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Sample records for affects animal migration

  1. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  2. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  3. Animal migration and infectious disease risk.

    PubMed

    Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca; Han, Barbara A

    2011-01-21

    Animal migrations are often spectacular, and migratory species harbor zoonotic pathogens of importance to humans. Animal migrations are expected to enhance the global spread of pathogens and facilitate cross-species transmission. This does happen, but new research has also shown that migration allows hosts to escape from infected habitats, reduces disease levels when infected animals do not migrate successfully, and may lead to the evolution of less-virulent pathogens. Migratory demands can also reduce immune function, with consequences for host susceptibility and mortality. Studies of pathogen dynamics in migratory species and how these will respond to global change are urgently needed to predict future disease risks for wildlife and humans alike.

  4. Flight mode affects allometry of migration range in birds.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y

    2016-08-01

    Billions of birds migrate to exploit seasonally available resources. The ranges of migration vary greatly among species, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. I hypothesise that flight mode (flapping or soaring) and body mass affect migration range through their influence on flight energetics. Here, I compiled the tracks of migratory birds (196 species, weighing 12-10 350 g) recorded by electronic tags in the last few decades. In flapping birds, migration ranges decreased with body mass, as predicted from rapidly increasing flight cost with increasing body mass. The species with higher aspect ratio and lower wing loading had larger migration ranges. In soaring birds, migration ranges were mass-independent and larger than those of flapping birds, reflecting their low flight costs irrespective of body mass. This study demonstrates that many animal-tracking studies are now available to explore the general patterns and the underlying mechanisms of animal migration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Energetic and biomechanical constraints on animal migration distance.

    PubMed

    Hein, Andrew M; Hou, Chen; Gillooly, James F

    2012-02-01

    Animal migration is one of the great wonders of nature, but the factors that determine how far migrants travel remain poorly understood. We present a new quantitative model of animal migration and use it to describe the maximum migration distance of walking, swimming and flying migrants. The model combines biomechanics and metabolic scaling to show how maximum migration distance is constrained by body size for each mode of travel. The model also indicates that the number of body lengths travelled by walking and swimming migrants should be approximately invariant of body size. Data from over 200 species of migratory birds, mammals, fish, and invertebrates support the central conclusion of the model - that body size drives variation in maximum migration distance among species through its effects on metabolism and the cost of locomotion. The model provides a new tool to enhance general understanding of the ecology and evolution of migration.

  6. Science 101: How Do Animals Navigate during Migration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Migrating animals do amazing things. Homing pigeons can find their way "home" across hundreds of miles; salmon return to their spawning location thousands of miles away; turtles travel over eight thousand miles to lay their eggs in the spot where they originally hatched. Scientists have studied how animals navigate around the globe and have…

  7. Science 101: How Do Animals Navigate during Migration?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Migrating animals do amazing things. Homing pigeons can find their way "home" across hundreds of miles; salmon return to their spawning location thousands of miles away; turtles travel over eight thousand miles to lay their eggs in the spot where they originally hatched. Scientists have studied how animals navigate around the globe and have…

  8. Optimal chemotaxis in intermittent migration of animal cells.

    PubMed

    Romanczuk, P; Salbreux, G

    2015-04-01

    Animal cells can sense chemical gradients without moving and are faced with the challenge of migrating towards a target despite noisy information on the target position. Here we discuss optimal search strategies for a chaser that moves by switching between two phases of motion ("run" and "tumble"), reorienting itself towards the target during tumble phases, and performing persistent migration during run phases. We show that the chaser average run time can be adjusted to minimize the target catching time or the spatial dispersion of the chasers. We obtain analytical results for the catching time and for the spatial dispersion in the limits of small and large ratios of run time to tumble time and scaling laws for the optimal run times. Our findings have implications for optimal chemotactic strategies in animal cell migration.

  9. Optimal chemotaxis in intermittent migration of animal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanczuk, P.; Salbreux, G.

    2015-04-01

    Animal cells can sense chemical gradients without moving and are faced with the challenge of migrating towards a target despite noisy information on the target position. Here we discuss optimal search strategies for a chaser that moves by switching between two phases of motion ("run" and "tumble"), reorienting itself towards the target during tumble phases, and performing persistent migration during run phases. We show that the chaser average run time can be adjusted to minimize the target catching time or the spatial dispersion of the chasers. We obtain analytical results for the catching time and for the spatial dispersion in the limits of small and large ratios of run time to tumble time and scaling laws for the optimal run times. Our findings have implications for optimal chemotactic strategies in animal cell migration.

  10. Nanoparticles migration in fractured rocks and affects on contaminant migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missana, Tiziana; Garcia-Gutierrez, Miguel; Alonso, Ursula

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, the transport behavior of artificial (gold and latex) and natural (smectite clay) colloids, within a planar fracture in crystalline rock, was analyzed. In order to better understand the effects of colloid size, shape and surface charge on nanoparticle migration and especially on filtration processes on natural rock surfaces, different clay colloids and oxide nanoparticles were selected and their transport studied as a function of the residence time. In all the cases, (a fraction of) the nanoparticles travelled in the fracture as fast as or faster than water (with a retardation factor, Rf ≤ 1) and the observed Rf, was related to the Taylor dispersion coefficient, accounting for colloid size, water velocity and fracture width. However, under most of the cases, in contrast to the behavior of a conservative tracer, colloids recovery was much lower than 100 %. Differences in recovery between different nanoparticles, under similar residence times, were analyzed. In order to evaluate the possible consequences, on contaminant migration, of the presence of nanoparticles in the system, transport tests were carried out with both colloids and sorbing radionuclides. The overall capacity for colloids of enhancing radionuclide migration in crystalline rock fractures is discussed. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results received funding from EU FP7/2007-2011 grant agreement Nº 295487 (BELBAR, Bentonite Erosion: effects on the Long term performance of the engineered Barrier and Radionuclide Transport) and by the Spanish Government under the project NANOBAG (CTM2011-2797).

  11. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Belin, Pascal; Fecteau, Shirley; Charest, Ian; Nicastro, Nicholas; Hauser, Marc D; Armony, Jorge L

    2008-03-07

    It is presently unknown whether our response to affective vocalizations is specific to those generated by humans or more universal, triggered by emotionally matched vocalizations generated by other species. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys). Positively versus negatively valenced vocalizations from cats and monkeys elicited different cerebral responses despite the participants' inability to differentiate the valence of these animal vocalizations by overt behavioural responses. Moreover, the comparison with human non-speech affective vocalizations revealed a common response to the valence in orbitofrontal cortex, a key component on the limbic system. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms involved in processing human affective vocalizations may be recruited by heterospecific affective vocalizations at an unconscious level, supporting claims of shared emotional systems across species.

  12. Potential animal models of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Workman, Joanna L; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by depressive episodes during winter that are alleviated during summer and by morning bright light treatment. Currently, there is no animal model of SAD. However, it may be possible to use rodents that respond to day length (photoperiod) to understand how photoperiod can shape the brain and behavior in humans. As nights lengthen in the autumn, the duration of the nightly elevation of melatonin increase; seasonally breeding animals use this information to orchestrate seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. SAD may originate from the extended duration of nightly melatonin secretion during fall and winter. These similarities between humans and rodents in melatonin secretion allows for comparisons with rodents that express more depressive-like responses when exposed to short day lengths. For instance, Siberian hamsters, fat sand rats, Nile grass rats, and Wistar rats display a depressive-like phenotype when exposed to short days. Current research in depression and animal models of depression suggests that hippocampal plasticity may underlie the symptoms of depression and depressive-like behaviors, respectively. It is also possible that day length induces structural changes in human brains. Many seasonally breeding rodents undergo changes in whole brain and hippocampal volume in short days. Based on strict validity criteria, there is no animal model of SAD, but rodents that respond to reduced day lengths may be useful to approximate the neurobiological phenomena that occur in people with SAD, leading to greater understanding of the etiology of the disorder as well as novel therapeutic interventions.

  13. Tracking of Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea reveals longest animal migration.

    PubMed

    Egevang, Carsten; Stenhouse, Iain J; Phillips, Richard A; Petersen, Aevar; Fox, James W; Silk, Janet R D

    2010-02-02

    The study of long-distance migration provides insights into the habits and performance of organisms at the limit of their physical abilities. The Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea is the epitome of such behavior; despite its small size (<125 g), banding recoveries and at-sea surveys suggest that its annual migration from boreal and high Arctic breeding grounds to the Southern Ocean may be the longest seasonal movement of any animal. Our tracking of 11 Arctic terns fitted with miniature (1.4-g) geolocators revealed that these birds do indeed travel huge distances (more than 80,000 km annually for some individuals). As well as confirming the location of the main wintering region, we also identified a previously unknown oceanic stopover area in the North Atlantic used by birds from at least two breeding populations (from Greenland and Iceland). Although birds from the same colony took one of two alternative southbound migration routes following the African or South American coast, all returned on a broadly similar, sigmoidal trajectory, crossing from east to west in the Atlantic in the region of the equatorial Intertropical Convergence Zone. Arctic terns clearly target regions of high marine productivity both as stopover and wintering areas, and exploit prevailing global wind systems to reduce flight costs on long-distance commutes.

  14. Tracking of Arctic terns Sterna paradisaea reveals longest animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Egevang, Carsten; Stenhouse, Iain J.; Phillips, Richard A.; Petersen, Aevar; Fox, James W.; Silk, Janet R. D.

    2010-01-01

    The study of long-distance migration provides insights into the habits and performance of organisms at the limit of their physical abilities. The Arctic tern Sterna paradisaea is the epitome of such behavior; despite its small size (<125 g), banding recoveries and at-sea surveys suggest that its annual migration from boreal and high Arctic breeding grounds to the Southern Ocean may be the longest seasonal movement of any animal. Our tracking of 11 Arctic terns fitted with miniature (1.4-g) geolocators revealed that these birds do indeed travel huge distances (more than 80,000 km annually for some individuals). As well as confirming the location of the main wintering region, we also identified a previously unknown oceanic stopover area in the North Atlantic used by birds from at least two breeding populations (from Greenland and Iceland). Although birds from the same colony took one of two alternative southbound migration routes following the African or South American coast, all returned on a broadly similar, sigmoidal trajectory, crossing from east to west in the Atlantic in the region of the equatorial Intertropical Convergence Zone. Arctic terns clearly target regions of high marine productivity both as stopover and wintering areas, and exploit prevailing global wind systems to reduce flight costs on long-distance commutes. PMID:20080662

  15. How does cancer cell metabolism affect tumor migration and invasion?

    PubMed

    Han, Tianyu; Kang, De; Ji, Daokun; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhan, Weihua; Fu, Minggui; Xin, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jian-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is the major cause of cancer-associated death. Accordingly, identification of the regulatory mechanisms that control whether or not tumor cells become "directed walkers" is a crucial issue of cancer research. The deregulation of cell migration during cancer progression determines the capacity of tumor cells to escape from the primary tumors and invade adjacent tissues to finally form metastases. The ability to switch from a predominantly oxidative metabolism to glycolysis and the production of lactate even when oxygen is plentiful is a key characteristic of cancer cells. This metabolic switch, known as the Warburg effect, was first described in 1920s, and affected not only tumor cell growth but also tumor cell migration. In this review, we will focus on the recent studies on how cancer cell metabolism affects tumor cell migration and invasion. Understanding the new aspects on molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways controlling tumor cell migration is critical for development of therapeutic strategies for cancer patients.

  16. Toward a mechanistic understanding of animal migration: incorporating physiological measurements in the study of animal movement.

    PubMed

    Jachowski, David S; Singh, Navinder J

    2015-01-01

    Movements are a consequence of an individual's motion and navigational capacity, internal state variables and the influence of external environmental conditions. Although substantial advancements have been made in methods of measuring and quantifying variation in motion capacity, navigational capacity and external environmental parameters in recent decades, the role of internal state in animal migration (and in movement in general) is comparatively little studied. Recent studies of animal movement in the wild illustrate how direct physiological measurements can improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying movement decisions. In this review, we synthesize and provide examples of how recent technical advances in the physiology-related fields of energetics, nutrition, endocrinology, immunology and ecotoxicology provide opportunities for direct measurements of physiological state in the study of animal movement. We then propose a framework for practitioners to enable better integration of studies of physiological state into animal movement ecology by assessing the mechanistic role played by physiology as both a driver and a modulator of movement. Finally, we highlight the current limitations and research priorities for better integration of direct measurements of animal physiological state into the study of animal movement.

  17. Toward a mechanistic understanding of animal migration: incorporating physiological measurements in the study of animal movement

    PubMed Central

    Jachowski, David S.; Singh, Navinder J.

    2015-01-01

    Movements are a consequence of an individual's motion and navigational capacity, internal state variables and the influence of external environmental conditions. Although substantial advancements have been made in methods of measuring and quantifying variation in motion capacity, navigational capacity and external environmental parameters in recent decades, the role of internal state in animal migration (and in movement in general) is comparatively little studied. Recent studies of animal movement in the wild illustrate how direct physiological measurements can improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying movement decisions. In this review, we synthesize and provide examples of how recent technical advances in the physiology-related fields of energetics, nutrition, endocrinology, immunology and ecotoxicology provide opportunities for direct measurements of physiological state in the study of animal movement. We then propose a framework for practitioners to enable better integration of studies of physiological state into animal movement ecology by assessing the mechanistic role played by physiology as both a driver and a modulator of movement. Finally, we highlight the current limitations and research priorities for better integration of direct measurements of animal physiological state into the study of animal movement. PMID:27293720

  18. Loss of Gadkin Affects Dendritic Cell Migration In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Stache, Vanessa; Plewa, Natalia; Legler, Daniel F.; Höpken, Uta E.; Maritzen, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Migration is crucial for the function of dendritic cells (DCs), which act as outposts of the immune system. Upon detection of pathogens, skin- and mucosa-resident DCs migrate to secondary lymphoid organs where they activate T cells. DC motility relies critically on the actin cytoskeleton, which is regulated by the actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, a nucleator of branched actin networks. Consequently, loss of ARP2/3 stimulators and upstream Rho family GTPases dramatically impairs DC migration. However, nothing is known yet about the relevance of ARP2/3 inhibitors for DC migration. We previously demonstrated that the AP-1-associated adaptor protein Gadkin inhibits ARP2/3 by sequestering it on intracellular vesicles. Consistent with a role of Gadkin in DC physiology, we here report Gadkin expression in bone marrow-derived DCs and show that its protein level and posttranslational modification are regulated upon LPS-induced DC maturation. DCs derived from Gadkin-deficient mice were normal with regards to differentiation and maturation, but displayed increased actin polymerization. While the actin-dependent processes of macropinocytosis and cell spreading were not affected, loss of Gadkin significantly impaired DC migration in vitro, however, in vivo DC migration was unperturbed suggesting the presence of compensatory mechanisms. PMID:26624014

  19. Genistein affects proliferation and migration of bovine oviductal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    García, Daniela C; Valdecantos, Pablo A; Miceli, Dora C; Roldán-Olarte, Mariela

    2017-03-08

    Genistein is one of the most abundant isoflavones in soybean. This molecule induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in different normal and cancer cells. Genistein has been of considerable interest due to its adverse effects on bovine reproduction, altering estrous cycle, implantation and fetal development and producing subfertility or infertility. The objective of this work was to study the effects of genistein on the expression of selected genes involved in the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis. Primary cultures of bovine oviductal epithelial cells (BOEC) were treated with different genistein concentrations (0.2, 2 and 10μM) to analyze CYCLIN B1, BCL-2 and BAX gene expression by Real-time RT-PCR. Results showed that genistein down-regulated CYCLIN B1 expression, affecting cell cycle progression, and caused a decrease in the BCL-2/BAX ratio starting at 2μM of genistein. In addition, in order to determine if genistein affects BOEC migration, in vitro wound healing assays were performed. A significant reduction in cell migration after 12h of culture was observed at both 0.2 and 10μM genistein concentrations. Also, in the presence of genistein the percentage of mitotic cells decreased, although apoptotic cells percentages were not affected. These findings indicate that genistein has an inhibitory effect on BOEC proliferation and migration, suggesting that it could influence the normal physiology of the oviductal epithelium.

  20. Building Responsive Health Systems to Help Communities Affected by Migration: An International Delphi Consensus.

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin; Hui, Charles; Rahman, Prinon; Ingleby, David; Akl, Elie A; Russell, Grant; Ling, Li; Wickramage, Kolitha; Mosca, Davide; Brindis, Claire D

    2017-02-03

    Persons affected by migration require health systems that are responsive and adaptable to the needs of both disadvantaged migrants and non-migrant populations. The objective of this study is to support health systems for populations affected by migration.

  1. Enhancing animal welfare by creating opportunities for positive affective engagement.

    PubMed

    Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    In line with an increasing emphasis on promoting positive welfare states in animals, this review extends previous accounts of how recent affective neuroscience observations may be used to identify and then to encourage animals to engage in reward-motivated behaviours. The terms affective states or affects are used to mean the subjective experiences, feelings or emotions that may motivate animals to behave in goal-directed ways and which may accompany success or failure to achieve those goals. These motivational affects may be positive, experienced as rewarding or pleasurable, or negative, experienced as aversive or punishing. There are two overall types: homeostasis-related negative affects that reflect an animal's internal physiological state, and situation-related positive or negative affects that reflect an animal's perception of its external circumstances. The major emphasis is on positive situation-related affects, in particular those that are potentially associated with exploration, feeding and animal-to-animal affiliative behaviours. The review introduces the new concept of positive affective engagement which represents the experience animals may have when they actively respond to motivations to engage in rewarding behaviours, and it incorporates all associated affects that are positive. For example, it would represent a state of engaged aliveness that may attend an animal's goal-directed, energised exploration of and interactions with a stimulus-rich environment. It also represents some states of equally energised, highly focused predatory stalking by carnivores or the focused and engaged foraging by herbivores when they are grazing in natural environments where food sources are abundant. Positive affective engagement may also be anticipated to accompany some aspects of reciprocated affiliative interactions between animals, the dedicated maternal nurturing and care of young, the joyfulness of rough-and-tumble play, and the eroticism and orgasmic pleasures

  2. Satellite-driven predictions of animal migrations in response to short and long-term environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P. S.; Bohrer, G.; Wethington, S.; Bartlam-Brooks, H. L.; Powers, D. R.; Goetz, S. J.; Graham, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    Animal migrations have evolved in response to spatio-temporal heterogeneity in resources, habitats, predation, and competition. Their reliance on disjunct habitats makes migratory animals potentially more vulnerable to extreme climate events or phenological changes at other trophic levels. The advent of affordable satellite-based tracking technology has revolutionized the study of animal movement in the past two decades. Understanding internal and external drivers of migratory behavior, and how they interact, is critical for migration ecology to move beyond solely the measurement and description of organism-level movement and to predict how environmental change might affect migrations. To achieve this, it is necessary to not only measure animals' movement but also their reliance on prevailing external, i.e. environmental, conditions prior to, and during migration. An increasingly wide array of satellite and model-derived gridded data sets that map environmental conditions at regular temporal intervals are now readily accessible because of standardized processing and data formats, as well as a variety of online portals that provide host data archives and/or on-demand processing free-of-charge. While they are often of coarser spatial resolution, these data can overcome many limitations of in situ measurements with regard to spatial extent and temporal frequency. We demonstrate the use of global gridded environmental time-series in the study of animal migrations through case studies. First we show how inter-annual weather variation in wintering habitats affects migratory behavior of broad-tailed hummingbirds and investigate how it carries over to their reproductive success and survival in summer habitats. To do so, we use vegetation indices as proxies of resource availability, and the NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) to map known physiological constraints on the birds. Secondly, we investigated the effects of long as well as short-term variations in

  3. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  4. Incorporating Climate Variability into Precipitation Isoscapes for Interpreting Animal Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Zanden, H.; Hobson, K. A.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Wunder, M. B.; Welker, J. M.; Bowen, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale continental gradients in δ2H and δ18O values of precipitation lead to predictable isotopic patterns across the landscape. These light isotopes are thus useful endogenous markers in tracing long-distance movements of animals. Hydrogen in water is assimilated into tissues that are inert after synthesis, such as chitin or keratin, that are not altered when the animal moves so that the tissue reflects the environment or region from which it originated at the time when the tissue was synthesized. Models to predict the patters of δ2H in precipitation with the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) use long-term averages because models allowing estimation of isotopic values in more specific time periods have often not been available. Yet, inter-annual variation in precipitation and other climate variables may lead to large deviations from the mean values modeled over four decades, and particular regions may be more susceptible to higher departures from long-term average δ2H values. We examine whether incorporating such variation offers an improvement over static isoscapes to understand patterns of animal movement and geographic origin. Here we investigate the accuracy of Bayesian geographic assignments to predict the origin of two migratory species (monarch butterflies in the eastern United States and reed warblers in western Europe) using time-specific isoscapes. We use known-origin data from these organisms to provide calibration and validation datasets to compare the sensitivity of predictions from both year-specific and long-term isoscapes developed in IsoMAP, a freely available online workspace for modeling and predicting isotope ratio variation in precipitation. Determining how to incorporate climate and inter-annual variation into models that predict isotopic values of animal tissues can aid in improving geospatial assignments across a wide range of taxa.

  5. Animal migration and risk of spread of viral infections: Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prosser, Diann J.; Nagel, Jessica; Takekawa, John Y.; Edited by Singh, Sunit K.

    2013-01-01

    The potential contribution of migration towards the spread of disease is as varied as the ecology of the pathogens themselves and their host populations. This chapter outlines multiple examples of viral diseases in animal populations and their mechanisms of viral spread. Many species of insects, mammals, fish, and birds exhibit migratory behavior and have the potential to disperse diseases over long distances. The majority of studies available on viral zoonoses have focused on birds and bats, due to their highly migratory life histories. A number of studies have reported evidence of changes in the timing of animal migrations in response to climate change. The majority indicate an advancement of spring migration, with few or inconclusive results for fall migration. Predicting the combined effects of climate change on migratory patterns of host species and epidemiology of viral pathogens is complex and not fully realistic.

  6. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Samantha J.; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman’s zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals’ latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: “attitude towards the animals” and “knowledge and experience of the animals”. In this novel study, data demonstrated

  7. Emergent Properties of Patch Shapes Affect Edge Permeability to Animals

    PubMed Central

    Nams, Vilis O.

    2011-01-01

    Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1) find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2) generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight). When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance. PMID:21747965

  8. Emergent properties of patch shapes affect edge permeability to animals.

    PubMed

    Nams, Vilis O

    2011-01-01

    Animal travel between habitat patches affects populations, communities and ecosystems. There are three levels of organization of edge properties, and each of these can affect animals. At the lowest level are the different habitats on each side of an edge, then there is the edge itself, and finally, at the highest level of organization, is the geometry or structure of the edge. This study used computer simulations to (1) find out whether effects of edge shapes on animal behavior can arise as emergent properties solely due to reactions to edges in general, without the animals reacting to the shapes of the edges, and to (2) generate predictions to allow field and experimental studies to test mechanisms of edge shape response. Individual animals were modeled traveling inside a habitat patch that had different kinds of edge shapes (convex, concave and straight). When animals responded edges of patches, this created an emergent property of responding to the shape of the edge. The response was mostly to absolute width of the shapes, and not the narrowness of them. When animals were attracted to edges, then they tended to collect in convexities and disperse from concavities, and the opposite happened when animals avoided edges. Most of the responses occurred within a distance of 40% of the perceptual range from the tip of the shapes. Predictions were produced for directionality at various locations and combinations of treatments, to be used for testing edge behavior mechanisms. These results suggest that edge shapes tend to either concentrate or disperse animals, simply because the animals are either attracted to or avoid edges, with an effect as great as 3 times the normal density. Thus edge shape could affect processes like pollination, seed predation and dispersal and predator abundance.

  9. The comparative psychopathology of affective disorders in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Healy, D

    1987-01-01

    Reviews of animal models of affective disorders commonly concentrate on the behavioural features thereof, the supposed neurochemical substrates, the mode of production and the response to treatment of the state in question but ignore questions of psycho pathology. An attempt is made to deal critically with the psychopathology of human and animal affective disorders in the light of current operational criteria for the diagnosis of major depressive disorders. It is argued thatthe psychopathological tradition stemming from Jaspers may be more appropriate to a consideration of animal models of affective disorders than the psychopathological positions implicit in psychoanalysis, behaviourism or current cognitive psychologies and in addition more suited to meet these criteria. The adoption of such a perspective results in a shift of emphasis from abnormalities of psychological content to demonstrable neuropsychological deficits and a definition of affective disorders, whether in animals or humans, as psychosomatic illnesses, possibly involving a pathology of circadian rhythmicity. This perspective also suggests that animal models may be useful in the devel opment of more refined diagnostic criteria for affective disorders in humans.

  10. Emergence of zoonotic arboviruses by animal trade and migration.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Martin; Dobler, Gerhard

    2010-04-08

    Arboviruses are transmitted in nature exclusively or to a major extend by arthropods. They belong to the most important viruses invading new areas in the world and their occurrence is strongly influenced by climatic changes due to the life cycle of the transmitting vectors. Several arboviruses have emerged in new regions of the world during the last years, like West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas, Usutu virus (USUV) in Central Europe, or Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the Arabian Peninsula. In most instances the ways of introduction of arboviruses into new regions are not known. Infections acquired during stays in the tropics and subtropics are diagnosed with increasing frequency in travellers returning from tropical countries, but interestingly no attention is paid on accompanying pet animals or the hematophagous ectoparasites that may still be attached to them. Here we outline the known ecology of the mosquito-borne equine encephalitis viruses (WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV), WNV, USUV, RVFV, and Japanese Encephalitis virus, as well as Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus and its North American counterpart Powassan virus, and will discuss the most likely mode that these viruses could expand their respective geographical range. All these viruses have a different epidemiology as different vector species, reservoir hosts and virus types have adapted to promiscuous and robust or rather very fine-balanced transmission cycles. Consequently, these viruses will behave differently with regard to the requirements needed to establish new endemic foci outside their original geographical ranges. Hence, emphasis is given on animal trade and suitable ecologic conditions, including competent vectors and vertebrate hosts.

  11. Emergence of zoonotic arboviruses by animal trade and migration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Arboviruses are transmitted in nature exclusively or to a major extend by arthropods. They belong to the most important viruses invading new areas in the world and their occurrence is strongly influenced by climatic changes due to the life cycle of the transmitting vectors. Several arboviruses have emerged in new regions of the world during the last years, like West Nile virus (WNV) in the Americas, Usutu virus (USUV) in Central Europe, or Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the Arabian Peninsula. In most instances the ways of introduction of arboviruses into new regions are not known. Infections acquired during stays in the tropics and subtropics are diagnosed with increasing frequency in travellers returning from tropical countries, but interestingly no attention is paid on accompanying pet animals or the hematophagous ectoparasites that may still be attached to them. Here we outline the known ecology of the mosquito-borne equine encephalitis viruses (WEEV, EEEV, and VEEV), WNV, USUV, RVFV, and Japanese Encephalitis virus, as well as Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus and its North American counterpart Powassan virus, and will discuss the most likely mode that these viruses could expand their respective geographical range. All these viruses have a different epidemiology as different vector species, reservoir hosts and virus types have adapted to promiscuous and robust or rather very fine-balanced transmission cycles. Consequently, these viruses will behave differently with regard to the requirements needed to establish new endemic foci outside their original geographical ranges. Hence, emphasis is given on animal trade and suitable ecologic conditions, including competent vectors and vertebrate hosts. PMID:20377873

  12. Animal tracking meets migration genomics: transcriptomic analysis of a partially migratory bird species.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Paolo; Irisarri, Iker; Fudickar, Adam; Schmidt, Andreas; Meyer, Axel; Wikelski, Martin; Partecke, Jesko

    2017-03-17

    Seasonal migration is a widespread phenomenon, which is found in many different lineages of animals. This spectacular behaviour allows animals to avoid seasonally adverse environmental conditions to exploit more favourable habitats. Migration has been intensively studied in birds, which display astonishing variation in migration strategies, thus providing a powerful system for studying the ecological and evolutionary processes that shape migratory behaviour. Despite intensive research, the genetic basis of migration remains largely unknown. Here we used state-of-the-art radio-tracking technology to characterize the migratory behaviour of a partially migratory population of European blackbirds (Turdus merula) in southern Germany. We compared gene expression of resident and migrant individuals using high-throughput transcriptomics in blood samples. Analyses of sequence variation revealed a non-significant genetic structure between blackbirds differing by their migratory phenotype. We detected only four differentially expressed genes between migrants and residents, which might be associated with hyperphagia, moulting, and enhanced DNA replication and transcription. The most pronounced changes in gene expression occurred between migratory birds depending on when, in relation to their date of departure, blood was collected. Overall, the differentially expressed genes detected in this analysis may play crucial roles in determining the decision to migrate, or in controlling the physiological processes required for the onset of migration. These results provide new insights into, and testable hypotheses for, the molecular mechanisms controlling the migratory phenotype and its underlying physiological mechanisms in blackbirds and other migratory bird species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Mechanistic models of animal migration behaviour--their diversity, structure and use.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Silke; Klaassen, Marcel

    2013-05-01

    1. Migration is a widespread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, including many taxonomic groups and modes of locomotion. Developing an understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes for this behaviour not only addresses fundamental ecological questions but has relevance to many other fields, for example in relation to the spread of emerging zoonotic diseases, the proliferation of invasive species, aeronautical safety as well as the conservation of migrants. 2. Theoretical methods can make important contributions to our understanding of migration, by allowing us to integrate findings on this complex behaviour, identify caveats in our understanding and to guide future empirical research efforts. Various mechanistic models exist to date, but their applications seem to be scattered and far from evenly distributed across taxonomic units. 3. Therefore, we provide an overview of the major mechanistic modelling approaches used in the study of migration behaviour and characterize their fundamental features, assumptions and limitations and discuss their typical data requirements both for model parameterization and for scrutinizing model predictions. 4. Furthermore, we review 155 studies that have used mechanistic models to study animal migration and analyse them with regard to the approaches used and the focal species, and also explore their contribution to advancing current knowledge within six broad migration ecology research themes. 5. This identifies important gaps in our present knowledge, which should be tackled in future research using existing and to-be developed theoretical approaches. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2013 British Ecological Society.

  14. How Tissue Mechanical Properties Affect Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, N. R.; Gazguez, E.; Bidault, L.; Guilbert, T.; Vias, C.; Vian, E.; Watanabe, Y.; Muller, L.; Germain, S.; Bondurand, N.; Dufour, S.; Fleury, V.

    2016-02-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a population of multipotent cells that migrate extensively during vertebrate development. Alterations to neural crest ontogenesis cause several diseases, including cancers and congenital defects, such as Hirschprung disease, which results from incomplete colonization of the colon by enteric NCCs (ENCCs). We investigated the influence of the stiffness and structure of the environment on ENCC migration in vitro and during colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in chicken and mouse embryos. We showed using tensile stretching and atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the mesenchyme of the gut was initially soft but gradually stiffened during the period of ENCC colonization. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy revealed that this stiffening was associated with a gradual organization and enrichment of collagen fibers in the developing gut. Ex-vivo 2D cell migration assays showed that ENCCs migrated on substrates with very low levels of stiffness. In 3D collagen gels, the speed of the ENCC migratory front decreased with increasing gel stiffness, whereas no correlation was found between porosity and ENCC migration behavior. Metalloprotease inhibition experiments showed that ENCCs actively degraded collagen in order to progress. These results shed light on the role of the mechanical properties of tissues in ENCC migration during development.

  15. How Tissue Mechanical Properties Affect Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, N.R.; Gazguez, E.; Bidault, L.; Guilbert, T.; Vias, C.; Vian, E.; Watanabe, Y.; Muller, L.; Germain, S.; Bondurand, N.; Dufour, S.; Fleury, V.

    2016-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a population of multipotent cells that migrate extensively during vertebrate development. Alterations to neural crest ontogenesis cause several diseases, including cancers and congenital defects, such as Hirschprung disease, which results from incomplete colonization of the colon by enteric NCCs (ENCCs). We investigated the influence of the stiffness and structure of the environment on ENCC migration in vitro and during colonization of the gastrointestinal tract in chicken and mouse embryos. We showed using tensile stretching and atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the mesenchyme of the gut was initially soft but gradually stiffened during the period of ENCC colonization. Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy revealed that this stiffening was associated with a gradual organization and enrichment of collagen fibers in the developing gut. Ex-vivo 2D cell migration assays showed that ENCCs migrated on substrates with very low levels of stiffness. In 3D collagen gels, the speed of the ENCC migratory front decreased with increasing gel stiffness, whereas no correlation was found between porosity and ENCC migration behavior. Metalloprotease inhibition experiments showed that ENCCs actively degraded collagen in order to progress. These results shed light on the role of the mechanical properties of tissues in ENCC migration during development. PMID:26887292

  16. Draxin, an axon guidance protein, affects chick trunk neural crest migration.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuhong; Naser, Iftekhar B; Islam, Shahidul M; Zhang, Sanbing; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Chen, Sandy; Shinmyo, Yohei; Kawakami, Minoru; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2009-12-01

    The neural crest is a multipotent population of migratory cells that arises in the central nervous system and subsequently migrates along defined stereotypic pathways. In the present work, we analyzed the role of a repulsive axon guidance protein, draxin, in the migration of neural crest cells. Draxin is expressed in the roof plate of the chick trunk spinal cord and around the early migration pathway of neural crest cells. Draxin modulates chick neural crest cell migration in vitro by reducing the polarization of these cells. When exposed to draxin, the velocity of migrating neural crest cells was reduced, and the cells changed direction so frequently that the net migration distance was also reduced. Overexpression of draxin also caused some early migrating neural crest cells to change direction to the dorsolateral pathway in the chick trunk region, presumably due to draxin's inhibitory activity. These results demonstrate that draxin, an axon guidance protein, can also affect trunk neural crest migration in the chick embryo.

  17. Affective consciousness: Core emotional feelings in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2005-03-01

    The position advanced in this paper is that the bedrock of emotional feelings is contained within the evolved emotional action apparatus of mammalian brains. This dual-aspect monism approach to brain-mind functions, which asserts that emotional feelings may reflect the neurodynamics of brain systems that generate instinctual emotional behaviors, saves us from various conceptual conundrums. In coarse form, primary process affective consciousness seems to be fundamentally an unconditional "gift of nature" rather than an acquired skill, even though those systems facilitate skill acquisition via various felt reinforcements. Affective consciousness, being a comparatively intrinsic function of the brain, shared homologously by all mammalian species, should be the easiest variant of consciousness to study in animals. This is not to deny that some secondary processes (e.g., awareness of feelings in the generation of behavioral choices) cannot be evaluated in animals with sufficiently clever behavioral learning procedures, as with place-preference procedures and the analysis of changes in learned behaviors after one has induced re-valuation of incentives. Rather, the claim is that a direct neuroscientific study of primary process emotional/affective states is best achieved through the study of the intrinsic ("instinctual"), albeit experientially refined, emotional action tendencies of other animals. In this view, core emotional feelings may reflect the neurodynamic attractor landscapes of a variety of extended trans-diencephalic, limbic emotional action systems-including SEEKING, FEAR, RAGE, LUST, CARE, PANIC, and PLAY. Through a study of these brain systems, the neural infrastructure of human and animal affective consciousness may be revealed. Emotional feelings are instantiated in large-scale neurodynamics that can be most effectively monitored via the ethological analysis of emotional action tendencies and the accompanying brain neurochemical/electrical changes. The

  18. Mechanistic models of animal migration behaviour – their diversity, structure and use

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Silke; Klaassen, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Migration is a wide-spread phenomenon in the animal kingdom, including many taxonomic groups and modes of locomotion. Developing an understanding of the proximate and ultimate causes for this behaviour not only addresses fundamental ecological questions but has relevance to many other fields, e.g. in relation to the spread of emerging zoonotic diseases, the proliferation of invasive species, aeronautical safety as well as the conservation of migrants.Theoretical methods can make important contributions to our understanding of migration, by allowing us to integrate findings on this complex behaviour, identify caveats in our understanding and guide future empirical research efforts. Various mechanistic models exist to date but their applications seem to be scattered and far from evenly distributed across taxonomic units.Therefore, we provide an overview of the major mechanistic modelling approaches used in the study of migration behaviour and characterise their fundamental features, assumptions and limitations, and discuss their typical data requirements both for model parameterisation and for scrutinizing model predictions.Furthermore, we review 155 studies that have used mechanistic models to study animal migration and analyse them with regard to the approaches used, focal species and also explore their contribution of advancing current knowledge within six broad migration ecology research themes.This identifies important gaps in our present knowledge, which should be tackled in future research using existing and to-be developed theoretical approaches. PMID:23373515

  19. Corridors affect plants, animals, and their interactions in fragmented landscapes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tewksbury, Joshua, J.; Levey, Douglas, J.; Haddad, Nick, M.; Sargent, Sarah; Orrock, John, L.; Weldon, Aimee; Danielson, Brent, J.; Brinkerhoff, Jory; Damschen, Ellen, I.; Townsend, Patricia

    2002-10-01

    Tewksbury, J.J., D.J. Levey, N.M. Haddad, S. Sargent, J.L. Orrock, A. Weldon, B.J. Danielson, J. Brinkerhoff, E.I. Damschen, and P. Townsend. 2002. Corridors affect plants, animals, and their interactions in fragmented landscapes. PNAS 99(20):12923-12926. Among the most popular strategies for maintaining populations of both plants and animals in fragmented landscapes is to connect isolated patches with thin strips of habitat, called corridors. Corridors are thought to increase the exchange of individuals between habitat patches, promoting genetic exchange and reducing population fluctuations. Empirical studies addressing the effects of corridors have either been small in scale or have ignored confounding effects of increased habitat area created by the presence of a corridor. These methodological difficulties, coupled with a paucity of studies examining the effects of corridors on plants and plant-animal interactions, have sparked debate over the purported value of corridors in conservation planning. We report results of a large-scale experiment that directly address this debate. We demonstrate that corridors not only increase the exchange of animals between patches, but also facilitate two key plant-animal interactions: pollination and seed dispersal. Our results show that the beneficial effects of corridors extend beyond the area they add, and suggest that increased plant and animal movement through corridors will have positive impacts on plant populations and community interactions in fragmented landscapes.

  20. Does human migration affect international trade? A complex-network perspective.

    PubMed

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade, using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960-2000. Next, we ask whether the position of any pair of countries in the migration network affects their bilateral trade flows. We show that: (i) both weighted and binary versions of the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated; (ii) such correlations can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; and (iii) pairs of countries that are more central in the international-migration network trade more. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration.

  1. Moult Strategies Affect Age Differences in Autumn Migration Timing in East Mediterranean Migratory Passerines.

    PubMed

    Kiat, Yosef; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Adult passerines renew their flight feathers at least once every year. This complete moult occurs either in the breeding areas, just after breeding (summer moult), or, in some long-distance migratory species, at the non-breeding areas, after arrival to the southern wintering area at the end of autumn migration (winter moult). The aim of this study was to relate moult strategies with the DMD, the difference in median migration date, through Israel, between juveniles and adults. Our data on autumn migration timing in juveniles and adults was based on ringing data of 49,125 individuals belonging to 23 passerine species that breed in Europe and Western Asia and migrate through Israel. We found that DMD was associated with moult timing. In all species that perform a winter moult, adults preceded juveniles during autumn. Among migrants who perform a summer moult, we found evidence of both migration timing patterns: juveniles preceding adults or adults preceding juveniles. In addition, in summer moulters, we found a significant, positive correlation between mean breeding latitude and DMD. Although previous studies described that moult duration and extent can be affected by migration, we suggest that moult strategies affect both migration timing and migration strategy. These two moult strategies (summer or winter moult) also represent two unique migration strategies. Our findings highlight the evolutionary interplay between moult and migration strategies.

  2. Moult Strategies Affect Age Differences in Autumn Migration Timing in East Mediterranean Migratory Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Kiat, Yosef; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Adult passerines renew their flight feathers at least once every year. This complete moult occurs either in the breeding areas, just after breeding (summer moult), or, in some long-distance migratory species, at the non-breeding areas, after arrival to the southern wintering area at the end of autumn migration (winter moult). The aim of this study was to relate moult strategies with the DMD, the difference in median migration date, through Israel, between juveniles and adults. Our data on autumn migration timing in juveniles and adults was based on ringing data of 49,125 individuals belonging to 23 passerine species that breed in Europe and Western Asia and migrate through Israel. We found that DMD was associated with moult timing. In all species that perform a winter moult, adults preceded juveniles during autumn. Among migrants who perform a summer moult, we found evidence of both migration timing patterns: juveniles preceding adults or adults preceding juveniles. In addition, in summer moulters, we found a significant, positive correlation between mean breeding latitude and DMD. Although previous studies described that moult duration and extent can be affected by migration, we suggest that moult strategies affect both migration timing and migration strategy. These two moult strategies (summer or winter moult) also represent two unique migration strategies. Our findings highlight the evolutionary interplay between moult and migration strategies. PMID:26797292

  3. Neuronal migration and its disorders affecting the CA3 region

    PubMed Central

    Belvindrah, Richard; Nosten-Bertrand, Marika; Francis, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on CA3 neuronal migration disorders in the rodent. We begin by introducing the main steps of hippocampal development, and we summarize characteristic hippocampal malformations in human. We then describe various mouse mutants showing structural hippocampal defects. Notably, genes identified in human cortical neuronal migration disorders consistently give rise to a CA3 phenotype when mutated in the mouse. We successively describe their molecular, physiological and behavioral phenotypes that together contribute to a better understanding of CA3-dependent functions. We finally discuss potential factors underlying the CA3 vulnerability revealed by these mouse mutants and that may also contribute to other human neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24624057

  4. Human semen prostaglandins do not affect sperm motility and migration.

    PubMed

    Procaccini, J C; Gimeno, M F; Kesserü, E; Asch, R H

    1985-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGF2 alpha and testosterone (T) concentrations were determined in the seminal plasma of 57 fertility-clinic patients. Results (mean less than SE) were: PGE2, 3.44 +/- 0.38 mu/ml; PGF2 alpha, 138 +/- 0.33 micrograms/ml; T, 429.54 +/- 14.01 pg/ml. The material was divided into 4 groups: normospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic and azoospermic. No statistically significant differences were found among the values of the different groups, except for PGE2, which was found to be increased in the asthenozoospermic group. Sperm migration patterns were assessed in each semen sample, using the Kremer capillary tube test and human cervical mucus. Considering each semen sample individually, no correlations whatever were found among sperm count, motility and migration parameters and the respective concentrations of both PGs and T, nor was there a correlation among PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and T values of the same sample.

  5. Iodine Affects Differentiation and Migration Process in Trophoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Olivo-Vidal, Zendy Evelyn; Rodríguez, Roció Coutiño; Arroyo-Helguera, Omar

    2016-02-01

    Iodine deficiency is associated with oxidative stress increase and preeclampsia during gestation, suggesting that iodine concentration plays an important role in the normal placenta physiology. The question raised is to analyze the effect of iodine deficiency on oxidative stress, viability, differentiation, and migration process and changes in the expression of differentiation and migration markers. Iodine deprivation was done using potassium perchlorate (KCLO4) to block sodium iodide symporter (NIS) transporter and 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid DIDS to inhibit pendrine (PEN) transport for 3-48 h. Then trophoblast cells were treated with low iodine doses of 5-500 μM and high iodine doses of 100-5000 μM. Oxidative stress, viability, and human chorionic gonadotropin (hGC) were measured by colorimetric methods. Migration throphoblast cells were evaluated by both wound healing and Boyden chamber assays. Changes in mRNA expression were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Iodine deprivation induces a significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), viability, and migration process vs control cells. We found a significant overregulation in the mRNA's peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma), Snail, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mRNA's in cells deprived of iodine, as well as a down glial cell missing-1 (GCM-1) regulation, hGC, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), and E-cadherin mRNA expression. The expression of hypoxic induction factor alpha (HIFα) mRNA does not change with iodine deprivation. In cells deprived of iodine, supplementing low iodine doses (5-500 μM) does not induce any significant changes in viability. However, ROS and migration process were decreased, although we found an increased human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion as a differentiation marker. In addition, we found that PPAR-gamma, Snail, and MPP-9 mRNAs expression are downregulated with low iodine doses, in contrast with GCM-1, PAPP

  6. Migration of alloplastic bone graft material in infected conditions: a case study and animal experiment.

    PubMed

    Seok, Hyun; Lee, Seuk-Keun; Kim, Seong-Gon; Kang, Tae-Yeon; Lee, Myung-Jin; Chae, Weon-Sik

    2014-06-01

    Distant migration associated with sinus lifting procedures has not been investigated. In the present study, a case of distant migration of graft material was observed, and the potential mechanisms of migration were analyzed using material analysis and in vivo experiments. The migrated graft material was biphasic calcium phosphate-based alloplastic material (BCP), and its physical properties were compared with those of xenogenic material (Bio-Oss). The comparisons of the physical properties were performed using scanning electronic microscopic, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier-transform infrared absorbance spectra analysis. The comparative graft migration study was performed using the subcutaneous pocket model in rats (n = 10). The clinical case was analyzed by histologic section and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) microanalysis. The observed diffraction patterns from the Bio-Oss revealed characteristic diffractions for the hydroxyapatite phase, and those from the BCP revealed additional diffractions that could be assigned to the tricalcium phosphate phase. In the animal model, the graft migration distances observed in the BCP group were significantly greater than those observed in the Bio-Oss group (P = .012). In the clinical case, the lymphatic vessels of the submandibular gland contained foreign materials that were morphologically similar to those of the maxillary sinus. EDX microanalysis revealed that the particles in the lymphatic vessels exhibited calcium concentrations that were approximately 200 times greater than those in the adjacent glandular tissue. In the present study, BCP-based sinus grafts had migrated into the submandibular glandular area by way of the lymphatic chain in the presented clinical case. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Does Human Migration Affect International Trade? A Complex-Network Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fagiolo, Giorgio; Mastrorillo, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between international human migration and merchandise trade using a complex-network approach. We firstly compare the topological structure of worldwide networks of human migration and bilateral trade over the period 1960–2000. Next, we ask whether pairs of countries that are more central in the migration network trade more. We show that: (i) the networks of international migration and trade are strongly correlated, and such correlation can be mostly explained by country economic/demographic size and geographical distance; (ii) centrality in the international-migration network boosts bilateral trade; (iii) intensive forms of country centrality are more trade enhancing than their extensive counterparts. Our findings suggest that bilateral trade between any two countries is not only affected by the presence of migrants from either countries, but also by their relative embeddedness in the complex web of corridors making up the network of international human migration. PMID:24828376

  8. Migration strategy affects avian influenza dynamics in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Hill, Nichola J; Takekawa, John Y; Ackerman, Joshua T; Hobson, Keith A; Herring, Garth; Cardona, Carol J; Runstadler, Jonathan A; Boyce, Walter M

    2012-12-01

    Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards- a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration strategy. No difference in AIV prevalence was detected between resident (9.6%), intermediate-distance (9.6%) and long-distance migrants (7.4%). Viral diversity among the three groups was also comparable, possibly owing to viral pool mixing when birds converge at wetlands during winter. However, migrants and residents contributed differently to the virus gene pool at wintering wetlands. Migrants introduced virus from northern breeding grounds (Alaska and the NW Pacific Rim) into the wintering population, facilitating gene flow at continental scales, but circulation of imported virus appeared to be limited. In contrast, resident mallards acted as AIV reservoirs facilitating year-round circulation of limited subtypes (i.e. H5N2) at lower latitudes. This study supports a model of virus exchange in temperate regions driven by the convergence of wild birds with separate geographic origins and exposure histories. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Migration strategy affects avian influenza dynamics in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takekawa, John Y.; Hill, Nichola J.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herring, Garth; Hobson, Keith; Cardona, Carol J.; Runstadler, Jonathan; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of pathogen transmission typically overlook that wildlife hosts can include both migrant and resident populations when attempting to model circulation. Through the application of stable isotopes in flight feathers, we estimated the migration strategy of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) occurring on California wintering grounds. Our study demonstrates that mallards- a principal host of avian influenza virus (AIV) in nature, contribute differently to virus gene flow depending on migration strategy. No difference in AIV prevalence was detected between resident (9.6%), intermediate-distance (9.6%) and long-distance migrants (7.4%). Viral diversity among the three groups was also comparable, possibly owing to viral pool mixing when birds converge at wetlands during winter. However, migrants and residents contributed differently to the virus gene pool at wintering wetlands. Migrants introduced virus from northern breeding grounds (Alaska and the NW Pacific Rim) into the wintering population, facilitating gene flow at continental scales, but circulation of imported virus appeared to be limited. In contrast, resident mallards acted as AIV reservoirs facilitating year-round circulation of limited subtypes (i.e. H5N2) at lower latitudes. This study supports a model of virus exchange in temperate regions driven by the convergence of wild birds with separate geographic origins and exposure histories.

  10. Partial migration and transient coexistence of migrants and residents in animal populations.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navinder J; Leonardsson, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    Partial migration, whereby a proportion of the population migrates, is common across the animal kingdom. Much of the focus in the literature has been on trying to explain the underlying mechanisms for the coexistence of migrants and residents. In addition, there has been an increasing number of reports on the prevalence and frequency of partially migratory populations. One possible explanation for the occurrence of partial migration, which has received no attention in the literature, is that of 'transient coexistence' during the invasion phase of a superior behaviour. In this study we develop a theoretical basis for explaining partial migration as a transient coexistence and derive a method to predict the frequency of residents and migrants in partially migrating populations. This method is useful to predict the frequencies of migrants and residents in a small set of populations as a complementing hypothesis to 'an Evolutionary Stable Strategy (ESS)'. We use the logistic growth equation to derive a formula for predicting the frequencies of residents and migrants. We also use simulations and empirical data from white perch (Morone americana), moose (Alces alces) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) to demonstrate our approach. We show that the probability of detecting partial migration due to transient coexistence depends upon a minimum number of tracked or marked individuals for a given number of populations. Our approach provides a starting point in searching for explanations to the observed frequencies, by contrasting the observed pattern with both the predicted transient and the uniform random pattern. Aggregating such information on observed patterns (proportions of migrants and residents) may eventually lead to the development of a quantitative theory for the equilibrium (ESS) populations as well.

  11. Animal migration amid shifting patterns of phenology and predation: lessons from a Yellowstone elk herd.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Arthur D; Kauffman, Matthew J; McWhirter, Douglas E; Cook, John G; Cook, Rachel C; Nelson, Abigail A; Jimenez, Michael D; Klaver, Robert W

    2013-06-01

    Migration is a striking behavioral strategy by which many animals enhance resource acquisition while reducing predation risk. Historically, the demographic benefits of such movements made migration common, but in many taxa the phenomenon is considered globally threatened. Here we describe a long-term decline in the productivity of elk (Cervus elaphus) that migrate through intact wilderness areas to protected summer ranges inside Yellowstone National Park, USA. We attribute this decline to a long-term reduction in the demographic benefits that ungulates typically gain from migration. Among migratory elk, we observed a 21-year, 70% reduction in recruitment and a 4-year, 19% depression in their pregnancy rate largely caused by infrequent reproduction of females that were young or lactating. In contrast, among resident elk, we have recently observed increasing recruitment and a high rate of pregnancy. Landscape-level changes in habitat quality and predation appear to be responsible for the declining productivity of Yellowstone migrants. From 1989 to 2009, migratory elk experienced an increasing rate and shorter duration of green-up coincident with warmer spring-summer temperatures and reduced spring precipitation, also consistent with observations of an unusually severe drought in the region. Migrants are also now exposed to four times as many grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) as resident elk. Both of these restored predators consume migratory elk calves at high rates in the Yellowstone wilderness but are maintained at low densities via lethal management and human disturbance in the year-round habitats of resident elk. Our findings suggest that large-carnivore recovery and drought, operating simultaneously along an elevation gradient, have disproportionately influenced the demography of migratory elk. Many migratory animals travel large geographic distances between their seasonal ranges. Changes in land use and climate that disparately influence

  12. Animal migration amid shifting patterns of phenology and predation: Lessons from a Yellowstone elk herd

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Middleton, Arthur D.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; McWhirter, Douglas E.; Cook, John G.; Cook, Rachel C.; Nelson, Abigail A.; Jimenez, Michael D.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Migration is a striking behavioral strategy by which many animals enhance resource acquisition while reducing predation risk. Historically, the demographic benefits of such movements made migration common, but in many taxa the phenomenon is considered globally threatened. Here we describe a long-term decline in the productivity of elk (Cervus elaphus) that migrate through intact wilderness areas to protected summer ranges inside Yellowstone National Park, USA. We attribute this decline to a long-term reduction in the demographic benefits that ungulates typically gain from migration. Among migratory elk, we observed a 21-year, 70% reduction in recruitment and a 4-year, 19% depression in their pregnancy rate largely caused by infrequent reproduction of females that were young or lactating. In contrast, among resident elk, we have recently observed increasing recruitment and a high rate of pregnancy. Landscape-level changes in habitat quality and predation appear to be responsible for the declining productivity of Yellowstone migrants. From 1989 to 2009, migratory elk experienced an increasing rate and shorter duration of green-up coincident with warmer spring–summer temperatures and reduced spring precipitation, also consistent with observations of an unusually severe drought in the region. Migrants are also now exposed to four times as many grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and wolves (Canis lupus) as resident elk. Both of these restored predators consume migratory elk calves at high rates in the Yellowstone wilderness but are maintained at low densities via lethal management and human disturbance in the year-round habitats of resident elk. Our findings suggest that large-carnivore recovery and drought, operating simultaneously along an elevation gradient, have disproportionately influenced the demography of migratory elk. Many migratory animals travel large geographic distances between their seasonal ranges. Changes in land use and climate that disparately influence

  13. Factors affecting migration of vanillin from chitosan/methyl cellulose films.

    PubMed

    Sangsuwan, J; Rattanapanone, N; Auras, R A; Harte, B R; Rachtanapun, P

    2009-09-01

    The diffusion kinetics and factors affecting the migration of vanillin from chitosan/methyl cellulose (Chi/MC) films into water, cantaloupe juice (CJ), pineapple juice (PJ), and citrate buffer adjusted to pH values of 3.5, 5, and 6.5 were studied. Vanillin was incorporated into the Chi/MC films to provide an inhibitory effect against microorganisms. Initial vanillin concentration in the films, temperature, and pH of extracting solvent impacted the migration behavior of vanillin. The diffusion coefficients (D) followed the Arrhenius equation and increased as temperature increased for all the solvents. As temperature rose, the rate increment of the diffusion of vanillin into pineapple juice was higher than that into water and cantaloupe juice. Films containing lower vanillin content had a higher diffusion coefficient than those containing high vanillin content. Migration of vanillin was affected by pH rather than acid concentration. Lower pH resulted in a higher migration rate.

  14. How job characteristics affect international migration: the role of informality in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Andrés; Blanchard, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Despite the importance given to employment opportunities as a primary motive for migration, previous studies have paid insufficient attention to the kinds of jobs that are more likely to retain workers in their countries of origin. We use information from a panel survey of Mexican adults to examine how job characteristics affect the risk of international migration. The sampling strategy and overall size of the survey allow us to analyze the effect of employment characteristics on migration from urban areas, which have much greater labor market diversity, and to separate our analysis by gender. We also distinguish migrants according to whether they migrate for work or for other reasons. We find informality to be a significant predictor of international migration. Even after controlling for individual factors including workers' wages, as well as various household- and community-level predictors, we find that workers employed in the informal sector have significantly higher odds of migrating than their counterparts in the formal sector. The pervasive nature of informality in many developing countries from which a high proportion of international migrants originate may therefore create a constant supply of workers who are predisposed to migrate. Our findings thus have important implications for a proper understanding of the effects of economic development on migration.

  15. HOW JOB CHARACTERISTICS AFFECT INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION: THE ROLE OF INFORMALITY IN MEXICO

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance given to employment opportunities as a primary motive for migration, previous studies have paid insufficient attention to the kinds of jobs that are more likely to retain workers in their countries of origin. We use information from a panel survey of Mexican adults to examine how job characteristics affect the risk of international migration. The sampling strategy and overall size of the survey allow us to analyze the effect of employment characteristics on migration from urban areas, which have much greater labor market diversity, and to separate our analysis by gender. We also distinguish migrants according to whether they migrate for work or for other reasons. We find informality to be a significant predictor of international migration. Even after controlling for individual factors including workers’ wages, as well as various household- and community-level predictors, we find that workers employed in the informal sector have significantly higher odds of migrating than their counterparts in the formal sector. The pervasive nature of informality in many developing countries from which a high proportion of international migrants originate may therefore create a constant supply of workers who are predisposed to migrate. Our findings thus have important implications for a proper understanding of the effects of economic development on migration. PMID:23073750

  16. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.

