased risk for psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood and, for those who have children, impairments in parenting and increased risk of negative outcomes in offspring. Physiological and behavioral mechanisms are poorly understood. In the current study, maternal history of childhood trauma was hypothesized to predict differences in maternal affect and HPA axis functioning. Mother-infant dyads (N = 255) were assessed at 6 months postpartum. Mothers were videotaped during a 3-min naturalistic interaction, and their behavior was coded for positive, neutral, and negative affect. Maternal salivary cortisol was measured six times across the study visit, which also included an infant stressor paradigm. Results showed that childhood trauma history predicted increased neutral affect and decreased mean cortisol in the mothers and that cortisol mediated the association between trauma history and maternal affect. Maternal depression was not associated with affective measures or cortisol. Results suggest that early childhood trauma may disrupt the development of the HPA axis, which in turn impairs affective expression during mother-infant interactions in postpartum women. Interventions aimed at treating psychiatric illness in postpartum women may benefit from specific components to assess and treat trauma-related symptoms and prevent secondary effects on parenting.

  8. Parental instrumental feeding, negative affect, and binge eating among overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Mason, Tyler B

    2015-04-01

    Parental instrumental feeding (i.e., rewarding children with food for perceived correct behaviors and punishing by taking away food for perceived incorrect behaviors) and negative affect are independently associated with binge eating in adulthood. However, less is known about interactions between these variables and binge eating. This study examined the relationship of retrospective reports of parental feeding practices and negative affect to binge eating. Participants were 165 overweight and obese undergraduate students at a large Mid-Atlantic University. High parental instrumental feeding strengthened the relationship between negative affect and binge eating. Also, individuals who reported low parental feeding practices reported similar binge eating regardless of negative affect. These findings suggest that overweight and obese individuals whose parents used more instrumental feeding practices are most likely to engage in binge eating in response to negative affect.

  9. X-linkage in bipolar affective illness. Perspectives on genetic heterogeneity, pedigree analysis and the X-chromosome map.

    PubMed

    Baron, M; Rainer, J D; Risch, N

    1981-06-01

    The search for genetic markers is a powerful strategy in psychiatric genetics. The present article examines four areas relevant to discrepancies among X-linkage studies in bipolar affective disorder. These are questions of ascertainment, analytic methods, the X-chromosome map and genetic heterogeneity. The following conclusions are reached: (a) Positive linkage findings cannot be attributed to ascertainment bias or association between affective illness and colorblindness. (b) The possibility that falsely positive linkage results were obtained by using inappropriate analytic methods is ruled out. (c) Reported linkages of bipolar illness to colorblind and G6PD loci are compatible with known map distances between X-chromosome loci. Linkage to the Xg antigen remains uncertain. (d) The discrepancy among the various data sets on affective illness and colorblindness is best explained by significant linkage heterogeneity among pedigrees informative for the two traits. PMID:6454708

  10. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  11. Educational interventions in secondary education aiming to affect pupils' attitudes towards mental illness: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, E; Leino-Kilpi, H; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, A

    2011-03-01

    Dealing with persons who have mental health problems is an issue that many people are likely to face with, whether they are health professionals or not. Positive attitudes towards people with mental illness play a major factor in their quality of life and social inclusion. Since adolescents will become active adult members of their communities in the near future, this paper reviews educational interventions in secondary education and how they aim to affect adolescent attitudes towards mental illness. Twelve studies conducted on the relevant issue have been identified. The results indicate a positive impact on attitudes towards mental illness and improvements in the knowledge of mental health and illness among secondary school pupils. However, the limited number of studies highlights the need for further research.

  12. Educational interventions in secondary education aiming to affect pupils' attitudes towards mental illness: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, E; Leino-Kilpi, H; Kalokerinou-Anagnostopoulou, A

    2011-03-01

    Dealing with persons who have mental health problems is an issue that many people are likely to face with, whether they are health professionals or not. Positive attitudes towards people with mental illness play a major factor in their quality of life and social inclusion. Since adolescents will become active adult members of their communities in the near future, this paper reviews educational interventions in secondary education and how they aim to affect adolescent attitudes towards mental illness. Twelve studies conducted on the relevant issue have been identified. The results indicate a positive impact on attitudes towards mental illness and improvements in the knowledge of mental health and illness among secondary school pupils. However, the limited number of studies highlights the need for further research. PMID:21299729

  13. Parenting styles and emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Thammawijaya, Panithee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (standardized beta [B]=-0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more likely to perceive their parents as caring (B=0.48, p=0.002). Children who scored lower on their self-esteem reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=-0.30, p=0.030), and children reporting higher levels of stress reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=0.12, p=0.010). Children reporting caring parenting style were significantly more likely to report higher emotional intelligence (B=0.66, p=0.001). Parenting styles play an important role in the emotional intelligence. Identifying and testing interventions to help parents improve their parenting styles, while helping their HIV-affected children cope with stress and self-esteem, are essential in promoting mental health of HIV-affected children in Thailand. PMID:23651471

  14. Parenting styles and emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Thammawijaya, Panithee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (standardized beta [B]=-0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more likely to perceive their parents as caring (B=0.48, p=0.002). Children who scored lower on their self-esteem reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=-0.30, p=0.030), and children reporting higher levels of stress reported their parents to be more overprotective (B=0.12, p=0.010). Children reporting caring parenting style were significantly more likely to report higher emotional intelligence (B=0.66, p=0.001). Parenting styles play an important role in the emotional intelligence. Identifying and testing interventions to help parents improve their parenting styles, while helping their HIV-affected children cope with stress and self-esteem, are essential in promoting mental health of HIV-affected children in Thailand.

  15. Parenting Styles and Emotional Intelligence of HIV-affected Children in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Jae; Li, Li; Thammawijaya, Panithee

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of parenting styles on emotional intelligence of HIV-affected children in Thailand. This study uses data from 205 HIV-affected children in northern and northeastern Thailand. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of emotional intelligence. Children reporting higher levels of stress reported less caring parenting style (Standardized beta [B] = −0.18, p=0.050). Children with higher self-esteem were also more likely to perceive their parents as caring (B = 0.48, p = 0.002). Children who scored lower on their self-esteem reported their parents to be more overprotective (B = −0.30, p = 0.030), and children reporting higher levels of stress reported their parents to be more overprotective (B = 0.12, p = 0.010). Children reporting caring parenting style were significantly more likely to report higher emotional intelligence (B = 0.66, p = 0.001). Parenting styles play an important role in the emotional intelligence. Identifying and testing interventions to help parents improve their parenting styles, while helping their HIV-affected children cope with stress and self-esteem, are essential in promoting mental health of HIV-affected children in Thailand. PMID:23651471

  16. Affective Reactions in Some Parents of Deaf-Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrie, Carolyn

    Emotional problems and behavioral patterns of parents who have deaf blind children are described clinically and in short case studies. Deaf blind young children are said to be isolated from their families due to lack of sensory cues; to display behaviors such as back arching and fear of walking; and to experience frequent health crises such as…

  17. Guide to Children Affected by Parental Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Leah

    2010-01-01

    A conservative estimate is that one in six children in school today has a parent dependent on or addicted to alcohol or other drugs. This places these students at high risk for social and emotional problems, as well as for school failure, drug use, and delinquency. Schools, however, are a logical place to reach them. Identifying children of those…

  18. Ebola or Not? Evaluating the Ill Traveler From Ebola-Affected Countries in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Jessica K; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Kraft, Colleen S; Guarner, Jeannette; Steinberg, James P; Anderson, Evan; Jacob, Jesse T; Meloy, Patrick; Gillespie, Darria; Espinoza, Tamara R; Isakov, Alexander; Vanairsdale, Sharon; Baker, Esther; Wu, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa had global impact beyond the primarily affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Other countries, including the United States, encountered numerous patients who arrived from highly affected countries with fever or other signs or symptoms consistent with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods.  We describe our experience evaluating 25 travelers who met the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for a person under investigation (PUI) for EVD from July 20, 2014 to January 28, 2015. All patients were triaged and evaluated under the guidance of institutional protocols to the emergency department, outpatient tropical medicine clinic, or Emory's Ebola treatment unit. Strict attention to infection control and early involvement of public health authorities guided the safe evaluation of these patients. Results.  None were diagnosed with EVD. Respiratory illnesses were common, and 8 (32%) PUI were confirmed to have influenza. Four patients (16%) were diagnosed with potentially life-threatening infections or conditions, including 3 with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and 1 with diabetic ketoacidosis. Conclusions.  In addition to preparing for potential patients with EVD, Ebola assessment centers should consider other life-threatening conditions requiring urgent treatment, and travelers to affected countries should be strongly advised to seek pretravel counseling. Furthermore, attention to infection control in all aspects of PUI evaluation is paramount and has presented unique challenges. Lessons learned from our evaluation of potential patients with EVD can help inform preparations for future outbreaks of highly pathogenic communicable diseases. PMID:26925428

  19. Public Policies Affecting Chronically Ill Children and Their Families. Summary of Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Nicholas; And Others

    The complex special needs of families with chronically ill children will be best met through the development of regionalized systems of care. A national program is proposed in the context of a generic definition of chronic childhood illness, emphasizing coordinated regional efforts which provide services as close to a child's home as possible. The…

  20. MMPI Indicators of Stress and Marital Discord among Parents of Children with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, Nancy U.; Lansky, Shirley B.

    1980-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was completed by 42 fathers and 71 mothers of pediatric cancer patients and 26 fathers and 29 mothers of hemophilic children. MMPI profiles were examined for signs of emotional disturbance. Results indicated both groups of parents suffered more distress than a normal group. (Author)

  1. Direct observations of parenting and real-time negative affect among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Melanie J; Mermelstein, Robin J; Wakschlag, Lauren S

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how observations of parental general communication style and control with their adolescents predicted changes in negative affect over time for adolescent smokers and nonsmokers. Participants were 9th- and 10th-grade adolescents (N = 111; 56.8% female) who had all experimented with cigarettes and were thus at risk for continued smoking and escalation; 36% of these adolescents (n = 40) had smoked in the past month at baseline and were considered smokers in the present analyses. Adolescents participated separately with mothers and fathers in observed parent-adolescent problem-solving discussions to assess parenting at baseline. Adolescent negative affect was assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months via ecological momentary assessment. Among both smoking and nonsmoking adolescents, escalating negative affect significantly increased risk for future smoking. Higher quality maternal and paternal communication predicted a decline in negative affect over 1.5 years for adolescent smokers but was not related to negative affect for nonsmokers. Controlling maternal, but not paternal, parenting predicted escalation in negative affect for all adolescents. Findings suggest that reducing negative affect among experimenting youth can reduce risk for smoking escalation. Therefore, family-based prevention efforts for adolescent smoking escalation might consider parental general communication style and control as intervention targets. However, adolescent smoking status and parent gender may moderate these effects.

  2. Parental emotion socialization in clinically depressed adolescents: Enhancing, and dampening positive affect

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Shortt, Joann Wu; Allen, Nicholas B.; Davis, Betsy; Hunter, Erin; Leve, Craig; Sheeber, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This study compared parental socialization of adolescent positive affect in families of depressed and healthy adolescents. Participants were 107 adolescents (42 boys) aged 14 - 18 years and their parents. Half of the participants met criteria for major depressive disorder and the others were demographically matched adolescents without emotional or behavioral disorders. Results based on multi-source questionnaire and interview data indicated that mothers and fathers of depressed adolescents were less accepting of adolescents’ positive affect and more likely to use strategies that dampen adolescents’ positive affect than were parents of healthy adolescents. Additionally, fathers of depressed adolescents exhibited fewer responses likely to enhance the adolescents’ positive affect than were fathers of healthy adolescents. These findings build on those of previous work in examining parental responses to adolescent emotions, focusing on positive emotions and including both mothers and fathers. PMID:23942826

  3. Family functioning and illness perception of parents of children with atopic dermatitis, living without skin symptoms, but with psychosomatic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Kanán-Cedeño, E G; Guillén Martínez, E; Campos Garibay, M J

    2011-03-01

    Emotional factors and a recurrent psychosomatic environment, have been implicated in the evolution of atopic dermatitis. These, in turn, affect the disease. This study was under taken to evaluate the functioning of families with a child that has atopic dermatitis without skin symptoms and the parents' perceptions of their child's disease.Semi-quantitative and cross-sectional study in which questionnaires were applied: one to study family functioning (Espejel et al. scale) and the second to determine aspects of parental perception of their child's atopic dermatitis. Pearson's correlation was used to analyze the correlation between the categories of the Family Function Scale.The most affected categories of family functioning were authority, handling of disruptive conduct, communication, and negative affect. The most significant positive correlations between the categories of family functioning were: authority and support, r=0.867, p<.001; disruptive conduct and communication, r=0.798, p<.001; and support and communication, r=0.731, p<.001. Of the parents, 66.4% thought that the pharmacotherapy used for their child's atopic dermatitis was not effective, and 33.3% of parents stated that the disease had affected their child's daily activities.In families of children with atopic dermatitis, various family environment factors facilitate the recurrence of symptoms even when no cutaneous lesions have been found on the child. The identification and use of family resources to face this disease are aspects that should be taken into consideration during the psychotherapeutic management of these families, putting emphasis on the most affected functional categories of these families in a strategy that should be implanted in a multi-disciplinary context.

  4. Social cognition in parents: inferential and affective reactions to children of three age levels.

    PubMed

    Dix, T; Ruble, D N; Grusec, J E; Nixon, S

    1986-08-01

    The present research proposes and tests an attributional model of parent cognition. Derived from correspondent inference theory, the model emphasizes that parents assess children's behavior primarily by determining whether that behavior reflects children's intentions and dispositions or, instead, constraints on children's control of behavior from situational pressures or developmental limitations in knowledge and ability. In 2 studies, support was obtained for 4 predictions. First, findings show that parents' assessments of children's behavior are closely tied to the developmental level of the child. As children developed, parents thought children's behavior was increasingly caused by personality dispositions and was increasingly intentional, under the child's control, and, for misconduct, understood to be wrong. Second, parents' affective reactions to misconduct were related to their assessments of its cause and, third, became increasingly negative as children developed. Positive affect, in contrast, was unrelated to attributions for children's positive behavior. Fourth, parents' assessments of children's behavior were affected by the behavior's desirability. Parents thought children's altruism was more intentional, dispositional, and under the child's control than children's misconduct. Implications for how parents assess and react to children's behavior are discussed.

  5. The Impact of Parental Bipolar Affective Disorder on Adolescent Behaviour--Positive Messages to Young People, Parents, Teachers and Other Professionals Working with Children Whose Parents Suffer from Mental Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olliver-Kneafsey, Kate; Thornton, Ev; Williamson, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    The impact of parental mental health difficulties on the developing child is well evidenced and documented. In this article Kate Olliver-Kneafsey, Ev Thornton and Wendy Williamson suggest that despite the difficulties young people face when parental mental illness is a feature of family life, it is not all gloom and doom, and give some important…

  6. A brief intervention affects parents' attitudes toward using less physical punishment.

    PubMed

    Chavis, Antwon; Hudnut-Beumler, Julia; Webb, Margaret W; Neely, Jill A; Bickman, Len; Dietrich, Mary S; Scholer, Seth J

    2013-12-01

    Consecutive English and Spanish speaking caregivers of 6-24 month old children were randomly assigned to either a control or intervention group. Parents in the intervention group were instructed to view at least 4 options to discipline a child in an interactive multimedia program. The control group participants received routine primary care with their resident physician. After the clinic visit, all parents were invited to participate in a research study; the participation rate was 98% (258/263). The key measure was the Attitudes Toward Spanking (ATS) scale. The ATS is correlated with parents' actual use of physical punishment. Parents with higher scores are more likely to use physical punishment to discipline their children. Parents in the intervention group had an ATS score that was significantly lower than the ATS score of parents in the control group (median=24.0, vs. median=30; p=0.043). Parents in the control group were 2 times more likely to report that they would spank a child who was misbehaving compared with parents in the intervention group (16.9% vs. 7.0%, p=0.015). In the short-term, a brief intervention, integrated into the primary care visit, can affect parents' attitudes toward using less physical punishment. It may be feasible to teach parents to not use physical punishment using a population-based approach. The findings have implications for how to improve primary care services and the prevention of violence.

  7. A brief intervention affects parents' attitudes toward using less physical punishment.

    PubMed

    Chavis, Antwon; Hudnut-Beumler, Julia; Webb, Margaret W; Neely, Jill A; Bickman, Len; Dietrich, Mary S; Scholer, Seth J

    2013-12-01

    Consecutive English and Spanish speaking caregivers of 6-24 month old children were randomly assigned to either a control or intervention group. Parents in the intervention group were instructed to view at least 4 options to discipline a child in an interactive multimedia program. The control group participants received routine primary care with their resident physician. After the clinic visit, all parents were invited to participate in a research study; the participation rate was 98% (258/263). The key measure was the Attitudes Toward Spanking (ATS) scale. The ATS is correlated with parents' actual use of physical punishment. Parents with higher scores are more likely to use physical punishment to discipline their children. Parents in the intervention group had an ATS score that was significantly lower than the ATS score of parents in the control group (median=24.0, vs. median=30; p=0.043). Parents in the control group were 2 times more likely to report that they would spank a child who was misbehaving compared with parents in the intervention group (16.9% vs. 7.0%, p=0.015). In the short-term, a brief intervention, integrated into the primary care visit, can affect parents' attitudes toward using less physical punishment. It may be feasible to teach parents to not use physical punishment using a population-based approach. The findings have implications for how to improve primary care services and the prevention of violence. PMID:23859768

  8. Factors affecting exits from homelessness among persons with serious mental illness and substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielian, Sonya; Bromley, Elizabeth; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Kern, Robert S.; Goldenson, Nicholas I.; Danley, Megan E.; Young, Alexander S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to understand the housing trajectories of homeless consumers with serious mental illness (SMI) and co-occurring substance use disorders (SUD) and to identify factors that best-predicted achievement of independent housing. Methods Using administrative data, we identified homeless persons with SMI and SUD admitted to a residential rehabilitation program from 12/2008-11/2011. On a random sample (n=36), we assessed a range of potential predictors of housing outcomes, including symptoms, cognition, and social/community supports. We used the Residential Time-Line Follow-Back (TLFB) Inventory to gather housing histories since exiting rehabilitation and identify housing outcomes. We used recursive partitioning to identify variables that best-differentiated participants by these outcomes. Results We identified three housing trajectories: stable housing (n=14); unstable housing (n=15); and continuously engaged in housing services (n=7). Using recursive partitioning, two variables (symbol digit modalities test (SDMT), a neurocognitive speed of processing measure and Behavior and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS)-relationships subscale, which quantifies symptoms affecting relationships) were sufficient to capture information provided by 26 predictors to classify participants by housing outcome. Participants predicted to continuously engage in services had impaired processing speeds (SDMT score<32.5). Among consumers with SDMT score≥32.5, those predicted to achieve stable housing had fewer interpersonal symptoms (BASIS-relationships score<0.81) than those predicted to have unstable housing. This model explains 57% of this sample's variability and 14% of this population's variability in housing outcomes. Conclusion As cognition and symptoms influencing relationships predicted housing outcomes for homeless adults with SMI and SUD, cognitive and social skills trainings may be useful for this population. PMID:25919839

  9. Competency to be resentenced and the Rockefeller Drug Law reform act: how does it affect the mentally Ill?

    PubMed

    Ford, Elizabeth; Winkler, Barry; Barber-Rioja, Virginia; Dell'anno, Christina; Cohen, Shelly

    2009-01-01

    Many of the mentally ill prisoners in this country have been convicted of drug crimes. New York State's Rockefeller Drug Laws from the 1970s established harsh sentences for drug crimes to quell a perceived epidemic. These laws were reformed in 2004 to allow the option of resentencing, with the possibility of lighter sentences. However, there is no formal mechanism in New York for a postconviction hearing for competency to be resentenced, thus affecting the severely mentally ill who were sentenced under the old Rockefeller laws. The purpose of this article is to highlight the psychiatric and legal difficulties that can arise without an option for a resentencing competency hearing and to argue that despite the low number of inmates to whom this would apply, there is an important duty to ensure due process to the mentally ill.

  10. Adolescent mothers of critically ill newborns: addressing the rights of parent and child.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Mark R

    2011-08-01

    Despite recent declines, the teen birth rate in the United States remains markedly higher than in other developed countries. Infants born to teen mothers are more likely to be preterm than those born to adult mothers and thus more likely to end up in the newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Critically ill newborns are not infrequently born to teen mothers, including those in early adolescence. The focus of this chapter is the mechanism of decision-making on behalf of those newborns and the role of the early adolescent mother as surrogate decision-maker. It is argued that the current standard in many US hospitals, and likely elsewhere, is suboptimal and inadequately addresses the rights and needs of both mother and newborn.

  11. Children's affect regulation during a disappointment: psychophysiological responses and relation to parent history of depression.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Erika E; Fox, Nathan A; Cohn, Jeffrey F; Galles, Steven F; Kovacs, Maria

    2006-03-01

    Psychophysiological responses during affect regulation were examined in 57 children ages 3-9 years, 41 of whom had a parent history of childhood-onset depression (COD). During a structured laboratory task, children were given first a disappointing toy and then a desired toy. Frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) asymmetry, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), heart period, and heart period variability were measured during resting and task conditions. Affective and self-regulatory behaviors were coded from videotape. In 3-5-year olds, greater relative right frontal activity was associated with withdrawal behavior. High heart period was associated with approach behavior. Compared with children of psychiatrically healthy parents, children of parents with COD exhibited poor heart period recovery after disappointment. For children of parents with COD, greater relative left frontal activity was related to concurrent internalizing and externalizing problems, and low resting RSA was related to internalizing problems. Physiological responses associated with affect regulation may help identify children at risk for depression. PMID:16115722

  12. Parental age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny of flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-05-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  13. Filial piety and parental responsibility: an interpretive phenomenological study of family caregiving for a person with mental illness among Korean immigrants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the strong influence of culture on family involvement in disease management, few studies have examined how immigrant families care for persons with mental illness. The purpose of this study was to examine how immigrant families organize their world to care for a mentally ill person in the United States. The current analysis focused on how Confucian notions of filial piety and parental obligation shape caregiving in Korean immigrant families. Methods Participants in this interpretive phenomenological study were comprised of six Korean immigrant women caring for a family member with mental illness. Participants provided narratives that illustrate challenges and opportunities in caring for their mentally ill family member. Results Three family caregiving patterns were discerned. Insulating from the outside world describes a family’s effort to accept a member's illness and to manage it within the family. Prioritizing education over well-being concerns parental commitment to the Confucian priority of educating one’s children. Reciprocating the sacrifice describes how a family adapts and enacts filial piety. Conclusion The findings of this study warrant further study to examine the influence of Confucianism among Korean American families. The three patterns of caregiving are strongly aligned with Confucian notion of family and family engagement. These patterns may help health providers to anticipate the needs of and provide individualized, culturally appropriate mental health care for patients with mental illness and their families of Korean origin. PMID:23256876

  14. How does direct to consumer advertising affect the stigma of mental illness?

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Kosyluk, Kristin A; Fokuo, J Konadu; Park, Jin Hee

    2014-10-01

    Stigma interferes with life goals of people with mental illness. Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) may impact stigmatizing attitudes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of psychiatric medication DTCA on the stigmatizing and affirming attitudes of the general population versus individuals self-identified with mental illness. Participants (n = 272) were randomly assigned to watch a DTCA about Cymbalta, an antidepressant, embedded in two other advertisements for non-pharmaceutical products. Participants completed measures of stigmatizing and affirming attitudes before and after viewing this DTCA. Results indicate that the Cymbalta DTCA worsened the attitudes of the general public. These participants were less likely to offer help, endorse recovery, and agree with self-determination attitudes towards people with mental illness following viewing the DTCA. The self-identified group reported less blame, less dangerousness, less social avoidance, more pity, and greater willingness to help after viewing the DTCA. Moreover, there was significant improvement in their endorsement of recovery. Results suggest that DTCAs about psychiatric medication may increase the public's stigma towards people with mental illness but reduce stigma among individuals who identify as having a mental illness. Findings are somewhat limited by selection biases and self-report. Implications for further development of DTCAs are considered. PMID:24488184

  15. The relationship between parental mental illness and/or substance use disorder on adolescent substance use disorder: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Hedden, Sarra L

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental comorbid mental illness and substance use disorder (SUD) and adolescent SUD. Nationally representative parent-child data pooled over six years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) was utilized in this study. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to determine whether adolescents living with parents who have mental health disorders and/or substance use disorder are themselves more likely to have SUD while controlling for potential confounding variables. The results show that comorbid AMI-SUD in mothers is significantly associated with adolescent SUD after controlling for potential confounders. However, comorbid AMI-SUD in fathers is not associated with adolescent SUD when other controls are included in the model. The association of parental comorbid AMI-SUD with adolescent SUD indicates that parental behavioral health treatment may be a preventive measure to protect their children and may function as an important deterrent to adolescent SUD.

  16. The relationship between parental mental illness and/or substance use disorder on adolescent substance use disorder: Results from a nationally representative survey.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Hedden, Sarra L

    2016-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between parental comorbid mental illness and substance use disorder (SUD) and adolescent SUD. Nationally representative parent-child data pooled over six years from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) was utilized in this study. Multivariable regression analysis was conducted to determine whether adolescents living with parents who have mental health disorders and/or substance use disorder are themselves more likely to have SUD while controlling for potential confounding variables. The results show that comorbid AMI-SUD in mothers is significantly associated with adolescent SUD after controlling for potential confounders. However, comorbid AMI-SUD in fathers is not associated with adolescent SUD when other controls are included in the model. The association of parental comorbid AMI-SUD with adolescent SUD indicates that parental behavioral health treatment may be a preventive measure to protect their children and may function as an important deterrent to adolescent SUD. PMID:27070095

  17. The Schreber case and affective illness: a research diagnostic re-assessment.

    PubMed

    Koehler, K G

    1981-11-01

    A significant part of Schreber's illness up to the time of his dramatic "schizophrenic switch in February 1894 has been systematically re-evaluated in terms of the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) and of certain additional phenomenological characteristics. On this basis it seems that Schreber suffered from a severe major psychotic depressive disorder with tendencies towards bipolarity for the period in question. A more global, non-systematic RDC-oriented interpretation is then offered for the remaining course of the illness until Schreber's death in 1911.

  18. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Affect: An Investigation of Only Children vs. Firstborns and the Effect of Spacing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidwell, Jeannie S.

    1978-01-01

    Research results revealed only-born adolescents to perceive higher positive perceptions in three measures of parental affect than do first-born adolescents. Perceived parental affect was found to vary by spacing in a consistent pattern for males towards both parents. (Author/MA)

  19. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  20. “Is it Half Full or Half Empty?” Affective Responses to Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Myrna; Nutini, Jean; Musa, Donald; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Albert, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Using a combined qualitative/quantitative approach, we interviewed 132 older African–Americans and whites with either osteoarthritis of the hip or knee (OAK/OAH) or ischemic heart disease (IHD) to address two questions: 1) What types of reactions to illness are expressed by this group of older adults who have OA or IHD? 2)? Are there differences in the characteristics of the respondents who respond more positively than those who respond more negatively? The responses were coded to illustrate those that reflected positive, negative, or combined (positive/negative) statements. The majority of the respondents, who were categorized as positive or combined, approached the illness experience with statements illustrating their ability to cope with their illness and adapt their lifestyles to the limitations imposed by the disease such as acceptance, feeling that others were worse off, or changing their lifestyles to adapt to their limitations. Those expressing negative reactions to their illness were fewer in number and responded with terms reflecting loss of identity, physical limitations, and other disease symptoms. The differences were more pronounced between the positive and negative groups where the latter were somewhat more likely to be African–American and female and significantly more likely to have less income, greater perceived disease severity, and more disability. We should look to the larger group in both the positive only and combined responses to explore how culture may play a role in perceptions of subjective well-being and the importance of “the local worlds of experience” experienced by both men and women, and African–Americans and whites. This study illustrates that using a simple, open-ended question that stimulates older people to narrate their reactions to having a chronic illness may allow clinicians to identify the persons most at-risk and intervene appropriately. PMID:19340567

  1. Can providing feedback on driving behavior and training on parental vigilant care affect male teen drivers and their parents?

    PubMed

    Farah, Haneen; Musicant, Oren; Shimshoni, Yaara; Toledo, Tomer; Grimberg, Einat; Omer, Haim; Lotan, Tsippy

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on investigating the driving behavior of young novice male drivers during the first year of driving (three months of accompanied driving and the following nine months of solo driving). The study's objective is to examine the potential of various feedback forms on driving to affect young drivers' behavior and to mitigate the transition from accompanied to solo driving. The study examines also the utility of providing parents with guidance on how to exercise vigilant care regarding their teens' driving. Driving behavior was evaluated using data collected by In-Vehicle Data Recorders (IVDR), which document events of extreme g-forces measured in the vehicles. IVDR systems were installed in 242 cars of the families of young male drivers, however, only 217 families of young drivers aged 17-22 (M=17.5; SD=0.8) completed the one year period. The families were randomly allocated into 4 groups: (1) Family feedback: In which all the members of the family were exposed to feedback on their own driving and on that of the other family members; (2) Parental training: in which in addition to the family feedback, parents received personal guidance on ways to enhance vigilant care regarding their sons' driving; (3) Individual feedback: In which family members received feedback only on their own driving behavior (and were not exposed to the data on other family members); (4) CONTROL: Group that received no feedback at all. The feedback was provided to the different groups starting from the solo period, thus, the feedback was not provided during the supervised period. The data collected by the IVDRs was first analyzed using analysis of variance in order to compare the groups with respect to their monthly event rates. Events' rates are defined as the number of events in a trip divided by its duration. This was followed by the development and estimation of random effect negative binomial models that explain the monthly event rates of young drivers and their parents

  2. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members. PMID:23564208

  3. Are parental autism spectrum disorder and/or attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder symptoms related to parenting styles in families with ASD (+ADHD) affected children?

    PubMed

    van Steijn, Daphne J; Oerlemans, Anoek M; de Ruiter, Saskia W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Buitelaar, Jan K; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-11-01

    An understudied and sensitive topic nowadays is that even subthreshold symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents may relate to their parenting styles. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of (the combined) effect of child diagnosis (ASD or ASD + ADHD affected/unaffected children) and parental ASD and/or ADHD on parenting styles. Ninety-six families were recruited with one child with a clinical ASD (+ADHD) diagnosis, and one unaffected sibling. Parental ASD and ADHD symptoms were assessed using self-report. The Parenting Styles Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) self- and spouse-report were used to measure the authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Fathers and mothers scored significantly higher than the norm data of the PSDQ on the permissive style regarding affected children, and lower on the authoritative and authoritarian parenting style for affected and unaffected children. Self- and spouse-report correlated modestly too strongly. Higher levels of paternal (not maternal) ADHD symptoms were suboptimally related to the three parenting styles. Further, two parent-child pathology interaction effects were found, indicating that fathers with high ADHD symptoms and mothers with high ASD symptoms reported to use a more permissive parenting style only towards their unaffected child. The results highlight the negative effects of paternal ADHD symptoms on parenting styles within families with ASD (+ADHD) affected offspring and the higher permissiveness towards unaffected offspring specifically when paternal ADHD and/or maternal ASD symptoms are high. Parenting training in these families may be beneficial for the well-being of all family members.

  4. The Mediating Effects of Parenting Behaviors on Maternal Affect and Reports of Children's Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karazsia, Bryan T.; Wildman, Beth G.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting behaviors have received ample support as a mediator of the relationship between maternal affect and child behavior problems. The majority of these research efforts were based on a uni-dimensional conceptualization of maternal mood, even though decades of theory and research suggest that mood is multidimensional. We examined the mediating…

  5. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  6. The Role of Child Negative Affect in the Relations between Parenting Styles and Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between parenting styles and children's negative affect in the prediction of reticent, solitary-active, and rough-and-tumble play behaviours were examined. The present study involved 98 children, their mothers and their preschool teachers. Participants (53 boys and 45 girls) were a mean age of 3.83 years (standard deviation = 0.69).…

  7. Maternal Attributions, Affect, and Parenting in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Comparison Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdes, Alyson C.; Hoza, Betsy

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to simultaneously examine maternal attributions, affect, and parenting in mothers of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using a multimethod approach (vignettes, confederate child video clips, and video clips of mother's own child). Of the participants, 23 were 7- to 12-year-old…

  8. Associations Between Coping and Diurnal Cortisol Among Children Affected by Parental HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang; Ren, Xuequn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prior research has shown that early-life adversity is associated with physical health problems, but little is known about the health-related effects of coping in the context of having a parent with HIV/AIDS. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between positive and negative coping strategies and diurnal cortisol among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS. Method Six hundred and forty-five children aged 8-15 affected by parental HIV/AIDS provided 4 saliva samples per day over three days (two weekdays and one weekend day) to assess diurnal cortisol. Positive and negative coping strategies were measured via self-report prior to saliva collection. Possible confounds of the associations between coping and diurnal cortisol also were assessed, including age, gender, socioeconomic status, parenting quality, parental death, other stressful life events, sleep quality, and perceived health status. Results Greater positive coping (e.g., problem-solving, cognitive reframing) was associated with children's higher morning cortisol (p = .028), whereas greater negative coping (e.g., fighting, breaking things) was independently associated with lower morning cortisol (p = .032) and a flatter diurnal cortisol slope (p = .005). These associations remained significant after controlling for potential confounds. Neither positive coping nor negative coping interacted with stressful life circumstances—assessed via both stressful life events and parental death from HIV/AIDS—to predict cortisol (all p's > .27). Conclusion These findings indicate the extent to which a child's coping strategy is associated with indicators of stress biology in the context of having a parent with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25581701

  9. Being parents with epilepsy: thoughts on its consequences and difficulties affecting their children

    PubMed Central

    Gauffin, Helena; Flensner, Gullvi; Landtblom, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Parents with epilepsy can be concerned about the consequences of epilepsy affecting their children. The aim of this paper is to describe aspects of what it means being a parent having epilepsy, focusing the parents’ perspectives and their thoughts on having children. Methods Fourteen adults aged 18–35 years with epilepsy and subjective memory decline took part in focus-group interviews. The interviews were conducted according to a semi-structured guideline. Material containing aspects of parenthood was extracted from the original interviews and a secondary analysis was done according to a content-analysis guideline. Interviews with two parents for the Swedish book Leva med epilepsi [To live with epilepsy] by AM Landtblom (Stockholm: Bilda ide; 2009) were analyzed according to the same method. Results Four themes emerged: (1) a persistent feeling of insecurity, since a seizure can occur at any time and the child could be hurt; (2) a feeling of inadequacy – of not being able to take full responsibility for one’s child; (3) acknowledgment that one’s children are forced to take more responsibility than other children do; and (4) a feeling of guilt – of not being able to fulfill one’s expectations of being the parent one would like to be. Conclusion The parents with epilepsy are deeply concerned about how epilepsy affects the lives of their children. These parents are always aware that a seizure may occur and reflect on how this can affect their child. They try to foresee possible dangerous situations and prevent them. These parents were sad that they could not always take full responsibility for their child and could not live up to their own expectations of parenthood. Supportive programs may be of importance since fear for the safety of the child increases the psychosocial burden of epilepsy. There were also a few parents who did not acknowledge the safety issue of their child – the authors believe that it is important to identify these

  10. Factors affecting illness in the developing world: chronic disease, mental health and traditional medicine cures.

    PubMed

    Douthit, Nathan T; Astatk, Hailemariam Alemu

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a 24-year-old Ethiopian woman with a medical history of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. She suffers from chronic liver failure and portal hypertension. She has been hospitalised for 'hysteria' in the past but did not receive follow-up, outpatient treatment or psychiatric evaluation. After discontinuing her medications and leaving her family to use holy water, a religious medicine used by many Ethiopians, she was found at a nearby monastery. She was non-communicative and difficult to arouse. The patient was rushed to nearby University of Gondar Hospital where she received treatment for hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Her illness is the result of neglected tropical disease, reliance on traditional medicine as opposed to biomedical services and the poor state of psychiatric care in the developing world.

