Science.gov

Sample records for affects cancer progression

  1. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine in cancer progress

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong-Wei; Jing, Qing-Chuan; Liu, Ping-Ping; Liu, Jing; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a naturally occurring bioactive sphingolipid in blood plasma, metabolizing from the hydrolysis of the membrane sphingolipid. It has been shown to exert multifunctional role in cell physiological regulation either as an intracellular second messenger or as an extracellular agent through G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Because of elevated levels of SPC in malicious ascites of patients with cancer, the role of SPC in tumor progression has prompted wide interest. The factor was reported to affect the proliferation and/or migration of many cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer cells, epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells, rat C6 glioma cells, neuroblastoma cells, melanoma cells, and human leukemia cells. This review covers current knowledge of the role of SPC in tumor. PMID:26550104

  2. Exome and deep sequencing of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma reveal somatic mutations that affect key pathways involved in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Lasorsa, Vito Alessandro; Formicola, Daniela; Pignataro, Piero; Cimmino, Flora; Calabrese, Francesco Maria; Mora, Jaume; Esposito, Maria Rosaria; Pantile, Marcella; Zanon, Carlo; De Mariano, Marilena; Longo, Luca; Hogarty, Michael D.; de Torres, Carmen; Tonini, Gian Paolo; Iolascon, Achille; Capasso, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of somatic mutation of the most aggressive forms of neuroblastoma is not completely determined. We sought to identify potential cancer drivers in clinically aggressive neuroblastoma. Whole exome sequencing was conducted on 17 germline and tumor DNA samples from high-risk patients with adverse events within 36 months from diagnosis (HR-Event3) to identify somatic mutations and deep targeted sequencing of 134 genes selected from the initial screening in additional 48 germline and tumor pairs (62.5% HR-Event3 and high-risk patients), 17 HR-Event3 tumors and 17 human-derived neuroblastoma cell lines. We revealed 22 significantly mutated genes, many of which implicated in cancer progression. Fifteen genes (68.2%) were highly expressed in neuroblastoma supporting their involvement in the disease. CHD9, a cancer driver gene, was the most significantly altered (4.0% of cases) after ALK. Other genes (PTK2, NAV3, NAV1, FZD1 and ATRX), expressed in neuroblastoma and involved in cell invasion and migration were mutated at frequency ranged from 4% to 2%. Focal adhesion and regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathways, were frequently disrupted (14.1% of cases) thus suggesting potential novel therapeutic strategies to prevent disease progression. Notably BARD1, CHEK2 and AXIN2 were enriched in rare, potentially pathogenic, germline variants. In summary, whole exome and deep targeted sequencing identified novel cancer genes of clinically aggressive neuroblastoma. Our analyses show pathway-level implications of infrequently mutated genes in leading neuroblastoma progression. PMID:27009842

  3. Life After Cancer | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Prostate Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Kidney Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Lung Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Ovarian Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Breast Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Bladder Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Breast Cancer Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Arsenic | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Home | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Radon | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Prevention | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Introduction | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Treatment | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. Diagnosis | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. Sunburn | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Weight | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Mortality | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Survival | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Incidence | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Benzene | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Acknowledgements | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Nitrate | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Cadmium | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  11. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Venning, Freja A.; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression. PMID:26539408

  12. HDAC8 Inhibition Blocks SMC3 Deacetylation and Delays Cell Cycle Progression without Affecting Cohesin-dependent Transcription in MCF7 Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Tanushree; Antony, Jisha; Braithwaite, Antony W; Horsfield, Julia A

    2016-06-10

    Cohesin, a multi-subunit protein complex involved in chromosome organization, is frequently mutated or aberrantly expressed in cancer. Multiple functions of cohesin, including cell division and gene expression, highlight its potential as a novel therapeutic target. The SMC3 subunit of cohesin is acetylated (ac) during S phase to establish cohesion between replicated chromosomes. Following anaphase, ac-SMC3 is deacetylated by HDAC8. Reversal of SMC3 acetylation is imperative for recycling cohesin so that it can be reloaded in interphase for both non-mitotic and mitotic functions. We blocked deacetylation of ac-SMC3 using an HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI-34051 in MCF7 breast cancer cells, and examined the effects on transcription of cohesin-dependent genes that respond to estrogen. HDAC8 inhibition led to accumulation of ac-SMC3 as expected, but surprisingly, had no influence on the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes that are altered by siRNA targeting of RAD21 or SMC3. Knockdown of RAD21 altered estrogen receptor α (ER) recruitment at SOX4 and IL20, and affected transcription of these genes, while HDAC8 inhibition did not. Rather, inhibition of HDAC8 delayed cell cycle progression, suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that HDAC8 inhibition does not change the estrogen-specific transcriptional role of cohesin in MCF7 cells, but instead, compromises cell cycle progression and cell survival. Our results argue that candidate inhibitors of cohesin function may differ in their effects depending on the cellular genotype and should be thoroughly tested for predicted effects on cohesin's mechanistic roles.

  13. Accelerating Progress Against Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Investment in cancer research is making a difference, but we still must overcome disparities in cancer incidence and mortality, and expand research to detect cancers earlier and develop more effective, less-toxic treatments. NCI supports research studies and programs across the country that are working to further advance cancer, research, and clinical care.

  14. Biobehavioral Approaches to Cancer Progression and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, there have been groundbreaking strides in our understanding of the multiple biological pathways by which psychosocial and behavioral factors can affect cancer progression. It is now clear that biobehavioral factors not only affect cellular immunity but both directly and indirectly modulate fundamental processes in cancer growth, including inflammation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. There is also an emerging understanding of how psychological and behavioral factors used in interventions can impact these physiological processes. This review outlines our current understanding of the physiological mechanisms by which psychological, social, and behavioral processes can affect cancer progression. The intervention literature is discussed, along with recommendations for future research to move the field of biobehavioral oncology forward. PMID:25730724

  15. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  16. Connected Health and Progress against Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog post about a new report from President’s Cancer Panel outlining how connective technologies can promote cancer prevention, enhance patients’ treatment experience, and accelerate progress in cancer research.

  17. Secondhand Smoke Exposure | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Basic Research and Progress against Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against cancer. The graphic shows the research milestones that led to the development and approval of crizotinib (Xalkori®) to treat certain non-small cell lung cancers.

  19. Basic Research and Progress against Pediatric Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic about the importance of basic research for making progress against childhood cancers. Shows the milestones that led to development and approval of dinutuximab (Unituxin®) to treat neuroblastoma, a cancer seen mainly in children.

  20. End of Life | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. Early Detection | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Adult Tobacco Use | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Data Sources | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Director's Message | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Indoor Tanning | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Data Resources | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Treatment Summary Tables | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Frequently Asked Questions | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Alcohol Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. Tobacco Use Initiation | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Secondhand Smoke | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Smoking Cessation | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Custom Report | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Fat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Youth Tobacco Use | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Tobacco Use | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Chemical Exposures | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Prevention Summary Tables | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Red Meat Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. Quitting Smoking | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. About the Report | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Summary Tables | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. Report Highlights | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Stage at Diagnosis | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. NCI Dictionary | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. HPV Immunization | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Physical Activity | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Contact Us | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. How Will Cancer Affect My Sex Life?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families How will cancer affect my sex life? Sexual feelings and attitudes vary greatly among people, even ... people have little or no change in their sexual desire and energy level during cancer treatment. Others ...

  10. Financial Burden of Cancer Care | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Life After Cancer Summary Tables | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Cancer Survivors and Obesity | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Cancer Survivors and Smoking | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Cancer Survivors and Physical Activity | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. MicroRNA and Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0428 TITLE: MicroRNA and Breast Cancer Progression...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 JUL 2005 - 14 JUL 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER MicroRNA and Breast Cancer Progression 5b...We hypothesized that certain miRNA species are differentially expressed in the normal breast epithelium and breast cancer cells. Our concept was that

  16. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Tseng, Ling-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated cellular energetics was one of the cancer hallmarks. Several underlying mechanisms of deregulated cellular energetics are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations, mitochondrial enzyme defects, or altered oncogenes/tumor suppressors. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression. Point mutations and copy number changes are the two most common mitochondrial DNA alterations in cancers, and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by chemical depletion of mitochondrial DNA or impairment of mitochondrial respiratory chain in cancer cells promotes cancer progression to a chemoresistance or invasive phenotype. Moreover, defects in mitochondrial enzymes, such as succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, are associated with both familial and sporadic forms of cancer. Deregulated mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 might modulate cancer progression by regulating cellular metabolism and oxidative stress. These mitochondrial defects during oncogenesis and tumor progression activate cytosolic signaling pathways that ultimately alter nuclear gene expression, a process called retrograde signaling. Changes in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, Ca2+, or oncometabolites are important in the mitochondrial retrograde signaling for neoplastic transformation and cancer progression. In addition, altered oncogenes/tumor suppressors including hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and tumor suppressor p53 regulate mitochondrial respiration and cellular metabolism by modulating the expression of their target genes. We thus suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in cancer progression and that targeting mitochondrial alterations and mitochondrial retrograde signaling might be a promising strategy for the development of selective anticancer therapy. PMID:27022139

  17. The extracellular matrix: A dynamic niche in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pengfei; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2012-01-01

    The local microenvironment, or niche, of a cancer cell plays important roles in cancer development. A major component of the niche is the extracellular matrix (ECM), a complex network of macromolecules with distinctive physical, biochemical, and biomechanical properties. Although tightly controlled during embryonic development and organ homeostasis, the ECM is commonly deregulated and becomes disorganized in diseases such as cancer. Abnormal ECM affects cancer progression by directly promoting cellular transformation and metastasis. Importantly, however, ECM anomalies also deregulate behavior of stromal cells, facilitate tumor-associated angiogenesis and inflammation, and thus lead to generation of a tumorigenic microenvironment. Understanding how ECM composition and topography are maintained and how their deregulation influences cancer progression may help develop new therapeutic interventions by targeting the tumor niche. PMID:22351925

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  19. Cancer stem cells as the engine of unstable tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard V; Rodríguez-Caso, Carlos; Deisboeck, Thomas S; Saldaña, Joan

    2008-08-21

    Genomic instability is considered by many authors the key engine of tumorigenesis. However, mounting evidence indicates that a small population of drug resistant cancer cells can also be a key component of tumor progression. Such cancer stem cells would define a compartment effectively acting as the source of most tumor cells. Here we study the interplay between these two conflicting components of cancer dynamics using two types of tissue architecture. Both mean field and multicompartment models are studied. It is shown that tissue architecture affects the pattern of cancer dynamics and that unstable cancers spontaneously organize into a heterogeneous population of highly unstable cells. This dominant population is in fact separated from the low-mutation compartment by an instability gap, where almost no cancer cells are observed. The possible implications of this prediction are discussed.

  20. Milk and the risk and progression of cancer.

    PubMed

    Rock, Cheryl L

    2011-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that nutritional factors contribute to a substantial proportion of cancer cases, and milk contains numerous bioactive substances that could affect risk and progression of cancer. Cancer results from multiple genetic and epigenetic events over time, so demonstrating a specific effect of nutrients or other bioactive food components in human cancer is challenging. Epidemiological evidence consistently suggests that milk intake is protective against colorectal cancer. Calcium supplements have been shown to reduce risk for recurrence of adenomatous polyps. Calcium supplementation has not been observed to reduce risk for colon cancer, although long latency and baseline calcium intake affect interpretation of these results. High calcium intake from both food and supplements is associated with increased risk for advanced or fatal prostate cancer. Results from epidemiological studies examining the relationship between intake of dairy foods and breast or ovarian cancer risk are not consistent. Animal studies have suggested that galactose may be toxic to ovarian cells, but results from epidemiological studies that have examined ovarian cancer risk and milk and/or lactose intakes are mixed. Dietary guidelines for cancer prevention encourage meeting recommended levels of calcium intake primarily through food choices rather than supplements, and choosing low-fat or nonfat dairy foods.

  1. Investigate the Role of Obesity in Ovarian Cancer Initiation and Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0095 TITLE: Investigate the Role of Obesity in Ovarian Cancer Initiation and Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigate the Role of Obesity in Ovarian Cancer Initiation and Progression 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1...pathways in ovarian stem cells and in transformed ovarian cells affected by obesity that lead to ovarian cancer initiation and progression. 15. SUBJECT

  2. Recent Progress in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Herman, Joseph M.; Laheru, Daniel A.; Klein, Alison P.; Erdek, Michael A.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is currently one of the deadliest of the solid malignancies. However, surgery to resect neoplasms of the pancreas is safer and less invasive than ever, novel drug combinations have been shown to improve survival, advances in radiation therapy have resulted in less toxicity, and enormous strides have been made in our understanding of the fundamental genetics of pancreatic cancer. These advances provide hope but they also increase the complexity of caring for patients. It is clear that multidisciplinary care that provides comprehensive and coordinated evaluation and treatment is the most effective way to manage patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:23856911

  3. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical literature, the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) trial was started in 1998. That study enrolled ... in the BCPT. Studies, such as BCPT and STAR, involve women who have not had breast cancer, ...

  4. Cancer nanomedicine: progress, challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jinjun; Kantoff, Philip W; Wooster, Richard; Farokhzad, Omid C

    2017-01-01

    The intrinsic limits of conventional cancer therapies prompted the development and application of various nanotechnologies for more effective and safer cancer treatment, herein referred to as cancer nanomedicine. Considerable technological success has been achieved in this field, but the main obstacles to nanomedicine becoming a new paradigm in cancer therapy stem from the complexities and heterogeneity of tumour biology, an incomplete understanding of nano-bio interactions and the challenges regarding chemistry, manufacturing and controls required for clinical translation and commercialization. This Review highlights the progress, challenges and opportunities in cancer nanomedicine and discusses novel engineering approaches that capitalize on our growing understanding of tumour biology and nano-bio interactions to develop more effective nanotherapeutics for cancer patients.

  5. Hyaluronan, Inflammation, and Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schwertfeger, Kathryn L.; Cowman, Mary K.; Telmer, Patrick G.; Turley, Eva A.; McCarthy, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer-induced inflammation in the tumor reactive stroma supports invasion and malignant progression and is contributed to by a variety of host cells including macrophages and fibroblasts. Inflammation appears to be initiated by tumor cells and surrounding host fibroblasts that secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM) to create a pro-inflammatory “cancerized” or tumor reactive microenvironment that supports tumor expansion and invasion. The tissue polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) is an example of an ECM component within the cancerized microenvironment that promotes breast cancer progression. Like many ECM molecules, the function of native high-molecular weight HA is altered by fragmentation, which is promoted by oxygen/nitrogen free radicals and release of hyaluronidases within the tumor microenvironment. HA fragments are pro-inflammatory and activate signaling pathways that promote survival, migration, and invasion within both tumor and host cells through binding to HA receptors such as CD44 and RHAMM/HMMR. In breast cancer, elevated HA in the peri-tumor stroma and increased HA receptor expression are prognostic for poor outcome and are associated with disease recurrence. This review addresses the critical issues regarding tumor-induced inflammation and its role in breast cancer progression focusing specifically on the changes in HA metabolism within tumor reactive stroma as a key factor in malignant progression. PMID:26106384

  6. Catalog of genetic progression of human cancers: breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, Christine; Yates, Lucy; Kulka, Janina

    2016-03-01

    With the rapid development of next-generation sequencing, deeper insights are being gained into the molecular evolution that underlies the development and clinical progression of breast cancer. It is apparent that during evolution, breast cancers acquire thousands of mutations including single base pair substitutions, insertions, deletions, copy number aberrations, and structural rearrangements. As a consequence, at the whole genome level, no two cancers are identical and few cancers even share the same complement of "driver" mutations. Indeed, two samples from the same cancer may also exhibit extensive differences due to constant remodeling of the genome over time. In this review, we summarize recent studies that extend our understanding of the genomic basis of cancer progression. Key biological insights include the following: subclonal diversification begins early in cancer evolution, being detectable even in in situ lesions; geographical stratification of subclonal structure is frequent in primary tumors and can include therapeutically targetable alterations; multiple distant metastases typically arise from a common metastatic ancestor following a "metastatic cascade" model; systemic therapy can unmask preexisting resistant subclones or influence further treatment sensitivity and disease progression. We conclude the review by describing novel approaches such as the analysis of circulating DNA and patient-derived xenografts that promise to further our understanding of the genomic changes occurring during cancer evolution and guide treatment decision making.

  7. The role of gelatinases in colorectal cancer progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Mook, Olaf R F; Frederiks, Wilma M; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2004-12-17

    Various proteases are involved in cancer progression and metastasis. In particular, gelatinases, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, have been implicated to play a role in colon cancer progression and metastasis in animal models and patients. In the present review, the clinical relevance and the prognostic value of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression and proenzyme activation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 are evaluated in relation to colorectal cancer. Expression of tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) in relation with MMP expression in cancer tissues and the relevance of detection of plasma or serum levels of MMP-2 and/or MMP-9 and TIMPs for prognosis are also discussed. Furthermore, involvement of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in experimental models of colorectal cancer is reviewed. In vitro studies have suggested that gelatinase is expressed in cancer cells but animal models indicated that gelatinase expression in non-cancer cells in tumors contributes to cancer progression. In fact, interactions between cancer cells and host tissues have been shown to modulate gelatinase expression in host cells. Inhibition of gelatinases by synthetic MMP inhibitors has been considered to be an attractive approach to block cancer progression. However, despite promising results in animal models, clinical trials with MMP inhibitors have been disappointing so far. To obtain more insight in the (patho)physiological functions of gelatinases, regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression is discussed. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling has been shown to be involved in regulation of gelatinase expression in both cancer cells and non-cancer cells. Expression can be triggered by a variety of stimuli including growth factors, cytokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. On the other hand, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity regulates bioavailability and activity of growth factors and cytokines, affects the immune response and is involved in angiogenesis. Because of the

  8. Caveolin-1 and prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Michael R; Yang, Wei; Di Vizio, Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Caveolin-1 was identified in the 1990s as a marker of aggressive prostate cancer. The caveolin-1 protein localizes to vesicular structures called caveolae and has been shown to bind and regulate many signaling proteins involved in oncogenesis. Caveolin-1 also has lipid binding properties and mediates aspects of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism and can elicit biological responses in a paracrine manner when secreted. Caveolin-1 is also present in the serum of prostate cancer patients and circulating levels correlate with extent of disease. Current evidence indicates that increased expression of caveolin-1 in prostate adenocarcinoma cells and commensurate downregulation of the protein in prostate stroma, mediate progression to the castration-resistant phase of prostate cancer through diverse pathways. This chapter summarizes the current state of our understanding of the cellular and physiologic mechanisms in which caveolin-1 participates in the evolution of prostate cancer cell phenotypes.

  9. Progress Against Prostate Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Progress Against Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents Click ... This can narrow the urethra, decreasing urine flow. Prostate cancer is made up of cells the body does ...

  10. Financial Burden of Cancer Care - Life After Cancer Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Management of progressive metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Waselenko, J K; Dawson, N A

    1997-10-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is a growing health problem and is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. While the response of patients with metastatic prostate cancer to initial hormonal manipulation is excellent, the majority of patients eventually progress. As a result, a growing number of patients and their physicians need-to-find acceptable therapeutic alternatives. Fortunately, the number of therapies in the management armamentarium is growing and includes: alternative hormonal therapies, chemotherapy, radioisotopes, and investigational agents. The major focus of treatment has shifted to palliation and quality of life. The decline of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has become another important end point as evidence supporting a correlation with prolonged survival mounts. Enrolling eligible patients in clinical trials is critical to the development of new treatment strategies for this difficult disease.

  12. Cell Polarity Proteins in Breast Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Rejon, Carlis; Al-Masri, Maia; McCaffrey, Luke

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer, one of the leading causes of cancer related death in women worldwide, is a heterogeneous disease with diverse subtypes that have different properties and prognoses. The developing mammary gland is a highly proliferative and invasive tissue, and some of the developmental programs may be aberrantly activated to promote breast cancer progression. In the breast, luminal epithelial cells exhibit apical-basal polarity, and the failure to maintain this organizational structure, due to disruption of polarity complexes, is implicated in promoting hyperplasia and tumors. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying loss of polarity will contribute to our knowledge of the early stages leading to the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we will discuss recent findings that support the idea that loss of apical-basal cell polarity is a crucial step in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype. Oncogene induced loss of tissue organization shares a conserved cellular mechanism with developmental process, we will further describe the role of the individual polarity complexes, the Par, Crumbs, and Scribble, to couple cell division orientation and cell growth. We will examine symmetric or asymmetric cell divisions in mammary stem cell and their contribution to the development of breast cancer subtypes and cancer stem cells. Finally, we will highlight some of the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which changes in epithelial polarity programs promote invasion and metastasis through single cell and collective cell modes. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2215-2223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Defining the radiobiology of prostate cancer progression: An important question in translational prostate cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Vourganti, Srinivas; Donaldson, Jeffrey; Johnson, Linda; Turkbey, Baris; Bratslavsky, Gennady; Kotula, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies affecting men worldwide. High mortality rates from advanced and metastatic prostate cancer in the United States are contrasted by a relatively indolent course in the majority of cases. This gives hope for finding methods that could direct personalized diagnostic, preventative, and treatment approaches to patients with prostate cancer. Recent advances in multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) offer a noninvasive diagnostic intervention which allows correlation of prostate tumor image characteristics with underlying biologic evidence of tumor progression. The power of MP-MRI includes examination of both local invasion and nodal disease and might overcome the challenges of analyzing the multifocal nature of prostate cancer. Future directions include a careful analysis of the genomic signature of individual prostatic lesions utilizing image-guided biopsies. This review examines the diagnostic potential of MRI in prostate cancer. PMID:24879423

  14. ADAM10: a new player in breast cancer progression?

    PubMed Central

    Mullooly, Maeve; McGowan, Patricia M; Kennedy, Susan A; Madden, Stephen F; Crown, John; O' Donovan, Norma; Duffy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ADAM proteases are best known for their role in shedding the extracellular domain of transmembrane proteins. Among the transmembrane proteins shed by ADAM10 are notch, HER2, E-cadherin, CD44, L1 and the EGFR ligands, EGF and betacellulin. As cleavage of several of these proteins has been implicated in cancer formation and progression, we hypothesised that ADAM10 is also involved in these processes. Methods: ADAM10 expression was decreased by RNA interference and the effects of this on cell numbers, invasion and migration were determined. We also examined the effect of ADAM10 inhibition on breast cancer cell line invasion and migration. Results: Using the triple-negative (TN) breast cancer cell lines, BT20, MDA-MB-231 and the non-TN cell line MDA-MB-453, knockdown of ADAM10 expression significantly decreased in vitro migration (P<0.01; for each cell line). Similarly, treatment with the ADAM10-selective inhibitor GI254023X reduced migration in the three cell lines (for BT20, P<0.001; for MDA-MB-231, P=0.005; for MDA-MB-453, P=0.023). In contrast, neither knockdown of ADAM10 nor treatment with the ADAM10-selective inhibitor GI254023X significantly affected cell numbers. Using extracts of primary breast cancers, higher levels of ADAM10 were found more frequently in high-grade vs low-grade tumours (P<0.001) and in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative compared with ER-positive tumours (P=0.005). Analysis of pooled publicly available data sets found that high levels of ADAM10 mRNA were associated with adverse outcome in patients with the basal subtype of breast cancer. Conclusions: Based on our combined cell line and breast cancer extract data, we conclude that ADAM10 is likely to be involved in breast cancer progression, especially in the basal subtype. PMID:26284334

  15. NFAT Proteins: Emerging Roles in Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Maria; Toker, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Preface The roles of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factors have been extensively studied in the immune system. However, ubiquitous expression of NFAT isoforms in mammalian tissues has been recently observed, as well as an emerging role for these transcription factors in human cancer. Various NFAT isoforms are functional in tumor cells and multiple compartments in the tumor microenvironment including fibroblasts, endothelial cells and infiltrating immune cells. How do NFAT isoforms regulate the complex interplay between these compartments during carcinoma progression? The answers lie with the multiple functions attributed to NFAT including cell growth, survival, invasion and angiogenesis. In addition to sorting out the complex role of NFAT in cancer we face the challenge of targeting this pathway therapeutically. PMID:19851316

  16. Tumour progression and the nature of cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    The nature of neoplasia and its sometime end result, cancer, has been studied by exposition and explanation of the sequential lesions of tumour progression. Neoplastic lesions were divided into four classes on the basis of growth characteristics and whether lesional growth is confined to one or more tissue compartments. Class IA, the initial lesion, an orderly, probably clonal growth, usually differentiates and disappears. Class IB: Failure to differentiate accompanied by disorderly growth. Class IC: Randomly dispersed atypical cells, constituting a precursor state. Class II, intermediate lesions, apparently arising from the atypical cells, show temporally unrestricted growth within the tissue compartment of origin. Class III lesions, primary invasive cancers, show temporally unrestricted growth in two or more tissue compartments and metastasise along different paths, a property associated with extracellular matrix interaction. The metastatic pathways may result from different subsets of cells in the primary cancer. Class IV lesions are the metastases. It was concluded that, all neoplasms develop in the same way, have the same general behavioural characteristics, and, when malignant, all interact with the extracellular matrix of the primary and the secondary sites. The origins and development of cancer are considered to be pluralistic and not due to a discrete change in a cell, whose progeny, as a result of that discrete change, carries all of the information required to explain the almost limitless events of a neoplastic system. Images Figure 4 PMID:1911211

  17. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis after immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Parker, M G; Atkins, M B; Ucci, A A; Levey, A S

    1995-04-01

    Cytokines have been used in experimental and standard protocols for immune enhancement for cancer. The combination of interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha 2 beta has been used in experimental protocols for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. A man who developed rapidly progressive renal failure after receiving this combination therapy is reported. A renal biopsy revealed a pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies were absent. The spectrum of renal disease and potentially related extrarenal manifestations associated with interleukin-2 and inteferon-alpha are reviewed. A pathogenesis of altered cell-mediated immunity, consistent with abnormalities in extrarenal organs after immune enhancement, is proposed.

  18. RNA editing, epitranscriptomics, and processing in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Witkin, Keren L; Hanlon, Sean E; Strasburger, Jennifer A; Coffin, John M; Jaffrey, Samie R; Howcroft, T Kevin; Dedon, Peter C; Steitz, Joan A; Daschner, Phil J; Read-Connole, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The transcriptome is extensively and dynamically regulated by a network of RNA modifying factors. RNA editing enzymes APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like) and ADAR (adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific) irreversibly recode primary RNA sequences, whereas newly described methylases (writers) and de-methylases (erasers) dynamically alter RNA molecules in response to environmental conditions. RNA modifications can affect RNA splicing, nuclear-cytoplasmic transport, translation, and regulation of gene expression by RNA interference. In addition, tRNA base modifications, processing, and regulated cleavage have been shown to alter global patterns of mRNA translation in response to cellular stress pathways. Recent studies, some of which were discussed at this workshop, have rekindled interest in the emerging roles of RNA modifications in health and disease. On September 10th, 2014, the Division of Cancer Biology, NCI sponsored a workshop to explore the role of epitranscriptomic RNA modifications and tRNA processing in cancer progression. The workshop attendees spanned a scientific range including chemists, virologists, and RNA and cancer biologists. The goal of the workshop was to explore the interrelationships between RNA editing, epitranscriptomics, and RNA processing and the enzymatic pathways that regulate these activities in cancer initiation and progression. At the conclusion of the workshop, a general discussion focused on defining the major challenges and opportunities in this field, as well as identifying the tools, technologies, resources and community efforts required to accelerate research in this emerging area.

  19. Cancer stem cells: progress and challenges in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Amanda K.; Miyamoto, Shinya; Babu, Anish; Munshi, Anupama

    2014-01-01

    The identification of a subpopulation of tumor cells with stem cell-like characteristics first in hematological malignancies and later in solid tumors has emerged into a novel field of cancer research. It has been proposed that this aberrant population of cells now called “cancer stem cells” (CSCs) drives tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance. CSCs have been shown to have the capacity of self-renewal and multipotency. Adopting strategies from the field of stem cell research has aided in identification, localization, and targeting of CSCs in many tumors. Despite the huge progress in other solid tumors such as brain, breast, and colon cancers no substantial advancements have been made in lung cancer. This is most likely due to the current rudimentary understanding of lung stem cell hierarchy and heterogeneous nature of lung disease. In this review, we will discuss the most recent findings related to identification of normal lung stem cells and CSCs, pathways involved in regulating the development of CSCs, and the importance of the stem cell niche in development and maintenance of CSCs. Additionally, we will examine the development and feasibility of novel CSC-targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating lung CSCs. PMID:27358855

  20. Incidence and Mortality Tables | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  1. Diet - Prevention Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Smoke-free Home Rules | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  3. UV Exposure and Sun Protective Practices | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  4. Sun-Protective Behavior | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  5. Medicaid Coverage of Tobacco Dependency Treatments | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  6. Tobacco Policy/Regulatory Factors | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  7. Diet, Physical Activity, and Weight | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Clinicians' Advice to Quit Smoking | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Fruit and Vegetable Consumption | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. Person-Years of Life Lost | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  11. Secondhand Smoke - Prevention Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  12. Smoking Cessation - Prevention Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  13. Recent Updates and Archive | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Tobacco Company Marketing Expenditures | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. HPV Immunization - Prevention Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Chemical Exposures - Prevention Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Methodology for Characterizing Trends | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Trends at a Glance | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Tobacco Use - Prevention Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei

    2015-12-29

    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy.

  1. Cancer stem cell targeted therapy: progress amid controversies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Shigdar, Sarah; Gantier, Michael P.; Hou, Yingchun; Wang, Li; Li, Yong; Shamaileh, Hadi Al; Yin, Wang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Zhao, Xinhan; Duan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer stem cells have been well characterized in numerous malignancies, the fundamental characteristics of this group of cells, however, have been challenged by some recent observations: cancer stem cells may not necessary to be rare within tumors; cancer stem cells and non-cancer stem cells may undergo reversible phenotypic changes; and the cancer stem cells phenotype can vary substantially between patients. Here the current status and progresses of cancer stem cells theory is illustrated and via providing a panoramic view of cancer therapy, we addressed the recent controversies regarding the feasibility of cancer stem cells targeted anti-cancer therapy. PMID:26496035

  2. Antioxidants accelerate lung cancer progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Volkan I; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Larsson, Erik; Nilsson, Jonas A; Lindahl, Per; Bergo, Martin O

    2014-01-29

    Antioxidants are widely used to protect cells from damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The concept that antioxidants can help fight cancer is deeply rooted in the general population, promoted by the food supplement industry, and supported by some scientific studies. However, clinical trials have reported inconsistent results. We show that supplementing the diet with the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and vitamin E markedly increases tumor progression and reduces survival in mouse models of B-RAF- and K-RAS-induced lung cancer. RNA sequencing revealed that NAC and vitamin E, which are structurally unrelated, produce highly coordinated changes in tumor transcriptome profiles, dominated by reduced expression of endogenous antioxidant genes. NAC and vitamin E increase tumor cell proliferation by reducing ROS, DNA damage, and p53 expression in mouse and human lung tumor cells. Inactivation of p53 increases tumor growth to a similar degree as antioxidants and abolishes the antioxidant effect. Thus, antioxidants accelerate tumor growth by disrupting the ROS-p53 axis. Because somatic mutations in p53 occur late in tumor progression, antioxidants may accelerate the growth of early tumors or precancerous lesions in high-risk populations such as smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who receive NAC to relieve mucus production.

  3. Castration Induced Neuroendocrine Mediated Progression of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    androgen -insensitive prostate cancer patients based upon our work. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer , Neuroendocrine, Progression...two androgen - ines PC-3 and DU-145 by examining the status of publication. a Src kinase inhibitor AZ independent prostate cancer cell l...differentiation in prostate cancer . AR activation. Together with our studies in the chimeric growth of androgen -sensitive and androgen -insensitive cells,

  4. Role of GGAP/PIKE-A in prostate cancer progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    isoform which also contains a COOH-terminal Arf-GAP domain and two ankyrin repeats . Both of these proteins can bind PI3-K via their proline-rich...may contribute to increased activity of GGAP2 in prostate cancer. In summary, GGAP2 may promote prostate cancer growth and progression via...that they may contribute to the functions of GGAP2 in prostate cancer. In summary, GGAP2 may promote prostate cancer growth and progression via

  5. Interaction of tumor cells and lymphatic vessels in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Alitalo, A; Detmar, M

    2012-10-18

    Metastatic spread of cancer through the lymphatic system affects hundreds of thousands of patients yearly. Growth of new lymphatic vessels, lymphangiogenesis, is activated in cancer and inflammation, but is largely inactive in normal physiology, and therefore offers therapeutic potential. Key mediators of lymphangiogenesis have been identified in developmental studies. During embryonic development, lymphatic endothelial cells derive from the blood vascular endothelium and differentiate under the guidance of lymphatic-specific regulators, such as the prospero homeobox 1 transcription factor. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and VEGF receptor 3 signaling are essential for the further development of lymphatic vessels and therefore they provide a promising target for inhibition of tumor lymphangiogenesis. Lymphangiogenesis is important for the progression of solid tumors as shown for melanoma and breast cancer. Tumor cells may use chemokine gradients as guidance cues and enter lymphatic vessels through intercellular openings between endothelial cell junctions or, possibly, by inducing larger discontinuities in the endothelial cell layer. Tumor-draining sentinel lymph nodes show enhanced lymphangiogenesis even before cancer metastasis and they may function as a permissive 'lymphovascular niche' for the survival of metastatic cells. Although our current knowledge indicates that the development of anti-lymphangiogenic therapies may be beneficial for the treatment of cancer patients, several open questions remain with regard to the frequency, mechanisms and biological importance of lymphatic metastases.

  6. Autophagy in malignant transformation and cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Pietrocola, Federico; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Baehrecke, Eric H; Cecconi, Francesco; Codogno, Patrice; Debnath, Jayanta; Gewirtz, David A; Karantza, Vassiliki; Kimmelman, Alec; Kumar, Sharad; Levine, Beth; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Martin, Seamus J; Penninger, Josef; Piacentini, Mauro; Rubinsztein, David C; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Simonsen, Anne; Thorburn, Andrew M; Velasco, Guillermo; Ryan, Kevin M; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy plays a key role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In healthy cells, such a homeostatic activity constitutes a robust barrier against malignant transformation. Accordingly, many oncoproteins inhibit, and several oncosuppressor proteins promote, autophagy. Moreover, autophagy is required for optimal anticancer immunosurveillance. In neoplastic cells, however, autophagic responses constitute a means to cope with intracellular and environmental stress, thus favoring tumor progression. This implies that at least in some cases, oncogenesis proceeds along with a temporary inhibition of autophagy or a gain of molecular functions that antagonize its oncosuppressive activity. Here, we discuss the differential impact of autophagy on distinct phases of tumorigenesis and the implications of this concept for the use of autophagy modulators in cancer therapy. PMID:25712477

  7. Autophagy in malignant transformation and cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Pietrocola, Federico; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Baehrecke, Eric H; Cecconi, Francesco; Codogno, Patrice; Debnath, Jayanta; Gewirtz, David A; Karantza, Vassiliki; Kimmelman, Alec; Kumar, Sharad; Levine, Beth; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Martin, Seamus J; Penninger, Josef; Piacentini, Mauro; Rubinsztein, David C; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Simonsen, Anne; Thorburn, Andrew M; Velasco, Guillermo; Ryan, Kevin M; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-04-01

    Autophagy plays a key role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. In healthy cells, such a homeostatic activity constitutes a robust barrier against malignant transformation. Accordingly, many oncoproteins inhibit, and several oncosuppressor proteins promote, autophagy. Moreover, autophagy is required for optimal anticancer immunosurveillance. In neoplastic cells, however, autophagic responses constitute a means to cope with intracellular and environmental stress, thus favoring tumor progression. This implies that at least in some cases, oncogenesis proceeds along with a temporary inhibition of autophagy or a gain of molecular functions that antagonize its oncosuppressive activity. Here, we discuss the differential impact of autophagy on distinct phases of tumorigenesis and the implications of this concept for the use of autophagy modulators in cancer therapy.

  8. Role of Reactive Stroma in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0189 TITLE: Role of Reactive Stroma in Prostate Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: David R...REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 12 JAN 2004 - 11 JAN 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Role of Reactive Stroma in Prostate Cancer Progression 5a. CONTRACT...the reactive stroma of experimental prostate cancer . Using a modified approach, we are placing an inducible Cre recombinase behind the FAP gene

  9. Role of MicroRNA Genes in Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-05-1-0483 TITLE: Role of microRNA Genes in Breast Cancer ...proposal, we asked if miRNA expression is altered as cells progress through the different stages of cancer . Through our microarray experiments, we have...shown that many miRNAs are differentially regulated as cells progress through cancer stages. A general trend in miRNA expression emerges from this work

  10. [Research progress on mechanisms of modern medicine in cancer metastasis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Qu, Jing-Lian; Gong, Jie-Ning

    2014-08-01

    Cancer metastasis is the most dangerous stage of tumorigenesis and evolution, the primary cause of death in cancer patients. Clinically, more than 60% of cancer patients have found metastasis at the time of examination. Modern medicine has made significant progress on the mechanisms of cancer metastasis in recent years, from the simple "anatomy and machinery" theory forward to the "seed and soil" theory, then to the "microenvironmental" theory and the "cancer stem cell" theory. The emerging "cancer stem cell" theory successfully explains phenomenon such as tumor genetic heterogeneity, anoikis resistance, tumor dormancy, providing more new targets and ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer metastasis.