    PubMed

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  17. Nanoparticle migration and delivery of Paclitaxel to regional lymph nodes in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Khullar, Onkar V; Griset, Aaron P; Gibbs-Strauss, Summer L; Chirieac, Lucian R; Zubris, Kimberly A V; Frangioni, John V; Grinstaff, Mark W; Colson, Yolonda L

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate feasibility of migration and in situ chemotherapy delivery to regional lymph nodes (LN) in a large animal model using an expansile polymer nanoparticle (eNP) delivery system. Dual-labeled 50-nm and 100-nm eNP were prepared by encapsulating an IR-813 near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye within coumarin-conjugated expansile polymer nanoparticles (NIR-C-eNP). NIR imaging and fluorescent microscopy were used to identify intralymphatic migration of NIR-nanoparticles to draining inguinal or mesenteric LN after injection in swine hind legs or intestine. Nanoparticle-mediated intranodal delivery of chemotherapy was subsequently assessed with Oregon Green paclitaxel-loaded NIR-eNP (NIR-OGpax-eNP). NIR imaging demonstrated direct lymphatic migration of 50-nm, but not 100-nm, NIR-C-eNP and NIR-OGpax-eNP to the draining regional LNs after intradermal injection in the hind leg or subserosal injection in intestine. Fluorescent microscopy demonstrated that IR-813 used for NIR real-time trafficking colocalized with both the coumarin-labeled polymer and paclitaxel chemotherapy and was identified within the subcapsular spaces of the draining LNs. These studies verify nodal migration of both nanoparticle and encapsulated payload, and confirm the feasibility of focusing chemotherapy delivery directly to regional nodes. Regionally-targeted intranodal chemotherapy can be delivered to draining LNs for both skin and solid organs using 50-nm paclitaxel-loaded eNP. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Two-dimensional DNAPL migration affected by groundwater flow in unconfined aquifer.

    PubMed

    Kamon, Masashi; Endo, Kazuto; Kawabata, Junichi; Inui, Toru; Katsumi, Takeshi

    2004-07-05

    The dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) migration process was experimentally investigated in a laboratory-scale tank (150 cm width, 82.5 cm height, and 15 cm depth) to assess a site characterization on DNAPL contamination below a groundwater table. The heterogeneous ground of the tank model consisted of Toyoura sand (hydraulic conductivity, k = 1.5 x 10(-2) cm/s for void ratio, e = 0.62) and silica #7 sand (k = 2.3 x 10(-3) cm/s for e = 0.72). A series of experiments was carried out with or without lateral groundwater flow. Hydrofluoroether was used as a representative DNAPL. The main results obtained in this study are as follows: (1) the DNAPL plume does not invade into the less permeable soil layer with higher displacement pressure head; (2) the DNAPL plume migrates faster with lateral groundwater flow than without it; (3) lateral groundwater flow does not affect lateral DNAPL migration; rather, it promotes downward migration; and (4) pore DNAPL pressure without groundwater flow is higher than that with it. The above experimental results were compared with numerical analysis. The fundamental behaviors of DNAPL source migration observed experimentally are expected to be useful for assessing the characteristics of two-dimensional DNAPL migration in an aquifer.

  19. Energetics of Photoinduced Charge Migration within the Tryptophan Tetrad of an Animal (6-4) Photolyase.

    PubMed

    Cailliez, Fabien; Müller, Pavel; Firmino, Thiago; Pernot, Pascal; de la Lande, Aurélien

    2016-02-17

    Cryptochromes and photolyases are flavoproteins that undergo cascades of electron/hole transfers after excitation of the flavin cofactor. It was recently discovered that animal (6-4) photolyases, as well as animal cryptochromes, feature a chain of four tryptophan residues, while other members of the family contain merely a tryptophan triad. Transient absorption spectroscopy measurements on Xenopus laevis (6-4) photolyase have shown that the fourth residue is effectively involved in photoreduction but at the same time could not unequivocally ascertain the final redox state of this residue. In this article, polarizable molecular dynamics simulations and constrained density functional theory calculations are carried out to reveal the energetics of charge migration along the tryptophan tetrad. Migration toward the fourth tryptophan is found to be thermodynamically favorable. Electron transfer mechanisms are sought either through an incoherent hopping mechanism or through a multiple sites tunneling process. The Jortner-Bixon formulation of electron transfer (ET) theory is employed to characterize the hopping mechanism. The interplay between electron transfer and relaxation of protein and solvent is analyzed in detail. Our simulations confirm that ET in (6-4) photolyase proceeds out of equilibrium. Multiple site tunneling is modeled with the recently proposed flickering resonance mechanism. Given the position of energy levels and the distribution of electronic coupling values, tunneling over three tryptophan residues may become competitive in some cases, although a hopping mechanism is likely to be the dominant channel. For both reactive channels, computed rates are very sensitive to the starting protein configuration, suggesting that both can take place and eventually be mixed, depending on the state of the system when photoexcitation takes place.

  20. Cross-Species Affective Neuroscience Decoding of the Primal Affective Experiences of Humans and Related Animals

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-01-01

    Background The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. Principal Findings The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1) It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB); these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2) These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3) All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4) Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as ‘rewards’ and ‘punishments’ in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5) Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned) emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1), which are regulated by higher

  1. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  2. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  3. Building Responsive Health Systems to Help Communities Affected by Migration: An International Delphi Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Pottie, Kevin; Hui, Charles; Rahman, Prinon; Ingleby, David; Akl, Elie A.; Russell, Grant; Ling, Li; Wickramage, Kolitha; Mosca, Davide; Brindis, Claire D.

    2017-01-01

    Persons affected by migration require health systems that are responsive and adaptable to the needs of both disadvantaged migrants and non-migrant populations. The objective of this study is to support health systems for populations affected by migration. Materials and Methods: An international Delphi consensus process was used to identify policy approaches to improve health systems for populations affected by migration. Participants were leading migrant health experts from Americas, Europe, Middle East, Asia, and Australasia. We calculated average ranking scores and qualitatively analyzed open-ended questions. Results: Participants identified the following key areas as priorities for policy development: health inequities, system discrimination, migrant related health data, disadvantaged migrant sub-groups, and considerations for disadvantaged non-migrant populations. Highly ranked items to improve health systems were: Health Equity Impact Assessment, evidence based guidelines, and the International Organization for Migration annual reports. Discussion: Policy makers need tools, data and resources to address health systems challenges. Policies need to avoid preventable deaths of migrants and barriers to basic health services. PMID:28165380

  4. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions affecting plant and animal... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  5. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting plant and animal... Actions To Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.75 Actions affecting plant and animal populations. Minimization of adverse effects on populations of plants and animals can be achieved by: (a) Avoiding changes...

  6. Golgi Anti-apoptotic Proteins Are Highly Conserved Ion Channels That Affect Apoptosis and Cell Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Guia; Saraiva, Nuno; Parsons, Maddy; Byrne, Bernadette; Prole, David L.; Taylor, Colin W.; Smith, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Golgi anti-apoptotic proteins (GAAPs) are multitransmembrane proteins that are expressed in the Golgi apparatus and are able to homo-oligomerize. They are highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and are present in some prokaryotes and orthopoxviruses. Within eukaryotes, GAAPs regulate the Ca2+ content of intracellular stores, inhibit apoptosis, and promote cell adhesion and migration. Data presented here demonstrate that purified viral GAAPs (vGAAPs) and human Bax inhibitor 1 form ion channels and that vGAAP from camelpox virus is selective for cations. Mutagenesis of vGAAP, including some residues conserved in the recently solved structure of a related bacterial protein, BsYetJ, altered the conductance (E207Q and D219N) and ion selectivity (E207Q) of the channel. Mutation of residue Glu-207 or -178 reduced the effects of GAAP on cell migration and adhesion without affecting protection from apoptosis. In contrast, mutation of Asp-219 abrogated the anti-apoptotic activity of GAAP but not its effects on cell migration and adhesion. These results demonstrate that GAAPs are ion channels and define residues that contribute to the ion-conducting pore and affect apoptosis, cell adhesion, and migration independently. PMID:25713081

  7. Can Computer Animations Affect College Biology Students' Conceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Brecheisen, Dorothy M.; Hynek, Brian M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates whether viewing computer animations representing the process of diffusion and osmosis affects students' conceptions. Discusses the difficulties of implementing computer animations in the classroom. (Contains 27 references.) (YDS)

  8. Can Computer Animations Affect College Biology Students' Conceptions about Diffusion and Osmosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Brecheisen, Dorothy M.; Hynek, Brian M.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates whether viewing computer animations representing the process of diffusion and osmosis affects students' conceptions. Discusses the difficulties of implementing computer animations in the classroom. (Contains 27 references.) (YDS)

  9. Exploring how animations of sodium chloride dissolution affect students' explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Resa M.

    2005-11-01

    In an attempt to improve the learning of molecular structures and dynamics, animations of microchemistry processes have been developed to supplement instruction. Since many studies (Kelly, Phelps and Sanger, 2004; Sanger, Phelps and Feinhold, 2000; Wu, Krajcik, and Soloway, 2001; Burke, Greenbowe and Windschitl, 1998; and Williamson and Abraham, 1995) have suggested that students who receive instruction including computer animations or visualizations of chemical processes at the molecular level are better able to answer conceptual questions about particulate phenomena, publishers have supplemented their textbooks with compact discs or websites containing molecular animations. In this study, eighteen college students enrolled in general chemistry participated in three research sessions. First, they were individually shown two popular textbook animations of salt dissolution after each performed an activity of the same event. Second, after one week the same subjects were asked to interpret a precipitation reaction at the molecular level. Third, a debriefing session and semi-structured interview were held. An analysis of the data from the first session showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations, and many were able to connect how the microscopic process of dissolution related to the macroscopic disappearance of the salt. Although students' drawn explanations displayed many features seen in the salt dissolution animations, their verbal explanations sometimes indicated that they drew these features without full comprehension of their meaning. In a study of the transfer of learning, it was found that most students did not see a relation between the sodium chloride solution made when dissolving the salt and the sodium chloride solution used in a precipitation reaction.

  10. Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared between humans and other animals. Discussion Here, we survey some fundamental topics regarding pleasure mechanisms and explicitly compare humans and animals. Conclusion Topics surveyed include liking, wanting, and learning components of reward; brain coding versus brain causing of reward; subjective pleasure versus objective hedonic reactions; roles of orbitofrontal cortex and related cortex regions; subcortical hedonic hotspots for pleasure generation; reappraisals of dopamine and pleasure-electrode controversies; and the relation of pleasure to happiness. PMID:18311558

  11. Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Kent C; Kringelbach, Morten L

    2008-08-01

    Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared between humans and other animals. Here, we survey some fundamental topics regarding pleasure mechanisms and explicitly compare humans and animals. Topics surveyed include liking, wanting, and learning components of reward; brain coding versus brain causing of reward; subjective pleasure versus objective hedonic reactions; roles of orbitofrontal cortex and related cortex regions; subcortical hedonic hotspots for pleasure generation; reappraisals of dopamine and pleasure-electrode controversies; and the relation of pleasure to happiness.

  12. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on non-human animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Recent work reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including (1) examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise) in non-human animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and (2) an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to non-human animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary by-products of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be driven by an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases – many shared across species – and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes. PMID:24427146

  13. Animal signals and emotion in music: coordinating affect across groups.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Researchers studying the emotional impact of music have not traditionally been concerned with the principled relationship between form and function in evolved animal signals. The acoustic structure of musical forms is related in important ways to emotion perception, and thus research on non-human animal vocalizations is relevant for understanding emotion in music. Musical behavior occurs in cultural contexts that include many other coordinated activities which mark group identity, and can allow people to communicate within and between social alliances. The emotional impact of music might be best understood as a proximate mechanism serving an ultimately social function. Recent work reveals intimate connections between properties of certain animal signals and evocative aspects of human music, including (1) examinations of the role of nonlinearities (e.g., broadband noise) in non-human animal vocalizations, and the analogous production and perception of these features in human music, and (2) an analysis of group musical performances and possible relationships to non-human animal chorusing and emotional contagion effects. Communicative features in music are likely due primarily to evolutionary by-products of phylogenetically older, but still intact communication systems. But in some cases, such as the coordinated rhythmic sounds produced by groups of musicians, our appreciation and emotional engagement might be driven by an adaptive social signaling system. Future empirical work should examine human musical behavior through the comparative lens of behavioral ecology and an adaptationist cognitive science. By this view, particular coordinated sound combinations generated by musicians exploit evolved perceptual response biases - many shared across species - and proliferate through cultural evolutionary processes.

  14. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR surveys, egg surveys and commercial landings from Danish coastal fisheries in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and inner Danish waters. The three independent sources of data all show that there is a significant relationship between the timing of spawning and sea surface temperature. Large mackerel are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management and monitoring. An increase in temperature is likely to affect the timing and magnitude of the growth, recruitment and migration of North Sea mackerel with subsequent impacts on its sustainable exploitation.

  15. Determinants Affecting Physical Activity Levels In Animal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C. L.; Wade, Charles E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play all underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multi-factorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to tile ventral medial hypothalamus and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  16. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  17. Determinants affecting physical activity levels in animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet C L.; Wade, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    Weight control is dependent on energy balance. Reduced energy expenditure (EE) associated with decreased physical activity is suggested to be a major underlying cause in the increasing prevalence of weight gain and obesity. Therefore, a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of physical activity is essential. To facilitate interpretation in humans, it is helpful to consider the evidence from animal studies. This review focuses on animal studies examining the biological determinants influencing activity and potential implications to human. It appears that physical activity is influenced by a number of parameters. However, regardless of the parameter involved, body weight appears to play an underlying role in the regulation of activity. Furthermore, the regulation of activity associated with body weight appears to occur only after the animal achieves a critical weight. This suggests that activity levels are a consequence rather than a contributor to weight control. However, the existence of an inverse weight-activity relationship remains inconclusive. Confounding the results are the multifactorial nature of physical activity and the lack of appropriate measuring devices. Furthermore, many determinants of body weight are closely interlocked, making it difficult to determine whether a single, combination, or interaction of factors is important for the regulation of activity. For example, diet-induced obesity, aging, lesions to the ventral medial hypothalamus, and genetics all produce hypoactivity. Providing a better understanding of the biological determinants involved in the regulation of activity has important implications for the development of strategies for the prevention of weight gain leading to obesity and subsequent morbidity and mortality in the human population.

  18. Uncontrollable atmospheric conditions which can affect animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, P; Rodriguez-Vicente, M C; Villar, P; Repetto, M

    1988-10-01

    In our programs of investigation into mechanisms of molecular action of toxic substances, we have had occasion to observe the appearance of anomalous values in biochemical parameters, which we put down to cyclic rhythms or coincidences with the following phenomena: meteorological (storms), geological (earthquakes), and astronomical or phenological (eclipse and lunar phases). This work reviews such observations, which suggest that besides the environmental conditions of the animal room (illumination, humidity, temperature, noise) it is necessary to consider all the external circumstances which occur at the moment of the experiment.

  19. Animate Affects: Censorship, Reckless Pedagogies, and Beautiful Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niccolini, Alyssa

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that affect bears a potent teaching capacity. To do so, it explores the intensities that built around a student-teacher's dismissal from a US school placement. In this incident, the topic of homophobia in a poetry lesson elicited a buzz among students that enacted a pedagogy that exceeded the speaking subject. It was these…

  20. Animate Affects: Censorship, Reckless Pedagogies, and Beautiful Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niccolini, Alyssa

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that affect bears a potent teaching capacity. To do so, it explores the intensities that built around a student-teacher's dismissal from a US school placement. In this incident, the topic of homophobia in a poetry lesson elicited a buzz among students that enacted a pedagogy that exceeded the speaking subject. It was these…

  1. DISC1 knockdown impairs the tangential migration of cortical interneurons by affecting the actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Steinecke, André; Gampe, Christin; Nitzsche, Falk; Bolz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a risk gene for a spectrum of major mental disorders. It has been shown to regulate radial migration as well as dendritic arborization during neurodevelopment and corticogenesis. In a previous study we demonstrated through in vitro experiments that DISC1 also controls the tangential migration of cortical interneurons originating from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE). Here we first show that DISC1 is necessary for the proper tangential migration of cortical interneurons in the intact brain. Expression of EGFP under the Lhx6 promotor allowed us to analyze exclusively interneurons transfected in the MGE after in utero electroporation. After 3 days in utero, DISC1 deficient interneurons displayed prolonged leading processes and, compared to control, fewer neurons reached the cortex. Time-lapse video microscopy of cortical feeder-layers revealed a decreased migration velocity due to a reduction of soma translocations. Immunostainings indicated that DISC1 is co-localized with F-actin in the growth cone-like structure of the leading process. DISC1 knockdown reduced F-actin levels whereas the overall actin level was not altered. Moreover, DISC1 knockdown also decreased levels of phosphorylated Girdin, which cross-links F-actin, as well as the Girdin-activator pAkt. In contrast, using time-lapse video microscopy of fluorescence-tagged tubulin and EB3 in fibroblasts, we found no effects on microtubule polymerization when DISC1 was reduced. However, DISC1 affected the acetylation of microtubules in the leading processes of MGE-derived cortical interneurons. Together, our results provide a mechanism how DISC1 might contribute to interneuron migration thereby explaining the reduced number of specific classes of cortical interneurons in some DISC1 mouse models. PMID:25071449

  2. Does lunisolar gravitational tide affect the activity of animals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshcherevskii, A. V.; Sidorin, A. Ya.

    2010-12-01

    Multiyear time series obtained by the continuous instrumental monitoring of the electrical activity (EA) of weakly electric fish Gnathonemus leopoldianus and the motor activity (MA) of the freshwater catfish Hoplosternum thoracatum and the cockroach Blaberus craniifer are compared to the parameters of the lunisolar gravitational tide. These curves are observed to be very similar for a large number of time intervals. However, a more detailed analysis shows this to be only a superficial resemblance caused by the closeness of the periods of diurnal and semidiurnal rhythms of bioindicator activity (the dominant rhythms in EA and MA patterns) and the periods of main gravitational tidal waves. It is concluded that the lunisolar gravitational tide has no significant effect on animal behavior in our experiment.

  3. Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds.

  4. Early-life serotonin dysregulation affects the migration and positioning of cortical interneuron subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, S; Otomo, K; Dayer, A

    2015-01-01

    Early-life deficiency of the serotonin transporter (SERT) gives rise to a wide range of psychiatric-relevant phenotypes; however, the molecular and cellular targets of serotonin dyregulation during neural circuit formation remain to be identified. Interestingly, migrating cortical interneurons (INs) derived from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) have been shown to be more responsive to serotonin-mediated signalling compared with INs derived from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE). Here we investigated the impact of early-life SERT deficiency on the migration and positioning of CGE-derived cortical INs in SERT-ko mice and in mice exposed to the SERT inhibitor fluoxetine during the late embryonic period. Using confocal time-lapse imaging and microarray-based expression analysis we found that genetic and pharmacological SERT deficiency significantly increased the migratory speed of CGE-derived INs and affected transcriptional programmes regulating neuronal migration. Postnatal studies revealed that SERT deficiency altered the cortical laminar distribution of subtypes of CGE-derived INs but not MGE-derived INs. More specifically, we found that the distribution of vasointestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing INs in layer 2/3 was abnormal in both genetic and pharmacological SERT-deficiency models. Collectively, these data indicate that early-life SERT deficiency has an impact on the migration and molecular programmes of CGE-derived INs, thus leading to specific alterations in the positioning of VIP-expressing INs. These data add to the growing evidence that early-life serotonin dysregulation affects cortical microcircuit formation and contributes to the emergence of psychiatric-relevant phenotypes. PMID:26393490

  5. [Economic management of health crises affecting production animals in Europe].

    PubMed

    Vandeputte, S; Humblet, M F; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Gosset, C; Albert, A; Vernaillen, F; Saegerman, C

    2011-12-01

    The importance of animal health crises has considerably increased over the last few years. When a crisis occurs, farmers can receive financial support through various public, private and mixed compensation schemes. Economic losses resulting from diseases may be direct and indirect. If a disease is covered by European Union regulations then countries have a legal obligation to partly compensate farmers for direct losses, either directly through the national budget, or through a specific fund. The European Veterinary Fund also co-finances these losses. Only a few countries provide compensation for indirect losses. The private insurance sector also provides protection against some direct and indirect losses but the risks covered are variable. To encourage farmers to subscribe to this kind of insurance, some public authorities provide subsidies to help pay the premium. Insurance companies do not generally cover the risks linked to contagious diseases, but some companies do extend cover to include this type of risk. Several alternatives, such as mutual funds, are available to improve risk coverage. There is a lack of harmonisation among the various compensation schemes of different countries. Public authorities cannot provide full compensation, but mutual funds and private insurance companies are alternatives that should be further investigated and their use should be extended to other countries. A classification of diseases would harmonise the situation at the European level.

  6. Animal movement in the absence of predation: environmental drivers of movement strategies in a partial migration system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Gibbs, James P.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Frair, Jacqueline L.; Cabrera, Fredy; Rousseau, Louis-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Animal movement strategies including migration, dispersal, nomadism, and residency are shaped by broad-scale spatial-temporal structuring of the environment, including factors such as the degrees of spatial variation, seasonality and inter-annual predictability. Animal movement strategies, in turn, interact with the characteristics of individuals and the local distribution of resources to determine local patterns of resource selection with complex and poorly understood implications for animal fitness. Here we present a multi-scale investigation of animal movement strategies and resource selection. We consider the degree to which spatial variation, seasonality, and inter-annual predictability in resources drive migration patterns among different taxa and how movement strategies in turn shape local resource selection patterns. We focus on adult Galapagos giant tortoises Chelonoidis spp. as a model system since they display many movement strategies and evolved in the absence of predators of adults. Specifically, our analysis is based on 63 individuals among four taxa tracked on three islands over six years and almost 106 tortoise re-locations. Tortoises displayed a continuum of movement strategies from migration to sedentarism that were linked to the spatio-temporal scale and predictability of resource distributions. Movement strategies shaped patterns of resource selection. Specifically, migratory individuals displayed stronger selection toward areas where resources were more predictable among years than did non-migratory individuals, which indicates a selective advantage for migrants in seasonally structured, more predictable environments. Our analytical framework combines large-scale predictions for movement strategies, based on environmental structuring, with finer-scale analysis of space-use. Integrating different organizational levels of analysis provides a deeper understanding of the eco-evolutionary dynamics at play in the emergence and maintenance of

  7. Maternal thyroid dysfunction affects placental profile of inflammatory mediators and the intrauterine trophoblast migration kinetics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juneo Freitas; Ocarino, Natália Melo; Serakides, Rogéria

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the gene and immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory mediators involved in the immune activity and the intrauterine trophoblast migration of the placentas in hypothyroid and L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated rats. A total of 144 adult female rats were divided equally into hypothyroid, l-T4-treated, and euthyroid (control) groups. Hypothyroidism was induced by daily administration of propylthiouracil. Rats were killed at 0, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 days of gestation. We evaluated the depth of interstitial and endovascular intrauterine trophoblast invasion and the immunohistochemical expression of interferon γ (INFy), migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 (iNOS)). The gene expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and Tlr4, Infy, Mif, tumor necrosis factor (Tnf (Tnfα)), Il10, Nos2, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9, and placental leptin was also measured in placental disks by real-time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed using an Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test. Hypothyroidism reduced the endovascular and interstitial trophoblast migration, and the expression of TLR4, INFy, MIF, interleukin 10 (IL10), NOS2, MMP2 and MMP9, and placental leptin, while increased the expression of TLR2 (P<0.05). T4-treated rats not only increased the expression of IL10 and NOS2 but also reduced the expression of TNF and MIF at 10 days of gestation (P<0.05). However, at 19 days of gestation, expression of INFy and MIF was increased in T4-treated group (P<0.05). Excess of T4 also increased the gene expression of Mmp2 at 10 days of gestation (P<0.05), but reduced the endovascular trophoblast migration at 18 days of gestation (P<0.05). Hypothyroidism and excess of T4 differentially affect the immune profile and the intrauterine trophoblast migration of the placenta, and these effects are dependent on the gestational period.

  8. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-01-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

  9. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-01-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

  10. Oxygen and Temperature Effects on Vertically Migrating Animals in Oxygen Minimum Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibel, B.

    2016-02-01

    Large populations of oceanic nekton and zooplankton undergo daily migrations from shallow water at night to depths greater than 200 m during the daytime. In some regions, these migrations cross extreme gradients of temperature, oxygen and carbon dioxide. Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) are extensive and characterized by deep-water (100-800 m) oxygen partial pressures that would be lethal to most marine organisms, yet are tolerated by vertical migrators. Climate change is predicted to further deplete oxygen, and measurable reductions in oxygen have already been documented in some regions. Increases in shallow water temperature and carbon dioxide are occurring simultaneously. Oxygen levels and temperature are important drivers of biodiversity and distribution, and documented changes in community structure and function are reportedly associated with OMZ expansion and warming. Here I answer fundamental questions concerning zooplankton distributions, adaptations, and functions in oxygen minimum zones. In particular I report that metabolic suppression is a common strategy that facilitates diel occupancy of extreme hypoxia in many oceanic taxa. Anaerobic metabolic pathways play a minimal role in compensating for reduced aerobic ATP production. Numerous epigenetic mechanisms lead to reductions in energetically costly cellular processes, such as transcription and translation. Total metabolism is reduced by 50% or more during exposure to levels of hypoxia that characterize the daytime habitat for most vertically-migrating zooplankton. I further show that many migrators approach their upper thermal maximum in shallow water at night. Thus expanding OMZs and global warming may together compress the habitable depth range for many species.

  11. Factors affecting directional migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to the injured spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Xia, Peng; Pan, Su; Cheng, Jieping; Yang, Maoguang; Qi, Zhiping; Hou, Tingting; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2014-09-15

    Microtubule-associated protein 1B plays an important role in axon guidance and neuronal migration. In the present study, we sought to discover the mechanisms underlying microtubule-associated protein 1B mediation of axon guidance and neuronal migration. We exposed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to okadaic acid or N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (an inhibitor and stimulator, respectively, of protein phosphatase 2A) for 24 hours. The expression of the phosphorylated form of type I microtubule-associated protein 1B in the cells was greater after exposure to okadaic acid and lower after N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine. We then injected the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through the ear vein into rabbit models of spinal cord contusion. The migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards the injured spinal cord was poorer in cells exposed to okadaic acid- and N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine than in non-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, we blocked phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells using the inhibitors LY294002 and U0126, respectively. LY294002 resulted in an elevated expression of phosphorylated type I microtubule-associated protein 1B, whereas U0126 caused a reduction in expression. The present data indicate that PI3K and ERK1/2 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells modulate the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 1B via a cross-signaling network, and affect the migratory efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards injured spinal cord.

  12. PDGF/VEGF-Related Receptor Affects Transglutaminase Activity to Control Cell Migration During Crustacean Hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Junkunlo, Kingkamon; Söderhäll, Kenneth; Noonin, Chadanat; Söderhäll, Irene

    2017-09-14

    The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor, a tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor whose ligand is PDGF, is crucial in the transduction of extracellular signals into cells and mediates numerous processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration. We demonstrate the important roles of a receptor TK related to the PDGF/VEGF family protein (PVR) in controlling hematopoietic progenitor cell migration by affecting extracellular transglutaminase (TGase) activity. Pl_PVR1, GenBank accession No. KY444650, is highly expressed in hemocytes and the hematopoietic tissue (HPT). Sunitinib malate was used to block the PVF/PVR downstream pathway in HPT cell culture. The addition of Sunitinib also caused the HPT cells to increase in size and begin spreading. An increase in extracellular TGase activity on the HPT cell membrane was observed in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with Sunitinib malate. The presence of crude Ast1 provided a combinatorial beneficial effect that enhanced the number of spreading cells after inhibition of the Pl_PVR downstream signaling cascade. In addition, an increased immunoreactivity for β-tubulin and elongation of β-tubulin filaments were found in Pl_PVR signaling-inhibited cells. The potential roles of PVF/PVR signaling in controlling progenitor cell activity during hematopoiesis in crayfish were investigated and discussed.

  13. The subcellular localization of IGFBP5 affects its cell growth and migration functions in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Akkiprik, Mustafa; Hu, Limei; Sahin, Aysegul; Hao, Xishan; Zhang, Wei

    2009-04-03

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) has been shown to be associated with breast cancer metastasis in clinical marker studies. However, a major difficulty in understanding how IGFBP5 functions in this capacity is the paradoxical observation that ectopic overexpression of IGFBP5 in breast cancer cell lines results in suppressed cellular proliferation. In cancer tissues, IGFBP5 resides mainly in the cytoplasm; however, in transfected cells, IGFBP5 is mainly located in the nucleus. We hypothesized that subcellular localization of IGFBP5 affects its functions in host cells. To test this hypothesis, we generated wild-type and mutant IGFBP5 expression constructs. The mutation occurs within the nuclear localization sequence (NLS) of the protein and is generated by site-directed mutagenesis using the wild-type IGFBP5 expression construct as a template. Next, we transfected each expression construct into MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells to establish stable clones overexpressing either wild-type or mutant IGFBP5. Functional analysis revealed that cells overexpressing wild-type IGFBP5 had significantly lower cell growth rate and motility than the vector-transfected cells, whereas cells overexpressing mutant IGFBP5 demonstrated a significantly higher ability to proliferate and migrate. To illustrate the subcellular localization of the proteins, we generated wild-type and mutant IGFBP5-pDsRed fluorescence fusion constructs. Fluorescence microscopy imaging revealed that mutation of the NLS in IGFBP5 switched the accumulation of IGFBP5 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm of the protein. Together, these findings imply that the mutant form of IGFBP5 increases proliferation and motility of breast cancer cells and that mutation of the NLS in IGFBP5 results in localization of IGFBP5 in the cytoplasm, suggesting that subcellular localization of IGFBP5 affects its cell growth and migration functions in the breast cancer cells.

  14. The basic emotional circuits of mammalian brains: do animals have affective lives?

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    The primal affects are intrinsic brain value systems that unconditionally and automatically inform animals how they are faring in survival. They serve an essential function in emotional learning. The positive affects index "comfort zones" that support survival, while negative affects inform animals of circumstances that may impair survival. Affective feelings come in several varieties, including sensory, homeostatic, and emotional (which I focus on here). Primary-process emotional feelings arise from ancient caudal and medial subcortical regions, and were among the first subjective experiences to exist on the face of the earth. Without them, higher forms of conscious "awareness" may not have emerged in primate brain evolution. Because of homologous "instinctual" neural infrastructures, we can utilize animal brain research to reveal the nature of primary-process human affects. Since all vertebrates appear to have some capacity for primal affective feelings, the implications for animal-welfare and how we ethically treat other animals are vast. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Affective components of the human-animal relationship in animal husbandry: development and validation of a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Porcher, Jocelyne; Cousson-Gélie, Florence; Dantzer, Robert

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the main dimensions of the human-animal relationship in animal husbandry and to test the hypothesis of a coherent system linking attitudes and feelings. A second objective was to assess interindividual differences which could be linked to socioenvironmental or personal factors. The 26-item questionnaire was administered to 197 animal farmers (143 men, 54 women, 3.8% under 25 years old, 45.2% under 40 years, 44.2% under 60 years and 7.1% over 60 years). To include even farmers not in the official agricultural registries, we used a random selection procedure. A principal component analysis of responses followed by varimax rotation yielded two factors accounting for 30.7% of the total variance, a Friendship factor and a Power relationship factor. Significant differences on the Friendship factor were observed between groups by sex of farmers, education, size of the production system, and region of production. There were also differences on the Power relationship factor between groups by age and education. These results validate a questionnaire with 21 items, allowing measurement of positive and negative affects of farmers towards their animals.

  16. Abdominally implanted satellite transmitters affect reproduction and survival rather than migration of large shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooijmeijer, Jos C. E. W.; Gill, Robert E.; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Kentie, Rosemarie; Gerritsen, Gerrit J.; Bruinzeel, Leo W.; Tijssen, David C.; Harwood, Christopher M.; Piersma, Theunis

    2014-01-01

    Satellite telemetry has become a common technique to investigate avian life-histories, but whether such tagging will affect fitness is a critical unknown. In this study, we evaluate multi-year effects of implanted transmitters on migratory timing and reproductive performance in shorebirds. Shorebirds increasingly are recognized as good models in ecology and evolution. That many of them are of conservation concern adds to the research responsibilities. In May 2009, we captured 56 female Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during late incubation in The Netherlands. Of these, 15 birds were equipped with 26-g satellite transmitters with a percutaneous antenna (7.8 % ± 0.2 SD of body mass), surgically implanted in the coelom. We compared immediate nest survival, timing of migration, subsequent nest site fidelity and reproductive behaviour including egg laying with those of the remaining birds, a comparison group of 41 females. We found no effects on immediate nest survival. Fledging success and subsequent southward and northward migration patterns of the implanted birds conformed to the expectations, and arrival time on the breeding grounds in 2010–2012 did not differ from the comparison group. Compared with the comparison group, in the year after implantation, implanted birds were equally faithful to the nest site and showed equal territorial behaviour, but a paucity of behaviours indicating nests or clutches. In the 3 years after implantation, the yearly apparent survival of implanted birds was 16 % points lower. Despite intense searching, we found only three eggs of two implanted birds; all were deformed. A similarly deformed egg was reported in a similarly implanted Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus returning to breed in central Alaska. The presence in the body cavity of an object slightly smaller than a normal egg may thus lead to egg malformation and, likely, reduced egg viability. That the use of implanted satellite transmitters in these large shorebirds

  17. Circular RNA 0000096 affects cell growth and migration in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Peifei; Chen, Huilin; Chen, Shengcan; Mo, Xiaoyan; Li, Tianwen; Xiao, Bingxiu; Yu, Rui; Guo, Junming

    2017-02-28

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs broadly expressed in cells of various species. Their role in cancers, especially in gastric cancer, is poorly understood. Circular RNA 0000096 (hsa_circ_0000096) levels in 101 paired gastric cancer tissues and adjacent non-tumorous tissues from patients with gastric cancer were detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to evaluate the diagnostic value of hsa_circ_0000096. RNA interference was used to manipulate the expression of hsa_circ_0000096. Its biological effects were evaluated by flow cytometry, real-time cell analysis, a wound scratch assay, western blot analysis and xenograft models. Hsa_circ_0000096 was found to be significantly downregulated in gastric cancer tissues and gastric cancer cell lines compared with paired adjacent non-tumorous tissues and normal gastric epithelial cells (P<0.001). Moreover, knockdown of hsa_circ_0000096 significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. The results of both immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed that the protein levels of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), matrix metalloproteinase-2 and MMP-9 were significantly reduced in vitro and in vivo. A gastric cancer xenograft nude mouse model indicated that Ki67 and VEGF were reduced in a dose-dependent manner following knockdown of hsa_circ_0000096. However, the expression of E-cadherin increased. Hsa_circ_0000096 may be used as a potential novel biomarker for gastric cancer. It affects gastric cancer cell growth and migration by regulating cyclin D1, CDK6, MMP-2 and MMP-9.

  18. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-10-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually viewed two animations of salt dissolution. Before and after viewing each animation the participants provided pictorial, written, and oral explanations of the process at the macroscopic and molecular levels. The students then discussed the animations as a group. An analysis of the data showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations. However, oral explanations revealed that in many cases, participants who drew or wrote correct explanations did not comprehend their meanings. Students' drawings may have reflected only what they had seen, rather than a cohesive understanding. Students' explanations given after viewing the animations improved, but some prior misconceptions were retained and in some cases, new misconceptions appeared. Students reported that they found the animations useful in learning; however, they sometimes missed essential features when they watched the animation alone.

  19. A compact frequency-domain photon migration system for integration into commercial hybrid small animal imaging scanners for fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darne, Chinmay D.; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I.-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Smith, Anne M.; Yan, Shikui; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2012-12-01

    The work presented herein describes the system design and performance evaluation of a miniaturized near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system with non-contact excitation and homodyne detection capability for small animal fluorescence tomography. The FDPM system was developed specifically for incorporation into a Siemens micro positron emission tomography/computed tomography (microPET/CT) commercial scanner for hybrid small animal imaging, but could be adapted to other systems. Operating at 100 MHz, the system noise was minimized and the associated amplitude and phase errors were characterized to be ±0.7% and ±0.3°, respectively. To demonstrate the tomographic ability, a commercial mouse-shaped phantom with 50 µM IRDye800CW and 68Ga containing inclusion was used to associate PET and NIRF tomography. Three-dimensional mesh generation and anatomical referencing was accomplished through CT. A third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP3) algorithm, for efficient prediction of light propagation in small animals, was tailored to incorporate the FDPM approach. Finally, the PET-NIRF target co-localization accuracy was analyzed in vivo with a dual-labeled imaging agent targeting orthotopic growth of human prostate cancer. The obtained results validate the integration of time-dependent fluorescence tomography system within a commercial microPET/CT scanner for multimodality small animal imaging.

  20. A compact frequency-domain photon migration system for integration into commercial hybrid small animal imaging scanners for fluorescence tomography.

    PubMed

    Darne, Chinmay D; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C; Smith, Anne M; Yan, Shikui; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2012-12-21

    The work presented herein describes the system design and performance evaluation of a miniaturized near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system with non-contact excitation and homodyne detection capability for small animal fluorescence tomography. The FDPM system was developed specifically for incorporation into a Siemens micro positron emission tomography/computed tomography (microPET/CT) commercial scanner for hybrid small animal imaging, but could be adapted to other systems. Operating at 100 MHz, the system noise was minimized and the associated amplitude and phase errors were characterized to be ±0.7% and ±0.3°, respectively. To demonstrate the tomographic ability, a commercial mouse-shaped phantom with 50 µM IRDye800CW and ⁶⁸Ga containing inclusion was used to associate PET and NIRF tomography. Three-dimensional mesh generation and anatomical referencing was accomplished through CT. A third-order simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP₃) algorithm, for efficient prediction of light propagation in small animals, was tailored to incorporate the FDPM approach. Finally, the PET-NIRF target co-localization accuracy was analyzed in vivo with a dual-labeled imaging agent targeting orthotopic growth of human prostate cancer. The obtained results validate the integration of time-dependent fluorescence tomography system within a commercial microPET/CT scanner for multimodality small animal imaging.

  1. A compact frequency-domain photon migration system for integration into commercial hybrid small animal imaging scanners for fluorescence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Darne, Chinmay D.; Lu, Yujie; Tan, I-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Rasmussen, John C.; Smith, Anne M.; Yan, Shikui; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M

    2012-01-01

    The work presented herein describes system design and performance evaluation of a miniaturized near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) frequency-domain photon migration (FDPM) system with non-contact excitation and homodyne detection capability for small animal fluorescence tomography. The FDPM system was developed specifically for incorporation into a Siemens microPET/CT commercial scanner for hybrid small animal imaging, but could be adapted to other systems. Operating at 100 MHz, the system noise was minimized and the associated amplitude and phase errors were characterized to be ±0.7% and ±0.3°, respectively. To demonstrate the tomographic ability, a commercial mouse-shaped phantom with 50 μM IRDye800CW and 68Ga containing inclusion was used to associate PET and NIRF tomography. 3-D mesh generation and anatomical referencing was accomplished through CT. A simplified spherical harmonics approximation (SP3) algorithm, for efficient prediction of light propagation in small animals, was tailored to incorporate FDPM approach. Finally, PET-NIRF target co-localization accuracy was analyzed in vivo with a dual-labeled imaging agent targeting orthotopic growth of human prostate cancer. The results obtained validate the integration of time-dependent fluorescence tomography system within a commercial microPET/CT scanner for multimodality small animal imaging. PMID:23171509

  2. Are emotionally attached companion animal caregivers conscientious and neurotic? Factors that affect the human-companion animal relationship.

    PubMed

    Reevy, Gretchen M; Delgado, Mikel M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined how personality traits may be related to the amounts and types of attachments humans have toward companion animals (pets). In this study, 1,098 companion animal guardians (owners) completed a survey that included the Big Five Inventory, the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale, and the Pet Attachment Questionnaire. Each participant chose whether he or she identified as a Cat Person, Dog Person, Both, or Neither. Results indicated that neuroticism, conscientiousness, choosing a dog as a favorite pet, and identifying as a Cat Person, Dog Person, or Both predicted affection for a pet. Conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness decreased avoidant attachment to pets, and neuroticism increased anxious attachment to pets. Both dogs and cats could benefit from pet owners who are conscientious, and there may be some benefits of neuroticism in pet owners. The findings of this study will advance understanding of the human-animal bond. As this understanding increases, measurements of human attachment and personality may be useful for the development of tools that could assist shelter employees and veterinarians in counseling people about pet ownership.

  3. Enhancing the use of Argos satellite data for home range and long distance migration studies of marine animals.

    PubMed

    Hoenner, Xavier; Whiting, Scott D; Hindell, Mark A; McMahon, Clive R

    2012-01-01

    Accurately quantifying animals' spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. The Argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. State-space models (SSM) constitute a robust statistical approach to refine Argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. Despite their wide use in ecology, few studies have thoroughly quantified the error associated with SSM predicted locations and no research has assessed their validity for describing animal movement behaviour. We compared home ranges and migratory pathways of seven hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) estimated from (a) highly accurate Fastloc GPS data and (b) locations computed using common Argos data analytical approaches. Argos 68(th) percentile error was <1 km for LC 1, 2, and 3 while markedly less accurate (>4 km) for LC ≤ 0. Argos error structure was highly longitudinally skewed and was, for all LC, adequately modelled by a Student's t distribution. Both habitat use and migration routes were best recreated using SSM locations post-processed by re-adding good Argos positions (LC 1, 2 and 3) and filtering terrestrial points (mean distance to migratory tracks ± SD = 2.2 ± 2.4 km; mean home range overlap and error ratio = 92.2% and 285.6 respectively). This parsimonious and objective statistical procedure however still markedly overestimated true home range sizes, especially for animals exhibiting restricted movements. Post-processing SSM locations nonetheless constitutes the best analytical technique for remotely sensed Argos tracking data and we therefore recommend using this approach to rework historical Argos datasets for better estimation of animal spatial utilisation for research and evidence-based conservation purposes.

  4. Crystalline Grain Interior Configuration Affects Lithium Migration Kinetics in Li-Rich Layered Oxide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haijun; So, Yeong-Gi; Kuwabara, Akihide; Tochigi, Eita; Shibata, Naoya; Kudo, Tetsuichi; Zhou, Haoshen; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2016-05-11

    The electrode kinetics of Li-ion batteries, which are important for battery utilization in electric vehicles, are affected by the grain size, crystal orientation, and surface structure of electrode materials. However, the kinetic influences of the grain interior structure and element segregation are poorly understood, especially for Li-rich layered oxides with complex crystalline structures and unclear electrochemical phenomena. In this work, cross-sectional thin transmission electron microscopy specimens are "anatomized" from pristine Li1.2Mn0.567Ni0.167Co0.067O2 powders using a new argon ion slicer technique. Utilizing advanced microscopy techniques, the interior configuration of a single grain, multiple monocrystal-like domains, and nickel-segregated domain boundaries are clearly revealed; furthermore, a randomly distributed atomic-resolution Li2MnO3-like with an intergrown LiTMO2 (TM = transitional metals) "twin domain" is demonstrated to exist in each domain. Further theoretical calculations based on the Li2MnO3-like crystal domain boundary model reveal that Li(+) migration in the Li2MnO3-like structure with domain boundaries is sluggish, especially when the nickel is segregated in domain boundaries. Our work uncovers the complex configuration of the crystalline grain interior and provides a conceptual advance in our understanding of the electrochemical performance of several compounds for Li-ion batteries.

  5. Evolution of the hormonal control of animal performance: insights from the seaward migration of salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The endocrine system is the key mediator of environmental and developmental (internal) information, and is likely to be involved in altering the performance of animals when selection has favored phenotypic plasticity. The endocrine control of performance should be especially pronounced in animals that undergo a developmental shift in niche, such as occurs in migratory species. By way of example, I review the developmental and environmental control of the preparatory changes for seawater entry of juvenile salmon (known as smolting) and its hormonal regulation. There is a size threshold for smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon that results in greater sensitivity of the growth hormone and cortisol axes to changes in daylength. These hormones, in turn, have broad effects on survival, ion homeostasis, growth and swimming performance during entry into seawater. Migratory niche shifts and metamorphic events are extreme examples of the role of hormones in animal performance and represent one end of a continuum. A framework for predicting when hormones will be involved in performance of animals is presented. Endocrine involvement in performance will be more substantial when (1) selection differentials on traits underlying performance are high and temporally discontinuous over an animal's lifetime, (2) the energetic and fitness costs of maintaining performance plasticity are less than those of constant performance, (3) cues for altering performance are reliable indicators of critical environmental conditions, require neurosensory input, and minimize effects of lag, and (4) the need for coordination of organs, tissues and cells to achieve increased performance is greater. By examining these impacts of selection, endocrinologists have an opportunity to contribute to the understanding of performance, phenotypic plasticity, and the evolution of life-history traits.

  6. Toward a cross-species neuroscientific understanding of the affective mind: do animals have emotional feelings?

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-06-01

    Do we need to consider mental processes in our analysis of brain functions in other animals? Obviously we do, if such BrainMind functions exist in the animals we wish to understand. If so, how do we proceed, while still retaining materialistic-mechanistic perspectives? This essay outlines the historical forces that led to emotional feelings in animals being marginalized in behavioristic scientific discussions of why animals behave the way they do, and why mental constructs are generally disregarded in modern neuroscientific analyses. The roots of this problem go back to Cartesian dualism and the attempt of 19th century physician-scientists to ground a new type of medical curriculum on a completely materialistic approach to body functions. Thereby all vitalistic principles were discarded from the lexicon of science, and subjective experience in animals was put in that category and discarded as an invalid approach to animal behavior. This led to forms of rigid operationalism during the era of behaviorism and subsequently ruthless reductionism in brain research, leaving little room for mentalistic concepts such as emotional feelings in animal research. However, modern studies of the brain clearly indicate that artificially induced arousals of emotional networks, as with localized electrical and chemical brain stimulation, can serve as "rewards" and "punishments" in various learning tasks. This strongly indicates that animal brains elaborate various experienced states, with those having affective contents being easiest to study rigorously. However, in approaching emotional feelings empirically we must pay special attention to the difficulties and vagaries of human language and evolutionary levels of control in the brain. We need distinct nomenclatures from primary (unconditioned phenomenal experiences) to tertiary (reflective) levels of mind. The scientific pursuit of affective brain processes in other mammals can now reveal general BrainMind principles that also apply

  7. Enhancing the Use of Argos Satellite Data for Home Range and Long Distance Migration Studies of Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Hoenner, Xavier; Whiting, Scott D.; Hindell, Mark A.; McMahon, Clive R.

    2012-01-01

    Accurately quantifying animals’ spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. The Argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. State-space models (SSM) constitute a robust statistical approach to refine Argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. Despite their wide use in ecology, few studies have thoroughly quantified the error associated with SSM predicted locations and no research has assessed their validity for describing animal movement behaviour. We compared home ranges and migratory pathways of seven hawksbill sea turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) estimated from (a) highly accurate Fastloc GPS data and (b) locations computed using common Argos data analytical approaches. Argos 68th percentile error was <1 km for LC 1, 2, and 3 while markedly less accurate (>4 km) for LC ≤0. Argos error structure was highly longitudinally skewed and was, for all LC, adequately modelled by a Student’s t distribution. Both habitat use and migration routes were best recreated using SSM locations post-processed by re-adding good Argos positions (LC 1, 2 and 3) and filtering terrestrial points (mean distance to migratory tracks ± SD = 2.2±2.4 km; mean home range overlap and error ratio  = 92.2% and 285.6 respectively). This parsimonious and objective statistical procedure however still markedly overestimated true home range sizes, especially for animals exhibiting restricted movements. Post-processing SSM locations nonetheless constitutes the best analytical technique for remotely sensed Argos tracking data and we therefore recommend using this approach to rework historical Argos datasets for better estimation of animal spatial utilisation for research and evidence-based conservation purposes. PMID:22808241

  8. Characterization of the activities of actin-affecting drugs on tumor cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Hayot, Caroline; Debeir, Olivier; Ham, Philippe van; Damme, Marc van; Kiss, Robert; Decaestecker, Christine . E-mail: cdecaes@ulb.ac.be

    2006-02-15

    Metastases kill 90% of cancer patients. It is thus a major challenge in cancer therapy to inhibit the spreading of tumor cells from primary tumor sites to those particular organs where metastases are likely to occur. Whereas the actin cytoskeleton is a key component involved in cell migration, agents targeting actin dynamics have been relatively poorly investigated. Consequently, valuable in vitro pharmacological tools are needed to selectively identify this type of agent. In response to the absence of any standardized process, the present work aims to develop a multi-assay strategy for screening actin-affecting drugs with anti-migratory potentials. To validate our approach, we used two cancer cell lines (MCF7 and A549) and three actin-affecting drugs (cytochalasin D, latrunculin A, and jasplakinolide). We quantified the effects of these drugs on the kinetics of actin polymerization in tubes (by means of spectrofluorimetry) and on the dynamics of actin cytoskeletons within whole cells (by means of fluorescence microscopy). Using quantitative videomicroscopy, we investigated the actual effects of the drugs on cell motility. Finally, the combined drug effects on cell motility and cell growth were evaluated by means of a scratch-wound assay. While our results showed concordant drug-induced effects on actin polymerization occurring in vitro in test tubes and within whole cells, the whole cell assay appeared more sensitive than the tube assay. The inhibition of actin polymerization induced by cytochalasin D was paralleled by a decrease in cell motility for both cell types. In the case of jasplakinolide, which induces actin polymerization, while it significantly enhanced the locomotion of the A549 cells, it significantly inhibited that of the MCF-7 ones. All these effects were confirmed by means of the scratch-wound assay except of the jasplakinolide-induced effects on MCF-7 cell motility. These later seemed compensated by an additional effect occurring during wound

  9. Characterization of the activities of actin-affecting drugs on tumor cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hayot, Caroline; Debeir, Olivier; Van Ham, Philippe; Van Damme, Marc; Kiss, Robert; Decaestecker, Christine

    2006-02-15

    Metastases kill 90% of cancer patients. It is thus a major challenge in cancer therapy to inhibit the spreading of tumor cells from primary tumor sites to those particular organs where metastases are likely to occur. Whereas the actin cytoskeleton is a key component involved in cell migration, agents targeting actin dynamics have been relatively poorly investigated. Consequently, valuable in vitro pharmacological tools are needed to selectively identify this type of agent. In response to the absence of any standardized process, the present work aims to develop a multi-assay strategy for screening actin-affecting drugs with anti-migratory potentials. To validate our approach, we used two cancer cell lines (MCF7 and A549) and three actin-affecting drugs (cytochalasin D, latrunculin A, and jasplakinolide). We quantified the effects of these drugs on the kinetics of actin polymerization in tubes (by means of spectrofluorimetry) and on the dynamics of actin cytoskeletons within whole cells (by means of fluorescence microscopy). Using quantitative videomicroscopy, we investigated the actual effects of the drugs on cell motility. Finally, the combined drug effects on cell motility and cell growth were evaluated by means of a scratch-wound assay. While our results showed concordant drug-induced effects on actin polymerization occurring in vitro in test tubes and within whole cells, the whole cell assay appeared more sensitive than the tube assay. The inhibition of actin polymerization induced by cytochalasin D was paralleled by a decrease in cell motility for both cell types. In the case of jasplakinolide, which induces actin polymerization, while it significantly enhanced the locomotion of the A549 cells, it significantly inhibited that of the MCF-7 ones. All these effects were confirmed by means of the scratch-wound assay except of the jasplakinolide-induced effects on MCF-7 cell motility. These later seemed compensated by an additional effect occurring during wound

  10. Mechanical stimulation and the presence of neighboring cells greatly affect migration of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Yeon; Park, So Hee; Shin, Ji Won; Kang, Yun Gyeong; Jeon, Kang Jin; Hyun, Jin-Sook; Oh, Min-Jae; Shin, Jung-Woog

    2013-11-01

    There are few studies regarding the effects of mechanical stimulation on cell migration although biochemical factors have been widely studied. We have investigated the effects of intermittent hydrostatic pressure (IHP) on mesenchymal stem cell migration with or without neighboring endothelial cells (EC). IHP promoted MSCs migration and the neighboring ECs helped with this. However, when IHP was applied to MSCs cultured with ECs, the opposite effect was observed. The concentration of stromal-derived factor-1 culture in medium was measured to explain the obtained results. SDF-1 concentration increased as IHP increased when MSCs were cultured alone. However, it decreased as IHP increased when MSCs and ECs were co-cultured. These results indicate that the mechanical environment should be considered when studying the migration of a cell type along with its biochemical environment.

  11. Anabolic androgens affect the competitive interactions in cell migration and adhesion between normal mouse urothelial cells and urothelial carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Ping; Hsieh, Teng-Fu; Chen, Chi-Cheng; Hung, Xiao-Fan; Yu, Ai-Lin; Chang, Chawnshang; Shyr, Chih-Rong

    2014-09-26

    The urothelium is constantly rebuilt by normal urothelial cells to regenerate damaged tissues caused by stimuli in urine. However, the urothelial carcinoma cells expand the territory by aberrant growth of tumor cells, which migrate and occupy the damaged tissues to spread outside and disrupt the normal cells and organized tissues and form a tumor. Therefore, the interaction between normal urothelial cells and urothelial carcinoma cells affect the initiation and progression of urothelial tumors if normal urothelial cells fail to migrate and adhere to the damages sites to regenerate the tissues. Here, comparing normal murine urothelial cells with murine urothelial carcinoma cells (MBT-2), we found that normal cells had less migration ability than carcinoma cells. And in our co-culture system we found that carcinoma cells had propensity migrating toward normal urothelial cells and carcinoma cells had more advantages to adhere than normal cells. To reverse this condition, we used anabolic androgen, dihyrotestosterone (DHT) to treat normal cells and found that DHT treatment increased the migration ability of normal urothelial cells toward carcinoma cells and the adhesion capacity in competition with carcinoma cells. This study provides the base of a novel therapeutic approach by using anabolic hormone-enforced normal urothelial cells to regenerate the damage urothelium and defend against the occupancy of carcinoma cells to thwart cancer development and recurrence.

  12. Evidence that dorsally mounted satellite transmitters affect migration chronology of Northern Pintails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, Jerry; Kharitonov, Sergei; Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Ozaki, K.; Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Tokita, Ken-ichi; Shimada, Tetsuo; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We compared migration movements and chronology between Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) marked with dorsally mounted satellite transmitters and pintails marked only with tarsus rings. During weekly intervals of spring and autumn migration between their wintering area in Japan and nesting areas in Russia, the mean distance that ringed pintails had migrated was up to 1000 km farther than the mean distance radiomarked pintails migrated. Radiomarked pintails were detected at spring migration sites on average 9.9 days (90 % CI 8.0, 11.8) later than ringed pintails that were recovered within 50 km. Although ringed and radiomarked pintails departed from Japan on similar dates, the disparity in detection of radiomarked versus ringed pintails at shared sites increased 7.7 days (90 % CI 5.2, 10.2) for each 1000 km increase in distance from Japan. Thus, pintails marked with satellite transmitters arrived at nesting areas that were 2500 km from Japan on average 19 days later than ringed birds. Radiomarked pintails were detected at autumn migration stopovers on average 13.1 days (90 % CI 9.8, 16.4) later than ringed birds that were recovered within 50 km. We hypothesize that dorsal attachment of 12–20 g satellite transmitters to Northern Pintails increased the energetic cost of flight, which resulted in more rapid depletion of energetic reserves and shortened the distance pintails could fly without refueling. Radiomarked pintails may have used more stopovers or spent longer periods at stopovers. causing their migration schedule to diverge from ringed pintails. We urge further evaluation of the effects of dorsally mounted transmitters on migration chronology of waterfowl.

  13. Diet drives the collective migrations and affects the immunity of Mormon crickets and locusts: A comparison of these potential superspreaders of disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The need for resources is a major driver of animal migration and yet migration itself is energetically demanding. Mormon crickets and nymphal locusts readily engage in cannibalistic attacks that result in aligned, coordinated movement of individuals in massive bands that march daily for weeks at a ...

  14. Child-street migration among HIV-affected families in Kenya: a mediation analysis from cross-sectional data

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Michael L.; Mutambudzi, Miriam S.; Gitari, Stanley; Keiser, Philip H.; Seidel, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Within Kenya, an estimated quarter of a million children live on the streets, and 1.8 million children are orphaned. In this study, we analyze how HIV contributes to the phenomenon of child-street migration. We interviewed a random community sample of caregiving women (n = 1974) in Meru County, Kenya, using a structured questionnaire in summer 2015. Items included reported HIV prevalence of respondent and her partner, social support, overall health, school enrollment of biologically related children and whether the respondent has a child currently living on the streets. Controlling for alcohol use, education, wealth, age and household size, we found a positive-graded association between the number of partners living with HIV and the probability that a child lives on the street. There was little difference in the odds of a child living on the street between maternally affected and paternally affected households. Lower maternal social support, overall health and school enrollment of biologically related children mediated 14% of the association between HIV-affected households and reporting child-street migration. Street-migration of children is strongly associated with household HIV, but the small percentage of mediated effect presents a greater need to focus on interactions between household and community factors in the context of HIV. Programs and policies responding to these findings will involve targeting parents and children in HIV-affected households, and coordinate care between clinical providers, social service providers and schools. PMID:27392012

  15. Swelling of the prostate gland by permanent brachytherapy may affect seed migration.

    PubMed

    Kono, Yuzuru; Kubota, Kazuo; Aruga, Takashi; Ishibashi, Akihiko; Morooka, Miyako; Ito, Kimiteru; Itami, Jun; Kanemura, Mikio; Minowada, Shigeru; Tanaka, Takashi

    2010-12-01

    The purpose was to monitor implanted seeds and to determine factors contributing to seed migration after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Sixty-two consecutive patients with Stage 1 prostate cancer who underwent brachytherapy with (125)I seeds between February 2008 and May 2009 were studied prospectively. On post-operative days 1, 7 and 30, scintigraphy was added to conventional radiography to monitor the migration of the implanted seeds. The prostate volume was measured during the pre-planning stage using ultrasound and during the post-planning stage using computed tomography on post-operative days 0 and 30. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on day 30. Of the 4843 seeds implanted in the prostates of 62 patients, 108 seeds (2.2%) in 43 patients (69.4%) exhibited seed migration. Thirty-five seeds could not be identified using any of the imaging modalities and were likely passed during urination (0.7% of the total number of seeds). The maximum number of migrated seeds in one patient was 10 of the 85 implanted seeds. The fraction of patients with seed migration or loss increased from 27.4% on day 1 to 69.4% on day 30. The number of seeds that had migrated from the prostate increased from 48 (0.1% of the total number of seeds) on 1 day to 78 (1.0%) on day 7 and 108 (2.2%) on day 30. Of the seeds lost from the prostate, 38.9% embolized to the lungs. The seed loss during the first post-operative month was closely correlated with the swelling of the prostate gland between the pre-planning measurement and the post-planning measurement performed on day 0 (P < 0.0001). Prostate swelling between the pre-planning and post-planning (day 0) measurements was significantly associated with seed migration, and adequate attention should be given to this issue.