  11. Factors affecting illness in the developing world: chronic disease, mental health and traditional medicine cures.

    PubMed

    Douthit, Nathan T; Astatk, Hailemariam Alemu

    2016-01-01

    This is a case report of a 24-year-old Ethiopian woman with a medical history of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. She suffers from chronic liver failure and portal hypertension. She has been hospitalised for 'hysteria' in the past but did not receive follow-up, outpatient treatment or psychiatric evaluation. After discontinuing her medications and leaving her family to use holy water, a religious medicine used by many Ethiopians, she was found at a nearby monastery. She was non-communicative and difficult to arouse. The patient was rushed to nearby University of Gondar Hospital where she received treatment for hepatic encephalopathy and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Her illness is the result of neglected tropical disease, reliance on traditional medicine as opposed to biomedical services and the poor state of psychiatric care in the developing world. PMID:27485874

  12. Social ecological factors associated with future orientation of children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Chi, Peilian; Heath, Melissa Allen; Li, Xiaoming; Chen, Wenrui

    2016-07-01

    From a social ecological perspective, this study examined the effects of stigma (societal level), trusting relationships with current caregivers (familial level), and self-esteem (individual level) on future orientation of children affected by HIV infection and AIDS. Comparing self-report data from 1221 children affected by parental HIV infection and AIDS and 404 unaffected children, affected children reported greater stigma and lower future orientation, trusting relationships, and self-esteem. Based on structural equation modeling, stigma experiences, trusting relationships, and self-esteem had direct effects on future orientation, with self-esteem and trusting relationships partially mediating the effect of stigma experiences on children's future orientation. Implications are discussed.

  13. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  14. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing. PMID:27187432

  15. [Parenting].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawl, Jeree, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Contributions to this theme issue of a bulletin on infants aged birth to three, point out that becoming a parent is an evolving process and that infants' meanings to their parents shape parenting behavior and the capacity to change. Articles also examine the challenge of how to support parents as they come to, and continue in, the process of…

  16. The effect of parental loss on cognitive and affective interference in adolescent boys from a post-conflict region.

    PubMed

    Mueller, S C; Baudoncq, R; De Schryver, M

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of early-life stressors such as parental loss on cognitive-affective processing during adolescence, especially in regions chronically affected by war and armed conflict. Here, we tested 72 male adolescents living in Northern Uganda (ages 14-19), 52 of whom still had both of their parents and 20 participants who had experienced parental loss. Participants completed a classic color-naming Stroop task as well as an affective interference task, the opposite emotions test (OET). Adolescents with parental loss showed a decrease in performance over time, especially on the Stroop task. Critically, this decrement in performance was positively associated with reported symptoms of trauma, but only in the parental loss group. The current data suggest a difficulty in maintaining cognitive control performance in youths with experience of parental loss. The findings are discussed in relation to traumatic stress and mental health in post-conflict regions. PMID:25899130

  17. The effect of parental loss on cognitive and affective interference in adolescent boys from a post-conflict region.

    PubMed

    Mueller, S C; Baudoncq, R; De Schryver, M

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of early-life stressors such as parental loss on cognitive-affective processing during adolescence, especially in regions chronically affected by war and armed conflict. Here, we tested 72 male adolescents living in Northern Uganda (ages 14-19), 52 of whom still had both of their parents and 20 participants who had experienced parental loss. Participants completed a classic color-naming Stroop task as well as an affective interference task, the opposite emotions test (OET). Adolescents with parental loss showed a decrease in performance over time, especially on the Stroop task. Critically, this decrement in performance was positively associated with reported symptoms of trauma, but only in the parental loss group. The current data suggest a difficulty in maintaining cognitive control performance in youths with experience of parental loss. The findings are discussed in relation to traumatic stress and mental health in post-conflict regions.

  18. Impact of parental relationships in maximum lod score affected sib-pair method.

    PubMed

    Leutenegger, Anne-Louise; Génin, Emmanuelle; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Clerget-Darpoux, Françoise

    2002-11-01

    Many studies are done in small isolated populations and populations where marriages between relatives are encouraged. In this paper, we point out some problems with applying the maximum lod score (MLS) method (Risch, [1990] Am. J. Hum. Genet. 46:242-253) in these populations where relationships exist between the two parents of the affected sib-pairs. Characterizing the parental relationships by the kinship coefficient between the parents (f), the maternal inbreeding coefficient (alpha(m), and the paternal inbreeding coefficient (alpha(p)), we explored the relationship between the identity by descent (IBD) vector expected under the null hypothesis of no linkage and these quantities. We find that the expected IBD vector is no longer (0.25, 0.5, 0.25) when f, alpha(m), and alpha(p) differ from zero. In addition, the expected IBD vector does not always follow the triangle constraints recommended by Holmans ([1993] Am. J. Hum. Genet. 52:362-374). So the classically used MLS statistic needs to be adapted to the presence of parental relationships. We modified the software GENEHUNTER (Kruglyak et al. [1996] Am. J. Hum. Genet. 58: 1347-1363) to do so. Indeed, the current version of the software does not compute the likelihood properly under the null hypothesis. We studied the adapted statistic by simulating data on three different family structures: (1) parents are double first cousins (f=0.125, alpha(m)=alpha(p)=0), (2) each parent is the offspring of first cousins (f=0, alpha(m)=alpha(p)=0.0625), and (3) parents are related as in the pedigree from Goddard et al. ([1996] Am. J. Hum. Genet. 58:1286-1302) (f=0.109, alpha(m)=alpha(p)=0.0625). The appropriate threshold needs to be derived for each case in order to get the correct type I error. And using the classical statistic in the presence of both parental kinship and parental inbreeding almost always leads to false conclusions.

  19. The acceptability and feasibility of the Baby Triple P Positive Parenting Programme on a mother and baby unit: Q-methodology with mothers with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Butler, Hannah; Hare, Dougal; Walker, Samantha; Wieck, Angelika; Wittkowski, Anja

    2014-10-01

    New mothers with severe mental illness (SMI) frequently experience significant difficulties in caring for their babies. There are no structured, evidence-based interventions that guide health professionals to help these women improve early parenting. The extensively researched and effective Triple P Positive Parenting Programme has recently been expanded to families with children less than 1 year old, which provides an opportunity to develop the intervention for women with severe postnatal mental illness. This study explored the views of mothers with SMI about the acceptability and feasibility of Baby Triple P (Baby TP) in the setting of a psychiatric Mother and Baby Unit (MBU). An 88-item Q-sort was conducted with a purposive sample of 15 mothers using Q-methodology. Three main factors were identified: 'what we need', 'what we want' and 'we can do it'. A consensus was noted with general agreement about the benefits of Baby TP, and suitability of the MBU environment to accommodate Baby TP. Baby TP was viewed as an acceptable and feasible parenting intervention and deemed positive and non-stigmatising. Mothers requested more staff awareness and knowledge about the programme so that they were supported in learning and generalising skills.

  20. How Children Understand Parental Mental Illness: “You don’t get life insurance. What’s life insurance?”

    PubMed Central

    Mordoch, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To understand how children living with parental mental illness (PMI) understand mental illness (MI) and what they want to tell other children. Method: The study design was a secondary analysis of a grounded theory study exploring Canadian children’s perceptions of living with PMI. Interviews from 22 children, ages 6 – 16, living with a parent with depression, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia receiving treatment for the MI, were re-read, coded and analyzed along with data categories, their properties, field notes and memos from the original data. Results: Children revealed that they had limited understanding of MI and received few factual explanations of what was happening. Limited information on MI caused undue hardship. Younger children worried about their parent dying, while older children also were concerned about developing MI. Children offered suggestions for other children in similar circumstances. Conclusions: This study raises awareness of children living with PMI and identifies them as a population requiring services. It incorporates children’s perceptions of what they know and need to know. Children require assistance to understand and to respond to PMI. Mental health and primary health care clinicians have opportunities to assist these children within collaborative care models developed in conjunction with school services. PMID:20119563

  1. The acceptability and feasibility of the Baby Triple P Positive Parenting Programme on a mother and baby unit: Q-methodology with mothers with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Butler, Hannah; Hare, Dougal; Walker, Samantha; Wieck, Angelika; Wittkowski, Anja

    2014-10-01

    New mothers with severe mental illness (SMI) frequently experience significant difficulties in caring for their babies. There are no structured, evidence-based interventions that guide health professionals to help these women improve early parenting. The extensively researched and effective Triple P Positive Parenting Programme has recently been expanded to families with children less than 1 year old, which provides an opportunity to develop the intervention for women with severe postnatal mental illness. This study explored the views of mothers with SMI about the acceptability and feasibility of Baby Triple P (Baby TP) in the setting of a psychiatric Mother and Baby Unit (MBU). An 88-item Q-sort was conducted with a purposive sample of 15 mothers using Q-methodology. Three main factors were identified: 'what we need', 'what we want' and 'we can do it'. A consensus was noted with general agreement about the benefits of Baby TP, and suitability of the MBU environment to accommodate Baby TP. Baby TP was viewed as an acceptable and feasible parenting intervention and deemed positive and non-stigmatising. Mothers requested more staff awareness and knowledge about the programme so that they were supported in learning and generalising skills. PMID:24827076

  2. Parent-Child Communication about Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use: What Do Parents Say and Does It Affect Youth Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Foshee, Vangie A.; Pemberton, Michael; Hicks, Katherine A.

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent-parent pairs (N=537) were interviewed concerning their communication about tobacco and alcohol use. Parent communication reports identified three domains: rules and discipline; consequences and circumstances; and media influences. Results show that parent-child communication was not related to initiation of smoking or drinking. However,…

  3. Parents and Early Life Environment Affect Behavioral Development of Laying Hen Chickens

    PubMed Central

    de Haas, Elske N.; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth; Kemp, Bas; Groothuis, Ton G. G.; Rodenburg, T. Bas

    2014-01-01

    Severe feather pecking (SFP) in commercial laying hens is a maladaptive behavior which is associated with anxiety traits. Many experimental studies have shown that stress in the parents can affect anxiety in the offspring, but until now these effects have been neglected in addressing the problem of SFP in commercially kept laying hens. We therefore studied whether parental stock (PS) affected the development of SFP and anxiety in their offspring. We used flocks from a brown and white genetic hybrid because genetic background can affect SFP and anxiety. As SFP can also be influenced by housing conditions on the rearing farm, we included effects of housing system and litter availability in the analysis. Forty-seven rearing flocks, originating from ten PS flocks were followed. Behavioral and physiological parameters related to anxiety and SFP were studied in the PS at 40 weeks of age and in the rearing flocks at one, five, ten and fifteen weeks of age. We found that PS had an effect on SFP at one week of age and on anxiety at one and five weeks of age. In the white hybrid, but not in the brown hybrid, high levels of maternal corticosterone, maternal feather damage and maternal whole-blood serotonin levels showed positive relations with offsprings’ SFP at one week and offsprings’ anxiety at one and five weeks of age. Disruption and limitation of litter supply at an early age on the rearing farms increased SFP, feather damage and fearfulness. These effects were most prominent in the brown hybrid. It appeared that hens from a brown hybrid are more affected by environmental conditions, while hens from a white hybrid were more strongly affected by parental effects. These results are important for designing measures to prevent the development of SFP, which may require a different approach in brown and white flocks. PMID:24603500

  4. Parenting styles and parents' perspectives on how their own emotions affect the functioning of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli

    2014-03-01

    The grounded theory method was used to analyze the parenting styles used by caregivers to rear children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to investigate parents' experiences regarding how to help their child overcome the symptoms. Thirty-two parents from 28 families of children with ASD in mainland China were interviewed. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed four patterns of parenting styles which varied in affiliation to the roles of caretaker and coach. Based on their experience, a sizable group of parents perceived that their own emotions influence the child's emotions and his/her symptoms. The results suggest the value of developing intervention programs on emotion regulation and positive parenting for the parents of children with ASD.

  5. Parenting styles and parents' perspectives on how their own emotions affect the functioning of children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli

    2014-03-01

    The grounded theory method was used to analyze the parenting styles used by caregivers to rear children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and to investigate parents' experiences regarding how to help their child overcome the symptoms. Thirty-two parents from 28 families of children with ASD in mainland China were interviewed. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed four patterns of parenting styles which varied in affiliation to the roles of caretaker and coach. Based on their experience, a sizable group of parents perceived that their own emotions influence the child's emotions and his/her symptoms. The results suggest the value of developing intervention programs on emotion regulation and positive parenting for the parents of children with ASD. PMID:24400727

  6. International adaptation: psychosocial and parenting experiences of caregivers who travel to the United States to obtain acute medical care for their seriously ill child.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Rachel; Ludi, Erica; Pao, Maryland; Wiener, Lori

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing trend of travel for medical purposes, little is known about the experience of parents and other caregivers who come to the United States specifically to obtain medical treatment for their seriously ill child. In this exploratory, descriptive qualitative study, we used a semi-structured narrative guide to conduct in-depth interviews with 22 Spanish- or English-speaking caregivers about the challenges encountered and adaptation required when entering a new medical and cultural environment. Caregivers identified the language barrier and transnational parenting as challenges while reporting hospital staff and their own families as major sources of support. Using the results of the study as a guide, clinical and program implications are provided and recommendations for social work practice discussed. PMID:23947542

  7. How does violence exposure affect the psychological health and parenting of young African-American mothers?

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephanie J; Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B; Valentine, Dawn; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Joseph, Jill G

    2010-02-01

    Urban, minority, adolescent mothers are particularly vulnerable to violence exposure, which may increase their children's developmental risk through maternal depression and negative parenting. The current study tests a conceptual model of the effects of community and contextual violence exposure on the mental health and parenting of young, African-American mothers living in Washington, DC. A path analysis revealed significant direct effects of witnessed and experienced violence on mothers' depressive symptoms and general aggression. Experiences of discrimination were also associated with increased depressive symptoms. Moreover, there were significant indirect effects of mothers' violence exposure on disciplinary practices through depression and aggression. These findings highlight the range of violence young African-American mothers are exposed to and how these experiences affect their mental health, particularly depressive symptoms, and thus disciplinary practices.

  8. An offspring signal of quality affects the timing of future parental reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Mas, Flore; Kölliker, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Solicitation signals by offspring are well known to influence parental behaviour, and it is commonly assumed that this behavioural effect translates into an effect on residual reproduction of parents. However, this equivalence assumption concerning behavioural and reproductive effects caused by offspring signals remains largely untested. Here, we tested the effect of a chemical offspring signal of quality on the relative timing and amount of future reproduction in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia). We manipulated the nutritional condition of earwig nymphs and exposed females to their extract, or to solvent as a control. There were no significant main effects of exposure treatment on 2nd clutch production, but exposure to extracts of well-fed nymphs induced predictable timing of the 2nd relative to the 1st clutch. This result demonstrates for the first time that an offspring signal per se, in the absence of any maternal behaviour, affects maternal reproductive timing, possibly through an effect on maternal reproductive physiology. PMID:21208942

  9. Does childhood cancer affect parental divorce rates? A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Syse, Astri; Loge, Jon H; Lyngstad, Torkild H

    2010-02-10

    PURPOSE Cancer in children may profoundly affect parents' personal relationships in terms of psychological stress and an increased care burden. This could hypothetically elevate divorce rates. Few studies on divorce occurrence exist, so the effect of childhood cancers on parental divorce rates was explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on the entire Norwegian married population, age 17 to 69 years, with children age 0 to 20 years in 1974 to 2001 (N = 977,928 couples) were retrieved from the Cancer Registry, the Central Population Register, the Directorate of Taxes, and population censuses. Divorce rates for 4,590 couples who were parenting a child with cancer were compared with those of otherwise similar couples by discrete-time hazard regression models. Results Cancer in a child was not associated with an increased risk of parental divorce overall. An increased divorce rate was observed with Wilms tumor (odds ratio [OR], 1.52) but not with any of the other common childhood cancers. The child's age at diagnosis, time elapsed from diagnosis, and death from cancer did not influence divorce rates significantly. Increased divorce rates were observed for couples in whom the mothers had an education greater than high school level (OR, 1.16); the risk was particularly high shortly after diagnosis, for CNS cancers and Wilms tumors, for couples with children 0 to 9 years of age at diagnosis, and after a child's death. CONCLUSION This large, registry-based study shows that cancer in children is not associated with an increased parental divorce rate, except with Wilms tumors. Couples in whom the wife is highly educated appear to face increased divorce rates after a child's cancer, and this may warrant additional study.

  10. Does saline resuscitation affect mechanisms of coagulopathy in critically ill trauma patients? An exploratory analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Caitlin A; Gosselin, Robert C; Utter, Garth H; Galante, Joseph M; Young, Jason B; Scherer, Lynette A; Schermer, Carol R

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic acidosis has been implicated in the development of coagulopathy, although the specific mechanisms have not been well characterized. We sought to explore whether resuscitation of injured patients with a balanced crystalloid solution affects coagulation, as measured by endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) and thromboelastography (TEG). We performed an exploratory analysis of a subset of subjects enrolled in a randomized trial comparing the effect of resuscitation with isotonic saline versus Plasma-Lyte A (PLA) on acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities. We collected plasma at admission and 6 h later for subsequent ETP and TEG analysis and compared subjects receiving isotonic saline to those receiving PLA. Among 18 evaluated subjects, baseline characteristics, including ETP and TEG parameters, were similar between the two arms. At 6 h, subjects receiving isotonic saline were more acidemic. At 6 h, there were no differences in ETP parameters between groups; however, TEG results showed the time from initial clot formation to an amplitude of 20 mm (K) was shorter (3.8 ± 2.1 vs. 7.2 ± 2.8 s) and the rapidity of fibrin build-up and cross-linking (α angle) was significantly greater (41 ± 8 vs. 24 ± 15 deg) for the PLA group than in the isotonic saline group. Relative to PLA, isotonic saline does not alter thrombin generation, but isotonic saline and PLA may differentially impact clotting factor availability. The shorter time to reach prespecified clot amplitude and the increased rate of fibrin generation imply faster amplification of clotting factors with PLA without effect on latency time or clot strength. PMID:25803514

  11. "External Conditions Affecting a Harmonious Family": Lessons Learned from a School-Based Parent Education Programme in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk-Fong, Pattie Yuk Yee

    2013-01-01

    This article documents a parent education presentation on "External conditions affecting a harmonious family" within a school-based parent education programme in Hong Kong. The presentation adopted an eco-systems approach for understanding families and argued for the need to include the external conditions for a harmonious family as an important…

  12. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Process Manual for Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This manual describes and evaluates the implementation of Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parent Affective Learning), Brevard Community College's special demonstration training project intended to return adults who have dropped out of the educational system back into the learning environment by bringing them to parenting classes…

  13. Brain imaging of cognitively normal individuals with 2 parents affected by late-onset AD

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John; Tsui, Wai H.; Spector, Nicole; Goldowsky, Alexander; Williams, Schantel; Osorio, Ricardo; McHugh, Pauline; Glodzik, Lidia; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; de Leon, Mony J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This brain imaging study examines whether cognitively normal (NL) individuals with 2 parents affected by late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) show evidence of more extensive Alzheimer disease pathology compared with those who have a single parent affected by LOAD. Methods: Fifty-two NL individuals received MRI, 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET, and 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET. These included 4 demographically balanced groups (n = 13/group, aged 32–72 years, 60% female, 30% APOE ε4 carriers) of NL individuals with maternal (FHm), paternal (FHp), and maternal and paternal (FHmp) family history of LOAD, and with negative family history (FH−). Statistical parametric mapping, voxel-based morphometry, and z-score mapping were used to compare MRI gray matter volumes (GMVs), partial volume–corrected PiB retention, and FDG metabolism across FH groups and vs FH−. Results: NL FHmp showed more severe abnormalities in all 3 biomarkers vs the other groups regarding the number of regions affected and magnitude of impairment. PiB retention and hypometabolism were most pronounced in FHmp, intermediate in FHm, and lowest in FHp and FH−. GMV reductions were highest in FHmp and intermediate in FHm and FHp vs FH−. In all FH+ groups, amyloid-β deposition exceeded GMV loss and hypometabolism exceeded GMV loss (p < 0.001), while amyloid-β deposition exceeded hypometabolism in FHmp and FHp but not in FHm. Conclusions: These biomarker findings show a “LOAD parent-dose effect” in NL individuals several years, if not decades, before possible clinical symptoms. PMID:24523481

  14. Parental bonding and depressive affect: the mediating role of coping resources.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Kimberly; Kelly, Owen; Cole, Barbara; Tannenbaum, Beth; Dodd, Charlene; Anisman, Hymie

    2005-09-01

    Ordinarily, when stressors are encountered, a cascade of cognitive and behavioural responses is evoked that serves to protect the individual from compromised well-being. When coping resources or skills are limited or ineffective, then psychological disturbances, such as depression, may ensue (Paykel, 2001). Although any number of factors could account for variations of stress resilience, this paper argues that early life experiences and relationships, and particularly those with parents or primary caregivers, may contribute to the development of appropriate styles of coping, which, in turn, influence affective responses in the face of stressors encountered in adulthood.

  15. Parent Information Nights: An Elementary School Principal's Search to Increase Parent Input and Affect the Learning-at-Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponder, Stan

    2010-01-01

    Although the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires schools to create initiatives to increase parental involvement, the development, implementation, and effectiveness of these initiatives are left to the individual schools and their leadership teams. This qualitative study focused on a program designed to increase parental involvement and…

  16. Parental verbal affection and verbal aggression in childhood differentially influence psychiatric symptoms and wellbeing in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Polcari, Ann; Rabi, Keren; Bolger, Elizabeth; Teicher, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to parental verbal aggression is common and associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and drug use. A key question that has not been addressed is whether verbal affection from the same or opposite parent can attenuate the effects of verbal aggression. This cross-sectional study examined the effects of parental verbal aggression and affection during childhood on measures of psychopathology and wellbeing in a community sample of 2,518 individuals (18-25 years). Data were analyzed for moderating influences using mixed effect models and for direct and indirect effects using structural equation models. The moderation analysis suggested that high levels of exposure to verbal affection did not mitigate the effects of verbal aggression from the same parent, and high levels of verbal affection from another parent did not generally result in a significant attenuation of the effects of verbal aggression. Structural equation models showed that verbal aggression was predominantly associated with effects on psychiatric symptoms scores, whereas verbal affection was primarily associated with effects on measures of wellbeing. These findings highlight the relatively independent effects of verbal aggression and verbal affection and suggest that the latter may be particularly important in establishing a foundation for emotional and physical wellbeing. These findings also suggest that ridicule, disdain, and humiliation cannot be easily counteracted by praise and warmth from the same or another parent. PMID:24268711

  17. Large family with both parents affected by distinct BRCA1 mutations: implications for genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Sokolenko, Anna P; Voskresenskiy, Dmitry A; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Bit-Sava, Elena M; Gutkina, Nadezhda I; Anisimenko, Maxim S; Yu Sherina, Nathalia; Mitiushkina, Nathalia V; Ulibina, Yulia M; Yatsuk, Olga S; Zaitseva, Olga A; Suspitsin, Evgeny N; Togo, Alexandr V; Pospelov, Valery A; Kovalenko, Sergey P; Semiglazov, Vladimir F; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2009-01-01

    Although the probability of both parents being affected by BRCA1 mutations is not negligible, such families have not been systematically described in the literature. Here we present a large breast-ovarian cancer family, where 3 sisters and 1 half-sister inherited maternal BRCA1 5382insC mutation while the remaining 2 sisters carried paternal BRCA1 1629delC allele. No BRCA1 homozygous mutations has been detected, that is consistent with the data on lethality of BRCA1 knockout mice. This report exemplifies that the identification of a single cancer-predisposing mutation within the index patient may not be sufficient in some circumstances. Ideally, all family members affected by breast or ovarian tumor disease have to be subjected to the DNA testing, and failure to detect the mutation in any of them calls for the search of the second cancer-associated allele. PMID:19338681

  18. Parental environmental exposure leads to glycometabolic disturbances that affect fertilization of eggs in the silkworm Bombyx mori: the parental transcript legacy.

    PubMed

    Tao, H; Liu, H J; Cheng, Y Q; Sima, Y H; Yin, W M; Xu, S Q

    2015-01-01

    Parental transcript legacy plays an important role in fertilization and development of the early embryo. Parental environmental exposure affects the fertilization of eggs, but the underlying biochemical mechanism is largely unresolved. In this study, the parental environmental effects on fertilization of eggs were explored in the silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori), an ideal lepidopteran animal model. The results showed that the rate of fertilization decreased after the parents were exposed to a poor environment at 32 °C with continuous illumination for 72 h on days 6-9 of the pupal stage, which is a key period for germ cell maturation. This was likely attributable to lower energy charge values, obstructed nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) regeneration and inactive tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), leading to accumulation of large amounts of pyruvic acid and lactic acid. This effect was related to energy metabolism via glycolysis; in particular disruption of pyruvate metabolism. In conclusion, this study showed parental exposure to an abnormal environment during germ cell maturation affected glycolysis and the subsequent fertilization of eggs via the parental transcript legacy in B. mori.

  19. Psychosocial burden of sickle cell disease on parents with an affected child in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Mba, Caryl Zameyo; Mbanya, Dora; Ngogang, Jeanne; Ramesar, Raj; Angwafo, Fru F

    2014-04-01

    The chronicity of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) could impair the quality of life of caregivers. We performed a quantitative study to assess various indices of psychosocial burden on Cameroonian parents (N = 130) with at least one living SCD-affected child. Demographic and medical information were obtained from the participants and the review of the patients' medical records. The survey instrument included a 38-item stress factors scale using Likert-type statements, evaluating general perceptions of stress and five main specific stressors: disease factors (clinical severity), hospital factors, financial factors, family factors (life/dynamic) and SCD-child factors (perceived quality of life). The items pertaining to burden involved four response options with increasing severity: 0, 1, 2 or 3. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used for analysis. Participants were typically aged 38 years, urban dwellers (89%), female (80%), married (60.2%), employed (61.7%) and had secondary/tertiary education (82%). Median age of SCD-affected children was 9 years. The median age at diagnosis of SCD was 6 months; 47.8% had more than 3 painful crises per year. The majority of participants (88.3%) experienced moderate to severe difficulty coping with SCD. On a 0-3 scale, median score of SCD clinical severity was the major factor to undermine the coping ability of parents (2.2); vaso-occlusive painful events (>3 per year) was the disease-related stressor that most impacted their coping ability. The family life dynamic was the least stressful (0.7). Unemployment affected all the stressors' categories. Stressors scores also increased with female, single, low education level, age of SCD-affected children or more than 3 children in the family. In Cameroon, there is an urgent need to implement practices that ensure affordable access to health-care and activities that would reduce SCD morbidity.

  20. The proxy problem anatomized: child-parent disagreement in health related quality of life reports of chronically ill adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Discrepancy between self-reports and parent-proxy reports of adolescent health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been repeatedly acknowledged in the literature as the proxy problem. However, little is known about the extent and direction of this discrepancy. The purpose of this study is to explore to what extent and in what direction HRQoL self-reports of adolescents with chronic conditions and those of their parents differ. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adolescents suffering from chronic conditions and their parents. Socio-demographic and disease-related characteristics were collected and information about consequences of the chronic condition was assessed. HRQoL was measured with KIDSCREEN-10 and DISABKIDS condition generic measure (DCGM-10). Agreement was analysed through defining a threshold of agreement based on half of the standard deviation of the HRQoL score with the highest variance. Agreement occurred if the difference between adolescent and parent scores was less than or equal to half of the standard deviation. Intra-class correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots were also computed. The characteristics associated with direction of disagreement were statistically tested with one-way ANOVA and Chi-square tests. Results 584 paired HRQoL scores were obtained. Ratings from both adolescents and parents were high, compared to European norm data. Differences between adolescents and parents were statistically significant, yet relatively small. Disagreement existed in both directions: in 24.5% (KIDSCREEN-10) and 16.8% (DCGM-10) of the cases adolescents rated their HRQoL lower than did their parent, while in 32.2% (KIDSCREEN-10) and 31.7% (DCGM-10) of the cases the opposite was true. Adolescent's age, educational level and type of education, parent's educational level, number of hospital admissions and several other disease-related factors influenced direction of disagreement. Conclusions In a reasonable proportion of

  1. Parenting asthmatic children: identification of parenting challenges.

    PubMed

    Morawska, Alina; Stelzer, Jennifer; Burgess, Scott

    2008-08-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood, affecting up to 14% of children. Poor asthma management and non-adherence to treatment regimens are a pervasive problem in this population and are related to exacerbation of symptoms. Effective management of pediatric asthma involves a complex set of interactions between the parent and child, yet there is a paucity of literature examining these interactions. The main purpose of this study was to identify the child behavior and asthma management tasks parents experience difficulty with. It was hypothesized that the more asthma behavior problems reported, the more problems parents experience in asthma management tasks. Participants in this study were 255 parents of 2-to 10-year-old asthmatic children, recruited via an advertisement placed in school newsletters throughout Australia. Results indicated that the most problematic child asthma behaviors were oppositional behavior, hyperactivity, and aggression, and anxiety was also identified by parents as a concern. The main problematic asthma parenting tasks were entrusting the school, entrusting caregivers, identifying unique symptoms, and identifying and avoiding triggers. More problem asthma behaviors were associated with higher levels of parenting difficulty and more general levels of behavior problems. Parents who reported more dysfunctional parenting styles reported more difficulties with their child's asthma behavior. Based on the results it is suggested that an appropriate parenting intervention program would target basic behavioral management skills, in addition to applying these behavior management principles to asthma management. PMID:18612898

  2. Can Temperament Identify Affectively Ill Patients Who Engage in Lethal or Near-Lethal Suicidal Behavior? A 14-Year Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maser, Jack D.; Akiskal, Hagop S.; Schettler, Pamela; Scheftner, William A.; Mueller, Timothy I.; Endicott, Jean; Solomon, David A.; Clayton, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Among affectively ill patients followed for up to 14 years, 36 committed suicide, 120 attempted suicide, and 373 had no recorded suicide attempt. Comparing these three groups revealed that suicide completed within 12 months was predicted by clinical but not personality variables, and suicide beyond 12 months was predicted by newly derived…

  3. Self- Versus Parent-Ratings of Industriousness, Affect, and Life Satisfaction in Relation to Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; Davies, Janet E.; MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents consult with schools on how to help their children succeed, but schools rarely consult with parents, even though most parents have considerable expertise concerning their children's thoughts, feelings, and abilities. Aims: This study compares the prediction of academic achievement from self- and parent-ratings of feelings…

  4. Training Parents to Mediate Sibling Disputes Affects Children's Negotiation and Conflict Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie; Ross, Hildy

    2007-01-01

    The effects of training parents to use formal mediation procedures in sibling disputes were examined in 48 families with 5- to 10-years-old children, randomly assigned to mediation and control conditions. Children whose parents were trained in mediation were compared with those whose parents intervened normally. Parents reported that children used…

  5. Treating the Cause of Illness Rather than the Symptoms: Parental Causal Beliefs and Treatment Choices in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardennes, Roland M.; Al Anbar, Nebal N.; Prado-Netto, Arthur; Kaye, Kelley; Contejean, Yves; Al Anbar, Nesreen N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the relationship between causal beliefs on autism (CBA) and treatment choices. Design and methods: A cross-sectional design was employed. Parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were asked to complete the Lay-Beliefs about Autism Questionnaire (LBA-Q) and answer questions about treatments used. Only items…

  6. A Psychometric Analysis of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children-Parent Version in a School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebesutani, Chad; Okamura, Kelsie; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine; Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    The current study was the 1st to examine the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children-Parent Version (PANAS-C-P) using a large school-based sample of children and adolescents ages 8 to 18 (N = 606). Confirmatory factor analysis supported a 2-factor (correlated) model of positive affect (PA) and negative…

  7. The Impact of Organizational Factors and Government Policy on Psychiatric Nurses' Family-Focused Practice With Parents Who Have Mental Illness, Their Dependent Children, and Families in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Grant, Anne; Reupert, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Government policy and organizational factors influence family-focused practice (FFP) in adult mental health services. However, how these aspects shape psychiatric nurses' practice with parents who have mental illness, their dependent children, and families is less well understood. Drawing on the findings of a qualitative study, this article explores the way in which Irish policy and organizational factors might influence psychiatric nurses' FFP, and whether (and how) FFP might be further promoted. A purposive sample of 14 psychiatric nurses from eight mental health services completed semi-structured interviews. The analysis was inductive and presented as thematic networks. Both groups described how policies and organizational culture enabled and/or hindered FFP, with differences between community and acute participants seen. This study indicates a need for policies and organizational supports, including child and family skills training, to promote a whole family approach in adult mental health services.

  8. When Parents' Affection Depends on Child's Achievement: Parental Conditional Positive Regard, Self-Aggrandizement, Shame and Coping in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and…

  9. Identifying Aspects of Parental Involvement that Affect the Academic Achievement of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulette-McIntyre, Ovella; Bagaka's, Joshua G.; Drake, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    This study identified parental practices that relate positively to high school students' academic performance. Parents of 643 high school students participated in the study. Data analysis, using a multiple linear regression model, shows parent-school connection, student gender, and race are significant predictors of student academic performance.…

  10. Testing Whether and when Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents' alcohol-related consequences on adolescents' substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents' own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent's…

  11. How Attendance and Quality of Participation Affect Treatment Response to Parent Management Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nix, Robert L.; Bierman, Karen L.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether attendance and quality of participation in parent management training predicted treatment response. Data were from 445 parents (55% minority, 62% single; almost all of low socioeconomic status) who had 1st-grade children with severe conduct problems. Quality of participation in weekly parent groups was based on group…

  12. Opinions of Teachers and Parents Concerning Contemporary Issues Affecting Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Larry E.; Reddick, Thomas L.

    A random selection of 700 parents and teachers representing rural central Tennessee schools was surveyed in order to make their opinions available to policy makers. Usable responses were returned by 196 parents and 224 teachers. Parents opposed increasing public school funds through a lottery; teachers approved. Both groups believed that prayer…

  13. When parents' affection depends on child's achievement: parental conditional positive regard, self-aggrandizement, shame and coping in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-04-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and shame following failure, which then predict compulsive over-investment. PCPR functioned as a unique predictor of maladaptive self feelings and coping also when the effects of perceived parental conditional negative regard or psychological control were controlled for. The findings suggest that the experience of one's mother as using conditional positive regard to promote achievement leads to a non-optimal self-esteem dynamics, in which people vacillate between feelings of grandiosity following success and self-derogation and shame following failure, which in turn promote a rigid and stressful mode of coping. Thus, the practice of PCPR, although seemingly benign, appears to carry significant emotional and coping costs for adolescents.

  14. Parenting, parental mental health, and child functioning in families residing in supportive housing.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Abigail H; DeGarmo, David S; Plowman, Elizabeth J; August, Gerald; Realmuto, George

    2009-07-01

    Long-term homelessness is associated with other psychosocial risk factors (e.g., adult mental illness, substance abuse, and exposure to violence). All of these factors are associated with impairments in parenting effectiveness and child adjustment, but there are very limited data investigating parenting among families who are homeless and highly mobile. In particular, there is no literature examining the relationships among observed parenting, parental mental health, and child adjustment in a supportive housing sample. Data are reported from a multimethod study of 200 children in 127 families residing in supportive housing agencies in a large metro area. Observed parenting and parents' mental health symptoms directly affected children's adjustment. The influence of parenting self-efficacy on children's adjustment was mediated through its impact on observed parenting. However, observed parenting did not mediate the relationship between parental mental health and child adjustment. Implications for research and practice with homeless populations are offered.