  11. Chromothripsis and progression-free survival in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Skuja, Elina; Kalniete, Dagnija; Nakazawa-Miklasevica, Miki; Daneberga, Zanda; Abolins, Arnis; Purkalne, Gunta; Miklasevics, Edvins

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic dissemination of the primary tumor is the major cause of death in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Multiple chromosomal breaks and chromothripsis, a phenomenon involving multiple chromosomal fragmentations occurring in a single catastrophic event, are associated with cancer genesis, progression and developing of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chromothripsis and total breakpoint count (breakpoint instability index) on progression-free survival (PFS). A total of 19 patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) receiving FOLFOX first-line palliative chemotherapy between August, 2011 and October, 2012 were selected for this study. The results indicated that the highest breakpoint count was observed in chromosomes 1, 2 and 6. Chromothripsis was detected in 52.6% of the study patients. Furthermore, chromothripsis was associated with an increased median PFS (mPFS; 14 vs. 8 months, respectively; P=0.03), but an association with overall survival was not identified. The present study demonstrated that chromothripsis affected CRC patient survival, suggesting a role for this event as a prognostic and predictive marker in mCRC treatment. PMID:28357089

  12. Mouse Models of Follicular and Papillary Thyroid Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Marika A.; Arciuch, Valeria G. Antico; Di Cristofano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of well-differentiated thyroid cancers progress or recur, becoming resistant to current therapeutic options. Mouse models recapitulating the genetic and histological features of advanced thyroid cancer have been an invaluable tool to dissect the mechanisms involved in the progression from indolent, well differentiated tumors to aggressive, poorly differentiated carcinomas, and to identify novel therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the lessons learned from models of epithelial cell-derived thyroid cancer showing progression from hyperplastic lesions to locally invasive and metastatic carcinomas. PMID:22654848

  13. Regulated lysosomal exocytosis mediates cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Eda; White-Gilbertson, Shai; van de Vlekkert, Diantha; Janke, Laura; Moshiach, Simon; Campos, Yvan; Finkelstein, David; Gomero, Elida; Mosca, Rosario; Qiu, Xiaohui; Morton, Christopher L.; Annunziata, Ida; d’Azzo, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how tumor cells transition to an invasive and drug-resistant phenotype is central to cancer biology, but the mechanisms underlying this transition remain unclear. We show that sarcomas gain these malignant traits by inducing lysosomal exocytosis, a ubiquitous physiological process. During lysosomal exocytosis, the movement of exocytic lysosomes along the cytoskeleton and their docking at the plasma membrane involve LAMP1, a sialylated membrane glycoprotein and target of the sialidase NEU1. Cleavage of LAMP1 sialic acids by NEU1 limits the extent of lysosomal exocytosis. We found that by down-regulation of NEU1 and accumulation of oversialylated LAMP1, tumor cells exacerbate lysosomal exocytosis of soluble hydrolases and exosomes. This facilitates matrix invasion and propagation of invasive signals, and purging of lysosomotropic chemotherapeutics. In Arf−⁄− mice, Neu1 haploinsufficiency fostered the development of invasive, pleomorphic sarcomas, expressing epithelial and mesenchymal markers, and lysosomal exocytosis effectors, LAMP1 and Myosin-11. These features are analogous to those of metastatic, pleomorphic human sarcomas, where low NEU1 levels correlate with high expression of lysosomal exocytosis markers. In a therapeutic proof of principle, we demonstrate that inhibiting lysosomal exocytosis reversed invasiveness and chemoresistance in aggressive sarcoma cells. Thus, we reveal that this unconventional, lysosome-regulated pathway plays a primary role in tumor progression and chemoresistance. PMID:26824057

  14. Non-muscle myosins in tumor progression, cancer cell invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ouderkirk, J. L.; Krendel, M.

    2014-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton, which regulates cell polarity, adhesion, and migration, can influence cancer progression, including initial acquisition of malignant properties by normal cells, invasion of adjacent tissues, and metastasis to distant sites. Actin-dependent molecular motors, myosins, play key roles in regulating tumor progression and metastasis. In this review, we examine how non-muscle myosins regulate neoplastic transformation and cancer cell migration and invasion. Members of the myosin superfamily can act as either enhancers or suppressors of tumor progression. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on how mutations or epigenetic changes in myosin genes and changes in myosin expression may affect tumor progression and patient outcomes and discusses the proposed mechanisms linking myosin inactivation or upregulation to malignant phenotype, cancer cell migration, and metastasis. PMID:25087729

  15. Heme oxygenase-1 in macrophages controls prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Zsuzsanna; Li, Mailin; Csizmadia, Eva; Döme, Balazs; Johansson, Martin; Persson, Jenny Liao; Seth, Pankaj; Otterbein, Leo; Wegiel, Barbara

    2015-10-20

    Innate immune cells strongly influence cancer growth and progression via multiple mechanisms including regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). In this study, we investigated whether expression of the metabolic gene, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in tumor microenvironment imparts significant effects on prostate cancer progression.We showed that HO-1 is expressed in MARCO-positive macrophages in prostate cancer (PCa) xenografts and human prostate cancers. We demonstrated that macrophage specific (LyzM-Cre) conditional deletion of HO-1 suppressed growth of PC3 xenografts in vivo and delayed progression of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in TRAMP mice. However, initiation and progression of cancer xenografts in the presence of macrophages lacking HO-1 resulted in loss of E-cadherin, a known marker of poor prognosis as well as EMT. Application of CO, a product of HO-1 catalysis, increased levels of E-cadherin in the adherens junctions between cancer cells. We further showed that HO-1-driven expression of E-cadherin in cancer cells cultured in the presence of macrophages is dependent on mitochondrial activity of cancer cells.In summary, these data suggest that HO-1-derived CO from tumor-associated macrophages influences, in part, E-cadherin expression and thus tumor initiation and progression.

  16. Survival, Smoking, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Life After Cancer Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Bladder, Breast, and Colorectal Cancer- Treatment Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Kidney, Lung, Ovarian, and Prostate Cancer - Treatment Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancers - Early Detection Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. Progress in neutron capture therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.J.; Harrington, B.V. ); Moore, D.E. )

    1992-01-01

    Prognosis for some cancers is good, but for others, few patients will survive 12 months. This latter group of cancers is characterised by a proclivity to disseminate malignant cells in the host organ. In some cases systemic metastases occur, but in other cases, failure to achieve local control results in death. First among these cancers are the high grade brain tumours, astrocytoma 3,4 and glioblastoma multiforme. Local control of these tumors should lead to cure. Other cancers melanoma metastatic to the brain, for which a useful palliative therapy is not yet available, and pancreatic cancer for which localised control at an early stage could bring about improved prognosis. Patients with these cancers have little grounds for hope. Our primary objective is to reverse this situation with Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). The purpose of this fourth symposium is to hasten the day whereby patients with these cancers can reasonably hope for substantial remissions.

  1. Progress in neutron capture therapy for cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, B.J.; Harrington, B.V.; Moore, D.E.

    1992-09-01

    Prognosis for some cancers is good, but for others, few patients will survive 12 months. This latter group of cancers is characterised by a proclivity to disseminate malignant cells in the host organ. In some cases systemic metastases occur, but in other cases, failure to achieve local control results in death. First among these cancers are the high grade brain tumours, astrocytoma 3,4 and glioblastoma multiforme. Local control of these tumors should lead to cure. Other cancers melanoma metastatic to the brain, for which a useful palliative therapy is not yet available, and pancreatic cancer for which localised control at an early stage could bring about improved prognosis. Patients with these cancers have little grounds for hope. Our primary objective is to reverse this situation with Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). The purpose of this fourth symposium is to hasten the day whereby patients with these cancers can reasonably hope for substantial remissions.

  2. A Genetic Interaction Screen for Breast Cancer Progression Driver Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0082 TITLE: A Genetic Interaction Screen for Breast...COVERED 1 2012 - 3 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Genetic Interaction Screen for Breast Cancer Progression Driver Genes 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...analysis of genetic alterations in human breast cancers has revealed that individual tumors accumulate mutations in approximately ninety different genes

  3. Genes Involved in Oxidation and Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    association of genes and prostate cancer progression from these simulated nested case - control studies to what would be observed if the entire...Control Sampling: Methods for Nested Case - Control Studies of Candidate Genes and Prostate Cancer Progression”. This work forms one aim of MS Wang’s...prostate cancer risk: results from two large nested case - control studies . Carcinogenesis. 2007 Nov 13; [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 17999989 Dr

  4. GPR56 Plays Varying Roles in Endogenous Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Begum, Shahinoor; Barry, Marc; Crowley, Denise; Yang, Liquan; Bronson, Roderick T.; Hynes, Richard O.

    2011-01-01

    GPR56, a non-classical adhesion receptor, was previously reported to suppress tumor growth and metastasis in xenograft models using human melanoma cell lines. To understand whether GPR56 plays similar roles in the development of endogenous tumors, we analyzed cancer progression in Gpr56−/− mice using a variety of transgenic cancer models. Our results showed that GPR56 suppressed prostate cancer progression in the TRAMP model on a mixed genetic background, similar to its roles in progression of melanoma xenografts. However, its roles in other cancer types appeared to be complex. It had marginal effects on tumor onset of mammary tumors in the MMTV-PyMT model, but had no effects on subsequent tumor progression in either the MMTV-PyMT mice or the melanoma model, Ink4a/Arf−/− tyr-Hras. These results indicate diverse roles of GPR56 in cancer progression and provide the first genetic evidence for the involvement of an adhesion GPCR in endogenous cancer development. PMID:20333450

  5. Role of Aquaporin 1 Signalling in Cancer Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Yoko; Dorward, Hilary; Yool, Andrea J.; Smith, Eric; Townsend, Amanda R.; Price, Timothy J.; Hardingham, Jennifer E.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a major health burden worldwide. Despite the advances in our understanding of its pathogenesis and continued improvement in cancer management and outcomes, there remains a strong clinical demand for more accurate and reliable biomarkers of metastatic progression and novel therapeutic targets to abrogate angiogenesis and tumour progression. Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) is a small hydrophobic integral transmembrane protein with a predominant role in trans-cellular water transport. Recently, over-expression of AQP1 has been associated with many types of cancer as a distinctive clinical prognostic factor. This has prompted researchers to evaluate the link between AQP1 and cancer biological functions. Available literature implicates the role of AQP1 in tumour cell migration, invasion and angiogenesis. This article reviews the current understanding of AQP1-facilitated tumour development and progression with a focus on regulatory mechanisms and downstream signalling pathways. PMID:28146084

  6. Apigenin blocks IKKα activation and suppresses prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Sanjeev; Kanwal, Rajnee; Shankar, Eswar; Datt, Manish; Chance, Mark R; Fu, Pingfu; MacLennan, Gregory T; Gupta, Sanjay

    2015-10-13

    IKKα has been implicated as a key regulator of oncogenesis and driver of the metastatic process; therefore is regarded as a promising therapeutic target in anticancer drug development. In spite of the progress made in the development of IKK inhibitors, no potent IKKα inhibitor(s) have been identified. Our multistep approach of molecular modeling and direct binding has led to the identification of plant flavone apigenin as a specific IKKα inhibitor. Here we report apigenin, in micro molar range, inhibits IKKα kinase activity, demonstrates anti-proliferative and anti-invasive activities in functional cell based assays and exhibits anticancer efficacy in experimental tumor model. We found that apigenin directly binds with IKKα, attenuates IKKα kinase activity and suppresses NF-ĸB/p65 activation in human prostate cancer PC-3 and 22Rv1 cells much more effectively than IKK inhibitor, PS1145. We also showed that apigenin caused cell cycle arrest similar to knockdown of IKKα in prostate cancer cells. Studies in xenograft mouse model indicate that apigenin feeding suppresses tumor growth, lowers proliferation and enhances apoptosis. These effects correlated with inhibition of p-IKKα, NF-ĸB/p65, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and increase in cleaved caspase 3 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, our results suggest that inhibition of cell proliferation, invasiveness and decrease in tumor growth by apigenin are mediated by its ability to suppress IKKα and downstream targets affecting NF-ĸB signaling pathways.

  7. Inflammation in prostate cancer progression and therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Timothy; Livas, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation contributes to the onset and progression of human cancer, via modifications in the tumor microenvironment by remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) and initiating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). At the biological level, chronically inflamed cells release cytokines that are functionally dictating a constitutively active stroma, promoting tumor growth and metastasis. In prostate cancer, inflammation correlates with increased development of “risk factor” lesions or proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA). Chronic inflammation in benign prostate biopsy specimens can be associated with high-grade prostate tumors in adjacent areas. In this article, we discuss the current understanding of the incidence of inflammation in prostate cancer progression and the significance of the process in therapeutic targeting of specific inflammatory signaling pathways and critical effectors during tumor progression. Further understanding of the process of chronic inflammation in prostate tumor progression to metastasis will enable development and optimization of novel therapeutic modalities for the treatment of high-risk patients with advanced disease. PMID:26816843

  8. GPR56 in cancer progression: current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liquan; Xu, Lei

    2012-04-01

    Cell adhesion is a critical process during cancer progression and is mediated by transmembrane receptors. Recently, GPR56, a member of the adhesion family of G protein-coupled receptors, was established as a new type of adhesion receptor that binds to extracellular matrix proteins and shown to play inhibitory roles in melanoma progression. Further studies revealed that the extracellular portion and the seven transmembrane domains of GPR56 function antagonistically to regulate VEGF production and angiogenesis via a signaling pathway mediated by PKCα. Tissue transglutaminase was identified as the first extracellular matrix protein that binds to GPR56. It is a crosslinking enzyme in the extracellular matrix but is also expressed in the cytosol. Tissue transglutaminase plays pleiotropic roles in cancer progression. Whether and how it might mediate GPR56-regulated cancer progression awaits further investigation.

  9. Epigenetic reduction of DNA repair in progression to gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Carol; Bernstein, Harris

    2015-01-01

    Deficiencies in DNA repair due to inherited germ-line mutations in DNA repair genes cause increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. In sporadic GI cancers, mutations in DNA repair genes are relatively rare. However, epigenetic alterations that reduce expression of DNA repair genes are frequent in sporadic GI cancers. These epigenetic reductions are also found in field defects that give rise to cancers. Reduced DNA repair likely allows excessive DNA damages to accumulate in somatic cells. Then either inaccurate translesion synthesis past the un-repaired DNA damages or error-prone DNA repair can cause mutations. Erroneous DNA repair can also cause epigenetic alterations (i.e., epimutations, transmitted through multiple replication cycles). Some of these mutations and epimutations may cause progression to cancer. Thus, deficient or absent DNA repair is likely an important underlying cause of cancer. Whole genome sequencing of GI cancers show that between thousands to hundreds of thousands of mutations occur in these cancers. Epimutations that reduce DNA repair gene expression and occur early in progression to GI cancers are a likely source of this high genomic instability. Cancer cells deficient in DNA repair are more vulnerable than normal cells to inactivation by DNA damaging agents. Thus, some of the most clinically effective chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment are DNA damaging agents, and their effectiveness often depends on deficient DNA repair in cancer cells. Recently, at least 18 DNA repair proteins, each active in one of six DNA repair pathways, were found to be subject to epigenetic reduction of expression in GI cancers. Different DNA repair pathways repair different types of DNA damage. Evaluation of which DNA repair pathway(s) are deficient in particular types of GI cancer and/or particular patients may prove useful in guiding choice of therapeutic agents in cancer therapy. PMID:25987950

  10. Epigenetic reduction of DNA repair in progression to gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Carol; Bernstein, Harris

    2015-05-15

    Deficiencies in DNA repair due to inherited germ-line mutations in DNA repair genes cause increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. In sporadic GI cancers, mutations in DNA repair genes are relatively rare. However, epigenetic alterations that reduce expression of DNA repair genes are frequent in sporadic GI cancers. These epigenetic reductions are also found in field defects that give rise to cancers. Reduced DNA repair likely allows excessive DNA damages to accumulate in somatic cells. Then either inaccurate translesion synthesis past the un-repaired DNA damages or error-prone DNA repair can cause mutations. Erroneous DNA repair can also cause epigenetic alterations (i.e., epimutations, transmitted through multiple replication cycles). Some of these mutations and epimutations may cause progression to cancer. Thus, deficient or absent DNA repair is likely an important underlying cause of cancer. Whole genome sequencing of GI cancers show that between thousands to hundreds of thousands of mutations occur in these cancers. Epimutations that reduce DNA repair gene expression and occur early in progression to GI cancers are a likely source of this high genomic instability. Cancer cells deficient in DNA repair are more vulnerable than normal cells to inactivation by DNA damaging agents. Thus, some of the most clinically effective chemotherapeutic agents in cancer treatment are DNA damaging agents, and their effectiveness often depends on deficient DNA repair in cancer cells. Recently, at least 18 DNA repair proteins, each active in one of six DNA repair pathways, were found to be subject to epigenetic reduction of expression in GI cancers. Different DNA repair pathways repair different types of DNA damage. Evaluation of which DNA repair pathway(s) are deficient in particular types of GI cancer and/or particular patients may prove useful in guiding choice of therapeutic agents in cancer therapy.

  11. DISCOIDIN DOMAIN RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASES: NEW PLAYERS IN CANCER PROGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Valiathan, Rajeshwari R.; Marco, Marta; Leitinger, Birgit; Kleer, Celina G.; Fridman, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Almost all human cancers display dysregulated expression and/or function of one or more receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The strong causative association between altered RTK function and cancer progression has translated into novel therapeutic strategies that target these cell surface receptors in the treatment of cancer. Yet, the full spectrum of RTKs that may alter the oncogenic process is not completely understood. Accumulating evidence suggests that a unique set of RTKs known as the Discoidin Domain Receptors (DDRs) play a role in cancer progression by regulating the interactions of tumor cells with their surrounding collagen matrix. The DDRs are the only RTKs that specifically bind to, and are activated by collagen. Hence, the DDRs are part of the signaling networks that translate information from the extracellular matrix thereby acting as key regulators of cell-matrix interactions. Under physiological conditions, DDRs control cell and tissue homeostasis by acting as collagen sensors, transducing signals that regulate cell polarity, tissue morphogenesis, and cell differentiation. In cancer, DDRs are hijacked by tumor cells to disrupt normal cell-matrix communication and initiate pro-migratory and pro-invasive programs. Importantly, several cancer types exhibit DDR mutations, which are thought to alter receptor function and contribute to cancer progression. Other evidence suggests that the actions of DDRs in cancer are complex, either promoting or suppressing tumor cell behavior in a DDR type/isoform specific and context dependent manner. Thus, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of DDR actions in cancer tissues. This review summarizes the current knowledge on DDR expression and function in cancer and discusses the potential implications of DDRs in cancer biology. It is hoped that this effort will encourage more research into these poorly understood but unique RTKs, which have the potential of becoming novel therapeutics targets in cancer. PMID

  12. [Epigenetic alterations in cervical cancer progression].

    PubMed

    Ríos-Romero, Magdalena; Soto-Valladares, Ana Guadalupe; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Despite the use of the screening test, such as Papanicolaou, and the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV), cervical cancer remains as a public health problem in México and it is the second leading cause of death for malignant neoplasias among women. High-risk HPV infection is the main risk factor for the development of premalignant lesions and cervical cancer; however, HPV infection is not the only factor; there are various genetic and epigenetic alterations required for the development of neoplasias; some of them have been described and even in some cases they have been suggested as biomarkers for prognosis. However, in contrast with other cancer types, such as breast cancer, in cervical cancer the use of biomarkers has not been established for clinical applications. Unlike genetic alterations, epigenetic alterations are potentially reversible; in this sense, their characterization is important, since they have not only a potential use as biomarkers, but they also could represent new therapeutic targets for treatment of cervical cancer. This review describes some of the more common epigenetic alterations in cervical cancer and its potential use in routine clinical practice.

  13. Akt isoform specific effects in ovarian cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Linnerth-Petrik, Nicolle M.; Santry, Lisa A.; Moorehead, Roger; Jücker, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer remains a significant therapeutic problem and novel, effective therapies are needed. Akt is a serine-threonine kinase that is overexpressed in numerous cancers, including ovarian. Mammalian cells express three Akt isoforms which are encoded by distinct genes. Although there are several Akt inhibitors in clinical trials, most indiscriminately target all isoforms. Current in vitro data and animal knockout experiments suggest that the Akt isoforms may have divergent roles. In this paper, we determined the isoform-specific functions of Akt in ovarian cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in ovarian cancer progression in vivo. For in vitro experiments, murine and human ovarian cancer cells were treated with Akt inhibitors and cell viability was assessed. We used two different in vivo approaches to identify the roles of Akt isoforms in ovarian cancer progression and their influence on the primary tumor and tumor microenvironment. In one experiment, wild-type C57Bl6 mice were orthotopically injected with ID8 cells with stable knockdown of Akt isoforms. In a separate experiment, mice null for Akt 1-3 were orthotopically injected with WT ID8 cells (Figure 1). Our data show that inhibition of Akt1 significantly reduced ovarian cancer cell proliferation and inhibited tumor progression in vivo. Conversely, disruption of Akt2 increased tumor growth. Inhibition of Akt3 had an intermediate phenotype, but also increased growth of ovarian cancer cells. These data suggest that there is minimal redundancy between the Akt isoforms in ovarian cancer progression. These findings have important implications in the design of Akt inhibitors for the effective treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:27533079

  14. Algorithmic methods to infer the evolutionary trajectories in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Graudenzi, Alex; Ramazzotti, Daniele; Sanz-Pamplona, Rebeca; De Sano, Luca; Mauri, Giancarlo; Moreno, Victor; Antoniotti, Marco; Mishra, Bud

    2016-01-01

    The genomic evolution inherent to cancer relates directly to a renewed focus on the voluminous next-generation sequencing data and machine learning for the inference of explanatory models of how the (epi)genomic events are choreographed in cancer initiation and development. However, despite the increasing availability of multiple additional -omics data, this quest has been frustrated by various theoretical and technical hurdles, mostly stemming from the dramatic heterogeneity of the disease. In this paper, we build on our recent work on the “selective advantage” relation among driver mutations in cancer progression and investigate its applicability to the modeling problem at the population level. Here, we introduce PiCnIc (Pipeline for Cancer Inference), a versatile, modular, and customizable pipeline to extract ensemble-level progression models from cross-sectional sequenced cancer genomes. The pipeline has many translational implications because it combines state-of-the-art techniques for sample stratification, driver selection, identification of fitness-equivalent exclusive alterations, and progression model inference. We demonstrate PiCnIc’s ability to reproduce much of the current knowledge on colorectal cancer progression as well as to suggest novel experimentally verifiable hypotheses. PMID:27357673

  15. Integrated Proteomic and Metabolic Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Patrick G.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Wang, Tao; Vasilatos, Shauna; Huang, Yi; Van Houten, Bennett; Pandey, Akhilesh; Davidson, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most persistent hallmarks of cancer biology is the preference of tumor cells to derive energy through glycolysis as opposed to the more efficient process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). However, little is known about the molecular cascades by which oncogenic pathways bring about this metabolic switch. We carried out a quantitative proteomic and metabolic analysis of the MCF10A derived cell line model of breast cancer progression that includes parental cells and derivatives representing three different tumor grades of Ras-driven cancer with a common genetic background. A SILAC (Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture) labeling strategy was used to quantify protein expression in conjunction with subcellular fractionation to measure dynamic subcellular localization in the nucleus, cytosol and mitochondria. Protein expression and localization across cell lines were compared to cellular metabolic rates as a measure of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), glycolysis and cellular ATP. Investigation of the metabolic capacity of the four cell lines revealed that cellular OXPHOS decreased with breast cancer progression independently of mitochondrial copy number or electron transport chain protein expression. Furthermore, glycolytic lactate secretion did not increase in accordance with cancer progression and decreasing OXPHOS capacity. However, the relative expression and subcellular enrichment of enzymes critical to lactate and pyruvate metabolism supported the observed extracellular acidification profiles. This analysis of metabolic dysfunction in cancer progression integrated with global protein expression and subcellular localization is a novel and useful technique for determining organelle-specific roles of proteins in disease. PMID:24086712

  16. PEG-3, a nontransforming cancer progression gene, is a positive regulator of cancer aggressiveness and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Su, Z Z; Goldstein, N I; Jiang, H; Wang, M N; Duigou, G J; Young, C S; Fisher, P B

    1999-12-21

    Cancer is a progressive disease culminating in acquisition of metastatic potential by a subset of evolving tumor cells. Generation of an adequate blood supply in tumors by production of new blood vessels, angiogenesis, is a defining element in this process. Although extensively investigated, the precise molecular events underlying tumor development, cancer progression, and angiogenesis remain unclear. Subtraction hybridization identified a genetic element, progression elevated gene-3 (PEG-3), whose expression directly correlates with cancer progression and acquisition of oncogenic potential by transformed rodent cells. We presently demonstrate that forced expression of PEG-3 in tumorigenic rodent cells, and in human cancer cells, increases their oncogenic potential in nude mice as reflected by a shorter tumor latency time and the production of larger tumors with increased vascularization. Moreover, inhibiting endogenous PEG-3 expression in progressed rodent cancer cells by stable expression of an antisense expression vector extinguishes the progressed cancer phenotype. Cancer aggressiveness of PEG-3 expressing rodent cells correlates directly with increased RNA transcription, elevated mRNA levels, and augmented secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Furthermore, transient ectopic expression of PEG-3 transcriptionally activates VEGF in transformed rodent and human cancer cells. Taken together these data demonstrate that PEG-3 is a positive regulator of cancer aggressiveness, a process regulated by augmented VEGF production. These studies also support an association between expression of a single nontransforming cancer progression-inducing gene, PEG-3, and the processes of cancer aggressiveness and angiogenesis. In these contexts, PEG-3 may represent an important target molecule for developing cancer therapeutics and inhibitors of angiogenesis.

  17. Multiscale Models of Breast Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Anirikh; Verbridge, Scott; Stroock, Abraham D.; Fischbach, Claudia; Varner, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer initiation, invasion and metastasis span multiple length and time scales. Molecular events at short length scales lead to an initial tumorigenic population, which left unchecked by immune action, acts at increasingly longer length scales until eventually the cancer cells escape from the primary tumor site. This series of events is highly complex, involving multiple cell types interacting with (and shaping) the microenvironment. Multiscale mathematical models have emerged as a powerful tool to quantitatively integrate the convective-diffusion-reaction processes occurring on the systemic scale, with the molecular signaling processes occurring on the cellular and subcellular scales. In this study, we reviewed the current state of the art in cancer modeling across multiple length scales, with an emphasis on the integration of intracellular signal transduction models with pro-tumorigenic chemical and mechanical microenvironmental cues. First, we reviewed the underlying biomolecular origin of breast cancer, with a special emphasis on angiogenesis. Then, we summarized the development of tissue engineering platforms which could provide highfidelity ex vivo experimental models to identify and validate multiscale simulations. Lastly, we reviewed top-down and bottom-up multiscale strategies that integrate subcellular networks with the microenvironment. We present models of a variety of cancers, in addition to breast cancer specific models. Taken together, we expect as the sophistication of the simulations increase, that multiscale modeling and bottom-up agent-based models in particular will become an increasingly important platform technology for basic scientific discovery, as well as the identification and validation of potentially novel therapeutic targets. PMID:23008097

  18. Neutrophil extracellular traps in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Cools-Lartigue, Jonathan; Spicer, Jonathan; Najmeh, Sara; Ferri, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    Neutrophils are being increasingly recognized as an important element in tumor progression. They have been shown to exert important effects at nearly every stage of tumor progression with a number of studies demonstrating that their presence is critical to tumor development. Novel aspects of neutrophil biology have recently been elucidated and its contribution to tumorigenesis is only beginning to be appreciated. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are neutrophil-derived structures composed of DNA decorated with antimicrobial peptides. They have been shown to trap and kill microorganisms, playing a critical role in host defense. However, their contribution to tumor development and metastasis has recently been demonstrated in a number of studies highlighting NETs as a potentially important therapeutic target. Here, studies implicating NETs as facilitators of tumor progression and metastasis are reviewed. In addition, potential mechanisms by which NETs may exert these effects are explored. Finally, the ability to target NETs therapeutically in human neoplastic disease is highlighted.

  19. Transcriptional network of androgen receptor in prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    The androgen receptor belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. It binds to the androgen responsive element and recruits coregulatory factors to modulate gene transcription. In addition, the androgen receptor interacts with other transcription factors, such as forkhead box A1, and other oncogenic signaling pathway molecules that bind deoxyribonucleic acid and regulate transcription. Androgen receptor signaling plays an important role in the development of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer cells proliferate in an androgen-dependent manner, and androgen receptor blockade is effective in prostate cancer therapy. However, patients often progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer with elevated androgen receptor expression and hypersensitivity to androgen. Recently, comprehensive analysis tools, such as complementary DNA microarray, chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequence, have described the androgen-mediated diverse transcriptional program and gene networks in prostate cancer. Furthermore, functional and clinical studies have shown that some of the androgen receptor-regulated genes could be prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of prostate cancer, particularly castration-resistant prostate cancer. Thus, identifying androgen receptor downstream signaling events and investigating the regulation of androgen receptor activity is critical for understanding the mechanism of carcinogenesis and progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  20. SUMOylation-mediated regulation of cell cycle progression and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eifler, Karolin; Vertegaal, Alfred C.O.

    2016-01-01

    SUMOylation plays critical roles during cell cycle progression. Many important cell cycle regulators, including many oncogenes and tumor suppressors, are functionally regulated via SUMOylation. The dynamic SUMOylation pattern observed throughout the cell cycle is ensured via distinct spatial and temporal regulation of the SUMO machinery. Additionally, SUMOylation cooperates with other post-translational modifications to mediate cell cycle progression. Deregulation of these SUMOylation and deSUMOylation enzymes causes severe defects in cell proliferation and genome stability. Different types of cancers were recently shown to be dependent on a functioning SUMOylation system, a finding that could potentially be exploited in anti-cancer therapies. PMID:26601932

  1. Chemokines: key players in cancer progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajesh; Lilladr, James W.; Singh, Shailesh

    2013-01-01

    Instructed cell migration is a fundamental component of various biological systems and is critical to the pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. Role of chemokines in providing navigational cues to migrating cancer cells bearing specific receptors is well established. However, functional mechanisms of chemokine are not well implicit, which is crucial for designing new therapeutics to control tumor growth and metastasis. Multiple functions and mode of actions have been advocated for chemokines and their receptors in the progression of primary and secondary tumors. In this review, we have discussed current advances in understanding the role of the chemokines and their corresponding receptor in tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:21622291

  2. Host Factors and Cancer Progression: Biobehavioral Signaling Pathways and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Sood, Anil K.; Antoni, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas evidence for the role of psychosocial factors in cancer initiation has been equivocal, support continues to grow for links between psychological factors such as stress, depression, and social isolation and progression of cancer. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies show that stress- related processes can impact pathways implicated in cancer progression, including immuno-regulation, angiogenesis, and invasion. Contributions of systemic factors, such as stress hormones to the crosstalk between tumor and stromal cells, appear to be critical in modulating downstream signaling pathways with important implications for disease progression. Inflammatory pathways may also be implicated in fatigue and other factors related to quality of life. Although substantial evidence supports a positive effect of psychosocial interventions on quality of life in cancer, the clinical evidence for efficacy of stress-modulating psychosocial interventions in slowing cancer progression remains inconclusive, and the biobehavioral mechanisms that might explain such effects are still being established. This article reviews research findings to date and outlines future avenues of research in this area. PMID:20644093

  3. MicroRNAs to Pathways in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0474 TITLE: “ MICRORNAS TO PATHWAYS IN PROSTATE CANCER...2013 – 29 th Sept,2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MicroRNAs to Pathways in Prostate Cancer Progression 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER - 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...the proposal focuses on a class of non-coding RNAs called microRNAs that function to suppress large networks of genes during cell fate transitions

  4. HGF-MET in cancer progression and biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kunio; Umitsu, Masataka; De Silva, Dinuka M; Roy, Arpita; Bottaro, Donald P

    2017-01-08

    Signaling driven by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and MET receptor facilitates conspicuous biological responses such as epithelial cell migration, 3-D morphogenesis, and survival. The dynamic migration and promotion of cell survival induced by MET activation are bases respectively for invasion-metastasis and resistance against targeted drugs in cancers. Recent studies indicated that MET in tumor-derived exosomes facilitates metastatic niche formation and metastasis in malignant melanoma. In lung cancer, gene amplification-induced MET activation and ligand-dependent MET activation in autocrine/paracrine manner are causes for resistance to EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and ALK inhibitors. HGF secreted in the tumor microenvironment contributes to the innate and acquired resistance to RAF inhibitors. Changes in serum/plasma HGF, soluble MET, and phosphor-MET have been confirmed to be associated with disease progression, metastasis, therapy response, and survival. Higher serum/plasma HGF levels are associated with therapy resistance and/or metastasis, while lower HGF levels are associated with progression-free survival and overall survival after treatment with targeted drugs in lung cancer, gastric cancer, colon cancer, and malignant melanoma. Urinary soluble MET levels in patients with bladder cancer are higher than those in patients without bladder cancer and associated with disease progression. Some of the multi-kinase inhibitors that target MET have received regulatory approval, whereas none of the selective HGF-MET inhibitors have shown efficacy in phase III clinical trials. Validation of the HGF-MET pathway as a critical driver in cancer development/progression and utilization of appropriate biomarkers are key to development and approval of HGF-MET inhibitors for clinical use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Recent Progress on Nutraceutical Research in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yiwei; Ahmad, Aamir; Kong, Dejuan; Bao, Bin; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, nutraceuticals have received increasing attention as the agents for cancer prevention and supplement with conventional therapy. Prostate Cancer (PCa) is most frequently diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death in men in US. Growing evidences from epidemiological studies, in vitro experimental studies, animal studies, and clinical trials have shown that nutraceuticals could be very useful for the prevention and treatment of PCa. Several nutraceuticals including isoflavone, indole-3-carbinol, 3,3’-diindolylmethane, lycopene, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, and curcumin are known to down-regulate the signal transductions in AR, Akt, NF-κB, and other signal transduction pathways which are vital for the development of PCa and the progression of PCa from androgen-sensitive to castrate-resistant PCa. Therefore, nutraceutical treatment in combination with conventional therapeutics could achieve better treatment outcome in prostate cancer therapy. Interestingly, some nutraceuticals could regulate the function of cancer stem cell (CSC) related miRNAs and associated molecules, leading to the inhibition of prostatic CSCs which are responsible for drug-resistance, tumor progression, and recurrence of PCa. Hence, nutraceuticals may serve as powerful agents for the prevention of PCa progression and they could also be useful in combination with chemotherapeutics or radiotherapy. Such strategy could become a promising newer approach for the treatment of metastatic PCa with better treatment outcome by improving overall survival. PMID:24375392

  6. Cell type-dependent pathogenic functions of overexpressed human cathepsin B in murine breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Bengsch, F; Buck, A; Günther, SC; Seiz, JR; Tacke, M; Pfeifer, D; von Elverfeldt, D; Sevenich, L; Hillebrand, LE; Kern, U; Sameni, M; Peters, C; Sloane, BF; Reinheckel, T

    2014-01-01

    The cysteine protease cathepsin B (CTSB) is frequently overexpressed in human breast cancer and correlated with a poor prognosis. Genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of CTSB attenuates tumor growth, invasion and metastasis in mouse models of human cancers. CTSB is expressed in both cancer cells and cells of the tumor stroma, in particular in tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). In order to evaluate the impact of tumor- or stromal cell-derived CTSB on Polyoma Middle T (PyMT)-induced breast cancer progression, we used in vivo and in vitro approaches to induce human CTSB overexpression in PyMT cancer cells or stromal cells alone or in combination. Orthotopic transplantation experiments revealed that CTSB overexpression in cancer cells rather than in the stroma affects PyMT tumor progression. In 3D cultures, primary PyMT tumor cells showed higher extracellular matrix proteolysis and enhanced collective cell invasion when CTSB was overexpressed and proteolytically active. Coculture of PyMT cells with bone marrow-derived macrophages induced a TAM-like macrophage phenotype in vitro, and the presence of such M2-polarized macrophages in 3D cultures enhanced sprouting of tumor spheroids. We employed a doxycycline (DOX)-inducible CTSB expression system to selectively overexpress human CTSB either in cancer cells or in macrophages in 3D cocultures. Tumor spheroid invasiveness was only enhanced when CTSB was overexpressed in cancer cells, whereas CTSB expression in macrophages alone did not further promote invasiveness of tumor spheroids. We conclude that CTSB overexpression in the PyMT mouse model promotes tumor progression not by a stromal effect, but by a direct, cancer cell-inherent mode of action: CTSB overexpression renders the PyMT cancers more invasive by increasing proteolytic extracellular matrix protein degradation fostering collective cell invasion into adjacent tissue. PMID:24077280

  7. Angiogenesis in prostate cancer: onset, progression and imaging.

    PubMed

    Russo, Giovanna; Mischi, Massimo; Scheepens, Wout; De la Rosette, Jean J; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2012-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Today, angiogenesis is known to play a key role in cancer growth and development. Emerging cancer treatments are based on the suppression of angiogenesis, and modern imaging techniques investigate changes in the microvasculature that are caused by angiogenesis. As for other forms of cancers, angiogenesis is well recognised as a fundamental process in the development of prostate cancer. The novelty of this extensive report on angiogenesis in cancer, with particular attention on prostate cancer and the imaging techniques able to detect it, is the new prospective to the subject. In contrast with the other available reviews, this report goes from 'theory' to 'practice', establishing a clear link between angiogenesis development and imaged angiogenesis features. Once the key role of angiogenesis in the development of cancer and in particular prostate cancer has been fully described, attention is turned to the current imaging methods with the potential to assess the angiogenesis process and, as a consequence, to detect and localise prostate cancer. • As confirmed by all available statistics, cancer represents a major clinical and societal problem in the developed world. The form of cancer with the highest incidence in men is prostate cancer. For prostate cancer, as well as for most forms of cancer, detection of the disease at an early stage is critical to reduce mortality and morbidity. • Today, it is well known that pathological angiogenesis represents a crucial step in cancer development and progression. Comparable with most forms of cancer, angiogenesis also plays a fundamental role for prostate cancer growth. • As a consequence, angiogenesis is an ideal target not only for novel anti-angiogenic therapies, but also for modern imaging techniques that aim at cancer localisation by detection of angiogenic microvascular changes. • These techniques are mainly based on magnetic resonance, ultrasound, and

  8. The physics of cancer: The role of epigenetics and chromosome conformation in cancer progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naimark, Oleg B.; Nikitiuk, Aleksandr S.; Baudement, Marie-Odile; Forné, Thierry; Lesne, Annick

    2016-08-01

    Cancer progression is generally described in terms of accumulated genetic alterations and ensuing changes in cell properties. However, intermediary modifications are involved in the establishment of cancer cell phenotypes, at different levels of nuclear organization: DNA damages and their structural consequences, epigenetic modifications and their impact on chromatin architecture, changes in chromosome 3D organization. We review some of these alterations with a focus on their physical aspects. The challenge is to understand the multiscale interplay between generic physical mechanisms and specific biological factors in cancer cells. We argue that such an interdisciplinary perspective offers a novel viewpoint on cancer progression, early diagnosis and possibly therapeutic targets.