  16. Acute radio frequency irradiation does not affect cell cycle, cellular migration, and invasion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Je-Jung; Kwak, Hee-Jin; Lee, Yun-Mi; Lee, Joong-Won; Park, Myung-Jin; Ko, Young-Gyu; Choi, Hyung-Do; Kim, Nam; Pack, Jeong-Ki; Hong, Seok-Il; Lee, Jae-Seon

    2008-12-01

    Although in vitro studies have been previously conducted to determine the biological effects of radio frequency (RF) radiation, it has not yet been determined whether or not RF radiation poses a potential hazard. This study was conducted to determine whether RF radiation exposure exerts detectable effects on cell cycle distribution, cellular invasion, and migration. NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts were exposed to 849 MHz of RF radiation at average SAR values of 2 or 10 W/kg for either 1 h, or for 1 h per day for 3 days. During the exposure period, the temperature in the exposure chamber was maintained isothermally by circulating water throughout the cavity. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed at 24 and 48 h after exposure, by flow cytometry. We detected no statistically significant differences between the sham-exposed and RF radiation-exposed cells. Cellular invasion and migration were assessed by in vitro Matrigel invasion and Transwell migration assays. The RF radiation-exposed groups evidenced no significant changes in motility and invasiveness compared to the sham-exposed group. However, the ionizing radiation-exposed cells, used as a positive control group, manifested dramatic alterations in their cell cycle distribution, cellular invasiveness, and migration characteristics. Our results show that 849 MHz RF radiation exposure exerts no detectable effects on cell cycle distribution, cellular migration, or invasion at average SAR values of 2 or 10 W/kg.

  17. Factors Affecting the Vocational Calling of Laboratory Animal Care and Research Employees

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Gregory P; Markert, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed laboratory animal care and research workers to determine the factors affecting their vocational calling. The survey comprised 56 questions in 4 groups: passion, job stability or happiness, work volition, and demographics. We hypothesized that personnel who worked in the field a longer time, were older, had higher education levels, were involved with AALAS, and in higher positions in their organization were more likely to indicate a calling to the laboratory animal care field. In addition, we hypothesized that job satisfaction and classifying one's job as a calling were positively related to organizational support and work volition. Overall, 44% of respondents categorized their work as at least partially a calling. Those working at a higher level in the position of laboratory animal technician and in the organization were more likely to view their work as a calling. Increasing education level was related to work being a calling. Overall, vocational calling was significantly associated with higher pay, but technicians were the only subgroup where calling and higher pay were significantly related. Vocational calling and job satisfaction were associated with organizational support. For our sample of workers in the animal care field, other factors analyzed were not related to work being considered a calling. Leaders in the field of animal care may find our survey results valuable as they strive to adapt their organization's structure to the perceptions of their workforce with regard to their sense of calling. PMID:27931315

  18. Factors Affecting the Vocational Calling of Laboratory Animal Care and Research Employees.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Gregory P; Markert, Ronald J

    2016-11-01

    We surveyed laboratory animal care and research workers to determine the factors affecting their vocational calling. The survey comprised 56 questions in 4 groups: passion, job stability or happiness, work volition, and demographics. We hypothesized that personnel who worked in the field a longer time, were older, had higher education levels, were involved with AALAS, and in higher positions in their organization were more likely to indicate a calling to the laboratory animal care field. In addition, we hypothesized that job satisfaction and classifying one's job as a calling were positively related to organizational support and work volition. Overall, 44% of respondents categorized their work as at least partially a calling. Those working at a higher level in the position of laboratory animal technician and in the organization were more likely to view their work as a calling. Increasing education level was related to work being a calling. Overall, vocational calling was significantly associated with higher pay, but technicians were the only subgroup where calling and higher pay were significantly related. Vocational calling and job satisfaction were associated with organizational support. For our sample of workers in the animal care field, other factors analyzed were not related to work being considered a calling. Leaders in the field of animal care may find our survey results valuable as they strive to adapt their organization's structure to the perceptions of their workforce with regard to their sense of calling.

  19. Old-Age Pension and Extended Families: How is Adult Children's Internal Migration Affected?

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi

    2016-10-01

    This paper makes use of the most recent social pension reform in rural China to examine whether receipt of the pension payment equips adult children of pensioners to migrate. Employing a regression discontinuity (hereafter RD) design to a primary longitudinal survey, this paper overcomes challenges in the literature that households eligible for pension payment might be systematically different from ineligible households and that it is difficult to separate the effect of pension from that of age or cohort heterogeneity. Around the pension eligibility age cut-off, results reveal large and significant increase among adult sons (but not daughters) to migrate out of their home county. Meanwhile, adult children are more likely to migrate out if their parents are healthy. Our Fuzzy RD estimations survive a standard set of key placebo tests and robustness checks.

  20. miR-186 affects the proliferation, invasion and migration of human gastric cancer by inhibition of Twist1

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chunhong; Sun, Deguang; Zhang, Liang; Song, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that miRNAs are dysregulated in a variety of cancers including gastric cancer (GC), and emerging as key oncogenes or tumor suppressors. In this study, qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of miR-186 in GC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues, and then more in-vitro experiments were used to investigate the role of miR-186 in GC cells. Here, we identified miR-186 was generally down-regulated in GC tissues; however, Twist1 was generally up-regulated in GC tissues. Moreover, miR-186 and Twist1 were associated with larger tumor size and advanced clinical stage of GC. In-vitro experiments demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of miR-186 inhibited GC cell proliferation, invasion and migration; however, inhibited expression of miR-186 enhanced cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Furthermore, the luciferase reporter assay demonstrated Twist1 as a direct target of miR-186. Finally, over-expression of Twist1 abrogated inhibitory impact of miR-186 on cell proliferation, invasion and migration. In conclusion, miR-186 affects the proliferation, invasion and migration of human gastric cancer by inhibition of Twist1, and could be a tumor suppressor in GC development. Thus, miR-186 may be served as a candidate prognostic biomarker and target for new therapies in human gastric cancer. PMID:27835599

  1. miR-186 affects the proliferation, invasion and migration of human gastric cancer by inhibition of Twist1.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chunhong; Sun, Deguang; Zhang, Liang; Song, Lei

    2016-11-29

    Recent evidence shows that miRNAs are dysregulated in a variety of cancers including gastric cancer (GC), and emerging as key oncogenes or tumor suppressors. In this study, qRT-PCR was used to analyze the expression of miR-186 in GC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues, and then more in-vitro experiments were used to investigate the role of miR-186 in GC cells. Here, we identified miR-186 was generally down-regulated in GC tissues; however, Twist1 was generally up-regulated in GC tissues. Moreover, miR-186 and Twist1 were associated with larger tumor size and advanced clinical stage of GC. In-vitro experiments demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of miR-186 inhibited GC cell proliferation, invasion and migration; however, inhibited expression of miR-186 enhanced cell proliferation, invasion and migration. Furthermore, the luciferase reporter assay demonstrated Twist1 as a direct target of miR-186. Finally, over-expression of Twist1 abrogated inhibitory impact of miR-186 on cell proliferation, invasion and migration. In conclusion, miR-186 affects the proliferation, invasion and migration of human gastric cancer by inhibition of Twist1, and could be a tumor suppressor in GC development. Thus, miR-186 may be served as a candidate prognostic biomarker and target for new therapies in human gastric cancer.

  2. "Mama," Affection, and Migration: Recommended Books about Latinos for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of books to teach children and adolescents about Latinos and the Latino culture. Topics of the books range from the spirit of the Latino folk arts to poetic expressions, migration stories, and insightful essays about Cuba under Castro. (SM)

  3. "Mama," Affection, and Migration: Recommended Books about Latinos for Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of books to teach children and adolescents about Latinos and the Latino culture. Topics of the books range from the spirit of the Latino folk arts to poetic expressions, migration stories, and insightful essays about Cuba under Castro. (SM)

  4. Factors affecting winter distribution and migration distance of wood ducks from southern breeding populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hepp, G.R.; Hines, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    We used direct band-recovery records of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) banded 1 April-15 September (1960-1987) in the southern and southeastern reference areas of Bowers and Martin (1975) to test whether winter distribution and migration distance were age- and sex-specific. Effects of variation in early-autumn temperature and precipitation conditions on winter distribution patterns also were studied. Latitude and longitude of winter band recoveries did not differ by age and sex in the southern reference area; but adult Wood Ducks tended to migrate shorter distances than young. In the southeastern reference area, recovery distributions of males and females also did not differ; but adults were distributed north and east of young birds, and migrated shorter distances. We predicted that Wood Ducks would move farther south in winter when early-autumn (October-November) temperature and spring-summer (April-September) precipitation were below normal. Adults were recovered farther south when precipitation was below average, but deviations from average temperatures were not associated with winter distribution. Young Wood Ducks occurred farther south when rainfall in spring-summer was less than normal and when average November temperature was colder than normal. We conclude that winter distributions of male and female Wood Ducks did not differ, but that adults migrated shorter distances than young. Variation in winter distribution was associated with early-autumn habitat suitability.

  5. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    PubMed

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat.

  6. Plant Protein and Animal Proteins: Do They Differentially Affect Cardiovascular Disease Risk?12

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. PMID:26567196

  7. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  8. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  9. Factors affecting gas migration and contaminant redistribution in heterogeneous porous media subject to electrical resistance heating.

    PubMed

    Munholland, Jonah L; Mumford, Kevin G; Kueper, Bernard H

    2016-01-01

    A series of intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were completed in a two-dimensional flow cell to investigate gas production and migration during the application of electrical resistance heating (ERH) for the removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Experiments consisted of heating water in homogeneous silica sand and heating 270 mL of trichloroethene (TCE) and chloroform (CF) DNAPL pools in heterogeneous silica sands, both under flowing groundwater conditions. Spatial and temporal distributions of temperature were measured using thermocouples and observations of gas production and migration were collected using front-face image capture throughout the experiments. Post-treatment soil samples were collected and analyzed to assess DNAPL removal. Results of experiments performed in homogeneous sand subject to different groundwater flow rates showed that high groundwater velocities can limit subsurface heating rates. In the DNAPL pool experiments, temperatures increased to achieve DNAPL-water co-boiling, creating estimated gas volumes of 131 and 114 L that originated from the TCE and CF pools, respectively. Produced gas migrated vertically, entered a coarse sand lens and subsequently migrated laterally beneath an overlying capillary barrier to outside the heated treatment zone where 31-56% of the original DNAPL condensed back into a DNAPL phase. These findings demonstrate that layered heterogeneity can potentially facilitate the transport of contaminants outside the treatment zone by mobilization and condensation of gas phases during ERH applications. This underscores the need for vapor phase recovery and/or control mechanisms below the water table during application of ERH in heterogeneous porous media during the co-boiling stage, which occurs prior to reaching the boiling point of water.

  10. Factors affecting gas migration and contaminant redistribution in heterogeneous porous media subject to electrical resistance heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munholland, Jonah L.; Mumford, Kevin G.; Kueper, Bernard H.

    2016-01-01

    A series of intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were completed in a two-dimensional flow cell to investigate gas production and migration during the application of electrical resistance heating (ERH) for the removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Experiments consisted of heating water in homogeneous silica sand and heating 270 mL of trichloroethene (TCE) and chloroform (CF) DNAPL pools in heterogeneous silica sands, both under flowing groundwater conditions. Spatial and temporal distributions of temperature were measured using thermocouples and observations of gas production and migration were collected using front-face image capture throughout the experiments. Post-treatment soil samples were collected and analyzed to assess DNAPL removal. Results of experiments performed in homogeneous sand subject to different groundwater flow rates showed that high groundwater velocities can limit subsurface heating rates. In the DNAPL pool experiments, temperatures increased to achieve DNAPL-water co-boiling, creating estimated gas volumes of 131 and 114 L that originated from the TCE and CF pools, respectively. Produced gas migrated vertically, entered a coarse sand lens and subsequently migrated laterally beneath an overlying capillary barrier to outside the heated treatment zone where 31-56% of the original DNAPL condensed back into a DNAPL phase. These findings demonstrate that layered heterogeneity can potentially facilitate the transport of contaminants outside the treatment zone by mobilization and condensation of gas phases during ERH applications. This underscores the need for vapor phase recovery and/or control mechanisms below the water table during application of ERH in heterogeneous porous media during the co-boiling stage, which occurs prior to reaching the boiling point of water.

  11. MIG6 is MEK-regulated and affects EGF-induced migration in mutant NRAS melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Ha Linh; Rosenbaum, Sheera; Capparelli, Claudia; Purwin, Timothy J.; Davies, Michael A.; Berger, Adam C.; Aplin, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations in NRAS are frequent driver events in cutaneous melanoma. NRAS is a GTP-binding protein, whose most well-characterized downstream effector is RAF leading to activation of MEK-ERK1/2 signaling. While there are no FDA-approved targeted therapies for melanoma patients with a primary mutation in NRAS, one form of targeted therapy that has been explored is MEK inhibition. In clinical trials, MEK inhibitors have shown disappointing efficacy in mutant NRAS patients, the reasons for which are unclear. To explore the effects of MEK inhibitors in mutant NRAS melanoma, we utilized a high-throughput reverse-phase protein array (RPPA) platform to identify signaling alterations. RPPA analysis of phospho-proteomic changes in mutant NRAS melanoma in response to trametinib indicated a compensatory increase in AKT signaling and decreased expression of mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6), a negative regulator of EGFR/ERBB receptors. MIG6 expression did not alter the growth or survival properties of mutant NRAS melanoma cells. Rather, we identified a role for MIG6 as a negative regulator of EGF-induced signaling and cell migration and invasion. In MEK inhibited cells, further depletion of MIG6 increased migration and invasion, whereas MIG6 expression decreased these properties. Therefore, a decrease in MIG6 may promote the migration and invasiveness of MEK-inhibited mutant NRAS melanoma especially in response to EGF stimulation. PMID:26967478

  12. Activation of the δ-opioid receptor promotes cutaneous wound healing by affecting keratinocyte intercellular adhesion and migration

    PubMed Central

    Bigliardi, P L; Neumann, C; Teo, Y L; Pant, A; Bigliardi-Qi, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In addition to its analgesic functions, the peripheral opioid receptor system affects skin homeostasis by influencing cell differentiation, migration and adhesion; also, wound healing is altered in δ-opioid receptor knockout mice (DOPr–/–). Hence, we investigated δ-opioid receptor effects on the expression of several proteins of the desmosomal junction complex and on the migratory behaviour of keratinocytes. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Expression levels of desmosomal cadherins in wild-type and DOPr–/– mice, and the morphology of intercellular adhesion in human keratinocytes were analysed by immunofluorescence. To investigate the δ-opioid receptor activation pathway, protein expression was studied using Western blot and its effect on cellular migration determined by in vitro live cell migration recordings from human keratinocytes. KEY RESULTS Expression of the desmosomal cadherins, desmogleins 1 and 4, was up-regulated in skin from DOPr–/– mice, and down-regulated in δ-opioid receptor-overexpressing human keratinocytes. The localization of desmoplakin expression was rearranged from linear arrays emanating from cell borders to puncta in cell periphery, resulting in less stable intercellular adhesion. Migration and wound recovery were enhanced in human keratinocyte monolayers overexpressing δ-opioid receptors in vitro. These δ-opioid receptor effects were antagonized by specific PKCα/β inhibition indicating they were mediated through the PKC signalling pathway. Finally, cells overexpressing δ-opioid receptors developed characteristically long but undirected protrusions containing filamentous actin and δ-opioid receptors, indicating an enhanced migratory phenotype. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS Opioid receptors affect intercellular adhesion and wound healing mechanisms, underlining the importance of a cutaneous neuroendocrine system in wound healing and skin homeostasis. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on

  13. Activation of the δ-opioid receptor promotes cutaneous wound healing by affecting keratinocyte intercellular adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Bigliardi, P L; Neumann, C; Teo, Y L; Pant, A; Bigliardi-Qi, M

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its analgesic functions, the peripheral opioid receptor system affects skin homeostasis by influencing cell differentiation, migration and adhesion; also, wound healing is altered in δ-opioid receptor knockout mice (DOPr(-/-) ). Hence, we investigated δ-opioid receptor effects on the expression of several proteins of the desmosomal junction complex and on the migratory behaviour of keratinocytes. Expression levels of desmosomal cadherins in wild-type and DOPr(-/-) mice, and the morphology of intercellular adhesion in human keratinocytes were analysed by immunofluorescence. To investigate the δ-opioid receptor activation pathway, protein expression was studied using Western blot and its effect on cellular migration determined by in vitro live cell migration recordings from human keratinocytes. Expression of the desmosomal cadherins, desmogleins 1 and 4, was up-regulated in skin from DOPr(-/-) mice, and down-regulated in δ-opioid receptor-overexpressing human keratinocytes. The localization of desmoplakin expression was rearranged from linear arrays emanating from cell borders to puncta in cell periphery, resulting in less stable intercellular adhesion. Migration and wound recovery were enhanced in human keratinocyte monolayers overexpressing δ-opioid receptors in vitro. These δ-opioid receptor effects were antagonized by specific PKCα/β inhibition indicating they were mediated through the PKC signalling pathway. Finally, cells overexpressing δ-opioid receptors developed characteristically long but undirected protrusions containing filamentous actin and δ-opioid receptors, indicating an enhanced migratory phenotype. Opioid receptors affect intercellular adhesion and wound healing mechanisms, underlining the importance of a cutaneous neuroendocrine system in wound healing and skin homeostasis. This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http

  14. Can teaching veterinary and animal-science students about animal welfare affect their attitude toward animals and human-related empathy?

    PubMed

    Hazel, Susan J; Signal, Tania D; Taylor, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward animals are important in influencing how animals are treated. Few studies have investigated attitudes toward animals in veterinary or animal-science students, and no studies have compared attitudes to animals before and after a course teaching animal welfare and ethics. In this study, students enrolled in veterinary (first-year) or animal-science (first- and third-year) programs completed a questionnaire on attitudes toward different categories of animals before and after the course. Higher attitude scores suggest a person more concerned about how an animal is treated. Normally distributed data were compared using parametric statistics, and non-normally distributed data were compared using non-parametric tests, with significance p < .05. Attitudes toward pets (45.5-47.6) were higher than those toward pests (34.2-38.4) or profit animals (30.3-32.1). Attitude scores increased from before to after the course in the veterinary cohort on the Pest (36.9 vs. 38.4, respectively, n = 27, p < .05) and Profit (30.3 vs. 32.1, respectively, n = 28, p < .05) subscales, but not in the animal-science cohorts. Attitude scores in all categories were higher for women than for men. Currently having an animal was associated with higher pet scores (46.8 vs. 43.8, ns = 120 and 13, respectively, p < .05), and having an animal as a child was associated with higher profit scores (31.0 vs. 26.6, ns = 129 and 8, respectively, p < .05). Students electing to work with livestock had lower scores on the Pest and Profit subscales, and students wanting to work with wildlife had significantly higher scores on the Pest and Profit subscales. This study demonstrates attitudinal changes after an animal-welfare course, with significant increases in veterinary but not animal-science students.

  15. Dcx reexpression reduces subcortical band heterotopia and seizure threshold in an animal model of neuronal migration disorder.

    PubMed

    Manent, Jean-Bernard; Wang, Yu; Chang, Yoonjeung; Paramasivam, Murugan; LoTurco, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    Disorders of neuronal migration can lead to malformations of the cerebral neocortex that greatly increase the risk of seizures. It remains untested whether malformations caused by disorders in neuronal migration can be reduced by reactivating cellular migration and whether such repair can decrease seizure risk. Here we show, in a rat model of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) generated by in utero RNA interference of the Dcx gene, that aberrantly positioned neurons can be stimulated to migrate by reexpressing Dcx after birth. Restarting migration in this way both reduces neocortical malformations and restores neuronal patterning. We further find that the capacity to reduce SBH continues into early postnatal development. Moreover, intervention after birth reduces the convulsant-induced seizure threshold to a level similar to that in malformation-free controls. These results suggest that disorders of neuronal migration may be eventually treatable by reengaging developmental programs both to reduce the size of cortical malformations and to reduce seizure risk.

  16. The cross-mammalian neurophenomenology of primal emotional affects: From animal feelings to human therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2016-06-01

    The neural correlates of human emotions are easy to harvest. In contrast, the neural constitution of emotional feelings in humans has resisted systematic scientific analysis. This review summarizes how preclinical affective neuroscience initiatives are making progress in decoding the neural nature of such feelings in animal brains. This has been achieved by studying the rewarding and punishing effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of subcortical emotional networks (labeled SEEING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC, and PLAY systems) that evoke distinct emotion action patterns, as well as rewarding and punishing effects in animals. The implications of this knowledge for development of new psychiatric interventions, especially depression, are discussed. Three new antidepressive therapeutics arising from this work are briefly noted: 1) DBS of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in humans, 2) reduction of psychological pain that may arise from excessive PANIC arousal, and 3) facilitation of social joy through the study of social play in rats The overall argument is that we may more readily develop new psychiatric interventions through preclinical models if we take animal emotional feelings seriously, as opposed to just behavioral changes, as targets for development of new treatments.

  17. Cultivation practices affect heavy metal migration between soil and Vicia faba (broad bean).

    PubMed

    Li, Feili; Ni, Lijia; Yuan, Jin; Daniel Sheng, G

    2010-09-01

    Pot-test experiments were conducted to study the influences of mulching and fertilizing on the migration of heavy metals from soil to Vicia faba (broad bean). Semi-transparent film was used to mulch soil. Swine manure compost was mixed with soil at a rate of 50 mg kg(-1) to fertilize the soil. Broad bean was grown for several months until fruits were formed. Soils and bean parts were sampled to analyze and fractionate heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn). Mulching promoted an obvious growth of broad bean. Fertilizing decreased soil pH and increased organic matter content and conductivity. Mulching reduced the exchangeable metal fractions by 5-52%. Fertilizing, in contrast, increased the exchangeable fractions of most of the metals except Fe and Pb by 20-295%. While the two cultivations increased obviously metal concentrations in bean laminas as compared to un-mulched and un-fertilized controls, the levels of most of the metals except Pb decreased in bean fruits. No clear relationships existed in roots and caudices in terms of metal levels. Calculated bioconcentration factors (BCF) and transfer factors (TF) indicate that the cultivations had little influences on the metal enrichments in roots, but promoted their migration from roots to laminas. In particular, mulching greatly promoted the absorption and translocation of Fe, while fertilizing enhanced the bean fruit uptake of Pb. Further studies on the influence of cultivation practices on heavy metal migration in soil-plant systems are recommended to acquire more information for evaluation of crop safety. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. How climate, migration ability and habitat fragmentation affect the projected future distribution of European beech.

    PubMed

    Saltré, Frédérik; Duputié, Anne; Gaucherel, Cédric; Chuine, Isabelle

    2015-02-01

    Recent efforts to incorporate migration processes into species distribution models (SDMs) are allowing assessments of whether species are likely to be able to track their future climate optimum and the possible causes of failing to do so. Here, we projected the range shift of European beech over the 21st century using a process-based SDM coupled to a phenomenological migration model accounting for population dynamics, according to two climate change scenarios and one land use change scenario. Our model predicts that the climatically suitable habitat for European beech will shift north-eastward and upward mainly because (i) higher temperature and precipitation, at the northern range margins, will increase survival and fruit maturation success, while (ii) lower precipitations and higher winter temperature, at the southern range margins, will increase drought mortality and prevent bud dormancy breaking. Beech colonization rate of newly climatically suitable habitats in 2100 is projected to be very low (1-2% of the newly suitable habitats colonised). Unexpectedly, the projected realized contraction rate was higher than the projected potential contraction rate. As a result, the realized distribution of beech is projected to strongly contract by 2100 (by 36-61%) mainly due to a substantial increase in climate variability after 2050, which generates local extinctions, even at the core of the distribution, the frequency of which prevents beech recolonization during more favourable years. Although European beech will be able to persist in some parts of the trailing edge of its distribution, the combined effects of climate and land use changes, limited migration ability, and a slow life-history are likely to increase its threat status in the near future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A strong magnetic pulse affects the precision of departure direction of naturally migrating adult but not juvenile birds

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Richard A.; Helm, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which migratory birds achieve their often spectacular navigational performance are still largely unclear, but perception of cues from the Earth's magnetic field is thought to play a role. Birds that possess migratory experience can use map-based navigation, which may involve a receptor that uses ferrimagnetic material for detecting gradients in the magnetic field. Such a mechanism can be experimentally disrupted by applying a strong magnetic pulse that re-magnetizes ferrimagnetic materials. In captivity, this treatment indeed affected bearings of adult but not of naive juvenile birds. However, field studies, which expose birds to various navigational cues, yielded mixed results. Supportive studies were difficult to interpret because they were conducted in spring when all age groups navigate back to breeding areas. The present study, therefore, applied a magnetic pulse treatment in autumn to naturally migrating, radio-tagged European robins. We found that, although overall bearings were seasonally correct, orientation of adult but not juvenile robins was compromised by a pulse. Pulsed adults that departed within 10 days of treatment failed to show significant orientation and deviated more from mean migration direction than adult controls and juveniles. Thus, our data give field-based support for a possible ferrimagnetic map-sense during bird migration. PMID:23389901

  20. A strong magnetic pulse affects the precision of departure direction of naturally migrating adult but not juvenile birds.

    PubMed

    Holland, Richard A; Helm, Barbara

    2013-04-06

    The mechanisms by which migratory birds achieve their often spectacular navigational performance are still largely unclear, but perception of cues from the Earth's magnetic field is thought to play a role. Birds that possess migratory experience can use map-based navigation, which may involve a receptor that uses ferrimagnetic material for detecting gradients in the magnetic field. Such a mechanism can be experimentally disrupted by applying a strong magnetic pulse that re-magnetizes ferrimagnetic materials. In captivity, this treatment indeed affected bearings of adult but not of naive juvenile birds. However, field studies, which expose birds to various navigational cues, yielded mixed results. Supportive studies were difficult to interpret because they were conducted in spring when all age groups navigate back to breeding areas. The present study, therefore, applied a magnetic pulse treatment in autumn to naturally migrating, radio-tagged European robins. We found that, although overall bearings were seasonally correct, orientation of adult but not juvenile robins was compromised by a pulse. Pulsed adults that departed within 10 days of treatment failed to show significant orientation and deviated more from mean migration direction than adult controls and juveniles. Thus, our data give field-based support for a possible ferrimagnetic map-sense during bird migration.

  1. Acute Hypoxic Stress Affects Migration Machinery of Tissue O2-Adapted Adipose Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lobanova, Margarita V.; Andreeva, Elena R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) to be mobilised from their local depot towards sites of injury and to participate in tissue repair makes these cells promising candidates for cell therapy. Physiological O2 tension in an MSC niche in vivo is about 4–7%. However, most in vitro studies of MSC functional activity are performed at 20% O2. Therefore, this study focused on the effects of short-term hypoxic stress (0.1% O2, 24 h) on adipose tissue-derived MSC motility at tissue-related O2 level. No significant changes in integrin expression were detected after short-term hypoxic stress. However, O2 deprivation provoked vimentin disassembly and actin polymerisation and increased cell stiffness. In addition, hypoxic stress induced the downregulation of ACTR3, DSTN, MACF1, MID1, MYPT1, NCK1, ROCK1, TIAM1, and WASF1 expression, the products of which are known to be involved in leading edge formation and cell translocation. These changes were accompanied by the attenuation of targeted and nontargeted migration of MSCs after short-term hypoxic exposure, as demonstrated in scratch and transwell migration assays. These results indicate that acute hypoxic stress can modulate MSC function in their native milieu, preventing their mobilisation from sites of injury. PMID:28115943

  2. Direct reciprocity in animals: The roles of bonding and affective processes.

    PubMed

    Freidin, Esteban; Carballo, Fabricio; Bentosela, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    The presence of direct reciprocity in animals is a debated topic, because, despite its evolutionary plausibility, it is believed to be uncommon. Some authors claim that stable reciprocal exchanges require sophisticated cognition which has acted as a constraint on its evolution across species. In contrast, a more recent trend of research has focused on the possibility that direct reciprocity occurs within long-term bonds and relies on simple as well as more complex affective mechanisms such as emotional book-keeping, rudimentary and higher forms of empathy, and inequity aversion, among others. First, we present evidence supporting the occurrence of long-term reciprocity in the context of existing bonds in social birds and mammals. Second, we discuss the evidence for affective responses which, modulated by bonding, may underlie altruistic behaviours in different species. We conclude that the mechanisms that may underlie reciprocal exchanges are diverse, and that some act in interaction with bonding processes. From simple associative learning in social contexts, through emotional contagion and behavioural mimicry, to empathy and a sense of fairness, widespread and diverse social affective mechanisms may explain why direct reciprocity may not be a rare phenomenon among social vertebrates. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Expression of CHODL in hepatocellular carcinoma affects invasion and migration of liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zejian; Zhang, Ning; Li, Wenda; Cao, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yajin

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-associated death. Due to rapid progression and metastasis, the long-term survival remains poor for most patients. Thus, it is important to discover and develop novel preventive strategies and therapeutic approaches for HCC. Recent data show that chondrolectin (CHODL) is commonly overexpressed in the majority of lung cancers, indicating a possible correlation between CHODL and metastasis of lung cancer cells. Our investigation shows that the expression of CHODL is significantly decreased in HCC clinical samples and in HCC cell lines. Overexpression of CHODL in SMMC7721 cells with a lentiviral vector increased SMMC7721 cell migration and invasion. Our findings establish for the first time an association between human CHODL and HCC metastasis. PMID:28356950

  4. Ageing Adversely Affects the Migration and Function of Marginal Zone B Cells.

    PubMed

    Turner, Vivian M; Mabbott, Neil A

    2017-04-02

    Marginal zone (MZ) B cells are positioned within the spleen to capture blood-borne Ag and immune complexes and deliver them to follicular dendritic cells in the B cell follicles. We show that within the spleens of aged mice antigen (Ag) capture by MZ B cells, and their ability to shuttle between the follicle and MZ were impaired. The ability of aged MZ B cells to migrate towards the MZ chemoattractant sphingosine 1-phosphate was increased, suggesting that aged MZ B cells had a greater propensity to be retained within the MZ. An extrinsic impairment in aged B cell migration towards the MZ was demonstrated using bone marrow chimeras. The follicular shuttling of MZ B cells derived from either young or aged bone marrow was similarly reduced in aged recipient spleens, showing that ageing effects on splenic stromal cells were responsible for the impaired follicular shuttling of MZ B cells. MZ B cells rapidly mount T cell-independent (TI) antibody-responses to microbial polysaccharide Ag. In aged mice the ability to produce immunoglobulins in response to the TI-type 1 Ag, TNP-LPS, was impaired. These ageing related changes to the MZ and MZ B cells have implications for the clearance of blood-borne pathogens. Indeed elderly people have increased susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae, a TI Ag, and decreased responses to vaccination. A thorough analysis of the mechanisms that underpin the ageing-related decline in the status of the MZ and MZ B cells will help the design of novel treatments to improve immunity in the elderly. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a New Hanging-Type Esophageal Stent for Preventing Migration: A Preliminary Study in an Animal Model of Esophagotracheal Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Masayuki Kaminou, Toshio Ohuchi, Yasufumi; Sugiura, Kimihiko; Yata, Shinsaku Adachi, Akira Kawai, Tsuyoshi Takasugi, Syohei Yamamoto, Shuichi Matsumoto, Kensuke; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Ihaya, Takashi; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Covered, self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) have been enthusiastically adopted for the treatment of esophagotracheal fistula, but problems with stent migration have yet to be resolved. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new hanging-type esophageal stent designed to prevent migration, and we conducted an animal study to assess the efficacy of our method. Methods: A total of six female pigs were used in this study. The main characteristic of our stent was the presence of a string tied to the proximal edge of the stent for fixation under the skin of the neck. The first experiment was performed to confirm technical feasibility in three pigs with esophagotracheal fistula. The second experiment was performed to evaluate stent migration and esophagotracheal fistula in three pigs. Results: Creation of the esophagotracheal fistula and stent placement were technically successful in all pigs. In the first experiment, esophagotracheal fistula was sealed by stent placement. In the second experiment, no stent migration was seen 11 or 12 days after stent placement. Gross findings showed no fistulas on the esophageal or tracheal wall. Conclusions: Our new hanging-type esophageal stent seems to offer a feasible method for preventing stent migration.

  6. Development of a new hanging-type esophageal stent for preventing migration: a preliminary study in an animal model of esophagotracheal fistula.

    PubMed

    Endo, Masayuki; Kaminou, Toshio; Ohuchi, Yasufumi; Sugiura, Kimihiko; Yata, Shinsaku; Adachi, Akira; Kawai, Tsuyoshi; Takasugi, Syohei; Yamamoto, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Kensuke; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Ihaya, Takashi; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2012-10-01

    Covered, self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) have been enthusiastically adopted for the treatment of esophagotracheal fistula, but problems with stent migration have yet to be resolved. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new hanging-type esophageal stent designed to prevent migration, and we conducted an animal study to assess the efficacy of our method. A total of six female pigs were used in this study. The main characteristic of our stent was the presence of a string tied to the proximal edge of the stent for fixation under the skin of the neck. The first experiment was performed to confirm technical feasibility in three pigs with esophagotracheal fistula. The second experiment was performed to evaluate stent migration and esophagotracheal fistula in three pigs. Creation of the esophagotracheal fistula and stent placement were technically successful in all pigs. In the first experiment, esophagotracheal fistula was sealed by stent placement. In the second experiment, no stent migration was seen 11 or 12 days after stent placement. Gross findings showed no fistulas on the esophageal or tracheal wall. Our new hanging-type esophageal stent seems to offer a feasible method for preventing stent migration.

  7. Why are some animal populations unaffected or positively affected by roads?

    PubMed

    Rytwinski, Trina; Fahrig, Lenore

    2013-11-01

    In reviews on effects of roads on animal population abundance we found that most effects are negative; however, there are also many neutral and positive responses [Fahrig and Rytwinski (Ecol Soc 14:21, 2009; Rytwinski and Fahrig (Biol Conserv 147:87-98, 2012)]. Here we use an individual-based simulation model to: (1) confirm predictions from the existing literature of the combinations of species traits and behavioural responses to roads that lead to negative effects of roads on animal population abundance, and (2) improve prediction of the combinations of species traits and behavioural responses to roads that lead to neutral and positive effects of roads on animal population abundance. Simulations represented a typical situation in which road mitigation is contemplated, i.e. rural landscapes containing a relatively low density (up to 1.86 km/km(2)) of high-traffic roads, with continuous habitat between the roads. In these landscapes, the simulations predict that populations of species with small territories and movement ranges, and high reproductive rates, i.e. many small mammals and birds, should not be reduced by roads. Contrary to previous suggestions, the results also predict that populations of species that obtain a resource from roads (e.g. vultures) do not increase with increasing road density. In addition, our simulations support the predation release hypothesis for positive road effects on prey (both small- and large-bodied prey), whereby abundance of a prey species increased with increasing road density due to reduced predation by generalist road-affected predators. The simulations also predict an optimal road density for the large-bodied prey species if it avoids roads or traffic emissions. Overall, the simulation results suggest that in rural landscapes containing high-traffic roads, there are many species for which road mitigation may not be necessary; mitigation efforts should be tailored to the species that show negative population responses to roads.

  8. Oligopeptides as External Molecular Signals Affecting Growth and Death in Animal Cell Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franek, František

    Protein hydrolysates in the form of oligopeptides and free amino acids are widely used in animal cell culture for the production of therapeutic proteins. The primary function of protein hydrolysates is to provide nitrogen source and at the same they may increase cell density and higher yields of proteins. It is interesting to note that some peptides exclusively increase cell density, others improve both cell density and product yield, and some peptides suppress cell growth and enhance the product yield. Thus it is very clear that oligopeptides act as external molecular signals affecting growth and death. However, the effect of peptide size and amino acid composition in the protein hydrolysates and the exact mechanism as how this is achieved is still not elucidated in animal cells. In this chapter we describe our work on the fractionation of protein hydrolysates and the use of synthetic peptides on hybridomas. This research work shed some insight about the peptide size, amino acids, concentration and composition of peptides, feeding strategies for peptides but by any means this is not complete and more work needs to be done. For example it is essential to extend this type of work with peptides larger than tetra and penta peptides and with different cell lines to elucidate the mode of action of peptides.

  9. Hypothalamic dopaminergic neurons in an animal model of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Deats, Sean P; Adidharma, Widya; Yan, Lily

    2015-08-18

    Light has profound effects on mood regulation as exemplified in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and the therapeutic benefits of light therapy. However, the underlying neural pathways through which light regulates mood are not well understood. Our previous work has developed the diurnal grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus, as an animal model of SAD. Following housing conditions of either 12:12 h dim light:dark (DLD) or 8:16 h short photoperiod (SP), which mimic the lower light intensity or short day-length of winter, respectively, grass rats exhibit an increase in depression-like behavior compared to those housed in a 12:12 h bright light:dark (BLD) condition. Furthermore, we have shown that the orexinergic system is involved in mediating the effects of light on mood and anxiety. To explore other potential neural substrates involved in the depressive phenotype, the present study examined hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) and somatostatin (SST) neurons in the brains of grass rats housed in DLD, SP and BLD. Using immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and SST, we found that the number of TH- and SST-ir cells in the hypothalamus was significantly lower in the DLD and SP groups compared to the BLD group. We also found that treating BLD animals with a selective orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) antagonist SB-334867 significantly reduced the number of hypothalamic TH-ir cells. The present study suggests that the hypothalamic DA neurons are sensitive to daytime light deficiency and are regulated by an orexinergic pathway. The results support the hypothesis that the orexinergic pathways mediate the effects of light on other neuronal systems that collectively contribute to light-dependent changes in the affective state.

  10. Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Neurons in an Animal Model of Seasonal Affective Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Deats, Sean P.; Adidharma, Widya; Yan, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Light has profound effects on mood regulation as exemplified in Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) and the therapeutic benefits of light therapy. However, the underlying neural pathways through which light regulates mood are not well understood. Our previous work has developed the diurnal grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus, as an animal model of SAD. Following housing conditions of either 12:12hr Dim Light:Dark (DLD) or 8:16hr Short Photoperiod (SP), which mimic the lower light intensity or short day-length of winter, respectively, grass rats exhibit an increase in depression-like behavior compared to those housed in a 12:12hr Bright Light:Dark (BLD) condition. Furthermore, we revealed that the orexinergic system is involved in mediating the effects of light on mood and anxiety. To explore other potential neural substrates involved in the depressive phenotype, the present study examined hypothalamic dopaminergic (DA) and somatostatin (SST) neurons in the brains of grass rats housed in DLD, SP and BLD. Using immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and SST, we found that the number of TH- and SST-ir cells in the hypothalamus was significantly lower in the DLD and SP groups compared to the BLD group. We also found that treating BLD animals with a selective orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) antagonist SB-334867 significantly reduced the number of hypothalamic TH-ir cells. The present study suggests that the hypothalamic DA neurons are sensitive to daytime light deficiency and are regulated by an orexinergic pathway. The results support the hypothesis that the orexinergic pathways mediate the effects of light on other neuronal systems that collectively contribute to light-dependent changes in the affective state. PMID:26116821

  11. The Voice of Emotion across Species: How Do Human Listeners Recognize Animals' Affective States?

    PubMed Central

    Scheumann, Marina; Hasting, Anna S.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Zimmermann, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener) versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context). Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew). Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence) or affiliative (positive emotional valence) context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms. PMID:24621604

  12. Plakophilin 2 Affects Cell Migration by Modulating Focal Adhesion Dynamics and Integrin Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Koetsier, Jennifer L.; Amargo, Evangeline V.; Todorović, Viktor; Green, Kathleen J.; Godsel, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Plakophilin 2 (PKP2), a desmosome component, modulates the activity and localization of the small GTPase RhoA at sites of cell–cell contact. PKP2 regulates cortical actin rearrangement during junction formation, and its loss is accompanied by an increase in actin stress fibers. We hypothesized that PKP2 may regulate focal adhesion dynamics and cell migration. Here we show that PKP2-deficient cells bind efficiently to the extracellular matrix, but upon spreading display total cell areas ~30% smaller than control cells. Focal adhesions in PKP2-deficient cells are ~2× larger and more stable than in control cells, and vinculin displays an increased time for fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Furthermore, β4 and β1 integrin protein and mRNA expression is elevated in PKP2-silenced cells. Normal focal adhesion phenotypes can be restored in PKP2-null cells by dampening the RhoA pathway or silencing β1 integrin. However, integrin expression levels are not restored by RhoA signaling inhibition. These data uncover a potential role for PKP2 upstream of β1 integrin and RhoA in integrating cell–cell and cell–substrate contact signaling in basal keratinocytes necessary for the morphogenesis, homeostasis, and reepithelialization of the stratified epidermis. PMID:23884246

  13. Rewards, aversions and affect in adolescence: Emerging convergences across laboratory animal and human data

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2011-01-01

    The adolescent transition is associated with increases in reward- and sensation-seeking, peer-directed social interactions, and risk-taking, with exploratory use of alcohol and other drugs often beginning at this time. These age-related behaviors may have biological roots embedded in the evolutionary past, with similar adolescent-typical characteristics evident across a variety of mammalian species. Drawing across human behavioral and fMRI data and studies conducting in laboratory animals, this review examines processing of rewards, aversions, and affect in adolescence. Evidence for both hyper- and hypo-reactivity during adolescence in the processing of rewards is reviewed, along with possible contributors to these differences. Indications of sometimes heightened reward reactivity during adolescence are contrasted with frequent attenuations in adolescent sensitivity to aversive stimuli. At the same time, adolescents appear particularly prone to becoming emotionally aroused, especially in social contexts. Emerging evidence hints that exaggerated adolescent reactivity in reward and affective systems may be promoted in part by unusual strong cross-reactivity between these systems during adolescence. Such age-related propensities may promote adolescent risk taking, especially in social and exciting contexts, and contribute to adolescent-typical propensities to attach greater benefit and less cost to risky behaviors such as alcohol and drug use than individuals at other ages. PMID:21918675

  14. Solubility constraints affecting the migration of selenium through the cementitious backfill of a geological disposal facility.

    PubMed

    Felipe-Sotelo, M; Hinchliff, J; Evans, N D M; Read, D

    2016-03-15

    This work presents the study of the solubility of selenium under cementitious conditions and its diffusion, as SeO3(2-), through monolithic cement samples. The solubility studies were carried out under alkaline conditions similar to those anticipated in the near-field of a cement-based repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Experiments were conducted in NaOH solution, 95%-saturated Ca(OH)2, water equilibrated with a potential backfill material (Nirex reference vault backfill, NRVB) and in solutions containing cellulose degradation products, with and without reducing agents. The highest selenium concentrations were found in NaOH solution. In the calcium-containing solutions, analysis of the precipitates suggests that the solubility controlling phase is Ca2SeO3(OH)2·2H2O, which appears as euhedral rhombic crystals. The presence of cellulose degradation products caused an increase in selenium concentration, possibly due to competitive complexation, thereby, limiting the amount of calcium available for precipitation. Iron coupons had a minor effect on selenium solubility in contrast to Na2S2O4, suggesting that effective reduction of Se(IV) occurs only at Eh values below -300mV. Radial through-diffusion experiments on NRVB and in a fly ash cement showed no evidence of selenium breakthrough after one year. However, autoradiography of the exposed surfaces indicated that some migration had occurred and that selenium was more mobile in the higher porosity backfill than in the fly ash cement.

  15. Going Home after Hurricane Katrina: Determinants of Return Migration and Changes in Affected Areas

    PubMed Central

    GROEN, JEFFREY A.; POLIVKA, ANNE E.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the decision of Hurricane Katrina evacuees to return to their pre-Katrina areas and documents how the composition of the Katrina-affected region changed over time. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we show that an evacuee’s age, family income, and the severity of damage in an evacuee’s county of origin are important determinants of whether an evacuee returned during the first year after the storm. Blacks were less likely to return than whites, but this difference is primarily related to the geographical pattern of storm damage rather than to race per se. The difference between the composition of evacuees who returned and the composition of evacuees who did not return is the primary force behind changes in the composition of the affected areas in the first two years after the storm. Katrina is associated with substantial shifts in the racial composition of the affected areas (namely, a decrease in the percentage of residents who are black) and an increasing presence of Hispanics. Katrina is also associated with an increase in the percentage of older residents, a decrease in the percentage of residents with low income/education, and an increase in the percentage of residents with high income/education. PMID:21308560

  16. Going home after Hurricane Katrina: Determinants of return migration and changes in affected areas.

    PubMed

    Groen, Jeffrey A; Polivka, Anne E

    2010-11-01

    This article examines the decision of Hurricane Katrina evacuees to return to their pre-Katrina areas and documents how the composition of the Katrina-affected region changed over time. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we show that an evacuee's age, family income, and the severity of damage in an evacuee's county of origin are important determinants of whether an evacuee returned during the first year after the storm. Blacks were less likely to return than whites, but this difference is primarily related to the geographical pattern of storm damage rather than to race per se. The difference between the composition of evacuees who returned and the composition of evacuees who did not return is the primary force behind changes in the composition of the affected areas in the first two years after the storm. Katrina is associated with substantial shifts in the racial composition of the affected areas (namely, a decrease in the percentage of residents who are black) and an increasing presence of Hispanics. Katrina is also associated with an increase in the percentage of older residents, a decrease in the percentage of residents with low income/education, and an increase in the percentage of residents with high income/education.

  17. Investigation and identification of factors affecting migrating peasant workers' usage of safety footwear in the Chinese construction industry.

    PubMed

    Suo, Qinghui; Zhang, Daming

    2017-09-01

    A sample of 300 migrating peasant workers from 15 Chinese building construction sites completed a demographic questionnaire to investigate the usage of safety footwear. The survey form was constructed based on the theory of planned behaviour, and a total of 12 questions focusing on the workers' past experience, attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control were included in the survey. It was found that 92% of the participants did not wear safety footwear while working on construction sites, although more than 91% of them believed that safety footwear would protect the foot from injury; none of the participants had been provided free safety footwear by their employer. Regression analysis shows that employers' attitude is the most important factor affecting their usage of safety footwear, 'providing free safety footwear' and 'comfortability of the safety footwear' ranking second and third respectively.

  18. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research.

    PubMed

    Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; Velkers, Francisca C; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S

    2017-02-21

    A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting "robust" animals) adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum), or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  19. Loss of Bace2 in zebrafish affects melanocyte migration and is distinct from Bace1 knock out phenotypes.

    PubMed

    van Bebber, Frauke; Hruscha, Alexander; Willem, Michael; Schmid, Bettina; Haass, Christian

    2013-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most frequent dementia. Pathologically, Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the accumulation of senile plaques composed of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ). Two proteases, β- and γ-secretase proteolytically generate Aβ from its precursor, the ß-amyloid precursor protein (APP). Inhibition of β-secretase, also referred to as beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE1) or γ-secretase is therefore of prime interest for the development of amyloid-lowering drugs. To assess the in vivo function of zebrafish Bace1 (zBace1), we generated zBace1 knock out fish by zinc finger nuclease-mediated genome editing. bace1 mutants (bace1-/-) are hypomyelinated in the PNS while the CNS is not affected. Moreover, the number of mechanosensory neuromasts is elevated in bace1-/-. Mutations in zebrafish Bace2 (zBace2) revealed a distinct melanocyte migration phenotype, which is not observed in bace1-/-. Double homozygous bace1-/-; bace2-/- fish do not enhance the single mutant phenotypes indicating non-redundant distinct physiological functions. Single homozygous bace1 mutants as well as double homozygous bace1 and bace2 mutants are viable and fertile suggesting that Bace1 is a promising drug target without major side effects. The identification of a specific bace2 -/- associated phenotype further allows improving selective Bace1 inhibitors and to distinguish between Bace 1 and Bace 2 inhibition in vivo. Inhibition of BACE1 protease activity has therapeutic importance for Alzheimer's disease. Analysis of BACE1 and BACE2 knock-out zebrafish revealed that they exhibit distinct phenotypes. bace1 mutants display hypomyelination in the PNS and supernumerary neuromasts while in bace2 mutants the shape and migration of melanocytes is affected. These phenotypes are not further enhanced in the viable double mutants. Our data suggest that blocking BACE1 activity is a safe therapeutic approach.

  20. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure affects fertilization outcome in swine animal model.

    PubMed

    Bernabò, N; Tettamanti, E; Russo, V; Martelli, A; Turriani, M; Mattoli, M; Barboni, B

    2010-06-01

    Modern society continuously exposes the population to electromagnetic radiation, the effects of which on human health, in particular reproduction, are still unknown. The aim of this research was to assess the effect of acute (1h) exposure of boar spermatozoa to a 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on early fertility outcome. The effect of intensities ranging from 0 to 2 mT on morpho-functional integrity of capacitated spermatozoa was examined in vitro. The oviducts containing or without spermatozoa were then exposed to the minimum in vivo, TD(50,) and maximum intensities determined in vitro, 4h before ovulation. The effects of ELF-EMF on spermatozoa in terms of early embryo development were evaluated after 12h and 6 days. It was found that in vitro ELF-EMF > 0.5 mT induced a progressive acrosome damage, thus compromising the ability of spermatozoa to undergo acrosomal reaction after zona pellucida stimulation and reducing the in vitro fertilization outcome. These effects became evident at 0.75 mT and reached the plateau at 1 mT. Under in vivo conditions, the ELF-EMF intensity of 1 mT was able to compromise sperm function, significantly reducing the fertilization rate. In addition, the exposure of oviducts to fields > or = 0.75 mT in the absence of spermatozoa was able to negatively affect early embryo development. In fact, it was found to cause a slowdown in the embryo cleavage. In conclusion, it was demonstrated how and at which intensities ELF-EMF negatively affect early fertility outcome in a highly predictive animal model.

  1. Dermatoses affecting desmosomes in animals: a mechanistic review of acantholytic blistering skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Olivry, Thierry; Linder, Keith E

    2009-10-01

    Failure of desmosomal adhesion with ensuing keratinocyte separation - a phenomenon called acantholysis - can result from genetic, autoimmune or infectious proteolytic causes. Rare hereditary disorders of desmosomal formation have been identified in animals. Familial acantholysis of Angus calves and hereditary suprabasal acantholytic mechanobullous dermatosis of buffaloes appear to be similar to acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa of human beings. A genetic acantholytic dermatosis resembling human Darier disease has been rarely recognized in dogs. In autoimmune blistering dermatoses, circulating autoantibodies bind to the extracellular segments of desmosomal proteins and induce acantholysis. Autoantibodies against desmoglein-3 are found in canine pemphigus vulgaris and paraneoplastic pemphigus. Autoantibodies against desmoglein-1 have been rarely detected in dogs with pemphigus foliaceus. When circulating autoantibodies target desmogleins-1 and -3, mucocutaneous pemphigus vulgaris develops in dogs. Finally, several infectious agents can release proteases that cleave desmosomal bonds. In superficial pustular dermatophytosis of dogs and horses, Trichophyton hyphae colonize the stratum corneum, and acantholysis presumably develops because of proteases secreted by the dermatophytes. In exudative epidermitis of piglets, Staphylococcus bacteria - usually Staphylococcus hyicus- release exfoliatin toxins that bind to and specifically cleave desmoglein-1. Any of the above mechanisms can result in impairment of desmosomal function with subsequent acantholysis. The end point of adhesion failure is identical among these diseases: there is cleft formation where desmosomes are affected. The similarity of mechanisms explains why clinical and microscopic skin lesions overlap between entities, thus leaving clinicians and dermatopathologists with the conundrum of determining whether the acantholysis is of genetic, autoimmune or infectious origin.

  2. Prenatal Hypoxia in Different Periods of Embryogenesis Differentially Affects Cell Migration, Neuronal Plasticity, and Rat Behavior in Postnatal Ontogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Dmitrii S.; Dubrovskaya, Nadezhda M.; Tumanova, Natalia L.; Zhuravin, Igor A.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term effects of prenatal hypoxia on embryonic days E14 or E18 on the number, type and localization of cortical neurons, density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines, and parietal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks were examined in the postnatal ontogenesis of rats. An injection of 5′ethynyl-2′deoxyuridine to pregnant rats was used to label neurons generated on E14 or E18 in the fetuses. In control rat pups a majority of cells labeled on E14 were localized in the lower cortical layers V-VI while the cells labeled on E18 were mainly found in the superficial cortical layers II-III. It was shown that hypoxia both on E14 and E18 results in disruption of neuroblast generation and migration but affects different cell populations. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E14, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was decreased while the number of labeled neurons scattered within the superficial cortical layers was increased. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E18, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was also decreased but the number of scattered labeled neurons was higher in the lower cortical layers. It can be suggested that prenatal hypoxia both on E14 and E18 causes a disruption in neuroblast migration but with a different outcome. Only in rats subjected to hypoxia on E14 did we observe a reduction in the total number of pyramidal cortical neurons and the density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines in the molecular cortical layer during the first month after birth which affected development of the cortical functions. As a result, rats subjected to hypoxia on E14, but not on E18, had impaired development of the whisker-placing reaction and reduced ability to learn reaching by a forepaw. The data obtained suggest that hypoxia on E14 in the period of generation of the cells, which later differentiate into the pyramidal cortical neurons of the V-VI layers and form cortical minicolumns, affects formation of

  3. FMRP regulates multipolar to bipolar transition affecting neuronal migration and cortical circuitry.

    PubMed

    La Fata, Giorgio; Gärtner, Annette; Domínguez-Iturza, Nuria; Dresselaers, Tom; Dawitz, Julia; Poorthuis, Rogier B; Averna, Michele; Himmelreich, Uwe; Meredith, Rhiannon M; Achsel, Tilmann; Dotti, Carlos G; Bagni, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Deficiencies in fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) are the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, fragile X syndrome (FXS), with symptoms manifesting during infancy and early childhood. Using a mouse model for FXS, we found that Fmrp regulates the positioning of neurons in the cortical plate during embryonic development, affecting their multipolar-to-bipolar transition (MBT). We identified N-cadherin, which is crucial for MBT, as an Fmrp-regulated target in embryonic brain. Furthermore, spontaneous network activity and high-resolution brain imaging revealed defects in the establishment of neuronal networks at very early developmental stages, further confirmed by an unbalanced excitatory and inhibitory network. Finally, reintroduction of Fmrp or N-cadherin in the embryo normalized early postnatal neuron activity. Our findings highlight the critical role of Fmrp in the developing cerebral cortex and might explain some of the clinical features observed in patients with FXS, such as alterations in synaptic communication and neuronal network connectivity.

  4. Affective preclinical modeling of psychiatric disorders: taking imbalanced primal emotional feelings of animals seriously in our search for novel antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical animal models of psychiatric disorders are of critical importance for advances in development of new psychiatric medicine. Regrettably, behavior-only models have yielded no novel targeted treatments during the past half-century of vigorous deployment. This may reflect the general neglect of experiential aspects of animal emotions, since affective mental states of animals supposedly cannot be empirically monitored. This supposition is wrong—to the extent that the rewarding and punishing aspects of emotion circuit arousals reflect positive and negative affective states. During the past decade, the use of such affective neuroscience-based animal modeling has yielded three novel antidepressants (i) via the alleviation of psychic pain with low doses of buprenorphine; (ii) via the amplification of enthusiasm by direct stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle); and (iii) via the facilitation of the capacity for social joy with play facilitators such as rapastinel (GLYX13). All have progressed to successful human testing. For optimal progress, it may be useful for preclinical investigators to focus on the evolved affective foundations of psychiatrically relevant brain emotional disorders for optimal animal modeling. PMID:26869838

  5. Affective preclinical modeling of psychiatric disorders: taking imbalanced primal emotional feelings of animals seriously in our search for novel antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2015-12-01

    Preclinical animal models of psychiatric disorders are of critical importance for advances in development of new psychiatric medicine. Regrettably, behavior-only models have yielded no novel targeted treatments during the past half-century of vigorous deployment. This may reflect the general neglect of experiential aspects of animal emotions, since affective mental states of animals supposedly cannot be empirically monitored. This supposition is wrong-to the extent that the rewarding and punishing aspects of emotion circuit arousals reflect positive and negative affective states. During the past decade, the use of such affective neuroscience-based animal modeling has yielded three novel antidepressants (i) via the alleviation of psychic pain with low doses of buprenorphine; (ii) via the amplification of enthusiasm by direct stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle); and (iii) via the facilitation of the capacity for social joy with play facilitators such as rapastinel (GLYX13). All have progressed to successful human testing. For optimal progress, it may be useful for preclinical investigators to focus on the evolved affective foundations of psychiatrically relevant brain emotional disorders for optimal animal modeling.