  15. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Naughton, Catherine M.; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (Mage = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  16. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy.

  17. [How do Affected Children and Adolescents Experience their Short Stature, and what is the Point of View of their Parents?].

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sommer, Rachel; Petzold, Sophie; Bullinger-Naber, Monika

    2014-01-01

    How do Affected Children and Adolescents Experience their Short Stature, and what is the Point of View of their Parents? Despite a large number of publications on the psychosocial situation of short statured children and their parents only a few qualitative studies focus on the perspective of the affected families. Within the European QoLISSY study ("Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth") an instrument to assess the health related quality of life of short statured children was developed. The aim of this project was to examine the self-perceived quality of life of the children themselves in comparison to their parents' perspective. During the development of the QoLISSY instrument, focus groups were conducted as a first step of this study. A total of 23 short statured children and 31 parents participated and discussed their experiences in separate groups with trained moderators. The discussions were analyzed qualitatively und results were used to generate a first list of items for the questionnaire to be developed. While parents focused on socio-emotional problems, children talked much more about their growth hormone treatment and problems in their social environment. In comparison to other studies children rated their quality of life worse than their parents. Not only medical treatment but also a psychological and socio-emotional intervention seems to be indicated. PMID:25524035

  18. Family identification: a beneficial process for young adults who grow up in homes affected by parental intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Catherine M; O'Donnell, Aisling T; Muldoon, Orla T

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental intimate partner violence (parental IPV) is a complex trauma. Research within social psychology establishes that identification with social groups impacts positively on how we appraise, respond to and recover from traumatic events. IPV is also a highly stigmatized social phenomenon and social isolation is a major factor for families affected by IPV, yet strong identification with the family group may act as a beneficial psychological resource to young people who grew up in homes affected by IPV. The current study, an online survey of 355 students (M age = 20, 70% female), investigated if a psychosocial process, specifically identification with the family, may influence the relationship between the predictor, exposure to parental IPV, and outcomes, global self-esteem and state anxiety. Mediation analysis suggests that identification with the family has a positive influence on the relationship between exposure to parental IPV and psychological outcomes; exposure to parental IPV results in reduced family identification, but when family identification is strong it results in both reduced anxiety and increased self-esteem for young people. The findings highlight the importance of having a strong sense of belonging to the extended family for young people who were exposed to parental IPV, thus has implications for prevention, intervention, and social policy. PMID:26379582

  19. [How do Affected Children and Adolescents Experience their Short Stature, and what is the Point of View of their Parents?].

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sommer, Rachel; Petzold, Sophie; Bullinger-Naber, Monika

    2014-01-01

    How do Affected Children and Adolescents Experience their Short Stature, and what is the Point of View of their Parents? Despite a large number of publications on the psychosocial situation of short statured children and their parents only a few qualitative studies focus on the perspective of the affected families. Within the European QoLISSY study ("Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth") an instrument to assess the health related quality of life of short statured children was developed. The aim of this project was to examine the self-perceived quality of life of the children themselves in comparison to their parents' perspective. During the development of the QoLISSY instrument, focus groups were conducted as a first step of this study. A total of 23 short statured children and 31 parents participated and discussed their experiences in separate groups with trained moderators. The discussions were analyzed qualitatively und results were used to generate a first list of items for the questionnaire to be developed. While parents focused on socio-emotional problems, children talked much more about their growth hormone treatment and problems in their social environment. In comparison to other studies children rated their quality of life worse than their parents. Not only medical treatment but also a psychological and socio-emotional intervention seems to be indicated.

  20. Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    He, Hanzi; de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Snoek, L. Basten; Schnabel, Sabine; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk; Bentsink, Leónie

    2014-01-01

    Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We studied the influence of light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, and phosphate during seed development on five plant attributes and thirteen seed attributes, using 12 Arabidopsis genotypes that have been reported to be affected in seed traits. As expected, the various environments during seed development resulted in changed plant and/or seed performances. Comparative analysis clearly indicated that, overall, temperature plays the most dominant role in both plant and seed performance, whereas light has a prominent impact on plant traits. In comparison to temperature and light, nitrate mildly affected some of the plant and seed traits while phosphate had even less influence on those traits. Moreover, clear genotype-by-environment interactions were identified. This was shown by the fact that individual genotypes responded differentially to the environmental conditions. Low temperature significantly increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG1 and cyp707a1-1, whereas low light intensity increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG3 and NILDOG6. This also indicates that different genetic and molecular pathways are involved in the plant and seed responses. By identifying environmental conditions that affect the dormancy vs longevity correlation in the same way as previously identified naturally occurring loci, we have identified selective forces that probably shaped evolution for these important seed traits. PMID:25240065

  1. Interaction between parental environment and genotype affects plant and seed performance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    He, Hanzi; de Souza Vidigal, Deborah; Snoek, L Basten; Schnabel, Sabine; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk; Bentsink, Leónie

    2014-12-01

    Seed performance after dispersal is highly dependent on parental environmental cues, especially during seed formation and maturation. Here we examine which environmental factors are the most dominant in this respect and whether their effects are dependent on the genotypes under investigation. We studied the influence of light intensity, photoperiod, temperature, nitrate, and phosphate during seed development on five plant attributes and thirteen seed attributes, using 12 Arabidopsis genotypes that have been reported to be affected in seed traits. As expected, the various environments during seed development resulted in changed plant and/or seed performances. Comparative analysis clearly indicated that, overall, temperature plays the most dominant role in both plant and seed performance, whereas light has a prominent impact on plant traits. In comparison to temperature and light, nitrate mildly affected some of the plant and seed traits while phosphate had even less influence on those traits. Moreover, clear genotype-by-environment interactions were identified. This was shown by the fact that individual genotypes responded differentially to the environmental conditions. Low temperature significantly increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG1 and cyp707a1-1, whereas low light intensity increased seed dormancy and decreased seed longevity of NILDOG3 and NILDOG6. This also indicates that different genetic and molecular pathways are involved in the plant and seed responses. By identifying environmental conditions that affect the dormancy vs longevity correlation in the same way as previously identified naturally occurring loci, we have identified selective forces that probably shaped evolution for these important seed traits.

  2. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring.

  3. Homicidal parents.

    PubMed

    Bourget, D; Bradford, J M

    1990-04-01

    This paper describes a series of 13 cases of parents who have killed their children. A review of the literature suggests that child murder is infrequent and committed in most instances by the parents. Most attention has been directed to the universal phenomenon of child abuse. The killing of a child in our culture is viewed much more seriously than the killing of a newborn infant, legally defined as infanticide. Only a few authors have reported on the former, and their studies tend to demonstrate that a higher proportion of these crimes are perpetrated by mothers. Homicidal behaviour in parents may also be associated with common forms of psychiatric disorders and may manifest as the extended suicide phenomenon (homicide reported with major depressive illness). Attributes of both parents and the children are also significant factors to be considered. In a retrospective study the relevant demographic and clinical data of a series of 13 cases are reviewed. The diagnostic classification using DSM-III-R is discussed in detail. A higher incidence of maternal perpetrators was found and is consistent with previous studies. Exposure to a variety of psychosocial stresses appears to have been a major factor. Similarly the suicidal history and behaviour of the subjects is significant. Affective disorder appears to be an important diagnostic category. Finally, the role of psychiatric and other social agencies is considered in relation to the murder of children. A better understanding of this phenomenon is indicated in order to help us deal with families at risk.

  4. Perceptions of Maternal and Paternal Attachment Security in Middle Childhood: Links with Positive Parental Affection and Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michiels, D.; Grietens, H.; Onghena, P.; Kuppens, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at determining whether paternal parenting behaviours (attachment and positive affection) added significant information on children's psychosocial adjustment beyond that provided by maternal reports. Five hundred and fifty-two children (fourth through sixth graders) from a non-clinical sample completed a brief measure of perceived…

  5. Family Routines and Parental Monitoring as Protective Factors among Early and Middle Adolescents Affected by Maternal HIV/AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Marelich, William D.; Herbeck, Diane M.; Payne, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of parenting skills on adolescent outcomes among children affected by maternal HIV/AIDS (N = 118, M age = 13) was investigated. Among families with more frequent family routines, over time adolescents showed lower rates of aggression, anxiety, worry, depression, conduct disorder, binge drinking, and increased self-concept. Among…

  6. Parent-Child Engagement in Decision Making and the Development of Adolescent Affective Decision Capacity and Binge Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Palmer, Paula H.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate how parents’ engagement of their child in everyday decision-making influenced their adolescent’s development on two neuropsychological functions, namely, affective decision-making and working memory, and its effect on adolescent binge-drinking behavior. We conducted a longitudinal study of 192 Chinese adolescents. In 10th grade, the adolescents were tested for their affective decision-making ability using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and working memory capacity using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT). Questionnaires were used to assess perceived parent-child engagement in decision-making, academic performance and drinking behavior. At one-year follow-up, the same neuropsychological tasks and questionnaires were repeated. Results indicate that working memory and academic performance were uninfluenced by parent-child engagement in decision-making. However, compared to adolescents whose parents made solitary decisions for them, adolescents engaged in everyday decision-making showed significant improvement on affective decision capacity and significantly less binge-drinking one year later. These findings suggest that parental engagement of children in everyday decision-making might foster the development of neurocognitive functioning relative to affective decision-making and reduce adolescent substance use behaviors. PMID:21804682

  7. Affect of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking class room behaviors.

    PubMed

    Peretti, P O; Clark, D; Johnson, P

    1983-07-01

    Of concern to teachers are students displaying classroom behaviors which are disruptive in attaining pupil success in learning and teacher success in teaching. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors. It was also conducted to find out what particular parent might be more rejecting toward the respondents, and, what specific negative attention-seeking behaviors might be overtly demonstrated in the classroom by sex of subject. Results indicated a significant influence of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors, the father as a more rejecting parent, and differences in observed behaviors by sex of subject.

  8. AFFECT OF PARENTAL REJECTION ON NEGATIVE ATTENTION-SEEKING CLASS ROOM BEHAVIORS

    PubMed Central

    Peretti, Peter O.; Clark, Denise; Johnson, Pat

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY Of concern to teachers are students displaying classroom behaviors which are disruptive in attaining pupil success in learning and teacher success in teaching. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors. It was also conducted to find out what particular parent might be more rejecting toward the respondents, and, what specific negative attention-seeking behaviors might be overtly demonstrated in the classroom by sex of subject. Results indicated a significant influence of parental rejection on negative attention-seeking classroom behaviors, the father as a more rejecting parent, and differences in observed behaviors by sex of subject. PMID:21847284

  9. What level of self-care agency in mental illness? The factors affecting self-care agency and self-care agency in patients with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Çiftçi, Bahar; Yıldırım, Naci; Şahin Altun, Özlem; Avşar, Gülçin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate self-care agency and the factors affecting self-care agency in patients with psychiatric disorders. The population of the study comprised patients diagnosed with mental disorders at the clinics of psychiatry in Erzurum Regional Training and Research Hospital and Atatürk University Research Hospital. Patient information forms and the Self-Care Agency Scale were used to collect the study data. Psychiatric nurse collected the data from the patients face to face. This study determined that the average age of the patients was determined to be 32.19±1.11. The findings indicated that the mean self-care agency level of the patients was 79.3±23.2. It was also found that the differences between sex, educational status, socio-economic status, and self-care agency levels were statistically significant (p<0.05). In conclusion, the patients' self-care agency levels were determined to be mid-level. The findings suggest that people with mental disorders have difficulty identifying their need for self-care. Thus, periodic training programs are necessary to increase self-care levels and further research studies of this type should be done on larger groups.

  10. Returning incidental findings from genetic research to children: views of parents of children affected by rare diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kleiderman, Erika; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Fernandez, Conrad V; Boycott, Kym M; Ouellette, Gail; Wong-Rieger, Durhane; Adam, Shelin; Richer, Julie; Avard, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore parental perceptions and experiences regarding the return of genomic incidental research findings in children with rare diseases. Methods Parents of children affected by various rare diseases were invited to participate in focus groups or individual telephone interviews in Montreal and Ottawa. Fifteen participants were interviewed and transcriptions were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Four emergent themes underscored parental enthusiasm for receiving incidental findings concerning their child's health: (1) right to information; (2) perceived benefits and risks; (3) communication practicalities: who, when, and how; and (4) service needs to promote the communication of incidental findings. Parents believed they should be made aware of all results pertaining to their child's health status, and that they are responsible for transmitting this information to their child, irrespective of disease severity. Despite potential negative consequences, respondents generally perceived a favourable risk-benefit ratio in receiving all incidental findings. Conclusions Understanding how parents assess the risks and benefits of returning incidental findings is essential to genomic research applications in paediatric medicine. The authors believe the study findings will contribute to establishing future best practices, although further research is needed to evaluate the impact of parental decisions on themselves and their child. PMID:24356209

  11. Personality predispositions to depression in children of affectively-ill parents: the buffering role of self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Abela, John R Z; Fishman, Michael B; Cohen, Joseph R; Young, Jami F

    2012-01-01

    A major theory of personality predispositions to depression posits that individuals who possess high levels of self-criticism and/or dependency are vulnerable to developing depression following negative life events. The goal of the current study was to test this theory of personality predispositions and the self-esteem buffering hypothesis in a sample of youth using an idiographic approach, a high-risk sample, and a multiwave longitudinal design. One hundred forty children aged 6 to 14 completed measures of dependency, self-criticism, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms. Over the course of the following year, 8 follow-up assessments were conducted 6 weeks apart during which all children were administered measures assessing depressive symptoms and the occurrence of negative events. Results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses indicated that higher levels of dependency were associated with greater increases in depressive symptoms following negative events among children possessing low, but not high, self-esteem. In contrast, self-criticism was not associated with changes in depressive symptoms over time regardless of children's levels of stress and/or self-esteem.

  12. Personality Predispositions to Depression in Children of Affectively-Ill Parents: The Buffering Role of Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abela, John R. Z.; Fishman, Michael B.; Cohen, Joseph R.; Young, Jami F.

    2012-01-01

    A major theory of personality predispositions to depression posits that individuals who possess high levels of self-criticism and/or dependency are vulnerable to developing depression following negative life events. The goal of the current study was to test this theory of personality predispositions and the self-esteem buffering hypothesis in a…

  13. Open Up or Close Down: How Do Parental Reactions Affect Youth Information Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilton-Weaver, Lauree; Kerr, Margaret; Pakalniskeine, Vilmante; Tokic, Ana; Salihovic, Selma; Stattin, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a process model of youths' information management. Using three waves of longitudinal data collected from 982 youths, we modeled parents' positive and negative reactions to disclosure predicting youths' feelings about their parents, in turn predicting youths' disclosure and secrecy about their daily activities.…

  14. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  15. Does the Availability of Parental Health Insurance Affect the College Enrollment Decision of Young Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Juergen; Hall, Diane M. Harnek; Rhoads, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines whether the college enrollment decision of young individuals (student full-time, student part-time, and non-student) depends on health insurance coverage via a parent's family health plan. Our findings indicate that the availability of parental health insurance can have significant effects on the probability that a young…

  16. Child Psychopathic Traits Moderate Relationships between Parental Affect and Child Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Michelle T.; Chen, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies show that children with psychopathic traits may be less responsive to parenting. Although harsh/inconsistent parenting is associated with increased problem behaviors in children low on psychopathic traits, children high on psychopathic traits show consistently high levels of problem behavior regardless of negative…

  17. Restrictive and Supportive Parenting: Effects on Children's School Affect and Emotional Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annear, Karen D.; Yates, Gregory C. R.

    2010-01-01

    In this project upper primary school students were surveyed about their general liking for school, and reasons for going to school. Their parents were asked to respond on a questionnaire indicating their restrictiveness and also support for their child's autonomy. Data were collected from 92 middle SES two-parent families and analysed using…

  18. Factors Affecting Parental Decision-Making Regarding Interventions for Their Child with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Elizabeth Baltus

    2014-01-01

    Due to the numerous interventions available for children with autism, parents are faced with challenging decisions regarding treatments from the time of diagnosis and throughout their child's life. This exploratory qualitative study investigated the reasons behind parents' decisions about interventions for their child with autism.…

  19. Parental vitamin deficiency affects the embryonic gene expression of immune-, lipid transport- and apolipoprotein genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjærven, Kaja H.; Jakt, Lars Martin; Dahl, John Arne; Espe, Marit; Aanes, Håvard; Hamre, Kristin; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.

    2016-10-01

    World Health Organization is concerned for parental vitamin deficiency and its effect on offspring health. This study examines the effect of a marginally dietary-induced parental one carbon (1-C) micronutrient deficiency on embryonic gene expression using zebrafish. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduced 1-C cycle efficiency in F0 generation. Parental deficiency reduced the fecundity and a total of 364 genes were differentially expressed in the F1 embryos. The upregulated genes (53%) in the deficient group were enriched in biological processes such as immune response and blood coagulation. Several genes encoding enzymes essential for the 1-C cycle and for lipid transport (especially apolipoproteins) were aberrantly expressed. We show that a parental diet deficient in micronutrients disturbs the expression in descendant embryos of genes associated with overall health, and result in inherited aberrations in the 1-C cycle and lipid metabolism. This emphasises the importance of parental micronutrient status for the health of the offspring.

  20. Parental vitamin deficiency affects the embryonic gene expression of immune-, lipid transport- and apolipoprotein genes

    PubMed Central

    Skjærven, Kaja H.; Jakt, Lars Martin; Dahl, John Arne; Espe, Marit; Aanes, Håvard; Hamre, Kristin; Fernandes, Jorge M. O.

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization is concerned for parental vitamin deficiency and its effect on offspring health. This study examines the effect of a marginally dietary-induced parental one carbon (1-C) micronutrient deficiency on embryonic gene expression using zebrafish. Metabolic profiling revealed a reduced 1-C cycle efficiency in F0 generation. Parental deficiency reduced the fecundity and a total of 364 genes were differentially expressed in the F1 embryos. The upregulated genes (53%) in the deficient group were enriched in biological processes such as immune response and blood coagulation. Several genes encoding enzymes essential for the 1-C cycle and for lipid transport (especially apolipoproteins) were aberrantly expressed. We show that a parental diet deficient in micronutrients disturbs the expression in descendant embryos of genes associated with overall health, and result in inherited aberrations in the 1-C cycle and lipid metabolism. This emphasises the importance of parental micronutrient status for the health of the offspring. PMID:27731423

  1. High-Altitude Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... altitude illness: Acute mountain sickness High-altitude pulmonary edema (also called HAPE), which affects the lungs High-altitude cerebral edema (also called HACE), which affects the brain These ...

  2. Testing Whether and When Parent Alcoholism Uniquely Affects Various Forms of Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wenjing; Serrano, Daniel; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parents’ alcohol-related consequences on adolescents’ substance use. Previous studies show that having a parent with a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism is a clear risk factor for adolescents’ own substance use. Less clear is whether the timing of a parent’s alcohol-related consequences differentially predicts the adolescent’s own substance involvement. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether adolescents showed elevated rates of alcohol, heavy alcohol, marijuana and other illegal drug use (a) at the same time that parents showed alcohol-related consequences (time-varying effects), (b) if parents showed greater alcohol-related consequences during the child’s adolescence (proximal effects), and (c) if parents had a lifetime diagnosis of alcoholism that predated the child’s adolescence (distal effects). We tested these effects in a high-risk sample of 451 adolescents assessed over three waves beginning at ages 11–15 from 1988 to 1991 (53 % male, 71 % non-Hispanic Caucasian, 54 % children of alcoholic parents and 46 % matched controls). Strong and consistent distal effects of parent alcoholism on adolescent’s substance use were found, though no additional risk was associated with proximal effects. Limited time-varying effects were also found. The importance of differentiating the timing effects of parent alcoholism in identifying underlying mechanisms of risk for adolescent substance use is discussed. PMID:22886384

  3. Internalizing behavior in adolescent girls affects parental emotional overinvolvement: a cross-lagged twin study.

    PubMed

    Moberg, Therese; Lichtenstein, Paul; Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the direction and the etiology of the association between different parenting styles (parental emotional overinvolvement [EOI] and parental criticism) and internalizing behavior from adolescence to early adulthood. A longitudinal genetically informative cross-lagged design was applied to a population-based sample of Swedish twins contacted at age 16-17 (n = 2369) and at age 19-20 (n = 1705). Sex-limitation modelling revealed different effects for boys and girls. For girls, genetic influences on internalizing problems at age 16-17 independently explained 2.7% of the heritability in parental EOI at age 19-20. These results suggest that emotionally overinvolved and self-sacrificing parental behavior stems in part from daughters (but not sons) genetic predisposition for internalizing behavior. These findings highlight the importance of genetically influenced child-driven effects underlying the parenting-internalizing association, and clarify that the role of such effects may differ depending on sex, type of parenting and developmental period.

  4. Parental Monitoring Affects the Relationship between Depressed Mood and Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McManama O’Brien, Kimberly H.; Hernandez, Lynn; Spirito, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental monitoring has been identified as a protective factor for adolescent drinking, while depressed mood, peer substance use and peer tolerance of substance use have been identified as risk factors. The purpose of this study was to test the association between depressed mood and alcohol-related problems in adolescents, and to test whether parental monitoring and peer substance use/tolerance of use moderate the strength of this relationship. Methods Participants included 227 adolescents (Mage = 15.36; 51.5% female) recruited from a hospital emergency department and surrounding community who completed self-report assessments. Results Hierarchical linear regression analysis demonstrated that depressed mood was associated with more alcohol-related problems. A significant interaction between depressed mood and parental monitoring indicated a moderating effect, with high levels of depressed mood being associated with alcohol-related problems when parental monitoring was low; at low levels of depressed mood, parental monitoring was not related to alcohol-related problems. Conclusions This study highlights the protective role that parental monitoring may play in the association between depressed mood and alcohol-related problems, and suggests that parenting practices, in addition to individual counseling, should be addressed in treatment of depressed adolescents who drink. PMID:25023093

  5. Tardive dyskinesia in bipolar affective disorder: aging, cognitive dysfunction, course of illness, and exposure to neuroleptics and lithium.

    PubMed

    Waddington, J L; Youssef, H A

    1988-05-01

    Cognitive function, course of illness, and medication history were assessed in 42 bipolar patients evaluated for the presence of involuntary movements. Among the 25 patients 55 years old or older, the 16 with involuntary movements were not distinguished from the nine without involuntary movements by past or current exposure to neuroleptics, anticholinergics, or carbamazepine, but they showed poorer cognitive function, had fewer major depressive episodes, and had received briefer exposure to lithium. The association between involuntary movements and cognitive dysfunction parallels that found in schizophrenia, suggesting that similar neurological processes may contribute to vulnerability to involuntary movements in the major functional psychoses.

  6. Effect of a Family Intervention on Psychological Outcomes of Children Affected by Parental HIV

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Ji, Guoping; Wu, Jie; Xiao, Yongkang

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses intervention outcomes in children’s self-esteem, perceived parental care, and problem behavior and their potential connections to intervention outcomes in depressive symptoms and family functioning reported by parents living with HIV (PLH) and family members. A total of 79 families, consisting of 79 children, 88 PLH and 79 family members, were recruited from Anhui province, China. The intervention was delivered at the individual, family and community levels. Face-to-face interviews were administered at baseline, 3, and 6 months. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of children’s reported self-esteem, parental care, and problem behavior. To further investigate the association between the parental measures and their children’s outcomes, we added parental measure as a time-varying covariate to explore whether the intervention effect on children was influenced by the parental measures. We observed some intervention effects related to children’s psychological measures accompanied by the improvement in mental health of PLH and family members. Our study findings highlight the importance of empowering families as a whole to confront HIV related challenges and the need to develop child-adequate and age-specific intervention strategies. PMID:24643313

  7. Effect of a family intervention on psychological outcomes of children affected by parental HIV.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Ji, Guoping; Wu, Jie; Xiao, Yongkang

    2014-11-01

    This study assesses intervention outcomes in children's self-esteem, perceived parental care, and problem behavior and their potential connections to intervention outcomes in depressive symptoms and family functioning reported by parents living with HIV (PLH) and family members. A total of 79 families were recruited from Anhui province, China. The intervention was delivered at the individual, family and community levels. Face-to-face interviews were administered at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of children's reported self-esteem, parental care, and problem behavior. To further investigate the association between the parental measures and their children's outcomes, we added parental measure as a time-varying covariate to explore whether the intervention effect on children was influenced by the parental measures. We observed some intervention effects related to children's psychological measures accompanied by the improvement in mental health of PLH and family members. Our study findings highlight the importance of empowering families as a whole to confront HIV related challenges and the need to develop child-adequate and age-specific intervention strategies. PMID:24643313

  8. Effect of a family intervention on psychological outcomes of children affected by parental HIV.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Ji, Guoping; Wu, Jie; Xiao, Yongkang

    2014-11-01

    This study assesses intervention outcomes in children's self-esteem, perceived parental care, and problem behavior and their potential connections to intervention outcomes in depressive symptoms and family functioning reported by parents living with HIV (PLH) and family members. A total of 79 families were recruited from Anhui province, China. The intervention was delivered at the individual, family and community levels. Face-to-face interviews were administered at baseline, 3 and 6 months. A mixed-effects regression model was used to assess the intervention effect on the improvement of children's reported self-esteem, parental care, and problem behavior. To further investigate the association between the parental measures and their children's outcomes, we added parental measure as a time-varying covariate to explore whether the intervention effect on children was influenced by the parental measures. We observed some intervention effects related to children's psychological measures accompanied by the improvement in mental health of PLH and family members. Our study findings highlight the importance of empowering families as a whole to confront HIV related challenges and the need to develop child-adequate and age-specific intervention strategies.

  9. Alloparenting experience affects future parental behavior and reproductive success in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Stone, Anita Iyengar; Mathieu, Denise; Griffin, Luana; Bales, Karen Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the function of alloparental behavior in cooperatively breeding species. We examined whether alloparental experience as juveniles enhanced later parental care and reproductive success in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), a cooperatively breeding rodent. Juveniles cared for one litter of siblings (1EX), two litters of siblings (2EX) or no siblings (0EX). As adults, these individuals were mated to other 0EX, 1EX or 2EX voles, yielding seven different pair combinations, and we recorded measures of parental behaviors, reproductive success, and pup development. As juveniles, individuals caring for siblings for the first time were more alloparental; and as adults, 0EX females paired with 0EX males spent more time in the nest with their pups. Taken together, these results suggest that inexperienced animals spend more time in infant care. As parents, 1EX males spent more time licking their pups than 2EX and 0EX males. Pups with either a 1EX or 2EX parent gained weight faster than pups with 0EX parents during certain developmental periods. While inexperienced animals may spend more time in pup care, long-term benefits of alloparenting may become apparent in the display of certain, particularly important parental behaviors such as licking pups, and in faster weight gain of offspring. PMID:19732810

  10. A single nucleotide polymorphism in glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta promoter gene influences onset of illness in patients affected by bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco; Bernasconi, Alessandro; Lorenzi, Cristina; Pontiggia, Adriana; Serretti, Alessandro; Colombo, Cristina; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2004-01-23

    Genetic studies in medicine exploited age of onset as a criterion to delineate subgroups of illness. Bipolar patients stratified with this criterion were shown to share clinical characteristics and patterns of inheritance of illness. The molecular mechanisms driving the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus may play a role in mood disorders. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (-50 T/C) falling into the effective promoter region (nt -171 to +29) of the gene coding for glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3-beta) has been identified. GSK3-beta codes for an enzyme which is a target for the action of lithium and which is also known to regulate circadian rhythms in Drosophila. We studied the effect of this polymorphism on the age at onset of bipolar disorder type I. A homogeneous sample of 185 Italian patients affected by bipolar disorder was genotyped. Age at onset was retrospectively ascertained with best estimation procedures. No association was detected between GSK3-beta -50 T/C SNP and the presence of bipolar illness. Homozygotes for the wild variant (T/T) showed an earlier age at onset than carriers of the mutant allele (F=5.53, d.f.=2,182, P=0.0047). Results warrant interest for the variants of genes pertaining to the molecular clock as possible endophenotypes of bipolar disorder, but caution ought to be taken in interpreting these preliminary results and future replication studies must be awaited.

  11. Does a Physician’s Attitude toward a Patient with Mental Illness Affect Clinical Management of Diabetes? Results from a Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Lisa C; Litman, Heather J; Borba, Christina PC; Vincenzi, Brenda; Henderson, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether physician’s attitudes toward patients with comorbid mental illness affect management of a chronic disease. Data Source A total of 256 primary care physicians interviewed in 2010. Study Design This randomized factorial experiment entailed physicians observing video vignettes of patient-actors with poorly controlled diabetes. Patients were balanced across age, gender, race, and comorbidity (schizophrenia with bizarre or normal affect, depression, eczema). Data Collection Physicians completed structured and semistructured interviews plus chart notes about clinical management and attitudes. Principal Findings Physicians reported more negative attitudes for patients with schizophrenia with bizarre affect (SBA). There were few differences in clinical decisions measured quantitatively or in charting, but qualitative data revealed less trust of patients with SBA as reporters, with more reliance on sources other than engaging the patient in care. Physicians often alerted colleagues about SBA, thereby shaping expectations before interactions occurred. Conclusions Results are consistent with common stereotypes about people with serious mental illness. Vignettes did not include intentional indication of unreliable reporting or danger. Reducing health care disparities requires attention to subtle aspects of managing patients—particularly those with atypical affect—as seemingly slight differences could engender disparate patient experiences over time. PMID:25487069

  12. Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has an impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of sufferers as well as their children. To date, no study has investigated the effects of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Lalitpur and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents (n = 102; aged 11–17 years) and those with parents unaffected by leprosy (n = 115; 11–17 years) were investigated. Self-reported data from adolescents were collected using the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDLR) questionnaire to assess HRQOL, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare scores between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the determinants of HRQOL for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents. Results ANCOVA revealed that the KINDLR and RSES scores were significantly lower among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents compared with unaffected parents. However, the scores of “Friends” and “School” subscales of KINDLR were similar between the two groups. The CES-D score was significantly higher among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents than for adolescents with unaffected parents. The KINDLR scores for adolescents with both parents affected (n = 41) were significantly lower than the scores for those with one parent affected (n = 61). Multiple regression analysis revealed that adolescents with leprosy-affected parents who had higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to have lower KINDLR scores. A similar result was seen for adolescents where both parents had leprosy. Conclusions Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL compared with adolescents whose parents were

  13. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Serious Illness When Your Child's in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Caring for Siblings of Seriously Ill Children Preparing Your Child for Surgery Managing Home Health Care Marriage Advice for Parents of Children ...

  14. Gastrointestinal Illness among Triathletes Swimming in Non-Polluted versus Polluted Seawater Affected by Heavy Rainfall, Denmark, 2010-2011

    PubMed Central

    Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Kuhn, Katrin Gaardbo; Erichsen, Anders Christian; Mølbak, Kåre; Ethelberg, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the frequency of extreme rainfall and subsequent flooding across the world. Climate change models predict that such flooding will become more common, triggering sewer overflows, potentially with increased risks to human health. In August 2010, a triathlon sports competition was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, shortly after an extreme rainfall. The authors took advantage of this event to investigate disease risks in two comparable cohorts of physically fit, long distance swimmers competing in the sea next to a large urban area. An established model of bacterial concentration in the water was used to examine the level of pollution in a spatio-temporal manner. Symptoms and exposures among athletes were examined with a questionnaire using a retrospective cohort design and the questionnaire investigation was repeated after a triathlon competition held in non-polluted seawater in 2011. Diagnostic information was collected from microbiological laboratories. The results showed that the 3.8 kilometer open water swimming competition coincided with the peak of post-flooding bacterial contamination in 2010, with average concentrations of 1.5x104 E. coli per 100 ml water. The attack rate of disease among 838 swimmers in 2010 was 42% compared to 8% among 931 swimmers in the 2011 competition (relative risk (RR) 5.0; 95% CI: 4.0-6.39). In 2010, illness was associated with having unintentionally swallowed contaminated water (RR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.8-3.4); and the risk increased with the number of mouthfuls of water swallowed. Confirmed aetiologies of infection included Campylobacter, Giardia lamblia and diarrhoeagenic E. coli. The study demonstrated a considerable risk of illness from water intake when swimming in contaminated seawater in 2010, and a small but measureable risk from non-polluted water in 2011. This suggests a significant risk of disease in people ingesting small amounts of flood water following extreme rainfall in urban areas. PMID

  15. Gastrointestinal illness among triathletes swimming in non-polluted versus polluted seawater affected by heavy rainfall, Denmark, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Harder-Lauridsen, Nina Majlund; Kuhn, Katrin Gaardbo; Erichsen, Anders Christian; Mølbak, Kåre; Ethelberg, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the frequency of extreme rainfall and subsequent flooding across the world. Climate change models predict that such flooding will become more common, triggering sewer overflows, potentially with increased risks to human health. In August 2010, a triathlon sports competition was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, shortly after an extreme rainfall. The authors took advantage of this event to investigate disease risks in two comparable cohorts of physically fit, long distance swimmers competing in the sea next to a large urban area. An established model of bacterial concentration in the water was used to examine the level of pollution in a spatio-temporal manner. Symptoms and exposures among athletes were examined with a questionnaire using a retrospective cohort design and the questionnaire investigation was repeated after a triathlon competition held in non-polluted seawater in 2011. Diagnostic information was collected from microbiological laboratories. The results showed that the 3.8 kilometer open water swimming competition coincided with the peak of post-flooding bacterial contamination in 2010, with average concentrations of 1.5x10(4) E. coli per 100 ml water. The attack rate of disease among 838 swimmers in 2010 was 42% compared to 8% among 931 swimmers in the 2011 competition (relative risk (RR) 5.0; 95% CI: 4.0-6.39). In 2010, illness was associated with having unintentionally swallowed contaminated water (RR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.8-3.4); and the risk increased with the number of mouthfuls of water swallowed. Confirmed aetiologies of infection included Campylobacter, Giardia lamblia and diarrhoeagenic E. coli. The study demonstrated a considerable risk of illness from water intake when swimming in contaminated seawater in 2010, and a small but measureable risk from non-polluted water in 2011. This suggests a significant risk of disease in people ingesting small amounts of flood water following extreme rainfall in urban areas.

  16. Differences and similarities in the trajectories of self-esteem and positive and negative affect in persons with chronic illness: an explorative longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Bonsaksen, Tore; Lerdal, Anners; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Fagermoen, May Solveig

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic illness is a risk factor for low self-esteem, and the research literature needs to include more studies of self-esteem and its development in chronic illness groups using longitudinal and comparative designs. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectories of self-esteem and of positive and negative affect in persons with morbid obesity and in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Patient education course attendants in Norway having morbid obesity (n=139) or COPD (n=97) participated in the study. Data concerning self-esteem, positive and negative affect, and sociodemographic background were collected at the start and at the end of the patient education, with subsequent follow-ups at 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using linear mixed models for repeated measures. Results Taking all measurements into account, our data revealed a statistically significant increase in self-esteem for participants with morbid obesity but not for those with COPD. There were no significant differences in levels of negative and positive affect between the two groups, and the time-trajectories were also similar. However, participants in both groups achieved lower levels of negative affect for all the successive measurement points. Conclusion An increase in self-esteem during the first year after the patient education course was observed for persons with morbid obesity, but not for persons with COPD. Initial higher levels of self-esteem in the participants with COPD may indicate that they are less troubled with low self-esteem than people with morbid obesity are. The pattern of reduced negative affect for both groups during follow-up is promising. PMID:27574438

  17. Does parental consent for birth control affect underage pregnancy rates? The case of Texas.

    PubMed

    Girma, Sourafel; Paton, David

    2013-12-01

    Previous work based on conjectural responses of minors predicted that the 2003 Texas requirement for parental consent for state-funded birth control to minors would lead to a large increase in underage pregnancies. We use state- and county-level data to test this prediction. The latter allow us to compare the impact of parental consent in counties with and without state-funded family planning clinics. We control for characteristics systematically correlated with the presence of state-funded clinics by combining difference-in-difference estimation with propensity score-weighted regressions. The evidence suggests that the parental consent mandate led to a large decrease in attendance at family planning clinics among teens but did not lead to an increase in underage pregnancies.