  9. Online CME Series Can Nutrition Simultaneously Affect Cancer and Aging? | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Aging is considered by some scientists to be a normal physiological process, while others believe it is a disease. Increased cancer risk in the elderly raises the question regarding the common pathways for cancer and aging. Undeniably, nutrition plays an important role in both cases and this webinar will explore whether nutrition can simultaneously affect cancer and aging. |

  10. Recent progress in nanotechnology for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mu-Fei; Lei, Lei; Guo, Sheng-Rong; Huang, Wen-Lin

    2010-09-01

    The application of nanotechnology significantly benefits clinical practice in cancer diagnosis, treatment, and management. Especially, nanotechnology offers a promise for the targeted delivery of drugs, genes, and proteins to tumor tissues and therefore alleviating the toxicity of anticancer agents in healthy tissues. This article reviews current nanotechnology platforms for anticancer drug delivery, including polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, dendrimers, nanoshells, carbon nanotubes, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, and nucleic acid-based nanoparticles [DNA, RNA interference (RNAi), and antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)] as well as nanotechnologies for combination therapeutic strategies, for example, nanotechnologies combined with multidrug-resistance modulator, ultrasound, hyperthermia, or photodynamic therapy. This review raises awareness of the advantages and challenges for the application of these therapeutic nanotechnologies, in light of some recent advances in nanotechnologic drug delivery and cancer therapy.

  11. SPANXB2 and Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    that SPANX-B2 may be the key regulator of prostate cancer aggressive cell behavior and metastasis. In this report, for the first time, we illustrate...that regulatory role of SPANXB2 in PC3 cells by using shRNA knockdown technique. Knockdown of SPANXB2 in PC3 cells significantly reduces the cell ...proliferation, migration, and invasion ability compared with the wild type PC3 cells . Additionally, co-culture of these knockdown cells with stromas

  12. AR Alternative Splicing and Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    the PCR target regions . For conventional PCR, genomic DNA was amplified using a Taq Polymerase PCR kit (Qia- gen), according to the manufacturer’s...n repeats and AT-rich sequence in both of these regions (Fig. 4C). It is common for the endpoints of genomic deletions or insertions to map to...rearrangements under- lying TE- related genetic diseases, including cancer (29), and often arise through NAHR. However, sequencing the 22Rv1 AR break fusion

  13. Geranylgeranylacetone inhibits ovarian cancer progression in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Kae; Morishige, Ken-ichirou . E-mail: mken@gyne.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sawada, Kenjiro; Ogata, Seiji; Tahara, Masahiro; Shimizu, Shoko; Sakata, Masahiro; Tasaka, Keiichi; Kimura, Tadashi

    2007-04-27

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), an isoprenoid compound, is an anti-ulcer drug developed in Japan. In our previous study, GGA was shown to inhibit ovarian cancer invasion by attenuating Rho activation [K. Hashimoto, K. Morishige, K. Sawada, M. Tahara, S. Shimizu, M. Sakata, K. Tasaka, Y. Murata, Geranylgeranylacetone inhibits lysophosphatidic acid-induced invasion of human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro. Cancer 103 (2005) 1529-1536.]. In the present study, GGA treatment inhibited ovarian cancer progression in vitro and suppressed the tumor growth and ascites in the in vivo ovarian cancer model. In vitro analysis, treatment of cancer cells by GGA resulted in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, the inactivation of Ras, and the suppression of tyrosine phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In conclusion, this is the first report that GGA inhibited ovarian cancer progression and the anti-tumor effect by GGA is, at least in part, derived not only from the suppression of Rho activation but also Ras-MAPK activation.

  14. Differential action of glycoprotein hormones: significance in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Arya, Swathy V; Rao, A J

    2014-02-01

    Growth of multicellular organisms depends on maintenance of proper balance between proliferation and differentiation. Any disturbance in this balance in animal cells can lead to cancer. Experimental evidence is provided to conclude with special reference to the action of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on Sertoli cells, and luteinizing hormone (LH) on Leydig cells that these hormones exert a differential action on their target cells, i.e., stimulate proliferation when the cells are in an undifferentiated state which is the situation with cancer cells and promote only functional parameters when the cell are fully differentiated. Hormones and growth factors play a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. There is a growing body of evidence that various tumors express some hormones at high levels as well as their cognate receptors indicating the possibility of a role in progression of cancer. Hormones such as LH, FSH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone have been reported to stimulate cell proliferation and act as tumor promoter in a variety of hormone-dependent cancers including gonads, lung, thyroid, uterus, breast, prostate, etc. This review summarizes evidence to conclude that these hormones are produced by some cancer tissues to promote their own growth. Also an attempt is made to explain the significance of the differential action of hormones in progression of cancer with special reference to prostate cancer.

  15. New Progress of Epigenetic Biomarkers in Urological Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ziyi

    2016-01-01

    Urological cancers consist of bladder, kidney, prostate, and testis cancers and they are generally silenced at their early stage, which leads to the loss of the best opportunity for early diagnosis and treatment. Desired biomarkers are scarce for urological cancers and current biomarkers are lack of specificity and sensitivity. Epigenetic alterations are characteristic of nearly all kinds of human malignances including DNA methylation, histone modification, and miRNA regulation. Besides, the detection of these epigenetic conditions is easily accessible especially for urine, best target for monitoring the diseases of urinary system. Here, we summarize some new progress about epigenetic biomarkers in urological cancers, hoping to provide new thoughts for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of urological cancers. PMID:27594736

  16. Vitamin D, intermediary metabolism and prostate cancer tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Lin W.; Tenniswood, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data have demonstrated an inverse association between serum vitamin D3 levels, cancer incidence and related mortality. However, the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer biology and its utility for prevention of prostate cancer progression are not as well-defined. The data are often conflicting: some reports suggest that vitamin D3 induces apoptosis in androgen dependent prostate cancer cell lines, while others suggest that vitamin D3 only induces cell cycle arrest. Recent molecular studies have identified an extensive synergistic crosstalk between the vitamin D- and androgen-mediated mRNA and miRNA expression, adding an additional layer of post-transcriptional regulation to the known VDR- and AR-regulated gene activation. The Warburg effect, the inefficient metabolic pathway that converts glucose to lactate for rapid energy generation, is a phenomenon common to many different types of cancer. This process supports cell proliferation and promotes cancer progression via alteration of glucose, glutamine and lipid metabolism. Prostate cancer is a notable exception to this general process since the metabolic switch that occurs early during malignancy is the reverse of the Warburg effect. This “anti-Warburg effect” is due to the unique biology of normal prostate cells that harbor a truncated TCA cycle that is required to produce and secret citrate. In prostate cancer cells, the TCA cycle activity is restored and citrate oxidation is used to produce energy for cancer cell proliferation. 1,25(OH)2D3 and androgen together modulates the TCA cycle via transcriptional regulation of zinc transporters, suggesting that 1,25(OH)2D3 and androgen maintain normal prostate metabolism by blocking citrate oxidation. These data demonstrate the importance of androgens in the anti-proliferative effect of vitamin D in prostate cancer and highlight the importance of understanding the crosstalk between these two signaling pathways. PMID:24860512

  17. Endocrine fibroblast growth factor FGF19 promotes prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu; Dakhova, Olga; Creighton, Chad J; Ittmann, Michael

    2013-04-15

    Prostate cancer is the most common visceral malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. There is broad evidence that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors are important in prostate cancer initiation and progression, but the contribution of particular FGFs in this disease is not fully understood. The FGF family members FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 comprise a distinct subfamily that circulate in serum and act in an endocrine manner. These endocrine FGFs require α-Klotho (KL) and/or β-Klotho (KLB), two related single-pass transmembrane proteins restricted in their tissue distribution, to act as coreceptors along with classic FGF receptors (FGFR) to mediate potent biologic activity. Here we show that FGF19 is expressed in primary and metastatic prostate cancer tissues, where it functions as an autocrine growth factor. Exogenous FGF19 promoted the growth, invasion, adhesion, and colony formation of prostate cancer cells at low ligand concentrations. FGF19 silencing in prostate cancer cells expressing autocrine FGF19 decreased invasion and proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Consistent with these observations, KL and/or KLB were expressed in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, raising the possibility that additional endocrine FGFs may also exert biologic effects in prostate cancer. Our findings support the concept that therapies targeting FGFR signaling may have efficacy in prostate cancer and highlight FGF19 as a relevant endocrine FGF in this setting.

  18. UG311, An Oncofetal Marker Lost with Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    i~iit,• S... -{ $. .. .. ,, . .. .. . . .... . .. . ... . >FIGURE THE IGF AXIS IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF PROSTATE CANCER. Christopher W...19. 55. Chan, J.M., Stampfer , M.J., Giovannucci, E., Gann, P.H., et al. 1998, Science, 279, 563. 56. Wolk, A., Mantzoros, C.S., Andersson, S.O

  19. Molecular genetics of bladder cancer: Emerging mechanisms of tumor initiation and progression.

    PubMed

    McConkey, David J; Lee, Sangkyou; Choi, Woonyoung; Tran, Mai; Majewski, Tadeusz; Lee, Sooyong; Siefker-Radtke, Arlene; Dinney, Colin; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2010-01-01

    Urothelial cancer has served as one of the most important sources of information about the mutational events that underlie the development of human solid malignancies. Although "field effects" that affect the entire bladder mucosa appear to initiate disease, tumors develop along 2 distinct biological "tracks" that present vastly different challenges for clinical management. Recent whole genome methodologies have facilitated even more rapid progress in the identification of the molecular mechanisms involved in bladder cancer initiation and progression. Specifically, whole organ mapping combined with high resolution, high throughput SNP analyses have identified a novel class of candidate tumor suppressors ("forerunner genes") that localize near more familiar tumor suppressors but are disrupted at an earlier stage of cancer development. Furthermore, whole genome comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and mRNA expression profiling have demonstrated that the 2 major subtypes of urothelial cancer (papillary/superficial and non-papillary/muscle-invasive) are truly distinct molecular entities, and in recent work our group has discovered that muscle-invasive tumors express molecular markers characteristic of a developmental process known as "epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition" (EMT). Emerging evidence indicates that urothelial cancers contain subpopulations of tumor-initiating cells ("cancer stem cells") but the phenotypes of these cells in different tumors are heterogeneous, raising questions about whether or not the 2 major subtypes of cancer share a common precursor. This review will provide an overview of these new insights and discuss priorities for future investigation.

  20. Stromal Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Damien A.; Buchanan, Grant

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer development and progression is the result of complex interactions between epithelia cells and fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, in a series of dynamic process amenable to regulation by hormones. Whilst androgen action through the androgen receptor (AR) is a well-established component of prostate cancer biology, it has been becoming increasingly apparent that changes in AR signalling in the surrounding stroma can dramatically influence tumour cell behavior. This is reflected in the consistent finding of a strong association between stromal AR expression and patient outcomes. In this review, we explore the relationship between AR signalling in fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and prostate cancer cells in the primary site, and detail the known functions, actions, and mechanisms of fibroblast AR signaling. We conclude with an evidence-based summary of how androgen action in stroma dramatically influences disease progression. PMID:28117763

  1. Molecular therapy of colorectal cancer: progress and future directions.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wenhao; Feng, Junlan; Qin, Huanlong; Ma, Yanlei

    2015-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common types of cancer and leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Although the introduction of cytotoxic drugs such as oxaliplatin, irinotecan and fluorouracil has improved the treatment of advanced CRC, the individual response to chemoradiotherapy varies tremendously from one patient to another. However, recent progress in CRC molecular therapies may provide new insight into the treatment of this disease. Currently, components of the EGFR, VEGF, Wnt and NF-kB pathways are the most important targets for CRC therapy. This review chronicles the development of molecular CRC therapies over the past few decades. We also provide an update on the current progress of research concerning the molecular pathways leading to CRC and discuss the possible implications for CRC therapy.

  2. Depression in cancer: The many biobehavioral pathways driving tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Valpione, Sara; Perini, Giulia; Maes, Michael; Morris, Gerwyn; Kubera, Marta; Köhler, Cristiano A; Fernandes, Brisa S; Stubbs, Brendon; Pavlidis, Nicholas; Carvalho, André F

    2017-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is common among cancer patients, with prevalence rates up to four-times higher than the general population. Depression confers worse outcomes, including non-adherence to treatment and increased mortality in the oncology setting. Advances in the understanding of neurobiological underpinnings of depression have revealed shared biobehavioral mechanisms may contribute to cancer progression. Moreover, psychosocial stressors in cancer promote: (1) inflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress; (2) a decreased immunosurveillance; and (3) a dysfunctional activation of the autonomic nervous system and of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis. Consequently, the prompt recognition of depression among patients with cancer who may benefit of treatment strategies targeting depressive symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, fatigue and sleep disturbances, is a public health priority. Moreover, behavioral strategies aiming at reducing psychological distress and depressive symptoms, including addressing unhealthy diet and life-style choices, as well as physical inactivity and sleep dysfunction, may represent important strategies not only to treat depression, but also to improve wider cancer-related outcomes. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the intertwined biobehavioral pathways linking depression to cancer progression. In addition, the clinical implications of these findings are critically reviewed.

  3. Regulation of cancer progression by β-endorphin neuron

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Dipak K.; Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Zhang, Changqing; Boyadjieva, Nadka

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that stressful life events can impact cancer growth and metastasis by modulating nervous, endocrine and immune systems. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the process by which stress may potentiate carcinogenesis and how reducing body stress may prevent cancer growth and progression. The opioid peptide beta-endorphin (BEP) plays a critical role in brining the stress axis to a state of homeostasis. We have recently shown that enhancement of endogenous levels of BEP in the hypothalamus via BEP neuron transplantation suppresses stress response, promotes immune function and reduces the incidence of cancer in rat models of prostate and breast cancers. The cancer preventive effect of BEP is mediated through the suppression of sympathetic neuronal function that results in an increased peripheral natural killer (NK) cell and macrophage activities, elevated levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines and reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines. BEP inhibition of tumor progression also involves alteration in the tumor microenvironment, possibly due to suppression of catecholamine and inflammatory cytokines production that are known to alter DNA repair, cell-matrix attachments, angiogenic process and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, BEP cell therapy may offer some therapeutic value in cancer prevention. PMID:22287549

  4. Pancreatic Cancer: Progress and Challenges in a Rapidly Moving Field.

    PubMed

    Collisson, Eric A; Olive, Kenneth P

    2017-03-01

    "Pancreatic Cancer: Advances in Science and Clinical Care," a Special Conference of the American Association for Cancer Research, was held in Orlando, FL, on May 12 to 15, bringing together more than 450 basic, translational, clinical, and epidemiologic pancreatic cancer researchers as well as pancreatic cancer patients, survivors, and advocates. Pancreatic cancer remains one of the great challenges in medicine, but the accelerating pace of research and early hints of clinical successes to come were palpable throughout the meeting. Prominent meeting themes included immunology and the tumor microenvironment, heterogeneity of both the epithelial and stromal compartments, personalized medicine efforts to integrate molecular information into clinical practice, new approaches to early detection, and clinical trials using a host of novel targeted therapies. Adding to the vibrant atmosphere of the meeting, a coalition of pancreatic cancer research and support foundations participated, with several innovative initiatives announced by individual organizations. We present here a summary of meeting highlights, a series of "success factors" that will benchmark the progress of the field over the next 2 years, and three challenges to the pancreatic cancer research community as it moves toward to the goal of extending patient survival. Cancer Res; 77(5); 1060-2. ©2017 AACR.

  5. DNA methylation markers for oral pre-cancer progression: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Aggarwal, Aastha; Gulati, Smriti; Geetha, A V; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Dhillon, Preet K; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2016-02-01

    Although oral cancers are generally preceded by a well-established pre-cancerous stage, there is a lack of well-defined clinical and morphological criteria to detect and signal progression from pre-cancer to malignant tumours. We conducted a critical review to summarize the evidence regarding aberrant DNA methylation patterns as a potential diagnostic biomarker predicting progression. We identified all relevant human studies published in English prior to 30th April 2015 that examined DNA methylation (%) in oral pre-cancer by searching PubMed, Web-of-Science and Embase databases using combined key-searches. Twenty-one studies (18-cross-sectional; 3-longitudinal) were eligible for inclusion in the review, with sample sizes ranging from 4 to 156 affected cases. Eligible studies examined promoter region hyper-methylation of tumour suppressor genes in pathways including cell-cycle-control (n=15), DNA-repair (n=7), cell-cycle-signalling (n=4) and apoptosis (n=3). Hyper-methylated loci reported in three or more studies included p16, p14, MGMT and DAPK. Two longitudinal studies reported greater p16 hyper-methylation in pre-cancerous lesions transformed to malignancy compared to lesions that regressed (57-63.6% versus 8-32.1%; p<0.01). The one study that explored epigenome-wide methylation patterns reported three novel hyper-methylated loci (TRHDE; ZNF454; KCNAB3). The majority of reviewed studies were small, cross-sectional studies with poorly defined control groups and lacking validation. Whilst limitations in sample size and study design preclude definitive conclusions, current evidence suggests a potential utility of DNA methylation patterns as a diagnostic biomarker for oral pre-cancer progression. Robust studies such as large epigenome-wide methylation explorations of oral pre-cancer with longitudinal tracking are needed to validate the currently reported signals and identify new risk-loci and the biological pathways of disease progression.

  6. Reprogramming bladder cancer cells for studying cancer initiation and progression.

    PubMed

    Iskender, Banu; Izgi, Kenan; Canatan, Halit

    2016-10-01

    The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology is the forced expression of specific transcription factors in somatic cells resulting in transformation into self-renewing, pluripotent cells which possess the ability to differentiate into any type of cells in the human body. While malignant cells could also be reprogrammed into iPSC-like cells with lower efficiency due to the genetic and epigenetic barriers in cancer cells, only a limited number of cancer cell types could be successfully reprogrammed until today. In the present study, we aimed at reprogramming two bladder cancer cell lines HTB-9 and T24 using a non-integrating Sendai virus (SeV) system. We have generated six sub-clones using distinct combinations of four factors-OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC-in two bladder cancer cell lines. Only a single sub-clone, T24 transduced with 4Fs, gave rise to iPSC-like cells. Bladder cancer cell-derived T24 4F cells represent unique features of pluripotent cells such as epithelial-like morphology, colony-forming ability, expression of pluripotency-associated markers and bearing the ability to differentiate in vitro. This is the first study focusing on the reprogramming susceptibility of two different bladder cancer cell lines to nuclear reprogramming. Further molecular characterisation of T24 4F cells could provide a better insight for biomarker research in bladder carcinogenesis and could offer a valuable tool for the development of novel therapeutic approaches in bladder carcinoma.

  7. How aneuploidy affects metabolic control and causes cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Rasnick, D; Duesberg, P H

    1999-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of cancer-specific phenotypes, including de-differentiation, invasiveness, metastasis, abnormal morphology and metabolism, genetic instability and progression to malignancy, have so far eluded explanation by a simple, coherent hypothesis. However, an adaptation of Metabolic Control Analysis supports the 100-year-old hypothesis that aneuploidy, an abnormal number of chromosomes, is the cause of cancer. The results demonstrate the currently counter-intuitive principle that it is the fraction of the genome undergoing differential expression, not the magnitude of the differential expression, that controls phenotypic transformation. Transforming the robust normal phenotype into cancer requires a twofold increase in the expression of thousands of normal gene products. The massive change in gene dose produces highly non-linear (i.e. qualitative) changes in the physiology and metabolism of cells and tissues. Since aneuploidy disrupts the natural balance of mitosis proteins, it also explains the notorious genetic instability of cancer cells as a consequence of the perpetual regrouping of chromosomes. In view of this and the existence of non-cancerous aneuploidy, we propose that cancer is the phenotype of cells above a certain threshold of aneuploidy. This threshold is reached either by the gradual, stepwise increase in the level of aneuploidy as a consequence of the autocatalysed genetic instability of aneuploid cells or by tetraploidization followed by a gradual loss of chromosomes. Thus the initiation step of carcinogenesis produces aneuploidy below the threshold for cancer, and the promotion step increases the level of aneuploidy above this threshold. We conclude that aneuploidy offers a simple and coherent explanation for all the cancer-specific phenotypes. Accordingly, the gross biochemical abnormalities, abnormal cellular size and morphology, the appearance of tumour-associated antigens, the high levels of secreted proteins responsible for

  8. Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Affects Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Junya; Wong, Ronald J.; Morisawa, Takeshi; Hsu, Mark; Maegdefessel, Lars; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora; Kayama, Yosuke; Wallenstein, Matthew B.; Deng, Alicia C.; Spin, Joshua M.; Stevenson, David K.; Dalman, Ronald L.; Tsao, Philip S.

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is a cytoprotective enzyme upregulated in the vasculature by increased flow and inflammatory stimuli. Human genetic data suggest that a diminished HO-1 expression may predispose one to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. In addition, heme is known to strongly induce HO-1 expression. Utilizing the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model of AAA induction in HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1+/-, HO-1 Het) mice, we found that a deficiency in HO-1 leads to augmented AAA development. Peritoneal macrophages from HO-1+/- mice showed increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, and IL-6, but decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. Furthermore, treatment with heme returned AAA progression in HO-1 Het mice to a wild-type profile. Using a second murine AAA model (Ang II-ApoE-/-), we showed that low doses of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin can induce HO-1 expression in aortic tissue and suppress AAA progression in the absence of lipid lowering. Our results support those studies that suggest that pleiotropic statin effects might be beneficial in AAA, possibly through the upregulation of HO-1. Specific targeted therapies designed to induce HO-1 could become an adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the prevention of AAA disease. PMID:26894432

  9. Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression Affects Murine Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Progression.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Junya; Wong, Ronald J; Morisawa, Takeshi; Hsu, Mark; Maegdefessel, Lars; Zhao, Hui; Kalish, Flora; Kayama, Yosuke; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Deng, Alicia C; Spin, Joshua M; Stevenson, David K; Dalman, Ronald L; Tsao, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation, is a cytoprotective enzyme upregulated in the vasculature by increased flow and inflammatory stimuli. Human genetic data suggest that a diminished HO-1 expression may predispose one to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) development. In addition, heme is known to strongly induce HO-1 expression. Utilizing the porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) model of AAA induction in HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1+/-, HO-1 Het) mice, we found that a deficiency in HO-1 leads to augmented AAA development. Peritoneal macrophages from HO-1+/- mice showed increased gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including MCP-1, TNF-alpha, IL-1-beta, and IL-6, but decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-beta. Furthermore, treatment with heme returned AAA progression in HO-1 Het mice to a wild-type profile. Using a second murine AAA model (Ang II-ApoE-/-), we showed that low doses of the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor rosuvastatin can induce HO-1 expression in aortic tissue and suppress AAA progression in the absence of lipid lowering. Our results support those studies that suggest that pleiotropic statin effects might be beneficial in AAA, possibly through the upregulation of HO-1. Specific targeted therapies designed to induce HO-1 could become an adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the prevention of AAA disease.

  10. Impact of Disease Progression Date Determination on Progression-free Survival Estimates in Advanced Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yingwei; Ziegler, Allen; Katie, L.; Hillman, Shauna L.; Redman, Mary W.; Schild, Steven E.; Gandara, David R.; Adjei, Alex A.; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Progression-free survival (PFS) based endpoints are controversial; however in advanced lung cancer, overall survival is largely influenced by the progression status. We thus evaluated the impact of progression date (PD) determination approach on PFS estimates. METHODS Individual patient data from 21 trials (14 NCCTG; 7 SWOG) were used. Reported progression date (RPD) was defined as either the scan date or the clinical deterioration date. PD was determined using 4 methods (M): RPD (M1), one day after last progression-free scan (M2), midpoint between last progression-free scan and RPD (M3), and using an interval censoring approach (M4). PFS was estimated using Kaplan-Meier (M1, M2, M3), and maximum likelihood (M4). Simulation studies were performed to understand the impact of the length of time elapsed between the last progression-free scan and the PD on time to progression (TTP) estimates. RESULTS PFS estimates using RPD were the highest, with M2 being the most conservative. M3 and M4 were similar due to majority of progressions occurring during treatment (i.e., frequent disease assessments). M3 was less influenced by the length of the assessment schedules (%difference from true TTP <1.5%) compared to M1 (11% to 30%) and M2 (-8% to -29%). The overall study conclusion was unaffected by the method used for randomized trials. CONCLUSION The magnitude of difference in the PFS estimates is large enough to alter trial conclusions in advanced lung cancer. Standards for PD determination, use of sensitivity analyses, and randomized trials are critical when designing trials and reporting efficacy using PFS based endpoints. PMID:22434489

  11. The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Emiko; Yana, Ikuo; Fujita, Chisato; Irifune, Aiko; Takeda, Maki; Madachi, Ayako; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Matsuura, Nariaki

    2010-03-05

    The role of MT2-MMP in cancer progression remains to be elucidated in spite of many reports on MT1-MMP. Using a human fibrosarcoma cell, HT1080 and a human gastric cancer cell, TMK-1, endogenous expression of MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP was suppressed by siRNA induction to examine the influence of cancer progression in vitro and in vivo. In HT1080 cells, positive both in MT1-MMP and MT2-MMP, the migration as well as the invasion was impaired by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression. Also cell proliferation in three dimensional (3D) condition was inhibited by MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression and tumor growth in the nude mice transplanted with tumor cells were reduced either MT1-MMP or MT2-MMP suppression with a prolongation of survival time in vivo. MT2-MMP suppression induces more inhibitory effects on 3D proliferation and in vivo tumor growth than MT1-MMP. On the other hand, TMK-1 cells, negative in MT1-MMP and MMP-2 but positive in MT2-MMP, all the migratory, invasive, and 3D proliferative activities in TMK-1 are decreased only by MT2-MMP suppression. These results indicate MT2-MMP might be involved in the cancer progression more than or equal to MT1-MMP independently of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP.

  12. NF-κB gene signature predicts prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Renjie; Yi, Yajun; Yull, Fiona E.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Clark, Peter E.; Koyama, Tatsuki; Smith, Joseph A.; Matusik, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    In many prostate cancer (PCa) patients, the cancer will be recurrent and eventually progress to lethal metastatic disease after primary treatment, such as surgery or radiation therapy. Therefore, it would be beneficial to better predict which patients with early-stage PCa would progress or recur after primary definitive treatment. In addition, many studies indicate that activation of NF-κB signaling correlates with PCa progression; however, the precise underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Our studies show that activation of NF-κB signaling via deletion of one allele of its inhibitor, IκBα, did not induce prostatic tumorigenesis in our mouse model. However, activation of NF-κB signaling did increase the rate of tumor progression in the Hi-Myc mouse PCa model when compared to Hi-Myc alone. Using the non-malignant NF-κB activated androgen depleted mouse prostate, a NF-κB Activated Recurrence Predictor 21 (NARP21) gene signature was generated. The NARP21 signature successfully predicted disease-specific survival and distant metastases-free survival in patients with PCa. This transgenic mouse model derived gene signature provides a useful and unique molecular profile for human PCa prognosis, which could be used on a prostatic biopsy to predict indolent versus aggressive behavior of the cancer after surgery. PMID:24686169

  13. Inferring Tree Causal Models of Cancer Progression with Probability Raising

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, Giancarlo; Antoniotti, Marco; Mishra, Bud

    2014-01-01

    Existing techniques to reconstruct tree models of progression for accumulative processes, such as cancer, seek to estimate causation by combining correlation and a frequentist notion of temporal priority. In this paper, we define a novel theoretical framework called CAPRESE (CAncer PRogression Extraction with Single Edges) to reconstruct such models based on the notion of probabilistic causation defined by Suppes. We consider a general reconstruction setting complicated by the presence of noise in the data due to biological variation, as well as experimental or measurement errors. To improve tolerance to noise we define and use a shrinkage-like estimator. We prove the correctness of our algorithm by showing asymptotic convergence to the correct tree under mild constraints on the level of noise. Moreover, on synthetic data, we show that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art, that it is efficient even with a relatively small number of samples and that its performance quickly converges to its asymptote as the number of samples increases. For real cancer datasets obtained with different technologies, we highlight biologically significant differences in the progressions inferred with respect to other competing techniques and we also show how to validate conjectured biological relations with progression models. PMID:25299648

  14. Myeloperoxidase in the Progression of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    We have crossed mice that carry the polyoma virus middle T oncogene (PyMT) and develop mammary tumors with mice that carry a human MPO (huMPO...glands affected) Cumulative Tumor Burden 6285 + 1486 3971 + 1310 0.06 (mm3 at 23 woa) Male PyMT mice were crossed with females carrying one copy of the...human MPO-G transgene. Tumor development was followed in cohorts of virgin, female littermates. All mice were in the C57Bl/6 background. P

  15. Intimate Relationships Affected by Breast Cancer: Interventions for Couples

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Summary A cancer diagnosis imposes significant emotional distress on a substantial proportion of patients and their partners, posing many challenges for both members of a couple. Facing a breast cancer diagnosis, couples may experience psychosocial distress, which might also affect their individual and dyadic functioning. Coping with cancer from a couple-based perspective as a dyadic stressor can profoundly influence psychosocial adjustment as well as individual and dyadic functioning of patients and spouses. Dyadic coping allows a better matching of needs, sharing of worries, and mutual support, resulting in higher relationship satisfaction. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the issues faced by women diagnosed with breast cancer and their spouses, with particular emphasis on interventions for couples coping with cancer. The effectiveness of couple-based interventions is summarized with a critical discussion. For further research, a better understanding of the challenges couples coping with cancer may face and more insights on how to improve interventions for couples might facilitate improvements in the quality of cancer care. PMID:26195938

  16. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Otto K-W; Cheng, Alfred S-L

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose, and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management.

  17. CMTM8 inhibits the carcinogenesis and progression of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    GAO, DENGHUI; HU, HAO; WANG, YING; YU, WEIDONG; ZHOU, JIANHUA; WANG, XIAOFENG; WANG, WEIPING; ZHOU, CHUNYAN; XU, KEXIN

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer is the most common tumor of the urinary tract. The incidence of bladder cancer has increased in the last few decades, thus novel molecular markers for early diagnosis and more efficacious treatment are urgently needed. Chemokine-like factor (CKLF)-like MARVEL transmembrane domain containing 8 (CMTM8) is downregulated in several types of cancers and is associated with tumor progression. However, CMTM8 expression has been unexplored in bladder cancer to date. Our results revealed that the expression of CMTM8 was negative in 46 of 74 (62.2%) bladder cancer samples via immunohistochemistry assay. CMTM8 downregulation was associated with advancing tumor stage and tumor grade. CMTM8 was successfully overexpressed by lentivirus in EJ and T24 cells, and the CCK-8 and Transwell assays showed that CMTM8 overexpression decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. In tumor xenografts upregulation of CMTM8 inhibited tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in vivo. In conclusion, overexpression of CMTM8 in bladder cancer results in reduced malignant cell growth, migration and invasion, which could make it a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:26503336

  18. Gender Differences in Adipocyte Metabolism and Liver Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Otto K.-W.; Cheng, Alfred S.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the third most common cancer type and the second leading cause of deaths in men. Large population studies have demonstrated remarkable gender disparities in the incidence and the cumulative risk of liver cancer. A number of emerging risk factors regarding metabolic alterations associated with obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia have been ascribed to the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) and ultimately liver cancer. The deregulation of fat metabolism derived from excessive insulin, glucose, and lipid promotes cancer-causing inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress, which eventually triggers the uncontrolled hepatocellular proliferation. This review presents the current standing on the gender differences in body fat compositions and their mechanistic linkage with the development of NAFLD-related liver cancer, with an emphasis on genetic, epigenetic and microRNA control. The potential roles of sex hormones in instructing adipocyte metabolic programs may help unravel the mechanisms underlying gender dimorphism in liver cancer and identify the metabolic targets for disease management. PMID:27703473

  19. [Research progress of lung cancer with leptomeningeal metastasis].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunhua; Jiang, Rong; Li, Jinduo; Wang, Bin; Sun, Liwei; Lv, Yuan

    2014-09-20

    Leptomeningeal metastases is one of the most serious complications of lung cancer, the patients with poor prognosis. Leptomeningeal metastasis in patients with lack specificity of clinical manifestations. The main clinical performance are the damage of cerebral symptoms, cranial nerve and spinal nerve. The diagnosis primarily based on the history of tumor, clinical symptoms, enhance magnetic resnance image (MRI) scan and cerebrospinal fluid cytology. In recent years, new ways of detecting clinically, significantly increase the rate of early detection of leptomeningeal metastases. The effect of comprehensive treatments are still sad. The paper make a review of research progress in pathologic physiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis methods and treatments of lung cancer with leptomeningeal metastases.

  20. Environmental factors affecting inflammatory bowel disease: have we made progress?

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against ulcerative colitis and, after the onset of the disease, might improve its course, decreasing the need for colectomy. In contrast, smoking increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease and aggravates its course. The history of IBD is dotted by cyclic reports on the isolation of specific infectious agents responsible for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The more recently published cold chain hypothesis is providing an even broader platform by linking dietary factors and microbial agents. An additional, recent theory has suggested a breakdown in the balance between putative species of 'protective' versus 'harmful' intestinal bacteria - this concept has been termed dysbiosis resulting in decreased bacterial diversity. Other factors such as oral contraceptive use, appendectomy, dietary factors (e.g. refined sugar, fat, and fast food), perinatal events, and childhood infections have also been associated with both diseases, but their role is more controversial. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that economic development, leading to improved hygiene and other changes in lifestyle ('westernized lifestyle') may play a role in the increase in IBD. This review article focuses on the role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis and progression of IBDs.

  1. Social adjustment in adult males affected with progressive muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Eggers, S; Zatz, M

    1998-02-07

    Adult male patients affected with Becker (BMD, N = 22), limb girdle (LGMD, N = 22) and facioscapulohumeral (FSHMD, N = 18) muscular dystrophy were interviewed to assess for the first time how the disease's severity and recurrence risk (RR) magnitude alter their social adjustment. BMD (X-linked recessive) is the severest form and confers an intermediate RR because all daughters will be carriers, LGMD (autosomal-recessive) is moderately severe with a low RR in the absence of consanguineous marriage, and FSHMD (autosomal-dominant) is clinically the mildest of these three forms of MD but with the highest RR, of 50%. Results of the semistructured questionnaire [WHO (1988): Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule] showed no significant difference between the three clinical groups, but more severely handicapped patients as well as patients belonging to lower socioeconomic levels from all clinical groups showed poorer social adjustment. Taken together, myopathic patients displayed intermediate social dysfunction compared to controls and schizophrenics studied by Jablensky [1988: WHO Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule]. Since the items of major dysfunction proportion among myopathic patients concern intimate relationships (70%), interest in working among those unemployed (67%), and social isolation (53%), emotional support and social and legal assistance should concentrate on these aspects. Interestingly, the results of this study also suggest that high RRs do not affect relationships to the opposite sex.