  6. Factors affecting animal performance during the grazing season in a mountain cattle production system.

    PubMed

    Casasús, I; Sanz, A; Villalba, D; Ferrer, R; Revilla, R

    2002-06-01

    The factors influencing weight changes during the grazing season of Brown Swiss autumn-calving cows and Brown Swiss and Pirenaica spring-calving cows and their calves were studied over an 8-yr period in Spanish mountain conditions. The data set comprised 552 annual production cycles of cows that calved in two consecutive years. The animals grazed on alpine ranges during the summer and on forest pastures in the spring and autumn. They were housed during the winter and fed at different feeding levels (83 to 117% of their energy requirements) throughout the years of study. Weights were recorded every 3 mo and corrected to account for changes of digestive content and fetal growth, using theoretical relationships. Cow weight gains both on forest pastures and high mountain ranges were higher in autumn- than in spring-calving Brown Swiss cows, and therefore also during the whole grazing season (52.1 vs 7.7 kg, respectively, P < 0.001). Therefore, weight at calving and thereafter was significantly higher in autumn- than in spring-calving cows, which was associated with better reproductive performance (35.5 vs 49.1 d from calving to first ovulation, P < 0.01). In the spring-calving herd, Pirenaica cows had slightly higher gains than Brown Swiss cows during the grazing period (18.5 vs 7.7 kg, P < 0.001), mainly due to their higher gains on forest pastures, but their reproductive performance was similar (44.5 vs 49.1 d from calving to first ovulation, respectively, not statistically significant). Gains were higher in multiparous than in primiparous cows (31.1 vs 14.1 kg, respectively, P < 0.001), especially in the case of Brown Swiss cows, which were younger at first calving. Gains were affected by year of study (P < 0.001) and previous weight changes during the housing period (r = -0.35 and r = -0.21 in autumn- and spring-calving cows respectively, P < 0.001). In the case of autumn-calving cows, performance on pasture was also affected by the stage of pregnancy at housing (r

  7. Marriage Migration Versus Family Reunification: How Does the Marriage and Migration History Affect the Timing of First and Second Childbirth Among Turkish Immigrants in Germany?

    PubMed

    Wolf, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Our study focuses on the fertility of first-generation female and male Turkish migrants in Germany. To evaluate whether timing effects such as fertility disruption or an interrelation of marriage, migration and childbirth occur, we examine first and second births in the years before and after immigration to Germany. The Turkish sample of the Generations and Gender Survey which was conducted in 2006 offers the unique opportunity to examine Turkish immigrants as a single immigrant category. We question the common understanding that Turkish immigrants who arrived to Germany after 1973 mainly arrived for family reunification resulting in high birth intensities immediately after immigration. To distinguish different circumstances under which male and female immigrants have arrived to Germany, we include the combined marriage and migration history of the couple. We find that first birth probabilities are elevated during the years immediately following migration. But this effect is not universal among migrants with different marriage and migration histories. It appears that the arrival effect of high birth intensities is particularly high among female immigrants and is evident only among marriage migrants, that is Turks who married a partner who already lived in Germany at the time of the wedding. By contrast, among those who immigrated for family reunification, we do not find such an arrival effect.

  8. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    PubMed Central

    Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J. C. M.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S.

    2017-01-01

    evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible. PMID:28230800

  9. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water current and circulation patterns which would interfere with the movement of animals; (b) Selecting... restoration to produce a new or modified environmental state of higher ecological value by displacement...

  10. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... water current and circulation patterns which would interfere with the movement of animals; (b) Selecting... restoration to produce a new or modified environmental state of higher ecological value by displacement...

  11. 40 CFR 230.75 - Actions affecting plant and animal populations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water current and circulation patterns which would interfere with the movement of animals; (b) Selecting... restoration to produce a new or modified environmental state of higher ecological value by displacement...

  12. Migration, speciation and distribution of heavy metals in an oil-polluted soil affected by crude oil extraction processes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowen; Cui, Zhaojie; Zang, Guolong

    2014-07-01

    Heavy metals are among the major pollutants in the worldwide soil environment. In oilfields, the crude oil extraction process results in the simultaneous contamination of the soil with petroleum and heavy metals. In this work, we investigated the influence of oil extraction on the migration, speciation, and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, V, and Mn) in soils of an oil region of Shengli Oilfield, China. The results showed that oil-polluted soils were contaminated with Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, with mean concentrations of 27.63, 67.12, 0.185 and 33.80 mg kg(-1), respectively (greater than the background values of local surface soils). Compared with the control profile, the vertical distributions of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, and V were affected in oil-polluted soils, particularly those of Cd and Ni. The concentrations of Zn, Cd, Ni, V, and Mn in oil-polluted soils increased with the duration of oil well development, which indicated the levels of these metals in the oil field were enhanced by human activities. Fractionation analysis revealed that the mobility potential of heavy metals in oil polluted soil decreased in the sequence Cd > Mn > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cr > V. The most important proportion of Cd is ion exchangeable and acid soluble, which indicates that Cd is the most labile, available, and harmful heavy metal among the elements that damage the soil environment in oil-polluted soil.

  13. Low-level internalization of cystatin E/M affects legumain activity and migration of melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Hanna; Apelqvist, Jenny; Andersson, Freddi; Ekström, Ulf; Abrahamson, Magnus

    2017-09-01

    The ratio between proteases and their inhibitors is unbalanced in cancer. The cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C is internalized by some cancer cells, which affects cellular properties. Here we aimed to investigate if uptake of cystatin C and the related inhibitor cystatin E/M occur in melanoma cell lines and to evaluate to what extent the uptake affects the legumain activity that is typically increased in melanoma. First we studied the basic expression, secretion, and intracellular content of all type 2 cystatins as well as expression and activity of their possible target enzymes legumain and cathepsin B in MDA-MB-435S, A375, and C8161 melanoma cells. Legumain activity was measureable in all cell lines, and of the potential legumain inhibitors, cystatin C, E/M, and F, cystatin C was the one mainly produced. All cells internalized cystatin C added to culture media, leading to increased intracellular cystatin C levels by 120-200%. Cystatin E/M was internalized as well but at a modest rate. The effects on intracellular legumain activity were nevertheless pronounced, probably because the cells lacked this inhibitor, and its affinity for legumain is 100-fold higher than that of cystatin C. Likewise, the low-degree uptake resulted in reduced migration and invasion of A375 cells in Matrigel to an extent comparable with the W106F variant of cystatin C with optimal uptake properties and resulting in much higher intracellular levels. Thus, cystatin E/M appears to be a good candidate to efficiently down-regulate the increased legumain activity, possibly important for the malignant phenotype of melanoma cells. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-01-01

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA. PMID:28225075

  15. Soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris, suppresses monocyte migration and prevents cartilage degradation in inflammatory animal models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-Chi; Chiu, Ching-Peng; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Hung, Chun-Yin; Li, Te-Mao; Wu, Yang-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2017-02-22

    Pathophysiological events that modulate the progression of structural changes in osteoarthritis (OA) include the secretion of inflammatory molecules, such as proinflammatory cytokines. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) is the prototypical inflammatory cytokine that activates OA synovial cells to release cytokines and chemokines in support of the inflammatory response. The monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is one of the key chemokines that regulate migration and infiltration of monocytes in response to inflammation. We show in this study that IL-1β-induced MCP-1 expression and monocyte migration in OA synovial fibroblasts (OASFs) is effectively inhibited by soya-cerebroside, an extract of Cordyceps militaris. We found that soya-cerebroside up-regulated of microRNA (miR)-432 expression via inhibiting AMPK and AKT signaling pathways in OASFs. Soya-cerebroside also effectively decreased monocyte infiltration and prevented cartilage degradation in a rat inflammatory model. Our findings are the first to demonstrate that soya-cerebroside inhibits monocyte/macrophage infiltration into synoviocytes, attenuating synovial inflammation and preventing cartilage damage by reducing MCP-1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, we suggest a novel therapeutic strategy based on the use of soya-cerebroside for the management of OA.

  16. How a Serious Digital Game Affected Students' Animal Science and Mathematical Competence in Agricultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch, J. C.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig; Antonenko, Pavlo D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the lecture and discussion teaching methods and digital game-based learning on student achievement in agriculture and mathematics regarding a unit on swine diseases in animal science courses offered through secondary agricultural education programs in Oklahoma. Three research questions…

  17. Affective Realism of Animated Films in the Development of Simulation-Based Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekanayake, Hiran B.; Fors, Uno; Ramberg, Robert; Ziemke, Tom; Backlund, Per; Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study focused on comparing real actors based scenarios and animated characters based scenarios with respect to their similarity in evoking psychophysiological activity for certain events by measuring galvanic skin response (GSR). In the experiment, one group (n = 11) watched the real actors' film whereas another group (n…

  18. Affective Realism of Animated Films in the Development of Simulation-Based Tutoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekanayake, Hiran B.; Fors, Uno; Ramberg, Robert; Ziemke, Tom; Backlund, Per; Hewagamage, Kamalanath P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a study focused on comparing real actors based scenarios and animated characters based scenarios with respect to their similarity in evoking psychophysiological activity for certain events by measuring galvanic skin response (GSR). In the experiment, one group (n = 11) watched the real actors' film whereas another group (n…

  19. Knowledge, Affection and Basic Attitudes Toward Animals in American Society. Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellert, Stephen R.; Berry, Joyce K.

    This paper, third in a series of five reports on results of a national study of American attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors toward wildlife and natural habitats, focuses on the American public's attitudes, perceptions, and understanding of animals. Data were derived from questionnaires administered to 3,107 randomly selected Americans (18 years…

  20. Cognitive and Affective Benefits of an Animated Pedagogical Agent for Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sunhee; Clark, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the use of an animated pedagogical agent (agent) with an electronic arrow and voice narration (arrow and voice) in a multimedia learning environment where 74 college level English as a Second Language (ESL) students learned English relative clauses. No significant differences in learning or performance were found between the…

  1. Cognitive and Affective Benefits of an Animated Pedagogical Agent for Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sunhee; Clark, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the use of an animated pedagogical agent (agent) with an electronic arrow and voice narration (arrow and voice) in a multimedia learning environment where 74 college level English as a Second Language (ESL) students learned English relative clauses. No significant differences in learning or performance were found between the…

  2. Differential S1P Receptor Profiles on M1- and M2-Polarized Macrophages Affect Macrophage Cytokine Production and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jan; von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Macrophages are key players in complex biological processes. In response to environmental signals, macrophages undergo polarization towards a proinflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) phenotype. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lysophospholipid that acts via 5 G-protein coupled receptors (S1P1–5) in order to influence a broad spectrum of biological processes. This study assesses S1P receptor expression on macrophages before and after M1 and M2 polarization and performs a comparative analysis of S1P signalling in the two activational states of macrophages. Methods. Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) from C57 BL/6 mice were cultured under either M1- or M2-polarizing conditions. S1P-receptor expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Influence of S1P on macrophage activation, migration, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion was assessed in vitro. Results. All 5 S1P receptor subclasses were expressed in macrophages. Culture under both M1- and M2-polarizing conditions led to significant downregulation of S1P1. In contrast, M1-polarized macrophages significantly downregulated S1P4. The expression of the remaining three S1P receptors did not change. S1P increased expression of iNOS under M2-polarizing conditions. Furthermore, S1P induced chemotaxis in M1 macrophages and changed cytokine production in M2 macrophages. Phagocytosis was not affected by S1P-signalling. Discussion. The expression of different specific S1P receptor profiles may provide a possibility to selectively influence M1- or M2-polarized macrophages. PMID:28367448

  3. Aptamer targeting EGFRvIII mutant hampers its constitutive autophosphorylation and affects migration, invasion and proliferation of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Camorani, Simona; Crescenzi, Elvira; Colecchia, David; Carpentieri, Andrea; Amoresano, Angela; Fedele, Monica; Chiariello, Mario; Cerchia, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive human brain tumor, associated with very poor survival despite surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) are hallmarks in GBM with driving roles in tumor progression. In approximately half of the tumors with amplified EGFR, the EGFRvIII truncated extracellular mutant is detected. EGFRvIII does not bind ligands, is highly oncogenic and its expression confers resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). It has been demonstrated that EGFRvIII-dependent cancers may escape targeted therapy by developing dependence on PDGFRβ signaling, thus providing a strong rationale for combination therapy aimed at blocking both EGFRvIII and PDGFRβ signaling. We have recently generated two nuclease resistant RNA aptamers, CL4 and Gint4.T, as high affinity ligands and inhibitors of the human wild-type EGFR (EGFRwt) and PDGFRβ, respectively. Herein, by different approaches, we demonstrate that CL4 aptamer binds to the EGFRvIII mutant even though it lacks most of the extracellular domain. As a consequence of binding, the aptamer inhibits EGFRvIII autophosphorylation and downstream signaling pathways, thus affecting migration, invasion and proliferation of EGFRvIII-expressing GBM cell lines. Further, we show that targeting EGFRvIII by CL4, as well as by EGFR-TKIs, erlotinib and gefitinib, causes upregulation of PDGFRβ. Importantly, CL4 and gefitinib cooperate with the anti-PDGFRβ Gint4.T aptamer in inhibiting cell proliferation. The proposed aptamer-based strategy could have impact on targeted molecular cancer therapies and may result in progresses against GBMs. PMID:26461476

  4. Sulfate migration in a river affected by acid mine drainage from the Dabaoshan mining area, South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meiqin; Lu, Guining; Guo, Chuling; Yang, Chengfang; Wu, Jingxiong; Huang, Weilin; Yee, Nathan; Dang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Sulfate, a major component of acid mine drainage (AMD), its migration in an AMD-affected river which located at the Dabaoshan mine area of South China was investigated to pursue the remediation strategy. The existing factors of relatively low pH values of 2.8-3.9, high concentrations of SO4(2-) (∼1940 mg L(-1)) and Fe(3+) (∼112 mg L(-1)) facilitated the precipitation of schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)6SO4·nH2O) in the upstream river. Geochemical model calculations implied the river waters were supersaturated, creating the potential for precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. These minerals evolved from schwertmannite to goethite with the increasing pH from 2.8 to 5.8 along the river. The concentration of heavy metals in river waters was great reduced as a result of precipitation effects. The large size of the exchangeable sulfate pool suggested that the sediments had a strong capacity to bind SO4(2-). The XRD results indicated that schwertmannite was the predominant form of sulfate-bearing mineral phases, which was likely to act as a major sulfate sink by incorporating water-borne sulfate into its internal structure and adsorbing it onto its surface. The small size of reduced sulfur pools and strong oxidative status in the surface sediments further showed that SO4(2-) shifting from water to sediment in form of sulfate reduction was not activated. In short, precipitation of sulfate-rich iron oxyhydroxides and subsequent SO4(2-) adsorption on these minerals as well as water dilution contributed to the attenuation of SO4(2-) along the river waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. C. elegans mig-6 encodes papilin isoforms that affect distinct aspects of DTC migration, and interacts genetically with mig-17 and collagen IV.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Takehiro; Zheng, Hong; Merz, David C; Kohara, Yuji; Tamai, Katsuyuki K; Nishiwaki, Kiyoji; Culotti, Joseph G

    2009-05-01

    The gonad arms of C. elegans hermaphrodites acquire invariant shapes by guided migrations of distal tip cells (DTCs), which occur in three phases that differ in the direction and basement membrane substrata used for movement. We found that mig-6 encodes long (MIG-6L) and short (MIG-6S) isoforms of the extracellular matrix protein papilin, each required for distinct aspects of DTC migration. Both MIG-6 isoforms have a predicted N-terminal papilin cassette, lagrin repeats and C-terminal Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitory domains. We show that mutations affecting MIG-6L specifically and cell-autonomously decrease the rate of post-embryonic DTC migration, mimicking a post-embryonic collagen IV deficit. We also show that MIG-6S has two separable functions - one in embryogenesis and one in the second phase of DTC migration. Genetic data suggest that MIG-6S functions in the same pathway as the MIG-17/ADAMTS metalloproteinase for guiding phase 2 DTC migrations, and MIG-17 is abnormally localized in mig-6 class-s mutants. Genetic data also suggest that MIG-6S and non-fibrillar network collagen IV play antagonistic roles to ensure normal phase 2 DTC guidance.

  6. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-05-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50% when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25% when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30%, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50%) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the use of resolution

  7. Factors affecting use of veterinarians by small-scale food animal operations.

    PubMed

    Beam, Andrea L; Thilmany, Dawn D; Garber, Lindsey P; Van Metre, David C; Pritchard, Randy W; Kopral, Christine A; Olea-Popelka, Francisco J

    2013-11-01

    To identify factors associated with use of a veterinarian by small-scale food animal operations. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. 16,000 small-scale farm or ranch operations in all 50 states. Surveys were conducted via mail or telephone during 2011 for small-scale operations (gross annual agricultural sales between $10,000 and $499,999) in which an animal or animal product comprised the highest percentage of annual sales. 8,186 (51.2%) operations responded to the survey; 7,849 surveys met the inclusion criteria. For 6,511 (83.0%) operations, beef cattle were the primary animal species. An estimated 82.1% of operations (95% confidence interval [CI], 81.1% to 83.0%) had a veterinarian available ≤ 29 miles away; 1.4% (95% CI, 1.2% to 1.7%) did not have a veterinarian available within 100 miles of the operation. Operations for which the nearest veterinarian was ≥ 100 miles away or for which a veterinarian was not available were located in 40 US states. Overall, 61.7% of operations (95% CI, 60.6% to 62.9%) had used a veterinarian during the 12 months prior to the survey. Producers with college degrees were significantly more likely to use a veterinarian (675%) versus those who did not complete high school (52.9%). Results of this study indicated most small-scale operations had adequate access to veterinarians during 2011, but there seemed to be localized shortages of veterinarians in many states.

  8. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    SciTech Connect

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  9. Migration delays caused by anthropogenic barriers: modeling dams, temperature, and success on migrating salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschall, Elizabeth A.; Mather, Martha E.; Parrish, Donna; Allison, Gary W.; McMenemy, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption to migration is a growing problem for conservation and restoration of animal populations. Anthropogenic barriers along migration paths can delay or prolong migrations, which may result in a mismatch with migration-timing adaptations. To understand the interaction of dams (as barriers along a migration path), seasonally changing environmental conditions, timing of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) downstream migration, and ultimate migration success, we used 10 years of river temperature and discharge data as a template upon which we simulated downstream movement of salmon. Atlantic salmon is a cool-water species whose downstream migrating smolts must complete migration before river temperatures become too warm. We found that dams had a local effect on survival as well as a survival effect that was spatially and temporally removed from the encounter with the dam. While smolts are delayed by dams, temperatures downstream can reach lethal or near-lethal temperatures; as a result, the match between completion of migration and the window of appropriate migration conditions can be disrupted. The strength of this spatially and temporally removed effect is at least comparable to the local effects of dams in determining smolt migration success in the presence of dams. We also considered smolts from different tributaries, varying in distance from the river mouth, to assess the potential importance of locally adapted migration timing on the effect of barriers. Migration-initiation temperature affected modeled smolt survival differentially across tributaries, with the success of smolts from upstream tributaries being much more variable across years than that of smolts with a shorter distance to travel. As a whole, these results point to the importance of broadening our spatial and temporal view when managing migrating populations. We must consider not only how many individuals never make it across migration barriers, but also the spatially and temporally removed

  10. Migration delays caused by anthropogenic barriers: Modeling dams, temperature, and success of migrating salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschall, E.A.; Mather, M. E.; Parrish, D.L.; Allison, G.W.; McMenemy, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Disruption to migration is a growing problem for conservation and restoration of animal populations. Anthropogenic barriers along migration paths can delay or prolong migrations, which may result in a mismatch with migration-timing adaptations. To understand the interaction of dams (as barriers along a migration path), seasonally changing environmental conditions, timing of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) downstream migration, and ultimate migration success, we used 10 years of river temperature and discharge data as a template upon which we simulated downstream movement of salmon. Atlantic salmon is a cool-water species whose downstream migrating smolts must complete migration before river temperatures become too warm. We found that dams had a local effect on survival as well as a survival effect that was spatially and temporally removed from the encounter with the dam. While smolts are delayed by dams, temperatures downstream can reach lethal or near-lethal temperatures;as a result, the match between completion of migration and the window of appropriate migration conditions can be disrupted. The strength of this spatially and temporally removed effect is at least comparable to the local effects of dams in determining smolt migration success in the presence of dams. We also considered smolts from different tributaries, varying in distance from the river mouth, to assess the potential importance of locally adapted migration timing on the effect of barriers. Migration-initiation temperature affected modeled smolt survival differentially across tributaries, with the success of smolts from upstream tributaries being much more variable across years than that of smolts with a shorter distance to travel. As a whole, these results point to the importance of broadening our spatial and temporal view when managing migrating populations. We must consider not only how many individuals never make it across migration barriers, but also the spatially and temporally removed

  11. Online advertisement: how are visual strategies affected by the distance and the animation of banners?

    PubMed

    Pasqualotti, Léa; Baccino, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Most of studies about online advertisements have indicated that they have a negative impact on users' cognitive processes, especially when they include colorful or animated banners and when they are close to the text to be read. In the present study we assessed the effects of two advertisements features-distance from the text and the animation-on visual strategies during a word-search task and a reading-for-comprehension task using Web-like pages. We hypothesized that the closer the advertisement was to the target text, the more cognitive processing difficulties it would cause. We also hypothesized that (1) animated banners would be more disruptive than static advertisements and (2) banners would have more effect on word-search performance than reading-for-comprehension performance. We used an automatic classifier to assess variations in use of Scanning and Reading visual strategies during task performance. The results showed that the effect of dynamic and static advertisements on visual strategies varies according to the task. Fixation duration indicated that the closest advertisements slowed down information processing but there was no difference between the intermediate (40 pixel) and far (80 pixel) distance conditions. Our findings suggest that advertisements have a negative impact on users' performance mostly when a lots of cognitive resources are required as for reading-for-comprehension.

  12. The Psycho-Neurology of Cross-Species Affective/Social Neuroscience: Understanding Animal Affective States as a Guide to Development of Novel Psychiatric Treatments.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy. Several of these systems figure heavily in social bonding. I will focus here especially on the genesis of depression. Its genesis is significantly influenced by (i) sustained overactivity of the separation-distress PANIC system reflecting severed social bonds and the excessive "psychological pain" of loneliness that can, if sustained, lead to a downward cascade known as psychological despair, and (ii) the despair phase that follows the acute PANIC response, which is characterized by abnormally low activity of the SEEKING, the so-called brain reward networks, leading to amotivational states that characterize depression. Depressive affect is promoted by such brain affective mechanisms of social attachments and social loss as well as diminished arousability of the SEEKING system, leading to chronic dysphoria. To understand why depression feels so bad, we must understand the neural mechanisms that mediate such social feelings.

  13. Expression of CD73 slows down migration of skin dendritic cells, affecting the sensitization phase of contact hypersensitivity reactions in mice.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, A; Ring, S; Silva-Vilches, C; Schrader, J; Enk, A; Mahnke, K

    2017-09-01

    Application of haptens to the skin induces release of immune stimulatory ATP into the extracellular space. This "danger" signal can be converted to immunosuppressive adenosine (ADO) by the action of the ectonucleotidases CD39 and CD73, expressed by skin and immune cells. Thus, the expression and regulation of CD73 by skin derived cells may have crucial influence on the outcome of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reactions. To investigate the role of CD73 expression during 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) induced CHS reactions. Wild type (wt) and CD73 deficient mice were subjected to TNCB induced CHS. In the different mouse strains the resulting ear swelling reaction was recorded along with a detailed phenotypic analysis of the skin migrating subsets of dendritic cells (DC). In CD73 deficient animals the motility of DC was higher as compared to wt animals and in particular after sensitization we found increased migration of Langerin(+) DC from skin to draining lymph nodes (LN). In the TNCB model this led to a stronger sensitization as indicated by increased frequency of interferon-γ producing T cells in the LN and an increased ear thickness after challenge. CD73 derived ADO production slows down migration of Langerin(+) DC from skin to LN. This may be a crucial mechanism to avoid over boarding immune reactions against haptens. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tectonics and soil edaphics as controls on animal migrations and early human inhabitance in the Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kübler, Simon; Rucina, Stephen; Reynolds, Sally; Fürgut, Felix; Bailey, Geoffrey; King, Geoffrey

    2017-04-01

    Animal movements in the tectonically active East African Rift Valley today are influenced by a combination of topography and soil nutrient distribution (soil edaphics). These patterns would have been the same in the past when hominins inhabited the area. Our study in the Kenya Rift shows that soil edaphics and active rift structures play a key role in present day animal movements as well as the for the location of early hominin sites. We carried out field analysis at Olorgesailie and Kariandusi, two key hominin sites in the southern and central Kenya Rift, respectiveley. Based on studying the relationship between the geology, tectonics and soil development we identified 'good' and 'bad' regions both in terms of edaphics and accessibility for grazing animals. We further sampled a large number of soils that developed on the volcanic bedrock and sediments of the region and interviewed the local Maasai shepherds to learn about present-day good and bad grazing sites. Ultimately, we created palaeoenvironmental and spatio-temporal reconstructions for interpreting human land use and exploitation of large mammals in the Kenya Rift for the relevant time frame of approximately 1 Ma BP. At Olorgesailie the hominin site is located in lacustrine sediments at the southern edge of a playa that extends north and northwest of Mt. Olorgesailie. The lakebeds are now tilted and eroded by motion on two north-south striking faults. The lake was trapped by volcanic flows and alluvial fans from Mt. Olorgesailie and was released by the fault motion leading to deep river incision and exposure of the site. To the west and the north steep fault scarps bound the playa forming a natural barrier for animals. Field observations and information from local shepherds suggest that the abundant trachytes at the valley floor produce poor soils whereas the soils developed on lacustrine and alluvial sediments close to the hominin site provide much more attractive grazing sites for present-day animals

  15. Electro-migration of heavy metals in an aged electroplating contaminated soil affected by the coexisting hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Zhuang, Luwen; Tong, Lizhi; Lo, Irene M C; Qiu, Rongliang

    2012-02-01

    Cr(VI) was often reported to oxidize soil organic matter at acidic environments due to its high ORP, probably thus changing cationic metal species bound to soil organic matter, and influencing their electro-migration patterns. However, such an effect on the electro-migration was not confirmed in most previous studies. Therefore, this study applied a fixed voltage direct current field on an aged electroplating contaminated clayed soil, with a special interest in the direct or indirect influence of Cr(VI) on the electro-migration of other coexisting metals. After 353 h electrokinetic process, 81% of Zn, 53% of Ni and 22% of Cu in the original soil were electro-migrated into the electrolyte, and most of the remaining concentrated near the cathode. The Cr(VI) oxidized some soil organic matter along its migration pathway, with a pronounced reaction occurred near the anode at low pHs. The resulting Cr(III) reversed its original movement, and migrated towards the cathode, leading to the occurrence of a second Cr concentration peak in the soil. Metal species analyses showed that the amount of metals bound to soil organic matter significantly decreased, while a substantial increase in the Cr species bound to Fe/Mn (hydro-)oxides was observed, suggesting an enhancement of cationic metal electro-migration by the reduction of Cr(VI) into Cr(III). However, the Cr(VI) may form some stable lead chromate precipitates, and in turn demobilize Pb in the soil, as the results showed a low Pb removal and an increase in its acid-extractable and residual fractions after electrokinetic remediation.

  16. Factors Associated with Migration in Individuals Affected by Leprosy, Maranhão, Brazil: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Murto, C.; Kaplan, C.; Ariza, L.; Schwarz, K.; Alencar, C. H.; da Costa, L. M. M.; Heukelbach, J.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is endemic and concentrated in high-risk clusters. Internal migration is common in the country and may influence leprosy transmission and hamper control efforts. We performed a cross-sectional study with two separate analyses evaluating factors associated with migration in Brazil's Northeast: one among individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and the other among a clinically unapparent population with no symptoms of leprosy for comparison. We included 394 individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and 391 from the clinically unapparent population. Of those with leprosy, 258 (65.5%) were birth migrants, 105 (26.6%) were past five-year migrants, and 43 (10.9%) were circular migrants. In multivariate logistic regression, three independent factors were found to be significantly associated with migration among those with leprosy: (1) alcohol consumption, (2) separation from family/friends, and (3) difficulty reaching the healthcare facility. Separation from family/friends was also associated with migration in the clinically unapparent population. The health sector may consider adapting services to meet the needs of migrating populations. Future research is needed to explore risks associated with leprosy susceptibility from life stressors, such as separation from family and friends, access to healthcare facilities, and alcohol consumption to establish causal relationships. PMID:24194769

  17. Poliovirus Receptor-Related 2: A Cholesterol-Responsive Gene Affecting Atherosclerosis Development by Modulating Leukocyte Migration.

    PubMed

    Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Shang, Ming-Mei; Gladh, Hanna; Moessinger, Christine; Foroughi Asl, Hassan; Talukdar, Husain Ahammad; Franzén, Oscar; Mueller, Steffen; Björkegren, Johan L M; Folestad, Erika; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2017-03-01

    Recently, poliovirus receptor-related 2 (Pvrl2) emerged as a top gene in a global gene expression study aiming to detect plasma cholesterol-responsive genes causally related to atherosclerosis regression in hypercholesterolemic mice. PVRL2 is an adherens junction protein implied to play a role in transendothelial migration of leukocytes, a key feature in atherosclerosis development. In this study, we investigated the effect of Pvrl2 deficiency on atherosclerosis development and transendothelial migration of leukocytes activity. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Pvrl2-deficient mice bred onto an atherosclerosis-prone background (Pvrl2(-/-)Ldlr(-/-)Apob(100/100)) had less atherosclerotic lesions and more stable plaques compared with littermate controls (Pvrl2(+/+)Ldlr(-/-)Apob(100/100)). Pvrl2(-/-)Ldlr(-/-)Apob(100/100) mice also showed a 49% decrease in transendothelial migration of leukocytes activity observed using the in vivo air pouch model. In accordance, augmented arterial wall expression of Pvrl2 during atherosclerosis progression coincided with an increased gene expression of migrating leukocytes into the vessel wall. Both in human and mice, gene and protein expression of PVRL2 was predominantly observed in the vascular endothelium according to the immunohistochemical and gene expression data. In addition, the cholesterol responsiveness of PVRL2 was also observed in humans. PVRL2 is a plasma cholesterol-responsive gene acting at endothelial sites of vascular inflammation that could potentially be a new therapeutic target for atherosclerosis prevention through its suggested transendothelial migration of leukocytes modulating activity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Sildenafil Can Affect Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Both Experimental Animals and Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boguska, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Sildenafil, a type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDE5-I), is primarily used for treating erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil inhibits the degradation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by competing with cGMP for binding site of PDE5. cGMP is a secondary messenger activating protein kinases and a common regulator of ion channel conductance, glycogenolysis, and cellular apoptosis. PDE5 inhibitors (PDE-Is) found application in cardiology, nephrology, urology, dermatology, oncology, and gynecology. Positive result of sildenafil treatment is closely connected with its immunomodulatory effects. Sildenafil influences angiogenesis, platelet activation, proliferation of regulatory T cells, and production of proinflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies. Sildenafil action in humans and animals appears to be different. Surprisingly, it also acts differently in males and females organisms. Although the immunomodulatory effects of PDE5 inhibitors appear to be promising, none of them reached the point of being tested in clinical trials. Data on the influence of selective PDE5-Is on the human immune system are limited. The main objective of this review is to discuss the immunomodulatory effects of sildenafil in both patients and experimental animals. This is the first review of the current state of knowledge about the effects of sildenafil on the immune system. PMID:28316997

  19. Online advertisement: how are visual strategies affected by the distance and the animation of banners?

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualotti, Léa; Baccino, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Most of studies about online advertisements have indicated that they have a negative impact on users' cognitive processes, especially when they include colorful or animated banners and when they are close to the text to be read. In the present study we assessed the effects of two advertisements features—distance from the text and the animation—on visual strategies during a word-search task and a reading-for-comprehension task using Web-like pages. We hypothesized that the closer the advertisement was to the target text, the more cognitive processing difficulties it would cause. We also hypothesized that (1) animated banners would be more disruptive than static advertisements and (2) banners would have more effect on word-search performance than reading-for-comprehension performance. We used an automatic classifier to assess variations in use of Scanning and Reading visual strategies during task performance. The results showed that the effect of dynamic and static advertisements on visual strategies varies according to the task. Fixation duration indicated that the closest advertisements slowed down information processing but there was no difference between the intermediate (40 pixel) and far (80 pixel) distance conditions. Our findings suggest that advertisements have a negative impact on users' performance mostly when a lots of cognitive resources are required as for reading-for-comprehension. PMID:24672501

  20. Activity affects intraspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Douglas Stewart

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass (M) to the 3/4 power. However, the metabolic scaling exponent (b) may vary with activity state, as has been shown chiefly for interspecific relationships. Here I use a meta-analysis of literature data to test whether b changes with activity level within species of ectothermic animals. Data for 19 species show that b is usually higher during active exercise (mean +/- 95% confidence limits = 0.918 +/- 0.038) than during rest (0.768 +/- 0.069). This significant upward shift in b to near 1 is consistent with the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, which predicts that maximal metabolic rate during exercise should be chiefly influenced by volume-related muscular power production (scaling as M (1)). This dependence of b on activity level does not appear to be a simple temperature effect because body temperature in ectotherms changes very little during exercise.

  1. Vocal performance affects metabolic rate in dolphins: implications for animals communicating in noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Dunkin, Robin C; Williams, Terrie M

    2015-06-01

    Many animals produce louder, longer or more repetitious vocalizations to compensate for increases in environmental noise. Biological costs of increased vocal effort in response to noise, including energetic costs, remain empirically undefined in many taxa, particularly in marine mammals that rely on sound for fundamental biological functions in increasingly noisy habitats. For this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in vocal effort would result in an energetic cost to the signaler by experimentally measuring oxygen consumption during rest and a 2 min vocal period in dolphins that were trained to vary vocal loudness across trials. Vocal effort was quantified as the total acoustic energy of sounds produced. Metabolic rates during the vocal period were, on average, 1.2 and 1.5 times resting metabolic rate (RMR) in dolphin A and B, respectively. As vocal effort increased, we found that there was a significant increase in metabolic rate over RMR during the 2 min following sound production in both dolphins, and in total oxygen consumption (metabolic cost of sound production plus recovery costs) in the dolphin that showed a wider range of vocal effort across trials. Increases in vocal effort, as a consequence of increases in vocal amplitude, repetition rate and/or duration, are consistent with behavioral responses to noise in free-ranging animals. Here, we empirically demonstrate for the first time in a marine mammal, that these vocal modifications can have an energetic impact at the individual level and, importantly, these data provide a mechanistic foundation for evaluating biological consequences of vocal modification in noise-polluted habitats.

  2. Scientific literature on infectious diseases affecting livestock animals, longitudinal worldwide bibliometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Christian; Gautret, Marjolaine; Pineau, Thierry; Jestin, André

    2016-03-14

    The objectives of this bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature were to describe the research subjects and the international collaborations in the field of research on infectious diseases in livestock animals including fishes and honeybees. It was based on articles published worldwide from 2006 through 2013. The source of data was the Web of Science, Core collection(®) and only papers fully written in English were considered. Queries were built that combined 130 descriptors related to animal species and 1213 descriptors related to diseases and pathogens. To refine and assess the accuracy of the extracted database, supplementary filters were applied to discard non-specific terms and neighbouring topics, and numerous tests were carried out on samples. For pathogens, annotation was done using a thematic terminology established to link each disease with its corresponding pathogen, which was in turn classified according to its family. A total of 62,754 articles were published in this field during this 8-year period. The average annual growth rate of the number of papers was 5%. This represents the reference data to which we compared the average annual growth rate of articles produced in each of the sub-categories that we defined. Thirty-seven percent of the papers were dedicated to ruminant diseases. Poultry, pigs and fishes were covered by respectively 21, 13 and 14% of the total. Thirty-seven percent of papers concerned bacteria, 33% viruses, 19% parasites, 2% prions, the remaining being multi-pathogens. Research on virology, especially on pigs and poultry, is increasing faster than the average. There also is increasing interest in monogastric species, fish and bees. The average annual growth rate for Asia was 10%, which is high compared to 3% for Europe and 2% for the Americas, indicating that Asia is currently playing a leading role in this field. There is a well established network of international collaborations. For 75% of the papers, the co

  3. Do audible and ultrasonic sounds of intensities common in animal facilities affect the autonomic nervous system of rodents?

    PubMed

    Burwell, Anora K; Baldwin, Ann L

    2006-01-01

    In animal facilities, noises, often poorly controlled, occur over a wide range of frequencies and intensities. Evidence demonstrates that audible noise and ultrasound have deleterious effects on rodent physiology, but it is not known how they affect the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This study exposed 3 unrestrained, male, Sprague-Dawley rats daily to a 15-min white noise regime (90 dB), a quiet regime, or a 15-min ultrasound regime (90 dB at 4 frequencies in the range 20 to 40 kHz)--each for several weeks--and used radiotelemetry to monitor their cardiovascular responses. Exposure to audible noise increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure. Spectral analysis of HR variability showed diminished stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system, shifting the sympathovagal balance. However, ultrasound, at the frequencies used, did not reproducibly affect cardiovascular parameters. The preliminary data obtained from this study indicate that audible noise, but not ultrasound (delivered using the same protocol), affects the ANS. Because the cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and gastrointestinal systems are under autonomic control, such noise could have wide-ranging effects on animal physiology.

  4. Animal Slurry Acidification Affects Particle Size Distribution and Improves Separation Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, I; Pociask, M; Coutinho, J; Fangueiro, D

    2016-05-01

    Solid-liquid separation is performed to improve slurry management, and acidification of the slurry is used to reduce ammonia emissions. Acidification is known to affect slurry characteristics, and we hypothesized that it may affect mechanical separation. Our objective in this study was to assess the effects of slurry acidification on particle size distribution and separation efficiency. Two types of slurry, aged pig and fresh dairy, and two different acidification additives, sulfuric acid and aluminum sulfate (alum), were studied. We found that acidification with sulfuric acid promoted phosphorus (P) solubilization for both slurries, but no change was observed with alum. More ammonium was found in the acidified dairy slurry compared with raw dairy slurry, but no difference was found in aged pig slurry. Acidification before separation increased the proportion of the solid fraction in the slurries, and the effect was significantly higher with alum. When alum was used to acidify the slurries, the proportion of particles larger than 100 μm increased significantly, as did the P concentration in this particle size range. The efficiency of P separation increased markedly in both slurries when alum was used, with the removal to the solid fraction of the dairy slurry being almost complete (90%). Because the priority in mechanical separation is to increase the P content in the solid fraction, the use of alum before centrifugation may be the most suitable option for enhancing its nutrient content. We conclude that separation efficiency and particle size distribution are significantly affected by acidification, but the extent of the effects depends on slurry type and on the type of additive used for acidification. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Animal-assisted interventions for elderly patients affected by dementia or psychiatric disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Bernabei, V; De Ronchi, D; La Ferla, T; Moretti, F; Tonelli, L; Ferrari, B; Forlani, M; Atti, A R

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this literature review was to assess the effects of Animal-Assisted Interventions (AAI) on elderly patients with dementia or various psychiatric disorders. We conducted a comprehensive literature search using the online PubMed network of the US National Library of Medicine & National Institutes of Health, Embase, PsycINFO, with the purpose of investigating AAI effects on cognitive functions, mood, and behaviour. A total of 18 articles on dementia and 5 on psychiatric disorders were included in the present review. AAI were found to have positive influences on demented patients by reducing degree of agitation and by improving degree and quality of social interaction. Few studies have assessed the effects of AAI on mood, and even fewer have assessed its consequences on cognitive functions. The results that are available indicate a positive effect on communication and coping ability, but none on cognitive performance. A substitute pet robot yielded encouraging results, but its use requires further investigation. The few studies conducted for elderly patients presenting a variety of psychiatric diagnoses produced controversial findings. In spite of the encouraging results of AAI, much more research examining the issue of optimal AAI duration, frequency of sessions, and suitable target group is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulation of Intertidal Microphytobenthos Photosynthesis Over a Diel Emersion Period Is Strongly Affected by Diatom Migration Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Cartaxana, Paulo; Cruz, Sónia; Gameiro, Carla; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Changes in biomass and photosynthesis of a diatom-dominated microphytobenthos (MPB) intertidal community were studied over a diel emersion period using a combination of O2 and scalar irradiance microprofiling, variable chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, and pigment analysis. The MPB biomass in the photic zone (0–0.5 mm) of the sediment exposed to low irradiance (150 μmol photons m-2 s-1) showed a >2-fold increase during the first hours of the emersion period, reaching >0.2 mg Chl a cm-3. Concentrations of Chl a started to decrease half-way through the emersion period, almost 2 h before tidal inundation. Similarly, O2 concentrations and volumetric gross photosynthesis in the photic zone increased during the first half of the emersion period and then decreased toward the timing of incoming tide/darkness. The results suggest that intertidal MPB community-level photosynthesis is mainly controlled by changes in the productive biomass of the photic zone determined by cell migration. A diel pattern in the photosynthesis vs. irradiance parameters α (photosynthetic efficiency at limiting irradiance) and ETRmax (photosynthetic capacity at saturating irradiance) was also observed, suggesting photoacclimation of MPB. Under high light exposure (2000 μmol photons m-2 s-1), lower α, ETRmax and sediment O2 concentrations were observed when cell migration was inhibited with the diatom motility inhibitor latrunculin A (Lat A), showing that migration is also used by MPB to maximize photosynthesis by reducing exposure to potentially photoinhibitory light levels. A higher de-epoxidation state in sediment treated with Lat A indicates that the involvement of the xanthophyll cycle in physiological photoprotection is more relevant in MPB when cells are inhibited from migrating. In the studied diatom-dominated MPB intertidal community, cell migration seems to be the key factor regulating photosynthesis over a diel emersion period and upon changes in light exposure. PMID:27375593

  7. Regulation of Intertidal Microphytobenthos Photosynthesis Over a Diel Emersion Period Is Strongly Affected by Diatom Migration Patterns.

    PubMed

    Cartaxana, Paulo; Cruz, Sónia; Gameiro, Carla; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Changes in biomass and photosynthesis of a diatom-dominated microphytobenthos (MPB) intertidal community were studied over a diel emersion period using a combination of O2 and scalar irradiance microprofiling, variable chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, and pigment analysis. The MPB biomass in the photic zone (0-0.5 mm) of the sediment exposed to low irradiance (150 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) showed a >2-fold increase during the first hours of the emersion period, reaching >0.2 mg Chl a cm(-3). Concentrations of Chl a started to decrease half-way through the emersion period, almost 2 h before tidal inundation. Similarly, O2 concentrations and volumetric gross photosynthesis in the photic zone increased during the first half of the emersion period and then decreased toward the timing of incoming tide/darkness. The results suggest that intertidal MPB community-level photosynthesis is mainly controlled by changes in the productive biomass of the photic zone determined by cell migration. A diel pattern in the photosynthesis vs. irradiance parameters α (photosynthetic efficiency at limiting irradiance) and ETR max (photosynthetic capacity at saturating irradiance) was also observed, suggesting photoacclimation of MPB. Under high light exposure (2000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)), lower α, ETR max and sediment O2 concentrations were observed when cell migration was inhibited with the diatom motility inhibitor latrunculin A (Lat A), showing that migration is also used by MPB to maximize photosynthesis by reducing exposure to potentially photoinhibitory light levels. A higher de-epoxidation state in sediment treated with Lat A indicates that the involvement of the xanthophyll cycle in physiological photoprotection is more relevant in MPB when cells are inhibited from migrating. In the studied diatom-dominated MPB intertidal community, cell migration seems to be the key factor regulating photosynthesis over a diel emersion period and upon changes in light exposure.

  8. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context. PMID:27563374

  9. Oxidative Stress Implications in the Affective Disorders: Main Biomarkers, Animal Models Relevance, Genetic Perspectives, and Antioxidant Approaches.

    PubMed

    Balmus, Ioana Miruna; Ciobica, Alin; Antioch, Iulia; Dobrin, Romeo; Timofte, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the affective disorders and the almost ubiquitous pathological oxidative stress can be described in a multifactorial way, as an important mechanism of central nervous system impairment. Whether the obvious changes which occur in oxidative balance of the affective disorders are a part of the constitutive mechanism or a collateral effect yet remains as an interesting question. However it is now clear that oxidative stress is a component of these disorders, being characterized by different aspects in a disease-dependent manner. Still, there are a lot of controversies regarding the relevance of the oxidative stress status in most of the affective disorders and despite the fact that most of the studies are showing that the affective disorders development can be correlated to increased oxidative levels, there are various studies stating that oxidative stress is not linked with the mood changing tendencies. Thus, in this minireview we decided to describe the way in which oxidative stress is involved in the affective disorders development, by focusing on the main oxidative stress markers that could be used mechanistically and therapeutically in these deficiencies, the genetic perspectives, some antioxidant approaches, and the relevance of some animal models studies in this context.

  10. Ovum pick-up in dairy heifers: does it affect animal well-being?

    PubMed

    Petyim, S; Båge, R; Madej, A; Larsson, B

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the ovum pick-up (OPU) technique on animal well-being. Eight dairy heifers were subjected to 4 months of twice-weekly OPU. The physiological response to OPU was recorded in four heifers at two sessions, at the beginning (time 1) and at the end (time 2) of the 4-month period. Heart rates were measured and blood was analysed for cortisol, vasopressin and PG-metabolite before, during (every 5 and 2(1/2) min), and after the OPU sessions. Reactions to each subprocedure of OPU ('restraint', 'epidural', 'device in' and 'puncture') were closely observed. In all heifers, reactions to the OPU procedures were also noted throughout the experimental period, and changes in routine behaviour, oestrous behaviour, body temperature, or other clinical traits were recorded. Subsequent to the experiment, the ovaries and tails were carefully inspected. At time 1, there was an insignificant increase in heart rate and cortisol throughout the OPU procedure. At time 2, these two parameters increased significantly, but both parameters declined to pre-OPU levels 10 min after completion of the procedure. No significant changes were seen in vasopressin or PG-metabolite at time 1 and time 2. Behaviourally, the heifers showed the strongest response to epidural anaesthesia, with a tendency for more intense response during the late 4-month sessions. The response to 'device in' and 'puncture' varied among individuals independently of time. There were no changes in the routine or oestrous behaviour throughout the experiment and no signs of clinical disorders. No major pathological changes were macroscopically seen in the ovaries and tails subsequent to the 4 months of OPU. In conclusion, the heifers showed a response to OPU, mostly to administration of epidural anaesthesia. However, we demonstrated that epidural anaesthesia can be administered in a way causing less discomfort.

  11. Epithelial MUC1 promotes cell migration, reduces apoptosis and affects levels of mucosal modulators during acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)-induced gastropathy.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debashish; Fernandez, Harvey Robert; Patil, Pradeep Bhatu; Premaratne, Pushpa; Quiding-Järbrink, Marianne; Lindén, Sara Katarina

    2015-02-01

    MUC1 is a transmembrane mucin highly expressed in the stomach. Although extensive research has uncovered many of its roles in cancer, knowledge about the functions of MUC1 in normal tissues is limited. In the present study, we showed that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; aspirin) up-regulated MUC1/Muc1 expression in the gastric mucosa of humans and wild-type (WT) mice. ASA induced mucosal injury in all mice to a similar extent; however, WT animals and those chimaeras with Muc1 on the epithelia recovered faster than Muc1-knockout (KO) mice and chimaeras carrying Muc1 on haemopoietic but not epithelial cells. MUC1 enhanced proliferation and migration of the human gastric cell line MKN-7 and increased resistance to apoptosis. The repeated treatment regime used caused a reduction in cyclo-oxygenase-1 (Cox-1) expression, though WT animals returned faster towards pre-treatment levels and had increased Cox-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels during recovery. Thus we found that epithelial Muc1 is more important for the healing process than haemopoietic Muc1 and Muc1/MUC1 facilitates wound healing by enhancing cell migration and proliferation, protecting against apoptosis and mediating expression of mucosal modulators. Thus MUC1 plays essential roles during wound healing and development of treatment modalities targeting enhanced expression of MUC1 may be beneficial to treat mucosal wounds.

  12. The overexpression of SOX2 affects the migration of human teratocarcinoma cell line NT2/D1.

    PubMed

    Drakulic, Danijela; Vicentic, Jelena Marjanovic; Schwirtlich, Marija; Tosic, Jelena; Krstic, Aleksandar; Klajn, Andrijana; Stevanovic, Milena

    2015-03-01

    The altered expression of the SOX2 transcription factor is associated with oncogenic or tumor suppressor functions in human cancers. This factor regulates the migration and invasion of different cancer cells. In this study we investigated the effect of constitutive SOX2 overexpression on the migration and adhesion capacity of embryonal teratocarcinoma NT2/D1 cells derived from a metastasis of a human testicular germ cell tumor. We detected that increased SOX2 expression changed the speed, mode and path of cell migration, but not the adhesion ability of NT2/D1 cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that SOX2 overexpression increased the expression of the tumor suppressor protein p53 and the HDM2 oncogene. Our results contribute to the better understanding of the effect of SOX2 on the behavior of tumor cells originating from a human testicular germ cell tumor. Considering that NT2/D1 cells resemble cancer stem cells in many features, our results could contribute to the elucidation of the role of SOX2 in cancer stem cells behavior and the process of metastasis.

  13. MicroRNA-124-3p affects proliferation, migration and apoptosis of bladder cancer cells through targeting AURKA.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qiuyue; Sun, Tingge; Ye, Feng; Kong, Weisheng; Jin, Haofan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between miR-124-3p and Aurora A kinase (AURKA) in bladder cancer (BC). The expressions of miR-124-3p and AURKA in BC tissues and cell lines were detected using RT-PCR and western blot. BC cells were transfected with miR-124-3p mimics and AURKA siRNA. After this cell proliferation, migration, cell cycle and apoptosis were measured using CCK-8, colony formation assay, wound healing assay and cytometry tests. The relationship between miR-124-3p and AURKA was confirmed with luciferase reporter assay. Mice xenograft models were constructed to examine the effects of AURKA on BC in vivo. MiR-124-3p expression was significantly down-regulated in BC tissues and cell lines, while AURKA was significantly up-regulated compared to normal samples. MiR-124-3p targeted AURKA and decreased its expression. Transfection of miR-124-3p mimics and AURKA siRNA was shown to down-regulate BC cell proliferation and migration as well as induce cell apoptosis. As suggested by xenograft models, the inhibition of AURKA can effectively suppress tumor growth. MiR-124-3p has significant impact on proliferation, migration and apoptosis of BC cells by targeting AURKA.

  14. Setting apart the affected: the use of behavioral criteria in animal models of post traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Hagit; Zohar, Joseph; Matar, Michael A; Zeev, Kaplan; Loewenthal, Uri; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2004-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects about 20-30% of exposed individuals. Clinical studies of PTSD generally employ stringent criteria for inclusion in study populations, and yet in animal studies the data collection and analysis are generally expressed as a function of exposed vs nonexposed populations, regardless of individual variation in response. Prior data support an approach to animal models analogous to inclusion criteria in clinical studies. This series of studies sought to assess prevalence rates of maladaptive vs adaptive responses determined according to a more stringent approach to the concept of inclusion/exclusion criteria (cutoff behavioral criteria-CBC), consisting of two successive behavioral tests (elevated plus maze and acoustic startle response tests). The rats were exposed to stressors in two different paradigms; exposure to a predator and underwater trauma. The prevalence rates of maladaptive responses to stress in these two distinct models dropped over time from 90% in the acute phase to 25% enduring/maladaptive response at 7 days, to remain constant over 30 days. As setting the affected individuals apart from the unaffected approximates clinical studies, it might also help to clarify some of the pending issues in PTSD research.

  15. Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Bartel, Rebecca A; Oberhauser, Karen S; De Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia M

    2011-02-01

    Seasonal migration occurs in many animal systems and is likely to influence interactions between animals and their parasites. Here, we focus on monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) and a protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha) to investigate how host migration affects infectious disease processes. Previous work showed that parasite prevalence was lower among migratory than nonmigratory monarch populations; two explanations for this pattern are that (1) migration allows animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats (i.e., migratory escape), and (2) long-distance migration weeds out infected animals (i.e., migratory culling). We combined field-sampling and analysis of citizen science data to examine spatiotemporal trends of parasite prevalence and evaluate evidence for these two mechanisms. Analysis of within-breeding-season variation in eastern North America showed that parasite prevalence increased from early to late in the breeding season, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory escape. Prevalence was also positively related to monarch breeding activity, as indexed by larval density. Among adult monarchs captured at different points along the east coast fall migratory flyway, parasite prevalence declined as monarchs progressed southward, consistent with the hypothesis of migratory culling. Parasite prevalence was also lower among monarchs sampled at two overwintering sites in Mexico than among monarchs sampled during the summer breeding period. Collectively, these results indicate that seasonal migration can affect parasite transmission in wild animal populations, with implications for predicting disease risks for species with threatened migrations.

  16. Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases Regulate the Development of Hilar Mossy Cells by Affecting the Migration of Their Precursors to the Hilus

    PubMed Central

    Pennucci, Roberta; Tavano, Stefania; Tonoli, Diletta; Gualdoni, Sara; de Curtis, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that double deletion of the genes for Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases during neuronal development affects late developmental events that perturb the circuitry of the hippocampus, with ensuing epileptic phenotype. These effects include a defect in mossy cells, the major class of excitatory neurons of the hilus. Here, we have addressed the mechanisms that affect the loss of hilar mossy cells in the dorsal hippocampus of mice depleted of the two Rac GTPases. Quantification showed that the loss of mossy cells was evident already at postnatal day 8, soon after these cells become identifiable by a specific marker in the dorsal hilus. Comparative analysis of the hilar region from control and double mutant mice revealed that synaptogenesis was affected in the double mutants, with strongly reduced presynaptic input from dentate granule cells. We found that apoptosis was equally low in the hippocampus of both control and double knockout mice. Labelling with bromodeoxyuridine at embryonic day 12.5 showed no evident difference in the proliferation of neuronal precursors in the hippocampal primordium, while differences in the number of bromodeoxyuridine-labelled cells in the developing hilus revealed a defect in the migration of immature, developing mossy cells in the brain of double knockout mice. Overall, our data show that Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases participate in the normal development of hilar mossy cells, and indicate that they are involved in the regulation of the migration of the mossy cell precursor by preventing their arrival to the dorsal hilus. PMID:21949760

  17. Differential impact of a complex environment on positive affect in an animal model of individual differences in emotionality.

    PubMed

    Perez-Sepulveda, J A; Flagel, S B; Garcia-Fuster, M J; Slusky, R J; Aldridge, J W; Watson, S; Akil, H

    2013-09-17

    Anhedonia, or the inability to experience positive feelings is a hallmark of depression. However, few animal models have relied on decreased positive affect as an index of susceptibility to depression. Rats emit frequency-modulated ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), designated as "positive" calls in the 50-kHz range. USVs have been associated with pharmacological activation of motivational reward circuits. Here we utilized selectively-bred rats differing in "emotionality" to ask whether there are associated differences in USVs. Rats bred based on locomotor response to novelty and classified as bred High Responders (bHRs) or bred Low Responders (bLRs) exhibit inborn differences in response to environmental cues, stress responsiveness, and depression-like behavior. These animals also exhibit differences in anxiety-like behavior, which are reversed by exposure to environmental complexity (EC). Finally, these animals exhibit unique profiles of responsiveness to rewarding stimuli accompanied with distinct patterns of dopamine regulation. We investigated whether acute and chronic environmental manipulations impacted USVs in bHRs and bLRs. We found that, relative to bLRs, bHRs emitted significantly more 50-kHz USVs. However, if a bLR is accompanied by another bLR, there is a significant increase in 50-kHZ USVs emitted by this phenotype. bHRs emitted increases in 50-kHZ UVSs upon first exposure to EC, whereas bLRs showed a similar increase only after repeated exposure. bLRs' increase in positive affect after chronic EC was coupled with significant positive correlations between corticosterone levels and c-fos mRNA in the accumbens. Conversely, a decline in the rate of positive calls in bHRs after chronic EC was associated with a negative correlation between corticosterone and accumbens c-fos mRNA. These studies demonstrate that inborn differences in emotionality interact with the environment to influence positive affect and underscore the potential interaction between

  18. The Lnc RNA SPRY4-IT1 Modulates Trophoblast Cell Invasion and Migration by Affecting the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Qing; Huang, Shiyun; Zou, Yanfen; Xu, Yetao; Jiang, Ziyan; Zou, Shan; Xu, Haoqing; Sun, Lizhou

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a common, pregnancy-specific disease and a major contributor to maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Some placental abnormalities, including deficient implantation, abnormal trophoblast cell function, and improper placental vascular development, are believed to lead to preeclampsia. The long noncoding RNA SPRY4-IT1 is more highly expressed in preeclamptic human placentas than in normal placentas. We assessed the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-associated invasion and migration in HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells. Overexpression of SPRY4-IT1 suppressed trophoblast cell migration and invasion, whereas reduced expression of SPRY4-IT1 prevented the EMT process. Mechanistically, an RNA immunoprecipitation experiment showed that SPRY4-IT1 bound directly to HuR and mediated the β-catenin expression associated with EMT in HTR-8/SVneo cells. Moreover, the expression levels of genes in the WNT family, such as WNT3 and WNT5B, were changed after transfection of HTR-8/SVneo with SPRY4-IT1. Together, our results highlight the roles of SPRY4-IT1 in causing trophoblast cell dysfunction by acting through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and consequently in impairing spiral artery remodelling. These results suggest a new potential therapeutic target for intervention against preeclampsia. PMID:27853262

  19. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests.