  18. Neurophysiological processing of emotion and parenting interact to predict inhibited behavior: an affective-motivational framework

    PubMed Central

    Kessel, Ellen M.; Huselid, Rebecca F.; DeCicco, Jennifer M.; Dennis, Tracy A.

    2013-01-01

    Although inhibited behavior problems are prevalent in childhood, relatively little is known about the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that predict a child's ability to regulate inhibited behavior during fear- and anxiety-provoking tasks. Inhibited behavior may be linked to both disruptions in avoidance-related processing of aversive stimuli and in approach-related processing of appetitive stimuli, but previous findings are contradictory and rarely integrate consideration of the socialization context. The current exploratory study used a novel combination of neurophysiological and observation-based methods to examine whether a neurophysiological measure sensitive to approach- and avoidance-oriented emotional processing, the late positive potential (LPP), interacted with observed approach- (promotion) and avoidance- (prevention) oriented parenting practices to predict children's observed inhibited behavior. Participants were 5- to 7-year-old (N = 32) typically-developing children (M = 75.72 months, SD = 6.01). Electroencephalography was continuously recorded while children viewed aversive, appetitive, or neutral images, and the LPP was generated to each picture type separately. Promotion and prevention parenting were observed during an emotional challenge with the child. Child inhibited behavior was observed during a fear and a social evaluation task. As predicted, larger LPPs to aversive images predicted more inhibited behavior during both tasks, but only when parents demonstrated low promotion. In contrast, larger LPPs to appetitive images predicted less inhibited behavior during the social evaluative task, but only when parents demonstrated high promotion; children of high promotion parents showing smaller LPPs to appetitive images showed the greatest inhibition. Parent-child goodness-of-fit and the LPP as a neural biomarker for emotional processes related to inhibited behavior are discussed. PMID:23847499

  19. Assessing the feasibility of providing a parenting intervention for war-affected families in northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wieling, Elizabeth; Mehus, Christopher; Möllerherm, Julia; Neuner, Frank; Achan, Laura; Catani, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of a feasibility study of an intervention, Enhancing Family Connection (EFC), conducted in Northern Uganda in 2012. Enhancing Family Connection's sessions were an adaption of the Parent Management Training, Oregon model. Three interrelated areas of feasibility were assessed: (a) acceptability, (b) usability, and (c) limited efficacy. This study utilized questionnaires and semi-structured interviews completed by mothers and a focal child pre- and post-intervention. Results indicated that mothers found the intervention acceptable to their families and culture and showed promise for Enhancing Family Connection's efficacy in changing parenting behaviors. This study supports continued development of this intervention. PMID:26017003

  20. How User Characteristics Affect Use Patterns in Web-Based Illness Management Support for Patients with Breast and Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cvancarova, Milada; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Moore, Shirley M; Ruland, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequently eHealth applications are not used as intended and they have high attrition rates; therefore, a better understanding of patients’ need for support is warranted. Specifically, more research is needed to identify which system components target different patient groups and under what conditions. Objective To explore user characteristics associated with the use of different system components of a Web-based illness management support system for cancer patients (WebChoice). Methods For this secondary post hoc analysis of a large randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which WebChoice was tested among 325 breast cancer and prostate cancer patients who were followed with repeated measures for 1 year, usage patterns of 162 cancer patients in the intervention arm with access to WebChoice were extracted from the user log. Logistic regression was performed to identify patterns of associations between system use and patient characteristics. Latent class analyses (LCA) were performed to identify associations among the use of different system components and levels of social support, symptom distress, depression, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life. Results Approximately two-thirds (103/162, 63.6%) of the patients logged on to WebChoice more than once, and were defined as users. A high level of computer experience (odds ratio [OR] 3.77, 95% CI 1.20-11.91) and not having other illnesses in addition to cancer (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.02-4.34) increased the overall probability of using WebChoice. LCA showed that both men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer who had low scores on social support accompanied with high levels of symptom distress and high levels of depression were more likely to use the e-message component. For men with prostate cancer, these variables were also associated with high use of the self-management advice component. We found important differences between men with prostate cancer and women with breast cancer when

  1. How do you feel? Self-esteem predicts affect, stress, social interaction, and symptom severity during daily life in patients with chronic illness.

    PubMed

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2008-10-01

    Self-esteem has been demonstrated to predict health and well-being in a number of samples and domains using retrospective reports, but little is known about the effect of self-esteem in daily life. A community sample with asthma (n = 97) or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 31) completed a self-esteem measure and collected Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) data 5x/day for one week using a palmtop computer. Low self-esteem predicted more negative affect, less positive affect, greater stress severity, and greater symptom severity in daily life. Naturalistic exploration of mechanisms relating self-esteem to physiological and/or psychological components in illness may clarify causal relationships and inform theoretical models of self-care, well-being, and disease management.

  2. HIV-positive parents, HIV-positive children, and HIV-negative children’s perspectives on disclosure of a parent’s and child’s illness in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Gary J.; Ferraro, Aimee

    2014-01-01

    HIV disclosure from parent to child is complex and challenging to HIV-positive parents and healthcare professionals. The purpose of the study was to understand the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process in Kenya. Sixteen HIV-positive parents, seven HIV-positive children, and five HIV-negative children completed semistructured, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the Van Kaam method; NVivo 8 software was used to assist data analysis. We present data on the process of disclosure based on how participants recommended full disclosure be approached to HIV-positive and negative children. Participants recommended disclosure as a process starting at five years with full disclosure delivered at 10 years when the child was capable of understanding the illness, or by 14 years when the child was mature enough to receive the news if full disclosure had not been conducted earlier. Important considerations at the time of full disclosure included the parent’s and/or child’s health statuses, number of infected family members’ illnesses to be disclosed to the child, child’s maturity and understanding level, and the person best suited to deliver full disclosure to the child. The results also revealed it was important to address important life events such as taking a national school examination during disclosure planning and delivery. Recommendations are made for inclusion into HIV disclosure guidelines, manuals, and programs in resource-poor nations with high HIV prevalence. PMID:25071999

  3. Children's Perceptions of Parental Attitude Affecting Breakfast Skipping in Primary Sixth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tereza Sy; Tse, Lap Ah; Yu, Ignatius Tak-Sun; Griffiths, Sian

    2008-01-01

    Background: Breakfast skipping is an international public health concern. This study investigated the prevalence of breakfast skipping among primary sixth-grade students in Hong Kong and the impact of students' perceptions of parental attitudes on breakfast skipping. Methods: A total of 426 students aged 10-14 years in 4 local schools participated…

  4. The Real Power of Parental Reading Aloud: Exploring the Affective and Attentional Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Kit

    2012-01-01

    Reading with an adult plays an important role in developing children's oral language skills, phonological awareness and print knowledge. Parental reading aloud is also an indicator of children's later academic success, which suggests that the practice may be further linked to children's development of broader academic skills and behaviour, such as…

  5. The Affective Structure of Supportive Parenting: Depressive Symptoms, Immediate Emotions, and Child-Oriented Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Theodore; Gershoff, Elizabeth T.; Meunier, Leah N.; Miller, Pamela C.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the maternal concerns and emotions that may regulate one form of sensitive parenting, support for children's immediate desires or intentions. While reviewing a videotape of interactions with their 1-year-olds, mothers who varied on depressive symptoms reported concerns and emotions they had during the interaction. Emotions…

  6. Issues Affecting the Efficacy of Programs for Children with Incarcerated Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merenstein, Beth; Tyson, Ben; Tilles, Brad; Keays, Aileen; Rufffolo, Lyndsay

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that intervening in the lives of children with an incarcerated parent to preserve and strengthen positive family connections can yield constructive societal benefits in the form of reduced recidivism, less intergenerational criminal justice system involvement and the promotion of healthy child development (Christian, 2009). Since…

  7. Parents as a Resource: Communication Quality Affects the Relationship between Adolescents' Internet Use and Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appel, Markus; Holtz, Peter; Stiglbauer, Barbara; Batinic, Bernad

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of parent-adolescent communication quality, as perceived by the adolescents, on the link between adolescents' Internet use and loneliness, controlling for perceived family support in general terms. Adolescents (N = 216, M[subscript age] = 15.80 years) provided data on Internet use, loneliness, Internet-related…

  8. Nestlings' carotenoid feather ornament affects parental allocation strategy and reduces maternal survival.

    PubMed

    Griggio, M; Morosinotto, C; Pilastro, A

    2009-10-01

    In some birds, feather ornaments are expressed in nestlings well before sexual maturation, possibly in response to parental favouritism towards high-quality offspring. In species with synchronous hatching, in which nestling ornaments may vary more among than within broods, parents may use this information to adjust their parental allocation to the current brood accordingly. We tested this hypothesis in the rock sparrow, in which a sexually selected yellow feather ornament is also expressed in nestlings. We experimentally enlarged nestlings' breast patch in a group of broods and sham-manipulated another group of control broods. Nestlings with enlarged ornament were fed more frequently and defended more actively from a dummy predator than their control counterparts. Mothers from the enlarged group were more likely to lay a second clutch and showed a reduced survival to the next breeding season. These results provide one of the first evidences of differential parental allocation among different broods based directly on nestlings' ornamentation, and the first, to our knowledge, to show a reduction in maternal survival. PMID:19694895

  9. Parents' Perceptions of Curricular Issues Affecting Children's Weight in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murnan, Judy; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.; Boardley, Debra

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Ohio parents' perceptions of the role of elementary schools in preventing childhood overweight. In the United States, overweight is the most widespread health threat facing children and adolescents. Schools may be a useful point of intervention in addressing the escalating prevalence of childhood overweight…

  10. Factors affecting stress experienced by surrogate decision-makers for critically ill patients: implications for nursing practice

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Ellen; Celious, Aaron; Kennedy, Carie R.; Shehane, Erica; Eastman, Alexander; Warren, Victoria; Freeman, Bradley D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study explores surrogate decision-makers’ (SDMs) challenges making decisions related to the care of patients in critical care, to 1) characterize the SDM stress 2) identify personal, social, care-related factors influencing stress and 3) consider implications of findings to improving critical care practice. Methodology Semi-structured interviews were conducted with SDMs of critically ill patients receiving care in two tertiary care institutions. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Domains explored were: stress characteristics, stress mitigators, coping strategies, social networks, SDM decision-making role, decision-making concordance, knowledge of patient's preferences, experience with provider team, SDM-provider communication, patient outcome certainty. Main Outcomes We interviewed 34 SDMs. Most were female and described long-term relationships with patients. SDMs described the strain of uncertain outcomes and decision-making without clear, consistent information from providers. Decision-making anxiety was buffered by SDMs’ active engagement of social networks, faith and access to clear communication from providers. Conclusion Stress is a very real factor influencing SDMs confidence and comfort making decisions. These findings suggest that stress can be minimized by improving communication between SDMs and medical providers. Nurses central role in ICU make them uniquely poised to spearhead interventions to improve provider-SDM communication and reduce SDM decision-making anxiety. PMID:24211047

  11. Parent-of-origin genetic background affects the transcriptional levels of circadian and neuronal plasticity genes following sleep loss

    PubMed Central

    Tinarelli, Federico; Garcia-Garcia, Celina; Nicassio, Francesco; Tucci, Valter

    2014-01-01

    Sleep homoeostasis refers to a process in which the propensity to sleep increases as wakefulness progresses and decreases as sleep progresses. Sleep is tightly organized around the circadian clock and is regulated by genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The homoeostatic response of sleep, which is classically triggered by sleep deprivation, is generally measured as a rebound effect of electrophysiological measures, for example delta sleep. However, more recently, gene expression changes following sleep loss have been investigated as biomarkers of sleep homoeostasis. The genetic background of an individual may affect this sleep-dependent gene expression phenotype. In this study, we investigated whether parental genetic background differentially modulates the expression of genes following sleep loss. We tested the progeny of reciprocal crosses of AKR/J and DBA/2J mouse strains and we show a parent-of-origin effect on the expression of circadian, sleep and neuronal plasticity genes following sleep deprivation. Thus, we further explored, by in silico, specific functions or upstream mechanisms of regulation and we observed that several upstream mechanisms involving signalling pathways (i.e. DICER1, PKA), growth factors (CSF3 and BDNF) and transcriptional regulators (EGR2 and ELK4) may be differentially modulated by parental effects. This is the first report showing that a behavioural manipulation (e.g. sleep deprivation) in adult animals triggers specific gene expression responses according to parent-of-origin genomic mechanisms. Our study suggests that the same mechanism may be extended to other behavioural domains and that the investigation of gene expression following experimental manipulations should take seriously into account parent-of-origin effects. PMID:24446504

  12. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  13. How mothers' parenting styles affect their children's sexual efficacy and experience.

    PubMed

    Taris, T W; Semin, G R

    1998-03-01

    The relations among mothers' parenting styles and adolescents' sexual self-efficacy and sexual experience were examined in a sample of 253 British adolescent-mother pairs. Also explored was whether adolescents' self-efficacy would be positively or negatively related to their sexual experience. Mothers' parenting styles were expected to influence children's locus of control, based on the theory that mothers who are involved with their children and mothers who stress independence contribute to the development of an internal locus of control in their children, increasing the children's feelings of sexual self-efficacy. Structural equation modeling was used to test a longitudinal model. The results support the assumption that maternal involvement leads to higher levels of self-efficacy, whereas maternal control was associated with lower levels of self-efficacy. Sexual self-efficacy was associated with higher levels of sexual experience. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed.

  14. Is the fact of parenting couples cohabitation affecting the serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants?

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Rabczenko, Daniel; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo A G; Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Bonde, Jens Peter; Pedersen, Henning S; Zvyezday, Valentyna; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2015-06-01

    Organohalogen compounds constitute one of the important groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Among them, due to their long-term health effects, one should pay attention on organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs). This paper is an attempt to answer the question about relation between the fact of cohabitation by couples expecting a child and the level of the organohalogen compounds in the blood serum of both parents. The study was done on a population of parent couples from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine, from whom blood samples were collected in order to establish the levels of marker organohalogen compounds. We selected, as the representative of these compounds, the most persistent metabolite of DDT, i.e. p,p'-DDE, the most frequently detected PCB congener - CB-153, and PFOS and PFOA as the representatives of PFASs. The results show that in case of all compounds under study the highest concentrations were present always in men in relation to the levels detected in the blood serum of their female partners, regardless of the country of origin of the couple. A positive correlation was noted between the concentrations of the studied compounds in the blood serum of men and women in parenting couples. In some cases these correlations were statistically significant, e.g. for concentrations of p,p'-DDE in pairs from Greenland and Ukraine, of CB-153 in pairs from Poland and Ukraine, and of PFOS for parents from Greenland and Poland, while for PFOA - only for couples from Greenland. The concentrations of the compounds included in the study were similar to the levels found in general population in other countries. Our results show that the exposure to POPs resulting from cohabitation plays a role in the general exposure to these compounds.

  15. Do beliefs of inner-city parents about disease and vaccine risks affect immunization?

    PubMed Central

    Trauth, Jeanette M.; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Musa, Donald; Mainzer, Hugh; Nutini, Jean F.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to understand how low income, inner-city parents of preschool children think about childhood diseases and prevention and the impact that this has on late receipt of vaccines. METHODS: Parents of all children born between January 1, 1991, and May 31, 1995, whose child received medical assistance and health care at one of four inner-city, primary care clinics in Pittsburgh, PA, completed a telephone interview and gave consent for a vaccine record review. The main outcome measures were lateness for first and third diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccines (DTP) and not receiving at least four DTP, three polio virus containing and one measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) doses by 19 months. RESULTS: A total of 483 parents participated. Fifteen percent of children were late for the first DTP, 52% for the third DTP, and 40% had not received at least four DTP, three polio and one MMR by 19 months of age. Statistically significant factors associated with lateness at 19 months included: having three or more children, having two children, beliefs regarding the severity of immunization side effects, and being African American. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that a combination of life circumstances, as well as cognitive factors were associated with late immunization. PMID:12392046

  16. Do Beliefs of Inner-City Parents About Disease and Vaccine Risks Affect Immunization?

    PubMed Central

    Trauth, Jeanette M.; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Musa, Donald; Mainzer, Hugh; Nutini, Jean F.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to understand how low income, inner-city parents of preschool children think about childhood diseases and prevention and the impact that this has on late receipt of vaccines. Methods. Parents of all children born between 1/1/91 and 5/31/95, whose child received medical assistance and their health care at one of four inner-city, primary care clinics in Pittsburgh, PA., completed a telephone interview and gave consent for a vaccine record review. The main outcome measures were lateness for first and third diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis vaccines (DTP) and not receiving at least 4 DTP, 3 polio virus containing and 1 measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) doses by 19 months. Results. 483 parents participated. Fifteen percent of children were late for the first DTP, 52% for the third DTP and, 40% had not received at least 4 DTP, 3 polio and 1 MMR by 19 months of age. Statistically significant factors associated with lateness at 19 months included: having three or more children, having two children, beliefs regarding the severity of immunization side effects and, being African American. Conclusions. The results of this study indicate that a combination of life circumstances as well as cognitive factors were associated with late immunization.

  17. Child-focused treatment of pediatric OCD affects parental behavior and family environment.

    PubMed

    Gorenstein, Gabriela; Gorenstein, Clarice; de Oliveira, Melaine Cristina; Asbahr, Fernando Ramos; Shavitt, Roseli Gedanke

    2015-09-30

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of child-focused pediatric OCD treatment on parental anxiety, family accommodation and family environment. Forty-three parents (72.1% female, mean age±SD=43.1±5.6 years) were evaluated at baseline and after their children's (n=33, 54.5% female, mean age±SD=12.9±2.7 years) randomized treatment with Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or fluoxetine for 14 weeks. Validated instruments were administered by trained clinicians. Parents were assessed with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Family Accommodation Scale (FAS) and the Family Environment Scale (FES). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was administered to children. Significant findings after the children's treatment include decreased family accommodation levels (participation, modification and distress/consequences domains); increased cohesion and active-recreational components of the family environment. In addition, changes in the FAS distress/consequences and the FES cohesion subscores were correlated with the children's clinical improvement. These results suggest that child-focused OCD treatment may have a positive impact on family accommodation and family environment. Future studies should further clarify the reciprocal influences of pediatric OCD treatment and family factors.

  18. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children's story recall

    PubMed Central

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Beyer, Alisa M.; Curtis, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers' memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot and Semb, 2008). In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children's story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to “read or tell the story” as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after 1 week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore, in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers' story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children's processing of the illustrations. PMID:25101018

  19. More than pretty pictures? How illustrations affect parent-child story reading and children's story recall.

    PubMed

    Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Beyer, Alisa M; Curtis, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Previous research showed that story illustrations fail to enhance young preschoolers' memories when they accompany a pre-recorded story (e.g., Greenhoot and Semb, 2008). In this study we tested whether young children might benefit from illustrations in a more interactive story-reading context. For instance, illustrations might influence parent-child reading interactions, and thus children's story comprehension and recall. Twenty-six 3.5- to 4.5-year-olds and their primary caregivers were randomly assigned to an Illustrated or Non-Illustrated story-reading condition, and parents were instructed to "read or tell the story" as they normally would read with their child. Children recalled the story after a distracter and again after 1 week. Analyses of the story-reading interactions showed that the illustrations prompted more interactive story reading and more parent and child behaviors known to predict improved literacy outcomes. Furthermore, in the first memory interview, children in the Illustrated condition recalled more story events than those in the Non-Illustrated condition. Story reading measures predicted recall, but did not completely account for picture effects. These results suggest that illustrations enhance young preschoolers' story recall in an interactive story reading context, perhaps because the joint attention established in this context supports children's processing of the illustrations.

  20. Learning from the ground up: responding to children affected by parental incarceration.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Susan D; O'Brien, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in the fall of 2007, Illinois' Division of Mental Health began piloting an early intervention program targeting children of incarcerated parents. The pilot program was situated within a community-based agency on the Westside of Chicago with a high number of currently and formerly incarcerated community members. This article describes the program theory upon which the pilot program was based, the perceived benefits from the perspective of participants and the service provider agency, lessons learned, and recommendations for making incarceration-sensitive interventions a routine part of children's mental health services.

  1. Children's view of a major depression affecting a parent in the family.

    PubMed

    Hedman Ahlström, Britt; Skärsäter, Ingela; Danielson, Ella

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate, from the children's perspective, the meaning for family life of a parent suffering a major depression disorder. Eight children and young adults were interviewed. Phenomenological-hermeneutic analysis generated two themes: (1) "Being a rescuing observer" with the subthemes, "Being attentive" and "Being considerate," and (2) "Being a frustrated observer" with the subthemes, "feeling discomfort" and "being out of it." Children's lives alternate between responsibility and loneliness as they wait for reciprocity in family life to return to normal. Children need support in order to manage their sense of responsibility and loneliness adequately. PMID:21859406

  2. Learning from the ground up: responding to children affected by parental incarceration.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Susan D; O'Brien, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in the fall of 2007, Illinois' Division of Mental Health began piloting an early intervention program targeting children of incarcerated parents. The pilot program was situated within a community-based agency on the Westside of Chicago with a high number of currently and formerly incarcerated community members. This article describes the program theory upon which the pilot program was based, the perceived benefits from the perspective of participants and the service provider agency, lessons learned, and recommendations for making incarceration-sensitive interventions a routine part of children's mental health services. PMID:22239377

  3. Falret's discovery: the origin of the concept of bipolar affective illness. Translated by M. J. Sedler and Eric C. Dessain.

    PubMed

    Sedler, M J

    1983-09-01

    Jean Pierre Falret's once celebrated but now neglected 1854 description of "circular insanity" has not been translated into English until now. This seminal essay clearly articulated for the first time the rudimentary elements of our present diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder. It contains lucid descriptions of manic excitement and depression and the "switch" from one to the other; moreover, it emphasizes the importance of course and prognosis, as well as hereditary and epidemiologic factors. Although American psychiatry instinctively looks to the German literature for its foundations in Kraepelin, Bleuler, and Freud, the translation of Falret's essay represents an effort to trace contemporary psychiatric concepts to their origins in nineteenth-century France.

  4. A Developmental Analysis of the Factorial Validity of the Parent-Report Version of the Adult Responses to Children’s Symptoms in Children Versus Adolescents With Chronic Pain or Pain-Related Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Melanie; Palermo, Tonya M.; Essner, Bonnie; Zhou, Chuan; Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Sherman, Amanda L.; Walker, Lynn S.

    2015-01-01

    The widely used Adult Responses to Children’s Symptoms measures parental responses to child symptom complaints among youth aged 7 to 18 years with recurrent/chronic pain. Given developmental differences between children and adolescents and the impact of developmental stage on parenting, the factorial validity of the parent-report version of the Adult Responses to Children’s Symptoms with a pain-specific stem was examined separately in 743 parents of 281 children (7–11 years) and 462 adolescents (12–18 years) with chronic pain or pain-related chronic illness. Factor structures of the Adult Responses to Children’s Symptoms beyond the original 3-factor model were also examined. Exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation was conducted on a randomly chosen half of the sample of children and adolescents as well as the 2 groups combined to assess underlying factor structure. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the other randomly chosen half of the sample to cross-validate factor structure revealed by exploratory factor analyses and compare it to other model variants. Poor loading and high cross loading items were removed. A 4-factor model (Protect, Minimize, Monitor, and Distract) for children and the combined (child and adolescent) sample and a 5-factor model (Protect, Minimize, Monitor, Distract, and Solicitousness) for adolescents was superior to the 3-factor model proposed in previous literature. Future research should examine the validity of derived subscales and developmental differences in their relationships with parent and child functioning. PMID:25451623

  5. Quality time: how parents' schooling affects child health through its interaction with childcare time in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bishai, D

    1996-01-01

    A child health production function is presented with the key feature being an interaction term between a caregiver's schooling and their exposure time to the child. The production function is estimated using a 2SLS fixed effects model with lagged childcare time, resource allocation and child health as instruments for the first differences of these same endogenous variables. The 1978 Intrafamily Food Distribution and Feeding Practices Survey dataset from Bangladesh is used together with census data. The production function estimates indicate that part of the salutary effects of parental education on child health require that the child actually be exposed to the educated parent. Given the demographic makeup of the study sample and the assumption that age education and gender completely account for productivity, teenage brothers and fathers would have the highest marginal productivity for child health and mothers and grandmothers the least. If economic opportunity draws mothers away from childcare, the presence of other household members with higher schooling levels offers the potential for an improvement in the overall quality of childcare time. In the present study the households failed to set the marginal labour product of child health for each of the caregivers equal. Thus, the quality of childcare may not be the household's sole concern in determining time allocation. PMID:8922968

  6. Quality time: how parents' schooling affects child health through its interaction with childcare time in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bishai, D

    1996-01-01

    A child health production function is presented with the key feature being an interaction term between a caregiver's schooling and their exposure time to the child. The production function is estimated using a 2SLS fixed effects model with lagged childcare time, resource allocation and child health as instruments for the first differences of these same endogenous variables. The 1978 Intrafamily Food Distribution and Feeding Practices Survey dataset from Bangladesh is used together with census data. The production function estimates indicate that part of the salutary effects of parental education on child health require that the child actually be exposed to the educated parent. Given the demographic makeup of the study sample and the assumption that age education and gender completely account for productivity, teenage brothers and fathers would have the highest marginal productivity for child health and mothers and grandmothers the least. If economic opportunity draws mothers away from childcare, the presence of other household members with higher schooling levels offers the potential for an improvement in the overall quality of childcare time. In the present study the households failed to set the marginal labour product of child health for each of the caregivers equal. Thus, the quality of childcare may not be the household's sole concern in determining time allocation.

  7. Health and Illness in a Connected World: How Might Sharing Experiences on the Internet Affect People's Health?

    PubMed Central

    Ziebland, Sue; Wyke, Sally

    2012-01-01

    Context The use of the Internet for peer-to-peer connection has been one of its most dramatic and transformational features. Yet this is a new field with no agreement on a theoretical and methodological basis. The scientific base underpinning this activity needs strengthening, especially given the explosion of web resources that feature experiences posted by patients themselves. This review informs a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) (UK) research program on the impact of online patients’ accounts of their experiences with health and health care, which includes the development and validation of a new e-health impact questionnaire. Methods We drew on realist review methods to conduct a conceptual review of literature in the social and health sciences. We developed a matrix to summarize the results, which we then distilled from a wide and diverse reading of the literature. We continued reading until we reached data saturation and then further refined the results after testing them with expert colleagues and a public user panel. Findings We identified seven domains through which online patients’ experiences could affect health. Each has the potential for positive and negative impacts. Five of the identified domains (finding information, feeling supported, maintaining relationships with others, affecting behavior, and experiencing health services) are relatively well rehearsed, while two (learning to tell the story and visualizing disease) are less acknowledged but important features of online resources. Conclusions The value of first-person accounts, the appeal and memorability of stories, and the need to make contact with peers all strongly suggest that reading and hearing others’ accounts of their own experiences of health and illnesss will remain a key feature of e-health. The act of participating in the creation of health information (e.g., through blogging and contributing to social networking on health topics) also influences patients

  8. Coping, social relations, and communication: a qualitative exploratory study of children of parents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Thastum, Mikael; Johansen, Mikael Birkelund; Gubba, Lotte; Olesen, Louise Berg; Romer, Georg

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study of families where a parent has cancer was to explore ways of informing the child of the parent's illness, how the child perceives the parent's emotional state, how the child copes with the parent's illness, and how this coping relates to the parent's coping and concerns for the child. Twenty-one children from 15 families and their parents were interviewed. In 13 families the mother was ill, in two the father. Children were aware of the facts of the illness, but there was limited emotional communication between the generations. The children were very observant of both the ill and the healthy parent's emotional condition. The children's observations and expressions led us to identify five coping strategies the younger generation used: Helping others, parentification, distraction, keeping it in the head, and wishful thinking. Both adaptive and destructive examples of parentification were found. Communication patterns and parental coping seemed to be highly related to the child's coping repertoire. Even though most children seemed to manage rather well, all children were strongly affected by the illness. The 'healthiest' adaptation related to factors within the family system, which has implications for the provision of help.

  9. How does parents' visual perception of their child's weight status affect their feeding style?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Resul; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Ozcetin, Mustafa; Karaaslan, Erhan

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El estilo de alimentación es uno de los factores prominentes que determina la ingesta de energía. Uno de los factores que influyen en el estilo de alimentación paterna es la percepción de los padres del estado de peso del niño. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la relación entre la percepción visual de la madre del estado de peso de su hijo y su estilo de alimentación. Método: Se realizó un estudio transversal con madres de 380 niños preescolares de 5 a 7 (6,14 años). Las puntuaciones de la percepción visual se midieron mediante unos dibujos y el estilo de alimentación materna se medió con el cuestionario validado “Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire”. Resultados: Las puntuaciones de las subescalas de las dimensiones de alimentación parental “alimentación emocional” y “animar a comer” eran bajas en niños con sobrepeso de acuerdo con la clasificación de la percepción visual. Las puntuaciones de las subescalas “alimentación emocional” y “control permisivo” eran estadísticamente distintas en los niños clasificados como correctamente percibidos e incorrectamente percibidos bajos por una mala percepción materna. Conclusión: Diversos estilos de alimentación se relacionaban con la percepción visual materna. El mejor abordaje para evitar la obesidad y el peso bajo podría estar en centrarse en conseguir una correcta percepción parental del estado de peso de sus hijos, mejorando así las habilidades paternas y conllevando la implantación de unos estilos de alimentación adecuados.

  10. Filicide: Mental Illness in Those Who Kill Their Children

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Sandra M.; Shaw, Jenny J.; Abel, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most child victims of homicide are killed by a parent or step-parent. This large population study provides a contemporary and detailed description of filicide perpetrators. We examined the relationship between filicide and mental illness at the time of the offence, and care received from mental health services in the past. Method All filicide and filicide-suicide cases in England and Wales (1997–2006) were drawn from a national index of homicide perpetrators. Data on people in contact with mental health services were obtained via a questionnaire from mental health teams. Additional clinical information was collected from psychiatric reports. Results 6144 people were convicted of homicide, 297 were filicides, and 45 cases were filicide-suicides. 195 (66%) perpetrators were fathers. Mothers were more likely than fathers to have a history of mental disorder (66% v 27%) and symptoms at the time of the offence (53% v 23%), most often affective disorder. 17% of mothers had schizophrenia or other delusional disorders. Overall 8% had schizophrenia. 37% were mentally ill at the time of the offence. 20% had previously been in contact with mental health services, 12% within a year of the offence. Conclusion In the majority of cases, mental illness was not a feature of filicide. However, young mothers and parents with severe mental illness, especially affective and personality disorder who are providing care for children, require careful monitoring by mental health and other support services. Identifying risk factors for filicide requires further research. PMID:23593128

  11. Familiarity with and affective responses to foods in 8-11-year-old children. The role of food neophobia and parental education.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Sari; Oerlemans, Patty; Tuorila, Hely

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated whether the familiarity with and affective responses to foods are predicted by the individual trait food neophobia and by parental education in school children. The cross-sectional data collection involved children (N=208, 8- and 11-year-old) from Helsinki, and their parents. A questionnaire assessing children's food neophobia with Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), and familiarity with and affective responses to 36 foods was completed by parents. Children with low FNS were familiar with a larger number of foods than those with high FNS. High FNS was associated with low pleasantness assessment of most food groups, including cheese, fruit/vegetables, fish, starch/cereals, and ethnic/exotic. Children of well educated parents had tasted a larger number of foods, thus displaying lower behavioral neophobia, and had lower FNS scores than children of less educated parents. Both low FNS scores and high parental education predicted the number of tasted foods. Parental education was not associated with pleasantness ratings (exception: cheese). To conclude, high food neophobia lowers the pleasantness ratings of foods, and parental education moderates behavioral neophobia. PMID:22326884

  12. Does Neighborhood and Family Poverty Affect Mothers' Parenting, Mental Health, and Social Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klebanov, Pamela Kato; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Estimated effects of neighborhood and family poverty on maternal psychological and behavioral characteristics using data from 895 mothers. Neighborhood poverty was associated with poorer home physical environment and with less maternal warmth, controlling for family conditions. Home environment was adversely affected by family poverty, large…

  13. Comorbid LD and ADHD in Childhood: Socioemotional and Behavioural Adjustment and Parents' Positive and Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Yagon, Michal

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined how vulnerability and protective factors at the individual level (child's disabilities; patterns of attachment), and at the family level (fathers'/mothers' affect), help explain differences in socioemotional and behavioural adjustment among children aged 8-12 years with comorbid learning disability (LD) and attention…

  14. "Teachers Should Be like Second Parents": Affectivity, Schooling and Poverty in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasco, Maribel

    2004-01-01

    The paper highlights the importance of affectivity in school retention in public secondary schools in Guadalajara, Mexico, in a socioeconomic context where the students themselves often decide whether to stay in school or to drop out. In such contexts, students' feelings towards the school and the teachers can become crucial in deciding whether to…

  15. Risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents of parents with a chronic medical condition.

    PubMed

    Sieh, Dominik Sebastian; Visser-Meily, Johanna Maria Augusta; Oort, Frans Jeroen; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2012-08-01

    A wide array of risk factors for problem behavior in adolescents with chronically ill parents emerges from the literature. This study aims to identify those factors with the highest impact on internalizing problem behavior (anxious, depressed and withdrawn behavior, and somatic complaints) and externalizing problem behavior (aggressive and rule-breaking behavior) as measured by the Youth Self-Report (YSR). The YSR was filled in by 160 adolescents (mean age = 15.1 years) from 100 families (102 chronically ill parents and 83 healthy spouses). Linear mixed model analyses were used, enabling separation of variance attributable to individual factors and variance attributable to family membership (i.e., family cluster effect). Predictors were child, parent, illness-related and family characteristics. The results showed that almost half of the variance in internalizing problem scores was explained by family membership, while externalizing problems were mainly explained by individual factors. Roughly 60 % of the variance in internalizing problems was predicted by illness duration, adolescents' feeling of isolation, daily hassles affecting personal life and alienation from the mother. Approximately a third of the variance in externalizing problems was predicted by adolescents' male gender, daily hassles concerning ill parents and alienation from both parents. In conclusion, the variance in adolescent problem behavior is largely accounted for by family membership, children's daily hassles and parent-child attachment. To prevent marginalization of adolescents with a chronically ill parent, it is important to be alert for signs of problem behavior and foster the peer and family support system.

  16. [Self concept and parental images in patients with affective disorders--a clinical study with the Giessen Test].

    PubMed

    Böker, H; Budischewski, K; Walesch, K; Nikisch, G

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between self, ideal self and normative self was studied in a sample of 139 patients with affective disorders and 73 patients with orthopaedic complaints. The depressive patients showed significant-asymmetric relationships between self and ideal self even after recovery from the clinical depression. Neurotic depressive patients could be distinguished from unipolar depressive patients in this regard. The self-concept of the depressive patients was characterised by means of the bipolar Giessen-test dimensions "insufficiency of performance", "lack of social adjustment" and "lack of social contact" and by means of the GT-dimensions "negative social resonance" and "depressive mood". There were no specific relationships between self-image and parental images in the depressive sample. The results underline the necessity of therapeutic interventions in depressive patients during the so-called symptom-free interval.