  2. The wound healing, chronic fibrosis, and cancer progression triad

    PubMed Central

    Rybinski, Brad; Franco-Barraza, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    For decades tumors have been recognized as “wounds that do not heal.” Besides the commonalities that tumors and wounded tissues share, the process of wound healing also portrays similar characteristics with chronic fibrosis. In this review, we suggest a tight interrelationship, which is governed as a concurrence of cellular and microenvironmental reactivity among wound healing, chronic fibrosis, and cancer development/progression (i.e., the WHFC triad). It is clear that the same cell types, as well as soluble and matrix elements that drive wound healing (including regeneration) via distinct signaling pathways, also fuel chronic fibrosis and tumor progression. Hence, here we review the relationship between fibrosis and cancer through the lens of wound healing. PMID:24520152

  3. Graphene as Cancer Theranostic Tool: Progress and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Orecchioni, Marco; Cabizza, Roberto; Bianco, Alberto; Delogu, Lucia Gemma

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays cancer remains one of the main causes of death in the world. Current diagnostic techniques need to be improved to provide earlier diagnosis and treatment. Traditional therapy approaches to cancer are limited by lack of specificity and systemic toxicity. In this scenario nanomaterials could be good allies to give more specific cancer treatment effectively reducing undesired side effects and giving at the same time accurate diagnosis and successful therapy. In this context, thanks to its unique physical and chemical properties, graphene, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene (rGO) have recently attracted tremendous interest in biomedicine including cancer therapy. Herein we analyzed all studies presented in literature related to cancer fight using graphene and graphene-based conjugates. In this context, we aimed at the full picture of the state of the art providing new inputs for future strategies in the cancer theranostic by using of graphene. We found an impressive increasing interest in the material for cancer therapy and/or diagnosis. The majority of the works (73%) have been carried out on drug and gene delivery applications, following by photothermal therapy (32%), imaging (31%) and photodynamic therapy (10%). A 27% of the studies focused on theranostic applications. Part of the works here discussed contribute to the growth of the theranostic field covering the use of imaging (i.e. ultrasonography, positron electron tomography, and fluorescent imaging) combined to one or more therapeutic modalities. We found that the use of graphene in cancer theranostics is still in an early but rapidly growing stage of investigation. Any technology based on nanomaterials can significantly enhance their possibility to became the real revolution in medicine if combines diagnosis and therapy at the same time. We performed a comprehensive summary of the latest progress of graphene cancer fight and highlighted the future challenges and the innovative possible

  4. The dual role of asporin in breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Simkova, Dana; Kharaishvili, Gvantsa; Korinkova, Gabriela; Ozdian, Tomas; Suchánková-Kleplová, Tereza; Soukup, Tomas; Krupka, Michal; Galandakova, Adela; Dzubak, Petr; Janikova, Maria; Navratil, Jiri; Kahounova, Zuzana; Soucek, Karel; Bouchal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Asporin has been reported as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, while asporin-activated invasion has been described in gastric cancer. According to our in silico search, high asporin expresion associates with significantly better relapse free survival (RFS) in patients with low-grade tumors but RFS is significantly worse in patients with grade 3 tumors. In line with other studies, we have confirmed asporin expression by RNA scope in situ hybridization in cancer associated fibroblasts. We have also found asporin expression in the Hs578T breast cancer cell line which we confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. From multiple testing, we found that asporin can be downregulated by bone morphogenetic protein 4 while upregulation may be facilited by serum-free cultivation or by three dimensional growth in stiff Alvetex scaffold. Downregulation by shRNA inhibited invasion of Hs578T as well as of CAFs and T47D cells. Invasion of asporin-negative MDA-MB-231 and BT549 breast cancer cells through collagen type I was enhanced by recombinant asporin. Besides other investigations, large scale analysis of aspartic acid repeat polymorphism will be needed for clarification of the asporin dual role in progression of breast cancer. PMID:27409832

  5. Noncoding RNAs in gastric cancer: Research progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Du, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) have attracted much attention in cancer research field. They are involved in cellular development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The dysregulation of ncRNAs has been reported in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis in various cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). In the past few years, an accumulating body of evidence has deepened our understanding of ncRNAs, and several emerging ncRNAs have been identified, such as PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs). The competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks include mRNAs, microRNAs, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and circRNAs, which play critical roles in the tumorigenesis of GC. This review summarizes the recent hotspots of ncRNAs involved in GC pathobiology and their potential applications in GC. Finally, we briefly discuss the advances in the ceRNA network in GC. PMID:27547004

  6. The Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL in Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Erinn B.; Giaccia, Amato J.

    2016-01-01

    The AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL) has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for cancer therapy. Recent studies have revealed a central role of AXL signaling in tumor proliferation, survival, stem cell phenotype, metastasis, and resistance to cancer therapy. Moreover, AXL is expressed within cellular components of the tumor microenvironment where AXL signaling contributes to the immunosuppressive and protumorigenic phenotypes. A variety of AXL inhibitors have been developed and are efficacious in preclinical studies. These agents offer new opportunities for therapeutic intervention in the prevention and treatment of advanced disease. Here we review the literature that has illuminated the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which AXL signaling promotes tumor progression and we will discuss the therapeutic potential of AXL inhibition for cancer therapy. PMID:27834845

  7. Clinical implications of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Luis A; Blanco, Moisés; Castosa, Raquel; Concha, Ángel; Valladares, Manuel; Calvo, Lourdes; Figueroa, Angélica

    2015-09-28

    In the last few years, the role of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer biology research has gained increasing attention. This concept refers to the ability of the epithelial cells to dynamically switch between different phenotypic cellular states. This programme is particularly relevant during the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer progression. During colonization, epithelial cells first activate the EMT programme to disseminate from a primary tumour to reach a distant tissue site. During this process, cells are transported into the circulation and are able to escape the immune system of the host. Then, a reverse process called mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) occurs on cells that settle in the distant organs. Although epithelial cell plasticity has an important impact on tumour biology, the clinical relevance of this concept remains to be recapitulated. In this review, we will update the current state of epithelial cell plasticity in cancer progression and its clinical implications for the design of therapeutic strategies, the acquisition of multidrug resistance, and future perspectives for the management of cancer patients.

  8. Glycans and cancer: role of N-glycans in cancer biomarker, progression and metastasis, and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Kizuka, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylation is catalyzed by various glycosyltransferase enzymes which are mostly located in the Golgi apparatus in cells. These enzymes glycosylate various complex carbohydrates such as glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans. The enzyme activity of glycosyltransferases and their gene expression are altered in various pathophysiological situations including cancer. Furthermore, the activity of glycosyltransferases is controlled by various factors such as the levels of nucleotide sugars, acceptor substrates, nucleotide sugar transporters, chaperons, and endogenous lectin in cancer cells. The glycosylation results in various functional changes of glycoproteins including cell surface receptors and adhesion molecules such as E-cadherin and integrins. These changes confer the unique characteristic phenotypes associated with cancer cells. Therefore, glycans play key roles in cancer progression and treatment. This review focuses on glycan structures, their biosynthetic glycosyltransferases, and their genes in relation to their biological significance and involvement in cancer, especially cancer biomarkers, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cancer progression and metastasis, and therapeutics. Major N-glycan branching structures which are directly related to cancer are β1,6-GlcNAc branching, bisecting GlcNAc, and core fucose. These structures are enzymatic products of glycosyltransferases, GnT-V, GnT-III, and Fut8, respectively. The genes encoding these enzymes are designated as MGAT5 (Mgat5), MGAT3 (Mgat3), and FUT8 (Fut8) in humans (mice in parenthesis), respectively. GnT-V is highly associated with cancer metastasis, whereas GnT-III is associated with cancer suppression. Fut8 is involved in expression of cancer biomarker as well as in the treatment of cancer. In addition to these enzymes, GnT-IV and GnT-IX (GnT-Vb) will be also discussed in relation to cancer.

  9. Recent Progress in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jelovac, Danijela; Armstrong, Deborah K.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal of the gynecologic malignancies, largely due to the advanced stage at diagnosis in most patients. Screening strategies using ultrasound and the cancer antigen (CA) 125 tumor marker are currently under study and may lower stage at diagnosis but have not yet been shown to improve survival. Women who have inherited a deleterious mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene and those with the Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer) have the highest risk of developing ovarian cancer but account for only approximately 10% of those with the disease. Other less common and less well-defined genetic syndromes may increase the risk of ovarian cancer, but their contribution to genetic risk is small. A clear etiology for sporadic ovarian cancer has not been identified, but risk is affected by reproductive and hormonal factors. Surgery has a unique role in ovarian cancer, as it is used not only for diagnosis and staging but also therapeutically, even in patients with widely disseminated, advanced disease. Ovarian cancer is highly sensitive to chemotherapy drugs, particularly the platinum agents, and most patients will attain a remission with initial treatment. Recent advances in the delivery of chemotherapy using the intraperitoneal route have further improved survival after initial therapy. Although the majority of ovarian cancer patients will respond to initial chemotherapy, most will ultimately develop disease recurrence. Chemotherapy for recurrent disease includes platinum-based, multiagent regimens for women whose disease recurs more than 6 to 12 months after the completion of initial therapy and sequential single agents for those whose disease recurs earlier. New targeted biologic agents, particularly those involved with the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway and those targeting the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzyme, hold great promise for improving the outcome of ovarian cancer. PMID:21521830

  10. FAK and HAS Inhibition Synergistically Decrease Colon Cancer Cell Viability and Affect Expression of Critical Genes

    PubMed Central

    Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William; Dunn, Kelli B.

    2013-01-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. FAK inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. HAS3 inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases FAK expression and activation, and exogenous HA increases FAK activation. We sought to determine the genes affected by HAS and FAK inhibition and hypothesized that dual inhibition would synergistically inhibit viability. Y15 (FAK inhibitor) and the HAS inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) decreased viability in a dose dependent manner; viability was further inhibited by treatment with Y15 and 4-MU in colon cancer cells. HAS inhibited cells treated with 2μM of Y15 showed significantly decreased viability compared to HAS scrambled cells treated with the same dose (p<0.05) demonstrating synergistic inhibition of viability with dual FAK/HAS inhibition. Microarray analysis showed more than 2-fold up- or down-regulation of 121 genes by HAS inhibition, and 696 genes by FAK inhibition (p<0.05) and revealed 29 common genes affected by both signaling. Among the genes affected by FAK or HAS3 inhibition were genes, playing role in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, adhesion, transcription, heat-shock and WNT pathways. Thus, FAK or HAS inhibition decreases SW620 viability and affects several similar genes, which are involved in the regulation of tumor survival. Dual inhibition of FAK and HAS3 decreases viability to a greater degree than with either agent alone, and suggests that synergistic inhibition of colon cancer cell growth can result from affecting similar genetic pathways. PMID:22934709

  11. FAK and HAS inhibition synergistically decrease colon cancer cell viability and affect expression of critical genes.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Melissa; Golubovskaya, Vita M; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Wang, Dan; Cance, William G; Dunn, Kelli B

    2013-05-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), hyaluronan (HA), and hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) have been implicated in cancer growth and progression. FAK inhibition with the small molecule inhibitor Y15 decreases colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. HAS3 inhibition in colon cancer cells decreases FAK expression and activation, and exogenous HA increases FAK activation. We sought to determine the genes affected by HAS and FAK inhibition and hypothesized that dual inhibition would synergistically inhibit viability. Y15 (FAK inhibitor) and the HAS inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) decreased viability in a dose dependent manner; viability was further inhibited by treatment with Y15 and 4-MU in colon cancer cells. HAS inhibited cells treated with 2 μM of Y15 showed significantly decreased viability compared to HAS scrambled cells treated with the same dose (p < 0.05) demonstrating synergistic inhibition of viability with dual FAK/HAS inhibition. Microarray analysis showed more than 2-fold up- or down-regulation of 121 genes by HAS inhibition, and 696 genes by FAK inhibition (p < 0.05) and revealed 29 common genes affected by both signaling. Among the genes affected by FAK or HAS3 inhibition were genes, playing role in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, adhesion, transcription, heatshock and WNT pathways. Thus, FAK or HAS inhibition decreases SW620 viability and affects several similar genes, which are involved in the regulation of tumor survival. Dual inhibition of FAK and HAS3 decreases viability to a greater degree than with either agent alone, and suggests that synergistic inhibition of colon cancer cell growth can result from affecting similar genetic pathways.

  12. Effect of Paget's disease of bone (osteitis deformans) on the progression of prostate cancer bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Tu, S-M; Som, A; Tu, B; Logothetis, C J; Lee, M-H; Yeung, S-CJ

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients with prostate cancer tend to die from bone metastases. Until now, no evidence has shown that Paget's disease of bone (PDB) affects the progression of bone metastasis or overall survival of patients with prostate cancer. Methods: We searched our patient database for men who had presented with prostate cancer and PDB between June 1993 and March 2009, and identified best-matched control patients according to stage, grade, age, date of diagnosis, treatment, and race. Results: Among 1346 consecutive patients with prostate cancer diagnosed before 2008, 15 were confirmed to have comorbid PDB. Twenty-six more were identified from the institutional billing search. Including the 41 best-matched controls, our total study population was 82 patients. In the Kaplan–Meier analysis, we estimated median times from diagnosis of prostate cancer to bone metastasis to be 21.5 years for those with PDB and 9.4 years for those without PDB (P=0.044). Median overall survival times were 11.8 and 9.2 years for the two groups, respectively (P=0.008). Conclusion: For the first time, we have obtained evidence that patients with prostate cancer and PDB have delayed time to bone metastases and improved overall survival than do patients with prostate cancer alone. PMID:22805323

  13. Leptin-Notch signaling axis is involved in pancreatic cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Harbuzariu, Adriana; Rampoldi, Antonio; Daley-Brown, Danielle S; Candelaria, Pierre; Harmon, Tia L; Lipsey, Crystal C; Beech, Derrick J; Quarshie, Alexander; Ilies, Gabriela Oprea; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben R

    2017-01-31

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) shows a high death rate. PC incidence and prognosis are affected by obesity, a pandemic characterized by high levels of leptin. Notch is upregulated by leptin in breast cancer. Thus, leptin and Notch crosstalk could influence PC progression. Here we investigated in PC cell lines (BxPC-3, MiaPaCa-2, Panc-1, AsPC-1), derived tumorspheres and xenografts whether a functional leptin-Notch axis affects PC progression and expansion of pancreatic cancer stem cells (PCSC). PC cells and tumorspheres were treated with leptin and inhibitors of Notch (gamma-secretase inhibitor, DAPT) and leptin (iron oxide nanoparticle-leptin peptide receptor antagonist 2, IONP-LPrA2). Leptin treatment increased cell cycle progression and proliferation, and the expression of Notch receptors, ligands and targeted molecules (Notch1-4, DLL4, JAG1, Survivin and Hey2), PCSC markers (CD24/CD44/ESA, ALDH, CD133, Oct-4), ABCB1 protein, as well as tumorsphere formation. Leptin-induced effects on PC and tumorspheres were decreased by IONP-LPrA2 and DAPT. PC cells secreted leptin and expressed the leptin receptor, OB-R, which indicates a leptin autocrine/paracrine signaling loop could also affect tumor progression. IONP-LPrA2 treatment delayed the onset of MiaPaCa-2 xenografts, and decreased tumor growth and the expression of proliferation and PCSC markers. Present data suggest that leptin-Notch axis is involved in PC. PC has no targeted therapy and is mainly treated with chemotherapy, whose efficiency could be decreased by leptin and Notch activities. Thus, the leptin-Notch axis could be a novel therapeutic target, particularly for obese PC patients.

  14. SPINK1 promotes colorectal cancer progression by downregulating Metallothioneins expression

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, R; Pandey, S K; Goel, S; Bhatia, V; Shukla, S; Jing, X; Dhanasekaran, S M; Ateeq, B

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world, and second leading cause of cancer deaths in the US. Although, anti-EGFR therapy is commonly prescribed for CRC, patients harboring mutations in KRAS or BRAF show poor treatment response, indicating an ardent demand for new therapeutic targets discovery. SPINK1 (serine peptidase inhibitor, Kazal type 1) overexpression has been identified in many cancers including the colon, lung, breast and prostate. Our study demonstrates the functional significance of SPINK1 in CRC progression and metastases. Stable knockdown of SPINK1 significantly decreases cell proliferation, invasion and soft agar colony formation in the colon adenocarcinoma WiDr cells. Conversely, an increase in these oncogenic phenotypes was observed on stimulation with SPINK1-enriched conditioned media (CM) in multiple benign models such as murine colonic epithelial cell lines, MSIE and YAMC (SPINK3-negative). Mechanistically, SPINK1 promotes tumorigenic phenotype by activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathways, and the SPINK1-positive WiDr cells are sensitive to AKT and MEK inhibitors. Importantly, SPINK1 silencing mediated upregulation of various Metallothionein isoforms, considered as tumor suppressors in CRC, confer sensitivity to doxorubicin, which strengthens the rationale for using the combinatorial treatment approach for the SPINK1-positive CRC patients. Furthermore, in vivo studies using chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay, murine xenograft studies and metastasis models further suggest a pivotal role of SPINK1 in CRC progression and metastasis. Taken together, our study demonstrates an important role for the overexpressed SPINK1 in CRC disease progression, a phenomenon that needs careful evaluation towards effective therapeutic target development. PMID:26258891

  15. Discovery of Genomic Breakpoints Affecting Breast Cancer Progression and Prognosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    that binds other family member homologs such as RAD51D and Xrcc3 (Miller et al. 2004), possibly disrupting formation of the complex responsible for...doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000380. Liu, Y., Tarsounas, M., O’Regan, P., and West, S.C. 2007. Role of RAD51C and XRCC3 in genetic recombination and DNA

  16. Discovery of Genomic Breakpoints Affecting Breast Cancer Progression and Prognosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    transcripts. By RT-PCR we determined that 4 showed a fusion mRNA. In the case of the ARFGEF2/SULF2, a non-functional Sulfatase 2 might be created. To give...suppressor Sulfatase 2. Another fusion, RAD51C/ATXN7 results in the truncation RAD51C, involved in double stranded break repair. We detected chimeric mRNA...the ARFGEF2/SULF2, and RAD51C/ATXN7. By the creation of the ARFGEF2/SULF2 fusion, the Sulfatase 2 (SULF2) protein loses its targeting peptide for

  17. Tumor-derived exosomes and their role in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Whiteside, Theresa L

    2017-01-01

    Tumor cells actively produce, release and utilize exosomes to promote tumor growth. Mechanisms through which tumor-derived exosomes subserve the tumor are under intense investigation. These exosomes are information carriers, conveying molecular and genetic messages from tumor cells to normal or other abnormal cells residing at close or distant sites. Tumor-derived exosomes are found in all body fluids. Upon the contact with target cells, they alter phenotypic and functional attributes of recipients, reprogramming them into active contributors to angiogenesis, thrombosis, metastasis and immunosuppression. Exosomes produced by tumors carry cargos that in part mimic contents of parent cells and are of potential interest as non-invasive biomarkers of cancer. Their role in inhibiting the host antitumor responses and in mediating drug resistance is important for cancer therapy. Tumor-derived exosomes may interfere with cancer immunotherapy, but they also could serve as adjuvants and antigenic components of antitumor vaccines. Their biological roles in cancer development or progression as well as cancer therapy suggest that tumor-derived exosomes are critical components of oncogenic transformation. PMID:27117662

  18. Tumor-Derived Exosomes and Their Role in Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Theresa L

    2016-01-01

    Tumor cells actively produce, release, and utilize exosomes to promote tumor growth. Mechanisms through which tumor-derived exosomes subserve the tumor are under intense investigation. These exosomes are information carriers, conveying molecular and genetic messages from tumor cells to normal or other abnormal cells residing at close or distant sites. Tumor-derived exosomes are found in all body fluids. Upon contact with target cells, they alter phenotypic and functional attributes of recipients, reprogramming them into active contributors to angiogenesis, thrombosis, metastasis, and immunosuppression. Exosomes produced by tumors carry cargos that in part mimic contents of parent cells and are of potential interest as noninvasive biomarkers of cancer. Their role in inhibiting the host antitumor responses and in mediating drug resistance is important for cancer therapy. Tumor-derived exosomes may interfere with cancer immunotherapy, but they also could serve as adjuvants and antigenic components of antitumor vaccines. Their biological roles in cancer development or progression as well as cancer therapy suggest that tumor-derived exosomes are critical components of oncogenic transformation.

  19. Involvement of human papillomavirus infections in prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin

    2008-08-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are sexually transmitted and have been associated with several human carcinomas especially cervical and colorectal. On the other hand, a small number of studies have examined the presence of high-risk HPV in human prostate cancer tissues. Currently, the presence and role of high-risk HPV infections in prostate carcinogenesis remain unclear because of the limited number of investigations. This raises the question whether high-risk HPV infections play any role in human prostate cancer development. However, other investigators and our group were able to immortalize normal and cancer prostate epithelial cells in vitro by E6/E7 of HPV type 16. In this paper, we propose the hypothesis that normal and cancer prostate epithelial cells are susceptible to persistent HPV infections; therefore, high-risk HPV infections play an important role in the progression of prostate cancer. We believe that an international collaboration of epidemiological studies and more molecular biology investigations are necessary to answer these important questions.

  20. Cyr61 promotes breast tumorigenesis and cancer progression

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Miaw-Sheue; Bogart, Daphne F.; Castaneda, Jessica M.; Li, Patricia; Lupu, Ruth

    2002-01-16

    Cyr61, a member of the CCN family of genes, is an angiogenic factor. We have shown that it is overexpressed in invasive and metastatic human breast cancer cells and tissues. Here, we investigated whether Cyr61 is necessary and/or sufficient to bypass the ''normal'' estrogen (E2) requirements for breast cancer cell growth. Our results demonstrate that under E2-depleted condition, Cyr61 is sufficient to induce MCF-7 cells grow in the absence of E2. MCF-7 cells transfected with Cyr61 (MCF-7/Cyr61) became E2-independent but still E2-responsive. On the other hand, MCF-7/vector cells remain E2-dependent. MCF-7/Cyr61 cells acquire an antiestrogen-resistant phenotype, one of the most common clinical occurrences during breast cancer progression. MCF-7/Cyr61 cells are anchorage-independent and capable of forming Matrigel outgrowth patterns in the absence of E2. ERa expression in MCF-7/Cyr61 cells is decreased although still functional. Additionally, MCF-7/Cyr61 cells are tumorigenic in ovariectomized athymic nude mice. The tumors resemble human invasive carcinomas with increased vascularization and overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our results demonstrate that Cyr61 is a tumor-promoting factor and a key regulator of breast cancer progression. This study provides evidence that Cyr61 is sufficient to induce E2-independence and anti-E2 resistance, and to promote invasiveness in vitro, and to induce tumorigenesis in vivo, all of which are characteristics of an aggressive breast cancer phenotype.

  1. Bridging hypoxia, inflammation and estrogen receptors in thyroid cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Tafani, Marco; De Santis, Elena; Coppola, Luigi; Perrone, Giulietta A; Carnevale, Ilaria; Russo, Andrea; Pucci, Bruna; Carpi, Angelo; Bizzarri, Mariano; Russo, Matteo A

    2014-02-01

    Thyroid cancer is a common endocrine-related cancer with a higher incidence in women than in men. Thyroid tumors are classified on the basis of their histopathology as papillary, follicular, medullary, and undifferentiated or anaplastic. Epidemiological and in vitro or in vivo studies have suggested a correlation between incidence of thyroid malignancies and hormones. In particular, growing evidence indicates a role of estrogens and estrogen receptors (ERs) in thyroid tumorigenesis, reprogramming and progression. In this scenario, estrogens are hypothesized to contribute to the observed female predominance of thyroid cancer in reproductive years. However, the precise contribution of estrogens in thyroid proliferative disease initiation and progression is not well understood. HIF-1α and NF-κB are two transcription factors very frequently activated in tumors and involved in tumor growth, progression and resistance to chemotherapy. In fact, HIF-1α and NF-κB together regulate transcription of over a thousand genes that, in turn, control vital cellular processes such as adaptation to the hypoxia, metabolic and differentiation reprogramming, inflammatory-reparative response, extracellular matrix digestion, migration and invasion, adhesion, etc. Because of this wide involvement, they could control in an integrated manner the origin of the malignant phenotype. Interestingly, hypoxia and inflammation have been sequentially bridged in tumors by the discovery that alarmin receptors genes such as RAGE, P2X7 and some TLRs are activated by HIF-1α; and that, in turn, alarmin receptors strongly activate NF-κB and proinflammatory gene expression, evidencing all the hallmarks of the malignant phenotype. Recently, a large number of drugs have been identified that inhibit one or both transcription factors with promising results in terms of controlling tumor progression. In addition, many of these inhibitors are natural compounds or off-label drugs already used to cure other

  2. STAT1 drives tumor progression in serous papillary endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Kharma, Budiman; Baba, Tsukasa; Matsumura, Noriomi; Kang, Hyun Sook; Hamanishi, Junzo; Murakami, Ryusuke; McConechy, Melissa M; Leung, Samuel; Yamaguchi, Ken; Hosoe, Yuko; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Murphy, Susan K; Mandai, Masaki; Hunstman, David G; Konishi, Ikuo

    2014-11-15

    Recent studies of the interferon-induced transcription factor STAT1 have associated its dysregulation with poor prognosis in some cancers, but its mechanistic contributions are not well defined. In this study, we report that the STAT1 pathway is constitutively upregulated in type II endometrial cancers. STAT1 pathway alteration was especially prominent in serous papillary endometrial cancers (SPEC) that are refractive to therapy. Our results defined a "SPEC signature" as a molecular definition of its malignant features and poor prognosis. Specifically, we found that STAT1 regulated MYC as well as ICAM1, PD-L1, and SMAD7, as well as the capacity for proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, and in vivo tumorigenecity in cells with a high SPEC signature. Together, our results define STAT1 as a driver oncogene in SPEC that modulates disease progression. We propose that STAT1 functions as a prosurvival gene in SPEC, in a manner important to tumor progression, and that STAT1 may be a novel target for molecular therapy in this disease.

  3. Transient tissue priming via ROCK inhibition uncouples pancreatic cancer progression, sensitivity to chemotherapy, and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Vennin, Claire; Chin, Venessa T; Warren, Sean C; Lucas, Morghan C; Herrmann, David; Magenau, Astrid; Melenec, Pauline; Walters, Stacey N; Del Monte-Nieto, Gonzalo; Conway, James R W; Nobis, Max; Allam, Amr H; McCloy, Rachael A; Currey, Nicola; Pinese, Mark; Boulghourjian, Alice; Zaratzian, Anaiis; Adam, Arne A S; Heu, Celine; Nagrial, Adnan M; Chou, Angela; Steinmann, Angela; Drury, Alison; Froio, Danielle; Giry-Laterriere, Marc; Harris, Nathanial L E; Phan, Tri; Jain, Rohit; Weninger, Wolfgang; McGhee, Ewan J; Whan, Renee; Johns, Amber L; Samra, Jaswinder S; Chantrill, Lorraine; Gill, Anthony J; Kohonen-Corish, Maija; Harvey, Richard P; Biankin, Andrew V; Evans, T R Jeffry; Anderson, Kurt I; Grey, Shane T; Ormandy, Christopher J; Gallego-Ortega, David; Wang, Yingxiao; Samuel, Michael S; Sansom, Owen J; Burgess, Andrew; Cox, Thomas R; Morton, Jennifer P; Pajic, Marina; Timpson, Paul

    2017-04-05

    The emerging standard of care for patients with inoperable pancreatic cancer is a combination of cytotoxic drugs gemcitabine and Abraxane, but patient response remains moderate. Pancreatic cancer development and metastasis occur in complex settings, with reciprocal feedback from microenvironmental cues influencing both disease progression and drug response. Little is known about how sequential dual targeting of tumor tissue tension and vasculature before chemotherapy can affect tumor response. We used intravital imaging to assess how transient manipulation of the tumor tissue, or "priming," using the pharmaceutical Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil affects response to chemotherapy. Intravital Förster resonance energy transfer imaging of a cyclin-dependent kinase 1 biosensor to monitor the efficacy of cytotoxic drugs revealed that priming improves pancreatic cancer response to gemcitabine/Abraxane at both primary and secondary sites. Transient priming also sensitized cells to shear stress and impaired colonization efficiency and fibrotic niche remodeling within the liver, three important features of cancer spread. Last, we demonstrate a graded response to priming in stratified patient-derived tumors, indicating that fine-tuned tissue manipulation before chemotherapy may offer opportunities in both primary and metastatic targeting of pancreatic cancer.

  4. Tumor-derived exosomes in oncogenic reprogramming and cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sarmad N; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, effective communication between cells is a crucial part of cellular and tissue homeostasis. This communication mainly involves direct cell-cell contact as well as the secretion of molecules that bind to receptors at the recipient cells. However, a more recently characterized mode of intercellular communication-the release of membrane vesicles known as exosomes-has been the subject of increasing interest and intensive research over the past decade. Following the discovery of the exosome-mediated immune activation, the pathophysiological roles of exosomes have been recognized in different diseases, including cancer. In this review, we describe the biogenesis and main physical characteristics that define exosomes as a specific population of secreted vesicles, with a special focus on their role in oncogenic transformation and cancer progression.

  5. Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Therapy in Colorectal Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeng Jin; Na, Yeon Kyung; Hong, Hae Sook

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation therapy (PMRT) on cortisol level, the Stress Arousal Checklist (SACL) score, blood pressure, and heart rate in colorectal cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Forty-six patients were divided into control and experimental groups. Cortisol levels, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before surgery and between 8:00 and 11:00 a.m. on the first, third, and fifth days after surgery. SACL score was measured before surgery and on the fifth day after surgery at the same time points. PMRT was performed twice a day for 5 days. Analyses of covariance with advanced covariate levels and t tests showed that PMRT helps colorectal cancer patients achieve a lower stress response and provides an important basis for stress control.

  6. Macrophages as Key Drivers of Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Sebastian R.

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are one of the most abundant immune cells in the tumour microenvironment of solid tumours and their presence correlates with reduced survival in most cancers. Macrophages are present at all stages of tumour progression and stimulate angiogenesis, tumour cell invasion, and intravasation at the primary site. At the metastatic site, macrophages and monocytes prepare for the arrival of disseminated tumour cells and promote their extravasation and survival by inhibiting immune-mediated clearance or by directly engaging with tumour cells to activate prosurvival signalling pathways. In addition, macrophages promote the growth of disseminated tumour cells at the metastatic site by organising the formation of a supportive metastatic niche. The development of agents inhibiting the recruitment or the protumorigenic effector functions of macrophages in both the primary tumour and at the metastatic site is a promising strategy to improve cancer survival in the future. PMID:28210073

  7. Prolonged time to progression with fulvestrant for metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mello, Celso A L; Chinen, Ludmilla T D; da Silva, Samantha Cabral Severino; do Nascimento Matias, Carolina; Benevides, Carlos Frederico; Gimenes, Daniel Luiz; Fanelli, Marcello F

    2011-06-01

    Although the incidence of breast cancer has been declining in recent years, the disease is still one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in women. Recently, breast cancer has been treated with innovative approaches that use hormone-sensitive therapies. This is because in at least one-third of breast cancers, estrogens mediated via the estrogen receptor pathway act as endocrine growth factors. Fulvestrant has been studied as both first- and second-line therapy for locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer, but few studies have shown its effect as third-line therapy alone. To observe the disease time to progression (TTP) obtained with fulvestrant when used on metastatic breast cancer as first-, second-, and also third-line therapy. We also aimed to correlate the TTP obtained with fulvestrant with hormone receptor, HER2 expression, and metastatic site. This was a cohort study that retrospectively examined medical records of 73 postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer who were treated with fulvestrant (250 mg/month i.m. injection) and followed at the Department of Medical Oncology at Hospital do Cancer A. C. Camargo in São Paulo, Brazil from August 2003 to December 2006. The median TTP with fulvestrant was about 11 months. When used as the first-line therapy, TTP was about 13 months; when used as second-line, TTP was about 6 months; and when used as third-line, it was about 12 months. No statistically significant difference was observed regarding the therapy line. In patients with positive ER tumors, TTP was 11 months. No significant difference in TTP was observed in negative ER tumors (TTP = 10 months). In patients with positive PgR tumors, TTP was 13 months and for negative PgR, TTP was 6 months (P = 0.008). According to the HER2 status, the TTP was 5 months for HER2+ and 10 months for HER2-. Our findings indicate that fulvestrant is an effective alternative for treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

  8. Impact of intracellular ion channels on cancer development and progression.

    PubMed

    Peruzzo, Roberta; Biasutto, Lucia; Szabò, Ildikò; Leanza, Luigi

    2016-10-01

    Cancer research is nowadays focused on the identification of possible new targets in order to try to develop new drugs for curing untreatable tumors. Ion channels have emerged as "oncogenic" proteins, since they have an aberrant expression in cancers compared to normal tissues and contribute to several hallmarks of cancer, such as metabolic re-programming, limitless proliferative potential, apoptosis-resistance, stimulation of neo-angiogenesis as well as cell migration and invasiveness. In recent years, not only the plasma membrane but also intracellular channels and transporters have arisen as oncological targets and were proposed to be associated with tumorigenesis. Therefore, the research is currently focusing on understanding the possible role of intracellular ion channels in cancer development and progression on one hand and, on the other, on developing new possible drugs able to modulate the expression and/or activity of these channels. In a few cases, the efficacy of channel-targeting drugs in reducing tumors has already been demonstrated in vivo in preclinical mouse models.

  9. Analysis of Dachsous2 in Breast Cancer Progression and Recurrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    definitive conclusion. pg. 4 0.000 0.005 0.010 0.015 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.035 MCF7 MDA-MB- 231 Hs 578T MCF-10A MCF-12A SKOV3 MOLT - 4 RPMI 8226 SW 872...2010 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0631 Analysis of Dachsous2 in Breast Cancer Progression and Recurrence 5b. GRANT...Ds2 that could be used in paraffin section analysis of tumour samples from ANN patients. We initially generated 4 antisera to the entire

  10. Cancer-associated-fibroblasts and tumour cells: a diabolic liaison driving cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Cirri, Paolo; Chiarugi, Paola

    2012-06-01

    Several recent papers have now provided compelling experimental evidence that the progression of tumours towards a malignant phenotype does not depend exclusively on the cell-autonomous properties of cancer cells themselves but is also deeply influenced by tumour stroma reactivity, thereby undergoing a strict environmental control. Tumour microenvironmental elements include structural components such as the extracellular matrix or hypoxia as well as stromal cells, either resident cells or recruited from circulating precursors, as macrophages and other inflammatory cells, endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). All these elements synergistically play a specific role in cancer progression. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the role of CAFs in tumour progression, with a particular focus on the biunivocal interplay between CAFs and cancer cells leading to the activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition programme and the achievement of stem cell traits, as well as to the metabolic reprogramming of both stromal and cancer cells. Recent advances on the role of CAFs in the preparation of metastatic niche, as well as the controversial origin of CAFs, are discussed in light of the new emerging therapeutic implications of targeting CAFs.

  11. Progress in the detection of neoplastic progress and cancer by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker Schut, Tom C.; Stone, Nicholas; Kendall, Catherine A.; Barr, Hugh; Bruining, Hajo A.; Puppels, Gerwin J.

    2000-05-01

    Early detection of cancer is important because of the improved survival rates when the cancer is treated early. We study the application of NIR Raman spectroscopy for detection of dysplasia because this technique is sensitive to the small changes in molecular invasive in vivo detection using fiber-optic probes. The result of an in vitro study to detect neoplastic progress of esophageal Barrett's esophageal tissue will be presented. Using multivariate statistics, we developed three different linear discriminant analysis classification models to predict tissue type on the basis of the measured spectrum. Spectra of normal, metaplastic and dysplasia tissue could be discriminated with an accuracy of up to 88 percent. Therefore Raman spectroscopy seems to be a very suitable technique to detect dysplasia in Barrett's esophageal tissue.