  20. The chemokine receptor antagonist, TAK-779, decreased experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by reducing inflammatory cell migration into the central nervous system, without affecting T cell function.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jia; Zhu, Yi-Na; Zhong, Xiang-Gen; Ding, Yu; Hou, Li-Fei; Tong, Xian-Kun; Tang, Wei; Ono, Shiro; Yang, Yi-Fu; Zuo, Jian-Ping

    2009-12-01

    The C-C chemokine receptor CCR5, and the C-X-C chemokine receptor CXCR3 are involved in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses, and in the migration and activation of these cells. To determine whether blockade of these chemokine receptors modulated inflammatory responses in the central nervous sytem (CNS), we investigated the effect of a non-peptide chemokine receptor antagonist, TAK-779, in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by immunization of C57BL/6 mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55. TAK-779 was injected s.c. once a day after immunization. Disease incidence and severity (over 3 weeks) were monitored by histopathological evaluation and FACS assay of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, polymerase chain reaction quantification of mRNA expression, assay of T cell proliferation, by [3H]-thymidine incorporation and cytokine production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with TAK-779 reduced incidence and severity of EAE. It strongly inhibited migration of CXCR3/CCR5 bearing CD4+, CD8+ and CD11b+ leukocytes to the CNS. TAK-779 did not reduce proliferation of anti-MOG T cells, the production of IFN-gamma by T cells or CXCR3 expression on T cells. In addition, TAK-779 did not affect production of IL-12 by antigen-presenting cells, CCR5 induction on T cells and the potential of MOG-specific T cells to transfer EAE. TAK-779 restricted the development of MOG-induced EAE. This effect involved reduced migration of inflammatory cells into the CNS without affecting responses of anti-MOG T cells or the ability of MOG-specific T cells to transfer EAE.

  1. The chemokine receptor antagonist, TAK-779, decreased experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by reducing inflammatory cell migration into the central nervous system, without affecting T cell function

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jia; Zhu, Yi-Na; Zhong, Xiang-Gen; Ding, Yu; Hou, Li-Fei; Tong, Xian-Kun; Tang, Wei; Ono, Shiro; Yang, Yi-Fu; Zuo, Jian-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The C–C chemokine receptor CCR5, and the C–X–C chemokine receptor CXCR3 are involved in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses, and in the migration and activation of these cells. To determine whether blockade of these chemokine receptors modulated inflammatory responses in the central nervous sytem (CNS), we investigated the effect of a non-peptide chemokine receptor antagonist, TAK-779, in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Experimental approach: EAE was induced by immunization of C57BL/6 mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35–55. TAK-779 was injected s.c. once a day after immunization. Disease incidence and severity (over 3 weeks) were monitored by histopathological evaluation and FACS assay of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, polymerase chain reaction quantification of mRNA expression, assay of T cell proliferation, by [3H]-thymidine incorporation and cytokine production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Key results: Treatment with TAK-779 reduced incidence and severity of EAE. It strongly inhibited migration of CXCR3/CCR5 bearing CD4+, CD8+ and CD11b+ leukocytes to the CNS. TAK-779 did not reduce proliferation of anti-MOG T cells, the production of IFN-γ by T cells or CXCR3 expression on T cells. In addition, TAK-779 did not affect production of IL-12 by antigen-presenting cells, CCR5 induction on T cells and the potential of MOG-specific T cells to transfer EAE. Conclusions and implications: TAK-779 restricted the development of MOG-induced EAE. This effect involved reduced migration of inflammatory cells into the CNS without affecting responses of anti-MOG T cells or the ability of MOG-specific T cells to transfer EAE. PMID:20050195

  2. Analyzing bat migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cryan, Paul M.; Diehl, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    T HE MIGRATORY MOVEIvl.ENTS OF BATS have proven ex­ tremely difficult to determine. Despite extensive efforts during the past century to track the movements of bats across landscapes, efficient methods of following small- to medium-size volant animals <240 gl for extended periods (>8 weeks) over long distances (>100 km) have not been developed. Important questions about bat migration remain unanswered: Which bats migrate? Where do they go? How far do they move? How high and fast do they fly? What are their habitat needs during migration? How do bats orient and navigate during migration? Addressing these apparently simple questions will be a considerable challenge to anyone interested in advancing the study of bat migration. In this chapter, we present direct and indirect methods used to study bat migration as well as techniques that have worked for studying bird migration that could feasibly be adapted to the study of bats.

  3. The Affective Core of the Self: A Neuro-Archetypical Perspective on the Foundations of Human (and Animal) Subjectivity

    PubMed Central

    Alcaro, Antonio; Carta, Stefano; Panksepp, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    Psychologists usually considered the “Self” as an object of experience appearing when the individual perceives its existence within the conscious field. In accordance with such a view, the self-representing capacity of the human mind has been related to corticolimbic learning processes taking place within individual development. On the other hand, Carl Gustav Jung considered the Self as the core of our personality, in its conscious and unconscious aspects, as well as in its actual and potential forms. According to Jung, the Self originates from an inborn dynamic structure integrating the essential drives of our “brain–mind,” and leading both to instinctual behavioral actions and to archetypal psychological experiences. Interestingly, recent neuroethological studies indicate that our subjective identity rests on ancient neuropsychic processes that humans share with other animals as part of their inborn constitutional repertoire. Indeed, brain activity within subcortical midline structures (SCMSs) is intrinsically related to the emergence of prototypical affective states, that not only influence our behavior in a flexible way, but alter our conscious field, giving rise to specific feelings or moods, which constitute the first form of self-orientation in the world. Moreover, such affective dynamics play a central role in the organization of individual personality and in the evolution of all other (more sophisticated) psychological functions. Therefore, on the base of the convergence between contemporary cutting-edge scientific research and some psychological intuitions of Jung, we intend here to explore the first neuroevolutional layer of human mind, that we call the affective core of the Self. PMID:28919868

  4. JWA loss promotes cell migration and cytoskeletal rearrangement by affecting HER2 expression and identifies a high-risk subgroup of HER2-positive gastric carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing; Zhu, Weiyou; Wang, Keming; Ma, Lin; Xu, Jin; Xu, Tongpeng; Røe, Oluf Dimitri; Li, Aiping; Zhou, Jianwei; Shu, Yongqian

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims JWA, a microtubule-associated protein (MAP) involved in apoptosis, has been identified as a suppressor of metastasis, and it affects cell migration in melanoma and its downregulation in tumor is an idependent negative prognostic factor in resectable gastric cancer. HER2 overexpression has been observed in gastric cancer (GC) cells and implicated in the metastatic phenotype. However, the biological role of JWA in migration and its clinical value in HER2-positive GC remain elusive. Results JWA suppresses EGF-induced cell migration and actin cytoskeletal rearrangement by abrogating HER2 expression and downstream PI3K/AKT signaling in HER2-overexpressing GC cell lines. The modulation of HER2 by JWA is dependent on ERK activation and consequent PEA3 upregulation and activation. Reduced JWA expression is associated with high HER2 expression and with poor survival in patients with AGC, whereas HER2 expression alone is not associated with survival. However, concomitant low JWA and high HER2 expression is associated with unfavorable outcomes. Additionally, when patients were stratified by JWA expression, those with higher HER2 expression in the low JWA expression subgroup exhibited worse survival. Methods The impact of JWA on the EGF-induced migration of HER2-positive GC cells was studied using transwell assays and G-LISA assays. Western blotting, real-time PCR, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and luciferase assays were utilized to investigate the mechanisms by which JWA affects HER2. The association of JWA with HER2 and its clinical value were further analyzed by IHC in 128 pairs of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) and adjacent normal tissue samples. Conclusions This study characterizes a novel mechanism for regulating cell motility in HER2-overexpressing GC cells involving JWA-mediated MEK/ERK/PEA3 signaling activation and HER2 downregulation. Furthermore, JWA may be a useful prognostic indicator for advanced GC and may help stratify HER2-positive

  5. The educational legacy of unauthorized migration: comparisons across U.S.-immigrant groups in how parents' status affects their offspring.

    PubMed

    Bean, Frank D; Leach, Mark A; Brown, Susan K; Bachmeier, James D; Hipp, John R

    2011-01-01

    This research compares several national-origin groups in terms of how parents’ entry, legalization and naturalization (i.e., membership) statuses relate to their children’s educational attainment. In the case of Asian groups, the members of which predominantly come to the United States as permanent legal migrants, we hypothesize (1) that father’s and mother’s statuses will be relatively homogenous and few in number and (2) that these will exert minimal net effects on second-generation attainment. For Mexicans, many of whom initially come as temporary unauthorized migrants, we hypothesize (1) that parental status combinations will be heterogeneous and greater in number and (2) that marginal membership statuses will exert negative net effects on education in the second generation. To assess these ideas, we analyze unique intergenerational data from Los Angeles on the young adult members of second-generation national-origin groups and their parents. The findings show that Asian immigrant groups almost universally exhibit similar father–mother migration statuses and high educational attainment among children. By contrast, Mexicans manifest more numerous discrepant father–mother combinations, with those in which the mother remains unauthorized carrying negative implications for children’s schooling. The paper discusses the theoretical and policy implications of the delays in incorporation that result from Mexican Americans needing extra time and resources compared to the members of other groups to overcome their handicap of marginal membership status (i.e., being more likely to enter and remain unauthorized).

  6. Caffeine affects CD8+ lymphocyte apoptosis and migration differently in naïve and familiar individuals following moderate intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Navalta, James W; Fedor, Elizabeth A; Schafer, Mark A; Lyons, T Scott; Tibana, Ramires A; Pereira, Guilherme B; Prestes, Jonato

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the lymphocyte subset response to 30 min of moderate treadmill exercise during caffeine supplemented (6.0 mg.kg(-1)) and placebo conditions in caffeine-naïve and -familiar individuals. Seventeen individuals participated (caffeine-familiar = 8, caffeine-naïve = 9) completing two exercise bouts (caffeine supplemented and placebo control) 48 h apart in a counterbalanced and double-blinded fashion. Individuals were classified as follows: caffeine-naive <50 mg.d(-1) and caffeine-familiar >200 mg.d(-1) Whole blood samples were obtained at rest, 30 min after caffeine or placebo ingestion, immediately following exercise, and 1 h post exercise. Blood was used to analyze apoptosis (annexin V) and cellular migration (CX3CR1) responses in lymphocyte subsets (CD4+, CD8+, CD19+). Absolute changes from rest values were calculated and differences between conditions were determined through Chi-squared analysis with significance accepted at P <0.05. With regard to CD4+ and CD19+ lymphocytes, the interaction of caffeine and exercise did not affect naïve individuals to a greater extent immediately post exercise when compared to familiar, as similar apoptotic and migratory responses were observed (P >0.05). However, CD8+ lymphocyte cell death and migration responses were observed to be significantly greater at each sampling point in caffeine-familiar individuals (P <0.05). It is possible that chronic caffeine supplementation may prime CD8+ cell receptors for responsiveness to apoptosis and migration and the consequence of this form of immunosuppression in the post-exercise period should be determined. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Going Home after Hurricane Katrina: Determinants of Return Migration and Changes in Affected Areas. Working Paper 428

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Jeffrey A.; Polivka, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the decision of Hurricane Katrina evacuees to return to their pre- Katrina areas and documents how the composition of the Katrina-affected region changed over time. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we show that an evacuee's age and the severity of damage in an evacuee's county of origin are important determinants…

  8. Accelerated Wound Closure - Differently Organized Nanofibers Affect Cell Migration and Hence the Closure of Artificial Wounds in a Cell Based In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Nanofiber meshes holds great promise in wound healing applications by mimicking the topography of extracellular matrix, hence providing guidance for crucial cells involved in the regenerative processes. Here we explored the influence of nanofiber alignment on fibroblast behavior in a novel in vitro wound model. The model included electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone scaffolds with different nanofiber orientation. Fibroblasts were cultured to confluency for 24h before custom-made inserts were removed, creating cell-free zones serving as artificial wounds. Cell migration into these wounds was evaluated at 0-, 48- and 96h. Cell morphological analysis was performed using nuclei- and cytoskeleton stainings. Cell viability was assessed using a biochemical assay. This study demonstrates a novel in vitro wound assay, for exploring of the impact of nanofibers on wound healing. Additionally we show that it’s possible to affect the process of wound closure in a spatial manner using nanotopographies, resulting in faster closure on aligned fiber substrates. PMID:28060880

  9. High dietary arachidonic acid levels affect the process of eye migration and head shape in pseudoalbino Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis early juveniles.

    PubMed

    Boglino, A; Wishkerman, A; Darias, M J; Andree, K B; de la Iglesia, P; Estévez, A; Gisbert, E

    2013-11-01

    The effect of high dietary levels of arachidonic acid (ARA) on the eye migration and cranial bone remodelling processes in Senegalese sole Solea senegalensis early juveniles (age: 50 days post hatch) was evaluated by means of geometric morphometric analysis and alizarin red staining of cranial skeletal elements. The incidence of normally pigmented fish fed the control diet was 99·1 ± 0·3% (mean ± s.e.), whereas it was only 18·7 ± 7·5% for those fed high levels of ARA (ARA-H). The frequency of cranial deformities was significantly higher in fish fed ARA-H (95·1 ± 1·5%) than in those fed the control diet (1·9 ± 1·9%). Cranial deformities were significantly and negatively correlated with the incidence of normally pigmented animals (r² = -0·88, P < 0·001, n = 16). Thus, fish displaying pigmentary disorders differed in the position of their eyes with regard to the vertebral column and mouth axes, and by the interocular distance and head height, which were shorter than in fish not displaying pigmentary disorders. In addition to changes in the positioning of both eyes, pseudoalbino fish showed some ARA-induced osteological differences for some of the skeletal elements from the splanchnocranium (e.g. right premaxillary, dentary, angular, lacrimal, ceratohyal and branchiostegal rays) and neurocranium (e.g. sphenotic, left lateral ethmoid and left frontal) by comparison to normally pigmented specimens. Pseudoalbino fish also had teeth in both lower and upper jaws. This is the first study in Pleuronectiformes that describes impaired metamorphic relocation of the ocular side eye, the right eye in the case of S. senegalensis, whereas the left eye migrated into the ocular side almost normally.

  10. Assessment of foot health and animal welfare: clinical findings in 229 dairy Mediterranean Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) affected by foot disorders.

    PubMed

    Guccione, Jacopo; Carcasole, Christian; Alsaaod, Maher; D'Andrea, Luigi; Di Loria, Antonio; De Rosa, Angela; Ciaramella, Paolo; Steiner, Adrian

    2016-06-14

    Lameness represents the third most important health-related cause of economic loss in the dairy industry after fertility and mastitis. Although, dairy Mediterranean Buffaloes (MB) and dairy cows share similar breeding systems predisposing to similar herd problems, published studies exploring its relevance and role in these ruminants are still rare and incomplete. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical findings of foot disorders (FDs) in dairy MB and their influence on animal welfare, determined by assessment of locomotion score (LS), body condition score (BCS) and cleanliness score (CS). Of 1297 multiparous MB submitted to routine trimming procedures, 229 buffaloes showed at least one FD. The prevalence of buffaloes affected by FDs was 17.7 %, while motility and lameness indexes were 84.1 % (1091/1297) and 15.9 % (206/1297), respectively. Overgrowth was present in 17.0 % (220/1297), corkscrew claw in 15.8 % (205/1297), interdigital phlegmon in 0.9 % (12/1297), white line abscess in 0.8 % (11/1297), digital dermatitis in 0.1 % (1/1297) and interdigital hyperplasia in 0.1 % (1/1297). Simultaneous presence of FDs was recorded in 17.0 % of MB (221/1297): overgrowth and corkscrew claw occurred together in 15.8 % of cases (205/1297), overgrowth and interdigital phlegmon in 0.3 % (4/1297), overgrowth and white line abscess in 0.8 % (11/1297), digital dermatitis and interdigital hyperplasia in 0.1 % (1/1297). The presence of FDs was always associated with lameness (LS > 2), except from 23 MB with simultaneous overgrowth and interdigital phlegmon occurrence. The majority of MB within the under-conditioned group (95.5 %, 43/45) and all those with CS > 2 (122/122) had a locomotion score above the threshold of normality (LS > 2). Furthermore, foot diseases such as interdigital hyperplasia, white line abscess and digital dermatitis or interdigital hyperplasia seemed to occur more frequently associated with decreased BCS and increased CS

  11. How far to go? Determinants of migration distance in land mammals.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, Claire S; Fagan, William F; Fleming, Chris H; Dressler, Gunnar; Calabrese, Justin M; Leimgruber, Peter; Mueller, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Animal migration is a global phenomenon, but few studies have examined the substantial within- and between-species variation in migration distances. We built a global database of 94 land migrations of large mammalian herbivore populations ranging from 10 to 1638 km. We examined how resource availability, spatial scale of resource variability and body size affect migration distance among populations. Resource availability measured as normalised difference vegetation index had a strong negative effect, predicting a tenfold difference in migration distances between low- and high-resource areas and explaining 23% of the variation in migration distances. We found a weak, positive effect of the spatial scale of resource variability but no effect of body size. Resource-poor environments are known to increase the size of mammalian home ranges and territories. Here, we demonstrate that for migratory populations as well, animals living in resource-poor environments travel farther to fulfil their resource needs.

  12. Factors affecting mammary tumor incidence in chlorotriazine-treated female rats: hormonal properties, dosage, and animal strain.

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, J C; Tennant, M K; Wetzel, L T; Breckenridge, C B; Stevens, J T

    1994-01-01

    Chlorotriazines are widely used in agriculture as broadleaf herbicides. The compounds specifically inhibit photosynthesis, and, as such, display little interaction with animal systems. However, a 24-month feeding study with atrazine (ATR) revealed a significant dose-related increase of mammary tumors in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Because numerous studies indicated that ATR had a low mutagenic and oncogenic potential, it was decided to test a hypothesis that the herbicide possessed endocrine activity. Among tests for estrogenic action, oral dosing of ATR up to 300 mg/kg did not stimulate uterine weight of ovariectomized rats. However, ATR administration did reduce estrogen-stimulated uterine weight gain. Further evidence of inhibition came from measures of [3H]-thymidine incorporation into uterine DNA of ATR-treated immature rats. Again, no intrinsic estrogenic activity was observed up to a 300-mg/kg dose. In vitro, ATR competed poorly against estradiol binding to cytosolic receptors, with an approximate IC50 of 10(-5) M. Atrazine administration to SD and Fischer-344 (F-344) rats for 12 months, up to 400 ppm in food, was correlated with significant alterations of estrous cycling activity; but there was a divergent strain response. SD rats showed an increased number of days in vaginal estrus, increased plasma estradiol, and decreased plasma progesterone by 9 to 12 months of treatment. F-344 rats did not demonstrate treatment-related affects. A study of ultrastructure in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of female SD rats that were fed diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), an ATR metabolite, suggested that age-associated glial pathology was enhanced by treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 8. PMID:7737039

  13. In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Ambruosi, Barbara; Uranio, Manuel Filioli; Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  14. Storybook-Induced Arousal and Preschoolers' Empathic Understanding of Negative Affect in Self, Others, and Animals in Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniol, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Preschool children listened to a children's storybook about an animal character, with reading being terminated prior to, or after, problem resolution. The children's empathic understanding of how the animal character felt was assessed, and they were then asked to draw, with strength of pressure on the page (as evident on attached carbon copies)…

  15. Storybook-Induced Arousal and Preschoolers' Empathic Understanding of Negative Affect in Self, Others, and Animals in Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karniol, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Preschool children listened to a children's storybook about an animal character, with reading being terminated prior to, or after, problem resolution. The children's empathic understanding of how the animal character felt was assessed, and they were then asked to draw, with strength of pressure on the page (as evident on attached carbon copies)…

  16. The Future of Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This book comprises papers delivered at a conference of National Experts on Migration. The principle objective of the conference was twofold: to examine significant trends that will affect the future of migration in countries in the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OCED), and to identify the relevant issues that will have to…

  17. The Stent Patency and Migration Rate of Different Shaped Plastic Stents in Bile Flow Phantom Model and In Vivo Animal Bile Duct Dilation Model.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Kim, Gwangil; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Kim, Kyoung Ah; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Cho, Joo Young; Hong, Sung Pyo

    2017-05-01

    In research and development of biliary plastic stents (PS), continuous efforts have been made to overcome short patency time and high rate of migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patency and migration rate of different PS shapes for a given period of time. Using an in vitro bile phantom model, we compared the patency among different shapes of PS (three straight PS, four double-pigtail PS, and a new screw-shaped PS). We performed an analysis of the degree of luminal narrowing by light microscopic examination. Using an in vivo swine model, we compared the patency and migration rate among the three different types of PS. Eight weeks after the bile exposure in the bile flow phantom model, 80 PS were retrieved and analyzed. The straight PS showed less biofilm formation and luminal narrowing than other types of PS (p < 0.05). Forty-nine PS were inserted into the dilated bile ducts of 10 swine models, and 39 PS were successfully retrieved 8 weeks later. The stent migration occurred less frequently in the double-pigtail PS and the screw-shaped PS than it did in the straight PS (11.1, 10, and 27.3%, respectively). However, there was no statistical difference in stent patency among the different shapes. Stent patency may not be significantly different depending on the shape of PS for 8 weeks. The screw-shaped PS showed similar patency and migration rate to the double-pigtail PS. These results may help guiding future PS development and clinical decisions.

  18. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrating Meteorology into Research on Migration

    PubMed Central

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E. Emiel

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. PMID:20811515

  20. In Vitro Acute Exposure to DEHP Affects Oocyte Meiotic Maturation, Energy and Oxidative Stress Parameters in a Large Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Sardanelli, Anna Maria; Pocar, Paola; Martino, Nicola Antonio; Paternoster, Maria Stefania; Amati, Francesca; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena

    2011-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC) apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM), CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII) oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05). This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001) and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001). At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM), DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001) and ROS increase (P<0.0001) in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity), intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05), possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into embryos

  1. Genistein affects parathyroid gland and NaPi 2a cotransporter in an animal model of the andropause.

    PubMed

    Pantelic, J; Ajdzanovic, V; Medigovic, I; Mojic, M; Trifunovic, S; Milosevic, V; Filipovic, B

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of genistein on the structural and functional changes in parathyroid glands (PTG) and sodium phosphate cotransporter 2a (NaPi 2a) in orchidectomized rats. Sixteen-month-old Wistar rats were divided into sham-operated (SO), orchidectomized (Orx) and genistein-treated orchidectomized (Orx+G) groups. Genistein (30 mg/kg/day) was administered subcutaneously for 3 weeks, while the controls received vehicle alone. PTG was analyzed histomorphometrically, while the expressions of NaPi 2a mRNA/protein levels from kidneys were determined by real time PCR and Western blots. Serum and urine parameters were determined biochemically. The PTG volume in Orx rats was increased by 30% (p<0.05), compared to the SO group. Orx+G treatment increased the PTG volume by 35% and 75% (p<0.05) respectively, comparing to Orx and SO animals. Orchidectomy led to increment of serum PTH by 27% (p<0.05) compared to the SO group, Orx+G decreased it by 18% (p<0.05) comparing to Orx animals. NaPi 2a expression in Orx animals was reduced in regards to its abundance in SO animals, although it was increased in Orx+G group compared to the Orx. Phosphorus urine content of Orx animals was raised by 12% (p<0.05) compared to that for the SO group, while Orx+G induced a 17% reduction (p<0.05) in regards to Orx animals. Our study shows that Orx increases PTG volume and serum PTH level, while protein expression of NaPi 2a is reduced. Application of genistein attenuates the orchidectomy-induced changes in serum PTH level, stimulates the expression of NaPi 2a and reduces urinary Pi excretion, implying potential beneficial effects on andropausal symptoms.

  2. The translational blocking of α5 and α6 integrin subunits affects migration and invasion, and increases sensitivity to carboplatin of SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Pineda, Julio César; Toledo-Leyva, Alfredo; Osorio-Trujillo, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica Ivonne; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia

    2017-02-15

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Integrins, overexpressed in cancer, are involved in various processes that favor the development of the disease. This study focused on determining the degree of involvement of α5, α6 and β3 integrin subunits in the establishment/development of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), such as proliferation, migration, invasion, and response to carboplatin. The translation of the α5, α6 and β3 integrins was blocked using morpholines, generating morphant cells for these proteins, which were corroborated by immunofluorescence assays. WST-1 proliferation assay showed that silencing of α5, α6, and β3 integrins does not affect the survival of morphants. Wound healing and transwell chamber assays showed that blocking α5 and α6 integrins decrease, in lesser and greater level respectively, the migratory and the invasive capacity of SKOV-3 cells. Finally, blocking α5 and α6 integrins partially sensitized the cells response to carboplatin, while blocking integrin β3 generated resistance to this drug. Statistical analyses were performed with the GraphPad Prism 5.0 software employing one way and two-way ANOVA tests; data are shown as average±SD. Results suggest that α5 and α6 integrins could become good candidates for chemotherapy targets in EOC.

  3. Testing Ødegaard's selective migration hypothesis: a longitudinal cohort study of risk factors for non-affective psychotic disorders among prospective emigrants.

    PubMed

    van der Ven, E; Dalman, C; Wicks, S; Allebeck, P; Magnusson, C; van Os, J; Selten, J P

    2015-03-01

    The selection hypothesis posits that the increased rates of psychosis observed among migrants are due to selective migration of people who are predisposed to develop the disorder. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether risk factors for psychosis are more prevalent among future emigrants. A cohort of 49,321 Swedish military conscripts was assessed at age 18 years on cannabis use, IQ, psychiatric diagnosis, social adjustment, history of trauma and urbanicity of place of upbringing. Through data linkage we examined whether these exposures predicted emigration out of Sweden. We also calculated the emigrants' hypothetical relative risk compared with non-emigrants for developing a non-affective psychotic disorder. Low IQ [odds ratio (OR) 0.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.3-0.9] and 'poor social adjustment' (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8) were significantly less prevalent among prospective emigrants, whereas a history of urban upbringing (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.7) was significantly more common. Apart from a non-significant increase in cannabis use among emigrants (OR 1.6, 95% CI 0.8-3.1), there were no major group differences in any other risk factors. Compared to non-emigrants, hypothetical relative risks for developing non-affective psychotic disorder were 0.7 (95% CI 0.4-1.2) and 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-1.0), respectively, for emigrants narrowly and broadly defined. This study adds to an increasing body of evidence opposing the selection hypothesis.

  4. How Growing Complexity of Consumer Choices and Drivers of Consumption Behaviour Affect Demand for Animal Source Foods.

    PubMed

    Perry, B D; Grace, D C

    2015-12-01

    Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice.

  5. Octodon degus. A useful animal model for social-affective neuroscience research: basic description of separation distress, social attachments and play.

    PubMed

    Colonnello, Valentina; Iacobucci, Paolo; Fuchs, Thomas; Newberry, Ruth C; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    A challenge for social-affective neuroscience programs is to identify simple and yet valid animal models for studying the expression of basic social emotions and their role during different developmental windows, from infancy to adulthood. For example, although laboratory rats are useful for studying juvenile social interactions, they are not ideal for studying infant attachment bonds. Here, we evaluate current understanding of the social behavior of Octodon degus, a diurnal precocial rodent, to elucidate the value of this species as a model for social-affective neuroscience research. After a synopsis of species-specific characteristics and brain susceptibility to changes of social environment, our behavioral findings on degu social proclivities are summarized. We then discuss why this pre-clinical model provides a valuable addition to the commonly available animal models for the study of human psychopathology.

  6. Bruising in slaughter cattle and its relationship with creatine kinase levels and beef quality as affected by animal related factors.

    PubMed

    Mpakama, T; Chulayo, A Y; Muchenje, V

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels.

  7. Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors

    PubMed Central

    Mpakama, T.; Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

  8. Integrated metabolomic and transcriptome analyses reveal finishing forage affects metabolic pathways related to beef quality and animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, José A.; He, Yanghua; Li, Yaokun; Liu, Jianan; Erdman, Richard A.; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Song, Jiuzhou

    2016-01-01

    Beef represents a major dietary component and source of protein in many countries. With an increasing demand for beef, the industry is currently undergoing changes towards naturally produced beef. However, the true differences between the feeding systems, especially the biochemical and nutritional aspects, are still unclear. Using transcriptome and metabolome profiles, we identified biological pathways related to the differences between grass- and grain-fed Angus steers. In the latissimus dorsi muscle, we have recognized 241 differentially expressed genes (FDR < 0.1). The metabolome examinations of muscle and blood revealed 163 and 179 altered compounds in each tissue (P < 0.05), respectively. Accordingly, alterations in glucose metabolism, divergences in free fatty acids and carnitine conjugated lipid levels, and altered β-oxidation have been observed. The anti-inflammatory n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are enriched in grass finished beef, while higher levels of n6 PUFAs in grain finished animals may promote inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, grass-fed animals produce tender beef with lower total fat and a higher omega3/omega6 ratio than grain-fed ones, which could potentially benefit consumer health. Most importantly, blood cortisol levels strongly indicate that grass-fed animals may experience less stress than the grain-fed individuals. These results will provide deeper insights into the merits and mechanisms of muscle development. PMID:27185157

  9. sp(2) -Iminosugar α-Glucosidase Inhibitor 1-C-octyl-2-oxa-3-oxocastanospermine Specifically Affected Breast Cancer Cell Migration through Stim1, β1-Integrin, and FAK Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Gueder, Nahla; Allan, Ghada; Telliez, Marie-Sophie; Hague, Frédéric; Garcia Fernandez, José M; Sanchez-Fernandez, Elena M; Ortiz-Mellet, Carmen; Ahidouch, Ahmed; Ouadid-Ahidouch, Halima

    2017-02-01

    Aberrant glycosylation changes on many glycoproteins are often related to cancer progression and metastasis. sp(2) -Iminosugar-type castanospermine analogues, inhibitors of α-glucosidases, have been reported to exhibit antitumor activity. However, their effects on cell migration and the underlying molecular mechanism are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effect of the pseudo- C-octyl glycoside 2-oxa-3-oxocastanospermine derivatives (CO-OCS) on breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells), and MCF-10A mammary normal cell lines. We showed that CO-OCS treatment results in the drastic decrease of breast cancer cell migration without affecting cell proliferation. Furthermore, CO-OCS significantly reduced both the expression of β1-integrin, which is a crucial interacting partner of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), and the phosphorylation rates of FAK and ERK1/2. CO-OCS also drastically reduced Ca(2+) entry through Store Operated Channels (SOC). Orai1 and Stim1, two N-glycosylated proteins, are involved in Store-Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE), and are essential for breast tumor cell migration. Our results showed that CO-OCS decreased the expression, at the protein level, of Stim1 without affecting that of Orai1. Moreover, cell migration and SOCE were attenuated by CO-OCS as well as when Stim1 was silenced. In contrast, in MCF-10A cells, CO-OCS slightly reduced cell migration, but was without effect on gene expression of Stim1, Orai1, β1-integrin or FAK and ERK1/2 activation. Our results provide strong evidence for a significant effect of CO-OCS on breast cancer cell migration and support that this effect was associated with β1-integrin, Stim1 and FAK signaling pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Feline foamy virus adversely affects feline mesenchymal stem cell culture and expansion: implications for animal model development.

    PubMed

    Arzi, Boaz; Kol, Amir; Murphy, Brian; Walker, Naomi J; Wood, Joshua A; Clark, Kaitlin; Verstraete, Frank J M; Borjesson, Dori L

    2015-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic option for various immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders due to their potent immunomodulatory and trophic properties. Naturally occurring diseases in large animal species may serve as surrogate animal models of human disease, as they may better reflect the complex genetic, environmental, and physiologic variation present in outbred populations. We work with naturally occurring diseases in large animal species to better understand how MSCs work and to facilitate optimal translation of MSC-based therapies. We are investigating the use of MSC therapy for a chronic oral inflammatory disease in cats. During our efforts to expand fat-derived feline MSCs (fMSCs), we observed that∼50% of the cell lines developed giant foamy multinucleated cells in later passages. These morphologic alterations were associated with proliferation arrest. We hypothesized that the cytopathic effects were caused by infection with a retrovirus, feline foamy virus (FFV). Using transmission electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro assays, we determined that syncytial cell formation and proliferation arrest in fMSCs were caused by FFV strains that were highly homologous to previously reported FFV strains. We determined that the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir, may be used to support ex vivo expansion and salvage of FFV-infected fMSC lines. MSC lines derived from specific pathogen-free cats do not appear to be infected with FFV and may be a source of allogeneic fMSCs for clinical application. FFV infection of fMSC lines may hinder large-scale expansion of autologous MSC for therapeutic use in feline patients.

  11. Feline Foamy Virus Adversely Affects Feline Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture and Expansion: Implications for Animal Model Development

    PubMed Central

    Kol, Amir; Murphy, Brian; Walker, Naomi J.; Wood, Joshua A.; Clark, Kaitlin; Verstraete, Frank J.M.; Borjesson, Dori L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic option for various immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders due to their potent immunomodulatory and trophic properties. Naturally occurring diseases in large animal species may serve as surrogate animal models of human disease, as they may better reflect the complex genetic, environmental, and physiologic variation present in outbred populations. We work with naturally occurring diseases in large animal species to better understand how MSCs work and to facilitate optimal translation of MSC-based therapies. We are investigating the use of MSC therapy for a chronic oral inflammatory disease in cats. During our efforts to expand fat-derived feline MSCs (fMSCs), we observed that∼50% of the cell lines developed giant foamy multinucleated cells in later passages. These morphologic alterations were associated with proliferation arrest. We hypothesized that the cytopathic effects were caused by infection with a retrovirus, feline foamy virus (FFV). Using transmission electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro assays, we determined that syncytial cell formation and proliferation arrest in fMSCs were caused by FFV strains that were highly homologous to previously reported FFV strains. We determined that the antiretroviral drug, tenofovir, may be used to support ex vivo expansion and salvage of FFV-infected fMSC lines. MSC lines derived from specific pathogen-free cats do not appear to be infected with FFV and may be a source of allogeneic fMSCs for clinical application. FFV infection of fMSC lines may hinder large-scale expansion of autologous MSC for therapeutic use in feline patients. PMID:25404388

  12. Evaluation of Animal Genetic and Physiological Factors That Affect the Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Soo Jin; Elzo, Mauricio; DiLorenzo, Nicolas; Lamb, G. Cliff; Jeong, Kwang Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in cattle at the pre-harvest level is critical to reduce outbreaks of this pathogen in humans. Multilayers of factors including the environmental and bacterial factors modulate the colonization and persistence of E. coli O157 in cattle that serve as a reservoir of this pathogen. Here, we report animal factors contributing to the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle. We observe the lowest number of E. coli O157 in Brahman breed when compared with other crosses in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd, and bulls excrete more E. coli O157 than steers in the pens where cattle were housed together. The presence of super-shedders, cattle excreting >105 CFU/rectal anal swab, increases the concentration of E. coli O157 in the pens; thereby super-shedders enhance transmission of this pathogen among cattle. Molecular subtyping analysis reveal only one subtype of E. coli O157 in the multibreed herd, indicating the variance in the levels of E. coli O157 in cattle is influenced by animal factors. Furthermore, strain tracking after relocation of the cattle to a commercial feedlot reveals farm-to-farm transmission of E. coli O157, likely via super-shedders. Our results reveal high risk factors in the prevalence of E. coli O157 in cattle whereby animal genetic and physiological factors influence whether this pathogen can persist in cattle at high concentration, providing insights to intervene this pathogen at the pre-harvest level. PMID:23405204

  13. Migrating Mule Deer: Effects of Anthropogenically Altered Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Lendrum, Patrick E.; Anderson, Charles R.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Bowyer, R. Terry

    2013-01-01

    Background Migration is an adaptive strategy that enables animals to enhance resource availability and reduce risk of predation at a broad geographic scale. Ungulate migrations generally occur along traditional routes, many of which have been disrupted by anthropogenic disturbances. Spring migration in ungulates is of particular importance for conservation planning, because it is closely coupled with timing of parturition. The degree to which oil and gas development affects migratory patterns, and whether ungulate migration is sufficiently plastic to compensate for such changes, warrants additional study to better understand this critical conservation issue. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied timing and synchrony of departure from winter range and arrival to summer range of female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in northwestern Colorado, USA, which has one of the largest natural-gas reserves currently under development in North America. We hypothesized that in addition to local weather, plant phenology, and individual life-history characteristics, patterns of spring migration would be modified by disturbances associated with natural-gas extraction. We captured 205 adult female mule deer, equipped them with GPS collars, and observed patterns of spring migration during 2008–2010. Conclusions/Significance Timing of spring migration was related to winter weather (particularly snow depth) and access to emerging vegetation, which varied among years, but was highly synchronous across study areas within years. Additionally, timing of migration was influenced by the collective effects of anthropogenic disturbance, rate of travel, distance traveled, and body condition of adult females. Rates of travel were more rapid over shorter migration distances in areas of high natural-gas development resulting in the delayed departure, but early arrival for females migrating in areas with high development compared with less-developed areas. Such shifts in behavior could have

  14. Migrating mule deer: effects of anthropogenically altered landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lendrum, Patrick E; Anderson, Charles R; Monteith, Kevin L; Jenks, Jonathan A; Bowyer, R Terry

    2013-01-01

    Migration is an adaptive strategy that enables animals to enhance resource availability and reduce risk of predation at a broad geographic scale. Ungulate migrations generally occur along traditional routes, many of which have been disrupted by anthropogenic disturbances. Spring migration in ungulates is of particular importance for conservation planning, because it is closely coupled with timing of parturition. The degree to which oil and gas development affects migratory patterns, and whether ungulate migration is sufficiently plastic to compensate for such changes, warrants additional study to better understand this critical conservation issue. We studied timing and synchrony of departure from winter range and arrival to summer range of female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in northwestern Colorado, USA, which has one of the largest natural-gas reserves currently under development in North America. We hypothesized that in addition to local weather, plant phenology, and individual life-history characteristics, patterns of spring migration would be modified by disturbances associated with natural-gas extraction. We captured 205 adult female mule deer, equipped them with GPS collars, and observed patterns of spring migration during 2008-2010. Timing of spring migration was related to winter weather (particularly snow depth) and access to emerging vegetation, which varied among years, but was highly synchronous across study areas within years. Additionally, timing of migration was influenced by the collective effects of anthropogenic disturbance, rate of travel, distance traveled, and body condition of adult females. Rates of travel were more rapid over shorter migration distances in areas of high natural-gas development resulting in the delayed departure, but early arrival for females migrating in areas with high development compared with less-developed areas. Such shifts in behavior could have consequences for timing of arrival on birthing areas, especially where

  15. A space oddity: geographic and specific modulation of migration in Eudyptes penguins.

    PubMed

    Thiebot, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yves; Crawford, Robert J M; Makhado, Azwianewi B; Trathan, Philip N; Pinaud, David; Bost, Charles-André

    2013-01-01

    Post-breeding migration in land-based marine animals is thought to offset seasonal deterioration in foraging or other important environmental conditions at the breeding site. However the inter-breeding distribution of such animals may reflect not only their optimal habitat, but more subtle influences on an individual's migration path, including such factors as the intrinsic influence of each locality's paleoenvironment, thereby influencing animals' wintering distribution. In this study we investigated the influence of the regional marine environment on the migration patterns of a poorly known, but important seabird group. We studied the inter-breeding migration patterns in three species of Eudyptes penguins (E. chrysolophus, E. filholi and E. moseleyi), the main marine prey consumers amongst the World's seabirds. Using ultra-miniaturized logging devices (light-based geolocators) and satellite tags, we tracked 87 migrating individuals originating from 4 sites in the southern Indian Ocean (Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen and Amsterdam Islands) and modelled their wintering habitat using the MADIFA niche modelling technique. For each site, sympatric species followed a similar compass bearing during migration with consistent species-specific latitudinal shifts. Within each species, individuals breeding on different islands showed contrasting migration patterns but similar winter habitat preferences driven by sea-surface temperatures. Our results show that inter-breeding migration patterns in sibling penguin species depend primarily on the site of origin and secondly on the species. Such site-specific migration bearings, together with similar wintering habitat used by parapatrics, support the hypothesis that migration behaviour is affected by the intrinsic characteristics of each site. The paleo-oceanographic conditions (primarily, sea-surface temperatures) when the populations first colonized each of these sites may have been an important determinant of subsequent migration

  16. Gold nanoparticle labeling of cells is a sensitive method to investigate cell distribution and migration in animal models of human disease.

    PubMed

    Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Schültke, Elisabeth; Hall, Christopher; Arfelli, Fulvia; Astolfo, Alberto; Rigon, Luigi; Round, Adam; Ataelmannan, Khalid; MacDonald, Sarah Rigley; Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2011-10-01

    The ability to track cells in small-animal models of human disease is important because it gives the potential to improve our understanding of the processes of disease progression as well as our understanding of the therapeutic effects of interventions. In this study gold nanoparticles have been used as a permanent marker of implanted normal and malignant cell grafts in combination with a suitable x-ray apparatus. Using x-ray computed tomography the micrometric three-dimensional distribution of these marked cells could be displayed with penetration depth, high cell sensitivity and high spatial resolution in rodent models of human diseases. In principle the method allows quantification of cell numbers at any anatomical location over time in small animals.

  17. Mapping patterns of depression-related brain regions with cytochrome oxidase histochemistry: relevance of animal affective systems to human disorders, with a focus on resilience to adverse events.

    PubMed

    Harro, Jaanus; Kanarik, Margus; Matrov, Denis; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    The search for novel antidepressants may be facilitated by pre-clinical animal models that relay on specific neural circuit and related neurochemical endpoint measures, which are anchored in concrete neuro-anatomical and functional neural-network analyzes. One of the most important initial considerations must be which regions of the brain are candidates for the maladaptive response to depressogenic challenges. Consideration of persistent differences or changes in the activity of cerebral networks can be achieved by mapping oxidative metabolism in ethologically or pathogenetically relevant animal models. Cytochrome oxidase histochemistry is a technique suitable to detect regional long-term brain activity changes relative to control conditions and has been used in a variety of animal models. This work is summarized and indicates that major changes occur mainly in subcortical areas, highlighting specific brain regions where some alterations in regional oxidative metabolism may represent adaptive changes to depressogenic adverse life events, while others may reflect failures of adaptation. Many of these changes in oxidative metabolism may depend upon the integrity of serotonergic neurotransmission, and occur in several brain regions shown by other techniques to be involved in endogenous affective circuits that control emotional behaviors as well as related higher brain regions that integrate learning and cognitive information processing. These brain regions appear as primary targets for further identification of endophenotypes specific to affective disorders.

  18. Vaccination Method Affects Immune Response and Bacterial Growth but Not Protection in the Salmonella Typhimurium Animal Model of Typhoid

    PubMed Central

    Kinnear, Clare L.; Strugnell, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding immune responses elicited by vaccines, together with immune responses required for protection, is fundamental to designing effective vaccines and immunisation programs. This study examines the effects of the route of administration of a live attenuated vaccine on its interactions with, and stimulation of, the murine immune system as well as its ability to increase survival and provide protection from colonisation by a virulent challenge strain. We assess the effect of administration method using the murine model for typhoid, where animals are infected with S. Typhimurium. Mice were vaccinated either intravenously or orally with the same live attenuated S. Typhimurium strain and data were collected on vaccine strain growth, shedding and stimulation of antibodies and cytokines. Following vaccination, mice were challenged with a virulent strain of S. Typhimurium and the protection conferred by the different vaccination routes was measured in terms of challenge suppression and animal survival. The main difference in immune stimulation found in this study was the development of a secretory IgA response in orally-vaccinated mice, which was absent in IV vaccinated mice. While both strains showed similar protection in terms of challenge suppression in systemic organs (spleen and liver) as well as survival, they differed in terms of challenge suppression of virulent pathogens in gut-associated organs. This difference in gut colonisation presents important questions around the ability of vaccines to prevent shedding and transmission. These findings demonstrate that while protection conferred by two vaccines can appear to be the same, the mechanisms controlling the protection can differ and have important implications for infection dynamics within a population. PMID:26509599

  19. The role of sphingomyelin and sphingomyelin synthases in cell death, proliferation and migration-from cell and animal models to human disorders.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Okazaki, Toshiro

    2014-05-01

    Sphingomyelin constitutes membrane microdomains such as lipid raft, caveolae, and clathrin-coated pits and implicates in the regulation of trans-membrane signaling. On the other hand, sphingomyelin emerges as an important molecule to generate bioactive sphingolipids through ceramide. Sphingomyelin synthase is an enzyme that generates sphingomyelin and diacylglycerol from phosphatidylcholine and ceramide. Although ceramide has a well-known role as a lipid mediator to regulate cell death and survival, the only known biological role of sphingomyelin regulated by sphingomyelin synthases was limited to being a source of bioactive lipids. Here, we describe the basic characters of sphingomyelin synthases and discuss additional roles for sphingomyelin and sphingomyelin synthase in biological functions including cell migration, apoptosis, autophagy, and cell survival/proliferation as well as in human disorders such as cancer and cardiovascular disorders. It is expected that a better understanding of the role of sphingomyelin regulated by sphingomyelin synthase will shed light on new mechanisms in cell biology, physiology and pathology. In the future, novel therapeutic procedures for currently incurable diseases could be developed through modifying the function of not only sphingolipids, such as sphingomyelin and ceramide, but also of their regulatory enzymes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled New Frontiers in Sphingolipid Biology.

  20. Activation of nuclear factor kappa B and induction of migration inhibitory factor in tumors by surgical stress of laparotomy versus carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum: an animal experiment.

    PubMed

    Tawfik Amin, Anwar; Shiraishi, Norio; Ninomiya, Shigeo; Tajima, Masaaki; Inomata, Masafumi; Kitano, Seigo

    2010-03-01

    Surgical trauma may be associated with enhanced tumor growth and establishment. The authors studied the effect of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) pneumoperitoneum versus laparotomy on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression, and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) activity in human gastric cancer. Nude mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with human gastric cancer cells (MKN45). Then laparotomy, CO(2) pneumoperitoneum, and anesthesia alone were performed randomly. Tumor growth and associated TNFalpha and MIF expression and NFkappaB activity were determined. Total tumor weight, especially at the anterior abdominal wall, was higher after laparotomy than after CO(2) pneumoperitoneum (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of TNFalpha was higher 24 and 48 h after laparotomy than after CO(2) pneumoperitoneum (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). At all the examined time points, MIF mRNA expression also was higher after laparotomy than after CO(2) pneumoperitoneum (p < 0.05 until 1 week or p < 0.01 at 2 weeks). The NFkappaB protein was more activated after laparotomy than after CO(2) pneumoperitoneum 6 h subsequent to surgical procedures. After CO(2) pneumoperitoneum, tumors have less TNFalpha and MIF expression and less NFkappaB activity than after laparotomy. This may be associated with less tumor growth, supporting minimal invasive techniques in gastrointestinal oncologic surgery.

  1. Dynamics of resilience in forced migration: a 1-year follow-up study of longitudinal associations with mental health in a conflict-affected, ethnic Muslim population.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Abas, Melanie; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

    2015-02-16

    The concept of 'resilience' is of increasing interest in studies of mental health in populations facing adversity. However, lack of longitudinal data on the dynamics of resilience and non-usage of resilience-specific measurements have prevented a better understanding of resilience-mental health interactions. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the stability of levels of resilience and its associations with sociodemographic and mental health exposures in a conflict-affected internal-migrant population in Sri Lanka. A prospective follow-up study of 1 year. Puttalam district of North Western province in postconflict Sri Lanka (baseline in 2011, follow-up in 2012). An ethnic Muslim population internally displaced 20 years ago (in 1990) from Northern Sri Lanka, aged 18 or above and currently in the process of return migration. It was hypothesised that levels of resilience would be associated with mental health outcomes. Resilience was measured on both occasions using the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14), social support by the Multidimensional Social Support Scale and Lubben Social Network Scale and common mental disorders by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Of 450 participants interviewed at baseline in 2011, 338 (75.1%) were re-interviewed in 2012 after a 1-year follow-up. The mean resilience scores measured by RS-14 were 80.2 (95% CI 78.6 to 81.9) at baseline and 84.9 (83.5 to 86.3) at follow-up. At both time points, lower resilience was independently associated with food insecurity, lower social support availability and social isolation. At both time points, there were significant associations with common mental disorders (CMDs) in unadjusted analyses, but they only showed independence at baseline. The CMD prevalence, maintenance and incidence at follow-up was 8.3%, 28.2% and 2.2%, respectively. In this displaced population facing a potential reduction in adversity, resilience was more strongly and robustly associated with economic and

  2. Dynamics of resilience in forced migration: a 1-year follow-up study of longitudinal associations with mental health in a conflict-affected, ethnic Muslim population

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Abas, Melanie; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective The concept of ‘resilience’ is of increasing interest in studies of mental health in populations facing adversity. However, lack of longitudinal data on the dynamics of resilience and non-usage of resilience-specific measurements have prevented a better understanding of resilience-mental health interactions. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the stability of levels of resilience and its associations with sociodemographic and mental health exposures in a conflict-affected internal-migrant population in Sri Lanka. Design A prospective follow-up study of 1 year. Setting Puttalam district of North Western province in postconflict Sri Lanka (baseline in 2011, follow-up in 2012). Participants An ethnic Muslim population internally displaced 20 years ago (in 1990) from Northern Sri Lanka, aged 18 or above and currently in the process of return migration. Measures It was hypothesised that levels of resilience would be associated with mental health outcomes. Resilience was measured on both occasions using the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14), social support by the Multidimensional Social Support Scale and Lubben Social Network Scale and common mental disorders by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Results Of 450 participants interviewed at baseline in 2011, 338 (75.1%) were re-interviewed in 2012 after a 1-year follow-up. The mean resilience scores measured by RS-14 were 80.2 (95% CI 78.6 to 81.9) at baseline and 84.9 (83.5 to 86.3) at follow-up. At both time points, lower resilience was independently associated with food insecurity, lower social support availability and social isolation. At both time points, there were significant associations with common mental disorders (CMDs) in unadjusted analyses, but they only showed independence at baseline. The CMD prevalence, maintenance and incidence at follow-up was 8.3%, 28.2% and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions In this displaced population facing a potential reduction in adversity

  3. Research Domain Criteria versus DSM V: How does this debate affect attempts to model corticostriatal dysfunction in animals?

    PubMed

    Young, Jared W; Winstanley, Catharine A; Brady, Anne Marie; Hall, Frank Scott

    2016-11-05

    For decades, the nosology of mental illness has been based largely upon the descriptions in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM). A recent challenge to the DSM approach to psychiatric nosology from the National Institute on Mental Health (USA) defines Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) as an alternative. For RDoC, psychiatric illnesses are not defined as discrete categories, but instead as specific behavioral dysfunctions irrespective of DSM diagnostic categories. This approach was driven by two primary weaknesses noted in the DSM: (1) the same symptoms occur in very different disease states; and (2) DSM criteria lack grounding in the underlying biological causes of mental illness. RDoC intends to ground psychiatric nosology in those underlying mechanisms. This review addresses the suitability of RDoC vs. DSM from the view of modeling mental illness in animals. A consideration of all types of psychiatric dysfunction is beyond the scope of this review, which will focus on models of conditions associated with frontostriatal dysfunction.

  4. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; de Haan, Laura H J; Koning, Rosella; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bovee, Toine F H

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na(+), K(+), or Ca(2+) channels or the Na(+)/K(+) ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that were reversible and none of the concentrations tested induced cytotoxicity. Three K(+) channel blockers, amiodarone, clofilium and sematilide, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump inhibitor digoxin had no specific effect on the beating. In addition, two marine neurotoxins i.e. saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin elicited specific beating arrests in cardiomyocytes. Comparison of the results obtained with cardiomyocytes to those obtained with the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay revealed that the cardiomyocytes were generally somewhat more sensitive for the model compounds affecting Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, but less sensitive for the compounds affecting K(+) channels. The stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were not as sensitive as the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay for saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin. It is concluded that the murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes provide a sensitive model for detection of specific neurotoxins and that the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay may be a more promising cell-based assay for the screening of marine biotoxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors affecting increased risk for substance use disorders following traumatic brain injury: What we can learn from animal models.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Steven F; Cannella, Lee Anne; Razmpour, Roshanak; Lutton, Evan; Raghupathi, Ramesh; Rawls, Scott M; Ramirez, Servio H

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have helped identify multiple factors affecting increased risk for substance use disorders (SUDs) following traumatic brain injury (TBI). These factors include age at the time of injury, repetitive injury and TBI severity, neurocircuits, neurotransmitter systems, neuroinflammation, and sex differences. This review will address each of these factors by discussing 1) the clinical and preclinical data identifying patient populations at greatest risk for SUDs post-TBI, 2) TBI-related neuropathology in discrete brain regions heavily implicated in SUDs, and 3) the effects of TBI on molecular mechanisms that may drive substance abuse behavior, like dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission or neuroimmune signaling in mesolimbic regions of the brain. Although these studies have laid the groundwork for identifying factors that affect risk of SUDs post-TBI, additional studies are required. Notably, preclinical models have been shown to recapitulate many of the behavioral, cellular, and neurochemical features of SUDs and TBI. Therefore, these models are well suited for answering important questions that remain in future investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Animated pedagogical agents: How the presence and nonverbal communication of a virtual instructor affect perceptions and learning outcomes in a computer-based environment about basic physics concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, M. Casey

    One important but under-researched area of instructional technology concerns the effects of animated pedagogical agents (APAs), or lifelike characters designed to enhance learning in computer-based environments. This research sought to broaden what is currently known about APAs' instructional value by investigating the effects of agents' visual presence and nonverbal communication. A theoretical framework based on APA literature published in the past decade guided the design of the study. This framework sets forth that APAs impact learning through their presence and communication. The communication displayed by an APA involves two distinct kinds of nonverbal cues: cognitive (hand and arm gestures) and affective (facial expressions). It was predicted that the presence of an agent would enhance learning and that nonverbal communication would amplify these effects. The research utilized a between-subjects experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to treatment conditions in a controlled lab setting, and group means were compared with a MANCOVA. Participants received (1) a non-animated agent, (2) an agent with hand and arm gestures, (3) an agent with facial expressions, or (4) a fully animated agent. The agent appeared in a virtual learning environment focused on Kepler's laws of planetary motion. A control group did not receive the visual presence of an agent. Two effects were studied: participants' perceptions and their learning outcomes. Perceptions were measured with an attitudinal survey with five subscales. Learning outcomes were measured with an open-ended recall test, a multiple choice comprehension test, and an open-ended transfer test. Learners presented with an agent with affective nonverbal communication comprehended less than learners exposed to a non-animated agent. No significant differences were observed when a group exposed to a fully animated agent was compared to a group with a non-animated agent. Adding both nonverbal communication

  7. Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Trepat, Xavier; Chen, Zaozao; Jacobson, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to establishing and maintaining the proper organization of multicellular organisms. Morphogenesis can be viewed as a consequence, in part, of cell locomotion, from large-scale migrations of epithelial sheets during gastrulation, to the movement of individual cells during development of the nervous system. In an adult organism, cell migration is essential for proper immune response, wound repair, and tissue homeostasis, while aberrant cell migration is found in various pathologies. Indeed, as our knowledge of migration increases, we can look forward to, for example, abating the spread of highly malignant cancer cells, retarding the invasion of white cells in the inflammatory process, or enhancing the healing of wounds. This article is organized in two main sections. The first section is devoted to the single-cell migrating in isolation such as occurs when leukocytes migrate during the immune response or when fibroblasts squeeze through connective tissue. The second section is devoted to cells collectively migrating as part of multicellular clusters or sheets. This second type of migration is prevalent in development, wound healing, and in some forms of cancer metastasis. PMID:23720251

  8. Thermal and nonthermal factors affecting survival of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in animal manure-based compost mixtures.

    PubMed

    Erickson, M C; Liao, J; Ma, L; Jiang, X; Doyle, M P

    2014-09-01

    Reduction of enteric pathogens in animal manures before field application is essential for mitigating the risk of foodborne illness associated with produce. Aerobic composting of manures has been advocated as an effective treatment for reducing pathogen populations, and heat is a major factor contributing to pathogen inactivation. This study was initiated to determine the potential contribution of both thermal and nonthermal (pH, volatile acids, and ammonia) factors to pathogen inactivation during aerobic composting in bioreactors for mixtures containing manure from various sources (dairy, chicken, and swine). The test mixtures were formulated with an initial moisture content of 60% and a C:N ratio of 20:1, using straw and cottonseed meal as amendments. Mixtures were then inoculated with Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes labeled with green fluorescent protein at initial populations of ca. 10(7) CFU/g. Three replicate trials of each treatment were conducted. Temperatures within the bioreactors were recorded at 30-min intervals, and duplicate samples were withdrawn daily from two sampling locations within the bioreactor. Significant regression models were derived relating decreases in pathogen populations to the degree of heat generated in the mixture (cumulative heat) and the pH of the mixture on the day before the pathogen losses were calculated (P < 0.0002). Although pathogens in swine manure compost mixtures were inactivated by the third day of composting, very little heat was generated in these mixtures, which were characterized by significantly higher levels of volatile acids compared with the other two compost mixtures. Therefore, volatile acids could help achieve pathogen inactivation when temperatures are too low such as when heat is lost too quickly at the surface of static compost piles or during winter composting.