  17. Season of birth in siblings of patients with seasonal affective disorder. A test of the parental conception habits hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Pjrek, Edda; Winkler, Dietmar; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Willeit, Matthäus; Stastny, Jürgen; Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Kasper, Siegfried

    2007-10-01

    Recently we have published a report on seasonally varying birth rates in 553 patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD). The present study is aimed to test the hypothesis of an idiosyncratic seasonal conception pattern of the parents of these patients to explain this phenomenon. We conducted a telephone interview with the patients to obtain information on the birth data of their siblings. Using the method of chart review to acquire information on the family history of our patients, we excluded those siblings with psychiatric disorders. We first compared the birth months and the quarters of birth of 435 healthy siblings with the general population. Secondly, we compared the birth distribution of the index SAD patients with that of their siblings. There was a significant deviation between the birth distribution of the siblings and the general population calculated on a monthly basis (p = 0.044). When comparing quarters we found less births than expected in the first (-14.1%) and fourth quarter of the year (-15.1%) and an excess of births in the second (+7.7%) and third quarter (+21.1%; p = 0.018). There were no significant differences between the group of SAD patients and their siblings regarding their birth patterns as calculated by months (p = 0.848) or quarters (p = 0.320). Our study provides support for the hypothesis of specific parental conception habits underlying the birth seasonality in SAD. Further research could be conducted in non-seasonal depression as there is still a lack of studies on seasonality of birth in affective disorders.

  18. Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Child Health and Illness Profile (CHIP) Child-Edition, Parent Report Form (CHIP-CE/PRF)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The objectives of the study were to assess the reliability, and the content, construct, and convergent validity of the Spanish version of the CHIP-CE/PRF, to analyze parent-child agreement, and compare the results with those of the original U.S. version. Methods Parents from a representative sample of children aged 6-12 years were selected from 9 primary schools in Barcelona. Test-retest reliability was assessed in a convenience subsample of parents from 2 schools. Parents completed the Spanish version of the CHIP-CE/PRF. The Achenbach Child Behavioural Checklist (CBCL) was administered to a convenience subsample. Results The overall response rate was 67% (n = 871). There was no floor effect. A ceiling effect was found in 4 subdomains. Reliability was acceptable at the domain level (internal consistency = 0.68-0.86; test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.69-0.85). Younger girls had better scores on Satisfaction and Achievement than older girls. Comfort domain score was lower (worse) in children with a probable mental health problem, with high effect size (ES = 1.45). The level of parent-child agreement was low (0.22-0.37). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the parent version of the Spanish CHIP-CE has acceptable psychometric properties although further research is needed to check reliability at sub-domain level. The CHIP-CE parent report form provides a comprehensive, psychometrically sound measure of health for Spanish children 6 to 12 years old. It can be a complementary perspective to the self-reported measure or an alternative when the child is unable to complete the questionnaire. In general, the results are similar to the original U.S. version. PMID:20678198

  19. The Role of Social Support in Negative and Positive Affect of Parents of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arm, Jennifer R.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research on parents of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) people is significantly dated and has tended to focus on the experiences of parents as they learn they have a GLB child. This study sought to update and extend the research literature on parents of GLB people, by exploring associations between stress, social support, GLB related social…

  20. Mothers' Attributions Regarding the Behavior of Chronically Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Lynn S.

    Parents of chronically ill children are faced with the difficult task of being vigilant and yet not overprotective of their children. The literature suggests that parents hold a positive bias toward their ill children. Attribution theory gives a framework in which to study parents' ideas about their children's behavior. A study was conducted to…

  1. Do parent-child acculturation gaps affect early adolescent Latino alcohol use? A study of the probability and extent of use.

    PubMed

    Cox, Ronald B; Roblyer, Martha Zapata; Merten, Michael J; Shreffler, Karina M; Schwerdtfeger, Kami L

    2013-01-24

    The literature has been mixed regarding how parent-child relationships are affected by the acculturation process and how this process relates to alcohol use among Latino youth. The mixed results may be due to, at least, two factors: First, staggered migration in which one or both parents arrive to the new country and then send for the children may lead to faster acculturation in parents than in children for some families. Second, acculturation may have different effects depending on which aspects of alcohol use are being examined. This study addresses the first factor by testing for a curvilinear trend in the acculturation-alcohol use relationship and the second by modeling past year alcohol use as a zero inflated negative binomial distribution. Additionally, this study examined the unique and mediation effects of parent-child acculturation discrepancies (gap), mother involvement in children's schooling, father involvement in children's schooling, and effective parenting on youth alcohol use during the last 12 months, measured as the probability of using and the extent of use. Direct paths from parent-child acculturation discrepancy to alcohol use, and mediated paths through mother involvement, father involvement, and effective parenting were also tested. Only father involvement fully mediated the path from parent-child acculturation discrepancies to the probability of alcohol use. None of the variables examined mediated the path from parent-child acculturation discrepancies to the extent of alcohol use. Effective parenting was unrelated to acculturation discrepancies; however, it maintained a significant direct effect on the probability of youth alcohol use and the extent of use after controlling for mother and father involvement. Implications for prevention strategies are discussed.

  2. Positive parenting for positive parents: HIV/AIDS, poverty, caregiver depression, child behavior, and parenting in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Jamie M; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Kuo, Caroline; Casale, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Families affected by HIV/AIDS in the developing world experience higher risks of psychosocial problems than nonaffected families. Positive parenting behavior may buffer against the negative impact of child AIDS-orphanhood and caregiver AIDS-sickness on child well-being. Although there is substantial literature regarding the predictors of parenting behavior in Western populations, there is insufficient evidence on HIV/AIDS as a risk factor for poor parenting in low- and middle-income countries. This paper examines the relationship between HIV/AIDS and positive parenting by comparing HIV/AIDS-affected and nonaffected caregiver-child dyads (n=2477) from a cross-sectional survey in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (27.7% AIDS-ill caregivers; 7.4% child AIDS-orphanhood). Multiple mediation analyses tested an ecological model with poverty, caregiver depression, perceived social support, and child behavior problems as potential mediators of the association of HIV/AIDS with positive parenting. Results indicate that familial HIV/AIDS's association to reduced positive parenting was consistent with mediation by poverty, caregiver depression, and child behavior problems. Parenting interventions that situate positive parenting within a wider ecological framework by improving child behavior problems and caregiver depression may buffer against risks for poor child mental and physical health outcomes in families affected by HIV/AIDS and poverty. PMID:23930647

  3. Authoritarian parenting and youth depression: Results from a national study.

    PubMed

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent illness affecting youth across the nation. The study purpose was to examine depression and authoritarian parenting among youth from 12 to 17 years of age. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed in the present study. All participants in the present study were youth (N = 17,399) nationwide. The results revealed that 80.6% of youth participants reported having five or more depressive symptoms. Parenting styles based on depression significantly differed among males, females, 12-13-year-olds, 14-15-year-olds, and 16-17-year-olds. Specifically, those who reported experiencing authoritarian parenting practices were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts who experienced authoritative parenting practices. Emphasizing the role of the parents and teaching positive parenting practices and authoritative parenting styles may increase success of prevention programs.

  4. Authoritarian parenting and youth depression: Results from a national study.

    PubMed

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent illness affecting youth across the nation. The study purpose was to examine depression and authoritarian parenting among youth from 12 to 17 years of age. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed in the present study. All participants in the present study were youth (N = 17,399) nationwide. The results revealed that 80.6% of youth participants reported having five or more depressive symptoms. Parenting styles based on depression significantly differed among males, females, 12-13-year-olds, 14-15-year-olds, and 16-17-year-olds. Specifically, those who reported experiencing authoritarian parenting practices were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts who experienced authoritative parenting practices. Emphasizing the role of the parents and teaching positive parenting practices and authoritative parenting styles may increase success of prevention programs. PMID:26939843

  5. Jovenes con Discapacidades y Enfermedades Cronicas: Una Guia Introductoria para Joyenes y Padres. Revisiones de CYDLINE (Youth with Disabilities and Chronic Illnesses: An Introductory Guide for Youth and Parents. CYDLINE Reviews). Parents. CYDLINE Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. National Center for Youth with Disabilities.

    This bibliography covers a wide range of issues related to the needs of adolescents and young adults with chronic illnesses and disabilities and their families. For each item in the bibliography, information provided includes author, title, source, date, and abstract. Price information is given when available. Materials include books, audiotapes,…

  6. Foodborne Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some parasites and chemicals also cause foodborne illnesses. Bacteria Bacteria are tiny organisms that can cause infections of the GI tract. Not all bacteria are harmful to humans. Some harmful bacteria may ...

  7. Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... get sick from contaminated food. Common culprits include bacteria, parasites and viruses. Symptoms range from mild to ... cramps Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea Fever Dehydration Harmful bacteria are the most common cause of foodborne illness. ...

  8. Children of mentally ill parents—a pilot study of a group intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. Method: This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Results: Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. Discussion: This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26539129

  9. Moving to place: childhood cancer treatment decision making in single-parent and repartnered family structures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Ganong, Lawrence

    2011-03-01

    Few researchers have studied how parents from diverse family structures cope with childhood chronic illness. We designed this study to discern the childhood cancer treatment decision-making (TDM) process in these families. Using grounded theory, we interviewed 15 custodial parents, nonresidential parents, and stepparents who had previously made a major treatment decision for their children with cancer. "Moving to place" was the central psychosocial process by which parents negotiated involvement in TDM. Parents moved toward or were moved away from involvement based on parent position in the family (custodial, nonresidential, and stepparent), prediagnosis family dynamics, and time since diagnosis. Parents used the actions of stepping up, stepping back, being pushed, and stepping away to respond to the need for TDM. Parents faced additional stressors because of their family situations, which affected the TDM process. Findings from this study provide important insight into diverse families and their unique parental TDM experiences.

  10. [Presence of parents in pediatric imaging].

    PubMed

    Schmit, P; Kalifa, G; Devred, P

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitude of French pediatric radiologists regarding the presence or absence of parents during pediatric imaging of their child. A mail survey was sent to the French members of the "Société Francophone de Radiologie Pédiatrique". We asked about the inclusion of parents during pediatric imaging procedures. They gave the reasons for their choice and stated if parental presence was helpful or not for the achievement of imaging procedures. Responses were received from 76% of those surveyed. Excluding vascular and interventional procedures, few respondents (13%) permit parents to be present for all types of examinations. One respondent excluded parents from every procedure. Others excluded parents from selected studies: plain films (18%), upper gastrointestinal series (33%), contrast enema (44%), retrograde (47%) and suprapubic (67%) voiding cystourethrography, intra-venous pyelography (45%), US (5%), CT (27%), MRI (25%). Regarding angiography, only 2% of the respondents allow parental presence. Every respondent performing interventional procedures did not accept parents in the interventional suite. When parents were present, they were close to their child (76%) and could help in his immobilization (47%). Most of the respondents (49%) thought parental presence to affect examination in a favorable way. The opposite opinion was supported by 25% of them. An equivocal response was given in 26% of the answers. Numerous reasons supported these responses, they could be classified according to the child and his illness, the parents, the radiologist and his team, the examination performed. Most pediatric radiologists in France allow parents to accompany their children during selected examinations. Radiologists vary in their perception of how parental presence affects the outcome of the pediatric imaging procedures.

  11. "My Greatest Joy and My Greatest Heart Ache:" Parents' Own Words on How Having a Child in the Autism Spectrum Has Affected Their Lives and Their Families' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Barbara J.; Mackintosh, Virginia H.; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    Parents of children in the autism spectrum wrote an open-ended answer via an online questionnaire to the question, "How has your child in the autism spectrum affected your life and your family's life?" (N = 493). Using a qualitative content analysis, 15 negative themes and 9 positive themes were identified. Themes are subsumed into five clusters:…

  12. Sample Length Affects the Reliability of Language Sample Measures in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence from Parent-Elicited Conversational Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Ling-Yu; Eisenberg, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which sample length affected the reliability of total number of words (TNW), number of different words (NDW), and mean length of C-units in morphemes (MLCUm) in parent-elicited conversational samples for 3-year-olds. Method: Participants were sixty 3-year-olds. A 22-min language…

  13. Parental issues in selection of antimicrobial agents for infants and children.

    PubMed

    Bauchner, H; Klein, J O

    1997-04-01

    The traditional American family has changed during the past several decades with increases in the number of single-parent households and working mothers. These changes have led to increased stress in the family when children become ill. Infectious diseases are the most common reasons parents seek care for ill children, and parents want effective and convenient treatment regimens so the child can recover quickly and return to day care or school. Issues that affect parental compliance and satisfaction with antimicrobial treatment regimens include efficacy, safety, cost, convenience, and previous experience. Parents are more involved in medical decision making than ever before and often want to be included in the selection of an antibiotic for their child. Physicians should be aware of the many issues impacting on parents' opinions about antibiotic therapy.

  14. Parental issues in selection of antimicrobial agents for infants and children.

    PubMed

    Bauchner, H; Klein, J O

    1997-04-01

    The traditional American family has changed during the past several decades with increases in the number of single-parent households and working mothers. These changes have led to increased stress in the family when children become ill. Infectious diseases are the most common reasons parents seek care for ill children, and parents want effective and convenient treatment regimens so the child can recover quickly and return to day care or school. Issues that affect parental compliance and satisfaction with antimicrobial treatment regimens include efficacy, safety, cost, convenience, and previous experience. Parents are more involved in medical decision making than ever before and often want to be included in the selection of an antibiotic for their child. Physicians should be aware of the many issues impacting on parents' opinions about antibiotic therapy. PMID:9114990

  15. Exploring Personality Features in Patients with Affective Disorders and History of Suicide Attempts: A Comparative Study with Their Parents and Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Fresán, Ana; Sarmiento, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are important candidate predictors of suicidal behavior. Several studies have reported an association between personality/temperament traits and suicidal behavior, suggesting personality traits as intermediary phenotypes related to suicidal behavior. Thus, it is possible that suicide attempts can be accounted for by increased familial rates of risk personality traits. The aim of this work was to evaluate personality traits in affective disorder patients with attempted suicide and to compare them with the personality trait scores of their parents. In addition, ITC scores in the two groups were compared with a healthy control sample. The patients evaluated met the DSM-IV criteria for major depression disorder or dysthymia and had a documented history of suicide attempts. Psychiatric diagnoses of patients and parents were done according to the SCID-I and the personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. We analyzed 49 suicide attempt subjects and their parents (n = 95) and 89 control subjects. We observed that temperament and character dimensions were similar between patients and their parents (P > 0.05). In particular, we observed that high HA and low P, SD, and CO were shared among families. Our study is the first to report that the personality traits of affective disorder patients with a history of attempted suicide are shared between patients and their parents. PMID:24724019

  16. "A remarkable experience of god, shaping us as a family": parents' use of faith following child's rare disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Hillary N; Whisenhunt, Allison; Cheng, Joy; Dimitriou, Sophia; Young, Lisa R; Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2015-01-01

    A child's chronic illness can lead parents to utilize different types of coping, including religious beliefs and practices. Previous studies have generally focused on life-shortening diagnoses. The present study explored parental use of faith when the diagnosis was not life-shortening, using grounded-theory qualitative methodology. Data were collected using semi-structured telephone interviews with N = 12 parents of children diagnosed with Neuroendocrine Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI); approximately 50% of the diagnosed population in the United States at the time of the interview. Participants used faith to cope and make meaning in five ways: parents believed NEHI happened for a reason; beliefs provided resilience; parents were sustained by faith communities; beliefs affected parents' behavior; and beliefs developed over time. The results suggest that chaplains develop means for universal screening for spiritual struggle; educating congregational clergy how to support families in which a child has a chronic illness; and assisting parents construct meaning of their experience. PMID:25569780

  17. Low-Income Parents: How Do Working Conditions Affect Their Opportunity To Help School-Age Children at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heymann, S. Jody; Earle, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Examined the working conditions faced by parents who has at least one child in need of help for educational or behavioral problems using data for 1,878 families from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Mother and Child Survey. Data show that low-income parents often lack the paid leave and flexibility they need to help children with…

  18. Understanding of Affective False Beliefs, Perceptions of Parental Discipline, and Classroom Behavior in Children from Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes-Lonergan, Heather A.

    2003-01-01

    Examined preschoolers' performance on false belief tasks and perceptions of parental discipline. Found that children performed better on questions about their own false beliefs than on questions about others' false beliefs. Overall, children performed below average on false belief measures; and children expected parents in hypothetical scenarios…

  19. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  20. Responding to Students' Chronic Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Steven R.; Glaser, Sarah E.; Stern, Melissa; Sferdenschi, Corina; McCabe, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic illnesses are long-term or permanent medical conditions that have recurring effects on everyday life. Large and growing number of students have chronic illnesses that affect their emotional development, physical development, academic performance, and family interactions. The primary error in educating those students is assuming that the…

  1. The clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of community-based interventions aimed at improving or maintaining quality of life in children of parents with serious mental illness: a systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Penny; Bower, Peter; Byford, Sarah; Churchill, Rachel; Calam, Rachel; Stallard, Paul; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Berzins, Kathryn; Cary, Maria; Wan, Ming; Abel, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Serious parental mental illness poses a challenge to quality of life (QoL) in a substantial number of children and adolescents. Improving the lives of these children is a political and public health concern. OBJECTIVES To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of community-based interventions for improving QoL in children of parents with serious mental illness (SMI). DATA SOURCES Nineteen health, allied health and educational databases, searched from database inception to May 2012, and supplemented with hand searches, reference checking, searches of grey literature, dissertations, ongoing research registers, forward citation tracking and key author contact. REVIEW METHODS Inclusion criteria required≥50% of parents to have SMI or severe depression confirmed by clinical diagnosis or baseline symptoms. Children were ≤18 years of age. Community-based interventions included any non-residential psychological/psychosocial intervention involving parents or children for the purposes of improving health or well-being. Intervention comparators were not predefined and primary outcomes were validated measures of children's QoL and emotional health. Secondary outcomes were derived from UK policy and stakeholder consultation. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers and the study quality was assessed via Cochrane criteria for randomised/non-randomised designs, Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) qualitative criteria or a standard checklist for economic evaluations. Separate syntheses were conducted for SMI and severe depression. Standardised effect size (ES) trials were pooled using random-effects modelling for which sufficient data were available. Economic data were summarised and acceptability data were synthesised via a textual narrative approach. RESULTS Three trials targeted mothers/the children of mothers with psychotic symptoms. Children were ≤12 years of age and no primary QoL or

  2. The social biofeedback theory of parental affect-mirroring: the development of emotional self-awareness and self-control in infancy.

    PubMed

    Gergely, G; Watson, J S

    1996-12-01

    The authors present a new theory of parental affect-mirroring and its role in the development of emotional self-awareness and control in infancy. It is proposed that infants first become sensitised to their categorical emotion-states through a natural social biofeedback process provided by the parent's 'marked' reflections of the baby's emotion displays during affect-regulative interactions. They argue that this sensitisation process is mediated (similarly to that of adult biofeedback training) by the mechanism of contingency-detection and maximising. Apart from sensitisation, affect-mirroring serves three further developmental functions: (1) it contributes to the infant's state-regulation; (2) it leads to the establishment of secondary representations that become associated with the infant's primary procedural affect-states providing the cognitive means for accessing and attributing emotions to the self; (3) it results in the development of a generalised communicative code of "marked' expressions characterised by the representational functions of referential decoupling, anchoring and suspension of realistic consequences. They consider the clinical implications of our theory, relating it to current psychodynamic approaches to the functions of parental affect-mirroring. Using their model they identify various types of deviant mirroring styles and speculate about their developmental consequences. Finally, they discuss what role their social biofeedback model may play as a mediating mechanism in the therapeutic process.

  3. When a Student Is Mentally Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hover, Margot

    1995-01-01

    Highlights issues facing teachers who have mentally ill students in their classes and ways for teachers to address the issues. Discusses in-school interventions, out-of-school treatment, and the role of the teacher as mediator in helping students relate to other mentally ill students and in offering support to parents. (MAB)

  4. Biallelic mutations in huntington disease: A new case with just one affected parent, review of the literature and terminology.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Wendy R; Peñaherrera, Maria S; Robinson, Wendy P; Milunsky, Jeff M; Nicholson, Jane M; Albin, Roger L

    2015-05-01

    Patients with biallelic mutations for Huntington disease (HD) are rare. We present a 46-year-old female with two expanded Huntingtin (HTT) alleles with just one known affected parent. This is the first reported patient with molecular studies performed to exclude HTT uniparental disomy (UPD). The proband had biparental inheritance of HTT alleles (42/44 CAG repeats). Given the negative UPD results, the proband's unaffected mother either had a reduced penetrance allele that expanded into the full mutation range during transmission to our patient or an unknown full HTT mutation and died before symptom onset, unlikely given no family history of HD and asymptomatic at age 59. We made the novel observation in our literature review that most patients with biallelic HD did not have two full HTT mutations. Most had one HTT allele that was in the intermediate or reduced penetrance ranges or 40 CAG repeats, the lowest limit of the full mutation range. Although the number of patients is small, when an allele in these size ranges was present, generally the age of HD onset was in the 50s. If the second HTT allele had >45 repeats, then onset was typically 20s-30s. While similar ages of onset have been reported for patients with one or two HTT mutations, patients with biallelic mutations may have later onset if an expanded HTT allele has ≤40 CAG repeats. Finally, we propose that "biallelic mutations" or "compound heterozygosity" are more accurate descriptive terms than "homozygosity" when there are two non-identical expanded HTT alleles.

  5. Biallelic mutations in huntington disease: A new case with just one affected parent, review of the literature and terminology.

    PubMed

    Uhlmann, Wendy R; Peñaherrera, Maria S; Robinson, Wendy P; Milunsky, Jeff M; Nicholson, Jane M; Albin, Roger L

    2015-05-01

    Patients with biallelic mutations for Huntington disease (HD) are rare. We present a 46-year-old female with two expanded Huntingtin (HTT) alleles with just one known affected parent. This is the first reported patient with molecular studies performed to exclude HTT uniparental disomy (UPD). The proband had biparental inheritance of HTT alleles (42/44 CAG repeats). Given the negative UPD results, the proband's unaffected mother either had a reduced penetrance allele that expanded into the full mutation range during transmission to our patient or an unknown full HTT mutation and died before symptom onset, unlikely given no family history of HD and asymptomatic at age 59. We made the novel observation in our literature review that most patients with biallelic HD did not have two full HTT mutations. Most had one HTT allele that was in the intermediate or reduced penetrance ranges or 40 CAG repeats, the lowest limit of the full mutation range. Although the number of patients is small, when an allele in these size ranges was present, generally the age of HD onset was in the 50s. If the second HTT allele had >45 repeats, then onset was typically 20s-30s. While similar ages of onset have been reported for patients with one or two HTT mutations, patients with biallelic mutations may have later onset if an expanded HTT allele has ≤40 CAG repeats. Finally, we propose that "biallelic mutations" or "compound heterozygosity" are more accurate descriptive terms than "homozygosity" when there are two non-identical expanded HTT alleles. PMID:25736541

  6. Family affection as a protective factor against the negative effects of perceived Asian values gap on the parent-child relationship for Asian American male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong S; Vo, Leyna P; Tsong, Yuying

    2009-01-01

    The study examined whether family affection (i.e., affective responsiveness, affectionate communication, and affective orientation) protected against the negative effects of perceived parent-child Asian values gap on the quality of their parent relationships for 259 female and 77 male Asian American college students. Asian values gap was higher for women than men, and inversely related to a perceived healthy parent-child relationship for both genders. Participants rated the relationship with their mothers as more positive and affectionate than with their fathers. Both parents were reported to communicate more supportive affection than verbal and nonverbal affection. Affective responsiveness was identified as a protective factor in the father-son relationship whereas verbal affection protected the mother-daughter relationship. The study also revealed that daughters' affective orientation had beneficial effects on the father-daughter relationship at lower levels of Asian values gap. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19209977

  7. Health-related quality of life of pre-school children with wheezing illness.

    PubMed

    Oostenbrink, R; Jansingh-Piepers, E M; Raat, H; Nuijsink, M; Landgraf, J M; Essink-Bot, M L; Moll, H A

    2006-10-01

    Pre-school children are frequently affected by wheezing illness, with substantial influences on their health-related quality of life (HRQL). The Infant/Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire (ITQOL) is the only generic health status measure for children aged 2 months up to 5 years. In this present study we evaluated the impact of wheezing illness in pre-school children on the HRQL, using the ITQOL. A questionnaire including the ITQOL and ISAAC questions on frequency and severity of respiratory complaints were sent to parents of patients aged 6 months-5 years visiting the outpatient department with wheezing illness. Scale scores of ITQOL of the included children were compared with general population scores. Using multivariate analysis, the influence of general and clinical characteristics on ITQOL scale scores was evaluated. Results are based on 138 children, 59% male, mean age 34 months. Children with wheezing illness scored differently to the general population sample on 8 of the 11 ITQOL scales. Age, comorbidity and employment of the respondent affected scales on child's physical and emotional functioning and parental functioning. Severity of dyspnoea and wheezing, presence of cough, corticosteroid use, and number of GP visits negatively affected scales on the child's physical and emotional functioning. In conclusion, the HRQL as measured by the ITQOL was lower in a group of Dutch pre-school children with wheezing illness compared to a general population sample. The scale scores were sensitive to age, co morbidity, socio-economic situation, and disease severity. PMID:16871636

  8. Legislation affecting governmental assistance for children of parents with substance use: a policy analysis of social justice.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Phyllis; Williams, Pamela Holtzclaw

    2012-11-01

    There is legislation that withdraws governmental assistance where parents are using drugs. Social justice is an important consideration in any policy that modifies governmental assistance that benefits vulnerable children. The purpose of this policy analysis is to analyze identified legislation that effect governmental assistance for children in response to parents' substance misuse. A selective review of data-driven studies examined findings describing actual or potential effects on children of legislation targeting parental substance misuse. Challenges in design, processes, and implementation contribute to poor child outcomes. Identifiable constructs of social justice were missing in the reviewed legislation. Social injustice is a potential outcome for children when legislative intent focuses solely on addressing parental drug behaviors. Legislative alternatives to withdrawing support can address substance abuse while maintaining health promotion for these vulnerable children.

  9. Pre-conception to parenting: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of the qualitative literature on motherhood for women with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Clare; Jones, Ian; Howard, Louise M

    2013-06-01

    The majority of women with a severe mental illness (SMI) become pregnant and have children. The aim of this systematic review and meta-synthesis was to examine the qualitative research on the experiences of motherhood in women with SMI from preconception decision making to being a mother. The experiences of the health professionals treating women with SMI were also reviewed. Eleven databases were searched for papers published up to April 25, 2012, using keywords and mesh headings. A total of 23 studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria on the views of women with SMI, eight reported the views of health professionals including one which reported both. The meta-synthesis of the 23 studies on women's views produced two overarching themes Experiences of Motherhood and Experiences of Services. Sub-themes included the following: Guilt, Coping with Dual Identities, Stigma, and Centrality of Motherhood. Four themes emerged from the synthesis of the eight papers reporting the views of health professionals: Discomfort, Stigma, Need for education, and Integration of services. An understanding of the experiences of pregnancy and motherhood for women with SMI can inform service development and provision to ensure the needs of women and their families are met.

  10. Loving your child to death: Considerations of the care of chronically ill children and euthanasia in Emil Sher’s Mourning Dove

    PubMed Central

    Mukhida, Karim

    2007-01-01

    How do parents cope when their child is ill or dying, and when he or she is experiencing constant pain or suffering? What do parents think of the contributions that medical professionals make to the care of their chronically or terminally ill child? Is it possible for a parent to love a child so much that they wish their child to be dead? The purpose of the present paper is to explore these questions and aspects of the care of chronically or terminally ill children using Mourning Dove’s portrayal of one family’s attempt to care for their ill daughter. Mourning Dove, a play written by Canadian playwright Emil Sher, was inspired by the case of Saskatchewan wheat farmer Robert Latimer who killed his 12-year-old daughter, Tracy, who suffered with cerebral palsy and had begun to experience tremendous pain. Rather than focusing on the medical or legal aspects of the care of a chronically ill child, the play offers a glimpse into how a family copes with the care of such a child and the effect the child’s illness has on the family. The reading and examination of nonmedical literature, such as Mourning Dove, serves as a useful means for medical professionals to better understand how illness affects and is responded to by patients and their families. This understanding is a prerequisite for them to be able to provide complete care of children with chronic or terminal illnesses and their families. PMID:19043501

  11. Evaluation of crack arrest fracture toughness of parent plate, weld metal and heat affected zone of BIS 812 EMA ship plate steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, I. A.

    1993-10-01

    The steel chosen for the pressure hull of the Collins class submarine has undergone evaluation to compare the crack arrest fracture toughness, K(Ia), of the parent plate with that of weld metal and heat affected zone. The tests were conducted over a range of subzero temperatures on specimens slightly outside the ASTM standard test method specimen configuration. Shallow face grooved specimens were used to vary the propagating crack velocity from that of non face grooved specimens and determine if K(Ia), is sensitive to changes in crack velocity. The weld metal, heat affected zone (HAZ), and parent plate were assessed to determine if the welding process had a deleterious effect on the crack arrest properties of this particular steel. Tests on each of these regions revealed that, for the combination of parent plate, welding procedure and consumables, no adverse effect on crack arrest properties was encountered. Crack arrest fracture toughness of the weld metal and HAZ was superior to that of the parent plate at comparable temperatures.

  12. Care taker blogs in caregiver fabricated illness in a child: a window on the caretaker's thinking?

    PubMed

    Brown, Ana N; Gonzalez, Gioia R; Wiester, Rebecca T; Kelley, Maureen C; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2014-03-01

    Three recently diagnosed cases of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child at Seattle Children's Hospital shed light on a new manifestation of their caretakers' attention seeking. The patients' mothers were actively blogging about their children's reputed illnesses. Although it is not uncommon for parents of chronically ill children to blog about their child's medical course, specific themes in these blogs of parents suspected of medically abusing their children were noted. In particular, gross distortions of the information parents had received from medical providers were presented online, describing an escalation of the severity of their children's illnesses. The mothers reported contacting palliative care teams and Wish organizations, independently from their medical providers' recommendations. They sought on-line donations for their children's health needs. We believe these blogs provide additional direct evidence of the suspected caregivers' fabrications. Although we have not performed formal content analysis, blogs might also provide insight into the caretakers' motivations. Protective Services and/or police investigators could consider querying the internet for blogs related to children at risk for caregiver-fabricated illness in a child. These blogs, if viewed in parallel with the children's medical records, could assist medical diagnosis and legal documentation of medical fabrication and assist in protective planning for the affected children. PMID:24393290

  13. Care taker blogs in caregiver fabricated illness in a child: a window on the caretaker's thinking?

    PubMed

    Brown, Ana N; Gonzalez, Gioia R; Wiester, Rebecca T; Kelley, Maureen C; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2014-03-01

    Three recently diagnosed cases of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child at Seattle Children's Hospital shed light on a new manifestation of their caretakers' attention seeking. The patients' mothers were actively blogging about their children's reputed illnesses. Although it is not uncommon for parents of chronically ill children to blog about their child's medical course, specific themes in these blogs of parents suspected of medically abusing their children were noted. In particular, gross distortions of the information parents had received from medical providers were presented online, describing an escalation of the severity of their children's illnesses. The mothers reported contacting palliative care teams and Wish organizations, independently from their medical providers' recommendations. They sought on-line donations for their children's health needs. We believe these blogs provide additional direct evidence of the suspected caregivers' fabrications. Although we have not performed formal content analysis, blogs might also provide insight into the caretakers' motivations. Protective Services and/or police investigators could consider querying the internet for blogs related to children at risk for caregiver-fabricated illness in a child. These blogs, if viewed in parallel with the children's medical records, could assist medical diagnosis and legal documentation of medical fabrication and assist in protective planning for the affected children.

  14. A review and reanalysis of Bruno Schulz's "Erkrankungsalter schizophrener Eltern und Kinder [Age at onset of illness in schizophrenic parents and offspring]:" Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 168, 709-721, 1940.

    PubMed

    Sham, P C; Zerbin-Rüdin, E; Kendler, K S

    1995-01-01

    Nearly all previous evidence of the familial transmission of age at onset of schizophrenia has been in siblings and twins. In his paper, Bruno Schulz examined the age at onset distribution of schizophrenia in affected parent and offspring pairs, using a systematic series of ascertained cases (n = 106), as well as a second series of chronic in-patients (n = 36). The parent-offspring correlation in age at onset, for cases with a definite diagnosis in the systematically ascertained series, was estimated at 0.346 (95% confidence interval 0.134, 0.528). Schulz did not test for differences between the two series and between males and females, but our reanalysis, using correlational methods and a mixed linear model, did not detect any significant differences. These results are consistent with previous findings that age at onset of schizophrenia is influenced by familial factors which may be genetic.

  15. The impact of high neuroticism in parents on children's psychosocial functioning in a population at high risk for major affective disorder: a family-environmental pathway of intergenerational risk.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Mark A; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral genetic studies indicate that nongenetic factors play a role in the development of bipolar and major depressive disorders. The trait of neuroticism is common among individuals with major affective disorders. We hypothesized that high neuroticism among parents affects the family environment and parenting practices and thereby increases the risk of psychosocial problems among offspring. This hypothesis is tested in a sample of participants at high and low risk for major affective disorders, which contained parents with bipolar disorder (55), major depression (21), or no mental disorder (148) and their 146 children between 4 and 14 years of age. Parents with high neuroticism scores were characterized by low psychosocial functioning, poor parenting, more dependent stressful life events, and the use of more emotion-focused and less task-oriented coping skills. High neuroticism in parents was associated with internalizing and externalizing problems among the children, as assessed by parent and teacher ratings on the Child Behavior Checklist and clinician ratings. The results suggest that high neuroticism in parents with major affective disorders is associated with inadequate parenting practices and the creation of a stressful family environment, which are subsequently related to psychosocial problems among the offspring. PMID:15115067

  16. Parental Grief Following the Brain Death of a Child: Does Consent or Refusal to Organ Donation Affect Their Grief?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellali, Thalia; Papadatou, Danai

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the grieving process of parents who were faced with the dilemma of donating organs and tissues of their underage brain dead child, and to explore the impact of their decision on their grief process. A grounded theory methodology was adopted and a semi-structured interview was conducted with 11 bereaved…

  17. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    PubMed

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects.

  18. Parental Ploidy Strongly Affects Offspring Fitness in Heteroploid Crosses among Three Cytotypes of Autopolyploid Jacobaea carniolica (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sonnleitner, Michaela; Weis, Birgit; Flatscher, Ruth; García, Pedro Escobar; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schneeweiss, Gerald M.; Winkler, Manuela; Schönswetter, Peter; Hülber, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive interactions among cytotypes in their contact zones determine whether these cytotypes can co-exist and form stable contact zones or not. In autopolyploids, heteroploid cross-compatibilities might depend on parental ploidy, but tests of this hypothesis in autopolyploid systems with more than two ploidies are lacking. Here, we study Jacobaea carniolica, which comprises diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid individuals regularly forming contact zones. Seeds obtained from in situ cross-pollinations within and among cytotypes were subjected to DNA flow cytometry and greenhouse germination experiments. Hybrid fitness and parental effects on hybrid fitness were tested with regression models comparing fitness parameters of early life stages. Irrespective of the direction of crosses, seed viability and seedling survival in diploid-polyploid crosses were substantially lower than in tetraploid-hexaploid crosses. In contrast, seedling growth traits indicated neither transgressive character expression nor any selection against hybrid offspring. Congruent with a model of genome dosage effects, these traits differed between reciprocal crosses, especially of diploids and tetraploids, where trait values resembled those of the maternal parent. The strong effect of parental ploidy on offspring fitness in heteroploid crosses may cause contact zones involving exclusively polyploid cytotypes to be less stable over longer terms than those involving diploids and polyploids. PMID:24265735

  19. Does working with child abuse cases affect professionals' parenting and the psychological well-being of their children?