  12. miR-31 affects colorectal cancer cells by inhibiting autophagy in cancer-associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyu; Wu, Yong; Wu, Yongyou; Zhao, Kui; Xing, Chungen; Cao, Jianping; Zhu, Hong; Li, Ming; Ye, Zhenyu; Peng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a double-edged sword in tumor development. Recent studies have found that miRNAs have an inhibitory effect on the regulation of autophagy. It has been reported that miR-31 plays an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. However, what role miR-31 plays in colorectal cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) has not been determined. In this study, we confirmed that the expression of miR-31 in CAFs was higher than in normal colorectal fibroblasts (NFs). We also found that treatment of CAFs with miR-31 mimic inhibited the expression of the autophagy-related genes Beclin-1, ATG, DRAM and LC3. In addition, we found up-regulation of miR-31 significantly affected colorectal cancer cell behaviors, including proliferation, invasion and apoptosis. Also, up-regulation of miR-31 in CAF could increase the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells co-cultured with CAF. In summary, miR-31 can inhibit autophagy in colorectal CAFs, affect colorectal cancer development, and increase the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells co-cultured with CAF. We hypothesize that miR-31 may become a new target of treatments for colorectal cancer. PMID:27793031

  13. Chemokines in Cancer Development and Progression and Their Potential as Targeting Molecules for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mukaida, Naofumi; Sasaki, So-ichiro; Baba, Tomohisa

    2014-01-01

    Chemokines were initially identified as bioactive substances, which control the trafficking of inflammatory cells including granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Moreover, chemokines have profound impacts on other types of cells associated with inflammatory responses, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. These observations would implicate chemokines as master regulators in various inflammatory responses. Subsequent studies have further revealed that chemokines can regulate the movement of a wide variety of immune cells including lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells in both physiological and pathological conditions. These features endow chemokines with crucial roles in immune responses. Furthermore, increasing evidence points to the vital effects of several chemokines on the proliferative and invasive properties of cancer cells. It is widely acknowledged that cancer develops and progresses to invade and metastasize in continuous interaction with noncancerous cells present in cancer tissues, such as macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. The capacity of chemokines to regulate both cancerous and noncancerous cells highlights their crucial roles in cancer development and progression. Here, we will discuss the roles of chemokines in carcinogenesis and the possibility of chemokine targeting therapy for the treatment of cancer. PMID:24966464

  14. Smoke-free Workplace Rules and Laws | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. UV Exposure and Sun-Protective Behavior - Prevention Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. Weight and Physical Activity - Prevention Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  17. Incidence and Stage at Diagnosis - Diagnosis Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Tobacco Policy/Regulatory Factors - Prevention Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. Navigating the Trends and Most Recent Estimates Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  20. Progress in systemic chemotherapy of primary breast cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Hortobagyi, G N

    2001-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the multidisciplinary management of primary breast cancer during the last 30 years. Adjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to significantly reduce the annual risk of cancer recurrence and mortality, and these effects persist even 15 years after diagnosis. Combination chemotherapy is superior to single-agent therapy and anthracycline-containing regimens. Those that combine an anthracycline with 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide are more effective than regimens without an anthracycline. Six cycles of a single regimen appear to provide optimal benefit. Dose reductions below the standard range are associated with inferior results. Dose increases that require growth factor or hematopoietic stem cell support are under investigation; at this time, the existing results provide no compelling reason to use this strategy outside a clinical trial. Regimens using fixed crossover designs with two non-cross-resistant regimens are being evaluated. The addition of a taxane to anthracycline-containing regimens is currently under intense scrutiny, and preliminary analysis of the first three clinical trials has shown encouraging, albeit not compelling, results. For patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, the sequential administration of chemotherapy and 5 years of tamoxifen therapy provides additive benefits. No compelling evidence exists to combine ovarian ablation with chemotherapy. Most side effects and toxic effects are self-limited, although premature menopause requires monitoring and preventive interventions to preserve bone mineral density. The small risk of acute leukemia is of concern, and additional research to develop safer regimens is clearly indicated. The overall effect of optimal local/regional treatment combined with an anthracycline-containing adjuvant chemotherapy and a taxane (and, for patients with estrogen receptor-positive tumors, 5 years of tamoxifen therapy) is a greater than 50% reduction in annual risks of

  1. Mitotic abnormalities leading to cancer predisposition and progression.

    PubMed

    Cavenee, W K

    1989-01-01

    The development of human cancer is generally thought to entail a series of events that cause a progressively more malignant phenotype. Such a hypothesis predicts that tumor cells of the ultimate stage will carry each of the events, cells of the penultimate stage will carry each of the events less the last one, and so on. That is to say a dissection of the pathway from a normal cell to a fully malignant tumor may be viewed as the unraveling of a nested set of aberrations. In experiments designed to elucidate these events, we have compared genotypic combinations at genomic loci defined by restriction endonuclease recognition site variation in normal and tumor tissues from patients with various forms and stages of cancer. The first step, inherited predisposition, is best described for retinoblastoma in which a recessive mutation of a locus residing in the 13q14 region of the genome is unmasked by aberrant, but specific, mitotic chromosomal segregation. A similar mechanism involving the distal short arm of chromosome 17 is apparent in astrocytic tumors and the event is shared by cells in each malignancy stage. This is distinct from a loss of heterozygosity for loci on chromosome 10 which is restricted to the ultimate stage, glioblastoma multiforme. These results suggest a genetic approach to defining degrees of tumor progression and means for determining the genomic locations of genes involved in the pathway as a prelude to their molecular isolation and characterization.

  2. Establishing the colitis-associated cancer progression mouse models.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haiming; Lu, Zhanjun; Wang, Ruhua; Chen, Niwei; Zheng, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been reported as an important inducer of colorectal cancer (CRC). The most malignant IBD-associated CRC type has been highlighted as colitis-associated cancer (CAC). However, lack of CAC cases and difficulties of the long follow-up research have challenged researchers in molecular mechanism probing. Here, we established pre-CAC mouse models (dextran sulfate sodium [DSS] group and azoxymethane [AOM] group) and CAC mouse model (DSS/AOM group) to mimic human CAC development through singly or combinational treatment with DSS and AOM followed by disease activity index analysis. We found that these CAC mice showed much more severe disease phenotype, including serious diarrhea, body weight loss, rectal prolapse and bleeding, bloody stool, tumor burden, and bad survival. By detecting expression patterns of several therapeutic targets-Apc, p53, Kras, and TNF-α-in these mouse models through western blot, histology analysis, qRT-PCR, and ELISA methods, we found that the oncogene Kras expression remained unchanged, while the tumor suppressors-Apc and p53 expression were both significantly downregulated with malignancy progression from pre-CAC to CAC, and TNF-α level was elevated the most in CAC mice blood which is of potential clinical use. These data indicated the successful establishment of CAC development mouse models, which mimics human CAC well both in disease phenotype and molecular level, and highlighted the promoting role of inflammation in CAC progression. This useful tool will facilitate the further study in CAC molecular mechanism.

  3. TES inhibits colorectal cancer progression through activation of p38

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lu; Wang, Lixia; Niu, Yanfeng; Liu, Hongli; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Jiliang

    2016-01-01

    The human TESTIN (TES) gene has been identified as a candidate tumor suppressor based on its location at a common fragile site – a region where loss of heterozygosity has been detected in numerous types of tumors. To investigate its role in colorectal cancer (CRC), we examined TES protein levels in CRC tissue samples and cell lines. We observed that TES was markedly reduced in both CRC tissue and cell lines. Additionally, overexpression of TES significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while increasing cell apoptosis in colon cancer cells. By contrast, shRNA-mediated TES knockdown elicited the opposite effects. TES inhibited the progression of CRC by up-regulating pro-apoptotic proteins, down-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins, and simultaneously activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Collectively, these data indicate that TES functions as a necessary suppressor of CRC progression by activating p38-MAPK signaling pathways. This suggests that TES may have a potential application in CRC diagnosis and targeted gene therapy. PMID:27323777

  4. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression: A Mendelian randomisation study.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M; Martin, Richard M; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie C; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Blot, William J; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R; Pandha, Hardev; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this study, we investigated the associations of genetic variants in alcohol-metabolising genes with prostate cancer incidence and survival. We analysed data from 23,868 men with prostate cancer and 23,051 controls from 25 studies within the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Study-specific associations of 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 alcohol-metabolising genes (Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADHs) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs)) with prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer-specific mortality, by grade, were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. The data across the 25 studies were meta-analysed using fixed-effect and random-effects models. We found little evidence that variants in alcohol metabolising genes were associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. Four variants in two genes exceeded the multiple testing threshold for associations with prostate cancer mortality in fixed-effect meta-analyses. SNPs within ALDH1A2 associated with prostate cancer mortality were rs1441817 (fixed effects hazard ratio, HRfixed  = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.66,0.91; p values = 0.002); rs12910509, HRfixed  = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.003); and rs8041922 (HRfixed  = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.002). These SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. In ALDH1B1, rs10973794 (HRfixed  = 1.43; 95%CI:1.14,1.79; p values = 0.002) was associated with prostate cancer mortality in men with low-grade prostate cancer. These results suggest that alcohol consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression.

  5. Progressive lung cancer determined by expression profiling and transcriptional regulation.

    PubMed

    Han, Namshik; Dol, Zulkifli; Vasieva, Olga; Hyde, Russell; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Raji, Olaide; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Brambilla, Christian; Martinet, Yves; Sozzi, Gabriella; Risch, Angela; Montuenga, Luis M; Brass, Andy; Field, John K

    2012-07-01

    Clinically, our ability to predict disease outcome for patients with early stage lung cancer is currently poor. To address this issue, tumour specimens were collected at surgery from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients as part of the European Early Lung Cancer (EUELC) consortium. The patients were followed-up for three years post-surgery and patients who suffered progressive disease (PD, tumour recurrence, metastasis or a second primary) or remained disease-free (DF) during follow-up were identified. RNA from both tumour and adjacent-normal lung tissue was extracted from patients and subjected to microarray expression profiling. These samples included 36 adenocarcinomas and 23 squamous cell carcinomas from both PD and DF patients. The microarray data was subject to a series of systematic bioinformatics analyses at gene, network and transcription factor levels. The focus of these analyses was 2-fold: firstly to determine whether there were specific biomarkers capable of differentiating between PD and DF patients, and secondly, to identify molecular networks which may contribute to the progressive tumour phenotype. The experimental design and analyses performed permitted the clear differentiation between PD and DF patients using a set of biomarkers implicated in neuroendocrine signalling and allowed the inference of a set of transcription factors whose activity may differ according to disease outcome. Potential links between the biomarkers, the transcription factors and the genes p21/CDKN1A and Myc, which have previously been implicated in NSCLC development, were revealed by a combination of pathway analysis and microarray meta-analysis. These findings suggest that neuroendocrine-related genes, potentially driven through p21/CDKN1A and Myc, are closely linked to whether or not a NSCLC patient will have poor clinical outcome.

  6. Imaging in Colorectal Cancer: Progress and Challenges for the Clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Van Cutsem, Eric; Verheul, Henk M. W.; Flamen, Patrik; Rougier, Philippe; Beets-Tan, Regina; Glynne-Jones, Rob; Seufferlein, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The use of imaging in colorectal cancer (CRC) has significantly evolved over the last twenty years, establishing important roles in surveillance, diagnosis, staging, treatment selection and follow up. The range of modalities has broadened with the development of novel tracer and contrast agents, and the fusion of technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT). Traditionally, the most widely used modality for assessing treatment response in metastasised colon and rectal tumours is CT, combined with use of the RECIST guidelines. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that tumour size does not always adequately correlate with clinical outcomes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a more versatile technique and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI and diffusion-weighted (DW)-MRI may be used to evaluate biological and functional effects of treatment. Integrated fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT combines metabolic and anatomical imaging to improve sensitivity and specificity of tumour detection, and a number of studies have demonstrated improved diagnostic accuracy of this modality in a variety of tumour types, including CRC. These developments have enabled the progression of treatment strategies in rectal cancer and improved the detection of hepatic metastatic disease, yet are not without their limitations. These include technical, economical and logistical challenges, along with a lack of robust evidence for standardisation and formal guidance. In order to successfully apply these novel imaging techniques and utilise their benefit to provide truly personalised cancer care, advances need to be clinically realised in a routine and robust manner. PMID:27589804

  7. Desmoglein 3: A Help or a Hindrance in Cancer Progression?

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise; Wan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Desmoglein 3 is one of seven desmosomal cadherins that mediate cell-cell adhesion in desmosomes. Desmosomes are the intercellular junctional complexes that anchor the intermediate filaments of adjacent cells and confer strong cell adhesion thus are essential in the maintenance of tissue architecture and structural integrity. Like adherens junctions, desmosomes function as tumour suppressors and are down regulated in the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and in tumour cell invasion and metastasis. However, recently several studies have shown that various desmosomal components, including desmoglein 3, are up-regulated in cancer with increased levels of expression correlating with the clinical stage of malignancy, implicating their potentiality to serve as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. Furthermore, in vitro studies have demonstrated that overexpression of desmoglein 3 in cancer cell lines activates several signal pathways that have an impact on cell morphology, adhesion and locomotion. These additional signalling roles of desmoglein 3 may not be associated to its adhesive function in desmosomes but rather function outside of the junctions, acting as a key regulator in the control of actin based cellular processes. This review will discuss recent advances which support the role of desmoglein 3 in cancer progression. PMID:25629808

  8. Tumor-derived exosomes in cancer progression and treatment failure.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaorong; Cao, Haixia; Shen, Bo; Feng, Jifeng

    2015-11-10

    Exosomes have diameter within the range of 30-100 nm and spherical to cup-shaped nanoparticles with specific surface molecular characteristics, such as CD9 and CD63. These vesicles are present in nearly all human body fluids, including blood plasma/serum, saliva, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, semen, and particularly enriched in tumor microenvironment. Exosomes contain multiple proteins, DNA, mRNA, miRNA, long non-coding RNA, and even genetic materials of viruses/prions. These materials are biochemically and functionally distinct and can be transferred to a recipient cell where they regulate protein expression and signaling pathways. Recently, exosomes are demonstrated to have a close relationship with tumor development and metastasis. Exosomes influence therapeutic effect in cancer patients. In this review, we describe the biogenesis, composition, and function of exosomes. The mechanism on how tumor-derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression and clinical treatment failure is also described, with special focus on their potential applications in cancer therapy.

  9. Immunotherapy for Brain Cancer: Recent Progress and Future Promise

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Christopher M.; Lim, Michael; Drake, Charles G.

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy is emerging as the newest pillar of cancer treatment, with the potential to assume a place alongside surgical debulking, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Early experiences with antitumor vaccines demonstrated the feasibility and potential efficacy of this approach, and newer agents, such as immune checkpoint blocking antibodies and modern vaccine platforms, have ushered in a new era. These efforts are headlined by work in melanoma, prostate cancer, and renal cell carcinoma; however, substantial progress has been achieved in a variety of other cancers, including high-grade gliomas. A recurrent theme of this work is that immunotherapy is not a one-size-fits-all solution. Rather, dynamic, tumor-specific interactions within the tumor microenvironment continually shape the immunologic balance between tumor elimination and escape. High-grade gliomas are a particularly fascinating example. These aggressive, universally fatal tumors are highly resistant to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and inevitably recur after surgical resection. Located in the immune-privileged central nervous system, high-grade gliomas also use an array of defenses that serve as direct impediments to immune attack. Despite these challenges, vaccines have shown activity against high-grade gliomas, and anecdotal, preclinical, and early clinical data bolster the notion that durable remission is possible with immunotherapy. Realizing this potential, however, will require an approach tailored to the unique aspects of glioma biology. PMID:24771646

  10. Onco-Golgi: Is Fragmentation a Gate to Cancer Progression?

    PubMed Central

    Petrosyan, Armen

    2015-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus-complex is a highly dynamic organelle which is considered the “heart” of intracellular transportation. Since its discovery by Camillo Golgi in 1873, who described it as the “black reaction,” and despite the enormous volume of publications about Golgi, this apparatus remains one of the most enigmatic of the cytoplasmic organelles. A typical mammalian Golgi consists of a parallel series of flattened, disk-shaped cisternae which align into stacks. The tremendous volume of Golgi-related incoming and outgoing traffic is mediated by different motor proteins, including members of the dynein, kinesin, and myosin families. Yet in spite of the strenuous work it performs, Golgi contrives to maintain its monolithic morphology and orchestration of matrix and residential proteins. However, in response to stress, alcohol, and treatment with many pharmacological drugs over time, Golgi undergoes a kind of disorganization which ranges from mild enlargement to critical scattering. While fragmentation of the Golgi was confirmed in cancer by electron microscopy almost fifty years ago, it is only in recent years that we have begun to understand the significance of Golgi fragmentation in the biology of tumors. Below author would like to focus on how Golgi fragmentation opens the doors for cascades of fatal pathways which may facilitate cancer progression and metastasis. Among the issues addressed will be the most important cancer-specific hallmarks of Golgi fragmentation, including aberrant glycosylation, abnormal expression of the Ras GTPases, dysregulation of kinases, and hyperactivity of myosin motor proteins. PMID:27064441

  11. Recent Progress in Light-Triggered Nanotheranostics for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengcheng; Hu, Chunhua; Ran, Wei; Meng, Jia; Yin, Qi; Li, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Treatments of high specificity are desirable for cancer therapy. Light-triggered nanotheranostics (LTN) mediated cancer therapy could be one such treatment, as they make it possible to visualize and treat the tumor specifically in a light-controlled manner with a single injection. Because of their great potential in cancer therapy, many novel and powerful LTNs have been developed, and are mainly prepared from photosensitizers (PSs) ranging from small organic dyes such as porphyrin- and cyanine-based dyes, semiconducting polymers, to inorganic nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles, transition metal chalcogenides, carbon nanotubes and graphene. Using LTNs and localized irradiation in combination, complete tumor ablation could be achieved in tumor-bearing animal models without causing significant toxicity. Given their great advances and promising future, we herein review LTNs that have been tested in vivo with a highlight on progress that has been made in the past a couple of years. The current challenges faced by these LTNs are also briefly discussed. PMID:27217830

  12. Rb knockdown accelerates bladder cancer progression through E2F3 activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang-Ping; Jiao, Yong; Wang, Cheng-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Bin; Zhang, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed in the world and leads to significant mortality and morbidity among affected patients. The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein is a main tumor suppressor, controlling cellular responses to potentially oncogenic stimulation. E2F3 was invariably disrupted in different human cancers for its central role in the control of cellular proliferation. Here, we investigated how Rb is integrated to control bladder cancer progression through E2F3 and p53 regulation. The results exhibit that Rb expression is lower in patients with bladder tumor, while E2F3 level is high. Rb knockdown enhanced bladder tumor cell proliferation and migration, aggravated with p53 silence. Interestingly, Rb silence results in E2F3, Myc and mTOR signaling pathway activation, contributing to bladder cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis suppression mainly through caspase-3 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Rb is highly expressed in normal bladder cells, but was repressed in tumor tissues of the bladder completely, suggesting a possible role of Rb as a tumor suppressor.

  13. Androgen deprivation modulates gene expression profile along prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Volante, Marco; Tota, Daniele; Giorcelli, Jessica; Bollito, Enrico; Napoli, Francesca; Vatrano, Simona; Buttigliero, Consuelo; Molinaro, Luca; Gontero, Paolo; Porpiglia, Francesco; Tucci, Marcello; Papotti, Mauro; Berruti, Alfredo; Rapa, Ida

    2016-10-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer and initially induces tumor regression, but invariably results in castration-resistant prostate cancer through various mechanisms, incompletely discovered. Our aim was to analyze the dynamic modulation, determined by ADT, of the expression of selected genes involved in the pathogenesis and progression of prostate cancer (TMPRSS2:ERG, WNT11, SPINK1, CHGA, AR, and SPDEF) using real-time polymerase chain reaction in a series of 59 surgical samples of prostate carcinomas, including 37 cases preoperatively treated with ADT and 22 untreated cases, and in 43 corresponding biopsies. The same genes were analyzed in androgen-deprived and control LNCaP cells. Three genes were significantly up-modulated (WNT11 and AR) or down-modulated (SPDEF) in patients treated with ADT versus untreated cases, as well as in androgen-deprived LNCaP cells. The effect of ADT on CHGA gene up-modulation was almost exclusively detected in cases positive for the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. The correlation between biopsy and surgical samples was poor for most of the tested genes. Gene expression analysis of separate tumor areas from the same patient showed an extremely heterogeneous profile in the 6 tested cases (all untreated). In conclusion, our results strengthened the implication of ADT in promoting a prostate cancer aggressive phenotype and identified potential biomarkers, with special reference to the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion, which might favor the development of neuroendocrine differentiation in hormone-treated patients. However, intratumoral heterogeneity limits the use of gene expression analysis as a potential prognostic or predictive biomarker in patients treated with ADT.

  14. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer incidence and progression: A Mendelian randomisation study

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Clair; Davies, Neil M.; Martin, Richard M.; Eeles, Rosalind; Easton, Doug; Kote‐Jarai, Zsofia; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Travis, Ruth C.; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay‐Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Blot, William J.; Thibodeau, Stephen; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon‐Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Pandha, Hardev

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in developed countries, and is a target for risk reduction strategies. The effects of alcohol consumption on prostate cancer incidence and survival remain unclear, potentially due to methodological limitations of observational studies. In this study, we investigated the associations of genetic variants in alcohol‐metabolising genes with prostate cancer incidence and survival. We analysed data from 23,868 men with prostate cancer and 23,051 controls from 25 studies within the international PRACTICAL Consortium. Study‐specific associations of 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 alcohol‐metabolising genes (Alcohol Dehydrogenases (ADHs) and Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs)) with prostate cancer diagnosis and prostate cancer‐specific mortality, by grade, were assessed using logistic and Cox regression models, respectively. The data across the 25 studies were meta‐analysed using fixed‐effect and random‐effects models. We found little evidence that variants in alcohol metabolising genes were associated with prostate cancer diagnosis. Four variants in two genes exceeded the multiple testing threshold for associations with prostate cancer mortality in fixed‐effect meta‐analyses. SNPs within ALDH1A2 associated with prostate cancer mortality were rs1441817 (fixed effects hazard ratio, HRfixed = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (95%CI):0.66,0.91; p values = 0.002); rs12910509, HRfixed = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.003); and rs8041922 (HRfixed = 0.76; 95%CI:0.64,0.91; p values = 0.002). These SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium with each other. In ALDH1B1, rs10973794 (HRfixed = 1.43; 95%CI:1.14,1.79; p values = 0.002) was associated with prostate cancer mortality in men with low‐grade prostate cancer. These results suggest that alcohol consumption is unlikely to affect prostate cancer incidence, but it may influence disease progression. PMID:27643404

  15. Developmental Regulation with Progressive Vision Loss: Use of Control Strategies and Affective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Oliver K.; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Boerner, Kathrin; Horowitz, Amy; Reinhardt, Joann P.; Cimarolli, Verena R.; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Heckhausen, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    The present study addresses older adults' developmental regulation when faced with progressive and irreversible vision loss. We used the motivational theory of life span development as a conceptual framework and examined changes in older adults' striving for control over everyday goal achievement, and their association with affective well-being,…

  16. Tumor inoculation site affects the development of cancer cachexia and muscle wasting.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Tatsuzo; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Okayama, Tetsuya; Oka, Kaname; Adachi, Satoko; Mizushima, Katsura; Kimura, Reiko; Okajima, Manabu; Sakai, Hiromi; Sakamoto, Naoyuki; Katada, Kazuhiro; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Handa, Osamu; Takagi, Tomohisa; Kokura, Satoshi; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-12-01

    The phenotype and severity of cancer cachexia differ among tumor types and metastatic site in individual patients. In this study, we evaluated if differences in tumor microenvironment would affect the development of cancer cachexia in a murine model, and demonstrated that body weight, adipose tissue and gastrocnemius muscle decreased in tumor-bearing mice. Interestingly, a reduction in heart weight was observed in the intraperitoneal tumor group but not in the subcutaneous group. We evaluated 23 circulating cytokines and members of the TGF-β family, and found that levels of IL-6, TNF-α and activin A increased in both groups of tumor-bearing mice. Eotaxin and G-CSF levels in the intraperitoneal tumor group were higher than in the subcutaneous group. Atrogin 1 and MuRF1 mRNA expressions in the gastrocnemius muscle increased significantly in both groups of tumor-bearing mice, however, in the myocardium, expression of these mRNAs increased in the intraperitoneal group but not in subcutaneous group. Based on these results, we believe that differences in microenvironment where tumor cells develop can affect the progression and phenotype of cancer cachexia through alterations in various circulating factors derived from the tumor microenvironment.

  17. LKB1 Inhibits HPV-Associated Cancer Progression by Targeting Cellular Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qinghua; Chen, Jianfeng; Li, Yining; Werle, Kaitlin D.; Zhao, Rui-Xun; Quan, Cheng-Shi; Wang, Yi-Shu; Zhai, Ying-Xian; Wang, Jian-Wei; Youssef, Mariam; Cui, Rutao; Liang, Jiyong; Genovese, Nicholas; Chow, Louise T.; Li, Yu-Lin; Xu, Zhi-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) is mutationally inactivated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and in a variety of cancers including human papillomavirus (HPV)-caused cervical cancer. However, the significance of LKB1 mutations in cervical cancer initiation and progress has not been examined. Herein, we demonstrated that, in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, loss of LKB1 and transduction of HPV16 E6/E7 had an additive effect on constraining cell senescence while promoting cell proliferation and increasing glucose consumption, lactate production, and ATP generation. Knock-down of LKB1 increased and ectopic expression of LKB1 decreased glycolysis, anchorage-independent cell growth, and cell migration and invasion in HPV transformed cells. In the tumorigenesis and lung metastasis model in syngeneic mice, depletion of LKB1 markedly increased tumor metastatic colonies in lungs without affecting subcutaneous tumor growth. We showed that HPV16 E6/E7 enhanced the expression of hexokinase-ll (HK-II) in the glycolytic pathway through elevated c-MYC. Ectopic LKB1 reduced HK-II along with glycolysis. The inverse relationship between HK-II and LKB1 was also observed in normal and HPV-associated cervical lesions. We propose that LKB1 acts as a safeguard against HPV-stimulated aerobic glycolysis and tumor progression. These findings may eventually aid in the development of therapeutic strategy for HPV-associated malignancies by targeting cell metabolism. PMID:27546620

  18. Morphine does not facilitate breast cancer progression in two preclinical mouse models for human invasive lobular and HER2⁺ breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Doornebal, Chris W; Vrijland, Kim; Hau, Cheei-Sing; Coffelt, Seth B; Ciampricotti, Metamia; Jonkers, Jos; de Visser, Karin E; Hollmann, Markus W

    2015-08-01

    Morphine and other opioid analgesics are potent pain-relieving agents routinely used for pain management in patients with cancer. However, these drugs have recently been associated with a worse relapse-free survival in patients with surgical cancer, thus suggesting that morphine adversely affects cancer progression and relapse. In this study, we evaluated the impact of morphine on breast cancer progression, metastatic dissemination, and outgrowth of minimal residual disease. Using preclinical mouse models for metastatic invasive lobular and HER2 breast cancer, we show that analgesic doses of morphine do not affect mammary tumor growth, angiogenesis, and the composition of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Our studies further demonstrate that morphine, administered in the presence or absence of surgery-induced tissue damage, neither facilitates de novo metastatic dissemination nor promotes outgrowth of minimal residual disease after surgery. Together, these findings indicate that opioid analgesics can be used safely for perioperative pain management in patients with cancer and emphasize that current standards of "good clinical practice" should be maintained.

  19. High expression of S100P is associated with unfavorable prognosis and tumor progression in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangyu; Tian, Tian; Li, Xukun; Zhao, Meng; Lou, Yanhui; Qian, Jingfeng; Liu, Zhihua; Chen, Hongyan; Cui, Zhumei

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that S100P is involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of multiple cancers. In the current study, we evaluated the expression of S100P in epithelial ovarian cancer and assessed its relevance to clinicopathological characteristics. Moreover, we investigated the biological effects of S100P using A2780 and SKOV3 cells. S100P expression was significantly increased in epithelial ovarian cancer specimens compared with fallopian tube tissues and normal ovary tissues. And high expression of S100P in epithelial ovarian cancer samples was significantly associated with tumor stage (P<0.001), serum CA125 level (P=0.026), residual tumor (P<0.001), ascites (P<0.001) and lymph nodes metastasis (P<0.001). Multivariate Cox analysis showed that S100P expression was an independent prognostic factor of overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) (P=0.017 and 0.031, respectively). Functional assays showed that overexpression of S100P promoted cell proliferation and cell cycle progression but did not affect cell migration and invasion in A2780 and SKOV3 cells. These data suggest that S100P may contribute to tumor development in epithelial ovarian cancer and could be a useful marker for the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. PMID:26396916

  20. In situ quantification of genomic instability in breast cancer progression

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Chin, Koei; Gray, Joe W.; Lockett, Stephen J.

    2003-05-15

    Genomic instability is a hallmark of breast and other solid cancers. Presumably caused by critical telomere reduction, GI is responsible for providing the genetic diversity required in the multi-step progression of the disease. We have used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and 3D image analysis to quantify genomic instability cell-by-cell in thick, intact tissue sections of normal breast epithelium, preneoplastic lesions (usual ductal hyperplasia), ductal carcinona is situ or invasive carcinoma of the breast. Our in situ-cell by cell-analysis of genomic instability shows an important increase of genomic instability in the transition from hyperplasia to in situ carcinoma, followed by a reduction of instability in invasive carcinoma. This pattern suggests that the transition from hyperplasia to in situ carcinoma corresponds to telomere crisis and invasive carcinoma is a consequence of telomerase reactivation afertelomere crisis.

  1. Molecular genetics of human cancer predisposition and progression.

    PubMed

    Cavenee, W K; Scrable, H J; James, C D

    1991-04-01

    The development of human cancer is generally thought to entail a series of events that cause a progressively more malignant phenotype. Such a hypothesis predicts that tumor cells of the ultimate stage will carry each of the events, cells of the penultimate stage will carry each of the events less the last one and so on. A dissection of the pathway from a normal cell to a fully malignant tumor may thus be viewed as the unraveling of a nested set of aberrations. In experiments designed to elucidate these events we have compared genotypic combinations at genomic loci defined by restriction endonuclease recognition site variation in normal and tumor tissues from patients with various forms and stages of cancer. The first step, inherited predisposition, is best described for retinoblastoma in which a recessive mutation of a locus residing in the 13q14 region of the genome is unmasked by aberrant, but specific, mitotic chromosomal segregation. Similar mechanisms involving the distal short arm of chromosome 17 are apparent in astrocytic tumors and the events are shared by cells in each malignancy state. DNA sequencing indicates that these events accomplish the homozygosis of mutant alleles of the p53 gene. Copy number amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene occurs in intermediate and late-stage tumors whereas loss of heterozygosity for loci on chromosome 10 is restricted to the ultimate stage, glioblastoma multiforme. These results suggest a genetic approach to defining degrees of tumor progression and the locations of genes involved in the pathway as a prelude to their molecular isolation and characterization.

  2. Connexin's Connection in Breast Cancer Growth and Progression

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are cell-to-cell junctions that are located in the basolateral surface of two adjoining cells. A gap junction channel is composed of a family of proteins called connexins. Gap junction channels maintain intercellular communication between two cells through the exchange of ions, small metabolites, and electrical signals. Gap junction channels or connexins are widespread in terms of their expression and function in maintaining the development, differentiation, and homeostasis of vertebrate tissues. Gap junction connexins play a major role in maintaining intercellular communication among different cell types of normal mammary gland for proper development and homeostasis. Connexins have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Differential expression pattern of connexins and their gap junction dependent or independent functions provide pivotal cross talk of breast tumor cells with the surrounding stromal cell in the microenvironment. Substantial research from the last 20 years has accumulated ample evidences that allow us a better understanding of the roles that connexins play in the tumorigenesis of primary breast tumor and its metastatic progression. This review will summarize the knowledge about the connexins and gap junction activities in breast cancer highlighting the differential expression and functional dynamics of connexins in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:27642298

  3. Research progress in the treatment of small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yan-fang; Liu, Zhi-gang; Yang, Wen-juan; Zhao, Yu; Tang, Jiao; Tang, Wei-zhi; Jin, Yi; Li, Fang; Zhong, Rui; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 10-15% of all lung cancers. No significant improvement has been made for patients with SCLC in the past several decades. The main progresses were the thoracic radiation and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) that improved the patient survival rate. For patients with limited disease and good performance status (PS), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by PCI should be considered. For extensive disease, the combination of etoposide and platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard treatment and consolidative thoracic radiotherapy is beneficial for patients who have a significant respond to initial chemotherapy. However, the prognosis still remains poor. Recently, efforts have been focused on molecular targets and immunotherapy. But numerous molecular targets methods have failed to show a significant clinical benefit in patients with SCLC. It is anticipated that further development of research will depend on the on-going trials for molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy which are promising and may improve the outcomes for SCLC in the next decade. PMID:28123595

  4. Stromal response to Hedgehog signaling restrains pancreatic cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Lee, John J; Perera, Rushika M; Wang, Huaijun; Wu, Dai-Chen; Liu, X Shawn; Han, Shiwei; Fitamant, Julien; Jones, Phillip D; Ghanta, Krishna S; Kawano, Sally; Nagle, Julia M; Deshpande, Vikram; Boucher, Yves; Kato, Tomoyo; Chen, James K; Willmann, Jürgen K; Bardeesy, Nabeel; Beachy, Philip A

    2014-07-29

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is the most lethal of common human malignancies, with no truly effective therapies for advanced disease. Preclinical studies have suggested a therapeutic benefit of targeting the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, which is activated throughout the course of PDA progression by expression of Hh ligands in the neoplastic epithelium and paracrine response in the stromal fibroblasts. Clinical trials to test this possibility, however, have yielded disappointing results. To further investigate the role of Hh signaling in the formation of PDA and its precursor lesion, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), we examined the effects of genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of Hh pathway activity in three distinct genetically engineered mouse models and found that Hh pathway inhibition accelerates rather than delays progression of oncogenic Kras-driven disease. Notably, pharmacologic inhibition of Hh pathway activity affected the balance between epithelial and stromal elements, suppressing stromal desmoplasia but also causing accelerated growth of the PanIN epithelium. In striking contrast, pathway activation using a small molecule agonist caused stromal hyperplasia and reduced epithelial proliferation. These results indicate that stromal response to Hh signaling is protective against PDA and that pharmacologic activation of pathway response can slow tumorigenesis. Our results provide evidence for a restraining role of stroma in PDA progression, suggesting an explanation for the failure of Hh inhibitors in clinical trials and pointing to the possibility of a novel type of therapeutic intervention.

  5. Role of proprotein convertases in prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Couture, Frédéric; D'Anjou, François; Desjardins, Roxane; Boudreau, François; Day, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Better understanding of the distinct and redundant functions of the proprotein convertase (PC) enzyme family within pathophysiological states has a great importance for potential therapeutic strategies. In this study, we investigated the functional redundancy of PCs in prostate cancer in the commonly used androgen-sensitive LNCaP and the androgen-independent DU145 human cell lines. Using a lentiviral-based shRNA delivery system, we examined in vitro and in vivo cell proliferation characteristics of knockdown cell lines for the endogenous PCs furin, PACE4, and PC7 in both cell lines. Of the three PCs, only PACE4 was essential to maintain a high-proliferative status, as determined in vitro using XTT proliferation assays and in vivo using tumor xenografts in nude mice. Furin knockdowns in both cell lines had no effects on cell proliferation or tumor xenograft growth. Paradoxically, PC7 knockdowns reduced in vitro cellular proliferation but had no effect in vivo. Because PCs act within secretion pathways, we showed that conditioned media derived from PACE4 knockdown cells had very poor cell growth-stimulating effects in vitro. Immunohistochemistry of PACE4 knockdown tumors revealed reduced Ki67 and higher p27(KIP) levels (proliferation and cell cycle arrest markers, respectively). Interestingly, we determined that the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway was activated in PC7 knockdown tumors only, providing some explanations of the paradoxical effects of PC7 silencing in prostate cancer cell lines. We conclude that PACE4 has a distinct role in maintaining proliferation and tumor progression in prostate cancer and this positions PACE4 as a relevant therapeutic target for this disease.

  6. Emerging of fractal geometry on surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer.

    PubMed

    Dokukin, M E; Guz, N V; Woodworth, C D; Sokolov, I

    2015-03-10

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation.

  7. Emergence of fractal geometry on the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokukin, M. E.; Guz, N. V.; Woodworth, C. D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-03-01

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation.

  8. Exosomes as Novel microRNA-Delivery Vehicles to Modulate Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    specifically packaged in these 40-100 nm microvesicles and secreted from prostate cancer cells are important in the progression to aggressive disease...behavior of aggressive human prostate cancer cell lines in vitro as well as in vivo using mouse xenograft models. 15. SUBJECT TERMS microRNAs, exosomes...microvesicles and secreted from prostate cancer cells are important in the progression to aggressive disease. In this exploratory award, we are

  9. Adipose-derived stems cells and their role in human cancer development, growth, progression, and metastasis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Freese, Kyle E; Kokai, Lauren; Edwards, Robert P; Philips, Brian J; Sheikh, M Aamir; Kelley, Joseph; Comerci, John; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Linkov, Faina

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a well recognized risk factor for several types of cancers, many of which occur solely or disproportionately in women. Adipose tissue is a rich source of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC), which have received attention for their role in cancer behavior. The purpose of this systematic review is to present the existing literature on the role of ASCs in the growth, development, progression, and metastasis of cancer, with an emphasis on malignancies that primarily affect women. To accomplish this goal, the bibliographic database PubMed was systematically searched for articles published between 2001 and 2014 that address ASCs' relationship to human cancer. Thirty-seven articles on ASCs' role in human cancer were reviewed. Literature suggests that ASCs exhibit cancer-promoting properties, influence/are influenced by the tumor microenvironment, promote angiogenesis, and may be associated with pathogenic processes through a variety of mechanisms, such as playing a role in hypoxic tumor microenvironment. ASCs appear to be important contributors to tumor behavior, but research in areas specific to women's cancers, specifically endometrial cancer, is scarce. Also, because obesity continues to be a major health concern, it is important to continue research in this area to improve understanding of the impact adiposity has on cancer incidence.