  9. Carbohydrate-Free Peach (Prunus persica) and Plum (Prunus domestica) Juice Affects Fecal Microbial Ecology in an Obese Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Markel, Melissa; Martino, Hercia S.; Minamoto, Yasushi; Steiner, Jörg M.; Byrne, David; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U.

    2014-01-01

    Background Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each), wild-type group was named lean (n = 10). Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea) were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice). Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. Conclusions This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals) to the observed changes is unknown. PMID:25007331

  10. Analysing immune cell migration.

    PubMed

    Beltman, Joost B; Marée, Athanasius F M; de Boer, Rob J

    2009-11-01

    The visualization of the dynamic behaviour of and interactions between immune cells using time-lapse video microscopy has an important role in modern immunology. To draw robust conclusions, quantification of such cell migration is required. However, imaging experiments are associated with various artefacts that can affect the estimated positions of the immune cells under analysis, which form the basis of any subsequent analysis. Here, we describe potential artefacts that could affect the interpretation of data sets on immune cell migration. We propose how these errors can be recognized and corrected, and suggest ways to prevent the data analysis itself leading to biased results.

  11. A Space Oddity: Geographic and Specific Modulation of Migration in Eudyptes Penguins

    PubMed Central

    Thiebot, Jean-Baptiste; Cherel, Yves; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Makhado, Azwianewi B.; Trathan, Philip N.; Pinaud, David; Bost, Charles-André

    2013-01-01

    Post-breeding migration in land-based marine animals is thought to offset seasonal deterioration in foraging or other important environmental conditions at the breeding site. However the inter-breeding distribution of such animals may reflect not only their optimal habitat, but more subtle influences on an individual’s migration path, including such factors as the intrinsic influence of each locality’s paleoenvironment, thereby influencing animals’ wintering distribution. In this study we investigated the influence of the regional marine environment on the migration patterns of a poorly known, but important seabird group. We studied the inter-breeding migration patterns in three species of Eudyptes penguins (E. chrysolophus, E. filholi and E. moseleyi), the main marine prey consumers amongst the World’s seabirds. Using ultra-miniaturized logging devices (light-based geolocators) and satellite tags, we tracked 87 migrating individuals originating from 4 sites in the southern Indian Ocean (Marion, Crozet, Kerguelen and Amsterdam Islands) and modelled their wintering habitat using the MADIFA niche modelling technique. For each site, sympatric species followed a similar compass bearing during migration with consistent species-specific latitudinal shifts. Within each species, individuals breeding on different islands showed contrasting migration patterns but similar winter habitat preferences driven by sea-surface temperatures. Our results show that inter-breeding migration patterns in sibling penguin species depend primarily on the site of origin and secondly on the species. Such site-specific migration bearings, together with similar wintering habitat used by parapatrics, support the hypothesis that migration behaviour is affected by the intrinsic characteristics of each site. The paleo-oceanographic conditions (primarily, sea-surface temperatures) when the populations first colonized each of these sites may have been an important determinant of subsequent

  12. Regulation of miR-155 affects pancreatic cancer cell invasiveness and migration by modulating the STAT3 signaling pathway through SOCS1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Li, Haidong; Wu, Weidong; Jiang, Tao; Qiu, Zhengjun

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of miR-155 on pancreatic cancer cell invasion and migration in vitro, underlying gene expression, expression of miR-155 and its target genes in pancreatic cancer tissues, and their association with metastasis and clinical stage. miR-155 mimics and an inhibitor were transfected into Panc-1 and Capan-2 cells in order to regulate the expression of miR-155. qPCR and western immunoblotting were performed in order to detect gene expression. Transwell assays were performed to characterize the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Immunohistochemical analysis and in situ hybridization were used to detect the expression of protein and microRNA in pancreatic cancer tissue. miR-155 mimics and an inhibitor upregulated and downregulated, respectively, the expression of miR-155 in pancreatic cancer cells. The invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells increased or decreased along with miR-155 expression in vitro. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) protein expression was upregulated when miR-155 was inhibited and downregulated when miR-155 was increased. However, the expression of P-signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) was synchronized with that of miR-155. Transcription of SOCS1 and STAT3 was unchanged by miR-155 regulation. miR-155 expression was high in pancreatic cancer tissues and SOCS1 expression was high in tumor-adjacent tissues. There was no relationship between these genes in cancer and tumor-adjacent tissues. In addition, miR-155 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis and clinical stage. In conclusion, miR-155 plays an important role in the regulation of pancreatic cancer cell invasion and migration by modulating the STAT3 signaling pathway and reducing SOCS1 expression in pancreatic cancer cells.

  13. Gender and migration from Albania.

    PubMed

    Stecklov, Guy; Carletto, Calogero; Azzarri, Carlo; Davis, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    This article examines the dynamics and causes of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in women's access to migration opportunities and decision-making. Our analysis focuses on Albania, a natural laboratory for studying international migration where out-migration was essentially nonexistent from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. Interest in the Albanian case is heightened because of the complex layers of inequality existing at the time when migration began: relatively low levels of inequality within the labor market and educational system-a product of the Communist era-while household relations remained heavily steeped in tradition and patriarchy. We use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 Living Standards Measurement Study, including migration histories for family members since migration began. Based on discrete-time hazard models, the analysis shows a dramatic increase in male migration and a gradual and uneven expansion of the female proportion of this international migration. Female migration, which is shown to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Using information on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks, we show how household-level constraints and incentives affect male and female migration differently. Throughout this period, however, women's migration behavior appears more directly aligned with household-level factors, and there is little evidence to suggest that increased female migration signals rising behavioral independence among Albanian women.

  14. Gender and Migration from Albania

    PubMed Central

    STECKLOV, GUY; CARLETTO, CALOGERO; AZZARRI, CARLO; DAVIS, BENJAMIN

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the dynamics and causes of the shift in the gender composition of migration, and more particularly, in women’s access to migration opportunities and decision-making. Our analysis focuses on Albania, a natural laboratory for studying international migration where out-migration was essentially nonexistent from the end of World War II to the end of the 1980s. Interest in the Albanian case is heightened because of the complex layers of inequality existing at the time when migration began: relatively low levels of inequality within the labor market and educational system—a product of the Communist era—while household relations remained heavily steeped in tradition and patriarchy. We use micro-level data from the Albania 2005 Living Standards Measurement Study, including migration histories for family members since migration began. Based on discrete-time hazard models, the analysis shows a dramatic increase in male migration and a gradual and uneven expansion of the female proportion of this international migration. Female migration, which is shown to be strongly associated with education, wealth, and social capital, appears responsive to economic incentives and constraints. Using information on the dependency of female migration to the household demographic structure as well as the sensitivity of female migration to household-level shocks, we show how household-level constraints and incentives affect male and female migration differently. Throughout this period, however, women’s migration behavior appears more directly aligned with household-level factors, and there is little evidence to suggest that increased female migration signals rising behavioral independence among Albanian women. PMID:21308565

  15. [Internal migration in Tanzania].

    PubMed

    Banyikwa, W F

    1982-01-01

    A general survey of population distribution in Tanzania is first presented using data from censuses taken between 1948 and 1979. Variations in distribution patterns are identified and discussed. The author then considers both spontaneous and planned internal migration trends and the factors affecting them. The effects of the official policy to resettle the rural population in larger villages are considered. (summary in ENG, RUS)

  16. A comprehensive dose evaluation project concerning animals affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: its set-up and progress.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Inoue, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Gohei; Shiga, Soichiro; Fukumoto, Motoi; Kino, Yasushi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-12-01

    It is not an exaggeration to say that, without nuclear accidents or the analysis of radiation therapy, there is no way in which we are able to quantify radiation effects on humans. Therefore, the livestock abandoned in the ex-evacuation zone and euthanized due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident are extremely valuable for analyzing the environmental pollution, its biodistribution, the metabolism of radionuclides, dose evaluation and the influence of internal exposure. We, therefore, sought to establish an archive system and to open it to researchers for increasing our understanding of radiation biology and improving protection against radiation. The sample bank of animals affected by the FNPP accident consists of frozen tissue samples, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, dose of radionuclides deposited, etc., with individual sampling data.

  17. A comprehensive dose evaluation project concerning animals affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: its set-up and progress

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Shintaro; Inoue, Kazuya; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Gohei; Shiga, Soichiro; Fukumoto, Motoi; Kino, Yasushi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Abe, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Isogai, Emiko; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    It is not an exaggeration to say that, without nuclear accidents or the analysis of radiation therapy, there is no way in which we are able to quantify radiation effects on humans. Therefore, the livestock abandoned in the ex-evacuation zone and euthanized due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident are extremely valuable for analyzing the environmental pollution, its biodistribution, the metabolism of radionuclides, dose evaluation and the influence of internal exposure. We, therefore, sought to establish an archive system and to open it to researchers for increasing our understanding of radiation biology and improving protection against radiation. The sample bank of animals affected by the FNPP accident consists of frozen tissue samples, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens, dose of radionuclides deposited, etc., with individual sampling data. PMID:26687285

  18. Introducing the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc) Sounds database: a validated set of non-acted affective sounds from human infants, adults, and domestic animals

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Christine E.; Young, Katherine S.; Craske, Michelle G.; Stein, Alan L.; Kringelbach, Morten L.

    2014-01-01

    Sound moves us. Nowhere is this more apparent than in our responses to genuine emotional vocalizations, be they heartfelt distress cries or raucous laughter. Here, we present perceptual ratings and a description of a freely available, large database of natural affective vocal sounds from human infants, adults and domestic animals, the Oxford Vocal (OxVoc) Sounds database. This database consists of 173 non-verbal sounds expressing a range of happy, sad, and neutral emotional states. Ratings are presented for the sounds on a range of dimensions from a number of independent participant samples. Perceptions related to valence, including distress, vocalizer mood, and listener mood are presented in Study 1. Perceptions of the arousal of the sound, listener motivation to respond and valence (positive, negative) are presented in Study 2. Perceptions of the emotional content of the stimuli in both Study 1 and 2 were consistent with the predefined categories (e.g., laugh stimuli perceived as positive). While the adult vocalizations received more extreme valence ratings, rated motivation to respond to the sounds was highest for the infant sounds. The major advantages of this database are the inclusion of vocalizations from naturalistic situations, which represent genuine expressions of emotion, and the inclusion of vocalizations from animals and infants, providing comparison stimuli for use in cross-species and developmental studies. The associated website provides a detailed description of the physical properties of each sound stimulus along with cross-category descriptions. PMID:25009511

  19. Matrine inhibits the adhesion and migration of BCG823 gastric cancer cells by affecting the structure and function of the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-wei; Su, Ke; Shi, Wen-tao; Wang, Ying; Hu, Peng-chao; Wang, Yang; Wei, Lei; Xiang, Jin; Yang, Fang

    2013-08-01

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) expression is upregulated in human cancers and correlates with more invasive advanced tumor stages. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms by which matrine, an alkaloid derived from Sophora species plants, acted on the VASP protein in human gastric cancer cells in vitro. VASP was expressed and purified. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy was used to study the binding of matrine to VASP. CD spectroscopy was used to examine the changes in the VASP protein secondary structure. Human gastric carcinoma cell line BGC823 was tested. Scratch wound and cell adhesion assays were used to detect the cell migration and adhesion, respectively. Real-time PCR and Western blotting assays were used to measure mRNA and protein expression of VASP. In the fluorescence assay, the dissociation constant for binding of matrine to VASP protein was 0.86 mmol/L, thus the direct binding between the two molecules was weak. However, matrine (50 μg/mL) caused obvious change in the secondary structure of VASP protein shown in CD spectrum. Treatments of BGC823 cells with matrine (50 μg/mL) significantly inhibited the cell migration and adhesion. The alkaloid changed the subcellular distribution of VASP and formation of actin stress fibers in BGC823 cells. The alkaloid caused small but statistically significant decreases in VASP protein expression and phosphorylation, but had no significant effect on VASP mRNA expression. Matrine modulates the structure, subcellular distribution, expression and phosphorylation of VASP in human gastric cancer cells, thus inhibiting the cancer cell adhesion and migration.

  20. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  1. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  2. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  3. [Internal migration].

    PubMed

    Borisovna, L

    1991-06-01

    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  4. H3K27 acetylation activated-long non-coding RNA CCAT1 affects cell proliferation and migration by regulating SPRY4 and HOXB13 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erbao; Han, Liang; Yin, Dandan; He, Xuezhi; Hong, Linzhi; Si, Xinxin; Qiu, Mantang; Xu, Tongpeng; De, Wei; Xu, Lin; Shu, Yongqian; Chen, Jinfei

    2017-04-07

    Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to have important regulatory roles in human cancer biology. In our study, we found that lncRNA CCAT1, whose expression is significantly increased and is correlated with outcomes in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC). Consecutive experiments confirmed that H3K27-acetylation could activate expression of colon cancer associated transcript-1 (CCAT1). Further experiments revealed that CCAT1 knockdown significantly repressed the proliferation and migration both in vitro and in vivo. RNA-seq analysis revealed that CCAT1 knockdown preferentially affected genes that are linked to cell proliferation, cell migration and cell adhesion. Mechanistic investigations found that CCAT1 could serve as a scaffold for two distinct epigenetic modification complexes (5΄ domain of CCAT1 binding Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) while 3΄ domain of CCAT1 binding SUV39H1) and modulate the histone methylation of promoter of SPRY4 (sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 4) in nucleus. In cytoplasm, CCAT1 regulates HOXB13 as a molecular decoy for miR-7, a microRNA that targets both CCAT1 and HOXB13, thus facilitating cell growth and migration. Together, our data demonstrated the important roles of CCAT1 in ESCC oncogenesis and might serve as targets for ESCC diagnosis and therapy. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. H3K27 acetylation activated-long non-coding RNA CCAT1 affects cell proliferation and migration by regulating SPRY4 and HOXB13 expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Erbao; Han, Liang; Yin, Dandan; He, Xuezhi; Hong, Linzhi; Si, Xinxin; Qiu, Mantang; Xu, Tongpeng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to have important regulatory roles in human cancer biology. In our study, we found that lncRNA CCAT1, whose expression is significantly increased and is correlated with outcomes in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC). Consecutive experiments confirmed that H3K27-acetylation could activate expression of colon cancer associated transcript-1 (CCAT1). Further experiments revealed that CCAT1 knockdown significantly repressed the proliferation and migration both in vitro and in vivo. RNA-seq analysis revealed that CCAT1 knockdown preferentially affected genes that are linked to cell proliferation, cell migration and cell adhesion. Mechanistic investigations found that CCAT1 could serve as a scaffold for two distinct epigenetic modification complexes (5΄ domain of CCAT1 binding Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) while 3΄ domain of CCAT1 binding SUV39H1) and modulate the histone methylation of promoter of SPRY4 (sprouty RTK signaling antagonist 4) in nucleus. In cytoplasm, CCAT1 regulates HOXB13 as a molecular decoy for miR-7, a microRNA that targets both CCAT1 and HOXB13, thus facilitating cell growth and migration. Together, our data demonstrated the important roles of CCAT1 in ESCC oncogenesis and might serve as targets for ESCC diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27956498

  6. Leave before it's too late: anthropogenic and environmental triggers of autumn migration in a hunted ungulate population.

    PubMed

    Rivaud, Inger Maren; Bischof, Richard; Meisingset, Erling L; Zimmermann, Barbara; Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle

    2016-04-01

    Autumn has to a large extent been neglected in the climate effect literature, yet autumn events, e.g., plant senescence and animal migration, affect fitness of animals differently than spring events. Understanding how variables including plant phenology influence timing of autumn migrations is important to gain a comprehensive understanding of the full annual cycle of migratory species. Here we use 13 yr of data from 60 male and 168 female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to identify triggers of autumn migration. We relate the timing of autumn migration to environmental variables like snow fall, temperature, and plant phenology (NDVI), and to onset of hunting, sex, and migration distance. Severe weather has been suggested as the main trigger of autumn migration, but we found that the majority of the individuals had left the summer range well before snow fall (80.3%) and frost (70.5%), and also before the peak deterioration in forage quality (71.9%). Declining temperatures were associated with a higher daily migration potential. Onset of hunting showed the largest effect on migration potential, with a marked increase during the first days of hunting. Individuals still present in the summer range when snow fall, frost, or peak forage deterioration occurred showed a significantly higher migration potential around these events. Males were less responsive to environmental cues, suggesting rutting activity, starting earlier in males, initiate movement prior to such conditions. Also, individuals with longer migration distances had a higher migration potential late in the season than individuals with shorter migration distances. Our study shows that factors beyond weather and plant phenology, such as onset of hunting, may be important triggers of autumn migration. Severe weather and forage deterioration were important triggers for the individuals experiencing this, which suggests a hierarchical response to environmental cues. The trade-off between staying longer in the summer

  7. Purinergic A2b Receptor Activation by Extracellular Cues Affects Positioning of the Centrosome and Nucleus and Causes Reduced Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Ou, Young; Chan, Gordon; Zuo, Jeremy; Rattner, Jerome B; van der Hoorn, Frans A

    2016-07-15

    The tight, relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosome in mammalian cells is important for the regulation of cell migration. Under pathophysiological conditions, the purinergic A2b receptor can regulate cell motility, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Expression of A2b, normally low, is increased in tissues experiencing adverse physiological conditions, including hypoxia and inflammation. ATP is released from such cells. We investigated whether extracellular cues can regulate centrosome-nucleus positioning and cell migration. We discovered that hypoxia as well as extracellular ATP cause a reversible increase in the distance between the centrosome and nucleus and reduced cell motility. We uncovered the underlying pathway: both treatments act through the A2b receptor and specifically activate the Epac1/RapGef3 pathway. We show that cells lacking A2b do not respond in this manner to hypoxia or ATP but transfection of A2b restores this response, that Epac1 is critically involved, and that Rap1B is important for the relative positioning of the centrosome and nucleus. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that pathophysiological conditions can impact the distance between the centrosome and nucleus. Furthermore, we identify the A2b receptor as a central player in this process. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Purinergic A2b Receptor Activation by Extracellular Cues Affects Positioning of the Centrosome and Nucleus and Causes Reduced Cell Migration*

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Young; Chan, Gordon; Zuo, Jeremy; Rattner, Jerome B.; van der Hoorn, Frans A.

    2016-01-01

    The tight, relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosome in mammalian cells is important for the regulation of cell migration. Under pathophysiological conditions, the purinergic A2b receptor can regulate cell motility, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Expression of A2b, normally low, is increased in tissues experiencing adverse physiological conditions, including hypoxia and inflammation. ATP is released from such cells. We investigated whether extracellular cues can regulate centrosome-nucleus positioning and cell migration. We discovered that hypoxia as well as extracellular ATP cause a reversible increase in the distance between the centrosome and nucleus and reduced cell motility. We uncovered the underlying pathway: both treatments act through the A2b receptor and specifically activate the Epac1/RapGef3 pathway. We show that cells lacking A2b do not respond in this manner to hypoxia or ATP but transfection of A2b restores this response, that Epac1 is critically involved, and that Rap1B is important for the relative positioning of the centrosome and nucleus. Our results represent, to our knowledge, the first report demonstrating that pathophysiological conditions can impact the distance between the centrosome and nucleus. Furthermore, we identify the A2b receptor as a central player in this process. PMID:27226580

  9. Reduction of GPSM3 expression akin to the arthritis-protective SNP rs204989 differentially affects migration in a neutrophil model

    PubMed Central

    Gall, BJ; Schroer, AB; Gross, JD; Setola, V; Siderovski, DP

    2016-01-01

    G Protein Signaling Modulator-3 (GPSM3) is a leukocyte-specific regulator of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which binds inactivated Gαi·GDP subunits and precludes their reassociation with Gβγ subunits. GPSM3 deficiency protects mice from inflammatory arthritis and, in humans, GPSM3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are inversely associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis development; recently, these polymorphisms were linked to one particular SNP (rs204989) that decreases GPSM3 transcript abundance. However, the precise role of GPSM3 in leukocyte biology is unknown. Here we show that GPSM3 is induced in the human promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cell line following retinoic acid treatment, which differentiates this cell line into a model of neutrophil physiology (NB4*). Reducing GPSM3 expression in NB4* cells, akin to the effect ascribed to the rs204989 C>T transition, disrupts cellular migration toward leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and (to a lesser extent) interleukin-8 (a.k.a. IL-8 or CXCL8), but not migration toward formylated peptides (fMLP). As the chemoattractants LTB4 and CXCL8 are involved in recruitment of neutrophils to the arthritic joint, our results suggest that the arthritis-protective GPSM3 SNP rs204989 may act to decrease neutrophil chemoattractant responsiveness. PMID:27307211

  10. Characterization and fat migration of palm kernel stearin as affected by addition of desiccated coconut used as base filling centre in dark chocolate.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Selamat, J; Man, Y B; Suria, A M

    2001-05-01

    The characterization and fat migration of palm kernel stearin (PKS) and desiccated coconut, used as base filling centre in dark chocolate were studied. C36 and C38 triglycerides of PKS decreased by 11% and 9.6% respectively, whereas C32 and C34 increased by 97% and 48% respectively. The change in the triglycerides composition of PKS shift the melting point of PKS from 33.2 to 31.4 degrees C. Solid fat content (SFC) of PK reduced by 40% at 30 degrees C. The rate of fat migration was very slow at 18 degrees C storage compared to 30 degrees C. The rate of change of C36 in the chocolate layer was 0.1% week-1 and 1.2% week-1 at 18 and 30 degrees C respectively. Chocolate stored at 18 degrees C showed post hardening during storage period and withstood bloom during the storage period, whereas that stored at 30 degrees C became soft and bloomed faster after 3 weeks of storage.

  11. NASA SCI Files - The Case of The Zany Animal Antics

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This video covers the animal kingdom, how animals are classified, their basic needs, the food chain, reproduction and why animals migrate. Also learn about animal populations and habitats, endanger...

  12. Quantifying Migration Behaviour Using Net Squared Displacement Approach: Clarifications and Caveats

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Estimating migration parameters of individuals and populations is vital for their conservation and management. Studies on animal movements and migration often depend upon location data from tracked animals and it is important that such data are appropriately analyzed for reliable estimates of migration and effective management of moving animals. The Net Squared Displacement (NSD) approach for modelling animal movement is being increasingly used as it can objectively quantify migration characteristics and separate different types of movements from migration. However, the ability of NSD to properly classify the movement patterns of individuals has been criticized and issues related to study design arise with respect to starting locations of the data/animals, data sampling regime and extent of movement of species. We address the issues raised over NSD using tracking data from 319 moose (Alces alces) in Sweden. Moose is an ideal species to test this approach, as it can be sedentary, nomadic, dispersing or migratory and individuals vary in their extent, timing and duration of migration. We propose a two-step process of using the NSD approach by first classifying movement modes using mean squared displacement (MSD) instead of NSD and then estimating the extent, duration and timing of migration using NSD. We show that the NSD approach is robust to the choice of starting dates except when the start date occurs during the migratory phase. We also show that the starting location of the animal has a marginal influence on the correct quantification of migration characteristics. The number of locations per day (1–48) did not significantly affect the performance of non-linear mixed effects models, which correctly distinguished migration from other movement types, however, high-resolution data had a significant negative influence on estimates for the timing of migrations. The extent of movement, however, had an effect on the classification of movements, and individuals

  13. Quantifying Migration Behaviour Using Net Squared Displacement Approach: Clarifications and Caveats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navinder J; Allen, Andrew M; Ericsson, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Estimating migration parameters of individuals and populations is vital for their conservation and management. Studies on animal movements and migration often depend upon location data from tracked animals and it is important that such data are appropriately analyzed for reliable estimates of migration and effective management of moving animals. The Net Squared Displacement (NSD) approach for modelling animal movement is being increasingly used as it can objectively quantify migration characteristics and separate different types of movements from migration. However, the ability of NSD to properly classify the movement patterns of individuals has been criticized and issues related to study design arise with respect to starting locations of the data/animals, data sampling regime and extent of movement of species. We address the issues raised over NSD using tracking data from 319 moose (Alces alces) in Sweden. Moose is an ideal species to test this approach, as it can be sedentary, nomadic, dispersing or migratory and individuals vary in their extent, timing and duration of migration. We propose a two-step process of using the NSD approach by first classifying movement modes using mean squared displacement (MSD) instead of NSD and then estimating the extent, duration and timing of migration using NSD. We show that the NSD approach is robust to the choice of starting dates except when the start date occurs during the migratory phase. We also show that the starting location of the animal has a marginal influence on the correct quantification of migration characteristics. The number of locations per day (1-48) did not significantly affect the performance of non-linear mixed effects models, which correctly distinguished migration from other movement types, however, high-resolution data had a significant negative influence on estimates for the timing of migrations. The extent of movement, however, had an effect on the classification of movements, and individuals

  14. Migration and pension.

    PubMed

    Razin, A; Sadka, E

    1998-11-01

    "Migration has important implications for the financial soundness of the pension system.... While it is common sense to expect that young migrants, even if low-skilled, can help society pay the benefits to the currently elderly, it may nevertheless be reasonable to argue that these migrants would adversely affect current young since, after all, the migrants are net beneficiaries of the welfare state. In contrast to the adverse effects of low skilled migration in a static model, [the authors] show that in a Samuelsonian overlapping generations model...migration is a Pareto-improving measure. All the existing income (low and high) and age (young and old) groups living at the time of the migrant's arrival would be better off."

  15. Migration Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, Aurélien

    2015-08-01

    The great variety of the architectures of the extra-solar planetary systems has revealed the fundamental role played by planetary migration: the interactions between the planets and the gaseous disk in which they form leads to a modification of their orbits. Here, I will review the basic processes and the most recent results in this area.Planets up to ~50 Earth masses are prone to so-called type I migration.I will describe the processes at play, namely the Lindblad and corotation torques, and explain how the total torque depends on the planet mass and the local disk structure. Application to realistic disks shows one or two sweet spot(s) for outward migration of planets roughly between 5 and 30 Earth masses around the snowline ; this is confirmed by dedicated 3D numerical simulations. This has strong consequences on the formation of hot Super-Earths or mini-Neptunes.For smaller mass planets, it has been recently proposed that the heating of the neighboring gas by the luminous planet can lead to a positive torque, hence promoting outward migration. On the other hand, if the planet is not a heat source, a cold finger appears, whose resulting torque is negative. Applications of these two recent results should be discussed.Giant planets open gaps in the proto-planetary disk, and then are supposedly subject to type II migration, following the viscous accretion of the disk. This standard picture has been questioned recently, as gas appears to drift through the gap. Although the gap opening process is well understood in 2D for a planet on a fixed orbit, recent results on 3D simulations or migrating planets make the picture more accurate.Our ever better understanding of planet-disk interactions is of crucial importance as the statistics on extra solar systems keep growing and the results of these interactions are now imaged.

  16. No evidence for lymphatic filariasis transmission in big cities affected by conflict related rural-urban migration in Sierra Leone and Liberia.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Dziedzom K; Sesay, Santigie; Moore, Marnijina G; Ansumana, Rashid; Narh, Charles A; Kollie, Karsor; Rebollo, Maria P; Koudou, Benjamin G; Koroma, Joseph B; Bolay, Fatorma K; Boakye, Daniel A; Bockarie, Moses J

    2014-02-01

    In West Africa, the principal vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are Anopheles species with Culex species playing only a minor role in transmission, if any. Being a predominantly rural disease, the question remains whether conflict-related migration of rural populations into urban areas would be sufficient for active transmission of the parasite. We examined LF transmission in urban areas in post-conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia that experienced significant rural-urban migration. Mosquitoes from Freetown and Monrovia, were analyzed for infection with Wuchereria bancrofti. We also undertook a transmission assessment survey (TAS) in Bo and Pujehun districts in Sierra Leone. The majority of the mosquitoes collected were Culex species, while Anopheles species were present in low numbers. The mosquitoes were analyzed in pools, with a maximum of 20 mosquitoes per pool. In both countries, a total of 1731 An. gambiae and 14342 Culex were analyzed for W. bancrofti, using the PCR. Two pools of Culex mosquitoes and 1 pool of An. gambiae were found infected from one community in Freetown. Pool screening analysis indicated a maximum likelihood of infection of 0.004 (95% CI of 0.00012-0.021) and 0.015 (95% CI of 0.0018-0.052) for the An. gambiae and Culex respectively. The results indicate that An. gambiae is present in low numbers, with a microfilaria prevalence breaking threshold value not sufficient to maintain transmission. The results of the TAS in Bo and Pujehun also indicated an antigen prevalence of 0.19% and 0.67% in children, respectively. This is well below the recommended 2% level for stopping MDA in Anopheles transmission areas, according to WHO guidelines. We found no evidence for active transmission of LF in cities, where internally displaced persons from rural areas lived for many years during the more than 10 years conflict in Sierra Leone and Liberia.

  17. No Evidence for Lymphatic Filariasis Transmission in Big Cities Affected by Conflict Related Rural-Urban Migration in Sierra Leone and Liberia

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Dziedzom K.; Sesay, Santigie; Moore, Marnijina G.; Ansumana, Rashid; Narh, Charles A.; Kollie, Karsor; Rebollo, Maria P.; Koudou, Benjamin G.; Koroma, Joseph B.; Bolay, Fatorma K.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2014-01-01

    Background In West Africa, the principal vectors of lymphatic filariasis (LF) are Anopheles species with Culex species playing only a minor role in transmission, if any. Being a predominantly rural disease, the question remains whether conflict-related migration of rural populations into urban areas would be sufficient for active transmission of the parasite. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined LF transmission in urban areas in post-conflict Sierra Leone and Liberia that experienced significant rural-urban migration. Mosquitoes from Freetown and Monrovia, were analyzed for infection with Wuchereria bancrofti. We also undertook a transmission assessment survey (TAS) in Bo and Pujehun districts in Sierra Leone. The majority of the mosquitoes collected were Culex species, while Anopheles species were present in low numbers. The mosquitoes were analyzed in pools, with a maximum of 20 mosquitoes per pool. In both countries, a total of 1731 An. gambiae and 14342 Culex were analyzed for W. bancrofti, using the PCR. Two pools of Culex mosquitoes and 1 pool of An. gambiae were found infected from one community in Freetown. Pool screening analysis indicated a maximum likelihood of infection of 0.004 (95% CI of 0.00012–0.021) and 0.015 (95% CI of 0.0018–0.052) for the An. gambiae and Culex respectively. The results indicate that An. gambiae is present in low numbers, with a microfilaria prevalence breaking threshold value not sufficient to maintain transmission. The results of the TAS in Bo and Pujehun also indicated an antigen prevalence of 0.19% and 0.67% in children, respectively. This is well below the recommended 2% level for stopping MDA in Anopheles transmission areas, according to WHO guidelines. Conclusions We found no evidence for active transmission of LF in cities, where internally displaced persons from rural areas lived for many years during the more than 10 years conflict in Sierra Leone and Liberia. PMID:24516686

  18. Migrating Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, N.; Hansen, B.; Holman, M.; Tremaine, S.

    1998-01-01

    A planet orbiting in a disk of planetesimals can experience an instability in which it migrates to smaller orbital radii. Resonant interactions between the planet and planetesimals remove angular momentum from the planetesimals, increasing their eccentricities. Subsequently, the planetesimals either collide with or are ejected by the planet, reducing the semimajor axis of the planet. If the surface density of planetesimals exceeds a critical value, corresponding to 0.03 solar masses of gas inside the orbit of Jupiter, the planet will migrate inward a large distance. This instability may explain the presence of Jupiter-mass objects in small orbits around nearby stars.

  19. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-01-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific ‘learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (−0.002 kg m−2 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (−94 kcal, 95% CI −122 to −66), with no difference versus water (−2 kcal, 95% CI −30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; −1.35 kg, 95% CI –2.28 to −0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; −1.24 kg, 95% CI –2.22 to −0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI

  20. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-03-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific 'learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (-0.002 kg m(-)(2) per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (-94 kcal, 95% CI -122 to -66), with no difference versus water (-2 kcal, 95% CI -30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; -1.35 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; -1.24 kg, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also

  1. Dateline Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…

  2. Monarch Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Brad; Taylor, Orley

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Monarch Watch program that tracks the migration of the monarch butterfly. Presents activities that introduce students to research and international collaboration between students and researchers. Familiarizes students with monarchs, stimulates their interest, and helps them generate questions that can lead to good research projects.…

  3. Monarch Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Brad; Taylor, Orley

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Monarch Watch program that tracks the migration of the monarch butterfly. Presents activities that introduce students to research and international collaboration between students and researchers. Familiarizes students with monarchs, stimulates their interest, and helps them generate questions that can lead to good research projects.…

  4. Migration and rural opportunities in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adepoju, A

    1984-01-01

    This study is concerned with migration to rural areas in Nigeria. The author examines the rural economic structures, social systems, and demographic features affecting such migration. These features are compared for migrants and nonmigrants in the cash cropping and subsistence cropping areas of southwestern Nigeria. The results suggest that rural migration in southwestern Nigeria is mainly urban-rural migration of a colonizing type. Data for the study are from a survey of 1,782 households in 12 villages.

  5. Information flow, job search, and migration.

    PubMed

    Vishwanath, T

    1991-10-01

    "In this paper, an individual model of rural-urban migration is studied, emphasizing the effects of information flow and urban wage dispersion. Migration is viewed in the context of a lifetime program of job search. It is shown that migration can occur even when the mean urban wage is no larger than the rural income flow.... Both the shape and spread of the urban wage dispersion are shown to affect migration behavior significantly." The geographical focus is on developing countries.

  6. Recovery Migration After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Katherine J; Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-08-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of the Gulf of Mexico coastline counties affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of "climate refugees," but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests that most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-stricken places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007-2009) with the pre-disaster period (1999-2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows, we find that recovery migration was strong: the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated, while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places.

  7. Recovery Migration after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Spatial Concentration and Intensification in the Migration System

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Elizabeth; DeWaard, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the human migration systems of Hurricane Katrina- and Rita-affected Gulf of Mexico coastline counties provide an example of how climate change may affect coastal populations. Crude climate change models predict a mass migration of “climate refugees,” but an emerging literature on environmental migration suggests most migration will be short-distance and short-duration within existing migration systems, with implications for the population recovery of disaster-struck places. In this research, we derive a series of hypotheses on recovery migration predicting how the migration system of hurricane-affected coastline counties in the Gulf of Mexico was likely to have changed between the pre-disaster and the recovery periods. We test these hypotheses using data from the Internal Revenue Service on annual county-level migration flows, comparing the recovery period migration system (2007–2009) to the pre-disaster period (1999–2004). By observing county-to-county ties and flows we find that recovery migration was strong, as the migration system of the disaster-affected coastline counties became more spatially concentrated while flows within it intensified and became more urbanized. Our analysis demonstrates how migration systems are likely to be affected by the more intense and frequent storms anticipated by climate change scenarios with implications for the population recovery of disaster-affected places. PMID:26084982

  8. Diet Drives the Collective Migrations and Affects the Immunity of Mormon Crickets and Locusts: A Comparison of These Potential Superspreaders of Disease.

    PubMed

    Srygley, R B

    2016-08-01

    Differential transmission of disease among individuals within a population or among species in a community can result in superspreaders, relatively rare individuals responsible for a large proportion of transmission events. Migrating Mormon crickets and nymphal locusts readily engage in cannibalistic attacks and necrophagy. Typically multiple individuals consume a cadaver, which fosters the spread of disease. Cannibalistic attacks result in aligned, coordinated movement of individuals in massive bands that march daily for weeks at a time. Coordinated movement reduces contact frequency, which not only reduces cannibalism but the risk of disease transmission. When crowded, Mormon crickets and locusts elevate their constitutive immunity, which further reduces the risk of disease transmission. Bands of Mormon crickets show a variety of macronutrient dietary deficiencies that determine whether they will be more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria or fungi. In some migratory bands, Mormon crickets seek carbohydrates and have less anti-bacterial activity. A lipid transport protein that functions in both fuelling migration and anti-bacterial activity may cause a trade-off between the two activities when carbohydrates are limited. In other migratory bands, Mormon crickets prefer protein over carbohydrates, indicating protein-deficiency. In these bands, the generalized immunity of Mormon crickets, measured as phenoloxidase, is compromised, and the insects are more susceptible to Beauveria bassiana fungal infection. In locusts, a high protein diet resulted in greater susceptibility to another entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium acridum, whereas in Mormon crickets, both phenoloxidase titers and immunity to M acridum increased with adult age. Color changes associated with death by either of these fungi diminishes cannibalism, but bands may cull infected or encounter cadavers too quickly to effectively reduce fungal transmission. As long as the insects show no signs of infection

  9. Potent anti-inflammatory agent escin does not affect the healing of tibia fracture and abdominal wound in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leiming; Wang, Hongsheng; Wang, Tian; Jiang, Na; Yu, Pengfei; Liu, Feiyan; Chong, Yating; Fu, Fenghua

    2012-04-01

    Escin, a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous agent, has been widely used clinically in preventing inflammatory edema after trauma, such as fracture and surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether escin has an inhibitory effect on fracture healing, and whether escin has an inhibitory effect on wound healing after surgery. Male New Zealand white rabbits underwent tibial mid-diaphyseal osteotomy, and were administered escin once per day for 10 days. At weeks 2, 4 and 6, bone fracture healing and bone mineral density were measured. The histologic examination of callus, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphate in the serum were also assayed. In another experiment, the rats underwent midline laparotomy, and received escin once prior to or after the operation. Six days later, the abdominal incision wounds were excised for measuring hydroxyproline levels. The results showed that there were no significant differences in fracture healing between the model and rabbits administered escin, and escin did not affect the hydroxyproline levels in the abdominal incision wounds of the rats. These findings suggest that escin has no inhibitory effect on fracture and wound healing in animal models.

  10. Potent anti-inflammatory agent escin does not affect the healing of tibia fracture and abdominal wound in an animal model

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, LEIMING; WANG, HONGSHENG; WANG, TIAN; JIANG, NA; YU, PENGFEI; LIU, FEIYAN; CHONG, YATING; FU, FENGHUA

    2012-01-01

    Escin, a potent anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous agent, has been widely used clinically in preventing inflammatory edema after trauma, such as fracture and surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate whether escin has an inhibitory effect on fracture healing, and whether escin has an inhibitory effect on wound healing after surgery. Male New Zealand white rabbits underwent tibial mid-diaphyseal osteotomy, and were administered escin once per day for 10 days. At weeks 2, 4 and 6, bone fracture healing and bone mineral density were measured. The histologic examination of callus, osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphate in the serum were also assayed. In another experiment, the rats underwent midline laparotomy, and received escin once prior to or after the operation. Six days later, the abdominal incision wounds were excised for measuring hydroxyproline levels. The results showed that there were no significant differences in fracture healing between the model and rabbits administered escin, and escin did not affect the hydroxyproline levels in the abdominal incision wounds of the rats. These findings suggest that escin has no inhibitory effect on fracture and wound healing in animal models. PMID:22969961

  11. Evaluation of cerebral activity in the prefrontal cortex in mood [affective] disorders during animal-assisted therapy (AAT) by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS): a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Jun; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigooka, Jun; Fukamauchi, Fumihiko; Numajiri, Maki; Ohtani, Nobuyo; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the possibility that animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is useful for promoting the recovery of a patient's psychological, social, and physiological aspect. As a pilot study, we measured the effect that AAT had on cerebral activity using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and examined whether or not NIRS be used to evaluate the effect of AAT biologically and objectively. Two patients with mood [affective] disorders and a healthy subject participated in this study. We performed two AAT and the verbal fluency task (VFT). The NIRS signal during AAT showed great [oxy-Hb] increases in most of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the two patients. When the NIRS pattern during AAT was compared with that during VFT, greater or lesser differences were observed between them in all subjects. The present study suggested that AAT possibly causes biological and physiological changes in the PFC, and that AAT is useful for inducing the activity of the PFC in patients with depression who have generally been said to exhibit low cerebral activity in the PFC. In addition, the possibility was also suggested that the effect of AAT can be evaluated using NIRS physiologically and objectively.

  12. Social factors affect motor and anxiety behaviors in the animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders: A housing-style factor.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Li; Kozłowska, Anna; Li, Yu-Sheng; Shen, Wen-Ling; Huang, Andrew Chih Wei

    2017-08-01

    The present study examines whether housing style (e.g., single housing, same-strain-grouped housing, and different-strain-grouped housing) and rat strain (e.g., spontaneous hypertension rats [SHR] and Wistar-Kyoto rats [WKY]) mediate motor function and anxiety behavior in the open field task. From week 4 through week 10 following birth, the rats were measured 30min for locomotor activity and anxiety once per week in the open field task. The SHR rats exhibited hyperactivity in total distance traveled and movement time to form the animal model of ADHD. The SHR rats spent more time inside the square and crossed the inside-outside line more often than the WKY rats, indicating the SHR rats exhibited less anxiety behavior. The different-strain-grouped housing style (but neither the same-strain-grouped housing style nor the single housing style) decreased total distance traveled and facilitated anxiety behavior. The motor function was negatively correlated with anxiety behavior for SHR rats but not for WKY rats. Housing styles had a negative correlation between motor function and anxiety behavior. The present findings provide some insights regarding how social factors (such as housing style) affect motor function and anxiety behavior related to ADHD in a clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecules to migration: pressures of life.

    PubMed

    Vosloo, André

    2010-01-01

    The highly successful Fourth International Conference in Africa for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry (ICA-CPB) was held in the Maasai Mara National Reserve in July 2008. The theme of the meeting was "Molecules to Migration: Pressures of Life." To enhance the theme, the venue and timing of the meeting were chosen to coincide with the arrival of approximately 1.4 million wildebeest on their annual migration from the Serengeti National Park in Tanzania. Like the three previous ICA-CPB meetings, the discussion topics and the resulting collection of synthesia presented here were very diverse. The articles in this special collection reflect the authors' interest in broadening our understanding of the field of comparative physiology and biochemistry and their commitment to engaging in global research with international colleagues. These articles are brief, synthetic reviews integrating information presented at and inspired by the meeting. From seasonal migration and reproduction in birds, to cardiovascular system development in vertebrates, to strategies for hypoxia survival, papers range from specific to broad interactions. What they all have in common: they increase our understanding of how animals are affected by and respond to the pressures of life.

  14. Migration, Neighborhoods, and Networks: Approaches to Understanding How Urban Environmental Conditions Affect Syndemic Adverse Health Outcomes Among Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Egan, James E.; Kurtz, Steven P.; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A.

    2011-01-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM. PMID:21369730

  15. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases affects KC/CXCL1-induced intraluminal crawling, transendothelial migration, and chemotaxis of neutrophils in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, Najia; Hossain, Mokarram; Liu, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling is critical in the pathophysiology of a variety of inflammatory processes. Leukocyte recruitment to the site of inflammation is a multistep process governed by specific signalling cascades. After adhesion in the lumen, many leukocytes crawl to optimal sites at endothelial junctions and transmigrate to extravascular tissue in a Mac-1-dependent manner. The signalling mechanisms that regulate postadhesion steps of intraluminal crawling, transmigration, and chemotaxis in tissue remain incompletely understood. The present study explored the effect of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 on various parameters of neutrophil recruitment triggered by chemokine KC (CXCL1) gradient. Neutrophil-endothelial interactions in microvasculature of murine cremaster muscle were determined using intravital microscopy and time-lapsed video analysis. SB203580 (100 nM) did not change leukocyte rolling but significantly attenuated neutrophil adhesion, emigration, and transmigration and impaired the initiation of neutrophil crawling and transmigration. In response to KC chemotactic gradient, SB203580 significantly reduced the velocity of migration and chemotaxis index of neutrophils in tissue. The upregulation of Mac-1 expression in neutrophils stimulated by KC was significantly blunted by SB203580 in vitro. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that pharmacological suppression of p38 MAPK significantly impairs multiple steps of neutrophil recruitment in vivo.

  16. Specific deletion of Cdc42 does not affect meiotic spindle organization/migration and homologous chromosome segregation but disrupts polarity establishment and cytokinesis in mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Bo; Jiang, Zong-Zhe; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Hu, Meng-Wen; Huang, Lin; Ou, Xiang-Hong; Guo, Lei; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Hou, Yi; Brakebusch, Cord; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian oocyte maturation is distinguished by highly asymmetric meiotic divisions during which a haploid female gamete is produced and almost all the cytoplasm is maintained in the egg for embryo development. Actin-dependent meiosis I spindle positioning to the cortex induces the formation of a polarized actin cap and oocyte polarity, and it determines asymmetric divisions resulting in two polar bodies. Here we investigate the functions of Cdc42 in oocyte meiotic maturation by oocyte-specific deletion of Cdc42 through Cre-loxP conditional knockout technology. We find that Cdc42 deletion causes female infertility in mice. Cdc42 deletion has little effect on meiotic spindle organization and migration to the cortex but inhibits polar body emission, although homologous chromosome segregation occurs. The failure of cytokinesis is due to the loss of polarized Arp2/3 accumulation and actin cap formation; thus the defective contract ring. In addition, we correlate active Cdc42 dynamics with its function during polar body emission and find a relationship between Cdc42 and polarity, as well as polar body emission, in mouse oocytes.

  17. ANRIL is associated with the survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer, and affects cell migration and invasion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Zheng, Zhao-Peng; Li, Hang; Zhang, Han-Qun; Ma, Fa-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    Antisense noncoding RNA in the INK4 locus (ANRIL) has been reported to be upregulated in various types of human cancer, and is also highly expressed in normal human tissue. The aim of the present study was to identify whether ANRIL may be a possible target for colorectal cancer (CRC) therapy. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression levels of the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) ANRIL in 97 paired CRC and adjacent non‑neoplastic tissue samples. In addition, the HT29 and RKO human CRC cell lines underwent ANRIL RNA interference, and knockdown efficiency was evaluated by western blotting. Cell viability, and migratory and invasive ability were subsequently assessed. The CRC tissues were revealed to express higher levels of ANRIL lncRNA compared with the adjacent non‑neoplastic tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, high ANRIL expression was significantly associated with reduced survival rate (P<0.05). ANRIL gene expression was successfully silenced in human CRC cells. ANRIL knockdown decreased proliferation, inhibited migration and invasion, and reduced the colony‑forming ability of the cells. These data indicated that the lncRNA ANRIL is upregulated in CRC tissues, and is associated with CRC cell pathogenesis. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms of these effects may be exploited for therapeutic benefit.

  18. Storms drive altitudinal migration in a tropical bird.

    PubMed

    Boyle, W Alice; Norris, D Ryan; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2010-08-22

    Although migration is a widespread and taxonomically diverse behaviour, the ecological factors shaping migratory behaviour are poorly understood. Like other montane taxa, many birds migrate along elevational gradients in the tropics. Forty years ago, Alexander Skutch postulated that severe storms could drive birds to migrate downhill. Here, we articulate a novel mechanism that could link storms to mortality risks via reductions in foraging time and provide, to our knowledge, the first tests of this hypothesis in the White-ruffed Manakin (Corapipo altera), a small partially migratory frugivore breeding on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica. As predicted, variation in rainfall was associated with plasma corticosterone levels, fat stores, plasma metabolites and haematocrit. By collecting data at high and low elevation sites simultaneously, we also found that high-elevation residents were more adversely affected by storms than low elevation migrants. These results, together with striking temporal capture patterns of altitudinal migrants relative to storms, provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that weather-related risks incurred by species requiring high food intake rates can explain altitudinal migrations of tropical animals. These findings resolve conflicting evidence for and against food limitation being important in the evolution of this behaviour, and highlight how endogenous and exogenous processes influence life-history trade-offs made by individuals in the wild. Because seasonal storms are a defining characteristic of most tropical ecosystems and rainfall patterns will probably change in ensuing decades, these results have important implications for understanding the ecology, evolution and conservation of tropical animals.

  19. [Hunting and animal protection].

    PubMed

    Herling, A W

    1993-04-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the handling of animals during hunting is governed more by the animal protection law than by the corresponding hunting law. Points of the animal protection law which directly affect hunting are (1) the release of wild animals, (2) the training and examination of animals concerning attacking other animals, (3) the setting of animals on other animals, and (4) the killing of vertebrates. Guiding principles for killing wild animals during hunting according to the animal protection law are formulated and discussed in relation to the traditional German understanding of hunting ethics. It can be expected that hunting will increasingly become a topic of public discussion on animal protection, in which the ethics of hunting in relation to the wild animal will be dominant.

  20. Autonomous reciprocating migration of an active material.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lin; Wang, Meng; Pan, Changwei; Gao, Qingyu; Liu, Yang; Epstein, Irving R

    2017-08-15

    Periodic to-and-fro migration is a sophisticated mode of locomotion found in many forms of active matter in nature. Providing a general description of periodic migration is challenging, because many details of animal migration remain a mystery. We study periodic migration in a simpler system using a mechanistic model of a photosensitive, active material in which a stimulus-responsive polymer gel is propelled by chemical waves under the regulation of an illumination gradient sensed by the gel, which plays a role analogous to the environment in periodic animal migration. The reciprocating gel migration results from autonomous transitions between retrograde and direct wave locomotion modes arising from the gradient distribution of the illumination intensity. The local dynamics of the chemical waves modulates the asymmetry between push and pull forces to achieve repeated reorientation of the direction of locomotion. Materials that display similar intelligent, self-adaptive locomotion might be tailored for such functions as drug delivery or self-cleaning systems.

  1. Distribution and migration of heavy metals in soil and crops affected by acid mine drainage: Public health implications in Guangdong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jianbo; Wen, Zewei; Ru, Xuan; Chen, Jundong; Wu, Haizhen; Wei, Chaohai

    2016-02-01

    Acid mine drainages (AMD) contain high concentrations of heavy metals, and their discharges into streams and rivers constitute serious environmental problems. This article examines the effects of AMD on soil, plant and human health at Dabaoshan mine in Guangdong Province, China. Although the large scale mining was stopped in 2011, the heavy metal pollution in soil continues to endanger crops and human health in that region. The objectives of this study were to elucidate distribution and migration of Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Pb and associated health implications to local inhabitants. We collected and analyzed 74 crop samples including 28 sugarcane, 30 vegetables, 16 paddy rice and the corresponding soil samples, used correlation and linear relationship for transformation process analysis, and applied carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risk for hazard evaluation. Results showed that the local soils were heavily polluted with Cd, Cu and As (especially for Cd) and the mean Igeo value was as high as 3.77. Cadmium, Cu, and Zn in rice and vegetables were comparable with those found four years ago, while As and Pb in edible parts were 2 to 5 times lower than before. The root uptake of Cd and Zn contributed mainly to their high concentrations in crops due to high exchangeable fraction of soil, while leafy vegetables accumulated elevated As and Pb contents mainly due to the atmospheric deposition. Metal concentrations in sugarcane roots were higher than those in rice and vegetable roots. The risk assessment for crops consumption showed that the hazard quotients values were of 21 to 25 times higher than the threshold level for vegetables and rice, indicating a potential non-carcinogenic risk to the consumers. The estimated mean total cancer risk value of 0.0516 more than 100 times exceeded the USEPA accepted risk level of 1×10(-4), indicating unsuitability of the soil for cultivating the food crops. Therefore, the local agricultural and the land-use policies need to be reevaluated

  2. When the serotonin transporter gene meets adversity: the contribution of animal models to understanding epigenetic mechanisms in affective disorders and resilience.

    PubMed

    Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Although converging epidemiological evidence links exposure to stressful life events with increased risk for affective spectrum disorders, there is extraordinary interindividual variability in vulnerability to adversity. The environmentally moderated penetrance of genetic variation is thought to play a major role in determining who will either develop disease or remain resilient. Research on genetic factors in the aetiology of disorders of emotion regulation has, nevertheless, been complicated by a mysterious discrepancy between high heritability estimates and a scarcity of replicable gene-disorder associations. One explanation for this incongruity is that at least some specific gene effects are conditional on environmental cues, i.e. gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) is present. For example, a remarkable number of studies reported an association of variation in the human serotonin (5-HT) transporter gene (SLC6A4, 5-HTT, SERT) with emotional and cognitive traits as well as increased risk for depression in interaction with psychosocial adversity. The results from investigations in non-human primate and mouse support the occurrence of G × E interaction by showing that variation of 5-HTT function is associated with a vulnerability to adversity across the lifespan leading to unfavourable outcomes resembling various neuropsychiatric disorders. The neural and molecular mechanisms by which environmental adversity in early life increases disease risk in adulthood are not known but may include epigenetic programming of gene expression during development. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and chromatin modification, are dynamic and reversible and may also provide targets for intervention strategies (see Bountra et al., Curr Top Behav Neurosci, 2011). Animal models amenable to genetic manipulation are useful in the identification of molecular mechanisms underlying epigenetic programming by adverse environments and individual differences in

  3. Individual Decisions to Migrate During Civil Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Bohra-Mishra, Pratikshya; Massey, Douglas S.

    2012-01-01

    The existing literature on forced migration limits our understanding of how violence affects migration to competing destinations. This article adds to the literature on forced migration by studying how armed violence during a period of civil conflict in south-central Nepal influenced the likelihood of local, internal, and international migration. We find that violence has a nonlinear effect on migration, such that low to moderate levels of violence reduce the odds of movement, but when violence reaches high levels, the odds of movement increase. We also find that the effect of violence on mobility increases as the distance of the move increases. When we consider the influence of violence on microlevel decision-making, we find that the effects of individual and household-level determinants were mostly consistent with hypotheses derived from contemporary theories of voluntary migration and that no predictor of migration influenced the decision to migrate differently in the presence of violence. PMID:21541805

  4. Refugee migration and risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses: cohort study of 1.3 million people in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Anna-Clara; Dal, Henrik; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia; Kirkbride, James B; Dalman, Christina

    2016-03-15

    To determine whether refugees are at elevated risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, relative to non-refugee migrants from similar regions of origin and the Swedish-born population. Cohort study of people living in Sweden, born after 1 January 1984 and followed from their 14th birthday or arrival in Sweden, if later, until diagnosis of a non-affective psychotic disorder, emigration, death, or 31 December 2011. Linked Swedish national register data. 1,347,790 people, including people born in Sweden to two Swedish-born parents (1,191,004; 88.4%), refugees (24,123; 1.8%), and non-refugee migrants (132,663; 9.8%) from four major refugee generating regions: the Middle East and north Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe and Russia. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for non-affective psychotic disorders by refugee status and region of origin, controlling for age at risk, sex, disposable income, and population density. 3704 cases of non-affective psychotic disorder were identified during 8.9 million person years of follow-up. The crude incidence rate was 38.5 (95% confidence interval 37.2 to 39.9) per 100,000 person years in the Swedish-born population, 80.4 (72.7 to 88.9) per 100,000 person years in non-refugee migrants, and 126.4 (103.1 to 154.8) per 100,000 person years in refugees. Refugees were at increased risk of psychosis compared with both the Swedish-born population (adjusted hazard ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 2.3 to 3.6) and non-refugee migrants (1.7, 1.3 to 2.1) after adjustment for confounders. The increased rate in refugees compared with non-refugee migrants was more pronounced in men (likelihood ratio test for interaction χ(2) (df=2) z=13.5; P=0.001) and was present for refugees from all regions except sub-Saharan Africa. Both refugees and non-refugee migrants from sub-Saharan Africa had similarly high rates relative to the Swedish-born population. Refugees face an

  5. Refugee migration and risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychoses: cohort study of 1.3 million people in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Dal, Henrik; Lewis, Glyn; Magnusson, Cecilia; Kirkbride, James B; Dalman, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether refugees are at elevated risk of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, relative to non-refugee migrants from similar regions of origin and the Swedish-born population. Design Cohort study of people living in Sweden, born after 1 January 1984 and followed from their 14th birthday or arrival in Sweden, if later, until diagnosis of a non-affective psychotic disorder, emigration, death, or 31 December 2011. Setting Linked Swedish national register data. Participants 1 347 790 people, including people born in Sweden to two Swedish-born parents (1 191 004; 88.4%), refugees (24 123; 1.8%), and non-refugee migrants (132 663; 9.8%) from four major refugee generating regions: the Middle East and north Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe and Russia. Main outcome measures Cox regression analysis was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios for non-affective psychotic disorders by refugee status and region of origin, controlling for age at risk, sex, disposable income, and population density. Results 3704 cases of non-affective psychotic disorder were identified during 8.9 million person years of follow-up. The crude incidence rate was 38.5 (95% confidence interval 37.2 to 39.9) per 100 000 person years in the Swedish-born population, 80.4 (72.7 to 88.9) per 100 000 person years in non-refugee migrants, and 126.4 (103.1 to 154.8) per 100 000 person years in refugees. Refugees were at increased risk of psychosis compared with both the Swedish-born population (adjusted hazard ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 2.3 to 3.6) and non-refugee migrants (1.7, 1.3 to 2.1) after adjustment for confounders. The increased rate in refugees compared with non-refugee migrants was more pronounced in men (likelihood ratio test for interaction χ2 (df=2) z=13.5; P=0.001) and was present for refugees from all regions except sub-Saharan Africa. Both refugees and non-refugee migrants from sub-Saharan Africa had similarly high

  6. Deoxynivalenol affects the composition of the basement membrane proteins and influences en route the migration of CD16(+) cells into the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Nossol, Constanze; Diesing, A K; Kahlert, S; Kersten, S; Kluess, J; Ponsuksili, S; Hartig, R; Wimmers, K; Dänicke, S; Rothkötter, H J

    2013-11-01

    The numerous pores in the basement membrane (BM) of the intestinal villi are essential for the communication of enterocytes with cells in the lamina propria, an important mechanism for the induction of intestinal immune responses. The intestinal epithelial barrier is affected by the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) from both the apical (luminal) and basolateral (serosal) side. The pig is the most susceptible species to the anorectic and immune-modulating effects of DON, which is most prevalent in crops. We analysed in pigs the effect of DON-contaminated feed on the composition and perforation of the BM and the presence of CD16(+) cells or their dendrites in the epithelium. In addition to in vivo experiments, in vitro studies were carried out. Using microarray analyses, the effects of DON on IPEC-J2 cells were studied with the focus on the BM. Our in vivo results showed in the control pigs: (1) a significant increased pore number (p ≤ 0.001) in the jejunum in comparison to ileum, (2) no difference in the pore size, and (3) comparable frequency of intraepithelial CD16(+) cells/dendrites in the jejunum and ileum. There was a marked trend that DON feeding increases: (1) the pore number in jejunum, and (2) the number of CD16(+) cells/dendrites in the epithelium (Tukey-Kramer; p = 0.055 and p = 0.067, respectively). The in vivo results were extended with microarray analyses of epithelial cell (IPEC-J2 cells). The down-regulation of genes like syndecan, fibulin 6 and BM-40 was observed. These proteins are important factors in the BM composition and in formation of pores. Our results provide evidence that already low basolateral concentrations of DON (50 ng/mL) influence the production of the BM protein laminin by epithelial cells. Thus, DON affects the composition of the BM.