    PubMed

    Dursun, Onur Burak; Sener, Mustafa Talip; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Ançi, Yüksel; Yalin Sapmaz, Sermin

    2014-01-01

    Work in the field of sexual abuse is extremely stressful and may arouse negative personal reactions. Although these secondary trauma effects are well described on a personal level, there is not enough evidence to understand whether these professionals carry these effects to their homes, families, and offspring. This study aims to identify the effects of working with child abuse cases on the anxiety level and parenting styles of childhood trauma workers and on their children's well-being. A total of 43 health and legal system workers who worked with abused children in any step of their process and who had children constituted the study group, and 50 control cases, each working in the same institution and having the same occupation as 1 of the participants from the study group and having children but not working directly with children and child abuse cases, were included in the study. Participants were asked to fill out a sociodemographic form, the Parental Attitude Research Instrument, the trait portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and an age-appropriate form of the Child Behavior Checklist for each child they had. Professionals in the study working with child abuse cases demonstrated significantly higher democratic parenting attitudes. Law enforcement workers working with child abuse cases demonstrated stricter and more authoritarian parenting strategies, as well as more democratic attitudes, than their colleagues. There was not a statistically significant relationship between child abuse workers' anxiety level and their children's well-being among control subjects. PMID:24983655

  20. Parental qualities as perceived by borderline personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, R L; Mann, L S; Wise, T N; Segall, E A

    1985-01-01

    This study explores the contribution of parental qualities to the borderline personality disorder. The Parental Bonding Inventory is used to compare four parental qualities (caring mother, caring father, overprotective father, and overprotective mother) across three groups (borderline personality disorders, assorted psychiatric controls and normal controls). The major finding was that the borderline patients perceived their parents to be significantly less caring and more overprotective than both the psychiatric control or nonclinical control groups. This study was verified previous reports that patients diagnosed with an affective illness (in either the borderline group or psychiatric control group) reported no significant differences on the inventory. Pinpointing parental characteristics which antecede mental disorders may be an important first step in devising primary preventive interventions for adult disorders. PMID:4077030

  1. [For a coordination of the supportive care for people affected by severe illnesses: proposition of organization in the public and private health care centres].

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Ivan; Boureau, François; Bugat, Roland; Chassignol, Laurent; Colombat, Philippe; Copel, Laure; d'Hérouville, Daniel; Filbet, Marylène; Laurent, Bernard; Memran, Nadine; Meynadier, Jacques; Parmentier, Gérard; Poulain, Philippe; Saltel, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Wagner, Jean-Philippe

    2004-05-01

    The concept of continuous and global care is acknowledged today by all as inherent to modern medicine. A working group gathered to propose models for the coordination of supportive care for all severe illnesses in the various private and public health care centres. The supportive care are defined as: "all care and supports necessary for ill people, at the same time as specific treatments, along all severe illnesses". This definition is inspired by that of "supportive care" given in 1990 by the MASCC (Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer): "The total medical, nursing and psychosocial help which the patients need besides the specific treatment". It integrates as much the field of cure with possible after-effects as that of palliative care, the definition of which is clarified (initial and terminal palliative phases). Such a coordination is justified by the pluridisciplinarity and hyperspecialisation of the professionals, by a poor communication between the teams, by the administrative difficulties encountered by the teams participating in the supportive care. The working group insists on the fact that the supportive care is not a new speciality. He proposes the creation of units. departments or pole of responsibility of supportive care with a "basic coordination" involving the activities of chronic pain, palliative care, psycho-oncology, and social care. This coordination can be extended, according to the "history" and missions of health care centres. Service done with the implementation of a "unique counter" for the patients and the teams is an important point. The structure has to comply with the terms and conditions of contract (Consultation, Unit or Centre of chronic pain, structures of palliative care, of psycho-oncology, of nutrition, of social care). A common technical organization is one of the interests. The structure has to set up strong links with the private practitioners, the networks, the home medical care (HAD) and the nurses

  2. [For a coordination of the supportive care for people affected by severe illnesses: proposition of organization in the public and private health care centres].

    PubMed

    Krakowski, Ivan; Boureau, François; Bugat, Roland; Chassignol, Laurent; Colombat, Philippe; Copel, Laure; d'Hérouville, Daniel; Filbet, Marylène; Laurent, Bernard; Memran, Nadine; Meynadier, Jacques; Parmentier, Gérard; Poulain, Philippe; Saltel, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Wagner, Jean-Philippe

    2004-05-01

    The concept of continuous and global care is acknowledged today by all as inherent to modern medicine. A working group gathered to propose models for the coordination of supportive care for all severe illnesses in the various private and public health care centres. The supportive care are defined as: "all care and supports necessary for ill people, at the same time as specific treatments, along all severe illnesses". This definition is inspired by that of "supportive care" given in 1990 by the MASCC (Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer): "The total medical, nursing and psychosocial help which the patients need besides the specific treatment". It integrates as much the field of cure with possible after-effects as that of palliative care, the definition of which is clarified (initial and terminal palliative phases). Such a coordination is justified by the pluridisciplinarity and hyperspecialisation of the professionals, by a poor communication between the teams, by the administrative difficulties encountered by the teams participating in the supportive care. The working group insists on the fact that the supportive care is not a new speciality. He proposes the creation of units. departments or pole of responsibility of supportive care with a "basic coordination" involving the activities of chronic pain, palliative care, psycho-oncology, and social care. This coordination can be extended, according to the "history" and missions of health care centres. Service done with the implementation of a "unique counter" for the patients and the teams is an important point. The structure has to comply with the terms and conditions of contract (Consultation, Unit or Centre of chronic pain, structures of palliative care, of psycho-oncology, of nutrition, of social care). A common technical organization is one of the interests. The structure has to set up strong links with the private practitioners, the networks, the home medical care (HAD) and the nurses

  3. Impact of chronic illness on child and family: an overview based on five surveys with implications for management.

    PubMed

    Satterwhite, B B

    1978-01-01

    For the past eight years the Rochester Child Health Group has systematically investigated chronic illness in childhood with the goal of minimizing the psychosocial sequelae of chronic illness through more optimal management. This overview examines the impact of chronic illness on 404 children and their families in five separate studies: 1) 209 children in a follow-up of all children with chronic symptoms in a previous random sampling of children; 2) 42 children with juvenile arthritis; 3) 44 nephrotic children; 4) 54 asthmatic children; 5) 55 chronically ill children living in rural areas of Western New York. Information was obtained through parental interviews, school reports, and psychological testing of the child. The percentage of parents reporting impact of the child's illness on family differed according to study population. The percentage reporting areas of impact according to severity of the illness is as follows: worry, 75--97; financial, 46--60; fatigue of parent, 31--65; change in sleep arrangements, 17--31; change in furnishings, 15--40; less social life for parents, 12--35; restrictions on travel, 13--40; parental friction, 9--20; sibling neglect, 10--20; sibling resentment, 10--25; embarrassment, 12--20; interference from relatives, 5--17. Over half the parents felt their child's future education, job chances, and social life would be affected. One third reported activity limitations. Compared to a control group of children, a significantly greater percentage of parents of the chronically ill reported teacher concern about their child's effort and behavior, and showed concern about the child having too few friends. Two of the three studies in which psychological appraisals were obtained suggested that more of the ill children than controls showed indices of maladjustment. School information from two studies showed more of the ill children than controls underachieving and being referred to a school psychologist. Work by the Rochester Child Health Group

  4. Impact of chronic illness on child and family: an overview based on five surveys with implications for management.

    PubMed

    Satterwhite, B B

    1978-01-01

    For the past eight years the Rochester Child Health Group has systematically investigated chronic illness in childhood with the goal of minimizing the psychosocial sequelae of chronic illness through more optimal management. This overview examines the impact of chronic illness on 404 children and their families in five separate studies: 1) 209 children in a follow-up of all children with chronic symptoms in a previous random sampling of children; 2) 42 children with juvenile arthritis; 3) 44 nephrotic children; 4) 54 asthmatic children; 5) 55 chronically ill children living in rural areas of Western New York. Information was obtained through parental interviews, school reports, and psychological testing of the child. The percentage of parents reporting impact of the child's illness on family differed according to study population. The percentage reporting areas of impact according to severity of the illness is as follows: worry, 75--97; financial, 46--60; fatigue of parent, 31--65; change in sleep arrangements, 17--31; change in furnishings, 15--40; less social life for parents, 12--35; restrictions on travel, 13--40; parental friction, 9--20; sibling neglect, 10--20; sibling resentment, 10--25; embarrassment, 12--20; interference from relatives, 5--17. Over half the parents felt their child's future education, job chances, and social life would be affected. One third reported activity limitations. Compared to a control group of children, a significantly greater percentage of parents of the chronically ill reported teacher concern about their child's effort and behavior, and showed concern about the child having too few friends. Two of the three studies in which psychological appraisals were obtained suggested that more of the ill children than controls showed indices of maladjustment. School information from two studies showed more of the ill children than controls underachieving and being referred to a school psychologist. Work by the Rochester Child Health Group

  5. Perceived patient-parent relationships and neural representation of parents in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Park, Hae-Jeong; Chun, Ji Won; Kang, Jee In; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2013-04-01

    Having a relationship with one's parents is a fundamental social interaction and is a significant environmental factor in the long-term course of illness in schizophrenia. We explored subjective reports regarding the communicative relationship with parents and the implicit behavioral and neural responses of patients toward stimuli that referred to parents. Fourteen outpatients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy volunteers with living parents were scanned using a functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing an imaginary sentence completion test that involved contemplation of their mothers and fathers. In patients with schizophrenia, subjective reports of better communicative fluency with one's mother were associated with faster response time and lower incomplete rate, reflecting favorable responses toward mothers. Relative to control participants, patients with schizophrenia demonstrated greater neural activation in the superior temporal sulcus and the parahippocampal gyrus for parental stimuli. When patients with schizophrenia contemplated their mothers, activities in these regions were associated with a level of negative symptoms or affective ambivalence in patients. The results indicated that parental cues are processed in a more socially driven manner, and that perceived communicative relationships with one's parents can be used to estimate implicit responses, especially in relation to mothers in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, the findings of the current study suggest that affective ambivalence toward one's mother is one such implicit response and emphasize the importance of prudent family interventions in the psychiatric rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia.

  6. How Many Families in Child Welfare Services Are Affected by Parental Substance Use Disorders? A Common Question that Remains Unanswered.

    PubMed

    Seay, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Associated with extensive negative outcomes for children, parental substance use disorders are a major concern within the child welfare system. Obtaining actual prevalence rate data has been difficult, however, and there are no recent published reports on this issue. Using a systematic search, this paper examines: (1) Prevalence estimates of parental substance use disorders in the child welfare population; (2) the types of child welfare involvement for reported prevalence estimates; and (3) how prevalence information is being collected. Prevalence rates were found to have a wide range, from 3.9% to 79%, with regional prevalence estimates being higher than national estimates. Prevalence rates of parental substance use disorders varied by type of child welfare involvement of the family and method of data collection. This study points out the need for improvements in prevalence estimates in the United States and national data collection procedures to ensure that child welfare and substance abuse treatment systems are adequately responding to children and families with substance use disorders.

  7. How perceived parental bonding affects self-concept and drive for thinness: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Cella, Stefania; Iannaccone, Mara; Cotrufo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The main aims of the present study were to investigate the relationship between perceived parental bonding and self-concept and to investigate whether these variables have an effect on eating disturbances vulnerability by testing a mediation model. We screened 3158 Italian high school students (1132 males and 2026 females), ranging in age from 14 to 18 years old by means of self-report measures of parental behavior as perceived by the offspring, eating disturbance propensity and self-concept. Weight and height were also measured. The link between a parental bonding behavior characterized by low paternal care and by maternal overprotection and a dysfunctional eating attitude (expressed by the drive for thinness) was significant and was found to be perfectly mediated by adolescents' self-concept. Moreover, our results showed that the impact of self-concept for the drive for thinness (and hence on eating psychopathologies) is moderated by the participants' body mass index and gender, but not by age. We consider this evidence of study to be useful for the prevention and treatment of eating related problems in adolescence.

  8. Parents Served by Assertive Community Treatment: Parenting Needs, Services, and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    White, Laura M.; McGrew, John H.; Salyers, Michelle P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is an evidence-based practice for individuals with severe mental illness. Although as many as half of all people with severe mental illness are parents, little is known about their experiences as parents and as recipients of mental health interventions, like ACT. The purpose of the current study was to examine the experiences of parent consumers served by ACT. Methods Seventeen parents being served by ACT teams were interviewed about parenting, parenting needs, severe mental illness, satisfaction with ACT services, and suggestions for improved parent-focused treatment services. Results All parents identified at least one positive aspect of parenting and most (77%) also identified negative aspects of parenting. Loss of custody emerged as a significant parenting problem, with most parents (88%) experiencing custody loss at least once. Parents expressed interest in numerous parent-focused services, including family therapy, parenting skills, communication skills training, resources for children, and peer support groups. Most participants with adult children reported having no unmet parent-related needs (88%) and high satisfaction (4.63 of 5) with ACT services, whereas parents with young children reported having several unmet parenting needs (78%) and relatively lower satisfaction (3.78 out of 5) with ACT services. Conclusions and Implications for Practice The ACT treatment model may not be adequately serving parents of young, dependent children. Findings suggest the need for more attention and focus on parent consumers, including identification of parental status and improved parent-related treatment services and support. PMID:23477646

  9. The educational legacy of unauthorized migration: comparisons across U.S.-immigrant groups in how parents' status affects their offspring.

    PubMed

    Bean, Frank D; Leach, Mark A; Brown, Susan K; Bachmeier, James D; Hipp, John R

    2011-01-01

    This research compares several national-origin groups in terms of how parents’ entry, legalization and naturalization (i.e., membership) statuses relate to their children’s educational attainment. In the case of Asian groups, the members of which predominantly come to the United States as permanent legal migrants, we hypothesize (1) that father’s and mother’s statuses will be relatively homogenous and few in number and (2) that these will exert minimal net effects on second-generation attainment. For Mexicans, many of whom initially come as temporary unauthorized migrants, we hypothesize (1) that parental status combinations will be heterogeneous and greater in number and (2) that marginal membership statuses will exert negative net effects on education in the second generation. To assess these ideas, we analyze unique intergenerational data from Los Angeles on the young adult members of second-generation national-origin groups and their parents. The findings show that Asian immigrant groups almost universally exhibit similar father–mother migration statuses and high educational attainment among children. By contrast, Mexicans manifest more numerous discrepant father–mother combinations, with those in which the mother remains unauthorized carrying negative implications for children’s schooling. The paper discusses the theoretical and policy implications of the delays in incorporation that result from Mexican Americans needing extra time and resources compared to the members of other groups to overcome their handicap of marginal membership status (i.e., being more likely to enter and remain unauthorized).

  10. The Challenge of Caring for Mildly Ill Children: A Canadian National Childcare Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polyzoi, E.; Babb, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    This Canadian study of the care of mildly ill children in licensed childcare facilities compares director and parent preferences for eight models of care, exclusionary practices for ill children by directors, and preferred backup care options of parents. It also investigates anticipated usage and willingness of parents to pay for emergency…

  11. Nature versus Nurture: How Parent Galaxy Environments Affect the Rates and Properties of their Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Melissa Lynn

    2010-08-01

    Supernovae of Type Ia, SNe Ia, are currently the most powerful tool of modern cosmology, but their progenitor scenario is not yet well constrained. Recent studies of SN Ia rates in radio-loud early-type galaxies, and members of rich clusters, suggest a possible influence on SN Ia explosions outside of the established correlation with the age of the parent galaxy's stellar population (via the current specific star formation rate, sSFR). These rates were used to show that the characteristics of SN Ia progenitor systems may be inconsistent with theoretical expectations of the most popular scenarios. The astrophysical question of this thesis is: do parent galaxy and environment influence the rates and properties of Type Ia supernovae, and, if so, how? Towards this end, we combine the database of Type Ia supernovae from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope's Supernova Legacy Survey with publicly available catalogs including: galaxy photometric and spectroscopic redshifts, radio and infrared sources, and members of galaxy groups and clusters. This is the most comprehensive set of multi-wavelength host properties and environment parameters for intermediate redshift Type Ia supernovae yet compiled. We present the SNLS SN Ia rate per unit mass in a variety of parent galaxy and environment samples. We also statistically assess the probability of discrepancies between our rates, those of previous works at low redshift, rates in the general population of galaxies, and predictions of established empirical SN Ia rate models. In general, we do not find statistically significant evidence for SN Ia rate enhancements over the general population in galaxies which are radio-loud, infrared-bright, or associated with galaxy groups and clusters. In cases where we do find a suggestive rate enhancement, it is always with less than 2-sigma confidence. These rates agree with established empirical rate models, which in turn are consistent with theoretical expectations of the most plausible

  12. I'll know what you're like when i see how you feel: how and when affective displays influence behavior-based impressions.

    PubMed

    Ames, Daniel R; Johar, Gita V

    2009-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that targets' displays of emotion shape perceivers' impression of those targets. Prior research has highlighted generalization effects, such as an angry display prompting an impression of hostility. In two studies, we went beyond generalization to examine the interaction of displays and behaviors, finding new evidence of augmenting effects (behavior-correspondent inferences are stronger when behavior is accompanied by positive affect) and discounting effects (such inferences are weaker when behavior is accompanied by negative affect). Thus, the same display can have different effects on impressions depending on the behavior it accompanies. We found evidence that these effects are mediated by ascribed intentions and that they have a boundary: When behaviors and affective displays are repeated, the augmenting and discounting power of displays appears to wane. PMID:19368697

  13. Non-supportive Parenting Affects Telomere Length in Young Adulthood Among African Americans: Mediation through Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Philibert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) is an indicator of age related changes at the cellular level associated with heightened mortality risk. The effect of non-supportive parenting (NSP) during late adolescence and young adulthood on TL 5 years later was examined in a sample of N = 183 young adult African Americans to determine if effects of NSP on TL were mediated by substance use. Results indicated that the effect of caregiver reported NSP on diminished TL was mediated by escalation of drinking and smoking in young adulthood, even after controlling effects of socioeconomic status risk, gender, BMI, young adult stress, and intervention status. Results suggest that prevention of NSP may influence later physical health consequences by influencing substance use trajectory. PMID:25485673

  14. Parent Education For The Parental Role In Children's Vocational Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffner, Sarah M.; Klemer, Richard H.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes how parents affect a child's vocational choice and what parents can do to help children improve their vocational prospects, the opportunities and responsibilities of parents in the socialization processes which lead to the children's vocational choices, and what parent educators can do to help parents be more effective with…

  15. Assessment of quality of life of the children and parents affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet: preliminary results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development in therapeutic strategies has increased survival of children affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet (IEMRD). These diseases have mild- and long-term consequences on the health. Little is known about the impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and their families. The aims of this study were: to compare the QoL of the children and parents affected by IEMRD with the QoL of the general population and one pathology associated with long-term consequences. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study was performed at the French Reference Center for inborn metabolic disorders (Marseille, France). Inclusion criteria were: a child with a diagnosis of organic aciduria, urea cycle defect, or maple syrups urine disease (MSUD). Socio-demographics, clinical data, and QoL were recorded. Results Twenty-one of 32 eligible families were included during a planned routine visit. Ten (47%, 95% CI 27-69%) children were affected by organic aciduria, six (29%, 95% CI 10-48%) by urea cycle defects, and five (24%, 95% CI 6-42%) by MSUD. Among the younger children, the general well-being was significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (58 ± 16 versus 76 ± 15, p = 0.012), and among the older children, the leisure activities were significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (29 ± 18 versus 62 ± 22, p < 10-3), while the relationships with teachers were better (76 ± 23 versus 60 ± 23, p = 0.01). The physical QoL score was lower in the parents than in the French norms (66 ± 21 versus 75 ± 1, p = 0.05). Factors modulating QoL were: eating and neurologic disorders, enteral nutrition, and feeding modalities. Conclusion The children and the parents of children affected presented altered ‘physical’ and ‘social’ QoL scores compared with the norms and patients with leukemia and their families. Future studies based on larger cohort

  16. Illness theodicies in the New Testament.

    PubMed

    Price, R M

    1986-12-01

    The New Testament writers advocate or at least mention six different religious explanations for the origin of sickness. First, Satan may thus victimize the innocent. Second, God may send sickness as a punishment for the sufferer's sins. Third, God may send sickness to punish one's parents' sins. Fourth, God may so punish one's own sins committed in a previous life. Fifth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by subsequent healing. Sixth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by sustaining the sufferer through the illness instead of healing it.

  17. Illness theodicies in the New Testament.

    PubMed

    Price, R M

    1986-12-01

    The New Testament writers advocate or at least mention six different religious explanations for the origin of sickness. First, Satan may thus victimize the innocent. Second, God may send sickness as a punishment for the sufferer's sins. Third, God may send sickness to punish one's parents' sins. Fourth, God may so punish one's own sins committed in a previous life. Fifth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by subsequent healing. Sixth, God may inflict illness in order to show his power by sustaining the sufferer through the illness instead of healing it. PMID:24301694

  18. Psychosocial Illness in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Prevalence, Pattern and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sengar, Ghanshyam Singh; Sharma, Monika; Choudhary, Shyama; Nagaraj, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and psychosocial illness influence each other in multiple ways. The extent of psychosocial disorders in children with T1DM remains largely unstudied in India. Aim To assess the prevalence, severity, pattern and variables affecting psychosocial illness in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods This observational study included 84 children (6-14 years of age) having T1DM at least for 1 year and 100 non diabetic children for comparison. “DSM-5 parent/guardian-Rated Level 1 & 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure –Child age 6-17” was used to assess psychosocial illness, specific domains and severity. Socio-demographic variables were studied and HbA1c levels were measured. Results Significantly higher prevalence of psychosocial illness was observed in children with T1DM as compared with non diabetic group (55.95% vs 20%; p<0.0001). The prevalence for mild, moderate and severe psychosocial illness was 8.33%, 27.38% and 20.24% respectively in diabetic children. Most common psychosocial abnormality was irritation (38.1%), followed by depression (36.9%) and anxiety (32.1%). The prevalence of psychosocial illness was significantly higher in T1DM patients with poorer metabolic control (HbA1c>7.5, p=0.014). Significant association of psychosocial illness was also noticed with poor dietary compliance (p=0.021) and higher mean HbA1c level (p<0.001). Conclusion This study established T1DM as a risk factor for development of psychosocial illness. Irritation, depression and anxiety were most common abnormalities. Significant association of psychosocial illness with poor dietary compliance and poor metabolic control was observed. Psychosocial assessment of every diabetic child is suggested for optimal management. PMID:27790539

  19. [Co-production of knowledge about custody criteria with subjects affected by their parents' custody dispute: a participatory study].

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, Karl-Franz

    2004-03-01

    This article explores methods within a longitudinal study for allowing subjects more direct participation in research as co-producers of scientific knowledge concerning custody decision-making after divorce. The purpose of the longitudinal study was to evaluate the scientific custody criteria that were applied to children after their parents' divorce. The results of the study, published after the first survey, showed the relevance of children's personal preferences and residence wishes for custody regulations. This was formulated as a general rule for custody decision-making. In the second survey, a copy of our scientific publication written after the first survey, including summaries and a questionnaire was sent to the children involved. They were asked to judge the presentation of the custody problem, the custody recommendations and the presentation of their case history in our publication. Most of the participants (60%) voted for the application of the custody criterion "personal relationship preferences and residence wishes", but they also pointed out the difficulties for the child to articulate those wishes. Together with other studies, the participatory study contributed to a paradigm shift: from an understanding of the custody problem as a structural question concerning the suitability of maternal, paternal or joint custody to a conceptualisation of the custody problem as a decision-making process that demands the participation of the child and professional support if need be. Finally, the value of participatory research methods in divorce research and longitudinal social studies of children and childhood are discussed.

  20. Factors Affecting Recruitment of Participants for Studies of Diabetes Technology in Newly Diagnosed Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: A Qualitative Focus Group Study with Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Janet; Tauschmann, Martin; Randell, Tabitha; Trevelyan, Nicola; Hovorka, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Relatively little is known about parents' or children's attitudes toward recruitment for, and participation in, studies of new diabetes technologies immediately after diagnosis. This study investigated factors affecting recruitment of participants for studies in newly diagnosed youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Qualitative focus group study incorporating four recorded focus groups, conducted in four outpatient pediatric diabetes clinics in large regional hospitals in England. Participants comprised four groups of parents (n = 22) and youth (n = 17) with type 1 diabetes, purposively sampled on the basis of past involvement (either participation or nonparticipation) in an ongoing two-arm randomized trial comparing multiple daily injection with conventional continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion regimens from the onset of type 1 diabetes. Results: Stress associated with diagnosis presents significant challenges in terms of study recruitment, with parents demonstrating varied levels of willingness to be approached soon after diagnosis. Additional challenges arise regarding the following: randomization when study arms are perceived as sharply differentiated in terms of therapy effectiveness; burdens arising from study participation; and the need to surrender new technologies following the end of the study. However, these challenges were mostly insufficient to rule out study participation. Participants emphasized the benefits and reassurance arising from support provided by staff and fellow study participants. Conclusions: Recruitment to studies of new diabetes technologies immediately after diagnosis in youth presents significant challenges, but these are not insurmountable. The stress and uncertainty arising from potential participation may be alleviated by personalized discussion with staff and peer support from fellow study participants. PMID:27355100

  1. Parental rearing style, premorbid personality, mental health, and quality of life in chronic regional pain: A causal analysis.

    PubMed

    Lung, For-Wey; Huang, Yi-Lin; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Fei-Yin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to establish the causal model among parental bonding, personality characteristics, mental health, quality of life, and chronic regional pain (CRP). Thirty CRP patients and 56 mental illness patients were compared using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief-Tawain Version (WHOQOL-BREF-TW), and Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). There were significant differences in mental health, personality characteristics, and quality of life between the CRP and mental illness groups. Structural equation modeling showed that parental bonding could directly affect personality characteristics, and, hence, directly impact disease and quality of life. CRP is different from mental illness in many dimensions. In this study, CRP appeared to be caused by actual physical dysfunction rather than mental dysfunction.

  2. Sample Length Affects the Reliability of Language Sample Measures in 3-Year-Olds: Evidence From Parent-Elicited Conversational Samples

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Sarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which sample length affected the reliability of total number of words (TNW), number of different words (NDW), and mean length of C-units in morphemes (MLCUm) in parent-elicited conversational samples for 3-year-olds. Method Participants were sixty 3-year-olds. A 22-min language sample was collected from each child during free play with the parent in the laboratory. Samples of 1, 3, 7, and 10 min were extracted from the 22-min samples. TNW, NDW, and MLCUm were computed from each shorter sample and the 22-min sample. TNW and NDW were adjusted by number of minutes for comparisons. The differences and correlations between each shorter sample cut and the 22-min sample on MLCUm and adjusted TNW and NDW were computed. Results The shorter samples and the 22-min samples significantly differed in adjusted TNW and NDW, but not in MLCUm. TNW reached an acceptable reliability level (i.e., r = .90) in 7-min samples. NDW and MLCUm approached the acceptable reliability level (rs = .88) in 7-min samples and reached it in 10-min samples. Conclusion For conversational language samples with similar collection procedures, samples of 7 to 10 min are desirable for calculating TNW, NDW, and MLCUm in 3-year-olds. PMID:25615272

  3. The Effects of Parents' Psychiatric Disorders on Children's High School Dropout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farahati, F.; Marcotte, D. E.; Wilcox-Gok, V.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effect of parents' mental illness on the schooling of their children. Finds that parents' mental illnesses increase the probability of high school dropout of children, though these effects differ markedly with disease. Also finds that parental mental illness has more consistently negative effects on girls than on boys. (Contains…

  4. [Parenting capacity of mothers with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, A; Spyropoulou, A; Zervas, I

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the pregnancy rates of mothers with schizophrenia do not differ significantly from those of the general population. Mothers' severe mental illness, combined with poor social support and comorbidity, may significantly affect her parenting capacity. However, the poor quality of parenting by psychotic mothers should not be taken for granted, in advance. Some of them may become excellent parents while other may abuse their children and finally lose custody because of this. The parenting capacity is significantly influenced by the existing insight of patient-parent's disease. Assessing the parenting capacity comprises the measurement of insight and of the risk of child abuse as well. Factors associated with increased risk for child abuse are: (a) active psychiatric symptomatology, (b) history of violent behavior in the past, (c) maternal history of abuse during childhood, (d) dangerous domestic environment, (e) stressful events and poor social support to the mother and (f) unrealistic parental expectations. These factors should be assessed both clinically and by using the appropriate psychometric tools. Tools which have been widely used for this purpose are: (a) "Schedule for Assessment of Insight-SAI", (b) "Childhood Trauma Interview", (c) "Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment Inventory-HOME" and "Home Screening Questionnaire -HSQ", (d) "Parental Stress Inventory-PSI", "Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire-SPSQ", "Arizona Social Support Inventory" (e) "Parent Opinion Questionnaire-POQ". Interventions to ensure a more adequate parenting capacity should be focused on family planning: mothers with severe mental illness have poor knowledge about reproductive and contraception issues. Their pregnancies are mostly not planned. It is important for the family planning to be tailored according to the specific needs of schizophrenic mothers and to take into account the following issues: (a) the severity and the duration

  5. Caring for mentally ill people.

    PubMed Central

    van Os, J.; Neeleman, J.

    1994-01-01

    Despite legislation to harmonise mental health practice throughout Europe and convergence in systems of training there remains an extraordinary diversity in psychiatric practice in Europe. Approaches to tackling substance misuse vary among nations; statistics on psychiatric morbidity are affected by different approaches to diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders; attitudes towards mental illness show definite international differences. Everywhere, though, mental health care for patients with psychotic illnesses is a "cinderella service," and there is a general move towards care falling increasingly on the family and the community. PMID:7987157

  6. Illness beliefs in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kinderman, Peter; Setzu, Erika; Lobban, Fiona; Salmon, Peter

    2006-10-01

    Beliefs about health and illness shape emotional responses to illness, health-related behaviour and relationships with health-care providers in physical illness. Researchers are beginning to study the illness beliefs of people with psychosis, primarily using models developed in relation to physical illness. It is likely that modifications to these models will be necessary if they are to apply to mental disorders, and it is probable that some of the assumptions underlying the models will be inappropriate. In particular, different dimensions of understanding may be present in mental illness in comparison to those identified in physical illness. The present study examines the beliefs of 20 patients in the UK diagnosed with schizophrenia, including 10 currently psychotic inpatients and 10 outpatients in remission, about their experiences, using qualitative interviews and thematic analysis. Patients currently experiencing psychosis did not identify their experiences as separable 'illnesses' and did not have 'illness beliefs'. Patients currently in a period of remission appraised their experiences as distinct from their own normal behaviour, but used conceptual frameworks of understanding that deviated significantly from conventional 'health belief' models. Patients' ways of understanding mental illness did not parallel those described in physical illnesses. Methods for assessing beliefs about mental illness should therefore not be transferred directly from studies of beliefs about physical illness, but should be tailored to the nature of patients' beliefs about mental illness. PMID:16777306

  7. Outbreak of Mass Sociogenic Illness in a School Feeding Program in Northwest Bangladesh, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Farhana; Kundu, Subodh Kumar; Islam, Md Saiful; Hasan, S. M. Murshid; Khatun, Asma; Gope, Partha Sarathi; Mahmud, Zahid Hayat; Alamgir, A. S. M.; Islam, M. Sirajul; Rahman, Mahmudur; Luby, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010, an acute illness outbreak was reported in school students eating high-energy biscuits supplied by the school feeding programme in northwest Bangladesh. We investigated this outbreak to describe the illness in terms of person, place and time, develop the timeline of events, and determine the cause and community perceptions regarding the outbreak. Methods We defined case-patients as students from affected schools reporting any two symptoms including abdominal pain, heartburn, bitter taste, and headache after eating biscuits on the day of illness. We conducted in-depth interviews and group discussions with students, teachers, parents and community members to explore symptoms, exposures, and community perceptions. We conducted a questionnaire survey among case-patients to determine the symptoms and ascertain food items eaten 12 hours before illness onset, and microbiological and environmental investigations. Results Among 142 students seeking hospital care, 44 students from four schools qualified as case-patients. Of these, we surveyed 30 who had a mean age of 9 years; 70% (21/30) were females. Predominant symptoms included abdominal pain (93%), heartburn (90%), and bitter taste (57%). All students recovered within a few hours. No pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Shigella or Salmonella spp. were isolated from collected stool samples. We found no rancid biscuits in schools and storage sites. The female index case perceived the unusually darker packet label as a “devil’s deed” that made the biscuits poisonous. Many students, parents and community members reported concerns about rumors of students dying from biscuit poisoning. Conclusions Rapid onset, followed by rapid recovery of symptoms; female preponderance; inconsistent physical, microbiological and environmental findings suggested mass sociogenic illness rather than a foodborne or toxic cause. Rumours of student deaths heightening community anxiety apparently propagated this outbreak. Sharing

  8. The role of parenting in affecting the behavior and adaptive functioning of young children of HIV-infected mothers in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Eloff, Irma; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W C

    2014-03-01

    Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers' psychological functioning, parenting, and children's behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent-child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent-child dysfunction are associated with children's behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach.

  9. 32 CFR 732.18 - Notification of illness or injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notification of illness or injury. 732.18... illness or injury. (a) Member's responsibility. (1) If able, members must notify or cause their parent... medical or dental attention in a non-Federal facility. The member will also assure (request the...

  10. Does Major Illness Cause Financial Catastrophe?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Keziah; Dranove, David; Sfekas, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examine the financial impact of major illnesses on the near-elderly and how this impact is affected by health insurance. Data Sources We use RAND Corporation extracts from the Health and Retirement Study from 1992 to 2006.1 Study Design Our dependent variable is the change in household assets, excluding the value of the primary home. We use triple difference median regressions on a sample of newly ill/uninsured near elderly (under age 65) matched to newly ill/insured near elderly. We also include a matched control group of households whose members are not ill. Results Controlling for the effects of insurance status and illness, we find that the median household with a newly ill, uninsured individual suffers a statistically significant decline in household assets of between 30 and 50 percent relative to households with matched insured individuals. Newly ill, insured individuals do not experience a decline in wealth. Conclusions Newly ill/uninsured households appear to be one illness away from financial catastrophe. Newly ill insured households who are matched to uninsured households appear to be protected against financial loss, at least in the near term. PMID:19840132

  11. Technology, Society, and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    SE Keefe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise. PMID:23346519

  12. Anticipation or ascertainment bias in schizophrenia? Penrose`s familial mental illness sample

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, A.S. |; Husted, J.