  10. RAF kinase inhibitor-independent constitutive activation of Yes-associated protein 1 promotes tumor progression in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S E; Lee, J U; Lee, M H; Ryu, M J; Kim, S J; Kim, Y K; Choi, M J; Kim, K S; Kim, J M; Kim, J W; Koh, Y W; Lim, D-S; Jo, Y S; Shong, M

    2013-01-01

    The transcription coactivator Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) is regulated by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. However, the role of YAP1 in thyroid cancer, which is frequently associated with the BRAFV600E mutation, remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the role of YAP1 in thyroid cancer. YAP1 was overexpressed in papillary (PTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer, and nuclear YAP1 was more frequently detected in BRAFV600E (+) PTC. In the thyroid cancer cell lines TPC-1 and HTH7, which do not have the BRAFV600E mutation, YAP1 was cytosolic and inactive at high cell densities. In contrast, YAP1 was retained in the nucleus and its target genes were expressed in the thyroid cancer cells 8505C and K1, which harbor the BRAFV600E mutation, regardless of cell density. Furthermore, the nuclear activation of YAP1 in 8505C was not inhibited by RAF or MEK inhibitor. In vitro experiments, YAP1 silencing or overexpression affected migratory capacities of 8505C and TPC-1 cells. YAP1 knockdown resulted in marked decrease of tumor volume, invasion and distant metastasis in orthotopic tumor xenograft mouse models using the 8505C thyroid cancer cell line. Taken together, YAP1 is involved in the tumor progression of thyroid cancer and YAP1-mediated effects might not be affected by the currently used RAF kinase inhibitors. PMID:23857250

  11. Immune Suppression and Inflammation in the Progression of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    and cancer: back to Virchow? Lancet 2001;357:539-45. 4. Coussens LM, Werb Z. Inflammation and cancer. Nature 2002;420:860-7. 5. Kusmartsev S...Sotomayor EM, Kast WM. Mechanism of immune dysfunction in cancer mediated by immature Gr-1+ myeloid cells. J Immunol 2001;166:5398-406. 40. Kusmartsev S...cancer. Nature 420:860- 867. 5. Kusmartsev , S., and D. I. Gabrilovich. 2002. Immature myeloid cells and cancer- associated immune suppression. Cancer

  12. MUC1 Regulates PDGFA Expression During Pancreatic Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sahraei, Mahnaz; Roy, Lopamudra Das; Curry, Jennifer M; Teresa, Tinder L; Nath, Sritama; Besmer, Dahlia; Kidiyoor, Amritha; Dalia, Ritu; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA) has one of the worst prognoses of all cancers. Mucin 1 (MUC1), a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein, is a key modulator of several signaling pathways that affect oncogenesis, motility, and metastasis. Its expression is known to be associated with poor prognosis in patients. However, the precise mechanism remains elusive. We report a novel association of MUC1 with Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-A (PDGFA). PDGFA is one of the many drivers of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis in PDA. Using mouse PDA models as well as human samples, we show clear evidence that MUC1 regulates the expression and secretion of PDGFA. This, in turn, influences proliferation and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells leading to higher tumor burden in vivo. In addition, we reveal that MUC1 over expressing cells are heavily dependent on PDGFA both for proliferation and invasion while MUC1-null cells are not. Moreover, PDGFA and MUC1 are critical for translocation of βcatenin to the nucleus for oncogenesis to ensue. Finally, we elucidate the underlying mechanism by which MUC1 regulates PDGFA expression and secretion in pancreatic cancer cells. We show that MUC1 associates with Hif1-α, a known transcription factor involved in controlling PDGFA expression. Furthermore, MUC1 facilitates Hif1-α translocation to the nucleus. In summary, we have demonstrated that MUC1-induced invasion and proliferation occurs via increased exogenous production of PDGFA. Thus, impeding MUC1 regulation of PDGFA signaling may be therapeutically beneficial for patients with PDA. PMID:22266848

  13. Discovery of genes from feces correlated with colorectal cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Long; Huang, Chi-Jung; Yang, Shung-Haur; Chang, Chun-Chao; Huang, Chi-Cheng; Chien, Chih-Cheng; Yang, Ruey-Neng

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is considered to develop slowly via a progressive accumulation of genetic mutations. Markers of CRC may serve to provide the basis for decision-making, and may assist in cancer prevention, detection and prognostic prediction. DNA and messenger (m)RNA molecules that are present in human feces faithfully represent CRC manifestations. In the present study, exogenous mouse cells verified the feasibility of total fecal RNA as a marker of CRC. Furthermore, five significant genes encoding solute carrier family 15, member 4 (SLC15A4), cluster of differentiation (CD)44, 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase 1 (OXCT1), placenta-specific 8 (PLAC8) and growth arrest-specific 2 (GAS2), which are differentially expressed in the feces of CRC patients, were verified in different CRC cell lines using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The present study demonstrated that the mRNA level of SLC15A4 was increased in the majority of CRC cell lines evaluated (SW1116, LS123, Caco-2 and T84). An increased level of CD44 mRNA was only detected in an early-stage CRC cell line, SW1116, whereas OXCT1 was expressed at higher levels in the metastatic CRC cell line CC-M3. In addition, two genes, PLAC8 and GAS2, were highly expressed in the recurrent CRC cell line SW620. Genes identified in the feces of CRC patients differed according to their clinical characteristics, and this differential expression was also detected in the corresponding CRC cell lines. In conclusion, feces represent a good marker of CRC and can be interpreted through the appropriate CRC cell lines. PMID:27900008

  14. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Green, Paige A; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-05-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to the basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this article is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists.

  15. Affective science perspectives on cancer control: Strategically crafting a mutually beneficial research agenda

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Rebecca A.; McDonald, Paige Green; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    Cancer control research involves the conduct of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences to reduce cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality, and improve quality of life. Given the importance of behavior in cancer control, fundamental research is necessary to identify psychological mechanisms underlying cancer risk, prevention, and management behaviors. Cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are often emotionally-laden. As such, affective science research to elucidate questions related to basic phenomenological nature of emotion, stress, and mood is necessary to understand how cancer control can be hindered or facilitated by emotional experiences. To date, the intersection of basic affective science research and cancer control remains largely unexplored. The goal of this paper is to outline key questions in the cancer control research domain that provide an ecologically valid context for new affective science discoveries. We also provide examples of ways in which basic affective discoveries could inform future cancer prevention and control research. These examples are not meant to be exhaustive or prescriptive, but instead are offered to generate creative thought about the promise of a cancer research context for answering basic affective science questions. Together, these examples provide a compelling argument for fostering collaborations between affective and cancer control scientists. PMID:25987511

  16. Changes in cellular mechanical properties during onset or progression of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ciasca, Gabriele; Papi, Massimiliano; Minelli, Eleonora; Palmieri, Valentina; De Spirito, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) development represents a multistep process starting with specific mutations that affect proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. These mutations confer a selective growth advantage to colonic epithelial cells that form first dysplastic crypts, and then malignant tumours and metastases. All these steps are accompanied by deep mechanical changes at the cellular and the tissue level. A growing consensus is emerging that such modifications are not merely a by-product of the malignant progression, but they could play a relevant role in the cancer onset and accelerate its progression. In this review, we focus on recent studies investigating the role of the biomechanical signals in the initiation and the development of CRC. We show that mechanical cues might contribute to early phases of the tumour initiation by controlling the Wnt pathway, one of most important regulators of cell proliferation in various systems. We highlight how physical stimuli may be involved in the differentiation of non-invasive cells into metastatic variants and how metastatic cells modify their mechanical properties, both stiffness and adhesion, to survive the mechanical stress associated with intravasation, circulation and extravasation. A deep comprehension of these mechanical modifications may help scientist to define novel molecular targets for the cure of CRC. PMID:27621568

  17. Network Analysis of Breast Cancer Progression and Reversal Using a Tree-Evolving Network Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Ankur P.; Curtis, Ross E.; Kuhn, Irene; Becker-Weimann, Sabine; Bissell, Mina; Xing, Eric P.; Wu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The HMT3522 progression series of human breast cells have been used to discover how tissue architecture, microenvironment and signaling molecules affect breast cell growth and behaviors. However, much remains to be elucidated about malignant and phenotypic reversion behaviors of the HMT3522-T4-2 cells of this series. We employed a “pan-cell-state” strategy, and analyzed jointly microarray profiles obtained from different state-specific cell populations from this progression and reversion model of the breast cells using a tree-lineage multi-network inference algorithm, Treegl. We found that different breast cell states contain distinct gene networks. The network specific to non-malignant HMT3522-S1 cells is dominated by genes involved in normal processes, whereas the T4-2-specific network is enriched with cancer-related genes. The networks specific to various conditions of the reverted T4-2 cells are enriched with pathways suggestive of compensatory effects, consistent with clinical data showing patient resistance to anticancer drugs. We validated the findings using an external dataset, and showed that aberrant expression values of certain hubs in the identified networks are associated with poor clinical outcomes. Thus, analysis of various reversion conditions (including non-reverted) of HMT3522 cells using Treegl can be a good model system to study drug effects on breast cancer. PMID:25057922

  18. Signaling Through the PI 3-K, Akt, and SGK Pathway in Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    ANSI Std. Z39.18 The aggressive behavior of malignant breast cancer is determined by a complex array of signaling pathways that regulate cell...Akt signaling promotes cancer progression. Many of the enzymes that regulate PI 3-K signaling are frequently mutated in human breast cancer , thereby...K, PIK3CA, is the most frequently mutated oncogene in breast cancer . However, recent studies have demonstrated that distinct Akt isoforms can either

  19. The Importance of the PI3K/AKT/MTOR Pathway in the Progression of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dobbin, Zachary C.; Landen, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of death due to cancer in women despite being the tenth in incidence. Unfortunately, the five-year survival rate is only 45%, which has not improved much in the past 30 years. Even though the majority of women have successful initial therapy, the low rate of survival is due to the eventual recurrence and succumbing to their disease. With the recent release of the Cancer Genome Atlas for ovarian cancer, it was shown that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was one of the most frequently mutated or altered pathways in patients’ tumors. Researching how the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway affects the progression and tumorigensis of ovarian cancer will hopefully lead to new therapies that will increase survival for women. This review focuses on recent research on the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and its role in the progression and tumorigensis of ovarian cancer. PMID:23591839

  20. Oxystressed tumor microenvironment potentiates epithelial to mesenchymal transition and alters cellular bioenergetics towards cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Sridaran, Dhivya; Ramamoorthi, Ganesan; MahaboobKhan, Rasool; Kumpati, Premkumar

    2016-10-01

    During tumorigenesis, cancer cells generate complex, unresolved interactions with the surrounding oxystressed cellular milieu called tumor microenvironment (TM) that favors spread of cancer to other body parts. This dissemination of cancer cells from the primary tumor site is the main clinical challenge in cancer treatment. In addition, the significance of enhanced oxidative stress in TM during cancer progression still remains elusive. Thus, the present study was performed to investigate the molecular and cytoskeletal alterations in breast cancer cells associated with oxystressed TM that potentiates metastasis. Our results showed that depending on the extent of oxidative stress in TM, cancer cells exhibited enhanced migration and survival with reduction of chemosensitivity. Corresponding ultrastructural analysis showed radical cytoskeletal modifications that reorganize cell-cell interactions fostering transition of epithelial cells to mesenchymal morphology (EMT) marking metastasis, which was reversed upon antioxidant treatment. Decreased E-cadherin and increased vimentin, Twist1/2 expression corroborated the initiation of EMT in oxystressed TM-influenced cells. Further evaluation of cellular energetics demonstrated significant metabolic reprogramming with inclination towards glucose or external glutamine from TM as energy source depending on the breast cancer cell type. These observations prove the elemental role of oxystressed TM in cancer progression, initiating EMT and metabolic reprogramming. Further cell-type specific metabolomic analysis would unravel the alternate mechanisms in cancer progression for effective therapeutic intervention. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the study and proposed mechanism of oxystressed TM influenced cancer progression. Cancer cells exhibit a close association with tumor microenvironment (TM), and oxystressed TM enhances cancer cell migration and survival and reduces chemosensitivity. Oxystressed TM induces dynamic

  1. Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer? Evaluating Mammary Tumorigenesis and Progression Genetically Hyper-Muscular Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    1-0424 TITLE: Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer ? Evaluating Mammary Tumorigenesis and Progression in...SUBTITLE Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer ? Evaluating Mammary 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Tumorigenesis and Progression in Genetically...activity independently reduce breast cancer . Conversely, obesity and insulin resistance are associated with increased breast cancer incidence

  2. Genomic Analyses of Breast Cancer Progression Reveal Distinct Routes of Metastasis Emergence

    PubMed Central

    Krøigård, Anne Bruun; Larsen, Martin Jakob; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Lænkholm, Anne-Vibeke; Knoop, Ann S.; Jensen, Jeanette Dupont; Bak, Martin; Mollenhauer, Jan; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A.

    2017-01-01

    A main controversy in cancer research is whether metastatic abilities are present in the most advanced clone of the primary tumor or result from independently acquired aberrations in early disseminated cancer cells as suggested by the linear and the parallel progression models, respectively. The genetic concordance between different steps of malignant progression is mostly unexplored as very few studies have included cancer samples separated by both space and time. We applied whole exome sequencing and targeted deep sequencing to 26 successive samples from six patients with metastatic estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Our data provide support for both linear and parallel progression towards metastasis. We report for the first time evidence of metastasis-to-metastasis seeding in breast cancer. Our results point to three distinct routes of metastasis emergence. This may have profound clinical implications and provides substantial novel molecular insights into the timing and mutational evolution of breast cancer metastasis. PMID:28276460

  3. Computational approach for deriving cancer progression roadmaps from static sample data.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yijun; Yao, Jin; Yang, Le; Chen, Runpu; Nowak, Norma J; Goodison, Steve

    2017-01-20

    As with any biological process, cancer development is inherently dynamic. While major efforts continue to catalog the genomic events associated with human cancer, it remains difficult to interpret and extrapolate the accumulating data to provide insights into the dynamic aspects of the disease. Here, we present a computational strategy that enables the construction of a cancer progression model using static tumor sample data. The developed approach overcame many technical limitations of existing methods. Application of the approach to breast cancer data revealed a linear, branching model with two distinct trajectories for malignant progression. The validity of the constructed model was demonstrated in 27 independent breast cancer data sets, and through visualization of the data in the context of disease progression we were able to identify a number of potentially key molecular events in the advance of breast cancer to malignancy.

  4. Genome rearrangement affects RNA virus adaptability on prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pesko, Kendra; Voigt, Emily A; Swick, Adam; Morley, Valerie J; Timm, Collin; Yin, John; Turner, Paul E

    2015-01-01

    Gene order is often highly conserved within taxonomic groups, such that organisms with rearranged genomes tend to be less fit than wild type gene orders, and suggesting natural selection favors genome architectures that maximize fitness. But it is unclear whether rearranged genomes hinder adaptability: capacity to evolutionarily improve in a new environment. Negative-sense non-segmented RNA viruses (order Mononegavirales) have specific genome architecture: 3' UTR - core protein genes - envelope protein genes - RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase gene - 5' UTR. To test how genome architecture affects RNA virus evolution, we examined vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) variants with the nucleocapsid (N) gene moved sequentially downstream in the genome. Because RNA polymerase stuttering in VSV replication causes greater mRNA production in upstream genes, N gene translocation toward the 5' end leads to stepwise decreases in N transcription, viral replication and progeny production, and also impacts the activation of type 1 interferon mediated antiviral responses. We evolved VSV gene-order variants in two prostate cancer cell lines: LNCap cells deficient in innate immune response to viral infection, and PC-3 cells that mount an IFN stimulated anti-viral response to infection. We observed that gene order affects phenotypic adaptability (reproductive growth; viral suppression of immune function), especially on PC-3 cells that strongly select against virus infection. Overall, populations derived from the least-fit ancestor (most-altered N position architecture) adapted fastest, consistent with theory predicting populations with low initial fitness should improve faster in evolutionary time. Also, we observed correlated responses to selection, where viruses improved across both hosts, rather than suffer fitness trade-offs on unselected hosts. Whole genomics revealed multiple mutations in evolved variants, some of which were conserved across selective environments for a given gene

  5. Exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells activate NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijun; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Hui; Yuan, Xiao; Sun, Yaoxiang; Pan, Zhaoji; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2016-09-01

    Exosomes are nano-sized membrane vesicles secreted by both normal and cancer cells. Emerging evidence indicates that cancer cells derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression through the modulation of tumor microenvironment. However, the effects of exosomes derived from gastric cancer cells on macrophages are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the biological role of gastric cancer cells derived exosomes in the activation of macrophages. We demonstrated that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes activated macrophages to express increased levels of proinflammatory factors, which in turn promoted tumor cell proliferation and migration. In addition, gastric cancer cells derived exosomes remarkably upregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB in macrophages. Inhibiting the activation of NF-κB reversed the upregulation of proinflammatory factors in macrophages and blocked their promoting effects on gastric cancer cells. Moreover, we found that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes could also activate macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes through the activation of NF-κB. In conclusion, our results suggest that gastric cancer cells derived exosomes stimulate the activation of NF-κB pathway in macrophages to promote cancer progression, which provides a potential therapeutic approach for gastric cancer by interfering with the interaction between exosomes and macrophages in tumor microenvironment.

  6. The fundamental role of mechanical properties in the progression of cancer disease and inflammation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2014-07-01

    The role of mechanical properties in cancer disease and inflammation is still underinvestigated and even ignored in many oncological and immunological reviews. In particular, eight classical hallmarks of cancer have been proposed, but they still ignore the mechanics behind the processes that facilitate cancer progression. To define the malignant transformation of neoplasms and finally reveal the functional pathway that enables cancer cells to promote cancer progression, these classical hallmarks of cancer require the inclusion of specific mechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix as well as embedded cells such as fibroblasts, macrophages or endothelial cells. Thus, this review will present current cancer research from a biophysical point of view and will therefore focus on novel physical aspects and biophysical methods to investigate the aggressiveness of cancer cells and the process of inflammation. As cancer or immune cells are embedded in a certain microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix, the mechanical properties of this microenvironment cannot be neglected, and alterations of the microenvironment may have an impact on the mechanical properties of the cancer or immune cells. Here, it is highlighted how biophysical approaches, both experimental and theoretical, have an impact on the classical hallmarks of cancer and inflammation. It is even pointed out how these biophysical approaches contribute to the understanding of the regulation of cancer disease and inflammatory responses after tissue injury through physical microenvironmental property sensing mechanisms. The recognized physical signals are transduced into biochemical signaling events that guide cellular responses, such as malignant tumor progression, after the transition of cancer cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype or an inflammatory response due to tissue injury. Moreover, cell adaptation to mechanical alterations, in

  7. T‐cadherin in prostate cancer: relationship with cancer progression, differentiation and drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Dasen, Boris; Vlajnic, Tatjana; Mengus, Chantal; Ruiz, Christian; Bubendorf, Lukas; Spagnoli, Giulio; Wyler, Stephen; Erne, Paul; Resink, Thérèse J

    2016-01-01

    prostate cancer progression and response to therapy. PMID:28138401

  8. Factors that Affect Drain Indwelling Time after Breast Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Uslukaya, Ömer; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Gümüş, Metehan; Bozdağ, Zübeyir; Yılmaz, Ahmet; Gümüş, Hatice; Kaya, Şeyhmus; Gül, Mesut

    2016-01-01

    Objective The most common procedure to prevent seroma formation, a common complication after breast and axillary surgery, is to use prophylactic surgical drains. Ongoing discussions continue regarding the ideal time for removing drains after surgical procedures. In this study, we aimed to investigate factors that affect drain indwelling time (DIT). Materials and Methods From 2014 to 2015, a total of 91 consecutive patients with breast cancer were included in the study. The demographic characteristics of the patients, treatment methods, histopathologic features of the tumor, size of removed breast tissue (BS), tumor size (TS), number of totally removed lymph nodes (TLN), and metastatic lymph nodes (MLN), whether they had neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and the DIT were retrospectively recorded from the hospital database. Results The mean age of the patients was 48.9 years, and the mean DIT was 4.8 days. The mean size of breast removed was 17.3 cm and tumor size was 4.7 cm, and the mean number of metastatic lymph nodes was 3.3, and mean total number of lymph nodes was 14.1. Patients who had neoadjuvant chemotherahpy had longer DIT. There was a positive correlation between the BS, TS, TLN, MLN, length of hospital stay, and DIT. Linear regresion analysis revealed that the BS, TLN, and history of neoadjuvant chemotherahpy were independent risk factors for DIT. Conclusion DIT primarily depends on BS, TLN, and history of neoadjuvant chemotherahpy. A policy for the management of removing drains to prevent seroma formation should thus be individualized.

  9. ELF5-Mediated AR Activation Regulates Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Guo, Yongmin; Yang, Xiong; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Changwen; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The transcription factor E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) is a potent antioncogene that can prevent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis in prostate cancer (PCa). However, little is known how it suppress the tumor growth and if it can interact with androgen receptor (AR). In this study, we find that the ELF5 is frequently expressed in AR activated PCa cells, where it binds to AR acting as a physiological partner and negatively regulates its transcriptional activity. In addition, the interaction between ELF5 and AR is androgen-dependent. Downregulation of ELF5 by shRNA increases the expression of AR-response genes and the progression of PCa. Moreover, ELF5 is a AR-dependent gene that its expression can be induced by androgen and suppressed by antiandrogen treatment. Notably, forced reduction of ELF5 in LNCaP cells facilitates the binding of AR to ARE in ELF5 gene and enabling its transcription, so that low level ELF5 can turn up its own expression by the negative feedback loop. PMID:28287091

  10. c-FOS suppresses ovarian cancer progression by changing adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira-Ferrer, L; Rößler, K; Haustein, V; Schröder, C; Wicklein, D; Maltseva, D; Khaustova, N; Samatov, T; Tonevitsky, A; Mahner, S; Jänicke, F; Schumacher, U; Milde-Langosch, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: C-Fos was initially described as oncogene, but was associated with favourable prognosis in ovarian cancer (OvCa) patients. The molecular and functional aspects underlying this effect are still unknown. Methods: Using stable transfectants of SKOV3 and OVCAR8 cells, proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptotic potential of c-FOS-overexpressing clones and controls were compared. Adherence to components of the extracellular matrix was analysed in static assays, and adhesion to E-selectin, endothelial and mesothelial cells in dynamic flow assays. The effect of c-FOS in vivo was studied after intraperitoneal injection of SKOV3 clones into SCID mice, and changes in gene expression were determined by microarray analysis. Results: Tumour growth after injection into SCID mice was strongly delayed by c-FOS overexpression, with reduction of lung metastases and circulating tumour cells. In vitro, c-FOS had only weak influence on proliferation and migration, but was strongly pro-apoptotic. Adhesion to components of the extracellular matrix (collagen I, IV) and to E-selectin, endothelial and mesothelial cells was significantly reduced in c-FOS-overexpressing OvCa cells. This corresponds to deregulation of adhesion proteins and glycosylation enzymes in microarray analysis. Conclusion: In addition to its known pro-apoptotic effect, c-FOS might influence OvCa progression by changing the adhesion of OvCa cells to peritoneal surfaces. PMID:24322891

  11. ELF5-Mediated AR Activation Regulates Prostate Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Guo, Yongmin; Yang, Xiong; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Changwen; Xu, Yong

    2017-03-13

    The transcription factor E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) is a potent antioncogene that can prevent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis in prostate cancer (PCa). However, little is known how it suppress the tumor growth and if it can interact with androgen receptor (AR). In this study, we find that the ELF5 is frequently expressed in AR activated PCa cells, where it binds to AR acting as a physiological partner and negatively regulates its transcriptional activity. In addition, the interaction between ELF5 and AR is androgen-dependent. Downregulation of ELF5 by shRNA increases the expression of AR-response genes and the progression of PCa. Moreover, ELF5 is a AR-dependent gene that its expression can be induced by androgen and suppressed by antiandrogen treatment. Notably, forced reduction of ELF5 in LNCaP cells facilitates the binding of AR to ARE in ELF5 gene and enabling its transcription, so that low level ELF5 can turn up its own expression by the negative feedback loop.

  12. The lack of predictors for rapid progression in prostate cancer patients receiving sipuleucel-T.

    PubMed

    Ng, Laura; Heck, Wendy; Lavsa, Stacey; Crowther, David; Atkinson, Brad; Xiao, Lianchun; Araujo, John

    2013-05-06

    Sipuleucel-T is an immunotherapy indicated for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. It offers a new mechanism to treat prostate cancer without the side effects of hormone therapies and chemotherapies. In previous studies sipuleucel-T did not delay disease progression, but demonstrated an overall survival benefit compared to placebo. While clinical trials have evaluated the effects of sipuleucel-T on overall survival and progression, more studies are needed to evaluate its effectiveness and role in the management of prostate cancer. The objective of this study is to identify the incidence and possible predictors for disease progression in patients receiving sipuleucel-T. A retrospective review of patients who received sipuleucel-T between 1 September 2010 and 11 October 2011 was conducted (n = 36). Patients who changed therapy or died within 120 days were classified as experiencing rapid progression. Potential predictors of rapid progression were examined using logistic regression. Seven patients met criteria for rapid progression. Progression occurred in 72.2% of all patients. The median days to progression was 158. No significant predictors of rapid progression were identified. Currently no predictors have been found to be associated with rapid progression in prostate cancer patients on sipuleucel-T.

  13. Deficiency of AXL in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Does Not Affect Advanced Atherosclerotic Lesion Progression.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Manikandan; Proto, Jonathan D; Matsushima, Glenn K; Tabas, Ira

    2016-12-13

    AXL, a member of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, MerTK) family of receptors, plays important roles in cell survival, clearance of dead cells (efferocytosis), and suppression of inflammation, which are processes that critically influence atherosclerosis progression. Whereas MerTK deficiency promotes defective efferocytosis, inflammation, and plaque necrosis in advanced murine atherosclerosis, the role of Axl in advanced atherosclerosis progression is not known. Towards this end, bone marrow cells from Axl(-/-) or wild-type mice were transplanted into lethally irradiated Ldlr(-/-) mice. These chimeric mice were then fed the Western-type diet (WD) for 17 weeks. We demonstrate that lesional macrophages in WT mice express Axl but that Axl deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells does not affect lesion size, cellularity, necrosis, or inflammatory parameters in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, apoptosis of lesional cells was unaffected, and we found no evidence of defective lesional efferocytosis. In contrast to previously reported findings with MerTK deficiency, hematopoietic cell-Axl deficiency in WD-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice does not affect the progression of advanced atherosclerosis or lesional processes associated with TAM receptor signaling. These findings suggest a heretofore unappreciated TAM receptor hierarchy in advanced atherosclerosis.

  14. Deficiency of AXL in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Does Not Affect Advanced Atherosclerotic Lesion Progression

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Manikandan; Proto, Jonathan D.; Matsushima, Glenn K.; Tabas, Ira

    2016-01-01

    AXL, a member of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, MerTK) family of receptors, plays important roles in cell survival, clearance of dead cells (efferocytosis), and suppression of inflammation, which are processes that critically influence atherosclerosis progression. Whereas MerTK deficiency promotes defective efferocytosis, inflammation, and plaque necrosis in advanced murine atherosclerosis, the role of Axl in advanced atherosclerosis progression is not known. Towards this end, bone marrow cells from Axl−/− or wild-type mice were transplanted into lethally irradiated Ldlr−/− mice. These chimeric mice were then fed the Western-type diet (WD) for 17 weeks. We demonstrate that lesional macrophages in WT mice express Axl but that Axl deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells does not affect lesion size, cellularity, necrosis, or inflammatory parameters in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Moreover, apoptosis of lesional cells was unaffected, and we found no evidence of defective lesional efferocytosis. In contrast to previously reported findings with MerTK deficiency, hematopoietic cell-Axl deficiency in WD-fed Ldlr−/− mice does not affect the progression of advanced atherosclerosis or lesional processes associated with TAM receptor signaling. These findings suggest a heretofore unappreciated TAM receptor hierarchy in advanced atherosclerosis. PMID:27958361

  15. Intravital imaging reveals new ancillary mechanisms co-opted by cancer cells to drive tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Morghan C.; Timpson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Intravital imaging is providing new insights into the dynamics of tumor progression in native tissues and has started to reveal the layers of complexity found in cancer. Recent advances in intravital imaging have allowed us to look deeper into cancer behavior and to dissect the interactions between tumor cells and the ancillary host niche that promote cancer development. In this review, we provide an insight into the latest advances in cancer biology achieved by intravital imaging, focusing on recently discovered mechanisms by which tumor cells manipulate normal tissue to facilitate disease progression. PMID:27239290

  16. Implication of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL in Head and Neck Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    von Mässenhausen, Anne; Brägelmann, Johannes; Billig, Hannah; Thewes, Britta; Queisser, Angela; Vogel, Wenzel; Kristiansen, Glen; Schröck, Andreas; Bootz, Friedrich; Brossart, Peter; Kirfel, Jutta; Perner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains a clinical challenge and identification of novel therapeutic targets is necessary. The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL has been implicated in several tumor entities and a selective AXL small molecule inhibitor (BGB324) is currently being tested in clinical trials for patients suffering from non-small cell lung cancer or acute myeloid leukemia. Our study investigates AXL expression during HNSCC progression and its use as a potential therapeutic target in HNSCC. AXL protein expression was determined in a HNSCC cohort (n = 364) using immunohistochemical staining. For functional validation, AXL was either overexpressed or inhibited with BGB324 in HNSCC cell lines to assess proliferation, migration and invasion. We found AXL protein expression increasing during tumor progression with highest expression levels in recurrent tumors. In HNSCC cell lines in vitro, AXL overexpression increased migration as well as invasion. Both properties could be reduced through treatment with BGB324. In contrast, proliferation was neither affected by AXL overexpression nor by inhibition with BGB324. Our patient-derived data and in vitro results show that, in HNSCC, AXL is important for the progression to more advanced tumor stages. Moreover, they suggest that AXL could be a target for precision medicine approaches in this dismal tumor entity. PMID:28025482

  17. Stress and depression-induced immune dysfunction: implications for the development and progression of cancer.

    PubMed

    Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Nunes, Sandra Morimoto Vargas

    2005-12-01

    The persistent activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axes in chronic stress response and in depression impairs the immune response and contributes to the development and progression of some types of cancer. This overview presents results from experimental animal models, human studies, and clinical evidence that various cellular and molecular immunological parameters are compromised in chronic stress and depression. At the cellular level, stressed and depressed patients had overall leukocytosis, high concentrations of circulating neutrophils, reduced mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and neutrophil phagocytosis. At the molecular level, high levels of serum basal cortisol, acute phase proteins, specific antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 1 and Epstein Barr virus, plasma concentration of interleukins IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, and a shift in the balance of Th1 and Th2 immune response were observed. Both stress and depression were associated with the decreased cytotoxic T-cell and natural killer cell activities affecting the processes of the immune surveillance of tumours, and the events that modulate the development and the accumulation of somatic mutations and genomic instability. DNA damage, growth and angiogenic factors, proteases, matrix metalloproteinases, and reactive oxygen species were also related to the chronic stress response and depression. Behavioural strategies, psychological, and psychopharmacotherapeutic interventions that enhance effective coping and reduce affective distress showed beneficial effects in cancer patients. A better understanding of the bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems could contribute to novel clinical and treatment strategies in oncology.

  18. The Use of Narrative in Understanding how Cancer Affects Development: The Stories of One Cancer Survivor

    PubMed Central

    LEE, CHRISTINA SUNMI

    2010-01-01

    Although cancer disrupts development, the experience of having cancer is often understood using developmental theories that do not assume serious illness at an early age. This article presents a narrative analysis of one patient’s story of survivorship. She tells three interrelated stories: how others have reacted to her illness; her struggles to understand her illness; and how it has changed her priorities. Taken together, her stories comprise an account of how the experience has affected her development. Her story is an example of how individuals integrate unusual life events into their development. It suggests that focusing more on how unusual life experiences contribute to development may expand and enrich our understanding of developmental processes. PMID:21151860

  19. The Role of Mitochondria in Cancer Induction, Progression and Changes in Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rogalinska, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria play important roles as energetic centers. Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were found in several diseases, including cancers. Studies on cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids) confirm that directed mutation introduced into mtDNA could be a reason for cancer induction. Mitochondria could also be a factor linking cancer transformation and progression. The importance of mitochondria in cancer also confirms their involvement in the resistance to treatment. Resistance to treatment of cancer cells can frequently be a reason for glycolysis acceleration. It could be explained by cancer cells' high proliferation index and high energy request. The involvement of mitochondria in metabolic disturbances of several metabolic diseases, including cancers, was reported. These data confirm that cancer induction, as well as cancer progression, could have metabolic roots. The aberrant products observed in prostate cells involved in the Krebs cycle could promote cancer progression. These multiple relationships between alterations on a genetic level translated into disturbances in cellular metabolism and their potential relation with epigenetic control of gene expression make cancerogenesis more complicated and prognoses' success in studies on cancer etiology more distant in time.

  20. FGF19 Contributes to Tumor Progression in Gastric Cancer by Promoting Migration and Invasion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Zhao, Daqi; Tian, Ruihua; Shi, Hailong; Chen, Xiangming; Liu, Wenzhi; Wei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Since patients are often diagnosed at a late stage, very few effective therapies are left in the arsenal. FGF19, as a hormone, has been reported to promote tumor growth in various types of cancer; however, its function in gastric cancer remains unknown. In the current study, we showed that FGF19 is overexpressed in gastric cancer and is associated with depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis, and TNM stage. In addition, in vitro experiments demonstrated that FGF19 is able to enhance migration and invasion abilities of gastric cancer cells. Given its great potency in gastric cancer progression, FGF19 may be an effective target of treatment for advanced gastric cancer patients.

  1. The role of pleomorphic adenoma gene-like 2 in gastrointestinal cancer development, progression, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Lu, Chong; Song, Yong-Xi; Gao, Peng; Sun, Jing-Xu; Chen, Xiao-Wan; Wang, Mei-Xian; Dong, Yu-Lan; Xu, Hui-Mian; Wang, Zhen-Ning

    2014-01-01

    Numerous previous studies have revealed that pleomorphic adenoma gene-like 2 (PLAGL2) is a transcription factor that is active in cancer progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PLAGL2 in the development, progression and prognosis of gastrointestinal cancer. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PLAGL2 was expressed in gastrointestinal tumors and adjacent normal tissues. The expression of PLAGL2 was significantly higher in 225 colorectal cancer tissues than in 66 adjacent non-tumor tissues (P = 0.037). However, expression was not significantly different between 286 gastric tumors and 57 adjacent non-tumor tissues (P = 0.352). Moreover, the PLAGL2 expression level significantly correlated with the depth of tumor invasion in colorectal cancer (P = 0.030). However, the PLAGL2 expression level significantly correlated with tumor size in gastric cancer (P = 0.046). Furthermore, we performed survival analyses and found that neither higher nor lower PLAGL2 expression was a prognostic factor in gastrointestinal cancer. Our findings indicate that PALGL2 serves as a tumor oncoprotein in the development and progression of colorectal cancer. However, the role of this protein in the development, progression and prognosis of gastric cancer is uncertain. Further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of PLAGL2 activity in gastrointestinal cancer is warranted.

  2. Hippo transducer TAZ promotes epithelial mesenchymal transition and supports pancreatic cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Dacheng; Cui, Jiujie; Xia, Tian; Jia, Zhiliang; Wang, Liang; Wei, Wenfei; Zhu, Anna; Gao, Yong; Xie, Keping; Quan, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional co-activator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ) is a transducer of the Hippo pathway and promotes cancer development and progression. In the present study, we sought to determine the roles and underlying mechanisms of elevated expression and activation of TAZ in pancreatic cancer development and progression. The mechanistic role of TAZ and Hippo signaling in promotion of pancreatic cancer development and progression was examined using cell culture, molecular biology, and mouse models. The relevance of our experimental and mechanistic findings was validated using human pancreatic tumor specimens. We found that TAZ expression was markedly higher in pancreatic tumors than in normal pancreatic tissue. Further analysis of the correlation of TAZ expression with tissue microarray clinicopathologic parameters revealed that this expression was positively associated with tumor differentiation. Also, TAZ expression was higher in pancreatic cancer cell lines than in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. TAZ activation in pancreatic cancer cells promoted their proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that aberrant expression and activation of TAZ in pancreatic cancer cells resulted from suppression of the expression of Merlin, a positive regulator upstream of the Hippo pathway, and that the oncogenic function of TAZ in pancreatic cancer cells was mediated by TEA/ATTS domain transcription factors. Therefore, TAZ functioned as an oncogene and promoted pancreatic cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition and progression. TAZ thus may be a target for effective therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26416426

  3. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2016: Progress and opportunities in reducing racial disparities.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Sauer, Ann Goding; Miller, Kimberly D; Fedewa, Stacey A; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides the estimated number of new cancer cases and deaths for blacks in the United States and the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, screening, and risk factors for cancer. Incidence data are from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and mortality data are from the National Center for Health Statistics. Approximately 189,910 new cases of cancer and 69,410 cancer deaths will occur among blacks in 2016. Although blacks continue to have higher cancer death rates than whites, the disparity has narrowed for all cancers combined in men and women and for lung and prostate cancers in men. In contrast, the racial gap in death rates has widened for breast cancer in women and remained level for colorectal cancer in men. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since the early 1990s translates to the avoidance of more than 300,000 deaths among blacks. In men, incidence rates from 2003 to 2012 decreased for all cancers combined (by 2.0% per year) as well as for the top 3 cancer sites (prostate, lung, and colorectal). In women, overall rates during the corresponding time period remained unchanged, reflecting increasing trends in breast cancer combined with decreasing trends in lung and colorectal cancer rates. Five-year relative survival is lower for blacks than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Progress in reducing cancer death rates could be accelerated by ensuring equitable access to prevention, early detection, and high-quality treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:290-308. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. Inhibition of Breast Cancer Progression by Blocking Heterocellular Contact between Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    between MCF-DCIS cells and human mammary fibroblasts (HMFs) in breast cancer progression by employing a microfluidic -based compartmentalized 3D co-culture platform enabling both contact-free and contact-associated co-cultures.