  7. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species.

  8. Animals and How They Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on animals. The bulletin titles are as follows: Birds: Their Adaptations to Ways of Life; Our Friends the Hawks; Mysteries of Bird Migration; Bird Nests; Camouflage in the Animal World; Snakes; Turtles; Frogs and Toads;…

  9. Animals and How They Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 14 Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on animals. The bulletin titles are as follows: Birds: Their Adaptations to Ways of Life; Our Friends the Hawks; Mysteries of Bird Migration; Bird Nests; Camouflage in the Animal World; Snakes; Turtles; Frogs and Toads;…

  10. Do colours affect 'normal' behaviour of laboratory and farm animals? Instantaneous change of behaviour by presentation of red in the Peach-F.

    PubMed

    Mebes, H D

    1979-06-01

    In spite of genetic and environmental standardisation in farm and laboratory animal science, a considerable amount of variation in the results of comparable experiments remains. This presumably depends upon the individual variability within a species, and upon differences of various species in their specific demands to the environment in captivity. Due to a discovery in the Southwest-African lovebird species Agapornis roseicollis, used as a conventional laboratory animal in bioacoustic research, the phenomenon of instantaneous fear expressed in a number of different displays in connection with the presence or presentation of red objects is described and compared to earlier observations of instantaneous phobias, aggressions, and preferences towards colours, in other bird species. Consequently it is suggested that investigation of the chromatophobe and chromatophile behaviour of typical laboratory and farm animals be undertaken to ensure the adequate design of lodging and experimental environments.

  11. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents Towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A qualitative study of young learners from affected regions in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German adolescents' (n = 31, Mage = 16.6 years) attitudes towards animal reintroduction, their threat and coping appraisal about wildlife and their knowledge of local endangered species. We found that students had rather limited knowledge of local endangered species. After Kellert's categories of animal attitudes, the adolescents showed a strong moralistic view on wildlife return. Naturalistic, ecologistic and utilitarian views were also strongly apparent. According to the Protection Motivation Theory, perceived threats could be identified as threats to animals on the one hand and threats to human interests on the other. Such threat perceptions often lead to a dilemma, which made it difficult to decide upon the priorities of wildlife protection versus protection of human interests. Coping mechanism to reduce threats to human interests as mentioned by the participants included restrictions of the animal as well as strategies that focused on responsibility by humans. Regarding coping mechanism to prevent the species' extinction, participants showed a relatively superficial understanding. Furthermore, we found that participants from regions where wolves are currently immigrating or European bison are being reintroduced showed a more positive understanding of the respective animal. Our findings are discussed in the light of this topic's potential as an example of a real-life socio-scientific issue in classroom discussions.

  12. Carry-Over Effects of Nonbreeding Habitat on Start-to-Finish Spring Migration Performance of a Songbird.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Emily A; Stanley, Calandra Q; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-01-01

    For migratory animals, conditions during the nonbreeding period may carry-over to influence spring migration performance. Animals in low-quality habitats are predicted to be in poorer condition, show later migration timing, and travel at slower speeds. This can result in subsequent negative effects on fitness. We tested the hypothesis that nonbreeding season body condition and habitat quality carry-over to affect spring migration performance of a long-distance migratory songbird, the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). We tracked individual birds between multiple breeding sites in North America and nonbreeding sites in Central America. First, we compared body condition of nonbreeding birds migrating to the same general region of the breeding range with spring migration performance (timing, speed, and duration) obtained from light-level geolocators. Second, we assessed the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a proxy for nonbreeding habitat quality, and predicted that birds from wetter habitat or in wetter years (higher NDVI) would show improved migration performance relative to birds from drier sites. We found no evidence of individual-level carry-over effects of nonbreeding season body condition on spring migration performance. Lower NDVI of nonbreeding habitat resulted in delayed spring migration departure, but this effect disappeared by arrival at breeding sites. Birds occupying drier nonbreeding sites migrated faster and for fewer days, compensating for their relatively late departure. We also documented a broader pattern in NDVI and migration timing and distance, in that birds that occupied the wettest areas in the southern part of the nonbreeding range departed significantly later and migrated farther. Our results suggest that individual carry-over effects of nonbreeding habitat quality may be compensated for by a faster and shorter migration strategy. At a broad scale, consistently later spring timing and longer migration distances were

  13. Carry-Over Effects of Nonbreeding Habitat on Start-to-Finish Spring Migration Performance of a Songbird

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Emily A.; Stanley, Calandra Q.; Stutchbury, Bridget J. M.

    2015-01-01

    For migratory animals, conditions during the nonbreeding period may carry-over to influence spring migration performance. Animals in low-quality habitats are predicted to be in poorer condition, show later migration timing, and travel at slower speeds. This can result in subsequent negative effects on fitness. We tested the hypothesis that nonbreeding season body condition and habitat quality carry-over to affect spring migration performance of a long-distance migratory songbird, the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). We tracked individual birds between multiple breeding sites in North America and nonbreeding sites in Central America. First, we compared body condition of nonbreeding birds migrating to the same general region of the breeding range with spring migration performance (timing, speed, and duration) obtained from light-level geolocators. Second, we assessed the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as a proxy for nonbreeding habitat quality, and predicted that birds from wetter habitat or in wetter years (higher NDVI) would show improved migration performance relative to birds from drier sites. We found no evidence of individual-level carry-over effects of nonbreeding season body condition on spring migration performance. Lower NDVI of nonbreeding habitat resulted in delayed spring migration departure, but this effect disappeared by arrival at breeding sites. Birds occupying drier nonbreeding sites migrated faster and for fewer days, compensating for their relatively late departure. We also documented a broader pattern in NDVI and migration timing and distance, in that birds that occupied the wettest areas in the southern part of the nonbreeding range departed significantly later and migrated farther. Our results suggest that individual carry-over effects of nonbreeding habitat quality may be compensated for by a faster and shorter migration strategy. At a broad scale, consistently later spring timing and longer migration distances were

  14. Migration timing and its determinants for nocturnal migratory birds during autumn migration.

    PubMed

    La Sorte, Frank A; Hochachka, Wesley M; Farnsworth, Andrew; Sheldon, Daniel; Fink, Daniel; Geevarghese, Jeffrey; Winner, Kevin; Van Doren, Benjamin M; Kelling, Steve

    2015-09-01

    migration occurs when winds at migration altitudes are mild. These observations provide the basis to assess how avian migration strategies may be affected by adjustments in seasonal patterns of atmospheric circulation and ecological productivity that may occur under global climate change.

  15. Describing Directional Cell Migration with a Characteristic Directionality Time

    PubMed Central

    Loosley, Alex J.; O’Brien, Xian M.; Reichner, Jonathan S.; Tang, Jay X.

    2015-01-01

    Many cell types can bias their direction of locomotion by coupling to external cues. Characteristics such as how fast a cell migrates and the directedness of its migration path can be quantified to provide metrics that determine which biochemical and biomechanical factors affect directional cell migration, and by how much. To be useful, these metrics must be reproducible from one experimental setting to another. However, most are not reproducible because their numerical values depend on technical parameters like sampling interval and measurement error. To address the need for a reproducible metric, we analytically derive a metric called directionality time, the minimum observation time required to identify motion as directionally biased. We show that the corresponding fit function is applicable to a variety of ergodic, directionally biased motions. A motion is ergodic when the underlying dynamical properties such as speed or directional bias do not change over time. Measuring the directionality of nonergodic motion is less straightforward but we also show how this class of motion can be analyzed. Simulations are used to show the robustness of directionality time measurements and its decoupling from measurement errors. As a practical example, we demonstrate the measurement of directionality time, step-by-step, on noisy, nonergodic trajectories of chemotactic neutrophils. Because of its inherent generality, directionality time ought to be useful for characterizing a broad range of motions including intracellular transport, cell motility, and animal migration. PMID:25992908

  16. Comparative migration issues.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, B A

    1995-01-01

    "This article reviews migration issues in Canada, the United States, and Mexico in the context of a general interpretation that NAFTA's [North American Free Trade Agreement] migration provisions are insufficient to deal with the larger continental migration problems." excerpt

  17. Primordial Germ Cell Specification and Migration.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are the progenitor cells that give rise to the gametes. In some animals, the germline is induced by zygotic transcription factors, whereas in others, primordial germ cell specification occurs via inheritance of maternally provided gene products known as germ plasm. Once specified, the primordial germ cells of some animals must acquire motility and migrate to the gonad in order to survive. In all animals examined, perinuclear structures called germ granules form within germ cells. This review focuses on some of the recent studies, conducted by several groups using diverse systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates, which have provided mechanistic insight into the molecular regulation of germ cell specification and migration.

  18. Neurobiology of Monarch Butterfly Migration.

    PubMed

    Reppert, Steven M; Guerra, Patrick A; Merlin, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the migration of the eastern North American monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) have revealed mechanisms behind its navigation. The main orientation mechanism uses a time-compensated sun compass during both the migration south and the remigration north. Daylight cues, such as the sun itself and polarized light, are processed through both eyes and integrated through intricate circuitry in the brain's central complex, the presumed site of the sun compass. Monarch circadian clocks have a distinct molecular mechanism, and those that reside in the antennae provide time compensation. Recent evidence shows that migrants can also use a light-dependent inclination magnetic compass for orientation in the absence of directional daylight cues. The monarch genome has been sequenced, and genetic strategies using nuclease-based technologies have been developed to edit specific genes. The monarch butterfly has emerged as a model system to study the neural, molecular, and genetic basis of long-distance animal migration.

  19. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A Qualitative Study of Young Learners from Affected Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German…

  20. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A Qualitative Study of Young Learners from Affected Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German…

  1. Stereotactic core needle breast biopsy marker migration: An analysis of factors contributing to immediate marker migration.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashali; Khalid, Maria; Qureshi, Muhammad M; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Kaplan, Jonah A; Buch, Karen; Grinstaff, Mark W; Hirsch, Ariel E; Hines, Neely L; Anderson, Stephan W; Gallagher, Katherine M; Bates, David D B; Bloch, B Nicolas

    2017-05-19

    To evaluate breast biopsy marker migration in stereotactic core needle biopsy procedures and identify contributing factors. This retrospective study analyzed 268 stereotactic biopsy markers placed in 263 consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic biopsies using 9G vacuum-assisted devices from August 2010-July 2013. Mammograms were reviewed and factors contributing to marker migration were evaluated. Basic descriptive statistics were calculated and comparisons were performed based on radiographically-confirmed marker migration. Of the 268 placed stereotactic biopsy markers, 35 (13.1%) migrated ≥1 cm from their biopsy cavity. Range: 1-6 cm; mean (± SD): 2.35 ± 1.22 cm. Of the 35 migrated biopsy markers, 9 (25.7%) migrated ≥3.5 cm. Patient age, biopsy pathology, number of cores, and left versus right breast were not associated with migration status (P> 0.10). Global fatty breast density (P= 0.025) and biopsy in the inner region of breast (P = 0.031) were associated with marker migration. Superior biopsy approach (P= 0.025), locally heterogeneous breast density, and t-shaped biopsy markers (P= 0.035) were significant for no marker migration. Multiple factors were found to influence marker migration. An overall migration rate of 13% supports endeavors of research groups actively developing new biopsy marker designs for improved resistance to migration. • Breast biopsy marker migration is documented in 13% of 268 procedures. • Marker migration is affected by physical, biological, and pathological factors. • Breast density, marker shape, needle approach etc. affect migration. • Study demonstrates marker migration prevalence; marker design improvements are needed.

  2. Novel Roles of the Chemorepellent Axon Guidance Molecule RGMa in Cell Migration and Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Lah, Grace J.

    2012-01-01

    The repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) is a contact-mediated axon guidance molecule that has significant roles in central nervous system (CNS) development. Here we have examined whether RGMa has novel roles in cell migration and cell adhesion outside the nervous system. RGMa was found to stimulate cell migration from Xenopus animal cap explants in a neogenin-dependent and BMP-independent manner. RGMa also stimulated the adhesion of Xenopus animal cap cells, and this adhesion was dependent on neogenin and independent of calcium. To begin to functionally characterize the role of specific domains in RGMa, we assessed the migratory and adhesive activities of deletion mutants. RGMa lacking the partial von Willebrand factor type D (vWF) domain preferentially perturbed cell adhesion, while mutants lacking the RGD motif affected cell migration. We also revealed that manipulating the levels of RGMa in vivo caused major migration defects during Xenopus gastrulation. We have revealed here novel roles of RGMa in cell migration and adhesion and demonstrated that perturbations to the homeostasis of RGMa expression can severely disrupt major morphogenetic events. These results have implications for understanding the role of RGMa in both health and disease. PMID:22215618

  3. Lesion-induced increase in survival and migration of human neural progenitor cells releasing GDNF

    PubMed Central

    Behrstock, Soshana; Ebert, Allison D.; Klein, Sandra; Schmitt, Melanie; Moore, Jeannette M.; Svendsen, Clive N.

    2009-01-01

    The use of human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) has been proposed to provide neuronal replacement or astrocytes delivering growth factors for brain disorders such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. Success in such studies likely requires migration from the site of transplantation and integration into host tissue in the face of ongoing damage. In the current study, hNPC modified to release glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (hNPCGDNF) were transplanted into either intact or lesioned animals. GDNF release itself had no effect on the survival, migration or differentiation of the cells. The most robust migration and survival was found using a direct lesion of striatum (Huntington’s model) with indirect lesions of the dopamine system (Parkinson’s model) or intact animals showing successively less migration and survival. No lesion affected differentiation patterns. We conclude that the type of brain injury dictates migration and integration of hNPC which has important consequences when considering transplantation of these cells as a therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19044202

  4. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  5. Labor and Migration; An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Thomas R.

    This annotated bibliography is intended to contribute toward an understanding of labor and migration, both of which have helped to shape our nation. A total of 131 works, including a few periodicals and newspapers, focus on immigration and internal migration as it affects organized and unorganized labor. (BH)

  6. Migration and Recognition of Diplomas in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingu-Kyrklund, Elena

    2005-01-01

    Trans-national migration is now a global phenomenon, affecting an increasing amount of persons, many of whom have already completed a form of higher education in their country of origin or earlier residence at the time of migration. There is consequently a need to evaluate foreign degrees and assess migrants' professional competence beyond their…

  7. Residues at a Single Site Differentiate Animal Cryptochromes from Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer Photolyases by Affecting the Proteins' Preferences for Reduced FAD.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Wen, Bin; Wang, Yuan; Tian, Changqing; Wu, Mingcai; Zhu, Guoping

    2017-06-19

    Cryptochromes (CRYs) and photolyases belong to the cryptochrome/photolyase family (CPF). Reduced FAD is essential for photolyases to photorepair UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) or 6-4 photoproducts in DNA. In Drosophila CRY (dCRY, a type I animal CRY), FAD is converted to the anionic radical but not to the reduced state upon illumination, which might induce a conformational change in the protein to relay the light signal downstream. To explore the foundation of these differences, multiple sequence alignment of 650 CPF protein sequences was performed. We identified a site facing FAD (Ala377 in Escherichia coli CPD photolyase and Val415 in dCRY), hereafter referred to as "site 377", that was distinctly conserved across these sequences: CPD photolyases often had Ala, Ser, or Asn at this site, whereas animal CRYs had Ile, Leu, or Val. The binding affinity for reduced FAD, but not the photorepair activity of E. coli photolyase, was dramatically impaired when replacing Ala377 with any of the three CRY residues. Conversely, in V415S and V415N mutants of dCRY, FAD was photoreduced to its fully reduced state after prolonged illumination, and light-dependent conformational changes of these mutants were severely inhibited. We speculate that the residues at site 377 play a key role in the different preferences of CPF proteins for reduced FAD, which differentiate animal CRYs from CPD photolyases. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Changing motivations during migration: linking movement speed to reproductive status in a migratory large mammal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navinder J; Ericsson, Göran

    2014-06-01

    A challenge in animal ecology is to link animal movement to demography. In general, reproducing and non-reproducing animals may show different movement patterns. Dramatic changes in reproductive status, such as the loss of an offspring during the course of migration, might also affect movement. Studies linking movement speed to reproductive status require individual monitoring of life-history events and hence are rare. Here, we link movement data from 98 GPS-collared female moose (Alces alces) to field observations of reproductive status and calf survival. We show that reproductive females move more quickly during migration than non-reproductive females. Further, the loss of a calf over the course of migration triggered a decrease in speed of the female. This is in contrast to what might be expected for females no longer constrained by an accompanying offspring. The observed patterns demonstrate that females of different reproductive status may have distinct movement patterns, and that the underlying motivation to move may be altered by a change in reproductive status during migration.

  9. Are Migratory Animals Superspreaders of Infection?

    PubMed

    Fritzsche McKay, Alexa; Hoye, Bethany J

    2016-08-01

    Migratory animals are simultaneously challenged by the physiological demands of long-distance movements and the need to avoid natural enemies including parasites and pathogens. The potential for animal migrations to disperse pathogens across large geographic areas has prompted a growing body of research investigating the interactions between migration and infection. However, the phenomenon of animal migration is yet to be incorporated into broader theories in disease ecology. Because migrations may expose animals to a greater number and diversity of pathogens, increase contact rates between hosts, and render them more susceptible to infection via changes to immune function, migration has the potential to generate both "superspreader species" and infection "hotspots". However, migration has also been shown to reduce transmission in some species, by facilitating parasite avoidance ("migratory escape") and weeding out infected individuals ("migratory culling"). This symposium was convened in an effort to characterize more broadly the role that animal migrations play in the dynamics of infectious disease, by integrating a range of approaches and scales across host taxa. We began with questions related to within-host processes, focusing on the consequences of nutritional constraints and strenuous movement for individual immune capability, and of parasite infection for movement capacity. We then scaled-up to between-host processes to identify what types, distances, or patterns of host movements are associated with the spread of infectious agents. Finally, we discussed landscape-scale relationships between migration and infectious disease, and how these may be altered as a result of anthropogenic changes to climate and land use. We are just beginning to scratch the surface of the interactions between infection and animal migrations; yet, with so many migrations now under threat, there is an urgent need to develop a holistic understanding of the potential for migrations to

  10. Ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) affect behavior and brain serotonergic activity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): Perspectives on animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Øverli, Øyvind; Nordgreen, Janicke; Mejdell, Cecilie M; Janczak, Andrew M; Kittilsen, Silje; Johansen, Ida B; Horsberg, Tor E

    2014-06-10

    Scientific research and public debate on the welfare of animals in human custody is increasing at present. Fish are in this context mentioned with particular attention to the high numbers of individuals reared in aquaculture. Research on fish has also contributed to the understanding of individual variation in the ability to cope with stress and disease. One mediator of such variation is the brain serotonergic (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system, which conveys physiological and behavioral responses to stress and sub-optimal rearing conditions. Here we study links between the 5-HT response, melanin-based skin pigmentation, and behavior in laboratory-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) experimentally infested with ectoparasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Lice numbers were more variable in less pigmented fish, while the neurochemical response to ectoparastic lice-increased levels of the main 5-HT catabolite 5-HIAA in the brain stem-did not differ between pigmentation groups. A strong depression of growth and locomotor activity was seen in all infested fish but less pigmented fish grew better than fish with more skin melanization regardless of infestation status. The observed combination of neurochemical and behavioral effects clearly suggest that animal welfare concerns can be added to the list of negative effects of ectoparasitic sea lice.

  11. Neuronal Migration and AUTS2 Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kei; Hoshino, Mikio

    2017-05-14

    Neuronal migration is one of the pivotal steps to form a functional brain, and disorganization of this process is believed to underlie the pathology of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy. However, it is not clear how abnormal neuronal migration causes mental dysfunction. Recently, a key gene for various psychiatric diseases, the Autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2), has been shown to regulate neuronal migration, which gives new insight into understanding this question. Interestingly, the AUTS2 protein has dual functions: Cytoplasmic AUTS2 regulates actin cytoskeleton to control neuronal migration and neurite extension, while nuclear AUTS2 controls transcription of various genes as a component of the polycomb complex 1 (PRC1). In this review, we discuss AUTS2 from the viewpoint of human genetics, molecular function, brain development, and behavior in animal models, focusing on its role in neuronal migration.

  12. [Ethnic dimension to migration in the Senegal river valley].

    PubMed

    Traore, S

    1993-08-01

    Studies of the factors determining migratory patterns in the Senegal River Valley usually stress the importance of economic factors related to colonial domination. But when cultural factors and the social relations governing them are examined in a comparative study of ethnic groups, distinct population subgroups may be revealed to have differential migratory patterns. The Soninka and the Poular, two groups highly affected by migration, were chosen for an analysis of the impact of specific historical experiences on migratory behavior. A historical analysis of colonial archives and anthropological and historical monographs and the 1982-83 "Survey of Migration in the Valley of the Senegal River" provided data. The survey indicated that Soninka and Poular migratory patterns differed from each other, but that both differed from the migratory patterns of all other ethnic groups in the region. Soninka migration is international and oriented primarily toward Europe. It has recently become more intense than that of the poular. The determinants of migration in the two groups appear related more to the structure of households than to lack of educational and health facilities or even of food at the village level. Pastoral life and its associated beliefs and religious ideology appear to have been the principal determinants of precolonial movement among the Poular, while Soninka migration responded more to competition over control of manpower. Itinerant commercial activity was coupled with use of slave labor to ensure food production. But the suppression of slavery and crises of subsistence aggravated by colonial policy provoked ever more distant migration, which found a focus in the French demand for labor after World War II. Migration as an alternative does not appear to have been as significant for the Poular until more recently, when subsistence agriculture and the sale of animals were no longer sufficient to cover monetary needs. Male migration among the Soninka is a

  13. Migration phenology and seasonal fidelity of an Arctic marine predator in relation to sea ice dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Seth G; Derocher, Andrew E; Thiemann, Gregory W; Lunn, Nicholas J

    2013-07-01

    Understanding how seasonal environmental conditions affect the timing and distribution of synchronized animal movement patterns is a central issue in animal ecology. Migration, a behavioural adaptation to seasonal environmental fluctuations, is a fundamental part of the life history of numerous species. However, global climate change can alter the spatiotemporal distribution of resources and thus affect the seasonal movement patterns of migratory animals. We examined sea ice dynamics relative to migration patterns and seasonal geographical fidelity of an Arctic marine predator, the polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Polar bear movement patterns were quantified using satellite-linked telemetry data collected from collars deployed between 1991-1997 and 2004-2009. We showed that specific sea ice characteristics can predict the timing of seasonal polar bear migration on and off terrestrial refugia. In addition, fidelity to specific onshore regions during the ice-free period was predicted by the spatial pattern of sea ice break-up but not by the timing of break-up. The timing of migration showed a trend towards earlier arrival of polar bears on shore and later departure from land, which has been driven by climate-induced declines in the availability of sea ice. Changes to the timing of migration have resulted in polar bears spending progressively longer periods of time on land without access to sea ice and their marine mammal prey. The links between increased atmospheric temperatures, sea ice dynamics, and the migratory behaviour of an ice-dependent species emphasizes the importance of quantifying and monitoring relationships between migratory wildlife and environmental cues that may be altered by climate change.

  14. Storms drive altitudinal migration in a tropical bird

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, W. Alice; Norris, D. Ryan; Guglielmo, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    Although migration is a widespread and taxonomically diverse behaviour, the ecological factors shaping migratory behaviour are poorly understood. Like other montane taxa, many birds migrate along elevational gradients in the tropics. Forty years ago, Alexander Skutch postulated that severe storms could drive birds to migrate downhill. Here, we articulate a novel mechanism that could link storms to mortality risks via reductions in foraging time and provide, to our knowledge, the first tests of this hypothesis in the White-ruffed Manakin (Corapipo altera), a small partially migratory frugivore breeding on the Atlantic slope of Costa Rica. As predicted, variation in rainfall was associated with plasma corticosterone levels, fat stores, plasma metabolites and haematocrit. By collecting data at high and low elevation sites simultaneously, we also found that high-elevation residents were more adversely affected by storms than low elevation migrants. These results, together with striking temporal capture patterns of altitudinal migrants relative to storms, provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that weather-related risks incurred by species requiring high food intake rates can explain altitudinal migrations of tropical animals. These findings resolve conflicting evidence for and against food limitation being important in the evolution of this behaviour, and highlight how endogenous and exogenous processes influence life-history trade-offs made by individuals in the wild. Because seasonal storms are a defining characteristic of most tropical ecosystems and rainfall patterns will probably change in ensuing decades, these results have important implications for understanding the ecology, evolution and conservation of tropical animals. PMID:20375047

  15. How does airway exposure of aflatoxin B1 affect serum albumin adduct concentrations? Evidence based on epidemiological study and animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Mo, Xianwei; Lai, Hao; Yang, Yang; Xiao, Jun; He, Ke; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) airway inhalation represents an additional route of exposure to this toxin. However, the association between AFB1 inhalation and serum AFB1 albumin adducts remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the association between airway exposure to AFB1 and serum AFB1 albumin adduct concentrations via an epidemiological study, as well as in an AFB1 airway exposure animal model. Our epidemiological study was conducted in a sugar factory in the Guangxi Autonomous Region of China. In order to examine fungal contamination, air samples were obtained in the workshop and areas outside the workshop, such as the office and nearby store. Dust samples were also collected from the bagasse warehouse and presser workshop, and were analyzed using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, blood samples were collected from a total of 121 workshop workers, and a control group (n = 80) was comprised of workers who undertook administrative tasks or other work outside the workshop. The animal experiment was conducted in the laboratory animal center of Guangxi Medical University, where a total of 60 adult male rabbits were involved in this study. By intubation, AFB1 was administered in three groups of rabbits daily, at dose rates of 0.075, 0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg/day for a period of 7 days. Blood samples were collected on day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 21, and the measurements of the AFB1 albumin adducts in the serum were performed by a double antibody sandwich ELISA. The epidemiological study showed that serum albumin adducts were detected in 67 workshop workers (55.37%), and the values ranged 6.4 pg/mg albumin to 212 pg/mg albumin (mean value: 51 ± 4.62 pg/mg albumin). In contrast, serum albumin adducts were detected in only 7 control group participants, with the values ranging from 9 pg AFB1/mg albumin to 59 pg/mg albumin (mean value: 20 ± 13.72 pg/mg albumin). The animal experiment revealed that the rabbits had detectable

  16. [Contemporary international migrations and migration policy].

    PubMed

    Latuch, M

    1995-01-01

    With a focus on Poland, the author examines the following aspects and questions regarding international migration: "The intensification of spatial mobility in Poland as well as in other countries; the necessity for modernisation of migratory policy; socio-economic implications of out-migration and migratory policy; Poland--a country of transit, political asylum or immigration?; the phenomenon of transit migration in Poland; stability or flexibility of migratory policy? [and] migration as a focus of world population conferences." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) excerpt

  17. Parental Migration and Children's Academic Engagement: The Case of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shuang; Adams, Jennifer; Qu, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Li

    2013-01-01

    In the context of China's increasing rural-urban migration, few studies have investigated how parental migration affects children's experience in school. The high cost of schooling, taken together with the institutional barriers in destination cities, have compelled many rural parents in China to migrate without their children, leaving them in the…

  18. Parental Migration and Children's Academic Engagement: The Case of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shuang; Adams, Jennifer; Qu, Zhiyong; Wang, Xiaohua; Chen, Li

    2013-01-01

    In the context of China's increasing rural-urban migration, few studies have investigated how parental migration affects children's experience in school. The high cost of schooling, taken together with the institutional barriers in destination cities, have compelled many rural parents in China to migrate without their children, leaving them in the…

  19. Leave before it's too late: anthropogenic and environmental triggers of autumn migration in a hunted ungulate population.

    PubMed

    Rivrud, Inger Maren; Bischof, Richard; Meisingset, Erling L; Zimmermann, Barbara; Loe, Leif Egil; Mysterud, Atle

    2016-04-01

    Autumn has to a large extent been neglected in the climate effect literature, yet autumn events, e.g., plant senescence and animal migration, affect fitness of animals differently than spring events. Understanding how variables including plant phenology influence timing of autumn migrations is important to gain a comprehensive understanding of the full annual cycle of migratory species. Here we use 13 yr of data from 60 male and 168 female red deer (Cervus elaphus) to identify triggers of autumn migration. We relate the timing of autumn migration to environmental variables like snow fall, temperature, and plant phenology (NDVI), and to onset of hunting, sex, and migration distance. Severe weather has been suggested as the main trigger of autumn migration, but we found that the majority of the individuals had left the summer range well before snow fall (80.3%) and frost (70.5%), and also before the peak deterioration in forage quality (71.9%). Declining temperatures were associated with a higher daily migration potential. Onset of hunting showed the largest effect on migration potential, with a marked increase during the first days of hunting. Individuals still present in the summer range when snow fall, frost, or peak forage deterioration occurred showed a significantly higher migration potential around these events. Males were less responsive to environmental cues, suggesting rutting activity, starting earlier in males, initiate movement prior to such conditions. Also, individuals with longer migration distances had a higher migration potential late in the season than individuals with shorter migration distances. Our study shows that factors beyond weather and plant phenology, such as onset of hunting, may be important triggers of autumn migration. Severe weather and forage deterioration were important triggers for the individuals experiencing this, which suggests a hierarchical response to environmental cues. The trade-off between staying longer in the summer

  20. The cost of migration: spoonbills suffer higher mortality during trans-Saharan spring migrations only.

    PubMed

    Lok, Tamar; Overdijk, Otto; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-01-01

    Explanations for the wide variety of seasonal migration patterns of animals all carry the assumption that migration is costly and that this cost increases with migration distance. Although in some studies, the relationships between migration distance and breeding success or annual survival are established, none has investigated whether mortality during the actual migration increases with migration distance. Here, we compared seasonal survival between Eurasian spoonbills (Platalea leucorodia leucorodia) that breed in The Netherlands and migrate different distances (ca 1000, 2000 and 4500 km) to winter in France, Iberia and Mauritania, respectively. On the basis of resightings of individually marked birds throughout the year between 2005 and 2012, we show that summer, autumn and winter survival were very high and independent of migration distance, whereas mortality during spring migration was much higher (18%) for the birds that wintered in Mauritania, compared with those flying only as far as France (5%) or Iberia (6%). As such, this study is the first to show empirical evidence for increased mortality during some long migrations, likely driven by the presence of a physical barrier (the Sahara desert) in combination with suboptimal fuelling and unfavourable weather conditions en route.

  1. Families, children, migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Haour-Knipe, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Migration is very often a family affair, and often involves children, directly or indirectly. It may give rise to better quality of life for an entire family, or to bitter disappointment, and may also increase vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. This review, carried out for the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS, links the literature on "migration", on "HIV and AIDS" and on "families". Three themes are sketched: (1) As both HIV prevalence and circular migration increase, former migrant workers affected by AIDS may return to their families for care and support, especially at the end of life, often under crisis conditions. Families thus lose promising members, as well as sources of support. However, very little is known about the children of such migrants. (2) Following patterns of migration established for far different reasons, children may have to relocate to different places, sometimes over long distances, if their AIDS-affected parents can no longer care for them. They face the same adaptation challenges as other children who move, but complicated by loss of parent(s), AIDS stigma, and often poverty. (3) The issue of migrant families living with HIV has been studied to some extent, but mainly in developed countries with a long history of migration, and with little attention paid to the children in such families. Difficulties include involuntary separation from family members, isolation and lack of support, disclosure and planning for children's care should the parent(s) die and differences in treatment access within the same family. Numerous research and policy gaps are defined regarding the three themes, and a call is made for thinking about migration, families and AIDS to go beyond description to include resilience theory, and to go beyond prevention to include care.

  2. Adaptive strategies in nocturnally migrating insects and songbirds: contrasting responses to wind.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jason W; Nilsson, Cecilia; Lim, Ka S; Bäckman, Johan; Reynolds, Don R; Alerstam, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Animals that use flight as their mode of transportation must cope with the fact that their migration and orientation performance is strongly affected by the flow of the medium they are moving in, that is by the winds. Different strategies can be used to mitigate the negative effects and benefit from the positive effects of a moving flow. The strategies an animal can use will be constrained by the relationship between the speed of the flow and the speed of the animal's own propulsion in relation to the surrounding air. Here we analyse entomological and ornithological radar data from north-western Europe to investigate how two different nocturnal migrant taxa, the noctuid moth Autographa gamma and songbirds, deal with wind by analysing variation in resulting flight directions in relation to the wind-dependent angle between the animal's heading and track direction. Our results, from fixed locations along the migratory journey, reveal different global strategies used by moths and songbirds during their migratory journeys. As expected, nocturnally migrating moths experienced a greater degree of wind drift than nocturnally migrating songbirds, but both groups were more affected by wind in autumn than in spring. The songbirds' strategies involve elements of both drift and compensation, providing some benefits from wind in combination with destination and time control. In contrast, moths expose themselves to a significantly higher degree of drift in order to obtain strong wind assistance, surpassing the songbirds in mean ground speed, at the cost of a comparatively lower spatiotemporal migratory precision. Moths and songbirds show contrasting but adaptive responses to migrating through a moving flow, which are fine-tuned to the respective flight capabilities of each group in relation to the wind currents they travel within.

  3. Role of sex and migration in adaptation to sink environments.

    PubMed

    Lagator, Mato; Morgan, Andrew; Neve, Paul; Colegrave, Nick

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the effects of sex and migration on adaptation to novel environments remains a key problem in evolutionary biology. Using a single-cell alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we investigated how sex and migration affected rates of evolutionary rescue in a sink environment, and subsequent changes in fitness following evolutionary rescue. We show that sex and migration affect both the rate of evolutionary rescue and subsequent adaptation. However, their combined effects change as the populations adapt to a sink habitat. Both sex and migration independently increased rates of evolutionary rescue, but the effect of sex on subsequent fitness improvements, following initial rescue, changed with migration, as sex was beneficial in the absence of migration but constraining adaptation when combined with migration. These results suggest that sex and migration are beneficial during the initial stages of adaptation, but can become detrimental as the population adapts to its environment.

  4. Shorebird migration in the face of climate change: potential shifts in migration phenology and resource availability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stutzman, Ryan J.; Fontaine, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Changes in temperature and seasonality resulting from climate change are heterogeneous, potentially altering important sources of natural selection acting on species phenology. Some species have apparently adapted to climate change but the ability of most species to adapt remains unknown. The life history strategies of migratory animals are dictated by seasonal factors, which makes these species particularly vulnerable to heterogeneous changes in climate and phenology. Here, we examine the phenology of migratory shorebirds, their habitats, and primary food resources, and we hypothesize how climate change may affect migrants through predicted changes in phenology. Daily abundance of shorebirds at stopover sites was correlated with local phenology and peaked immediately prior to peaks in invertebrate food resources. A close relationship between migrant and invertebrate phenology indicates that shorebirds may be vulnerable to changes in seasonality driven by climate change. It is possible that shifts in migrant and invertebrate phenology will be congruent in magnitude and direction, but because migration phenology is dependent on a suite of ecological factors, any response is likely to occur at a larger temporal scale and may lag behind the response of invertebrate food resources. The resulting lack of sufficient access to food at stopover habitats may cause migrants to extend migration and have cascading effects throughout their life cycle. If the heterogeneous nature of climate change results in uneven changes in phenology between migrants and their prey, it may threaten the long-term viability of migratory populations

  5. Morphological constraints on changing avian migration phenology.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders Pape; Rubolini, Diego; Saino, Nicola

    2017-04-07

    Many organisms at northern latitudes have responded to climate warming by advancing their spring phenology. Birds are known to show earlier timing of spring migration and reproduction in response to warmer springs. However, species show heterogeneous phenological responses to climate warming, with those that have not advanced or have delayed migration phenology experiencing population declines. Although some traits (such as migration distance) partly explain heterogeneity in phenological responses, the factors affecting interspecies differences in the responsiveness to climate warming have yet to be fully explored. In this comparative study, we investigate whether variation in wing aspect ratio (reflecting relative wing narrowness), an ecomorphological trait that is strongly associated with flight efficiency and migratory behaviour, affects the ability to advance timing of spring migration during 1960-2006 in a set of 80 Eurasian migratory bird species. Species with large aspect ratio (longer and narrower wings) showed smaller advancement of timing of spring migration compared to species with smaller aspect ratio (shorter and wider wings) while controlling for phylogeny, migration distance and other life-history traits. In turn, migration distance positively predicted aspect ratio across species. Hence, species that are better adapted to migration appear to be more constrained in responding phenologically to rapid climate warming by advancing timing of spring migration. Our findings corroborate the idea that aspect ratio is a major evolutionary correlate of migration, and suggest that selection for energetically efficient flights, as reflected by high aspect ratio, somehow hinders phenotypically plastic/microevolutionary adjustments of migration phenology to ongoing climatic changes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Farm Animals

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Back of a Horse Chickens in the City Diseases Cat-Scratch Disease E. coli Infection Ringworm ... animals when even when they appear healthy and clean. Although it usually doesn’t make farm animals ...

  7. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  8. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... surrounding the bite. Bites from wild animals, especially bats but also skunks, raccoons, coyotes, and foxes, are much more dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal ...

  9. [A daycare program of animal assisted therapy for affective disorder patients during psychotropic drug therapy: evaluation of the relaxation effect by fNIRS (functional near-infrared spectroscopy)].

    PubMed

    Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Fukamauchi, Fumihiko; Aoki, Jun; Kurihara, Kouhei; Yoshihara, Eiji; Inoue, Masao; Shibanai, Hiroko; Ishigooka, Jun

    2010-06-01

    During daycare programs of animal assisted therapy (AAT), we collected data on the brain function of two affective disorder patients who received psychotropic drug therapy with fNIRS, after written informed consent was obtained. A male patient at first showed a bloodstream drop, seen in the lower inside part of frontal lobe. In both patients, at least a slight activation of the function of the frontal lobe was seen during the therapy. Therefore, an activation effect of AAT was seen at least objectively by fNIRS.

  10. Carbohydrate-Free Peach (Prunus persica) and Plum (Prunus salicina) [corrected] Juice Affects Fecal Microbial Ecology in an Obese Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Markel, Melissa; Martino, Hercia S; Minamoto, Yasushi; Steiner, Jörg M; Byrne, David; Suchodolski, Jan S; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each), wild-type group was named lean (n = 10). Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea) were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice). Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals) to the observed changes is unknown.

  11. Population, migration and urbanization.

    PubMed

    1982-06-01

    Despite recent estimates that natural increase is becoming a more important component of urban growth than rural urban transfer (excess of inmigrants over outmigrants), the share of migration in the total population growth has been consistently increasing in both developed and developing countries. From a demographic perspective, the migration process involves 3 elements: an area of origin which the mover leaves and where he or she is considered an outmigrant; the destination or place of inmigration; and the period over which migration is measured. The 2 basic types of migration are internal and international. Internal migration consists of rural to urban migration, urban to urban migration, rural to rural migration, and urban to rural migration. Among these 4 types of migration various patterns or processes are followed. Migration may be direct when the migrant moves directly from the village to the city and stays there permanently. It can be circular migration, meaning that the migrant moves to the city when it is not planting season and returns to the village when he is needed on the farm. In stage migration the migrant makes a series of moves, each to a city closer to the largest or fastest growing city. Temporary migration may be 1 time or cyclical. The most dominant pattern of internal migration is rural urban. The contribution of migration to urbanization is evident. For example, the rapid urbanization and increase in urban growth from 1960-70 in the Republic of Korea can be attributed to net migration. In Asia the largest component of the population movement consists of individuals and groups moving from 1 rural location to another. Recently, because urban centers could no longer absorb the growing number of migrants from other places, there has been increased interest in the urban to rural population redistribution. This reverse migration also has come about due to slower rates of employment growth in the urban centers and improved economic opportunities

  12. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains?

  13. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  14. Recombinant gamma interferon causes neutrophil migration mediated by the release of a macrophage neutrophil chemotactic factor.

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, R. A.; Cunha, F. Q.; Ferreira, S. H.

    1990-01-01

    A dose-dependent neutrophil migration was observed following the injection of purified (Hu IFN-gamma) or recombinant (rIFN-gamma) human gamma interferon into rat peritoneal cavities. This finding contrasts with their inability to cause chemotaxis in vitro in the Boyden chamber. Neutrophil migration into peritoneal cavities and subcutaneous air pouches induced by both preparations of interferon was abolished by pretreatment of the animals with dexamethasone. IFN-gamma-induced neutrophil migration was enhanced when the macrophage population of the peritoneal cavities was increased by previous injection of thioglycollate and reduced by peritoneal lavage. Macrophage monolayers pretreated either with rIFN-gamma or with lipopolysaccharide from E. coli release into the supernatant a factor that stimulates neutrophil recruitment in animals treated with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone blocked this release but did not affect the neutrophil recruitment induced by this factor. These results suggest that IFN-gamma-induced neutrophil migration in vivo may be mediated by the release from resident macrophages of a neutrophil chemotactic factor and that dexamethasone blockade of neutrophil recruitment by IFN-gamma is due to inhibition of the release of this factor. PMID:2119790

  15. Draught animals and welfare.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, N S

    1994-03-01

    In fifty developing countries, which contain half of the total human population of the world, there is a heavy dependence on draught animals as an energy source. These animals are used for agriculture operations in 52% of cultivated areas of the world, as well as for hauling 25 million carts. This situation is likely to continue for at least another fifty years. The work performed annually by these draught animals would require 20 million tons of petroleum, valued at US$6 billion, if it were performed by motorized vehicles. The poor working conditions of these animals often adversely affect their productivity. The application of improved technology and better management (i.e. through better feed and health services, and improved design of agricultural implements and carts) could considerably improve the welfare of these animals. Improved systems would generate sufficient benefits for the economy to justify the required investment. High priority should therefore be given to draught animal power in the economic development agenda.

  16. [Circular migration in Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Mantra, I B

    1979-12-01

    The author examines circular migration in Indonesia, with primary focus on the 1970s. It is found that circular, or repeated return migration, generally occurs over short distances and for short periods and is more frequent than lifetime migration. The relationships between improvements in the national transport system, access to labor force opportunities in both the formal and informal sectors of the economy, and circular migration are discussed.

  17. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  18. More Myths of Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Linda; Lerner, Gail

    1986-01-01

    Challenges "myths" about women and migration, including (1) the causes of migration are economic, not racism; (2) migrant women receive support from feminist groups and trade unions; (3) transnational corporations are positive forces in developing nations; (4) migration today has little impact on family life; and (5) most migrants cluster in…

  19. Migration and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gois, William

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to highlight the role of adult education as a tool in addressing labour migration issues, specifically those concerning the protection of migrant workers' rights and the transformation of the impact of migration into positive holistic developmental gains. The view of labour migration as a means to forge the economic…

  20. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  1. Mouse model of rare TOR1A variant found in sporadic focal dystonia impairs domains affected in DYT1 dystonia patients and animal models.

    PubMed

    Bhagat, Srishti L; Qiu, Sunny; Caffall, Zachary F; Wan, Yehong; Pan, Yuanji; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Badea, Alexandra; Hochgeschwender, Ute; Calakos, Nicole

    2016-09-01

    Rare de novo mutations in genes associated with inherited Mendelian disorders are potential contributors to sporadic disease. DYT1 dystonia is an autosomal dominant, early-onset, generalized dystonia associated with an in-frame, trinucleotide deletion (n. delGAG, p. ΔE 302/303) in the Tor1a gene. Here we examine the significance of a rare missense variant in the Tor1a gene (c. 613T>A, p. F205I), previously identified in a patient with sporadic late-onset focal dystonia, by modeling it in mice. Homozygous F205I mice have motor impairment, reduced steady-state levels of TorsinA, altered corticostriatal synaptic plasticity, and prominent brain imaging abnormalities in areas associated with motor function. Thus, the F205I variant causes abnormalities in domains affected in people and/or mouse models with the DYT1 Tor1a mutation (ΔE). Our findings establish the pathological significance of the F205I Tor1a variant and provide a model with both etiological and phenotypic relevance to further investigate dystonia mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. How to make a good animation: A grounded cognition model of how visual representation design affects the construction of abstract physics knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongzhou; Gladding, Gary

    2014-06-01

    Visual representations play a critical role in teaching physics. However, since we do not have a satisfactory understanding of how visual perception impacts the construction of abstract knowledge, most visual representations used in instructions are either created based on existing conventions or designed according to the instructor's intuition, which leads to a significant variance in their effectiveness. In this paper we propose a cognitive mechanism based on grounded cognition, suggesting that visual perception affects understanding by activating "perceptual symbols": the basic cognitive unit used by the brain to construct a concept. A good visual representation activates perceptual symbols that are essential for the construction of the represented concept, whereas a bad representation does the opposite. As a proof of concept, we conducted a clinical experiment in which participants received three different versions of a multimedia tutorial teaching the integral expression of electric potential. The three versions were only different by the details of the visual representation design, only one of which contained perceptual features that activate perceptual symbols essential for constructing the idea of "accumulation." On a following post-test, participants receiving this version of tutorial significantly outperformed those who received the other two versions of tutorials designed to mimic conventional visual representations used in classrooms.

  3. Childhood migration and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Schooling, Mary; Leung, Gabriel M; Janus, Edward D; Ho, Sai Yin; Hedley, Anthony J; Lam, Tai Hing

    2004-12-01

    Childhood living conditions have been hypothesized to be associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in adult life. We analysed, using logistic regression, the risk of self-reported diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease in a population-based sample of 3643 Chinese men and 3778 Chinese women some of whom had experienced a change to more favourable economic conditions at different life stages through migration from mainland China to Hong Kong. Adjusting for socio-economic status, risk behaviours, and family history, the development of diabetes was associated with migration from China to Hong Kong in the first two decades of life, albeit with a decreasing intensity of effect (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.18, 3.45, OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.66, and OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.45 for migration at ages 0-7, 8-17, and 18-24, respectively). The development of hypertension was mostly susceptible to environmental change during the growth spurt and puberty (migration at ages 8-17 OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.99). The development of heart disease was associated with a sex-specific critical period in early childhood for men (migration at ages 0-7 OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.70, 5.91). Environmental change by migration throughout the first two decades of life can affect the development of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and ischaemic heart disease, although adverse childhood conditions alone may not be a risk factor. Our results suggest that specific life course pathways may pre-dispose to these conditions and could be relevant to their aetiology in populations undergoing rapid development.

  4. Global migration can lead to stronger spatial selection than local migration

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Feng; Nowaks, Martin A.

    2012-01-01

    The outcome of evolutionary processes depends on population structure. It is well known that mobility plays an important role in affecting evolutionary dynamics in group structured populations. But it is largely unknown whether global or local migration leads to stronger spatial selection and would therefore favor to a larger extent the evolution of cooperation. To address this issue, we quantify the impacts of these two migration patterns on the evolutionary competition of two strategies in a finite island model. Global migration means that individuals can migrate from any one island to any other island. Local migration means that individuals can only migrate between islands that are nearest neighbors; we study a simple geometry where islands are arranged on a one-dimensional, regular cycle. We derive general results for weak selection and large population size. Our key parameters are: the number of islands, the migration rate and the mutation rate. Surprisingly, our comparative analysis reveals that global migration can lead to stronger spatial selection than local migration for a wide range of parameter conditions. Our work provides useful insights into understanding how different mobility patterns affect evolutionary processes. PMID:23853390

  5. Nutritional state and collective motion: from individuals to mass migration.

    PubMed

    Bazazi, Sepideh; Romanczuk, Pawel; Thomas, Sian; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz; Hale, Joseph J; Miller, Gabriel A; Sword, Gregory A; Simpson, Stephen J; Couzin, Iain D

    2011-02-07

    In order to move effectively in unpredictable or heterogeneous environments animals must make appropriate decisions in response to internal and external cues. Identifying the link between these components remains a challenge for movement ecology and is important in understanding the mechanisms driving both individual and collective motion. One accessible way of examining how internal state influences an individual's motion is to consider the nutritional state of an animal. Our experimental results reveal that nutritional state exerts a relatively minor influence on the motion of isolated individuals, but large group-level differences emerge from diet affecting inter-individual interactions. This supports the idea that mass movement in locusts may be driven by cannibalism. To estimate how these findings are likely to impact collective migration of locust hopper bands, we create an experimentally parametrized model of locust interactions and motion. Our model supports our hypothesis that nutrient-dependent social interactions can lead to the collective motion seen in our experiments and predicts a transition in the mean speed and the degree of coordination of bands with increasing insect density. Furthermore, increasing the interaction strength (representing greater protein deprivation) dramatically reduces the critical density at which this transition occurs, demonstrating that individuals' nutritional state could have a major impact on large-scale migration.

  6. Sea turtle nesting distributions and oceanographic constraints on hatchling migration

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Nathan F.; Bane, John M.; Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of abundance across a species's reproductive range are influenced by ecological and environmental factors that affect the survival of offspring. For marine animals whose offspring must migrate long distances, natural selection may favour reproduction in areas near ocean currents that facilitate migratory movements. Similarly, selection may act against the use of potential reproductive areas from which offspring have difficulty emigrating. As a first step towards investigating this conceptual framework, we analysed loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nest abundance along the southeastern US coast as a function of distance to the Gulf Stream System (GSS), the ocean current to which hatchlings in this region migrate. Results indicate that nest density increases as distance to the GSS decreases. Distance to the GSS can account for at least 90 per cent of spatial variation in regional nest density. Even at smaller spatial scales, where local beach conditions presumably exert strong effects, at least 38 per cent of the variance is explained by distance from the GSS. These findings suggest that proximity to favourable ocean currents strongly influences sea turtle nesting distributions. Similar factors may influence patterns of abundance across the reproductive ranges of diverse marine animals, such as penguins, eels, salmon and seals. PMID:20573619

  7. Sea turtle nesting distributions and oceanographic constraints on hatchling migration.

    PubMed

    Putman, Nathan F; Bane, John M; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2010-12-07

    Patterns of abundance across a species's reproductive range are influenced by ecological and environmental factors that affect the survival of offspring. For marine animals whose offspring must migrate long distances, natural selection may favour reproduction in areas near ocean currents that facilitate migratory movements. Similarly, selection may act against the use of potential reproductive areas from which offspring have difficulty emigrating. As a first step towards investigating this conceptual framework, we analysed loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nest abundance along the southeastern US coast as a function of distance to the Gulf Stream System (GSS), the ocean current to which hatchlings in this region migrate. Results indicate that nest density increases as distance to the GSS decreases. Distance to the GSS can account for at least 90 per cent of spatial variation in regional nest density. Even at smaller spatial scales, where local beach conditions presumably exert strong effects, at least 38 per cent of the variance is explained by distance from the GSS. These findings suggest that proximity to favourable ocean currents strongly influences sea turtle nesting distributions. Similar factors may influence patterns of abundance across the reproductive ranges of diverse marine animals, such as penguins, eels, salmon and seals.

  8. [The theory of migration].

    PubMed

    Delbruck, C; Raffelhuschen, B

    1993-09-01

    "The present and expected migration flows in Europe require a detailed analysis of determinants and elements of migration decisions. This survey encompasses a view on classical--labor market and demand side oriented--theories, the more recent human capital approach as well as on migration under asymmetric information. Since these theories so far yield an unsatisfactory basis for description and forecasting of multilateral migration flows, a closer look at empirical methods of migration research is taken. Consequently, a description of possible policy oriented applications of the gravity model and the random utility approach, with their descriptive and normative characteristics, is given." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  9. Molecular genetics of neuronal migration disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Judy S

    2011-04-01

    Cortical malformations associated with defects in neuronal migration result in severe developmental consequences including intractable epilepsy and intellectual disability. Genetic causes of migration defects have been identified with the advent and widespread use of high-resolution MRI and genetic techniques. Thus, the full phenotypic range of these genetic disorders is becoming apparent. Genes that cause lissencephaly, pachygyria, subcortical band heterotopia, and periventricular nodular heterotopias have been defined. Many of these genes are involved in cytoskeletal regulation including the function of microtubules (LIS1, TUBA1A,TUBB3, and DCX) and of actin (FilaminA). Thus, the molecular pathways regulating neuronal migration including the cytoskeletal pathways appear to be defined by human mutation syndromes. Basic science, including cell biology and animal models of these disorders, has informed our understanding of the pathogenesis of neuronal migration disorders and further progress depends on the continued integration of the clinical and basic sciences.

  10. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing

    PubMed Central

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H. G.; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition. PMID:21307045

  11. Fibroblast migration in fibrin gel matrices.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, L. F.; Lanir, N.; McDonagh, J.; Tognazzi, K.; Dvorak, A. M.; Dvorak, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    In healing wounds and many solid tumors, locally increased microvascular permeability results in extravasation of fibrinogen and its extravascular coagulation to form a fibrin gel, with concomitant covalent cross-linking of fibrin by factor XIIIa. Subsequently, inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells migrate into the gel and organize it into granulation tissue and later into mature collagenous connective tissue. To gain insight into some of the cell migration events associated with these processes, we developed a quantitative in vitro assay that permits the study of fibroblast migration in fibrin gels. Early passage human or rat fibroblasts were allowed to attach to tissue culture dishes and then were overlaid with a thin layer of fibrinogen that was clotted with thrombin. Fibroblasts began to migrate upwards into the fibrin within 24 hours and their numbers and the distance migrated were quantified over several days. The extent of fibroblast migration was affected importantly by the nature of the fibrin clot. Fibroblasts migrated optimally into gels prepared from fibrinogen at concentrations of -3 mg/ml; ie, near normal plasma fibrinogen levels. Migration was greatly enhanced by extensive cross-linking of the fibrin alpha-chains by factor XIIIa, as occurs when clotting takes place in vivo. When fibrinogen was clotted in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, gamma-chains were cross-linked, but alpha-chain cross-linking was strikingly inhibited, and fibroblasts migrated poorly. Gels prepared from factor XIII-depleted fibrinogen exhibited neither alpha-nor gamma-chain cross-linking and did not support fibroblast migration. Further purification of fibrinogen by anion exchange high pressure liquid chromatography depleted fibrinogen of fibronectin, plasminogen, and other impurities; this purified fibrinogen clotted to form fibrin gels that supported reproducible fibroblast migration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:8424460

  12. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  13. SDN-1/syndecan regulates growth factor signaling in distal tip cell migrations in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Schwabiuk, Megan; Coudiere, Ludivine; Merz, David C

    2009-10-01

    Mutations in the sdn-1/syndecan gene act as genetic enhancers of the ventral-to-dorsal distal tip cell (DTC) migration defects caused by a weak allele of the netrin receptor gene unc-5. The sdn-1(ev697) allele was identified in a genetic screen for enhancers of unc-5 DTC migration defects, and carried a nonsense mutation predicted to truncate the SDN-1 protein prior to the transmembrane domain. The enhancement of unc-5 caused by an sdn-1 mutation was rescued by expression of wild-type sdn-1 in the hypodermis or nervous system rather than the DTCs, indicating a cell non-autonomous function of sdn-1. The enhancement was also partially reversed by mutations in the egl-17/FGF or egl-20/Wnt genes, suggesting that sdn-1 affects UNC-5 function through a mis-regulation of signaling in growth factor pathways. egl-20 reporter constructs exhibited increased and mis-localized EGL-20 distribution in sdn-1 mutants compared to wild-type animals. Finally, using loss of function mutations, we show that egl-17/Fgf and egl-20/Wnt are partially redundant in regulating the migration pattern of the posterior DTC, as double mutants exhibit significant frequencies of defects in migration phases along both the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. Together these results suggest that SDN-1 affects UNC-5 function by regulating the proper extracellular distribution of growth factors.

  14. Update on migration research and regulatory initiatives.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, P S

    1994-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) current research programme on migration from food packaging materials focuses on high-temperature packaging applications. Results from two studies conducted by Arthur D. Little, Inc., under contract to the FDA, are presented as well as highlights of the FDA's research programme on migration from microwave heat susceptor packaging. Some regulatory policy issues affecting the FDA's future regulation of food packaging materials are also examined.

  15. 9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals or materials. (a) Animals affected by or exposed to disease, and materials required to be...

  16. 9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals or materials. (a) Animals affected by or exposed to disease, and materials required to be...

  17. 9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals or materials. (a) Animals affected by or exposed to disease, and materials required to be...

  18. 9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals or materials. (a) Animals affected by or exposed to disease, and materials required to be...

  19. 9 CFR 53.3 - Appraisal of animals or materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisal of animals or materials. 53.3 Section 53.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals or materials. (a) Animals affected by or exposed to disease, and materials required to be...