    1997-03-01

    Several studies have observed anticipation (earlier age at onset [AAO] in successive generations) in familial schizophrenia. However, whether true anticipation or ascertainment bias is the principal originating mechanism remains unclear. In 1944 L.S. Penrose collected AAO data on a large, representative sample of familial mental illness, using a broad ascertainment strategy. These data allowed examination of anticipation and ascertainment biases in five two-generation samples of affected relative pairs. The median intergenerational difference (MID) in AAO was used to assess anticipation. Results showed significant anticipation in parent-offspring pairs with schizophrenia (n = 137 pairs; MID 15 years; P = .0001) and in a positive control sample with Huntington disease (n = 11; P = .01). Broadening the diagnosis of the schizophrenia sample suggested anticipation of severity of illness. However, other analyses provided evidence for ascertainment bias, especially in later-AAO parents, in parent-offspring pairs. Aunt/uncle-niece/nephew schizophrenia pairs showed anticipation (n = 111; P = .0001), but the MID was 8 years and aunts/uncles had earlier median AAO than parents. Anticipation effects were greatest in pairs with late-AAO parents but remained significant in a subgroup of schizophrenia pairs with early parental AAO (n = 31; P = .03). A small control sample of other diseases had MID of 5 years but no significant anticipation (n = 9; F = .38). These results suggest that, although ascertainment-bias effects were observed in parent-offspring pairs, true anticipation appears to be inherent in the transmission of familial schizophrenia. The findings support investigations of unstable mutations and other mechanisms that may contribute to true anticipation in schizophrenia. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Consumer Informatics in Chronic Illness

    PubMed Central

    Tetzlaff, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To explore the informatic requirements in the home care of chronically ill patients. Design: A number of strategies were deployed to help evoke a picture of home care informatics needs: A detailed questionnaire evaluating informational needs and assessing programmable technologies was distributed to a clinic population of parents of children with cancer. Open ended questionnaires were distributed to medical staff and parents soliciting a list of questions asked of medical staff. Parent procedure training was observed to evaluate the training dialog, and parents were observed interacting with a prototype information and education computer offering. Results: Parents' concerns ranged from the details of managing day to day, to conceptual information about disease and treatment, to management of psychosocial problems. They sought information to solve problems and to provide emotional support, which may create conflicts of interest when the material is threatening. Whether they preferred to be informed by a doctor, nurse, or another parent depended on the nature of the information. Live interaction was preferred to video, which was preferred to text for all topics. Respondents used existing technologies in a straightforward way but were enthusiastic about the proposed use of computer technology to support home care. Multimedia solutions appear to complement user needs and preferences. Conclusion: Consumers appear positively disposed toward on-line solutions. On-line systems can offer breadth, depth and timeliness currently unattainable. Patients should be involved in the formation and development process in much the same way that users are involved in usercentered computer interface design. A generic framework for patient content is presented that could be applied across multiple disorders. PMID:9223035

  14. Longitudinal impact of parental and adolescent personality on parenting.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Amaranta D; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a test of how personality may shape social behaviors in a long-lasting dyad: the parent-adolescent relationship. In a large Belgian community sample, it was examined which parent Big Five characteristics were related to parenting and whether adolescent Big Five characteristics elicited certain parenting behaviors. Further, the proposition that individual differences are amplified under stress was examined by exploring whether parent personality was differentially related to parenting for parents of "easy" versus "difficult" adolescents. Moreover, possible differences in associations across parental and adolescent gender were explored. Mothers (N = 467) and fathers (N = 428) reported on their personality using the Five-Factor Personality Inventory; adolescents (N = 475) assessed their personality with the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children. Two types of parenting behaviors, overreactive discipline and warmth, were assessed 2 years later by parent self-reports, partner reports, and adolescent reports, from which multi-informant latent factors were created. Results indicate that parental personality was more relevant than adolescent personality for explaining overreactivity, but parent and adolescent personality were similarly relevant in explaining warmth. Especially parental and adolescent Agreeableness and adolescent Extraversion were important predictors of both types of parenting. Associations between parental personality and parenting were similarly related to parents of easy versus difficult adolescents, and for mothers and fathers parenting daughters or sons. Together, results show that parent characteristics as well as adolescent characteristics importantly affect dysfunctional and adaptive parenting.

  15. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions, and Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play)…

  16. Parenting Education - Parent-Child Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    Part of the series on parenting education for American Indians, this booklet discusses some of the common communication problems parents face with their children as the children grow older. There are various ways of communicating, such as by sounds, by words, by sentences, by touch, by holding and showing affection, by body language, and by using…

  17. Chronically Ill Children in America: Background and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Nicholas; And Others

    The report examines chronic illness in children and considers issues and recommendations for change in public policies and programs affecting chronically ill children and their families. The background chapter notes the significance of the problem, reviews 11 diseases that are representative of the severe chronic illnesses of childhood: juvenile…

  18. Changing Factors associated with Parent Activation after Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Pennarola, Brian W.; Rodday, Angie Mae; Bingen, Kristin; Schwartz, Lisa A.; Patel, Sunita K.; Syrjala, Karen L.; Mayer, Deborah K.; Ratichek, Sara J.; Guinan, Eva C.; Kupst, Mary Jo; Hibbard, Judith H.; Parsons, Susan K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To identify factors associated with parent activation in parents of children undergoing pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in the 6 months following HSCT, and to address if their association with parent activation changes over time. Methods Measures for this analysis, including the Parent Patient Activation Measure (Parent-PAM), were completed by parents (N=198) prior to their child’s HSCT preparative regimen and again at 6 months post-HSCT. Clinical data were also collected. A repeated measures model was built to estimate the association between clinical and demographic factors and parent well-being on Parent-PAM scores. Interactions with time were considered to test for changing effects over time. Results Throughout the HSCT course, older parent age was associated with lower Parent-PAM scores (β=−0.29, p=0.02) and never being married was associated with higher scores (versus married, β=12.27, p=0.03). While higher parent emotional functioning scores were not associated with activation at baseline, they were important at 6 months (baseline: β=−0.002, p=0.96; interaction: β=0.14, p=0.03). At baseline longer duration of illness was associated with increased activation, but this effect diminished with time (baseline: β=3.29, p=0.0002; interaction: β=−2.40, p=0.02). Activation levels dropped for parents of children who went from private to public insurance (baseline: β=2.95, p=0.53; interaction: β=−13.82, p=0.004). Clinical events did not affect Parent-PAM scores. Conclusions Our findings reveal important changes in the factors associated with parent activation in the first 6 months after pediatric HSCT. These findings may reflect the emotional and financial toll of pediatric HSCT on parent activation. PMID:25519755

  19. The Role of Parenting in Affecting the Behavior and Adaptive Functioning of Young Children of HIV-Infected Mothers in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alexandra Boeving; Finestone, Michelle; Sipsma, Heather; Makin, Jennifer; Triplett, Kelli; Ebersöhn, Liesel; Sikkema, Kathleen; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret; Visser, Maretha; Ferreira, Ronél; Forsyth, Brian W. C.

    2013-01-01

    Prior investigations suggest that maternal HIV/AIDS poses significant challenges to young children. This study investigates the relationships between mothers’ psychological functioning, parenting, and children’s behavioral outcomes and functioning in a population of women living with HIV (N = 361) with a child between the ages of 6 and 10 years in Tshwane, South Africa. Utilizing path analysis, findings revealed that maternal depression is related to increased parenting stress and parent–child dysfunction, maternal coping is related to parenting style, and maternal coping, parenting style and stress, and parent–child dysfunction are associated with children’s behavior and functioning, with parenting emerging as an important mediator. These findings suggest that interventions for women living with HIV and their children should not only address maternal psychological functioning (depression and coping), but should also focus on parenting, promoting a positive approach. PMID:23892768

  20. The Role of the Parent Compound Vitamin D with Respect to Metabolism and Function: Why Clinical Dose Intervals Can Affect Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Context: There is no doubt that vitamin D must be activated to the hormonal form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to achieve full biological activity or that many tissues participate in this activation process—be it endocrine or autocrine. We believe that not only is 25-hydroxyvitamin D important to tissue delivery for this activation process, but also that intact vitamin D has a pivotal role in this process. Objective: In this review, evidence on the vitamin D endocrine/autocrine system is presented and discussed in relation to vitamin D-binding protein affinity, circulating half-lives, and enzymatic transformations of vitamin D metabolites, and how these affect biological action in any given tissue. Conclusions: Circulating vitamin D, the parent compound, likely plays an important physiological role with respect to the vitamin D endocrine/autocrine system, as a substrate in many tissues, not originally thought to be important. Based on emerging data from the laboratory, clinical trials, and data on circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D amassed during many decades, it is likely that for the optimal functioning of these systems, significant vitamin D should be available on a daily basis to ensure stable circulating concentrations, implying that variation in vitamin D dosing schedules could have profound effects on the outcomes of clinical trials because of the short circulating half-life of intact vitamin D. PMID:24106283

  1. Finger patterns and age of onset for the determination of the parent-of-origin in the transmission of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ponnudurai, R.; Jayakar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Dermatoglyphic traits which are reported to be largely determined by genes could be considered as phenotypic characterestics and if the same are expressed through generations in schizophrenic families it can be speculated to serve as genetic markers for schizophrenia. Another factor that might be influenced by genes is the age of onset of the illness in the offspring and the parent of origin. Objective: This study was aimed to elucidate the occurrence of identical finger patterns in the schizophrenic patients and their affected parents. The other objective was to assess the age of onset of the illness in them. Methods: Forty six schizophrenic patients in whom one of the parents was also affected with schizophrenia or related disorders were recruited. Of these pairs 29 were taken up for finger patterns analysis, with an equal number of control group pairs. 35 proband and parent pairs were investigated for the age of onset of the illness. Results: The frequency of occurrence of identical patterns in the right thumbs of proband and their affected mother pairs was significantly more than between the proband and their affected father pairs. Additionally, the number of identical patterns was also more in the right thumbs of proband and their affected mother pairs compared with the control group. The difference between the mean age of onset of the illness in the probands and their affected fathers was more than between the probands and their affected mothers. Conclusion: The genetic association of schizophrenic patients with the affected maternal side appear to be more stronger than with the paternal side. PMID:25657454

  2. "If God wills...next year I will send her back to school": The Effects of Child and Parental Illness on School Participation in Rural Ethiopia. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkin, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Rural Ethiopian children, and members of their households, often suffer from common and preventable but debilitating illnesses, such as malaria, parasite infection and worms. Enrolment rates in Ethiopia are high, but school attendance is patchy, children often drop out of school (although they sometimes return), and grade repetition is common.…

  3. Parental caregiving of children with cancer and family impact, economic burden: nursing perspectives.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phoebe D; Williams, Kirstin A; Williams, Arthur R

    2014-03-01

    Pediatric cancer diagnoses affect the entire family: parents, well siblings, the ill child, and others. The objective of this study was to review nursing studies on parental caregiving of children with cancer, family impact, and costs. The study used inclusion/exclusion criteria and family systems theory, self/dependent-care, and symptom management (monitoring, alleviation) concepts. Regarding "levels of evidence," 3 studies were Level II; 7 were Level IV; 7 were Level VI; 1 review was Level V and the second was Level I. Of 19 studies: 11 were qualitative; 4, quantitative; 2 were mixed methods. Content analysis themes were: Parental caregiving and family impact, economic burden. Conclusions were that (a) qualitative studies are predominant; findings supported quantitative findings; (b) quantitative nursing studies are less common: found one longitudinal, randomized controlled trial (RCT) focused on outcomes of an intervention for well siblings and parents, implemented by Clinical Nurse Specialists, CNSs; (c) few quantitative studies with large samples were found, especially ones with theoretical models of the family system and measures of illness impact on families; and (d) "mixed methods" longitudinal nursing research is illustrated. There is a need for "evidence-based" practice (EBP) nursing studies of interventions focused on parent education/support/assistance; respite care, and increasing family/well sibling knowledge/other information on the child's illness. PMID:24261317

  4. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Process of Parental Adaptation and Implications for Genetic Counseling.

    PubMed

    Andrighetti, Heather; Semaka, Alicia; Stewart, S Evelyn; Shuman, Cheryl; Hayeems, Robin; Austin, Jehannine

    2016-10-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has primarily pediatric onset and well-documented unique impacts on family functioning. Limited research has assessed the understanding that parents of children with OCD have of the etiology of the condition, and there are no data regarding potential applications of genetic counseling for this population. We recruited 13 parents of 13 children diagnosed with OCD from the OCD Registry at British Columbia Children's Hospital, and conducted qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews to explore participants' experiences with their child's OCD, causal attributions of OCD, and perceptions of two genetic counseling vignettes. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using elements of grounded theory qualitative methodology. Analysis revealed key components and contextual elements of the process through which parents adapt to their child's OCD. This adaptation process involved conceptualizing the meaning of OCD, navigating its impact on family dynamics, and developing effective illness management strategies. Adaptation took place against a backdrop of stigmatization and was shaped by participants' family history of mental illness and their child's specific manifestations of OCD. Parents perceived genetic counseling, as described in the vignettes, as being empowering, alleviating guilt and blame, and positively impacting treatment orientation. These data provide insight into the process of parental adaptation to pediatric OCD, and suggest that genetic counseling services for families affected by OCD may help facilitate adaptation to this illness.

  5. Maternal Personality, Parenting Cognitions and Parenting Practices

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O. Maurice

    2011-01-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the Five-Factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the five personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process. PMID:21443335

  6. Maternal personality, parenting cognitions, and parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Haynes, O Maurice

    2011-05-01

    A community sample of 262 European American mothers of firstborn 20-month-olds completed a personality inventory and measures of parenting cognitions (knowledge, self-perceptions, and reports about behavior) and was observed in interaction with their children from which measures of parenting practices (language, sensitivity, affection, and play) were independently coded. Factor analyses of the personality inventory replicated extraction of the 5-factor model of personality (Openness, Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). When controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, the 5 personality factors qua variables and in patterns qua clusters related differently to diverse parenting cognitions and practices, supporting the multidimensional, modular, and specific nature of parenting. Maternal personality in the normal range, a theoretically important but empirically neglected factor in everyday parenting, has meaning in studies of parenting, child development, and family process.

  7. Authoritative parenting, parenting stress, and self-care in pre-adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Maureen; Horn, Ivor B; Alvarez, Vanessa; Cogen, Fran R; Streisand, Randi

    2012-09-01

    Parent involvement in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care leads to improved adherence; however, the manner in which parents approach illness management interactions with children must also be considered. It was hypothesized that greater use of an authoritative parenting style and less parenting stress would be associated with greater behavioral adherence and better metabolic control. Ninety-five primary caregivers of preadolescents (ages 8-11) with T1DM completed questionnaires assessing parenting style, pediatric parenting stress, and child behavioral adherence. Caregivers primarily self-identified as using an authoritative parenting style. Greater authoritative parenting was associated with greater behavioral adherence and less difficulty with pediatric parenting stress; no differences in metabolic control were observed. Greater engagement in authoritative parenting behaviors may contribute to increased age-appropriate child behavioral adherence and less pediatric parenting stress. Interventions highlighting diabetes-specific authoritative parenting techniques may enhance health outcomes and improve overall family functioning.

  8. How do macro-level contexts and policies affect the employment chances of chronically ill and disabled people? Part II: The impact of active and passive labor market policies.

    PubMed

    Holland, Paula; Nylén, Lotta; Thielen, Karsten; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Chen, Wen-Hao; Barr, Ben; Burström, Bo; Diderichsen, Finn; Andersen, Per Kragh; Dahl, Espen; Uppal, Sharanjit; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigate three hypotheses on the influence of labor market deregulation, decommodification, and investment in active labor market policies on the employment of chronically ill and disabled people. The study explores the interaction between employment, chronic illness, and educational level for men and women in Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom, countries with advanced social welfare systems and universal health care but with varying types of active and passive labor market policies. People with chronic illness were found to fare better in employment terms in the Nordic countries than in Canada or the United Kingdom. Their employment chances also varied by educational level and country. The employment impact of having both chronic illness and low education was not just additive but synergistic. This amplification was strongest for British men and women, Norwegian men, and Danish women. Hypotheses on the disincentive effects of tighter employment regulation or more generous welfare benefits were not supported. The hypothesis that greater investments in active labor market policies may improve the employment of chronically ill people was partially supported. Attention must be paid to the differential impact of macro-level policies on the labor market participation of chronically ill and disabled people with low education, a group facing multiple barriers to gaining employment. PMID:21842571

  9. Affective circuitry and risk for alcoholism in late adolescence: Differences in frontostriatal responses between vulnerable and resilient children of alcoholic parents

    PubMed Central

    Heitzeg, Mary M.; Nigg, Joel T.; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Children of alcoholics (COAs) are at elevated risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD), yet not all COAs will develop AUD. The two primary aims of this study were to identify neural activation mechanisms that may mark protection or vulnerability to AUD in COAs and to map the same activation patterns in relation to risk behavior (externalizing or internalizing behavior). Methods Twenty-two adolescent COAs were recruited from an ongoing community longitudinal study of alcoholic and matched control families. They were categorized as either vulnerable (n=11) or resilient (n=11) based on level of problem drinking over the course of adolescence. Six other adolescents with no parental history of alcoholism, and no evidence of their own problem drinking were recruited from the same study and labeled as low-risk controls. Valenced words were presented to the participants in a passive viewing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Activation to negative versus neutral words and positive versus neutral words were compared between groups. Behavior problems were assessed with the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Results The resilient COA group had more activation of the orbital frontal gyrus, bilaterally, and left insula/putamen than the control and vulnerable groups, in response to emotional stimuli. In contrast, the vulnerable group had more activation of the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and less activation of the ventral striatum and extended amygdala, bilaterally, to emotional stimuli than the control and resilient groups. The vulnerable group had more externalizing behaviors which correlated with increased dorsomedial prefrontal activation and decreased ventral striatal and extended amygdala activation. Conclusions These results are consistent with dissociable patterns of neural activation underlying risk and resiliency in COAs. We propose that the pattern observed in the resilient COAs represents an active emotional monitoring function, which may be a

  10. Development of the parental needs scale for rare diseases: a tool for measuring the supportive care needs of parents caring for a child with a rare disease

    PubMed Central

    Pelentsov, Lemuel J; Fielder, Andrea L; Laws, Thomas A; Esterman, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    Background Children and families affected by rare diseases have received scant consideration from the medical, scientific, and political communities, with parents’ needs especially having received little attention. Affected parents often have limited access to information and support and appropriate health care services. While scales to measure the needs of parents of children with chronic illnesses have been developed, there have been no previous attempts to develop a scale to assess the needs of parents of children with rare diseases. Objective To develop a scale for measuring the supportive care needs of parents of children with rare diseases. Method A total of 301 responses to our Parental Needs Survey were randomly divided into two halves, one for exploratory factor analysis and the other for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). After removing unsuitable items, exploratory factor analysis was undertaken to determine the factor structure of the data. CFA using structural equation modeling was then undertaken to confirm the factor structure. Results Seventy-two items were entered into the CFA, with a scree plot showing a likely four-factor solution. The results provided four independent subscales of parental needs: Understanding the disease (four items); Working with health professionals (four items); Emotional issues (three items); and Financial needs (three items). The structural equation modeling confirmed the suitability of the four-factor solution and demonstrated that the four subscales could be added to provide an overall scale of parental need. Conclusion This is the first scale developed to measure the supportive care needs of parents of children with rare diseases. The scale is suitable for use in surveys to develop policy, in individual clinical assessments, and, potentially, for evaluating new programs. Measuring the supportive care needs of parents caring for a child with a rare disease will hopefully lead to better physical and psychological

  11. Development of the parental needs scale for rare diseases: a tool for measuring the supportive care needs of parents caring for a child with a rare disease

    PubMed Central

    Pelentsov, Lemuel J; Fielder, Andrea L; Laws, Thomas A; Esterman, Adrian J

    2016-01-01

    Background Children and families affected by rare diseases have received scant consideration from the medical, scientific, and political communities, with parents’ needs especially having received little attention. Affected parents often have limited access to information and support and appropriate health care services. While scales to measure the needs of parents of children with chronic illnesses have been developed, there have been no previous attempts to develop a scale to assess the needs of parents of children with rare diseases. Objective To develop a scale for measuring the supportive care needs of parents of children with rare diseases. Method A total of 301 responses to our Parental Needs Survey were randomly divided into two halves, one for exploratory factor analysis and the other for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). After removing unsuitable items, exploratory factor analysis was undertaken to determine the factor structure of the data. CFA using structural equation modeling was then undertaken to confirm the factor structure. Results Seventy-two items were entered into the CFA, with a scree plot showing a likely four-factor solution. The results provided four independent subscales of parental needs: Understanding the disease (four items); Working with health professionals (four items); Emotional issues (three items); and Financial needs (three items). The structural equation modeling confirmed the suitability of the four-factor solution and demonstrated that the four subscales could be added to provide an overall scale of parental need. Conclusion This is the first scale developed to measure the supportive care needs of parents of children with rare diseases. The scale is suitable for use in surveys to develop policy, in individual clinical assessments, and, potentially, for evaluating new programs. Measuring the supportive care needs of parents caring for a child with a rare disease will hopefully lead to better physical and psychological

  12. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder.

  13. Gender differences in parenting a child with cancer.

    PubMed

    Brown, K A; Barbarin, O A

    1996-01-01

    This study of 124 parents of children diagnosed with cancer investigates parents' perceptions of their role in the illness situation. The study found that mothers and fathers differ in their experience of and response to parenting a child with cancer. These differences appear to reflect traditional parenting roles characterized by a gender-based division of labor. Sex-role socialization theory is discussed as an explanatory model of the parenting experience. Practice recommendations are offered to medical social workers and other health care professionals concerned about the long term psychosocial adjustment of parents with chronically ill children.

  14. Parental obesity and overweight affect the body-fat accumulation in the offspring: the possible effect of a high-fat diet through epigenetic inheritance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Suzuki, M

    2006-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in adults has been rising continually, as has the prevalence of childhood obesity, and a large number of epidemiological studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between parental obesity and childhood obesity. In this paper, we review the effect of diet, the intrauterine environment, and the genetic inheritance on obesity. We described a study in detail that used experimental animals as a model to investigate the effect of a parental high-fat diet on body-fat accumulation in their offspring. Fertilized eggs were transplanted in that study, and body-fat accumulation in the offspring of the parents fed a high-fat diet was found to be greater than in the offspring of the parents fed a low-fat diet, even when the experimental conditions were the same in the intrauterine and subsequent environment. The results suggested that a parental high-fat diet before intrauterine developmental stage may increase body-fat accumulation in the offspring. We discuss the possibility that parental diet may influence the lifelong health of offspring and epigenetic inheritance may be occurred.

  15. Darwin's illness: a final diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Fernando; Quintana, Carlos

    2007-01-22

    We have re-examined many of the abundant publications on the illness that afflicted Charles Darwin during most of his life, including some of the 416 health-related letters in his correspondence, as well as his autobiographical writings. We have concluded that he suffered from Crohn's disease, located mainly in his upper small intestine. This explains his upper abdominal pain, his flatulence and vomiting, as well as his articular and neurological symptoms, his 'extreme fatigue', low fever and especially the chronic, relapsing course of his illness that evolved in bouts, did not affect his life expectancy and decreased with old age, and also the time of life at which it started. It apparently does not explain, however, many of his cutaneous symptoms. We do not support other diagnoses such as Chagas' disease, lactose intolerance or the many psychiatric conditions that have been postulated. PMID:17575947

  16. Darwin's illness: a final diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Fernando; Quintana, Carlos

    2007-01-22

    We have re-examined many of the abundant publications on the illness that afflicted Charles Darwin during most of his life, including some of the 416 health-related letters in his correspondence, as well as his autobiographical writings. We have concluded that he suffered from Crohn's disease, located mainly in his upper small intestine. This explains his upper abdominal pain, his flatulence and vomiting, as well as his articular and neurological symptoms, his 'extreme fatigue', low fever and especially the chronic, relapsing course of his illness that evolved in bouts, did not affect his life expectancy and decreased with old age, and also the time of life at which it started. It apparently does not explain, however, many of his cutaneous symptoms. We do not support other diagnoses such as Chagas' disease, lactose intolerance or the many psychiatric conditions that have been postulated.

  17. MRI in decompression illness.

    PubMed

    Hierholzer, J; Tempka, A; Stroszczynski, C; Amodio, F; Hosten, N; Haas, J; Felix, R

    2000-05-01

    We report a case of decompression illness in which the patient developed paraparesis during scuba diving after rapid ascent. MRI of the spine revealed a focal intramedullary lesion consistent with the symptoms. The pathophysiological and radiological aspects of spinal decompression illness are discussed.

  18. Parental substance use impairment, parenting and substance use disorder risk.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Mericle, Amy A; Meyers, Kathleen; Winters, Ken C

    2012-07-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study investigated substance use disorder (SUD) among respondents with ages 15-54 years as a function of their parents' substance-related impairment and parents' treatment history. In addition, associations among maternal and paternal substance-related impairment, specific parenting behaviors, and risk for SUD in the proband were examined. As expected, parental substance-related impairment was associated with SUD. Paternal treatment history was associated with a decreased risk for SUD in the proband but did not appear to be associated with positive parenting practices. Results of post hoc analyses suggested that parenting behaviors might operate differently to influence SUD risk in children where parents are affected by substance use problems compared with nonaffected families. Future research is warranted to better understand the complex relationships among parental substance use, treatment, parenting behaviors, and SUD risk in offspring. Opportunities might exist within treatment settings to improve parenting skills.

  19. [Parental cancer--parents ways of coping, family functioning, and psychosocial adjustment of dependent children].

    PubMed

    Krattenmacher, Thomas; Kühne, Franziska; Führer, Daniel; Ernst, Johanna; Brähler, Elmar; Herzog, Wolfgang; von Klitzing, Kai; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Bergelt, Corinna; Romer, Georg; Möller, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Children exposed to parental cancer have an increased risk of mental health problems. However, the parental illness itself and its features do not predict children's psychological adjustment. Parent- and family-related factors are more predictive for children's well-being and the incidence of psychopathological symptoms, respectively. This study focuses on parental ways of coping with illness from both, the ill and healthy parent's perspective, and the relationship with family functioning and children's adjustment. Results show a significant impact of parental coping styles on children's health-related quality of life and psychopathological symptoms and, furthermore, that this relationship is mediated by aspects of family functioning. This study support the importance of family systems approaches. Implications for further studies and practical issues are discussed. PMID:22950338

  20. Gender Effects in Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Anne P.; Grossman, Frances K.

    The literature on how parent gender influences responses to children has grown enormously in the past decade; mothers and fathers have been found to differ on many dimensions and to be similar on just as many. Conflicting evidence also exists on how a child's gender affects parenting style. This paper reports some important gender differences in…

  1. Parenting: An Ecological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom, Ed.; Okagaki, Lynn, Ed.

    This book examines various aspects of parenting and influences on parents, including such key contexts affecting child development as school, neighborhood, and culture. After a forward by Urie Bronfenbrenner and a preface by Tom Luster and Lynn Okagaki, which together help to introduce the topics to be discussed, the book is divided into nine…

  2. Parental age and lifespan influence offspring recruitment: a long-term study in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations.

  3. Parental age and lifespan influence offspring recruitment: a long-term study in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  4. Parental Age and Lifespan Influence Offspring Recruitment: A Long-Term Study in a Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6–12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  5. Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, Ed

    The paper discusses the rationale and guidelines for parent involvement in HCEEP (Handicapped Children's Early Education Program) projects. Ways of assessing parents' needs are reviewed, as are four types of services to meet the identified needs: parent education, direct participation, parent counseling, and parent provided programs. Materials and…

  6. Family Functioning and Child Behavioral Problems in Households Affected by HIV and AIDS in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Tonya R; Kidman, Rachel; Nice, Johanna; Ikamari, Lawrence

    2015-08-01

    HIV places acute stressors on affected children and families; especially in resource limited contexts like sub-Saharan Africa. Despite their importance, the epidemic's potential consequences for family dynamics and children's psychological health are understudied. Using a population-based sample of 2,487 caregivers and 3,423 children aged 8-14 years from the Central Province of Kenya, analyses were conducted to examine whether parental illness and loss were associated with family functioning and children's externalizing behaviors. After controlling for demographics, a significant relationship between parental illness and externalizing behaviors was found among children of both genders. Orphan status was associated with behavioral problems among only girls. Regardless of gender, children experiencing both parental loss and illness fared the worst. Family functioning measured from the perspective of both caregivers and children also had an independent and important relationship with behavioral problems. Findings suggest that psychological and behavioral health needs may be elevated in households coping with serious illness and reiterate the importance of a family-centered approach for HIV-affected children.

  7. Parental supervision and delinquency.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D G

    1983-04-01

    A review of the literature suggests that parental supervision over their children is a significant variable in controlling the amount of delinquent behaviour; high supervision is associated with low delinquency. The relationship remains when variables such as mother's affection, parental conflict, parental aggression, mother's self-confidence, father's deviance, father's absence, father's occupation are controlled. And it appears to be effective under extremely adverse conditions such as poverty and authoritarian and repressive methods of child rearing. Training packages providing basic information about processes of child development and emphasizing positive techniques of child management, with parental supervision as an essential ingredient, need to be further developed and evaluated as a means of reducing delinquency.

  8. Life threatening illness and hospice care.

    PubMed

    Stein, A; Forrest, G C; Woolley, H; Baum, J D

    1989-05-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken of 25 families and their 26 ill children attending the first children's hospice in the United Kingdom. The study examined the family's perceptions of the care offered and the impact of chronic and life threatening illness. Eighteen (72%) of the families felt they had been well supported by the hospice and valued the family like atmosphere, perceiving the staff to be friendly, approachable, and helpful. The actual nature of hospice care, in an environment with other terminally ill children, was, however, considered a drawback for a few families. A number of families still had unmet needs, notably appropriate child minding when away from the hospice. The impact of chronic life threatening illness on the families was substantial. The parents (particularly the mothers), the index children, and their siblings all experienced much higher levels of psychological symptomatology than would have been expected from normal samples. While families felt greatly helped over symptom control, a proportion remained very worried about certain symptoms, particularly breathlessness, seizures, and pain. A high proportion of families were experiencing financial and employment difficulties as a result of their children's illnesses.

  9. Life threatening illness and hospice care.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, A; Forrest, G C; Woolley, H; Baum, J D

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken of 25 families and their 26 ill children attending the first children's hospice in the United Kingdom. The study examined the family's perceptions of the care offered and the impact of chronic and life threatening illness. Eighteen (72%) of the families felt they had been well supported by the hospice and valued the family like atmosphere, perceiving the staff to be friendly, approachable, and helpful. The actual nature of hospice care, in an environment with other terminally ill children, was, however, considered a drawback for a few families. A number of families still had unmet needs, notably appropriate child minding when away from the hospice. The impact of chronic life threatening illness on the families was substantial. The parents (particularly the mothers), the index children, and their siblings all experienced much higher levels of psychological symptomatology than would have been expected from normal samples. While families felt greatly helped over symptom control, a proportion remained very worried about certain symptoms, particularly breathlessness, seizures, and pain. A high proportion of families were experiencing financial and employment difficulties as a result of their children's illnesses. PMID:2730123

  10. Including Parents? Education, Citizenship and Parental Agency. Inclusive Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Carol

    This book explores the themes of citizenship, participation, and collective action in relation to education in Britain. It illustrates ways in which social class, gender, and ethnicity affect parent participation. Chapter one discusses the parent as consumer, partner, and citizen. A focus on parents as citizens in Britain reveals passivity and…

  11. Parental Care Aids, but Parental Overprotection Hinders, College Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Matthew B.; Pierce, John D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that students who have troublesome relationships with their parents show higher risk factors for poorer college adjustment. In the present study, we focused on the balance between two key aspects of parenting style, parental care and overprotection, as they affect the transition to college life. Eighty-three undergraduate…

  12. Changing the tide: stigma, school youth, and mental illness.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marsha

    2015-03-01

    Schools are in a key position not only to identify mental health concerns early but to address issues of stigma that prevent both children and their parents from seeking help with mental illness. Stigma associated with mental illness perpetuates isolative behavior and poor engagement within the academic community. Programs within schools that address mental health issues and support open communication with families can reduce the pain and isolation that is often the experience of youth with undiagnosed and untreated mental and emotional disorders.

  13. Parenting Stress, Parental Reactions, and Externalizing Behavior From Ages 4 to 10

    PubMed Central

    Mackler, Jennifer S.; Kelleher, Rachael T.; Shanahan, Lilly; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O’Brien, Marion

    2014-01-01

    The association between parenting stress and child externalizing behavior, and the mediating role of parenting, has yielded inconsistent findings; however, the literature has typically been cross-sectional and unidirectional. In the current study the authors examined the longitudinal transactions among parenting stress, perceived negative parental reactions, and child externalizing at 4, 5, 7, and 10 years old. Models examining parent effects (parenting stress to child behavior), child effects (externalizing to parental reactions and stress), indirect effects of parental reactions, and the transactional associations among all variables, were compared. The transactional model best fit the data, and longitudinal reciprocal effects emerged between parenting stress and externalizing behavior. The mediating role of parental reactions was not supported; however, indirect effects suggest that parenting stress both is affected by and affects parent and child behavior. The complex associations among parent and child variables indicate the importance of interventions to improve the parent–child relationship and reducing parenting stress. PMID:26778852

  14. Parental Monitoring or an Invasion of Privacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A parent's goal is to be sure each teen stays safe, makes responsible decisions, and respects others. But the influence of peers, the temptation of freedom, access to alcohol and other drugs, and unsupervised activities cause parents to fear that their teen may be ill-equipped to negotiate the complicated world. The transition from dependence to…

  15. [Family and chronic paediatric illness].

    PubMed

    Grau Rubio, Claudia; Fernández Hawrylak, M

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric illnesses are always a family problem. Hospitalization, treatments and their long term consequences constitute a challenge for the family. In this paper, we describe the structural, procedural and emotional alterations that affect the family dynamic. We argue that the child should be treated within the family context and propose a multi-dimensional intervention model centered on the family's singularities and specific needs, the support available in their environment, the development of capacities and resilience, and also the organization of user-centered services that are coordinated with all the services provided by the community.

  16. [Family and chronic paediatric illness].

    PubMed

    Grau Rubio, Claudia; Fernández Hawrylak, M

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric illnesses are always a family problem. Hospitalization, treatments and their long term consequences constitute a challenge for the family. In this paper, we describe the structural, procedural and emotional alterations that affect the family dynamic. We argue that the child should be treated within the family context and propose a multi-dimensional intervention model centered on the family's singularities and specific needs, the support available in their environment, the development of capacities and resilience, and also the organization of user-centered services that are coordinated with all the services provided by the community. PMID:20927146

  17. [Nonthyroidal illness (NTI)].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masami

    2012-11-01

    Thyroxine (T4), a major secretory product of thyroid gland, needs to be converted to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) by iodothyronine deiodinases to exert its biological effect. Nonthyroidal illness, also known as low T3 syndrome, is associated with low serum T3 concentrations, which are inversely correlated to the severity of the illness. The patients with nonthyroidal illness do not show compensatory rise in serum TSH concentrations, and sometimes develop low serum T4 and TSH concentrations. It has been postulated that decreased extrathyroidal conversion of T4 to T3 is a responsible mechanism underlying low T3 syndrome. The roles of three types of iodothyronine deiodinases (D1, D2, D3) in the pathophysiology of nonthyroidal illness are discussed.

  18. Symptoms of Tickborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease , southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) , Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) , ehrlichiosis , and tularemia can result ... or neurologic symptoms. The rash seen with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) varies greatly from person to ...

  19. Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home Water Pollution Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Print this Page Air Pollution ...

  20. Help for Mental Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mental Health America National Alliance on Mental Illness University or medical school-affiliated programs may offer treatment options. Search on the website of local university health centers for their psychiatry or psychology departments. ...