  5. Kidney cancer progression linked to shifts in tumor metabolism

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators in The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network have uncovered a connection between how tumor cells use energy from metabolic processes and the aggressiveness of the most common form of kidney cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  6. Progress through Collaboration - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the areas of sharing proteomics reagents and protocols and also in regulatory science.

  7. Depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping for early prediction of cancer progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Pham, Hoa V.; LaFace, Justin; Hartman, Douglas J.; Liu, Yang

    2016-03-01

    Effective management of patients who are at risk of developing invasive cancer is a primary challenge in early cancer detection. Techniques that can help establish clear-cut protocols for successful triaging of at-risk patients have the potential of providing critical help in improving patient care while simultaneously reducing patient cost. We have developed such a technique for early prediction of cancer progression that uses unstained tissue sections to provide depth-resolved nanoscale nuclear architecture mapping (nanoNAM) of heterogeneity in optical density alterations manifested in precancerous lesions during cancer progression. We present nanoNAM and its application to predicting cancer progression in a well-established mouse model of spontaneous carcinogenesis: ApcMin/+ mice.

  8. Immune Suppression and Inflammation in the Progression of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    420:860. 5. Kusmartsev , S., and D. I. Gabrilovich. 2002. Immature myeloid cells and cancer- associated immune suppression. Cancer Immunol Immunother 51...166:5398. 20. Kusmartsev , S. A., Y. Li, and S. H. Chen. 2000. Gr-1+ myeloid cells derived from tumor-bearing mice inhibit primary T cell activation...Chronic inflammation and cancer. On- cology 16: 217–226. 4. Coussens, L. M., and Z. Werb. 2002. Inflammation and cancer. Nature 420: 860–867. 5. Kusmartsev

  9. Adhesion-Linked Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Morphogenesis and Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0496 TITLE: Adhesion-linked Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Morphogenesis and Breast Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL...Adhesion-linked Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, DAMD17-03-1-0496 Morphogenesis and Breast Cancer Progression 6. AUTHOR(S) Valerie M. Weaver, Ph.D. 7...we identified the Band 4.1 PTPs MEG1 and D1 as two candidate PTP metastasis suppressors. Our studies show that during MEC differentiation PTP MEG1

  10. Adhesion-Linked Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases, Morphogenesis and Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Phosphatases, Morphogenesis and Breast Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Valerie M. Weaver Ph.D. CONTRACTING... Cancer Progression 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0496 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Valerie M. Weaver Ph.D. 5e...tissue and identified the Band 4.1 PTPs MEG1 and D1 as candidate PTP metastasis suppressor genes. We demonstrated that MEG1 and D1 expression rise

  11. Identification and Targeting of Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Initiation, Progression, and Metastasis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Prostate Cancer Initiation, Progression, and Metastasis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Justin Drake CONTRACTING...PROJECT NUMBER Justin Drake and Owen Witte 5e. TASK NUMBER Email: jdrake@mednet.ucla.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...of tyrosine kinase networks during prostate cancer progression Justin M. Drakea, Nicholas A. Grahamb,c, Tanya Stoyanovaa, Amir Sedghia, Andrew S

  12. PACE Continuous Innovation Indicators-a novel tool to measure progress in cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Silvia; Brum, Lauren; Sorrow, Kathleen; Thomas, Samuel; Spence, Susan; Maulbecker-Armstrong, Catharina; Goodman, Clifford; Peake, Michael; McVie, Gordon; Geipel, Gary; Li, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about rising health care costs and the often incremental nature of improvements in health outcomes continue to fuel intense debates about 'progress' and 'value' in cancer research. In times of tightening fiscal constraints, it is increasingly important for patients and their representatives to define what constitutes 'value' to them. It is clear that diverse stakeholders have different priorities. Harmonisation of values may be neither possible nor desirable. Stakeholders lack tools to visualise or otherwise express these differences and to track progress in cancer treatments based on variable sets of values. The Patient Access to Cancer care Excellence (PACE) Continuous Innovation Indicators are novel, scientifically rigorous progress trackers that employ a three-step process to quantify progress in cancer treatments: 1) mine the literature to determine the strength of the evidence supporting each treatment; 2) allow users to weight the analysis according to their priorities and values; and 3) calculate Evidence Scores (E-Scores), a novel measure to track progress, based on the strength of the evidence weighted by the assigned value. We herein introduce a novel, flexible value model, show how the values from the model can be used to weight the evidence from the scientific literature to obtain E-Scores, and illustrate how assigning different values to new treatments influences the E-Scores. The Indicators allow users to learn how differing values lead to differing assessments of progress in cancer research and to check whether current incentives for innovation are aligned with their value model. By comparing E-Scores generated by this tool, users are able to visualise the relative pace of innovation across areas of cancer research and how stepwise innovation can contribute to substantial progress against cancer over time. Learning from experience and mapping current unmet needs will help to support a broad audience of stakeholders in their efforts to

  13. Prostate Cancer Progression and Serum Sibling (Small Integrin Binding N-Linked Glycoprotein) Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    treatment ; and to establish serum-based measurements which maximize sensitivity and specificity of SIBLINGs as markers for prostate cancer detection as...well as for prostate cancer progression and response to treatment . Although the laboratory is still blinded to staging and progression data at this...significant financial costs and mental stress. In addition both DRE and PSA can’t detect early tumors and are sometimes uninformative in terms of predicting

  14. Evaluating Progress in Radon Control Activities for Lung Cancer Prevention in National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans, 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Acree, Pascal; Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio

    2017-04-04

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer among smokers and the leading cause among nonsmokers. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) funds every state, seven tribes, seven territories and the District of Columbia to develop formal cancer plans that focus efforts in cancer control. A 2010 review of cancer plans identified radon-related activities in 27 (42%) plans. Since then, 37 coalitions have updated their plans with new or revised cancer control objectives. There has also been recent efforts to increase awareness about radon among cancer coalitions. This study assesses NCCCP grantees current radon activities and changes since the 2010 review. We reviewed all 65 NCCCP grantee cancer plans created from 2005 to 2015 for radon related search terms and categorized plans by radon activities. The program's most recent annual progress report to CDC was also reviewed. We then compared the results from the updated plans with the findings from the 2010 review to assess changes in radon activities among cancer coalitions. Changes in state radon laws between 2010 and 2015 were also assessed. While a number of cancer plans have added or expanded radon-specific activities since 2010, approximately one-third of NCCCP grantees still do not include radon in their cancer plans. Cancer programs can consider addressing radon through partnership with existing radon control programs to further reduce the risk of lung cancer, especially among non-smokers.

  15. Genetic factors affecting patient responses to pancreatic cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fotopoulos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the exocrine pancreas is a malignancy with a high lethal rate. Surgical resection is the only possible curative mode of treatment. Metastatic pancreatic cancer is incurable with modest results from the current treatment options. New genomic information could prove treatment efficacy. An independent review of PubMed and ScienceDirect databases was performed up to March 2016, using combinations of terms such pancreatic exocrine cancer, chemotherapy, genomic profile, pancreatic cancer pharmacogenomics, genomics, molecular pancreatic pathogenesis, and targeted therapy. Recent genetic studies have identified new markers and therapeutic targets. Our current knowledge of pancreatic cancer genetics must be further advanced to elucidate the molecular basis and pathogenesis of the disease, improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and guide tailor-made therapies. PMID:27708512

  16. Altered glycometabolism affects both clinical features and prognosis of triple-negative and neoadjuvant chemotherapy-treated breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dong, Tieying; Kang, Xinmei; Liu, Zhaoliang; Zhao, Shu; Ma, Wenjie; Xuan, Qijia; Liu, Hang; Wang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Qingyuan

    2016-06-01

    Glycometabolism is a distinctive aspect of energy metabolism in breast cancer, and key glycometabolism enzymes/pathways (glycolysis, hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, and pentose phosphate pathway) may directly or indirectly affect the clinical features. In this study, we analyzed the particular correlation between the altered glycometabolism and clinical features of breast cancer to instruct research and clinical treatment. Tissue microarrays containing 189 hollow needle aspiration samples and 295 triple-negative breast cancer tissues were used to test the expression of M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and p53 by immunohistochemistry and the intensity of these glycometabolism-related protein was evaluated. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and Cox proportional hazards model were used to analyze the relationship between the expression of these factors and major clinical features. PKM2, GFPT1, and G6PD affect the pathologic complete response rate of neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients in different ways; pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 2 (PKM2) and G6PD are closely associated with the molecular subtypes, whereas GFPT1 is correlated with cancer size. All these three factors as well as p53 have impacts on the progression-free survival and overall survival of triple-negative breast cancer patients. Cancer size shows significant association with PKM2 and GFPT1 expression, while the pN stage and grade are associated with PKM2 and G6PD expression. Our study support that clinical characteristics are reflections of specific glycometabolism pathways, so their relationships may shed light on the orientation of research or clinical treatment. The expression of PKM2, GFPT1, and G6PD are hazardous factors for prognosis: high expression of these proteins predict worse progression-free survival and overall survival in triple-negative breast cancer, as well as worse pathologic

  17. Molecular regulation of galectin-3 expression and therapeutic implication in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Guo, Xiu-Li

    2016-03-01

    Galectin-3, a multifunctional protein, distributes inside and outside cells and plays an important role in tumor cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in multiple tumors. Changes in galectin-3 expression are commonly seen in cancer and pre-cancerous conditions. Therefore, to understand the molecular regulation of galectin-3 expression could aid the development of new approach for cancer treatment. This review summarizes different expression of galectin-3 in cancer cells and patients' serum, the regulation mechanism and the potential therapeutic targets of galectin-3 in cancer progression.

  18. Epigenetic modifications, chromatin distribution and TP53 transcription in a model of breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gilson C; da Silva, Ana P A; Feldman, Lucas; Ventura, Grasiella M; Vassetzky, Yegor; de Moura Gallo, Claudia V

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper we aimed to characterize epigenetic aspects and analyze TP53 transcription in the 21 T series, composed of breast cell lines: non-cancerous H16N2; Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia 21PT; Ductal Carcinoma in situ 21NT and Invasive Metastatic Carcinoma 21MT1. We detected a global genomic hypomethylation in 21NT and 21MT1. The histone modification markers analysis showed an important global decrease of the active chromatin mark H4Ac in 21MT1 relative to the other cell lines while the repressive mark H3K9Me3 were not significantly altered. The mRNA levels of DNA methylation and histone modification key enzymes are consistent with the observed genomic hypomethylation and histone hypoacetylation. The expression of DNMT3A/B increased at the initial stages of oncogenesis and the expression of DNMT1 and HAT1 decreased at the advanced stages of breast cancer. Using a confocal immunofluorescent assay, we observed that H4Ac was mostly located at the periphery and the repressive mark H3K9Me3, at the center of 21NT and 21MT1 cells nuclei. TP53 P1 promoter was found to be in an open chromatin state, with a relatively high enrichment of H4Ac and similar TP53 transcription levels in all 21 T cell lines. In conclusion, we observed epigenetic alterations (global genome hypomethylation, global hypoacetylation and accumulation of pericentric heterochromatin) in metastatic breast cancer cells of the 21 T series. These alterations may act at later stages of breast cancer progression and may not affect TP53 transcription at the P1 promoter.

  19. EMT in cervical cancer: its role in tumour progression and response to therapy.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Rehana; Arora, Himanshu; Rizvi, M A

    2015-01-28

    The prognosis of cervical patients significantly decreases as the cancer metastasizes to other parts of the body. The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in cervical cancer progression and metastasis. Recurrence is the primary cause of the increased number of deaths due to cervical cancer. Oncogenes, such as AEG1, Sam-68, FTS and miR-361-5p, induce EMT in cervical cancer. Tumour suppressors, such as LMX-1, SFRP1, klotho, and miR-155, suppress EMT in cervical cancer. Factors such as hypoxia, the radiation dose, cytokines, proteins, transcription factors, and signalling pathways also play an important role in the induction, progression and maintenance of EMT in cervical cancer. Overall, this review describes a wide range of factors with potential roles in EMT that have been identified to date, and this information could be important for the development of new and more effective therapeutics that ameliorate the negative impact of cervical pathogenesis via EMT.

  20. Regulation of miRNAs Affects Radiobiological Response of Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan-mei; Liao, Xing-yun; Chen, Xie-wan; Li, De-zhi; Sun, Jian-guo; Liao, Rong-xia

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is a key therapeutic strategy for lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, but radioresistance often occurs and leads to failure of RT. It is therefore important to clarify the mechanism underlying radioresistance in lung cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered the fundamental reason for radioresistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been regarded as important regulatory molecules of CSCs, carcinogenesis, and treatment response of cancers. It is crucial to clarify how regulation of miRNAs affects repair of DNA damage, redistribution, repopulation, reoxygenation, and radiosensitivity (5R) of lung cancer stem cells (LCSCs). A thorough understanding of the regulation of miRNAs affecting 5R of LCSCs has potential impact on identifying novel targets and thus may improve the efficacy of lung cancer radiotherapy. PMID:25815339

  1. Wnt/beta-Catenin, Foxa2, and CXCR4 Axis Controls Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Axis Controls Prostate Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xiuping Yu CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Vanderbilt University...COVERED 01 July 2013 - 30 June 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Wnt/beta-Catenin, Foxa2, and CXCR4 axis controls prostate cancer ...development of castration resistant prostate cancer . Our previous studies have shown that Foxa2 is a Wnt/beta-catenin target gene in prostates. Our

  2. PDCD6 is an independent predictor of progression free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Programmed cell death 6 (PDCD6) beside its known proapoptotic functions may be a player in survival pathways in cancer. The purpose of this study is to further explore the roles of PDCD6 in epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods Lentiviral vector with shRNA for PDCD6 was used to investigate the effects of PDCD6 knockdown on cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis and motility in ovarian cancer cells. Two hundred twelve epithelial ovarian cancer tissues were analyzed for mRNA expression of PDCD6 using RT-PCR. Associations of its expression with clinical pathological factors, progression free and overall survival were evaluated. Results PDCD6 is highly expressed in metastatic ovarian cancer cells and positively regulates cell migration and invasion. Significantly, the level of PDCD6 expression in epithelial ovarian cancer correlates with clinical progression. Patients with medium or high levels of PDCD6 mRNA were at higher risk for disease progression, compared to those with low levels (HR, 1.29; P = 0.024 for medium levels; and HR, 1.57; P = 0.045 for high levels) after adjusting for age, disease stage, tumor grade, histologic type and residual tumor size. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated similar results. However, no association was found between PDCD6 expression and overall survival. Conclusions PDCD6 seems to play an important role in ovarian cancer progression and it may be an independent predictor of progression free survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. Further studies are needed to more completely elucidate the molecular mechanisms of PDCD6 involve in ovarian cancer progression. PMID:22369209

  3. Ezrin contributes to cervical cancer progression through induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Kong, Jienan; Di, Chunchan; Piao, Junjie; Sun, Jie; Han, Longzhe; Chen, Liyan; Yan, Guanghai; Lin, Zhenhua

    2016-04-12

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in females worldwide. The treatment options for advanced cervical cancer are limited, leading to high mortality. Ezrin is a membrane-cytoskeleton-binding protein recently reported to act as a tumor promoter, and we previously indicated that the aberrant localization and overexpression of Ezrin could be an independent effective biomarker for prognostic evaluation of cervical cancers. In this study, we identified Ezrin as a regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis in cervical cancer. Ezrin knock-down inhibited anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, and invasion of cervical cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. EMT was inhibited in Ezrin-depleted cells, with up-regulation of E-cadherin and Cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) and down-regulation of mesenchymal markers. Ezrin knock-down also induced Akt phosphorylation. These results implicate Ezrin as an EMT regulator and tumor promoter in cervical cancer, and down-regulation of Ezrin suppressed cervical cancer progression, possibly via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway. Furthermore, the expression pattern of Ezrin protein was closely related with the lymphovascular invasion status of cervical cancer by immunohistochemistry, and the survival analysis revealed that the cervical cancer patients with the perinuclear Ezrin expression pattern had longer survival time than those with the cytoplasmic Ezrin expression pattern. Ezrin thus represents a promising target for the development of novel and effective strategies aimed at preventing the progression of cervical cancer.

  4. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have opposing roles in breast cancer progression and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qunyuan; Ye, Jian; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yanping; Hunborg, Pamela; Varvares, Mark A.; Hoft, Daniel F.; Hsueh, Eddy C.; Peng, Guangyong

    2015-01-01

    The Cancer Immunoediting concept has provided critical insights suggesting dual functions of immune system during the cancer initiation and development. However, the dynamics and roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the pathogenesis of breast cancer remain unclear. Here we utilized two murine breast cancer models (4T1 and E0771) and demonstrated that both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were increased and involved in immune responses, but with distinct dynamic trends in breast cancer development. In addition to cell number increases, CD4+ T cells changed their dominant subsets from Th1 in the early stages to Treg and Th17 cells in the late stages of the cancer progression. We also analyzed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell infiltration in primary breast cancer tissues from cancer patients. We observed that CD8+ T cells are the key effector cell population mediating effective anti-tumor immunity resulting in better clinical outcomes. In contrast, intra-tumoral CD4+ T cells have negative prognostic effects on breast cancer patient outcomes. These studies indicate that CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have opposing roles in breast cancer progression and outcomes, which provides new insights relevant for the development of effective cancer immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:25968569

  5. Efficacy and Factors Affecting Outcome of Gemcitabine Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, P.-I.; Chao, Yee; Li, C.-P.; Lee, R.-C.; Chi, K.-H.; Shiau, C.-Y.; Wang, L.-W.; Yen, S.-H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and prognostic factors of gemcitabine (GEM) concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 2002 and December 2005, 55 patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer treated with GEM (400 mg/m{sup 2}/wk) concurrently with radiotherapy (median dose, 50.4 Gy; range, 26-61.2) at Taipei Veterans General Hospital were enrolled. GEM (1,000 mg/m{sup 2}) was continued after CCRT as maintenance therapy once weekly for 3 weeks and repeated every 4 weeks. The response, survival, toxicity, and prognostic factors were evaluated. Results: With a median follow-up of 10.8 months, the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 52% and 19%, respectively. The median overall survival (OS) and median time to progression (TTP) was 12.4 and 5.9 months, respectively. The response rate was 42% (2 complete responses and 21 partial responses). The major Grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (22%) and anorexia (19%). The median OS and TTP was 15.8 and 9.5 months in the GEM CCRT responders compared with 7.5 and 3.5 months in the nonresponders, respectively (both p < 0.001). The responders had a better Karnofsky performance status (KPS) (86 {+-} 2 vs. 77 {+-} 2, p = 0.002) and had received a greater GEM dose intensity (347 {+-} 13 mg/m{sup 2}/wk vs. 296 {+-} 15 mg/m{sup 2}/wk, p = 0.02) than the nonresponders. KPS and serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were the most significant prognostic factors of OS and TTP. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that GEM CCRT is effective and tolerable for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. The KPS and GEM dose correlated with response. Also, the KPS and CA 19-9 level were the most important factors affecting OS and TTP.

  6. Annexin II-Dependent Mechanism of Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    carcinoma patients [13]. The p roliferative ef fects o f TA M w ere d emonstrated in vivo in mice with mammary cancer . The macrophage colony...associated macrophages . Crit Rev Oncol/Hematol 2008; 66 (1): 1-9. [5] Pollard JW. Macrophages define the invasive microenvironment in breast cancer . J...related inflammation: the macrophage connection. Cancer Lett 2008; 267 (2): 204-15. [9] Lin E Y, Pollard JW . T umor-associated m acrophages p ress

  7. The Role of SF2 in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    polymorphism. Cancer Lett 1995;93:165–70. 3. Rojas P, Benavides F, Blando J, et al. Enhanced skin carcinogenesis and lack of thymus hyperplasia in transgenic...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0239 TITLE: The Role of SF2 in Prostate Cancer ...REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 April 2010 – 31 March 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Role of SF2 in Prostate Cancer

  8. Identification and Function of Ets Target Genes Involved in Lung Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Progression and Metastasis”. Jun Li1, Julian Carretero2, Carl J O’Hara3, Anne Hinds1, Guetchyn Millien1, Mary C...Primary Adenocarcinoma in Lung” Anita Malek , MD; Hasmeena Kathuria, MD; and Carl O’Hara, MD 12 Conclusions In this progress report, we...Expression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Progression and Metastasis Jun Li1, Julian Carretero2, Carl J O’Hara3, Anne Hinds1, Guetchyn Millien1

  9. Antioxidant Activity during Tumor Progression: A Necessity for the Survival of Cancer Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Hawk, Mark A.; McCallister, Chelsea; Schafer, Zachary T.

    2016-01-01

    Antioxidant defenses encompass a variety of distinct compounds and enzymes that are linked together through their capacity to neutralize and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the relationship between ROS and tumorigenesis is clearly complex and context dependent, a number of recent studies have suggested that neutralizing ROS can facilitate tumor progression and metastasis in multiple cancer types through distinct mechanisms. These studies therefore infer that antioxidant activity may be necessary to support the viability and/or the invasive capacity of cancer cells during tumor progression and metastasis. Here, we discuss some of the accumulating evidence suggesting a role for antioxidant activity in facilitating tumor progression. PMID:27754368

  10. Obesity-associated NLRC4 inflammasome activation drives breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Ryan; Phan, Liem; Borcherding, Nicholas; Liu, Yinghong; Yuan, Fang; Janowski, Ann M.; Xie, Qing; Markan, Kathleen R.; Li, Wei; Potthoff, Matthew J.; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Ellies, Lesley G.; Knudson, C. Michael; Lee, Mong-Hong; Yeung, Sai-Ching J.; Cassel, Suzanne L.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Zhang, Weizhou

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer and is also associated with worse clinical prognosis. The mechanistic link between obesity and breast cancer progression remains unclear, and there has been no development of specific treatments to improve the outcome of obese cancer patients. Here we show that obesity-associated NLRC4 inflammasome activation/ interleukin (IL)-1 signalling promotes breast cancer progression. The tumour microenvironment in the context of obesity induces an increase in tumour-infiltrating myeloid cells with an activated NLRC4 inflammasome that in turn activates IL-1β, which drives disease progression through adipocyte-mediated vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression and angiogenesis. Further studies show that treatment of mice with metformin inhibits obesity-associated tumour progression associated with a marked decrease in angiogenesis. This report provides a causal mechanism by which obesity promotes breast cancer progression and lays out a foundation to block NLRC4 inflammasome activation or IL-1β signalling transduction that may be useful for the treatment of obese cancer patients. PMID:27708283

  11. Complex role for the immune system in initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Inman, Kristin S; Francis, Amanda A; Murray, Nicole R

    2014-08-28

    The immune system plays a complex role in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Inflammation can promote the formation of premalignant lesions and accelerate pancreatic cancer development. Conversely, pancreatic cancer is characterized by an immunosuppressive environment, which is thought to promote tumor progression and invasion. Here we review the current literature describing the role of the immune response in the progressive development of pancreatic cancer, with a focus on the mechanisms that drive recruitment and activation of immune cells at the tumor site, and our current understanding of the function of the immune cell types at the tumor. Recent clinical and preclinical data are reviewed, detailing the involvement of the immune response in pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, including the role of specific cytokines and implications for disease outcome. Acute pancreatitis is characterized by a predominantly innate immune response, while chronic pancreatitis elicits an immune response that involves both innate and adaptive immune cells, and often results in profound systemic immune-suppression. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by marked immune dysfunction driven by immunosuppressive cell types, tumor-promoting immune cells, and defective or absent inflammatory cells. Recent studies reveal that immune cells interact with cancer stem cells and tumor stromal cells, and these interactions have an impact on development and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Finally, current PDAC therapies are reviewed and the potential for harnessing the actions of the immune response to assist in targeting pancreatic cancer using immunotherapy is discussed.

  12. Tight Junctions: A Barrier to the Initiation and Progression of Breast Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Kieran; Offiah, Gozie; McSherry, Elaine A.; Hopkins, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease that arises from epithelial cells lining the breast ducts and lobules. Correct adhesion between adjacent epithelial cells is important in determining the normal structure and function of epithelial tissues, and there is accumulating evidence that dysregulated cell-cell adhesion is associated with many cancers. This review will focus on one cell-cell adhesion complex, the tight junction (TJ), and summarize recent evidence that TJs may participate in breast cancer development or progression. We will first outline the protein composition of TJs and discuss the functions of the TJ complex. Secondly we will examine how alterations in these functions might facilitate breast cancer initiation or progression; by focussing on the regulatory influence of TJs on cell polarity, cell fate and cell migration. Finally we will outline how pharmacological targeting of TJ proteins may be useful in limiting breast cancer progression. Overall we hope to illustrate that the relationship between TJ alterations and breast cancer is a complex one; but that this area offers promise in uncovering fundamental mechanisms linked to breast cancer progression. PMID:19920867

  13. Complex role for the immune system in initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inman, Kristin S; Francis, Amanda A; Murray, Nicole R

    2014-01-01

    The immune system plays a complex role in the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Inflammation can promote the formation of premalignant lesions and accelerate pancreatic cancer development. Conversely, pancreatic cancer is characterized by an immunosuppressive environment, which is thought to promote tumor progression and invasion. Here we review the current literature describing the role of the immune response in the progressive development of pancreatic cancer, with a focus on the mechanisms that drive recruitment and activation of immune cells at the tumor site, and our current understanding of the function of the immune cell types at the tumor. Recent clinical and preclinical data are reviewed, detailing the involvement of the immune response in pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, including the role of specific cytokines and implications for disease outcome. Acute pancreatitis is characterized by a predominantly innate immune response, while chronic pancreatitis elicits an immune response that involves both innate and adaptive immune cells, and often results in profound systemic immune-suppression. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by marked immune dysfunction driven by immunosuppressive cell types, tumor-promoting immune cells, and defective or absent inflammatory cells. Recent studies reveal that immune cells interact with cancer stem cells and tumor stromal cells, and these interactions have an impact on development and progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Finally, current PDAC therapies are reviewed and the potential for harnessing the actions of the immune response to assist in targeting pancreatic cancer using immunotherapy is discussed. PMID:25170202

  14. Lobaplatin arrests cell cycle progression, induces apoptosis and alters the proteome in human cervical cancer cell Line CaSki.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoqin; Ran, Li; Fang, Wen; Wang, Donghong

    2014-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecologic tumors. There is an upward trend in the incidence. The objective of this research was to explore the effect of lobaplatin on cervical cancer CaSki cells proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis and analysis of the differential expressed proteins of CaSki cells after exposed to lobaplatin. Our findings have shown that lobaplatin inhibits cell proliferations in human cervical cancer CaSki cells in dose- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry assay confirmed that lobaplatin affected cervical cancer cell survival by blocking cell cycle progression in S phase and G0/G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manner. Lobaplatin treatment reduced polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 2, ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase, hypothetical protein, terminal uridylyltransferase 7, ubiquitin specific protease 16 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 expression and increase zinc finger protein 91, zinc finger protein, C-X-C motif chemokine 10 precursor, stromal cell protein and laminin subunit alpha-4 expression. Some of the differentially expressed proteins may be associated with antitumor effect of lobaplatin. Lobaplatin showed a good antitumour activity in in vitro models of human cervical cancer cells. These results indicate that lobaplatin could be an effective chemotherapeutic agent in human cervical cancer treatment by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and changing many kinds of protein molecule expression level.

  15. Clinical Cancer Advances 2017: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer From the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Harold J; Krilov, Lada; Aragon-Ching, Jeanny B; Baxter, Nancy N; Chiorean, E Gabriela; Chow, Warren Allen; De Groot, John Frederick; Devine, Steven Michael; DuBois, Steven G; El-Deiry, Wafik S; Epstein, Andrew S; Heymach, John; Jones, Joshua Adam; Mayer, Deborah K; Miksad, Rebecca A; Pennell, Nathan A; Sabel, Michael S; Schilsky, Richard L; Schuchter, Lynn Mara; Tung, Nadine; Winkfield, Karen Marie; Wirth, Lori J; Dizon, Don S

    2017-02-01

    A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT I am pleased to present Clinical Cancer Advances 2017, which highlights the most promising advances in patient-oriented cancer research over the past year. The report gives us an opportunity to reflect on what an exciting time it is for cancer research and how swiftly our understanding of cancer has improved. One year ago, the White House announced the national Cancer Moonshot program to accelerate progress against cancer. This shared vision of progress has reinvigorated the research community, identified new areas of scientific collaboration, and raised our ambitions regarding what may be possible beyond the progress we have already made. When I entered the field 35 years ago, I could not have imagined where we would be today. We can now detect cancer earlier, target treatments more effectively, and manage adverse effects more effectively to enable patients to live better, more fulfilling lives. Today, two of three people with cancer live at least 5 years after diagnosis, up from roughly one of two in the 1970s. This progress has resulted from decades of incremental advances that have collectively expanded our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of cancer. There is no better current example of this than ASCO's 2017 Advance of the Year: Immunotherapy 2.0. Over the last year, there has been a wave of new successes with immunotherapy. Research has proven this approach can be effective against a wide range of hard-to-treat advanced cancers previously considered intractable. Researchers are now working to identify biologic markers that can help increase the effectiveness of treatment and determine who is most likely to benefit from immunotherapy. This knowledge will enable oncologists to make evidence-based decisions so as many patients as possible might benefit from this new type of treatment. Each successive advance builds on the previous hard work of generations of basic, translational, and clinical cancer researchers

  16. Factors affecting the association of oral contraceptives and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cramer, D W; Hutchison, G B; Welch, W R; Scully, R E; Knapp, R C

    1982-10-21

    We investigated the relation between epithelial ovarian cancer and the use of oral contraceptives in a case-control study of 144 white women under the age of 60 who had ovarian cancer and 139 white women under 60 who were selected from the general population. We observed a decreased risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives in subjects 40 through 59 years of age at the time of the study. The relative risk, adjusted for parity, was 0.11, with 95 per cent confidence limits of 0.04 to 0.33. In contrast to the findings in older women, a decreased risk for ovarian cancer associated with oral-contraceptive use was not found in women under 40. In this group, the adjusted relative risk associated with any use of oral contraceptives was 1.98, with 95 per cent confidence limits of 0.74 to 5.27. The lowest risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives was observed in older parous subjects and in women who had discontinued use more than 10 years previously.

  17. Activation of the Notch1/STAT3/Twist signaling axis promotes gastric cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Kai-Wen; Hsieh, Rong-Hong; Huang, Kuo-Hung; Fen-Yau Li, Anna; Chi, Chin-Wen; Wang, Tzu-Yin; Tseng, Min-Jen; Wu, Kou-Juey; Yeh, Tien-Shun

    2012-08-01

    Gastric carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies and a lethal cancer in the world. Notch signaling and transcription factors STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and Twist regulate tumor development and are critical regulators of gastric cancer progression. Herein, the relationship among Notch, STAT3 and Twist pathways in the control of gastric cancer progression was studied. We found that Twist and phosphorylated STAT3 levels were promoted by the activated Notch1 receptor in human stomach adenocarcinoma SC-M1, embryonic kidney HEK293 and erythroleukemia K562 cells. Notch1 signaling dramatically induced Twist promoter activity through a C promoter binding factor-1-independent manner and STAT3 phosphorylation. Overexpression of Notch1 receptor intracellular domain (N1IC) enhanced the interaction between nuclear STAT3 and Twist promoter in cells. Gastric cancer progression of SC-M1 cells was promoted by N1IC through STAT3 phosphorylation and Twist expression including colony formation, migration and invasion. STAT3 regulated gastric cancer progression of SC-M1 cells via Twist. N1IC also elevated the progression of other gastric cancer cells such as AGS and KATO III cells through STAT3 and Twist. The N1IC-promoted tumor growth and lung metastasis of SC-M1 cells in mice were suppressed by the STAT3 inhibitor JSI-124 and Twist knockdown. Furthermore, Notch1 and Notch ligand Jagged1 expressions were significantly associated with phosphorylated STAT3 and Twist levels in gastric cancer tissues of patients. Taken together, these results suggest that Notch1/STAT3/Twist signaling axis is involved in progression of human gastric cancer and modulation of this cascade has potential for the targeted combination therapy.

  18. Antibody-based immunotherapy of solid cancers: progress and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Nicodemus, Christopher F

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies remain a primary product option for novel cancer treatment. The properties of an antibody are a function of the antigen specificity and constant region incorporated. The rapid advance in molecular understanding of cancer biology and the host-tumor interaction has defined a new range of targets for antibody development. The clinical success of the checkpoint inhibitors has validated immune modulation and mobilization as a therapeutic approach. Solid cancers are distinguished from hematologic malignancies because the solid tumor stroma contains significant tumor promoting and immune dampening elements less prominent in hematologic cancer. This review highlights how engineered monoclonal antibody products are emerging as potential cornerstones of new more personalized cancer treatment paradigms that target both tumor and the stromal environment.

  19. Antibody-based immunotherapy of solid cancers: progress and possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Nicodemus, Christopher F

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies remain a primary product option for novel cancer treatment. The properties of an antibody are a function of the antigen specificity and constant region incorporated. The rapid advance in molecular understanding of cancer biology and the host–tumor interaction has defined a new range of targets for antibody development. The clinical success of the checkpoint inhibitors has validated immune modulation and mobilization as a therapeutic approach. Solid cancers are distinguished from hematologic malignancies because the solid tumor stroma contains significant tumor promoting and immune dampening elements less prominent in hematologic cancer. This review highlights how engineered monoclonal antibody products are emerging as potential cornerstones of new more personalized cancer treatment paradigms that target both tumor and the stromal environment. PMID:26314410

  20. NOP14 suppresses breast cancer progression by inhibiting NRIP1/Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jin-Ju; Peng, Rou-Jun; Kuang, Bo-Hua; Yuan, Zhong-Yu; Qin, Tao; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Guo, Yun-Miao; Han, Hui-Qiong; Lian, Yi-Fan; Deng, Cheng-Cheng; Zhang, Hao-Jiong; Chen, Li-Zhen; Feng, Qi-Sheng; Xu, Miao; Feng, Lin; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2015-09-22

    NOP14, which is functionally conserved among eukaryotes, has been implicated in cancer development. Here, we show that NOP14 is poorly expressed in breast cancer cells and invasive breast cancer tissues. In vivo and in vitro studies indicated that NOP14 suppressed the tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Further investigations revealed that NOP14 enhanced ERα expression and inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by up-regulating NRIP1 expression. Survival analysis indicated that low NOP14 expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P = 0.0006) and disease-free survival (P = 0.0007), suggesting that NOP14 is a potential prognostic factor in breast cancer. Taken together, our findings reveal that NOP14 may suppress breast cancer progression and provide new insights into the development of targeted therapeutic agents for breast cancer.

  1. Cancer Therapeutic Resistance: Progress and Perspectives (April 7-8, 2016 - Barcelona, Spain).

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, E; Pujana, M A; Arribas, J

    2016-06-01

    At the Cancer Therapeutic Resistance: Progress and Perspectives conference, in Barcelona, Spain, April 7-8, 2016, researchers, clinicians and students gathered to discuss our current understanding of intrinsic and acquired resistance of tumors to cancer therapies and to explore how to translate strategies to predict risk or overcome resistance to the clinic. The sessions covered a wide range of topics, including cancer omics, molecular classification, clinically relevant tumor models, biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets, and personalized medicine, with talks from many international experts in the field. This report highlights the main presentations that demonstrate the progress being made in predicting and identifying drug resistance in patients with cancer, personalized approaches to direct treatment and understanding the mechanisms involved. With better models of human cancer and powerful high-throughput screening techniques, translation to the clinic leading to tangible benefits for patients is attainable.

  2. Role of B Cell Development Marker CD10 in Cancer Progression and Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Deepshikha; Singh, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    The human CD10 antigen is a single pass, type II transmembrane, 100 kD cell surface glycoprotein belonging to peptidase M13 family. Identified in common acute lymphoblastic leukemia as a cancer specific antigen, CD10 is a cell surface ectoenzyme widely expressed on different types of cells. Earlier, it was used only as a cell surface marker to identify and differentiate between haematological malignancies. Later, reported to be present in various malignancies, it is thought to play significant role in cancer development and progression. Regulated expression of CD10 is necessary for angiogenesis and so forth. However its expression level is found to be deregulated in different cancers. In some cancers, it acts as tumor suppressor and inhibits tumor progression whereas in others it has tumor promoting tendency. However, its role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. This review summarises structural features, functions, and probable role of CD10 in cancer development. PMID:27965895

  3. Autotaxin, a lysophospholipase D with pleomorphic effects in oncogenesis and cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Lorenzo; Jeong, Kang Jin; Vellano, Christopher P.; Mills, Gordon B.