  20. Animal Allies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brenda

    1999-01-01

    Discusses young teenagers' adoption of animal personas in their creative writing classes, and the way these classroom activities follow Montessori principles. Considers both the role of imagination in the animal identification and the psychological and pedagogical significance of the underlying development of unconscious kinship with Earth and its…

  1. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  2. Animal Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  3. Enceladus Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-31

    This frame from an animation shows the Cassini spacecraft approaching Saturn's icy moon Enceladus. It shows the highest resolution images obtained of the moon's surface. This is followed by a depiction of Saturn's magnetic field, which interacts with Enceladus' atmosphere and presumed plume coming from the south pole. An animation is available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03554

  4. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  5. Animal Detectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Bridget; Warnock, Carly

    2015-01-01

    During a two-week inquiry-based 5E learning cycle unit, children made observations and inferences to guide their explorations of animal traits and habitats (Bybee 2014). The children became "animal detectives" by studying a live-feed webcam and digital images of wolves in their natural habitat, reading books and online sources about…

  6. Excelsior Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinkamp, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  7. Collapsing animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janse van Rensburg, E. J.; Orlandini, E.; Tesi, M. C.

    1999-03-01

    Lattice animals with fugacities conjugate to the number of indepedent cycles, or to the number of nearest neighbour contacts, go through a collapse transition at a 0305-4470/32/9/007/img5-point at a critical value of the fugacity. We examine the phase diagram of a model which includes both a cycle and a contact fugacity with Monte Carlo methods. Using an underlying cut-and-paste Metropolis algorithm for lattice animals, we implement in the first instance a multiple Markov chain simulation of collapsing animals to estimate the location of the collapse transitions and the values of the crossover exponents associated with these. Secondly, we use umbrella sampling to sample animals over a rectangle in the phase diagram to examine the structure of the phase diagram of these animals.

  8. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    "The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone."

  9. Partial diel migration: A facultative migration underpinned by long-term inter-individual variation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Philip M; Gutowsky, Lee F G; Martins, Eduardo G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Power, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The variations in migration that comprise partial diel migrations, putatively occur entirely as a consequence of behavioural flexibility. However, seasonal partial migrations are increasingly recognised to be mediated by a combination of reversible plasticity in response to environmental variation and individual variation due to genetic and environmental effects. Here, we test the hypothesis that while partial diel migration heterogeneity occurs primarily due to short-term within-individual flexibility in behaviour, long-term individual differences in migratory behaviour also underpin this migration variation. Specifically, we use a hierarchical behavioural reaction norm approach to partition within- and among-individual variation in depth use and diel plasticity in depth use, across short- and long-term time-scales, in a group of 47 burbot (Lota lota) tagged with depth-sensing acoustic telemetry transmitters. We found that within-individual variation at the among-dates-within-seasons and among-seasons scale, explained the dominant proportion of phenotypic variation. However, individuals also repeatedly differed in their expression of migration behaviour over the 2 year study duration. These results reveal that diel migration variation occurs primarily due to short-term within-individual flexibility in depth use and diel migration behaviour. However, repeatable individual differences also played a key role in mediating partial diel migration. These findings represent a significant advancement of our understanding of the mechanisms generating the important, yet poorly understood phenomena of partial diel migration. Moreover, given the pervasive occurrence of diel migrations across aquatic taxa, these findings indicate that individual differences have an important, yet previously unacknowledged role in structuring the temporal and vertical dynamics of aquatic ecosystems. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  10. Primordial Germ Cell Specification and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells are the progenitor cells that give rise to the gametes. In some animals, the germline is induced by zygotic transcription factors, whereas in others, primordial germ cell specification occurs via inheritance of maternally provided gene products known as germ plasm. Once specified, the primordial germ cells of some animals must acquire motility and migrate to the gonad in order to survive. In all animals examined, perinuclear structures called germ granules form within germ cells. This review focuses on some of the recent studies, conducted by several groups using diverse systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates, which have provided mechanistic insight into the molecular regulation of germ cell specification and migration. PMID:26918157

  11. The newly identified migration inhibitory protein regulates the radial migration in the developing neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Suxiang; Kanemitsu, Yoshitaka; Fujitani, Masashi; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal migration is a crucial process in the organization of the developing cerebral cortex. Although a number of positive regulatory mechanisms of radial migration have been identified, negative cell-autonomous mechanisms have yet to be fully described. Here we report a newly identified Migration Inhibitory Protein (MINP, formerly known as 2900011O08Rik) that negatively regulates radial migration. MINP mRNA was specifically detected in the central and peripheral nervous system, and especially enriched in the cerebral cortex. MINP immunoreactivity co-localized with the neuronal marker Tuj1 and was detected in the cytoplasm of post-mitotic neurons. To elucidate the function of MINP in the developing brain, we performed in utero electroporation of MINP siRNA, MINP shRNA, or MINP-overexpressing vectors into mouse cortices and carried out in vivo migration assays. Whereas knockdown of MINP did not alter neuronal morphology, the radial migration was found accelerated by MINP knockdown, and reduced by MINP overexpression. This migration phenotype was also confirmed in vitro, indicating that MINP regulates neuronal migration in a cell-autonomous fashion. Furthermore, downregulation of MINP affected microtubule stability by interacting with tubulin that is a potential mechanism involved in the regulation of neuronal migration. PMID:25099998

  12. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  13. Migration and its risks.

    PubMed

    O'brien, P

    1996-01-01

    "This essay applies the theories of Ulrich Beck...to the politics of migration in Germany. In particular, the essay focuses on Beck's notion of the waning influence, indeed even relevancy, of science and scientists regarding postmodern risk phenomena. The essay argues that migration to Germany can be understood as a Beckian risk phenomenon, helping to explain the decreasing influence of social scientists over the politics of migration in the Federal Republic."

  14. Twisted story of eye migration in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Saele, Oystein; Smáradóttir, Heiddís; Pittman, Karin

    2006-06-01

    Early molecular markers for flatfish metamorphosis and eye migration must be linked to the ethmoid region, the earliest part of the flatfish cranium to change, as well as chondral and dermal ossification processes. Serial sections, morphological landmarks, and stereology were used to determine where and when the remodeling of tissues and asymmetry occurs in the head region of metamorphosing Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus. Not all parts of the head remodel or migrate, and those that do may be asynchronous. Normal metamorphosis limits the torsion of the Atlantic halibut head to the anterior part of the neurocranium and excludes the tip of the snout and the general jaw area. The first cranial structure displaying eye migration-related asymmetric development is the paraethmoid part of the ethmoid cartilage. In early eye migration the medial frontal process moves apace with the eyes, whereas near completion the migrating eye moves significantly closer to the frontal process. Structures of the jaw remain mostly symmetrical, with the exception of the adductor mandibulae muscle and the bone maxillare, which are larger on the abocular than on the ocular side, the muscle occupying the space vacated by the migration of the eye. Thus, normal eye migration involves a series of temperospatially linked events. In juveniles lacking eye migration (arrested metamorphosis), the dermal bone, the prefrontal, does not develop. The two abnormal paraethmoids develop symmetrically as two plate-like structures curving anteriorly, whereas normal elongate fused paraethmoids curve at their posterior. The abocular side retrorbital vesicles are largest in volume only after the completion of normal eye migration. Factors involved in completion of normal metamorphosis and eye migration in flatfish affect chondral and dermal ossification signals in the ethmoid group, as well as remodeling of the mineralized frontal, a series of linked events not involving the entire neurocranium.

  15. Migration and Marriage: Modeling the Joint Process

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Joy Bohyun; Casterline, John B; Snyder, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research on inter-relations between migration and marriage has relied on overly simplistic assumptions about the structure of dependency between the two events. However, there is good reason to posit that each of the two transitions has an impact on the likelihood of the other, and that unobserved common factors may affect both migration and marriage, leading to a distorted impression of the causal impact of one on the other. Objective We will investigate relationships between migration and marriage in the United States using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. We allow for inter-dependency between the two events and examine whether unobserved common factors affect the estimates of both migration and marriage. Methods We estimate a multi-process model in which migration and marriage are considered simultaneously in regression analysis and there is allowance for correlation between disturbances; the latter feature accounts for possible endogeneity between shared unobserved determinants. The model also includes random effects for persons, exploiting the fact that many people experience both events multiple times throughout their lives. Results Unobserved factors appear to significantly influence both migration and marriage, resulting in upward bias in estimates of the effects of each on the other when these shared common factors are not accounted for. Estimates from the multi-process model indicate that marriage significantly increases the hazard of migration while migration does not affect the hazard of marriage. Conclusions Omitting inter-dependency between life course events can lead to a mistaken impression of the direct effects of certain features of each event on the other. PMID:27182198

  16. Role of aspiration-induced migration in cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-06-01

    Both cooperation and migration are ubiquitous in human society and animal world. In this Rapid Communication, we propose an aspiration-induced migration in which individuals will migrate to new sites provided that their payoffs are below some aspiration level. It is found that moderate aspiration level can best favor cooperative behavior. In particular, moderate aspiration level enables cooperator clusters to maintain and expand whereas induces defector clusters to disintegrate, thus promoting the diffusion of cooperation among population. Our results provide insights into understanding the role played by migration in the emergence of cooperative behavior.

  17. Role of aspiration-induced migration in cooperation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2010-06-01

    Both cooperation and migration are ubiquitous in human society and animal world. In this Rapid Communication, we propose an aspiration-induced migration in which individuals will migrate to new sites provided that their payoffs are below some aspiration level. It is found that moderate aspiration level can best favor cooperative behavior. In particular, moderate aspiration level enables cooperator clusters to maintain and expand whereas induces defector clusters to disintegrate, thus promoting the diffusion of cooperation among population. Our results provide insights into understanding the role played by migration in the emergence of cooperative behavior.

  18. Incentives and disincentives: international migration.

    PubMed

    Bhagwati, J N

    1984-01-01

    International migration is largely controlled by disincentives, or quotas, on immigration rather than checks on emigrations. Societies generally feel they have a right to exclude others from their boundaries, but they also usually feel that they do not have a right to control emigration. The single-planetary approach holds that people have the right to live wherever they like on the planet, and the cosmopolitan-utilitarian approach believes the same for reasons of world efficiency. The current feeling that societies have the right to exclude others may be explained best by territoriality in human animals. People also believe that their culture will be diluted if too many outsiders enter. In many cases, immigration systems cannot really control immigration, as in the cases of long landlocked borders between the US and Mexico and between Bangladesh and Assam. Immigration systems also contain legal loopholes. For example, in the US it is easier to get a student visa and convert to immigrant status than to gain immigrant status directly. Loopholes lead to plugs, which lead in turn to more loopholes. An upsurge in requests for political asylum followed increased restrictions on immigration in Western Europe. The US has investigated foreign aid and foreign investments to Mexico and Haiti to curb the flow of illegal migrants. The author suggests that foreign investments may lead to more migration because of the creation of a new proletariat used to the ways of developed countries. An estimate of what would happen if all immigration control were removed worldwide concludes that efficiency and income distribution would improve worldwide. Most migration from developing to developed countries currently consists of the migration of skilled professionals, the brain drain. The author proposes a tax on these professionals to be paid to the country of origin to compensate them for the loss in education and training. The author summarizes the differences between the West German

  19. Altitudinal migration in bats: evidence, patterns, and drivers.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Liam P; Boyle, W Alice

    2013-11-01

    Altitudinal migrations are common in all major vertebrate and some invertebrate lineages. Such migrations have important implications for the basic and applied ecology of animals making these movements. The idea that bats make altitudinal migrations has been suggested for nearly a century. However, studies documenting the existence and causes of altitudinal bat migrations are scarce, and are frequently published in the 'grey' literature. For the first time, we comprehensively review the evidence supporting the existence of altitudinal bat migrations worldwide, describe basic patterns of migration in temperate and tropical regions, and articulate and propose tests of hypotheses potentially explaining these migrations. We compiled a list of 50 studies indicative of altitudinal bat migration in 61 species (five families) from 21 countries (four continents). The temporal and spatial patterns of these migrations grouped biogeographically. Temperate bats generally exhibit sex-biased migrations with females inhabiting lower elevations than males during reproductive periods. Although there is less information on tropical bat migration, few studies report sex-biased migration. We compiled hypotheses proposed in the bat and (more extensive) avian literature to provide a list of hypotheses potentially explaining altitudinal bat migrations. These hypotheses rely upon temporal availability of (and competition for) food resources, spatial distribution of geomorphological features suitable for hibernation, sex-related differences in the use of torpor, mating opportunities, and climatic factors that impose direct physiological challenges to survival or that restrict the ability to forage. A more thorough description of the migration patterns of most species will be required to distinguish effectively among these hypotheses. We identify research avenues that would broaden our understanding of bat migration patterns and provide critical information required for effective

  20. Timing of seasonal migration in mule deer: effects of climate, plant phenology, and life-history characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteith, Kevin L.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Stephenson, Thomas R.; Pierce, Beck M.; Conner, Mary M.; Klaver, Robert W.; Bowyer, R. Terry

    2011-01-01

    Phenological events of plants and animals are sensitive to climatic processes. Migration is a life-history event exhibited by most large herbivores living in seasonal environments, and is thought to occur in response to dynamics of forage and weather. Decisions regarding when to migrate, however, may be affected by differences in life-history characteristics of individuals. Long-term and intensive study of a population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, allowed us to document patterns of migration during 11 years that encompassed a wide array of environmental conditions. We used two new techniques to properly account for interval-censored data and disentangle effects of broad-scale climate, local weather patterns, and plant phenology on seasonal patterns of migration, while incorporating effects of individual life-history characteristics. Timing of autumn migration varied substantially among individual deer, but was associated with the severity of winter weather, and in particular, snow depth and cold temperatures. Migratory responses to winter weather, however, were affected by age, nutritional condition, and summer residency of individual females. Old females and those in good nutritional condition risked encountering severe weather by delaying autumn migration, and were thus risk-prone with respect to the potential loss of foraging opportunities in deep snow compared with young females and those in poor nutritional condition. Females that summered on the west side of the crest of the Sierra Nevada delayed autumn migration relative to east-side females, which supports the influence of the local environment on timing of migration. In contrast, timing of spring migration was unrelated to individual life-history characteristics, was nearly twice as synchronous as autumn migration, differed among years, was related to the southern oscillation index, and was influenced by absolute snow depth and advancing phenology of plants

  1. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  2. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  3. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  4. Pushing the Pace of Tree Species Migration

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Eli D.; McGill, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Plants and animals have responded to past climate changes by migrating with habitable environments, sometimes shifting the boundaries of their geographic ranges by tens of kilometers per year or more. Species migrating in response to present climate conditions, however, must contend with landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic disturbance. We consider this problem in the context of wind-dispersed tree species. Mechanisms of long-distance seed dispersal make these species capable of rapid migration rates. Models of species-front migration suggest that even tree species with the capacity for long-distance dispersal will be unable to keep pace with future spatial changes in temperature gradients, exclusive of habitat fragmentation effects. Here we present a numerical model that captures the salient dynamics of migration by long-distance dispersal for a generic tree species. We then use the model to explore the possible effects of assisted colonization within a fragmented landscape under a simulated tree-planting scheme. Our results suggest that an assisted-colonization program could accelerate species-front migration rates enough to match the speed of climate change, but such a program would involve an environmental-sustainability intervention at a massive scale. PMID:25162663

  5. Molecular signatures of cell migration in C. elegans Q neuroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Guangshuo

    2009-01-01

    Metazoan cell movement has been studied extensively in vitro, but cell migration in living animals is much less well understood. In this report, we have studied the Caenorhabditis elegans Q neuroblast lineage during larval development, developing live animal imaging methods for following neuroblast migration with single cell resolution. We find that each of the Q descendants migrates at different speeds and for distinct distances. By quantitative green fluorescent protein imaging, we find that Q descendants that migrate faster and longer than their sisters up-regulate protein levels of MIG-2, a Rho family guanosine triphosphatase, and/or down-regulate INA-1, an integrin α subunit, during migration. We also show that Q neuroblasts bearing mutations in either MIG-2 or INA-1 migrate at reduced speeds. The migration defect of the mig-2 mutants, but not ina-1, appears to result from a lack of persistent polarization in the direction of cell migration. Thus, MIG-2 and INA-1 function distinctly to control Q neuroblast migration in living C. elegans. PMID:19349580

  6. Migration highways and migration barriers created by host-parasite interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan-Guo; Buckling, Angus

    2016-12-01

    Co-evolving parasites may play a key role in host migration and population structure. Using co-evolving bacteria and viruses, we test general hypotheses as to how co-evolving parasites affect the success of passive host migration between habitats that can support different intensities of host-parasite interactions. First, we show that parasites aid migration from areas of intense to weak co-evolutionary interactions and impede migration in the opposite direction, as a result of intraspecific apparent competition mediated via parasites. Second, when habitats show qualitative difference such that some environments support parasite persistence while others do not, different population regulation forces (either parasitism or competitive exclusion) will reduce the success of migration in both directions. Our study shows that co-evolution with parasites can predictably homogenises or isolates host populations, depending on heterogeneity of abiotic conditions, with the second scenario constituting a novel type of 'isolation by adaptation'. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  7. Flexibility of Continental Navigation and Migration in European Mallards

    PubMed Central

    van Toor, Mariëlle L.; Hedenström, Anders; Waldenström, Jonas; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of continent-wide navigation mechanisms of the individual organism, despite being crucial for the understanding of animal movement and migration, is still poorly understood. Several previous studies, mainly conducted on passerines, indicate that inexperienced, juvenile birds may not generally correct for displacement during fall migration. Waterbirds such as the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, Linnaeus 1758) are more flexible in their migration behavior than most migratory songbirds, but previous experiments with waterbirds have not yet allowed clear conclusions about their navigation abilities. Here we tested whether immature mallard ducks correct for latitudinal displacement during fall migration within Europe. During two consecutive fall migration periods, we caught immature females on a stopover site in southeast Sweden, and translocated a group of them ca. 1,000 km to southern Germany. We followed the movements of the ducks via satellite GPS-tracking and observed their migration decisions during the fall and consecutive spring migration. The control animals released in Ottenby behaved as expected from banding recoveries: they continued migration during the winter and in spring returned to the population’s breeding grounds in the Baltics and Northwest Russia. Contrary to the control animals, the translocated mallards did not continue migration and stayed at Lake Constance. In spring, three types of movement tactics could be observed: 61.5% of the ducks (16 of 26) stayed around Lake Constance, 27% (7 of 26) migrated in a northerly direction towards Sweden and 11.5% of the individuals (3 of 26) headed east for ca. 1,000 km and then north. We suggest that young female mallards flexibly adjust their migration tactics and develop a navigational map that allows them to return to their natal breeding area. PMID:24023629

  8. Flexibility of continental navigation and migration in European mallards.

    PubMed

    van Toor, Mariëlle L; Hedenström, Anders; Waldenström, Jonas; Fiedler, Wolfgang; Holland, Richard A; Thorup, Kasper; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The ontogeny of continent-wide navigation mechanisms of the individual organism, despite being crucial for the understanding of animal movement and migration, is still poorly understood. Several previous studies, mainly conducted on passerines, indicate that inexperienced, juvenile birds may not generally correct for displacement during fall migration. Waterbirds such as the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, Linnaeus 1758) are more flexible in their migration behavior than most migratory songbirds, but previous experiments with waterbirds have not yet allowed clear conclusions about their navigation abilities. Here we tested whether immature mallard ducks correct for latitudinal displacement during fall migration within Europe. During two consecutive fall migration periods, we caught immature females on a stopover site in southeast Sweden, and translocated a group of them ca. 1,000 km to southern Germany. We followed the movements of the ducks via satellite GPS-tracking and observed their migration decisions during the fall and consecutive spring migration. The control animals released in Ottenby behaved as expected from banding recoveries: they continued migration during the winter and in spring returned to the population's breeding grounds in the Baltics and Northwest Russia. Contrary to the control animals, the translocated mallards did not continue migration and stayed at Lake Constance. In spring, three types of movement tactics could be observed: 61.5% of the ducks (16 of 26) stayed around Lake Constance, 27% (7 of 26) migrated in a northerly direction towards Sweden and 11.5% of the individuals (3 of 26) headed east for ca. 1,000 km and then north. We suggest that young female mallards flexibly adjust their migration tactics and develop a navigational map that allows them to return to their natal breeding area.

  9. Rho GTPases and cancer cell transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Nicolas; Riou, Philippe; Ridley, Anne J

    2012-01-01

    Small Rho GTPases are major regulators of actin cytoskeleton dynamics and influence cell shape and migration. The expression of several Rho GTPases is often up-regulated in tumors and this frequently correlates with a poor prognosis for patients. Migration of cancer cells through endothelial cells that line the blood vessels, called transendothelial migration or extravasation, is a critical step during the metastasis process. The use of siRNA technology to target specifically each Rho family member coupled with imaging techniques allows the roles of individual Rho GTPases to be investigated. In this chapter we describe methods to assess how Rho GTPases affect the different steps of cancer cell transendothelial cell migration in vitro.

  10. College Student Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, R. H.; And Others

    This study examines the background characteristics of two large national samples of first-time enrolled freshmen who (a) attended college within their state of residence but away from their home community, (b) migrated to a college in an adjacent state, (c) migrated to a college in a distant state, and (d) attended college in their home community.…

  11. The Great Migration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Joe William, Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the migration of African Americans in the United States and the reasons why African Americans migrated from the south. Focuses on issues, such as the effect of World War I, the opportunities offered in the north, and the emergence of a black industrial working class. (CMK)

  12. Cell migration, freshly squeezed.

    PubMed

    Welch, Matthew D

    2015-02-12

    Migrating cells exhibit distinct motility modes and can switch between modes based on chemical or physical cues. Liu et al. and Ruprecht et al. now describe how confinement and contractility influence motility mode plasticity and instigate a mode termed stable bleb migration in embryonic and tumor cells.

  13. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  14. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Scientific assessment of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Hemsworth, P H; Mellor, D J; Cronin, G M; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    Animal welfare is a state within the animal and a scientific perspective provides methodologies for evidence-based assessment of an animal's welfare. A simplistic definition of animal welfare might be how the animal feels now. Affective experiences including emotions, are subjective states so cannot be measured directly in animals, but there are informative indirect physiological and behavioural indices that can be cautiously used to interpret such experiences. This review enunciates several key science-based frameworks for understanding animal welfare. The biological functioning and affective state frameworks were initially seen as competing, but a recent more unified approach is that biological functioning is taken to include affective experiences and affective experiences are recognised as products of biological functioning, and knowledge of the dynamic interactions between the two is considered to be fundamental to managing and improving animal welfare. The value of these two frameworks in understanding the welfare of group-housed sows is reviewed. The majority of studies of the welfare of group-housed sows have employed the biological functioning framework to infer compromised sow welfare, on the basis that suboptimal biological functioning accompanies negative affective states such as sow hunger, pain, fear, helplessness, frustration and anger. Group housing facilitates social living, but group housing of gestating sows raises different welfare considerations to stall housing, such as high levels of aggression, injuries and stress, at least for several days after mixing, as well as subordinate sows being underfed due to competition at feeding. This paper highlights the challenges and potential opportunities for the continued improvement in sow management through well-focused research and multidisciplinary assessment of animal welfare. In future the management of sentient animals will require the promotion of positive affective experiences in animals and this

  16. Capturing migration phenology of terrestrial wildlife using camera traps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tape, Ken D.; Gustine, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Remote photography, using camera traps, can be an effective and noninvasive tool for capturing the migration phenology of terrestrial wildlife. We deployed 14 digital cameras along a 104-kilometer longitudinal transect to record the spring migrations of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and ptarmigan (Lagopus spp.) in the Alaskan Arctic. The cameras recorded images at 15-minute intervals, producing approximately 40,000 images, including 6685 caribou observations and 5329 ptarmigan observations. The northward caribou migration was evident because the median caribou observation (i.e., herd median) occurred later with increasing latitude; average caribou migration speed also increased with latitude (r2 = .91). Except at the northernmost latitude, a northward ptarmigan migration was similarly evident (r2 = .93). Future applications of this method could be used to examine the conditions proximate to animal movement, such as habitat or snow cover, that may influence migration phenology.

  17. Migration of photoinitiators by gas phase into dry foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bernaldo de Quirós, Ana; Paseiro-Cerrato, Rafael; Pastorelli, Sarah; Koivikko, Riitta; Simoneau, Catherine; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2009-11-11

    Photoinitiators are components widely used in UV-cured inks for printing food packaging. In the present study, the migration of seven photoinitiators through the vapor phase was investigated. To perform the migration test, an additive enriched polyethylene wax was used as a source to release photoinitiators. The method was applied to evaluate the migration of the photoinitiators into five selected dry foods (cake, bread, cereals, rice and pasta). The highest level of migration was found in the cake. Parameters affecting the migration process were evaluated, and high migration level was found to correlate with both the porosity and the fat content. In addition, the kinetics of migration of the photoinitiators from the additive enriched wax into the cake were studied under accelerated conditions.

  18. MicroRNA-21 regulates the ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway to affect the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of human melanoma A375 cells by targeting SPRY1, PDCD4, and PTEN.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xu-Hua; Chen, Min; Wang, Yan; Cui, Pan-Gen; Liu, Si-Bian; Xu, Zei-Yong

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to explore the effects of microRNA-21 (miR-21) and ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway on human melanoma A375 cells. The melanoma tissues and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 45 melanoma patients. qRT-PCR was conducted to quantify the expression of miR-21 and the gene mRNA expressions. Human melanoma A375 cells were divided into the Mock, negative control (NC), miR-21 inhibitors, miR-21 inhibitors + siRNA-SPRY1, miR-21 inhibitors + siRNA-PDCD4, and miR-21 inhibitors + siRNA-PTEN groups. Western blotting was used to determine protein expressions. CCK8 assay and Transwell assay were performed to evaluate the proliferation, migration, and invasion of A375 cells. Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining was adopted to detect cell apoptosis. MiR-21 expression was higher in melanoma tissues than in adjacent tissues, while the mRNA and protein expressions of SPRY1, PDCD4, and PTEN were lower in melanoma tissues than in adjacent tissues. Compared with the Mock and NC groups, the miR-21 inhibitors group exhibited increased expressions of SPRY1, PDCD4, and PTEN and decreased expressions of ERK, p-ERK, NF-κB p65, and p-NF-κB p65. After transfection of miR-21 inhibitors, the proliferation, migration, and invasion of A375 cells were inhibited, while the apoptosis of A375 cells was promoted. However, the effects of miR-21 inhibitors on the growth, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of A375 cells were reversed after transfection of siRNA-SPRY1, siRNA-PDCD4, or siRNA-PTEN. MiR-21 can promote the proliferation, migration, and inhibit the apoptosis of human melanoma A375 cells by inhibiting SPRY1, PDCD4, and PTEN via ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Migration of health workers.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2008-01-01

    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  20. Migration and Environmental Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations. PMID:21886366

  1. Spatiotemporal isoscapes for migration research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, G. J.; Hobson, K. A.; Wassenaar, L.; Zhang, T.

    2011-12-01

    Light stable isotope tracers have become a popular and widely used source of information on the regional to continental scale migration patterns of many animal groups. This work is founded on a quantitative understanding of the spatial distribution of environmental isotopes (isoscapes) that are assimilated in animal tissues, providing a basis for assigning animals to locations or regions based on retrospective analysis of their tissues. To date, almost all studies have developed interpretations on climatological, or 'static', isoscapes, because in most cases data and models allowing accurate estimation of isotope distributions for specific calendar years or seasons have not been available. This situation creates a disconnect between the timescales of biological samples and environmental isoscapes, which is limiting in many systems that exhibit a high degree of temporal variability. We report here on new analyses characterizing temporal variation in environmental water (H and O) isotope ratios and testing our ability to accurately model short-term (individual months and seasons) water isoscapes using existing datasets. We implement the resulting data products in a case study using previously published data from monarch butterfly wing keratin and compare the accuracy and sensitivity of Bayesian geographic assignments for these samples using different climatological and time-specific isoscapes. Combined with a continued emphasis on environmental isotope monitoring, the modeling tools used here should support continued improvement in the precision and accuracy of geographic assignments. The data and data analysis methods have been implemented in the IsoMAP web portal and are freely available to the migration research community in support of their research.

  2. The accretion of migrating giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürmann, Christoph; Kley, Wilhelm

    2017-02-01

    Aims: Most studies concerning the growth and evolution of massive planets focus either on their accretion or their migration only. In this work we study both processes concurrently to investigate how they might mutually affect one another. Methods: We modeled a two-dimensional disk with a steady accretion flow onto the central star and embedded a Jupiter mass planet at 5.2 au. The disk is locally isothermal and viscosity is modeled using a constant α. The planet is held on a fixed orbit for a few hundred orbits to allow the disk to adapt and carve a gap. After this period, the planet is released and free to move according to the gravitational interaction with the gas disk. The mass accretion onto the planet is modeled by removing a fraction of gas from the inner Hill sphere, and the removed mass and momentum can be added to the planet. Results: Our results show that a fast migrating planet is able to accrete more gas than a slower migrating planet. Utilizing a tracer fluid we analyzed the origin of the accreted gas originating predominantly from the inner disk for a fast migrating planet. In the case of slower migration, the fraction of gas from the outer disk increases. We also found that even for very high accretion rates, in some cases gas crosses the planetary gap from the inner to the outer disk. Our simulations show that the crossing of gas changes during the migration process as the migration rate slows down. Therefore, classical type II migration where the planet migrates with the viscous drift rate and no gas crosses the gap is no general process but may only occur for special parameters and at a certain time during the orbital evolution of the planet.

  3. Animal Identification

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, J. W.; Penner, P.

    1967-01-01

    A number of branding tools of various metals and various sizes in combination with several wetting agents were cooled with liquid nitrogen and applied for different lengths of time to calves and mature cattle. White hair appeared in the shape of the brand on the animals in place of dark hair when the application was properly carried out. Best results can be obtained by using metal irons at least 25 millimeters thick and 14 millimeters wide with xylol as a wetting agent for ten seconds in young or thin skinned animals and up to twenty seconds in mature or thick skinned animals. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 5. PMID:4229181

  4. Molecular weight abnormalities of the CTCF transcription factor: CTCF migrates aberrantly in SDS-PAGE and the size of the expressed protein is affected by the UTRs and sequences within the coding region of the CTCF gene.

    PubMed

    Klenova, E M; Nicolas, R H; U, S; Carne, A F; Lee, R E; Lobanenkov, V V; Goodwin, G H

    1997-02-01

    CTCF belongs to the Zn finger transcription factors family and binds to the promoter region of c-myc. CTCF is highly conserved between species, ubiquitous and localised in nuclei. The endogenous CTCF migrates as a 130 kDa (CTCF-130) protein on SDS-PAGE, however, the open reading frame (ORF) of the CTCF cDNA encodes only a 82 kDa protein (CTCF-82). In the present study we investigate this phenomenon and show with mass-spectra analysis that this occurs due to aberrant mobility of the CTCF protein. Another paradox is that our original cDNA, composed of the ORF and 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), produces a protein with the apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa (CTCF-70). This paradox has been found to be an effect of the UTRs and sequences within the coding region of the CTCF gene resulting in C-terminal truncation of CTCF-130. The potential attenuator has been identified and point-mutated. This restored the electrophoretic mobility of the CTCF protein to 130 kDa. CTCF-70, the aberrantly migrating CTCF N-terminus per se, is also detected in some cell types and therefore may have some biological implications. In particular, CTCF-70 interferes with CTCF-130 normal function, enhancing transactivation induced by CTCF-130 in COS6 cells. The mechanism of CTCF-70 action and other possible functions of CTCF-70 are discussed.

  5. Molecular weight abnormalities of the CTCF transcription factor: CTCF migrates aberrantly in SDS-PAGE and the size of the expressed protein is affected by the UTRs and sequences within the coding region of the CTCF gene.

    PubMed Central

    Klenova, E M; Nicolas, R H; U, S; Carne, A F; Lee, R E; Lobanenkov, V V; Goodwin, G H

    1997-01-01

    CTCF belongs to the Zn finger transcription factors family and binds to the promoter region of c-myc. CTCF is highly conserved between species, ubiquitous and localised in nuclei. The endogenous CTCF migrates as a 130 kDa (CTCF-130) protein on SDS-PAGE, however, the open reading frame (ORF) of the CTCF cDNA encodes only a 82 kDa protein (CTCF-82). In the present study we investigate this phenomenon and show with mass-spectra analysis that this occurs due to aberrant mobility of the CTCF protein. Another paradox is that our original cDNA, composed of the ORF and 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR), produces a protein with the apparent molecular weight of 70 kDa (CTCF-70). This paradox has been found to be an effect of the UTRs and sequences within the coding region of the CTCF gene resulting in C-terminal truncation of CTCF-130. The potential attenuator has been identified and point-mutated. This restored the electrophoretic mobility of the CTCF protein to 130 kDa. CTCF-70, the aberrantly migrating CTCF N-terminus per se, is also detected in some cell types and therefore may have some biological implications. In particular, CTCF-70 interferes with CTCF-130 normal function, enhancing transactivation induced by CTCF-130 in COS6 cells. The mechanism of CTCF-70 action and other possible functions of CTCF-70 are discussed. PMID:9016583

  6. Recovery Migration to the City of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: A Migration Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fussell, Elizabeth; Curtis, Katherine J.; DeWaard, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina’s effect on the population of the City of New Orleans provides a model of how severe weather events, which are likely to increase in frequency and strength as the climate warms, might affect other large coastal cities. Our research focuses on changes in the migration system – defined as the system of ties between Orleans Parish and all other U.S. counties – between the pre-disaster (1999–2004) and recovery (2007–2009) periods. Using Internal Revenue Service county-to-county migration flow data, we find that in the recovery period Orleans Parish increased the number of migration ties with and received larger migration flows from nearby counties in the Gulf of Mexico coastal region, thereby spatially concentrating and intensifying the in-migration dimension of this predominantly urban system, while the out-migration dimension contracted and had smaller flows. We interpret these changes as the migration system relying on its strongest ties to nearby and less damaged counties to generate recovery in-migration. PMID:24729651

  7. Recovery Migration to the City of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: A Migration Systems Approach.

    PubMed

    Fussell, Elizabeth; Curtis, Katherine J; Dewaard, Jack

    2014-03-01

    Hurricane Katrina's effect on the population of the City of New Orleans provides a model of how severe weather events, which are likely to increase in frequency and strength as the climate warms, might affect other large coastal cities. Our research focuses on changes in the migration system - defined as the system of ties between Orleans Parish and all other U.S. counties - between the pre-disaster (1999-2004) and recovery (2007-2009) periods. Using Internal Revenue Service county-to-county migration flow data, we find that in the recovery period Orleans Parish increased the number of migration ties with and received larger migration flows from nearby counties in the Gulf of Mexico coastal region, thereby spatially concentrating and intensifying the in-migration dimension of this predominantly urban system, while the out-migration dimension contracted and had smaller flows. We interpret these changes as the migration system relying on its strongest ties to nearby and less damaged counties to generate recovery in-migration.

  8. Protein malnutrition promotes dysregulation of molecules involved in T cell migration in the thymus of mice infected with Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Losada-Barragán, Monica; Umaña-Pérez, Adriana; Cuervo-Escobar, Sergio; Berbert, Luiz Ricardo; Porrozzi, Renato; Morgado, Fernanda N.; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Areas; Savino, Wilson; Sánchez-Gómez, Myriam; Cuervo, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Protein malnutrition, the most deleterious cause of malnutrition in developing countries, has been considered a primary risk factor for the development of clinical visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Protein malnutrition and infection with Leishmania infantum leads to lymphoid tissue disorganization, including changes in cellularity and lymphocyte subpopulations in the thymus and spleen. Here we report that protein malnutrition modifies thymic chemotactic factors by diminishing the CCL5, CXCL12, IGF1, CXCL9 and CXCL10 protein levels in infected animals. Nevertheless, T cells preserve their migratory capability, as they were able to migrate ex vivo in response to chemotactic stimuli, indicating that malnutrition may compromise the thymic microenvironment and alter in vivo thymocyte migration. Decrease in chemotactic factors protein levels was accompanied by an early increase in the parasite load of the spleen. These results suggest that the precondition of malnutrition is affecting the cell-mediated immune response to L. infantum by altering T cell migration and interfering with the capacity of protein-deprived animals to control parasite spreading and proliferation. Our data provide evidence for a disturbance of T lymphocyte migration involving both central and peripheral T-cells, which likely contribute to the pathophysiology of VL that occurs in malnourished individuals. PMID:28397794

  9. Protein malnutrition promotes dysregulation of molecules involved in T cell migration in the thymus of mice infected with Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Losada-Barragán, Monica; Umaña-Pérez, Adriana; Cuervo-Escobar, Sergio; Berbert, Luiz Ricardo; Porrozzi, Renato; Morgado, Fernanda N; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Areas; Savino, Wilson; Sánchez-Gómez, Myriam; Cuervo, Patricia

    2017-04-11

    Protein malnutrition, the most deleterious cause of malnutrition in developing countries, has been considered a primary risk factor for the development of clinical visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Protein malnutrition and infection with Leishmania infantum leads to lymphoid tissue disorganization, including changes in cellularity and lymphocyte subpopulations in the thymus and spleen. Here we report that protein malnutrition modifies thymic chemotactic factors by diminishing the CCL5, CXCL12, IGF1, CXCL9 and CXCL10 protein levels in infected animals. Nevertheless, T cells preserve their migratory capability, as they were able to migrate ex vivo in response to chemotactic stimuli, indicating that malnutrition may compromise the thymic microenvironment and alter in vivo thymocyte migration. Decrease in chemotactic factors protein levels was accompanied by an early increase in the parasite load of the spleen. These results suggest that the precondition of malnutrition is affecting the cell-mediated immune response to L. infantum by altering T cell migration and interfering with the capacity of protein-deprived animals to control parasite spreading and proliferation. Our data provide evidence for a disturbance of T lymphocyte migration involving both central and peripheral T-cells, which likely contribute to the pathophysiology of VL that occurs in malnourished individuals.

  10. Transoceanic migration by a 12 g songbird

    PubMed Central

    DeLuca, William V.; Woodworth, Bradley K.; Rimmer, Christopher C.; Marra, Peter P.; Taylor, Philip D.; McFarland, Kent P.; Mackenzie, Stuart A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Many fundamental aspects of migration remain a mystery, largely due to our inability to follow small animals over vast spatial areas. For more than 50 years, it has been hypothesized that, during autumn migration, blackpoll warblers (Setophaga striata) depart northeastern North America and undertake a non-stop flight over the Atlantic Ocean to either the Greater Antilles or the northeastern coast of South America. Using miniaturized light-level geolocators, we provide the first irrefutable evidence that the blackpoll warbler, a 12 g boreal forest songbird, completes an autumn transoceanic migration ranging from 2270 to 2770 km (mean ± s.d.: 2540 ± 257) and requiring up to 3 days (62 h ± 10) of non-stop flight. This is one of the longest non-stop overwater flights recorded for a songbird and confirms what has long been believed to be one of the most extraordinary migratory feats on the planet. PMID:25832815

  11. Neuronal migration illuminated

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Niraj

    2011-01-01

    During vertebrate brain development, migration of neurons from the germinal zones to their final laminar positions is essential to establish functional neural circuits.1–3 Whereas key insights into neuronal migration initially came from landmark studies identifying the genes mutated in human cortical malformations,4 cell biology has recently greatly advanced our understanding of how cytoskeletal proteins and molecular motors drive the morphogenic cell movements that build the developing brain. This Commentary & View reviews recent studies examining the role of the molecular motors during neuronal migration and critically examines current models of acto-myosin function in the two-step neuronal migration cycle. Given the apparent emerging diversity of neuronal sub-type cytoskeletal organizations, we propose that two approaches must be taken to resolve differences between the current migration models: the mechanisms of radial and tangential migration must be compared, and the loci of tension generation, migration substrates and sites of adhesion dynamics must be precisely examined in an integrated manner. PMID:20935494

  12. Migration without migraines

    SciTech Connect

    Lines, L.; Burton, A.; Lu, H.X.

    1994-12-31

    Accurate velocity models are a necessity for reliable migration results. Velocity analysis generally involves the use of methods such as normal moveout analysis (NMO), seismic traveltime tomography, or iterative prestack migration. These techniques can be effective, and each has its own advantage or disadvantage. Conventional NMO methods are relatively inexpensive but basically require simplifying assumptions about geology. Tomography is a more general method but requires traveltime interpretation of prestack data. Iterative prestack depth migration is very general but is computationally expensive. In some cases, there is the opportunity to estimate vertical velocities by use of well information. The well information can be used to optimize poststack migrations, thereby eliminating some of the time and expense of iterative prestack migration. The optimized poststack migration procedure defined here computes the velocity model which minimizes the depth differences between seismic images and formation depths at the well by using a least squares inversion method. The optimization methods described in this paper will hopefully produce ``migrations without migraines.``

  13. Migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.

  14. [Migrations forced by violence: the Colombian case].

    PubMed

    Builes, Gloria Marcela Gómez; Arias, Gilberto Mauricio Astaiza; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2008-01-01

    The human migrations have been one of the motors in the history of humanity. During the twentieth century, internal forced displacement has been an important component of the migration processes in the world. Colombia, a paradigm for this phenomenon, is a country with more than three and a half million people displaced over the last 25 years by force of the violence resulting from an internal armed conflict. Besides the socio-demographic effects in the reconfiguration of the cities, this problem affects the human condition of the victims deteriorating their health and quality of life. This article aims to show the general panorama of migrations forced by violence in the world and to analyze the peculiarities of this phenomenon in the Colombian case. We conclude that forced displacement is a serious violation of human rights producing a human drama by exposing the affected individuals and communities to vulnerability and a deep deterioration of their quality of life and health.

  15. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  16. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  17. Curriculum Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  18. Animal impacts

    Treesearch

    Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    The aspen ecosystem is rich in number and species of animals, especially in comparison to associated coniferous forest types. This natural species diversity and richness has been both increased and influenced by the introduction of domestic livestock. The high value of the aspen type as a forage resource for livestock and as forage and cover for wildlife makes the...

  19. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  20. Normal radial migration and lamination are maintained in dyslexia-susceptibility candidate gene homolog Kiaa0319 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Garay, Isabel; Guidi, Luiz G; Holloway, Zoe G; Bailey, Melissa A G; Lyngholm, Daniel; Schneider, Tomasz; Donnison, Timothy; Butt, Simon J B; Monaco, Anthony P; Molnár, Zoltán; Velayos-Baeza, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a common disorder with a strong genetic component, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still unknown. Several candidate dyslexia-susceptibility genes, including KIAA0319, DYX1C1, and DCDC2, have been identified in humans. RNA interference experiments targeting these genes in rat embryos have shown impairments in neuronal migration, suggesting that defects in radial cortical migration could be involved in the disease mechanism of dyslexia. Here we present the first characterisation of a Kiaa0319 knockout mouse line. Animals lacking KIAA0319 protein do not show anatomical abnormalities in any of the layered structures of the brain. Neurogenesis and radial migration of cortical projection neurons are not altered, and the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of Kiaa0319-deficient neurons do not differ from those of wild-type neurons. Kiaa0319 overexpression in cortex delays radial migration, but does not affect final neuronal position. However, knockout animals show subtle differences suggesting possible alterations in anxiety-related behaviour and in sensorimotor gating. Our results do not reveal a migration disorder in the mouse model, adding to the body of evidence available for Dcdc2 and Dyx1c1 that, unlike in the rat in utero knockdown models, the dyslexia-susceptibility candidate mouse homolog genes do not play an evident role in neuronal migration. However, KIAA0319 protein expression seems to be restricted to the brain, not only in early developmental stages but also in adult mice, indicative of a role of this protein in brain function. The constitutive and conditional knockout lines reported here will be useful tools for further functional analyses of Kiaa0319.

  1. Glossary: migration and health.

    PubMed

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Gagnon, Anita J

    2011-05-01

    The literature on migration and health is quite heterogeneous in how migrants are labelled and how the relation between migration and health is conceptualised. A narrative review has been carried out. This glossary presents the most commonly used terms in the field of migration and health, along with synonyms and related concepts, and discusses the suitability of their use in epidemiological studies. The terminology used in migrant health is ambiguous in many cases. Studies on migrant health should avoid layman terms and strive to use internationally defined concepts.

  2. Migration: a concept analysis from a nursing perspective.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michelle; Baumann, Andrea; Blythe, Jennifer; Fisher, Anita; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori

    2012-05-01

      This article is a report of a concept analysis of nurse migration.   International migration is increasing and nurse migrants are active participants in this movement. Migration is a complex term and can be examined from a range of perspectives. Analysis of nurse migration is needed to guide policy, practice and research.   A literature search was undertaken using electronic literature indexes, specific journals and websites, internet search engines and hand searches. No timeframe was placed on the search. Most literature found was published between 2001 and 2009. A sample of 80 documents met the inclusion criteria.   Walker and Avant's approach guided the analysis.   Nurse migration can be defined by five attributes: the motivation and decisions of individuals; external barriers and facilitators; freedom of choice to migrate; freedom to migrate as a human right, and dynamic movement. Antecedents of migration include the political, social, economic, legal, historical and educational forces that comprise the push and pull framework. The consequences of migration are positive or negative depending on the viewpoint and its affect on the individual and other stakeholders such as the source country, destination country, healthcare systems and the nursing profession.   This concept analysis clarified the complexities surrounding nurse migration. A nursing-specific middle-range theory was proposed to guide the understanding and study of nurse migration. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. The Effect of Radial Migration on Galactic Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos; D'Onghia, Elena; Navarro, Julio; Abadi, Mario

    2014-10-01

    We study the radial migration of stars driven by recurring multi-arm spiral features in an exponential disk embedded in a dark matter halo. The spiral perturbations redistribute angular momentum within the disk and lead to substantial radial displacements of individual stars, in a manner that largely preserves the circularity of their orbits and that results, after 5 Gyr (~40 full rotations at the disk scale length), in little radial heating and no appreciable changes to the vertical or radial structure of the disk. Our results clarify a number of issues related to the spatial distribution and kinematics of migrators. In particular, we find that migrators are a heavily biased subset of stars with preferentially low vertical velocity dispersions. This "provenance bias" for migrators is not surprising in hindsight, for stars with small vertical excursions spend more time near the disk plane, and thus respond more readily to non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also find that the vertical velocity dispersion of outward migrators always decreases, whereas the opposite holds for inward migrators. To first order, newly arrived migrators simply replace stars that have migrated off to other radii, thus inheriting the vertical bias of the latter. Extreme migrators might therefore be recognized, if present, by the unexpectedly small amplitude of their vertical excursions. Our results show that migration, understood as changes in angular momentum that preserve circularity, can strongly affect the thin disk, but cast doubts on models that envision the Galactic thick disk as a relic of radial migration.

  4. The effect of radial migration on galactic disks

    SciTech Connect

    Vera-Ciro, Carlos; D'Onghia, Elena; Navarro, Julio; Abadi, Mario

    2014-10-20

    We study the radial migration of stars driven by recurring multi-arm spiral features in an exponential disk embedded in a dark matter halo. The spiral perturbations redistribute angular momentum within the disk and lead to substantial radial displacements of individual stars, in a manner that largely preserves the circularity of their orbits and that results, after 5 Gyr (∼40 full rotations at the disk scale length), in little radial heating and no appreciable changes to the vertical or radial structure of the disk. Our results clarify a number of issues related to the spatial distribution and kinematics of migrators. In particular, we find that migrators are a heavily biased subset of stars with preferentially low vertical velocity dispersions. This 'provenance bias' for migrators is not surprising in hindsight, for stars with small vertical excursions spend more time near the disk plane, and thus respond more readily to non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also find that the vertical velocity dispersion of outward migrators always decreases, whereas the opposite holds for inward migrators. To first order, newly arrived migrators simply replace stars that have migrated off to other radii, thus inheriting the vertical bias of the latter. Extreme migrators might therefore be recognized, if present, by the unexpectedly small amplitude of their vertical excursions. Our results show that migration, understood as changes in angular momentum that preserve circularity, can strongly affect the thin disk, but cast doubts on models that envision the Galactic thick disk as a relic of radial migration.

  5. Compulsory Schooling Laws and Migration Across European Countries.

    PubMed

    Aparicio Fenoll, Ainhoa; Kuehn, Zoë

    2017-10-02

    Educational attainment is a key factor for understanding why some individuals migrate and others do not. Compulsory schooling laws, which determine an individual's minimum level of education, can potentially affect migration. We test whether and how increasing the length of compulsory schooling influences migration of affected cohorts across European countries, a context where labor mobility is essentially free. We construct a novel database that includes information for 31 European countries on compulsory education reforms passed between 1950 and 1990. Combining this data with information on recent migration flows by cohorts, we find that an additional year of compulsory education reduces the number of individuals from affected cohorts who migrate in a given year by 9 %. Our results rely on the exogeneity of compulsory schooling laws. A variety of empirical tests indicate that European legislators did not pass compulsory education reforms as a reaction to changes in emigration rates or educational attainment.

  6. Migration, development and remittances in rural Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, H

    1992-06-01

    The argument is that remittances to Mexico from migrants in the US contribute to household prosperity and lessen the balance of payments problem. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the incentives and constraints to development and individual economic well-being in rural Mexico. Examination is made of the financial amount of remittances, the use of remittances, the impact on development of remittances, models of migration, and migration historically. The viewpoint is that migration satisfies labor needs in developed countries to the detriment of underdeveloped countries. $2 billion a year are sent by illegal migrants from the US to Mexico. This sum is 4 times the net earning of Mexico's tourist trade. 21.1% of the Mexican population depend in part on money sent from the US. 79% of illegal migrants remitted money to relatives in Jalisco state. 70% of migrant families receive $170/month. In Guadalupe, 73% of families depended on migrant income. In Villa Guerrero, 50% of households depended on migrant income. Migrant income supported 1 out of 5 households in Mexico. Money is usually spent of household subsistence items. Sometimes money is also spent on community religious festivals, marriage ceremonies, and education of children or improved living conditions. Examples are given of money being used for investment in land and livestock. Migration affects community solidarity, and comparative ethic, and the influence on others to migrate. Employment opportunities are not expanded and cottage and community industries are threatened. Land purchases did not result in land improvements. Migration models are deficient. There is a macro/micro dichotomy. The push-and-pull system is not controllable by individual migrants. The migration remittance model is a product of unequal development and a mechanism feeding migration. Mexican migration has occurred since the 1880's; seasonal migration was encouraged. There was coercion to return to Mexico after the

  7. Peasant flood in China: internal migration and its policy determinants.

    PubMed

    Wan, G H

    1995-06-01

    A survey was undertaken by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1986 to explore the composition and patterns of rural population movements. 230 villages were selected from 84 townships in 59 counties scattered across 11 regions. Because of incomplete information, only data for 222 villages were used. Population flows were classified into: 1) intramigration or intraflow within the boundaries of their own townships; 2) out-migration, emigration, or outflow involving those who left the townships; and 3) in-migration, immigration, or inflow that affected those who moved into the 222 villages from outside. Age, sex, education, postmigration occupation, and duration of stay details were obtained for every migrant. Some 43,223 persons were involved in intraflows and 26,993 emigrated from the surveyed townships in 1986. The volume of internal migration in China seemed to be related to the distance between the origins and destinations of migrants. Among 70,216 migrants, about 74% were males and only 26% were females. Over 57.38% of the migrants from 222 villages shifted into industrial (34.31%) and construction (23.07%) activities. The service sector (food providers, stall holders, door-to-door retailers, barbers, and small shops) attracted 9.73%. Only 565 were engaged in cropping and 1614 in forestry, animal husbandry, sideline production, and fishery. As to age groups, 1688 (2.4%) were aged 17 years or under, 61,530 (88%) were aged 18-45, and 6999 (9.9%) were 46 years old or older. In 1986 seasonal migrants accounted for some 80% of all emigrants from the surveyed villages. Education did not play a significant role in promoting migration in the mid-1980s. 39% of the labor force had received primary education and the same percentage of out-migrants had acquired primary school education. The younger the age group, the more of them tended to move away from home: for those aged 17 or under if 100 persons migrated within the township, 113 moved out of town. A nationwide network

  8. Identifying impediments to long-distance mammal migrations.

    PubMed

    Seidler, Renee G; Long, Ryan A; Berger, Joel; Bergen, Scott; Beckmann, Jon P

    2015-02-01

    In much of the world, the persistence of long-distance migrations by mammals is threatened by development. Even where human population density is relatively low, there are roads, fencing, and energy development that present barriers to animal movement. If we are to conserve species that rely on long-distance migration, then it is critical that we identify existing migration impediments. To delineate stopover sites associated with anthropogenic development, we applied Brownian bridge movement models to high-frequency locations of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We then used resource utilization functions to assess the threats to long-distance migration of pronghorn that were due to fences and highways. Migrating pronghorn avoided dense developments of natural gas fields. Highways with relatively high volumes of traffic and woven-wire sheep fence acted as complete barriers. At crossings with known migration bottlenecks, use of high-quality forage and shrub habitat by pronghorn as they approached the highway was lower than expected based on availability of those resources. In contrast, pronghorn consistently utilized high-quality forage close to the highway at crossings with no known migration bottlenecks. Our findings demonstrate the importance of minimizing development in migration corridors in the future and of mitigating existing pressure on migratory animals by removing barriers, reducing the development footprint, or installing crossing structures. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Influence of Massive and Long Distance Migration on Parasite Epidemiology: Lessons from the Great Wildebeest Migration.

    PubMed

    Mijele, Domnic; Iwaki, Takashi; Chiyo, Patrick I; Otiende, Moses; Obanda, Vincent; Rossi, Luca; Soriguer, Ramon; Angelone-Alasaad, Samer

    2016-12-01

    Very little is known about the influence of massive and long distance migration on parasite epidemiology. Migration can simultaneously minimize exposure to common parasites in their habitats and increase exposure to novel pathogens from new environments and habitats encountered during migration, while physiological stress during long distance movement can lead to immune suppression, which makes migrants vulnerable to parasites. In this paper, we investigated the diversity, prevalence, parasite load, co-infection patterns and predilection sites of adult gastrointestinal helminths in 130 migrating wildebeests and tested for their relation with animal age, sex and migration time (which also could indicate different migration routes), and compared them with the non-migratory wildebeest. Surprisingly, only four parasite species were found, Oesophagostomum columbianum, Haemonchus placei, Calicophoron raja and Moniezia expansa, which were lower than in non-migratory wildebeest reported in the literature. These parasites were generalists, infecting livestock, and suggests that wildebeest and livestock, because of their interaction during migration, have a cross-infection risk. There was a negative relation between parasites diversity, prevalence and intensity of infection, and host age, which suggests that wildebeests acquire protective immunity against these parasites as they get older. Prevalence and intensity of infection were higher among wildebeest crossing the Mara Bridge (early migrants) compared to those crossing the Serena (late migrants), which suggests that early migrants (or migrants originating from different areas) have varying infection intensities. The prevalence and intensity of infection were higher in males compared to females and may be due to ecological, behavioural, or physiological differences between males and females. Our findings compared to those of previous studies suggest that migration may provide a mechanism to minimize exposure of hosts to

  10. Cell migration in the postnatal subventricular zone.

    PubMed

    Menezes, J R L; Marins, M; Alves, J A J; Froes, M M; Hedin-Pereira, C

    2002-12-01

    New neurons are constantly added to the olfactory bulb of rodents from birth to adulthood. This accretion is not only dependent on sustained neurogenesis, but also on the migration of neuroblasts and immature neurons from the cortical and striatal subventricular zone (SVZ) to the olfactory bulb. Migration along this long tangential pathway, known as the rostral migratory stream (RMS), is in many ways opposite to the classical radial migration of immature neurons: it is faster, spans a longer distance, does not require radial glial guidance, and is not limited to postmitotic neurons. In recent years many molecules have been found to be expressed specifically in this pathway and to directly affect this migration. Soluble factors with inhibitory, attractive and inductive roles in migration have been described, as well as molecules mediating cell-to-cell and cell-substrate interactions. However, it is still unclear how the various molecules and cells interact to account for the special migratory behavior in the RMS. Here we will propose some candidate mechanisms for roles in initiating and stopping SVZ/RMS migration.

  11. Entropy measures of collective cell migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, Ariadne; Parrinello, Simona; Faisal, Aldo

    2015-03-01

    Collective cell migration is a critical process during tissue formation and repair. To this end there is a need to develop tools to quantitatively measure the dynamics of collective cell migration obtained from microscopy data. Drawing on statistical physics we use entropy of velocity fields derived from dense optic flow to quantitatively measure collective migration. Using peripheral nerve repair after injury as experimental system, we study how Schwann cells, guided by fibroblasts, migrate in cord-like structures across the cut, paving a highway for neurons. This process of emergence of organised behaviour is key for successful repair, yet the emergence of leader cells and transition from a random to ordered state is not understood. We find fibroblasts induce correlated directionality in migrating Schwann cells as measured by a decrease in the entropy of motion vector. We show our method is robust with respect to image resolution in time and space, giving a principled assessment of how various molecular mechanisms affect macroscopic features of collective cell migration. Finally, the generality of our method allows us to process both simulated cell movement and microscopic data, enabling principled fitting and comparison of in silico to in vitro. ICCS, Imperial College London & MRC Clinical Sciences Centre.

  12. Population recovery in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina: Exploring the potential role of stage migration in migration systems

    PubMed Central

    DeWaard, Jack; Curtis, Katherine J.; Fussell, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    In this research brief, we explore how places affected by natural disasters recover their populations through indirect, or “stage,” migrat