  1. Vaccines Stop Illness

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  2. Promoting Resilience: Helping Young Children and Parents Affected by Substance Abuse, Domestic Violence, and Depression in the Context of Welfare Reform. Children and Welfare Reform Issue Brief 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knitzer, Jane

    As states respond to major welfare legislation in providing assistance and other interventions to help adults on welfare become ready to work, the challenge of helping these adults in their parenting skills and in promoting resilience in their children has often been ignored. This issue brief addresses the challenge of promoting resilience in…

  3. A Growth Curve Analysis of the Joint Influences of Parenting Affect, Child Characteristics and Deviant Peers on Adolescent Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pires, Paulo; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    This study purports that parental rejection and warmth are critical to the development of adolescent drug use, and investigates a model that also considers children's vulnerability and deviant peer affiliations. It tests mediation through the proximal risk factor of deviant peers. Poisson growth curve modeling was used to examine participants from…

  4. Anxiety-Promoting Parenting Behaviors: A Comparison of Anxious Parents with and without Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budinger, Meghan Crosby; Drazdowski, Tess K.; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2013-01-01

    While parenting behaviors among anxious parents have been implicated in the familial transmission of anxiety, little is known about whether these parenting behaviors are unique to specific parental anxiety disorders. The current study examined differences in the use of five specific parenting behaviors (i.e., warmth/positive affect, criticism,…

  5. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meghan A; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2012-02-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers' and fathers' parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with lower parenting self-efficacy, but self-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with higher parenting satisfaction. For fathers, societal-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with higher parenting stress, whereas higher levels of self-oriented parenting perfectionism were associated with higher parenting self-efficacy, lower parenting stress, and greater parenting satisfaction. These findings support the distinction between societal- and self-oriented perfectionism, extend research on perfectionism to interpersonal adjustment in the parenting domain, and provide the first evidence for the potential consequences of holding excessively high standards for parenting. PMID:22328797

  6. Compassionate Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stosny, Steven

    Noting that parents' response to their children is essentially emotional and keyed almost exclusively to inferences about their children's emotions, this program for parents teaches compassionate parenting, an approach that provides a secure emotional base from which children explore and interact with their environment as parents develop the…

  7. Parenting with chronic cancer: a relational perspective.

    PubMed

    Golby, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Living with chronic cancer poses unique challenges for parents caring for minor children. The demands of the illness such as pain, fatigue, and loss of mobility, as well as caregiver responsibilities, can conflict with the patient's and partner's idea of what it means to parent. This article examines the ways in which chronic cancer impacts the parental role using Attachment as a theoretical framework. Case examples and implications for clinical practice in both health care and mental health settings are provided.

  8. More stressors prior to and during the course of bipolar illness in patients from the United States compared with the Netherlands and Germany.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele; Nolen, Willem; Kupka, Ralph; Grunze, Heinz; Frye, Mark; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Sue; Keck, Paul; Rowe, Mike

    2013-12-30

    Considerable data suggest that compared to some European countries, in the U.S. there are more childhood onset bipolar disorders, more adverse courses of illness, and greater treatment resistance. Psychosocial variables related to these findings have not been adequately explored. Therefore we analyzed psychosocial stressors in three time domains: childhood; the year prior to illness Onset; and the Last Episode from questionnaires in 968 outpatients (mean age 41) with bipolar I or II disorder; 676 from four sites in the U.S. and 292 from three in the Netherlands and Germany (abbreviated here as Europe). Compared to the Europeans, those from the U.S. had significantly more stressors in childhood and prior to the last episode. Stressors prior to the last episode were related to: childhood stressors; an earlier age at illness onset; anxiety and substance abuse comorbidity; lower income; both parents having an affective illness; and feeling more stigma. These data suggest a greater prevalence of adverse life events in childhood and over the course of bipolar illness in the U.S. compared to the Netherlands and Germany. Clinical, therapeutic, and public health approaches to these illness-relevant stressors require further exploration.

  9. Affectional Patterns of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    This study sought to determine if there is a shift with age in affection (1) from parents to friends, (2) from one parent to the other, and (3) from same-sex to opposite-sex friends. Subjects, eighth graders and eleventh graders, completed the Measurement of Family Affective Structure. (Author)

  10. Parent-child relationship disorders. Part II. The vulnerable child syndrome and its relation to parental overprotection.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Shonkoff, J P; Metz, W P; Edelbrock, C

    1995-08-01

    Parents who are excessively concerned about their child's health are often characterized as being overprotective. We hypothesized that parental overprotection is independent of parental perception of child vulnerability to illness or injury despite their presumed interchangeability. A community-based sample of 892 parents (92% white, 84% married, 88% middle-upper socioeconomic status, 90% mothers) completed a three-part protocol (clinical background data, the Child Vulnerability Scale, and the Parent Protection Scale). Correlates of high parental perception of child vulnerability included a medical condition in the child, a history of life-threatening illness or injury, and the child being seen for a sick visit. Correlates of high parental overprotection included younger age of child and parent. Only 20% of those parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective. PMID:7593660

  11. Siblings and Mental Illness: Heredity vs. Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, David C.; Elam, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Siblings are far more likely to be different than alike in personality and psychopathology. Different genes and different environmental experiences can account for why one sibling becomes mentally ill and another is not affected. Environmental experiences play a much greater role in sibling differentiation than has been previously recognized.…

  12. Peer Relationships Among Chronically Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne Bennett

    As new treatments allow chronically ill children to live longer, the relationship between the child's psychological state and his physical condition becomes paramount. Diabetics (N=42) between the ages of 10 and 21 answered questions about their disease. While most respondents did not feel that diabetes had affected relationships with peers,…

  13. Seeking help for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in developing countries: a study of parental explanatory models in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Washburn, Rachel; Patel, Vikram

    2007-04-01

    This qualitative study analyzes the explanatory models employed by parents whose children have been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the ways in which these explanatory models change as they seek help for their child's problem. In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 parents recruited from a list of children who had been diagnosed with ADHD at a community-based child development center (CDC) in Goa, India. The most frequent reasons for consulting the CDC were educational difficulties. Despite having received an ADHD diagnosis and reporting significant adverse impact of the child's behavior, most parents were reluctant to accept the biomedical explanatory model or even consider their child's difficulties as an illness. Instead, parents most commonly attributed causality to psychological models, learning and memory difficulties, and to models which emphasized either the volitional or non-volitional nature of the problem, or to attribute blame of self or spouse. Interventions most commonly used were educational and religious; consultation with the CDC was the last resort for many parents. We conclude that cultural attitudes towards mental illness significantly affect parental perception and behavior in response to interventions by biomedical practitioners for child mental health problems in developing countries. PMID:17267087

  14. [Mental illness and media].

    PubMed

    Magli, Erica; Buizza, Chiara; Pioli, Rosaria

    2004-06-01

    Many knowledges on the mental disease that the community possesses are turning out of information disclosed from the media. It's common in the press to connect actions of violence and murders to the mental diseases. For this reason, the reader is induced to infer that murders and other violent actions are more frequent in people who have suffered from mentally ill, than in the general population. The mystifying impression provided by media accrues from the fact that these reports are rarely compensated from positive reports. Objective of the present study is to characterize the type of information concerning mental illness diffused from the local daily paper "Giornale di Brescia" in the year 2001. The results show that many articles connote negatively the mental disease. The journalistic sensationalism, denounced facing the speech of the prejudgment in the comparisons of the mentally ill people, seems to still remain, in the considered year of publication, one unchanging tendency. PMID:15248412

  15. Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg illness.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Armond S; Schmalstieg, Frank C

    2007-05-01

    When Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address, he was weak and dizzy; his face had a ghastly colour. That evening on the train to Washington, DC, he was febrile and weak, and suffered severe headaches. The symptoms continued; back pains developed. On the fourth day of the illness, a widespread scarlet rash appeared that soon became vesicular. By the tenth day, the lesions itched and peeled. The illness lasted three weeks. The final diagnosis, a touch of varioloid, was an old name for smallpox that was later used in the 20th century to denote mild smallpox in a partially immune individual. It was unclear whether Lincoln had been immunized against smallpox. Indeed, this review suggests that Lincoln had unmodified smallpox and that Lincoln's physicians tried to reassure the public that Lincoln was not seriously ill. Indeed, the successful conclusion of the Civil War and reunification of the country were dependent upon Lincoln's presidency.

  16. Posttraumatic Growth in Parents and Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Picoraro, Joseph A.; Womer, James W.; Kazak, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pediatric medical experiences are potentially traumatic but may lead to psychological growth. Objective: The study objective was to synthesize the published literature regarding posttraumatic growth (PTG) in parents and patients with serious pediatric illness (SPI) into a conceptual model. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychInfo, and Sociological Abstracts in December 2012 to identify articles on stress or trauma caused by medical events with PTG as an outcome, reviewing articles pertaining to the pediatric population. We additionally reviewed articles outside pediatric medicine that described a model of PTG. Results: Of the 605 articles identified, 55 met inclusion criteria, 26 of which examined parents or pediatric patients. Parents and children may experience PTG following medical trauma through a combination of cognitive and affective processing of their subjective experience. Components of SPI-PTG are unclear, but may include greater appreciation of life, improved interpersonal relationships, greater personal strength, recognition of new possibilities in one's life course, spiritual or religious growth, and reconstruction of a positive body image. Individual characteristics, and the level of social support, may affect the likelihood that SPI-PTG will occur. SPI-PTG in siblings and other family members has not been well studied. Conclusions: SPI-PTG is an important but understudied and inadequately understood phenomenon affecting children with SPI and their family members. Research should focus on clarifying SPI-PTG domains, creating measurement instruments, assessing SPI-PTG across the pediatric age range and among family members, and improving our understanding of and ability to positively intervene regarding the cognitive processes of rumination, sense making, and benefit finding. PMID:24443768

  17. [Prophecy and mental illness].

    PubMed

    Vishne, Tali; Harary, Eran

    2005-09-01

    It is a well known platitude that a mentally ill person may "think that he is God" or "believes that he is the Messiah". Despite the generalization and shallowness of this attitude, sometimes psychotic patients indeed have delusions with contents of divine revelation, messianic assignments or prophetic power. In this current article we examine the different connections between prophecy and mental condition, especially psychotic. We present sources that combine prophecy and insanity, and also possible psychiatric interpretation of these situations. Finally, we present the attitude of the Rambam to prophecy and the personality characteristics of the prophet, limiting the possibility of the mentally ill patient who pretends to be a prophet.

  18. Get Well Care: Guidelines for Programs Serving Mildly Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montanari, Ellen Orton, Ed.

    Although child care programs for mildly ill children are proliferating around the country, very few states have developed regulations for these types of programs, and no states have developed standards or guidelines. Based upon this concern, a group of medical and early childhood professionals, parents, and directors of programs for mildly ill…

  19. What Do Children with Chronic Diseases and Their Parents Think About Pediatricians? A Qualitative Interview Study.

    PubMed

    Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Marcinowicz, Ludmiła; Abramowicz, Paweł; Abramowicz, Magdalena

    2016-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine how pediatric patients and their parents perceive health care during hospital stays, what are their expectations of doctor behaviors, and which components of care do they consider to be the most important. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was carried out using the open interview technique. Twenty-six parents and 22 children undergoing hospital treatment participated. Results Our analysis identified two major themes: (1) doctor verbal and non-verbal behaviors, which included informing and explaining, conversations on topics other than the illness, tone of voice and other behaviors; and (2) perceived strategies used by doctors. This category included claims of doctors' intentional use of medical jargon to avoid addressing parental questions directly. Parents admitted that they did not understand medical vocabulary, but they also thought they might understand more of the medical issues if the doctor spoke using terms comprehensible to them. Conlcusions Our study shows the importance of interpersonal relationship affecting patient perception of quality of pediatric care. Parents of pediatric patients perceive that doctors behave in ways that deflect parents' questions and avoid providing them with medical information. Such behaviors include doctors excusing themselves by saying they are busy and using medical jargon. Medical students and doctors should be trained to communicate effectively with patients and their parents and develop skills to convey information in a simple and comprehensible way.

  20. Scheduling elective pediatric procedures that require anesthesia: the perspective of parents.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Edward R; Chu, Larry F; Ramamoorthy, Chandra; Macario, Alex

    2006-12-01

    Daily variability in volume of elective pediatric procedures that require anesthesia may lead to an imbalance between available operating room resources and case load. Longer intervals between scheduling and the surgical date generally result in higher operating room utilization. In this study, we sought to determine which factors influence when parents schedule their children for procedures. We also aimed to identify parents' ideal and longest acceptable waiting intervals and determine whether type of procedure, for example, affects scheduling. From a convenience sample of 250 randomly selected parents of children presenting for elective surgery, 236 completed surveys were analyzed. The remaining 14 surveys were not returned. Overall, parents scheduled their child's procedure a median of 4.3 wk (interquartile range 2.0-8.6) in advance and reported an ideal waiting interval of 3 wk (interquartile range 2-4), and longest acceptable interval of 6 wk (interquartile range 4-10). Parents were willing to wait longer to schedule cardiac (4 wk, P = 0.004) and plastic (3.5 wk, P = 0.024) surgery when compared with general surgical procedures. Overall, parents ranked severity of the child's illness, earliest available time, and surgeon's suggested date as the three most important factors influencing when their child's surgery is scheduled. The timetable for scheduling procedures was highly correlated with both mother and father having available time off work (tau(b) = 0.72, P < 0.0001). Surprisingly, parents did not show a preference for scheduling cases during vacation or summer months.

  1. The nonthyroidal illness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adler, Suzanne Myers; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2007-09-01

    This article briefly summarizes thyroid function alterations generally seen in the euthyroid sick syndrome, provides an overview of specific thyroidal adaptations during several clinical conditions and secondary to specific pharmacologic agents, and discusses the current controversy in thyroid hormone treatment of nonthyroidal illness.

  2. Coping with Chronic Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... and independence. You may not be able to work, causing financial problems. For children, chronic illnesses can be frightening, because they may not understand why this is happening to them. These changes can cause stress, anxiety and anger. If they do, it is ...

  3. Mentally Ill Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

  4. Mozart's illnesses and death.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, P J

    1983-01-01

    Throughout his life Mozart suffered frequent attacks of tonsillitis. In 1784 he developed post-streptococcal Schönlein-Henoch syndrome which caused chronic glomerular nephritis and chronic renal failure. His fatal illness was due to Schönlein-Henoch purpura, with death from cerebral haemorrhage and bronchopneumonia. Venesection(s) may have contributed to his death. PMID:6352940

  5. Alienation and Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobasa, Suzanne C.

    Reviews of studies of four groups (business executives, lawyers, Army officers, and working women) which demonstrate the health-damaging effects of alienation in certain life situations show that, when under stress, members of these groups who feel alienated fall ill, medically and/or psychiatrically. Three models are described which may explain…

  6. Wraparound Services: An Effective Intervention for Families Impacted by Severe Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Michelle L.; Ackerson, Barry J.

    2004-01-01

    Children and families impacted by severe mental illness (SMI) have multiple strains that effect family functioning, child safety, and parental rights. Traditional services for children and families struggling with severe mental illness have not achieved success in improving family functioning and keeping families intact. Wraparound is a philosophy…

  7. Living Arrangements and Social Support: Effects on the Well-Being of Mothers with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Hollingsworth, Leslie; Goodkind, Sara; Oyserman, Daphna

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the effects of living arrangements on the well-being of mothers with a serious mental illness. Analyses of data from a National Institute of Mental Health-funded study of an urban, primarily African American sample of 379 mothers with mental illness revealed few differences in parenting or social functioning between mothers…

  8. Arranged matches and mental illness: therapists' dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David; Buchbinder, Jacob Tuvia; Witztum, Eliezer

    2012-01-01

    Traditional societies place especial value on marriage and having children, and marriages are often arranged. A series of situations and dilemmas associated with arranged matches and their consequences are described in the course of mental health work with ultra-orthodox Jewish people with severe mental illness. Issues of confidentiality may arise with parents and matchmakers; on the other hand, respectful cooperation with religious authorities, counselors in the community, and family members is important. Information on genetic counseling, contraception, medication during pregnancy, and breastfeeding are considered and interact with communal structures and practices. There is a need for close support and evaluation during the process of marriage, childbearing, and parenthood.

  9. [Gustave Flaubert's illness].

    PubMed

    Gastaut, H; Gastaut, Y

    1982-01-01

    All those interested in Gustave Flaubert's illness, during his lifetime as well as after his death, have agreed that he had epilepsy. The one important exception is Jean-Paul Sartre, who, in the 2800 pages of his "Idiot de la famille" claimed that Flaubert was a hysteric with very moderate intelligence who somatized his neurosis in the form of seizures. These, in Sartre's views, were moreover probably hysterical, but possibly epileptic resulting from the existence of a psychogenic epilepsy bred from the neurosis. The basis for this neurosis could have originated at the time of Gustave's birth, as this occurred between those of two brothers who both died young, and as his mother had wished for a daughter. Further development of the neurosis might have taken place during a temporary phase of learning difficulties, exaggerated and exploited by his father to make his youngest son the idiot of a family in which the eldest son was the dauphin. Destroyed in this way, Gustave would have sought refuge in passivity and could have developed a hatred for his father and for his elder brother, who he would have liked to kill before killing himself. But, unable to carry out his wishes and desiring both to die and to survive, Gustave, adolescent, might have chosen the pathway of "false deaths", as exemplified by the seizures. Modern epileptology data enables not only to confirm the epileptic etiology and to discount the hysterical nature of the fits, but also: 1. to establish precise details of the site and nature of the cerebral lesions responsible for the attacks: neonatal atrophy or vascular malformation of the occipitotemporal cortex of the left hemisphere, the only lesion capable of provoking: a) the phosphenes marking the onset of the seizures; b) the intellectual manifestations (forced thoughts or flight of ideas), affective features (panic terror), and psychosensory (ecmnesic hallucinations) or psychomotor (confusional automatism) symptoms accompanying some attacks; c) the

  10. Parenting Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.

    2005-01-01

    Parenting is a subject about which people typically hold strong opinions, but about which too little solid information or considered reflection exists. And clearly critical questions about parenting abound. Moreover, the family generally, and parenting specifically, are today in a greater state of flux, question, and re-definition than perhaps…

  11. Parental Expressed Emotion and Youth Psychopathology: New Directions for an Old Construct

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Levels of parental expressed emotion (EE) are prospectively associated with the symptomatic course of a range of childhood psychiatric disorders. This article reviews the literature linking parental EE to youth psychopathology and proposes a novel framework for understanding its mechanisms of action. We find that, despite noteworthy methodological limitations, parental EE is linked consistently to a more deleterious course of mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders in youth. Its mechanism of action is unknown. Models of “toxic family stress” (referring to frequent, sustained, and uncontrollable stress without protective influences) provide one framework for understanding how high EE environments interact with individual biological vulnerabilities to promote illness onset and recurrence. Research aimed at understanding biological responses (e.g., stress reactivity, arousal) to familial EE is needed. Such work may inform efforts to understand how EE affects the course of psychiatric disorders and may guide the development of novel interventions emphasizing emotion regulation strategies. PMID:25552241

  12. Gulf War Illness: Challenges Persist

    PubMed Central

    Nettleman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the United States and coalition forces entered Kuwait and Iraq. Actual combat was of remarkably short duration: less than 1 week of sustained ground activity and 6 weeks of air missions. Thus, it was surprising when approximately 200,000 returning US veterans were affected by a chronic multi-symptom illness that came to be known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There were many challenges in investigating GWI, not least of which was that it took several years before the condition was officially taken seriously. There were multiple exposures to potentially causal agents on and off the battlefield, but these exposures were documented incompletely if at all, leaving epidemiologists to rely on self-report for information. In the past 2 years, significant controversy has arisen over the future directions of the field. Despite these challenges, several studies have implicated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide in the genesis of the condition. The story of GWI can inform research into other conditions and guide future work on veterans' health. PMID:26330683

  13. An unexplained illness in West Otago.

    PubMed

    Poore, M; Snow, P; Paul, C

    1984-06-13

    An apparent epidemic of undiagnosed illness in a rural general practice was investigated. The aims were to describe the illness, the characteristics of the people affected, and to look for possible causes. The patients were questioned about their symptoms, and both patients and controls matched for age and sex, were questioned about possible aetiological factors. Twenty-eight cases were identified; all but three were less than 45 years of age; there were equal numbers of females and males. The most commonly experienced symptoms were tiredness, mood and sleep disturbances, headache, and joint or muscle pains. Results of the case-control study suggested that pollution of the water supply, zoonotic infections, contact with agricultural chemicals, and self-dosing with selenium were unlikely to be causes of this illness. An unidentified virus was regarded as the most likely cause. PMID:6589518

  14. An unexplained illness in West Otago.

    PubMed

    Poore, M; Snow, P; Paul, C

    1984-06-13

    An apparent epidemic of undiagnosed illness in a rural general practice was investigated. The aims were to describe the illness, the characteristics of the people affected, and to look for possible causes. The patients were questioned about their symptoms, and both patients and controls matched for age and sex, were questioned about possible aetiological factors. Twenty-eight cases were identified; all but three were less than 45 years of age; there were equal numbers of females and males. The most commonly experienced symptoms were tiredness, mood and sleep disturbances, headache, and joint or muscle pains. Results of the case-control study suggested that pollution of the water supply, zoonotic infections, contact with agricultural chemicals, and self-dosing with selenium were unlikely to be causes of this illness. An unidentified virus was regarded as the most likely cause.

  15. Does a trade-off between current reproductive success and survival affect the honesty of male signalling in species with male parental care?

    PubMed

    Kelly, N B; Alonzo, S H

    2010-11-01

    Recent theory predicted that male advertisement will reliably signal investment in paternal care in species where offspring survival requires paternal care and males allocate resources between advertisement and care. However, the predicted relationship between care and advertisement depended on the marginal gains from investment in current reproductive traits. Life history theory suggests that these fitness gains are also subject to a trade-off between current and future reproduction. Here, we investigate whether male signalling remains a reliable indicator of parental care when males allocate resources between current advertisement, paternal care and survival to future reproduction. We find that advertisement is predicted to remain a reliable signal of male care but that advertisement may cease to reliably indicate male quality because low-quality males are predicted to invest in current reproduction, whereas higher-quality males are able to invest in both current reproduction and survival to future reproduction. PMID:20860698

  16. Does a trade-off between current reproductive success and survival affect the honesty of male signalling in species with male parental care?

    PubMed

    Kelly, N B; Alonzo, S H

    2010-11-01

    Recent theory predicted that male advertisement will reliably signal investment in paternal care in species where offspring survival requires paternal care and males allocate resources between advertisement and care. However, the predicted relationship between care and advertisement depended on the marginal gains from investment in current reproductive traits. Life history theory suggests that these fitness gains are also subject to a trade-off between current and future reproduction. Here, we investigate whether male signalling remains a reliable indicator of parental care when males allocate resources between current advertisement, paternal care and survival to future reproduction. We find that advertisement is predicted to remain a reliable signal of male care but that advertisement may cease to reliably indicate male quality because low-quality males are predicted to invest in current reproduction, whereas higher-quality males are able to invest in both current reproduction and survival to future reproduction.

  17. Vaccines Stop Illness | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... like polio and meningitis will affect their children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  18. Parental overprotection and its relation to perceived child vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1997-04-01

    A study of 280 parents with a child age 5-10 years examined the relation between and correlates of parental overprotection (less education, younger child age, being an only child) and parental perception of increased child vulnerability (history of life-threatening illness, child medical condition, first child). One-third of parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective. PMID:9142367

  19. Nine Steps to More Effective Parenting

    MedlinePlus

    ... more fulfilled as a parent. Boosting Your Child's Self-Esteem Kids start developing their sense of self as ... and actions as a parent affect their developing self-esteem more than anything else. Praising accomplishments, however small, ...

  20. Violence and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Rueve, Marie E.; Welton, Randon S.

    2008-01-01

    Violence attracts attention in the news media, in the entertainment business, in world politics, and in countless other settings. Violence in the context of mental illness can be especially sensationalized, which only deepens the stigma that already permeates our patients’ lives. Are violence and mental illness synonymous, connected, or just coincidental phenomena? This article reviews the literature available to address this fundamental question and to investigate other vital topics, including etiology, comorbidity, risk factor management, and treatment. A psychiatrist who is well versed in the recognition and management of violence can contribute to the appropriate management of dangerous behaviors and minimize risk to patients, their families, mental health workers, and the community as a whole. PMID:19727251

  1. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness.

  2. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, T

    2001-01-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. Key Words: Agency • alchemy • behaviour • cause • chemistry • dignity PMID:11579183

  3. Darwin's illness revealed.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2005-04-01

    After returning from the Beagle in 1836, Charles Darwin suffered for over 40 years from long bouts of vomiting, gut pain, headaches, severe tiredness, skin problems, and depression. Twenty doctors failed to treat him. Many books and papers have explained Darwin's mystery illness as organic or psychosomatic, including arsenic poisoning, Chagas' disease, multiple allergy, hypochondria, or bereavement syndrome. None stand up to full scrutiny. His medical history shows he had an organic problem, exacerbated by depression. Here we show that all Darwin's symptoms match systemic lactose intolerance. Vomiting and gut problems showed up two to three hours after a meal, the time it takes for lactose to reach the large intestine. His family history shows a major inherited component, as with genetically predisposed hypolactasia. Darwin only got better when, by chance, he stopped taking milk and cream. Darwin's illness highlights something else he missed--the importance of lactose in mammalian and human evolution. PMID:15811889

  4. Darwin's illness revealed.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony K; Matthews, Stephanie B

    2005-04-01

    After returning from the Beagle in 1836, Charles Darwin suffered for over 40 years from long bouts of vomiting, gut pain, headaches, severe tiredness, skin problems, and depression. Twenty doctors failed to treat him. Many books and papers have explained Darwin's mystery illness as organic or psychosomatic, including arsenic poisoning, Chagas' disease, multiple allergy, hypochondria, or bereavement syndrome. None stand up to full scrutiny. His medical history shows he had an organic problem, exacerbated by depression. Here we show that all Darwin's symptoms match systemic lactose intolerance. Vomiting and gut problems showed up two to three hours after a meal, the time it takes for lactose to reach the large intestine. His family history shows a major inherited component, as with genetically predisposed hypolactasia. Darwin only got better when, by chance, he stopped taking milk and cream. Darwin's illness highlights something else he missed--the importance of lactose in mammalian and human evolution.

  5. Mental illness: psychiatry's phlogiston.

    PubMed

    Szasz, T

    2001-10-01

    In physics, we use the same laws to explain why airplanes fly, and why they crash. In psychiatry, we use one set of laws to explain sane behaviour, which we attribute to reasons (choices), and another set of laws to explain insane behaviour, which we attribute to causes (diseases). God, man's idea of moral perfection, judges human deeds without distinguishing between sane persons responsible for their behaviour and insane persons deserving to be excused for their evil deeds. It is hubris to pretend that the insanity defence is compassionate, just, or scientific. Mental illness is to psychiatry as phlogiston was to chemistry. Establishing chemistry as a science of the nature of matter required the recognition of the non-existence of phlogiston. Establishing psychiatry as a science of the nature of human behaviour requires the recognition of the non-existence of mental illness. PMID:11579183

  6. Differences in health care utilization between parents who perceive their child as vulnerable versus overprotective parents.

    PubMed

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1996-06-01

    While a parental perception of child vulnerability to illness/injury is often used interchangeably with parental overprotection, research suggests that they are independent constructs. We hypothesized more frequent pediatric nonwell-child visits for perceived child vulnerability, but not for parental overprotection. The parents of 300 children, ages 2-5 years, enrolled in a health maintenance organization, were sampled. For children without medical conditions, there were no differences in nonwell-child care visits between the high perceived vulnerability and high parental protection groups (Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test, WRST, P = .31). As expected, high parental protection was not significantly associated with increased nonwell-child care visits compared with the low parental protection group (WRST, P = .14). These findings suggest that markers other than health care utilization are required to identify these forms of parent-child relationship disorders. PMID:8782954

  7. Images of Illness

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, Mark F.

    1992-01-01

    The images we as physicians retain of our patients have a bearing on the evolution of our clinical behaviour and attributes. These images can enhance our diagnostic and therapeutic skills, increase our capacity to care for people with incurable diseases, and offer insights into our own emotional response. A recollection of five people with Parkinson's disease offers a college of images to give us further insights into the meaning of illness-for the patient and the physician. PMID:20469529

  8. The Stigma of Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Stacy L.; Medina, Sondra L.

    2008-01-01

    Stigma surrounding major mental illness creates many barriers. People who experience mental illness face discrimination and prejudice when renting homes, applying for jobs, and accessing mental health services. The authors review the current literature regarding stigma and mental illness. They define stigma and review theories that explain its…

  9. Suicide in the Medically Ill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Douglas; Kleespies, Phillip

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between medical illness and suicide seems to be multi-faceted. While medical illness is not the sole determinant of suicide, certain illnesses, such as HIV/AIDS and brain cancers, do appear to elevate the risk of suicide. Possible effective prevention efforts include education of primary care providers, and improved medication…

  10. PARENT DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, David Belais

    1957-01-01

    Today's parents tend to be overwhelmed with advice from many sources. In his role as family counselor, the pediatrician must understand and consider the emotional development of parents in relation to their child's development; otherwise, his advice and counsel do not “take” and he becomes tired and frustrated and angry. Parents progress through definite stages of development: Stage 1: Learning the cues—the struggle of the parents to interpret the infant's needs. Stage 2: Learning to accept growth and development—the parent learning to accept some loss of control of the toddler. Stage 3: Learning to separate—the parent learning to allow the child to develop independently. Stage 4: Learning to accept rejection, without deserting—the struggle of the parents not to intrude and yet to be there when needed. Stage 5: Learning to build a new life having been thoroughly discredited by one's teenager—the parent learning to live independently while the teenager struggles to develop his own identity. The pediatrician who is accepting, sensitive and a good listener and who keeps in mind that parents as well as children have capacities for growth and development, will be a potent factor in promoting good parent-child relationships and many times more effective in dealing with the child in health and disease. PMID:13383387

  11. Family Stress with Chronic Childhood Illness: Cystic Fibrosis, Neuromuscular Disease, and Renal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holroyd, Jean; Guthrie, Donald

    1986-01-01

    Parents of children with neuromuscular disease, cystic fibrosis, and renal disease were compared with parents of control subjects matched by age to the clinical cases. The three clinical groups exhibited different patterns of stressful response, consistent with the nature of their illnesses and the requirements for care imposed on the families.…

  12. Mothers with Severe Psychiatric Illness and Their Newborns: A Hospital-Based Model of Perinatal Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Ana; Merminod, Gaelle, Schechter, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    Women with severe psychiatric illness face numerous risks and challenges during pregnancy and as parents. Mental health professionals can help these mothers and their infants by supporting the attachment relationship and by providing the external supports that are necessary for successful parenting. The authors describe a hospital-based…

  13. Diversity of Outcomes Among Adolescent Children of Mothers With Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Bybee, Deborah; Oyserman, Daphna; Allen -Meares, Paula; MacFarlane, Peter; Hart-Johnson, Tamera

    2004-01-01

    Children of parents with mental illness are an at-risk population according to research on psychiatric outcomes using White, middle-class samples of depressed parents and infants and preschool children. The current study expands this evidence by exploring within-group heterogeneity across psychosocial outcomes, in a racially diverse, low-income…

  14. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6-17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors.

  15. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulations as mediators of the relationship between enacted stigma and post-traumatic growth among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Tu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Some previous studies have revealed a negative impact of enacted stigma on post-traumatic growth (PTG) of children affected by HIV/AIDS, but little is known about protective psychological factors that can mitigate the effect of enacted stigma on children's PTG. This study aims to examine the mediating effects of perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation on the relationship between enacted stigma and PTG among HIV-affected children. Cross-sectional data were collected from 790 children affected by parental HIV (382 girls, 408 boys) aged 6–17 years in 2012 in rural central China. Multiple regression was conducted to test the mediation model. The study found that the experience of enacted stigma had a negative effect on PTG among children affected by HIV/AIDS. Emotional regulation together with hopefulness and perceived social support mediated the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Perceived social support, hopefulness, and emotional regulation offer multiple levels of protection that can mitigate the impact of enacted stigma on PTG. Results suggest that future psychological intervention programs should seek strategies to reduce the stigmatizing experience of these children and promote children's level of PTG, and health professionals should also emphasize the development of these protective psychological factors. PMID:26899475

  16. Perceived Parenting Style and Adolescent Adjustment: Revisiting Directions of Effects and the Role of Parental Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Hakan; Ozdemir, Metin

    2012-01-01

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have…

  17. Mental illness and suicidality after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Ronald C.; Galea, Sandro; Jones, Russell T.; Parker, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of Hurricane Katrina on mental illness and suicidality by comparing results of a post-Katrina survey with those of an earlier survey. METHODS: The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, conducted between February 2001 and February 2003, interviewed 826 adults in the Census Divisions later affected by Hurricane Katrina. The post-Katrina survey interviewed a new sample of 1043 adults who lived in the same area before the hurricane. Identical questions were asked about mental illness and suicidality. The post-Katrina survey also assessed several dimensions of personal growth that resulted from the trauma (for example, increased closeness to a loved one, increased religiosity). Outcome measures used were the K6 screening scale of serious mental illness and mild-moderate mental illness and questions about suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. FINDINGS: Respondents to the post-Katrina survey had a significantly higher estimated prevalence of serious mental illness than respondents to the earlier survey (11.3% after Katrina versus 6.1% before; chi(2)1= 10.9; P < 0.001) and mild-moderate mental illness (19.9% after Katrina versus 9.7% before; chi(2)1 = 22.5; P < 0.001). Among respondents estimated to have mental illness, though, the prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans was significantly lower in the post-Katrina survey (suicidal ideation 0.7% after Katrina versus 8.4% before; chi(2)1 = 13.1; P < 0.001; plans for suicide 0.4% after Katrina versus 3.6% before; chi(2)1 = 6.0; P = 0.014). This lower conditional prevalence of suicidality was strongly related to two dimensions of personal growth after the trauma (faith in one's own ability to rebuild one's life, and realization of inner strength), without which between-survey differences in suicidality were insignificant. CONCLUSION: Despite the estimated prevalence of mental illness doubling after Hurricane Katrina, the prevalence of suicidality was unexpectedly low. The role of post

  18. Parental responses to consanguinity and genetic disease in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Panter-Brick, C

    1991-01-01

    In-depth interviews of 36 Saudi families whose children suffered from neuro-metabolic disorders were conducted at a specialist hospital in Riyadh in order to examine parental understanding of disease and attitudes towards future births and consanguineous marriages. Parents had difficulty accepting a genetic explanation for diseases that did not affect all children at the time of birth; they also expressed religious or folk beliefs to account for illness. Coping behaviours included denial and resignation to the situation, divorce and remarriage. Some families adopted a cautious approach to cousin marriages and future births; this was significantly related to their education level, but not to previous infant deaths. Awareness of medical facts brought little emotional comfort to parents but allowed for preventive measures through screening adult carriers and identifying affected infants. This study presents new material from Saudi Arabia to strengthen current awareness that the range of religious beliefs, social attitudes and reproductive behaviours adopted by families in a society undergoing rapid change is of direct relevance to health care.

  19. Advances in understanding illness anxiety.

    PubMed

    Harding, Kelli J; Skritskaya, Natalia; Doherty, Emily; Fallon, Brian A

    2008-08-01

    Illness anxiety, also known in its more severe form as hypochondriasis, is a debilitating and chronic condition in which normal bodily symptoms are misinterpreted as signs of serious medical illness. Patients suffer with the fear that they are ill despite reassurance to the contrary and often overuse medical services in the process. This article critically evaluates the recent literature on illness anxiety and related, medically unexplained symptoms, highlighting new and interesting findings in the areas of prevalence, classification/diagnosis, management, and evidence-based treatment and new frontiers in understanding illness anxiety, such as brain imaging, neuroimmunology, and cyberchondria. PMID:18627669

  20. Maternal psychosocial predictors of pediatric health care use: Use of the common sense model of health and illness behaviors to extend beyond the usual suspects.

    PubMed

    Moran, Tracy E; O'Hara, Michael W

    2006-01-01

    Determinants of pediatric health care use extend beyond the health status of the child and economic and access considerations. Parental factors, particularly those associated with the mother, are critical. The common sense model of health and illness behaviors, which was developed to account for adult health care use, may constitute a framework to study the role of mothers in determining pediatric health care use. In the common sense model, the person's cognitive representations of and affective reactions to bodily states influence health care decision-making. There is a growing literature that points to the importance of maternal psychopathology (reflecting the affective component of the common sense model) and maternal parenting self-efficacy (reflecting the cognitive component of the model) as important contributors to pediatric health care use. The implications of this conceptualization for future research and clinical practice are discussed.