    2016-01-01

    The ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase type 2, more commonly known as autotaxin (ATX), is an ecto-lysophospholipase D encoded by the human ENNP2 gene. ATX is expressed in multiple tissues and participates in numerous key physiologic and pathologic processes, including neural development, obesity, inflammation, and oncogenesis, through the generation of the bioactive lipid, lysophosphatidic acid. Overwhelming evidence indicates that altered ATX activity leads to oncogenesis and cancer progression through the modulation of multiple hallmarks of cancer pathobiology. Here, we review the structural and catalytic characteristics of the ectoenzyme, how its expression and maturation processes are regulated, and how the systemic integration of its pleomorphic effects on cells and tissues may contribute to cancer initiation, progression, and therapy. Additionally, the up-to-date spectrum of the most frequent ATX genomic alterations from The Cancer Genome Atlas project is reported for a subset of cancers. PMID:25977291

  4. Role of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in the cell cycle progression of human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ning; Zhang, Zhuo; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Shi, Xianglin

    2003-10-31

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers among men. Recent studies demonstrated that PI3K signaling is an important intracellular mediator which is involved in multiple cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, anti-apoptosis, tumorigenesis, and angiogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrate that the inhibition of PI3K activity by LY294002, inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and induced the G(1) cell cycle arrest. This effect was accompanied by the decreased expression of G(1)-associated proteins including cyclin D1, CDK4, and Rb phosphorylation at Ser780, Ser795, and Ser807/811, whereas expression of CDK6 and beta-actin was not affected by LY294002. The expression of cyclin kinase inhibitor, p21(CIP1/WAF1), was induced by LY294002, while levels of p16(INK4) were decreased in the same experiment. The inhibition of PI3K activity also inhibited the phosphorylation and p70(S6K), but not MAPK. PI3K regulates cell cycle through AKT, mTOR to p70(S6K). The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has similar inhibitory effects on G(1) cell cycle progression and expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, and Rb phosphorylation. These results suggest that PI3K mediates G(1) cell cycle progression and cyclin expression through the activation of AKT/mTOR/p70(S6K) signaling pathway in the prostate cancer cells.

  5. The role of the androgen receptor in the development and progression of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Izumi, Koji; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    Men are at a higher risk of developing bladder cancer than women. Since bladder cancer cell lines and tissues were found to express the androgen receptor, efforts have been made to inspect whether androgen-mediated androgen receptor signals are implicated in bladder carcinogenesis as well as cancer progression. Mounting evidence supports the view that bladder cancer is a member of the endocrine-related tumors and may clearly explain the gender-specific difference in the incidence. However, the underlying mechanisms of how androgen receptor signals regulate bladder cancer growth are still far from fully characterized. Moreover, it remains controversial whether the androgen receptor pathway always plays a dominant role in bladder cancer progression. In this review, we summarize the available data on the involvement of androgen receptor signaling in bladder cancer. In particular, current evidence demonstrating the stimulatory effects of androgens on tumor progression or, more convincingly, tumorigenesis via the androgen receptor pathway may offer great potential for androgen deprivation as a therapeutic or chemopreventive option in patients with bladder cancer.

  6. A novel 2-pyrone derivative, BHP, impedes oncogenic KRAS-driven malignant progression in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Rae-Kwon; Suh, Yongjoon; Lim, Eun-Jung; Yoo, Ki-Chun; Lee, Ga-Haeng; Cui, Yan-Hong; Son, Arang; Hwang, Eunji; Uddin, Nizam; Yi, Joo-Mi; Kang, Seok-Gu; Lee, Su-Jae

    2013-08-28

    Elevated KRAS expression has been frequently associated with cancer progression including breast cancer; however, therapeutic approaches targeting KRAS have been widely unsuccessful and KRAS mutant cancers remain unsolved problem in cancer therapy. In this study, we found that a new 2-pyrone derivative, 5-bromo-3-(3-hydroxyprop-1-ynyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (BHP) can block KRAS-driven breast cancer progression. Importantly, treatment with BHP effectively suppressed the migratory and invasive properties along with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells that carry oncogenic KRAS and mesenchymal malignant phenotypes. In parallel, BHP also sensitized the cells to anticancer treatment. Consistently, forced-expression of oncogenic KRAS bestowed the migratory and invasive properties, mesenchymal transition and resistance to anticancer treatment into normal human mammalian breast cells MCF10A and relatively non-malignant MCF7 and SK-BR3 breast cancer cells; however, treatment with BHP blocked those KRAS-induced malignant phenotypes. Notably, BHP interfered the interaction of KRAS with Raf-1 in concentration-dependent manner, thereby blocking the downstream effectors of KRAS signaling that is PI3K/AKT and ERK. Taken together, our findings indicate that the BHP, an α-pyrone derivative, suppresses malignant breast cancer progression by targeting of oncogenic KRAS signaling pathways.

  7. Physical symptoms, perceived social support, and affect in adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Kimberly M; Zelikovsky, Nataliya; Schwartz, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Treatment for cancer among adolescents is often more intense and lasts longer than treatment for older or younger patients. It typically causes pain, fatigue, and nausea and affects social and emotional well-being. This study examined the relationships among demographics, physical symptoms, perceived social support from friends and family, and affect (positive and negative) in 102 adolescents (age 13-19) with cancer using correlational analyses. Additionally, perceived social support was explored as a mediator and moderator of the relationship between physical symptoms and affect using regression. Females reported significantly lower friend support and higher negative affect compared to males. Minority participants were more likely to endorse physical symptoms and less negative affect compared to White respondents. Higher report of physical symptoms was significantly related to greater negative affect, whereas higher perceived social support from friends was related to higher positive affect. Adolescents consistently reported high levels of social support from family and friends. Additionally, adolescents tended to report average levels of positive affect and low levels of negative affect compared to healthy populations. No significant mediation or moderation effects were found. This research highlights that females and minorities, and those with greater physical symptoms, may be more vulnerable to poor adjustment to cancer during adolescence. However, overall this study lends support to the notion that adolescents with cancer are an especially resilient population, as these patients endorsed generally high levels of social support and positive affect, with low levels of negative affect.

  8. Glucose Metabolism in the Progression of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cutruzzolà, Francesca; Giardina, Giorgio; Marani, Marina; Macone, Alberto; Paiardini, Alessandro; Rinaldo, Serena; Paone, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in western country males but the mechanisms involved in the transformation processes have not been clearly elucidated. Alteration in cellular metabolism in cancer cells is recognized as a hallmark of malignant transformation, although it is becoming clear that the biological features of metabolic reprogramming not only differ in different cancers, but also among different cells in a type of cancer. Normal prostate epithelial cells have a peculiar and very inefficient energy metabolism as they use glucose to synthesize citrate that is secreted as part of the seminal liquid. During the transformation process, prostate cancer cells modify their energy metabolism from inefficient to highly efficient, often taking advantage of the interaction with other cell types in the tumor microenvironment that are corrupted to produce and secrete metabolic intermediates used by cancer cells in catabolic and anabolic processes. We recapitulate the metabolic transformations occurring in the prostate from the normal cell to the metastasis, highlighting the role of the microenvironment and summarizing what is known on the molecular mechanisms involved in the process. PMID:28270771

  9. Cognitive and Affective Representations of Active Surveillance as a Treatment Option for Low-Risk Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen D; Li, Hsin H; Mader, Emily M; Stewart, Telisa M; Morley, Christopher P; Formica, Margaret K; Perrapato, Scott D; Seigne, John D; Hyams, Elias S; Irwin, Brian H; Mosher, Terry; Hegel, Mark T

    2016-06-29

    Benefits of early diagnosis and treatment remain debatable for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Active surveillance (AS) is an alternative to treatment. The goal of AS is to identify patients whose cancer is progressing rapidly while avoiding treatment in the majority of patients. The purpose of this study was to explore cognitive and affective representations of AS within a clinical environment that promotes AS a viable option for men with low-risk prostate cancer. Participants included patients for whom AS and active treatment were equally viable options, as well as practitioners who were involved in consultations for prostate cancer. Data were generated from semistructured interviews and audits of consultation notes and were analyzed using thematic analysis. Nineteen patients and 16 practitioners completed a semistructured interview. Patients generally viewed AS as a temporary strategy that was largely equated with inaction. There was variation in the degree to which inaction was viewed as warranted or favorable. Patient perceptions of AS were generally malleable and able to be influenced by information from trusted sources. Encouraging slow deliberation and multiple consultations may facilitate greater understanding and acceptance of AS as a viable treatment option for low-risk prostate cancer.

  10. PI3K/AKT/mTOR: role in breast cancer progression, drug resistance, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Zotano, Angel; Mayer, Ingrid A; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2016-12-01

    Anti-cancer cancer-targeted therapies are designed to exploit a particular vulnerability in the tumor, which in most cases results from its dependence on an oncogene and/or loss of a tumor suppressor. Mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR pathway are freqcuently found in breast cancers and associated with cellular transformation, tumorigenesis, cancer progression, and drug resistance. Several drugs targeting PI3K/ATK/mTOR are currently in clinical trials, mainly in combination with endocrine therapy and anti-HER2 therapy. These drugs are the focus of this review.

  11. TGF-β Signaling in Gastrointestinal Cancers: Progress in Basic and Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Yokobori, Takehiko; Nishiyama, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily proteins have many important biological functions, including regulation of tissue differentiation, cell proliferation, and migration in both normal and cancer cells. Many studies have reported that TGF-β signaling is associated with disease progression and therapeutic resistance in several cancers. Similarly, TGF-β-induced protein (TGFBI)—a downstream component of the TGF-β signaling pathway—has been shown to promote and/or inhibit cancer. Here, we review the state of basic and clinical research on the roles of TGF-β and TGFBI in gastrointestinal cancers. PMID:28106769

  12. Targeted Cancer Therapy: Vital Oncogenes and a New Molecular Genetic Paradigm for Cancer Initiation Progression and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Rudolph E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been declared repeatedly that cancer is a result of molecular genetic abnormalities. However, there has been no working model describing the specific functional consequences of the deranged genomic processes that result in the initiation and propagation of the cancer process during carcinogenesis. We no longer need to question whether or not cancer arises as a result of a molecular genetic defect within the cancer cell. The legitimate questions are: how and why? This article reviews the preeminent data on cancer molecular genetics and subsequently proposes that the sentinel event in cancer initiation is the aberrant production of fused transcription activators with new molecular properties within normal tissue stem cells. This results in the production of vital oncogenes with dysfunctional gene activation transcription properties, which leads to dysfunctional gene regulation, the aberrant activation of transduction pathways, chromosomal breakage, activation of driver oncogenes, reactivation of stem cell transduction pathways and the activation of genes that result in the hallmarks of cancer. Furthermore, a novel holistic molecular genetic model of cancer initiation and progression is presented along with a new paradigm for the approach to personalized targeted cancer therapy, clinical monitoring and cancer diagnosis. PMID:27649156

  13. The Mind-Body Connection - Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues The Mind-Body Connection Can Prolonged Stress Affect Whether Breast Cancer Returns? Past Issues / Winter ... traumatic life events. The categories ranged from traumatic stress to some stress to no significant stress. According ...

  14. O-GlcNAcylation of histone deacetylases 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guizhou; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Dongmei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Qiu, Huiyuan; Han, LiJian; Xu, Zhiwei; Xiao, Ying; Cheng, Chun; Shen, Aiguo

    2016-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor originating in the liver. Previous studies have indicated that O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1) play important roles in the pathogenesis of HCC. In the present study, we investigated the physical link between OGT and HDAC1. The O-GlcNAcylation of HDAC1 is overexpressed in HCC. We found that HDAC1 has two major sites of O-GlcNAcylation in its histone deacetylase domain. HDAC1 O-GlcNAcylation increases the activated phosphorylation of HDAC1, which enhances its enzyme activity. HDAC1 O-GlcNAc mutants promote the p21 transcription regulation through affecting the acetylation levels of histones from chromosome, and then influence the proliferation of HCC cells. We also found that mutants of O-GlcNAcylation site of HDAC1 affect invasion and migration of HepG2 cells. E-cadherin level is highly up-regulated in HDAC1 O-GlcNAc mutant-treated liver cancer cells, which inhibit the occurrence and development of HCC. Our findings suggest that OGT promotes the O-GlcNAc modification of HDAC1in the development of HCC. Therefore, inhibiting O-GlcNAcylation of HDAC1 may repress the progression of HCC.

  15. Lung cancer-derived galectin-1 contributes to cancer associated fibroblast-mediated cancer progression and immune suppression through TDO2/kynurenine axis

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Ya-Ling; Hung, Jen-Yu; Chiang, Shin-Yi; Jian, Shu-Fang; Wu, Cheng-Ying; Lin, Yi-Shiuan; Tsai, Ying-Ming; Chou, Shah-Hwa; Tsai, Ming-Ju; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Communication between cancer cells and their microenvironment plays an important role in cancer development, but the precise mechanisms by which cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) impact anti-cancer immunity and cancer progression in lung cancer are poorly understood. Here, we report that lung fibroblasts when activated by lung cancer cells produce tryptophan metabolite kynurenine (Kyn) that inhibits dendritic cells' differentiation and induces cancer growth as well as migration. We identified TDO2 (tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase) as the main enzyme expressed in fibroblasts capable of tryptophan metabolism. Mechanistically, condition medium of CAF or exogenous kynurenine stimulated AKT, with no lysine 1 (WNK1) and cAMP response element-bindingprotein (CREB) phosphorylation in lung cancer cells. Inhibition of the AKT/CREB pathway prevents cancer proliferation, while inhibition of the AKT/ WNK1 reverted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer migration induced by kynurenine. Moreover, we also demonstrate that lung cancer-derived galectin-1 contributes to the upregulation of TDO2 in CAF through an AKT-dependent pathway. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer surgical specimens revealed increased TDO2 expression in the fibroblasts adjacent to the cancer. Furthermore, in vivo studies showed that administration of TDO2 inhibitor significantly improves DCs function and T cell response, and decreases tumor metastasis in mice. Taken together, our data identify the feedback loop, consisting of cancer-derived galectin-1 and CAF-producing kynurenine, that sustains lung cancer progression. These findings suggest that targeting this pathway may be a promising therapeutic strategy. PMID:27050278

  16. The Role of Cytokines in Breast Cancer Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Esquivel-Velázquez, Marcela; Ostoa-Saloma, Pedro; Palacios-Arreola, Margarita Isabel; Nava-Castro, Karen E.; Castro, Julieta Ivonne

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are highly inducible, secretory proteins that mediate intercellular communication in the immune system. They are grouped into several protein families that are referred to as tumor necrosis factors, interleukins, interferons, and colony-stimulating factors. In recent years, it has become clear that some of these proteins as well as their receptors are produced in the organisms under physiological and pathological conditions. The exact initiation process of breast cancer is unknown, although several hypotheses have emerged. Inflammation has been proposed as an important player in tumor initiation, promotion, angiogenesis, and metastasis, all phenomena in which cytokines are prominent players. The data here suggest that cytokines play an important role in the regulation of both induction and protection in breast cancer. This knowledge could be fundamental for the proposal of new therapeutic approaches to particularly breast cancer and other cancer-related disorders. PMID:25068787

  17. Mortality and Person-Years of Life Lost - End of Life Summary Table | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  18. Estrogen related receptor alpha in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells promotes tumor progression in bone

    PubMed Central

    Delliaux, Carine; Gervais, Manon; Kan, Casina; Benetollo, Claire; Pantano, Francesco; Vargas, Geoffrey; Bouazza, Lamia; Croset, Martine; Bala, Yohann; Leroy, Xavier; Rosol, Thomas J; Rieusset, Jennifer; Bellahcène, Akeila; Castronovo, Vincent; Aubin, Jane E; Clézardin, Philippe; Duterque-Coquillaud, Martine; Bonnelye, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastases are one of the main complications of prostate cancer and they are incurable. We investigated whether and how estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha (ERRα) is involved in bone tumor progression associated with advanced prostate cancer. By meta-analysis, we first found that ERRα expression is correlated with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), the hallmark of progressive disease. We then analyzed tumor cell progression and the associated signaling pathways in gain-of-function/loss-of-function CRPC models in vivo and in vitro. Increased levels of ERRα in tumor cells led to rapid tumor progression, with both bone destruction and formation, and direct impacts on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. VEGF-A, WNT5A and TGFβ1 were upregulated by ERRα in tumor cells and all of these factors also significantly and positively correlated with ERRα expression in CRPC patient specimens. Finally, high levels of ERRα in tumor cells stimulated the pro-metastatic factor periostin expression in the stroma, suggesting that ERRα regulates the tumor stromal cell microenvironment to enhance tumor progression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that ERRα is a regulator of CRPC cell progression in bone. Therefore, inhibiting ERRα may constitute a new therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer skeletal-related events. PMID:27776343

  19. Physical Activity and Lymphedema (The PAL Trial): Assessing the safety of progressive strength training in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Cheville, Andrea; Grant, Lorita L.; Bryan, Cathy J.; Gross, Cynthia; Lytle, Leslie A.; Ahmed, Rehana L.

    2009-01-01

    Lymphedema is a chronic and progressive long-term adverse effect of breast cancer treatment commonly defined by swelling of the affected arm. Current clinical guidelines indicate that women with and at risk for lymphedema should protect the affected arm from overuse. In clinical practice, this often translates into risk aversive guidance to avoid using the arm. This could lead to a disuse pattern that may increase the likelihood of injury from common activities of daily living. Further, such guidance poses an additional barrier to staying physically active, potentially translating to weight gain, which has been shown to be associated with worse clinical course for women with lymphedema. We hypothesize that a program of slowly progressive strength training with no upper limit on the amount of weight that may be lifted would gradually increase the physiologic capacity of the arm so that common activities represent a decreasing percentage of maximal capacity. Theoretically, this increased capacity should decrease the risk that daily activities put stress on the lymphatic system of the affected side. The Physical Activity and Lymphedema (PAL) Trial is a recently completed randomized controlled exercise intervention trial that recruited 295 breast cancer survivors (141 with lymphedema at study entry, 154 at risk for lymphedema at study entry). The purpose of this report is to provide detail regarding the study design, statistical design, and protocol of the PAL trial. PMID:19171204

  20. The Role of Central Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    our goal is to: 1. To identify differentially expressed proteins and phosphoproteins in prostate cancer cells from patients on high ω-3 and control...serum/ plasma samples within the next three months and finish the global expression proteomics part of the project within the next six months. 15...SUBJECT TERMS Biomarker, proteomics, prostate cancer, 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME

  1. Predicting Prostate Cancer Progression at Time of Diagnosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Active surveillance incorporates serial PSA measurements , physical examinations, and repeat prostate biopsies to monitor for either the presence of occult...reflecting events throughout the prostate gland and suitable for repeat measurements over time. PCA3 and the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion are 2 prostate cancer... measurements of TMPRSS2:ERG transcript levels associate with cancer volume and grade at prosta- tectomy, and upgrading from biopsy histologic assess- ments (31

  2. SPINK 1 Protein Expression and Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Flavin, Richard; Pettersson, Andreas; Hendrickson, Whitney K.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Finn, Stephen; Kunz, Lauren; Judson, Gregory L.; Lis, Rosina; Bailey, Dyane; Fiore, Christopher; Nuttall, Elizabeth; Martin, Neil E.; Stack, Edward; Penney, Kathryn L.; Rider, Jennifer R.; Sinnott, Jennifer; Sweeney, Christopher; Sesso, Howard D.; Fall, Katja; Giovannucci, Edward; Kantoff, Philip; Stampfer, Meir; Loda, Massimo; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose SPINK1 over-expression has been described in prostate cancer and is linked with poor prognosis in many cancers. The objective of this study was to characterize the association between SPINK1 over-expression and prostate cancer specific survival. Experimental Design The study included 879 participants in the US Physicians’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow–Up Study, diagnosed with prostate cancer (1983 – 2004) and treated by radical prostatectomy. Protein tumor expression of SPINK1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tumor tissue microarrays. Results 74/879 (8%) prostate cancer tumors were SPINK1 positive. Immunohistochemical data was available for PTEN, p-Akt, pS6, stathmin, androgen receptor (AR) and ERG (as a measure of the TMPRSS2:ERG translocation). Compared to SPINK1 negative tumors, SPINK1 positive tumors showed higher PTEN and stathmin expression, and lower expression of AR (p<0.01). SPINK1 over-expression was seen in 47 of 427 (11%) ERG negative samples and in 19 of 427 (4%) ERG positive cases (p=0.0003). We found no significant associations between SPINK1 status and Gleason grade or tumor stage. There was no association between SPINK1 expression and biochemical recurrence (p=0.56). Moreover, there was no association between SPINK1 expression and prostate cancer mortality (there were 75 lethal cases of prostate cancer during a mean of 13.5 years follow-up [HR 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.29–1.76)]). Conclusions Our results suggest that SPINK1 protein expression may not be a predictor of recurrence or lethal prostate cancer amongst men treated by radical prostatectomy. SPINK1 and ERG protein expression do not appear to be entirely mutually exclusive, as some previous studies have suggested. PMID:24687926

  3. A Genetic Interaction Screen for Breast Cancer Progression Driver Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    target with therapeutics to treat cancer. Thus, novel high throughput strategies are needed to identify and functionally characterize cancer genes. An...and regulatory pathways, anatomical structures, and physiological and behavioral characteristics are also well conserved from mice to humans. To...We have further characterized one of the identified genes, Grik3, and have found that it regualtes the cell cycle, but not apoptosis, by inducing the

  4. Epigenetic modulators, modifiers and mediators in cancer aetiology and progression

    PubMed Central

    Feinberg, Andrew P.; Koldobskiy, Michael A.; Göndör, Anita

    2016-01-01

    This year is the tenth anniversary of the publication in this journal of a model suggesting the existence of ‘tumour progenitor genes’. These genes are epigenetically disrupted at the earliest stages of malignancies, even before mutations, and thus cause altered differentiation throughout tumour evolution. The past decade of discovery in cancer epigenetics has revealed a number of similarities between cancer genes and stem cell reprogramming genes, widespread mutations in epigenetic regulators, and the part played by chromatin structure in cellular plasticity in both development and cancer. In the light of these discoveries, we suggest here a framework for cancer epigenetics involving three types of genes: ‘epigenetic mediators’, corresponding to the tumour progenitor genes suggested earlier; ‘epigenetic modifiers’ of the mediators, which are frequently mutated in cancer; and ‘epigenetic modulators’ upstream of the modifiers, which are responsive to changes in the cellular environment and often linked to the nuclear architecture. We suggest that this classification is helpful in framing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to cancer. PMID:26972587

  5. Stat3 Activation in Urothelial Stem Cells Leads to Direct Progression to Invasive Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Philip Levy; Lay, Erica Julianne; Jian, Weiguo; Parra, Diana; Chan, Keith Syson

    2012-01-01

    Two subtypes of human bladder cancer, noninvasive papillary and muscle-invasive cancer, develop through independent pathologic and molecular pathways. Human invasive bladder cancer frequently develops without prior clinical evidence of a noninvasive tumor stage. However, an animal model that recapitulates this unique clinical progression of invasive bladder cancer has not yet been developed. In this study, we created a novel transgenic mouse model of invasive bladder cancer by targeting an active dimerized form of Stat3 to the basal cells of bladder epithelium. When exposed to the carcinogen nitrosamine, Stat3-transgenic mice developed invasive cancer directly from carcinoma in situ (CIS), bypassing the noninvasive papillary tumor stage. Remarkably, invasive bladder cancer driven by active Stat3 was predominantly composed of stem cells, which were characterized by cytokeratin 14 (CK14) staining and enhanced tumor sphere-forming ability. Active Stat3 was also shown to localize to the nucleus of human invasive bladder cancers that were primarily composed of CK14+ stem cells. Together, our findings show that Stat3-induced stem cell expansion plays a critical role in the unique clinical progression of invasive bladder cancer through the CIS pathway. PMID:22532166

  6. Increasing concentrations of phenol progressively affect anaerobic digestion of cellulose and associated microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Chapleur, Olivier; Madigou, Céline; Civade, Raphaël; Rodolphe, Yohan; Mazéas, Laurent; Bouchez, Théodore

    2016-02-01

    Performance stability is a key issue when managing anaerobic digesters. However it can be affected by external disturbances caused by micropollutants. In this study the influence of phenol on the methanization of cellulose was evaluated through batch toxicity assays. Special attention was given to the dynamics of microbial communities by means of automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. We observed that, as phenol concentrations increased, the different steps of anaerobic cellulose digestion were unevenly and progressively affected, methanogenesis being the most sensitive: specific methanogenic activity was half-inhibited at 1.40 g/L of phenol, whereas hydrolysis of cellulose and its fermentation to VFA were observed at up to 2.00 g/L. Depending on the level of phenol, microbial communities resisted either through physiological or structural adaptation. Thus, performances at 0.50 g/L were maintained in spite of the microbial community's shift. However, the communities' ability to adapt was limited and performances decreased drastically beyond 2.00 g/L of phenol.

  7. Enhanced heme function and mitochondrial respiration promote the progression of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hooda, Jagmohan; Cadinu, Daniela; Alam, Md Maksudul; Shah, Ajit; Cao, Thai M; Sullivan, Laura A; Brekken, Rolf; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, and about 85% of the cases are non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Importantly, recent advance in cancer research suggests that altering cancer cell bioenergetics can provide an effective way to target such advanced cancer cells that have acquired mutations in multiple cellular regulators. This study aims to identify bioenergetic alterations in lung cancer cells by directly measuring and comparing key metabolic activities in a pair of cell lines representing normal and NSCLC cells developed from the same patient. We found that the rates of oxygen consumption and heme biosynthesis were intensified in NSCLC cells. Additionally, the NSCLC cells exhibited substantially increased levels in an array of proteins promoting heme synthesis, uptake and function. These proteins include the rate-limiting heme biosynthetic enzyme ALAS, transporter proteins HRG1 and HCP1 that are involved in heme uptake, and various types of oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins such as cytoglobin and cytochromes. Several types of human tumor xenografts also displayed increased levels of such proteins. Furthermore, we found that lowering heme biosynthesis and uptake, like lowering mitochondrial respiration, effectively reduced oxygen consumption, cancer cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. In contrast, lowering heme degradation does not have an effect on lung cancer cells. These results show that increased heme flux and function are a key feature of NSCLC cells. Further, increased generation and supply of heme and oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins in cancer cells will lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy production by mitochondrial respiration, which would fuel cancer cell proliferation and progression. The results show that inhibiting heme and respiratory function can effectively arrest the progression of lung cancer cells. Hence, understanding heme function can positively impact on research in lung cancer

  8. Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Non-aggressive or Non-progressing Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Distinguishing aggressive cancers from non-aggressive or non-progressing cancers is an issue of both clinical and public health importance particularly for those cancers with an available screening test. With respect to breast cancer, mammographic screening has been shown in randomized trials to reduce breast cancer mortality, but given the limitations of its sensitivity and specificity some breast cancers are missed by screening. These so called interval detected breast cancers diagnosed between regular screenings are known to have a more aggressive clinical profile. In addition, of those cancers detected by mammography some are indolent while others are more likely to recur despite treatment. The pilot study proposed herein is highly responsive to the EDRN supplement titled “Biomarkers to Distinguish Aggressive Cancers from Nonaggressive or Non-progressing Cancers” in that it addresses both of the research objectives related to these issues outlined in the notice for this supplement: Aim 1: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of interval detected vs. mammography screen detected breast cancer focusing on early stage invasive disease. We will compare gene expression profiles using the whole genome-cDNA-mediated Annealing, Selection, extension and Ligation (DASL) assay of 50 screen detected cancers to those of 50 interval detected cancers. Through this approach we will advance our understanding of the molecular characteristics of interval vs. screen detected breast cancers and discover novel biomarkers that distinguish between them. Aim 2: To identify biomarkers in tumor tissue related to risk of cancer recurrence among patients with screen detected early stage invasive breast cancer. Using the DASL assay we will compare gene expression profiles from screen detected early stage breast cancer that either recurred within five years or never recurred within five years. These two groups of patients will be matched on multiple factors including

  9. Cancer cell-secreted IGF2 instigates fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived vascular progenitor cells to promote cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen Wen; Li, Bin; Guan, Xin Yuan; Chung, Sookja K.; Wang, Yang; Yip, Yim Ling; Law, Simon Y. K.; Chan, Kin Tak; Lee, Nikki P. Y.; Chan, Kwok Wah; Xu, Li Yan; Li, En Min; Tsao, Sai Wah; He, Qing-Yu; Cheung, Annie L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Local interactions between cancer cells and stroma can produce systemic effects on distant organs to govern cancer progression. Here we show that IGF2 secreted by inhibitor of differentiation (Id1)-overexpressing oesophageal cancer cells instigates VEGFR1-positive bone marrow cells in the tumour macroenvironment to form pre-metastatic niches at distant sites by increasing VEGF secretion from cancer-associated fibroblasts. Cancer cells are then attracted to the metastatic site via the CXCL5/CXCR2 axis. Bone marrow cells transplanted from nude mice bearing Id1-overexpressing oesophageal tumours enhance tumour growth and metastasis in recipient mice, whereas systemic administration of VEGFR1 antibody abrogates these effects. Mechanistically, IGF2 regulates VEGF in fibroblasts via miR-29c in a p53-dependent manner. Analysis of patient serum samples showed that concurrent elevation of IGF2 and VEGF levels may serve as a prognostic biomarker for oesophageal cancer. These findings suggest that the Id1/IGF2/VEGF/VEGFR1 cascade plays a critical role in tumour-driven pathophysiological processes underlying cancer progression. PMID:28186102

  10. Curcumin inhibits cancer progression through regulating expression of microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Siying; Zhang, Sijie; Shen, Hongyu; Chen, Wei; Xu, Hanzi; Chen, Xiu; Sun, Dawei; Zhong, Shanliang; Zhao, Jianhua; Tang, Jinhai

    2017-02-01

    Curcumin, a major yellow pigment and spice in turmeric and curry, is a powerful anti-cancer agent. The anti-tumor activities of curcumin include inhibition of tumor proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, induction of tumor apoptosis, increase of chemotherapy sensitivity, and regulation of cell cycle and cancer stem cell, indicating that curcumin maybe a strong therapeutic potential through modulating various cancer progression. It has been reported that microRNAs as small noncoding RNA molecules are related to cancer progression, which can be regulated by curcumin. Dysregulated microRNAs play vital roles in tumor biology via regulating expressions of target genes and then influencing multiple cancer-related signaling pathways. In this review, we focused on the inhibition effect of curcumin on various cancer progression by regulating expression of multiple microRNAs. Curcumin-induced dysregulation of microRNAs may activate or inactivate a set of signaling pathways, such as Akt, Bcl-2, PTEN, p53, Notch, and Erbb signaling pathways. A better understanding of the relation between curcumin and microRNAs may provide a potential therapeutic target for various cancers.

  11. Invited commentary: progress in the nutritional epidemiology of ovary cancer.

    PubMed

    Mettlin, C J

    1991-09-01

    Researchers do not understand what causes ovarian cancer. Some studies find galactose to be toxic to oocytes which renders ovaries susceptible to cancer. 1 hypothesis is that high levels of lactose consumption and retained ability to digest lactose (lactase persistence) lead to high levels of galactose exposure which increases the ovarian cancer risk. Denmark, Sweden, and Switzerland have the highest risk of ovarian cancer in the world. They also have the highest levels of lactase persistence and among the highest levels of milk supply for the population. Conversely, Hong Kong, Japan, Shanghai, and Singapore have low ovarian cancer risk, low consumption of milk, and low levels of lactase persistence. yet other researchers using the same data did not find per capita availability of milk to be significant independent of nondairy animal fat. Lactase persistence did have an independent association, however, but data was not standardized across populations. In a case control study, researchers took the dietary history of 11 dairy products to measure lactose consumption. A significant increase in ovarian cancer risk only existed with frequent intake of yogurt and cottage cheese. Researchers hypothesized that the prehydrolyzed lactose in both foods was the main contributor. Using the case control data, others found an increased risk for total lactose intake in women who never used oral contraceptives (OCs). The strongest predictor to date is the lactose/transferase ratio, yet those who found this association did not define this index based on an earlier study or examination. 1 problem with these studies is that dietary fat confounds the association. 2 studies showed that low fat milk was associated with decreased risk, even though both milks have the same lactose content. Another problem is that the subsets of exposure or subgroups of the population are unpredictable. Further research in nutritional epidemiology of ovarian cancer is needed.

  12. Clinical cancer advances 2011: Annual Report on Progress Against Cancer from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    PubMed

    Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Benowitz, Steven I; Adams, Sylvia; Aghajanian, Carol; Chang, Susan Marina; Dreyer, Zoann Eckert; Janne, Pasi A; Ko, Andrew H; Masters, Greg A; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Patel, Jyoti D; Roth, Bruce J; Samlowski, Wolfram E; Seidman, Andrew D; Tap, William D; Temel, Jennifer S; Von Roenn, Jamie H; Kris, Mark G

    2012-01-01

    A message from ASCO'S President. It has been forty years since President Richard Nixon signed the National Cancer Act of 1971, which many view as the nation's declaration of the "War on Cancer." The bill has led to major investments in cancer research and significant increases in cancer survival. Today, two-thirds of patients survive at least five years after being diagnosed with cancer compared with just half of all diagnosed patients surviving five years after diagnosis in 1975. The research advances detailed in this year's Clinical Cancer Advances demonstrate that improvements in cancer screening, treatment, and prevention save and improve lives. But although much progress has been made, cancer remains one of the world's most serious health problems. In the United States, the disease is expected to become the nation's leading cause of death in the years ahead as our population ages. I believe we can accelerate the pace of progress, provided that everyone involved in cancer care works together to achieve this goal. It is this viewpoint that has shaped the theme for my presidential term: Collaborating to Conquer Cancer. In practice, this means that physicians and researchers must learn from every patient's experience, ensure greater collaboration between members of a patient's medical team, and involve more patients in the search for cures through clinical trials. Cancer advocates, insurers, and government agencies also have important roles to play. Today, we have an incredible opportunity to improve the quality of cancer care by drawing lessons from the real-world experiences of patients. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is taking the lead in this area, in part through innovative use of health information technology. In addition to our existing quality initiatives, ASCO is working with partners to develop a comprehensive rapid-learning system for cancer care. When complete, this system will provide physicians with personalized, real

  13. HOTTIP and HOXA13 are oncogenes associated with gastric cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shuai; Liu, Junsong; Guo, Shaochun; He, Shicai; Qiu, Guanglin; Lu, Jing; Wang, Jin; Fan, Lin; Zhao, Wei; Che, Xiangming

    2016-06-01

    A long non-coding RNA named HOTTIP (HOXA transcript at the distal tip) coordinates the activation of various 5' HOXA genes which encode master regulators of development through targeting the WDR5/MLL complex. HOTTIP acts as an oncogene in several types of cancers, whereas its biological function in gastric cancer has never been studied. In the present study, we investigated the role of HOTTIP in gastric cancer. We found that HOTTIP was upregulated in gastric cancer cell lines. Knockdown of HOTTIP in gastric cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, downregulation of HOTTIP led to decreased expression of homeobox protein Hox-A13 (HOXA13) in gastric cancer cell lines. HOXA13 was involved in HOTTIP‑induced malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer cells. Our data showed that the levels of HOTTIP and HOXA13 were both markedly upregulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with their counterparts in non-tumorous tissues. Furthermore, the expression levels of HOTTIP and HOXA13 were both higher in gastric cancer which was poorly differentiated, at advanced TNM stages and exhibited lymph node-metastasis. Spearman analyses indicated that HOTTIP and HOXA13 had a highly positive correlation both in non-tumor mucosae and cancer lesions. Collectively, these findings suggest that HOTTIP and HOXA13 play important roles in gastric cancer progression and provide a new insight into therapeutic treatment for the disease.

  14. miR-221/222 induces pancreatic cancer progression through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinhong; Li, Pei; Chen, Xin; Zong, Liang; Jiang, Zhengdong; Nan, Ligang; Lei, Jianjun; Duan, Wanxing; Zhang, Dong; Li, Xuqi; Sha, Huanchen; Wu, Zheng; Ma, Qingyong; Wang, Zheng

    2015-06-10

    MicroRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we showed that miR-221/222 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. MiR-221/222 overexpression significantly promoted pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and invasion while inhibiting apoptosis. The expression of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-2 and MMP-9 was increased in miR-221/222 mimic-transfected pancreatic cancer cells. Validation experiments identified TIMP-2 as a direct target of miR-221/222. These data indicate that overexpressed miR-221/222 may play an oncogenic role in pancreatic cancer by inducing the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9, thus leading to cancer cell invasion.

  15. Heterogeneous perivascular cell coverage affects breast cancer metastasis and response to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiha; de Sampaio, Pedro Correa; Lundy, Donna Marie; Peng, Qian; Evans, Kurt W.; Sugimoto, Hikaru; Kienast, Yvonne; do Amaral, Nayra Soares; Rocha, Rafael Malagoli; Eikesdal, Hans Petter; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; LeBleu, Valerie S.

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis and co-optive vascular remodeling are prerequisites of solid tumor growth. Vascular heterogeneity, notably perivascular composition, may play a critical role in determining the rate of cancer progression. The contribution of vascular pericyte heterogeneity to cancer progression and therapy response is unknown. Here, we show that angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) orchestrates pericyte heterogeneity in breast cancer with an effect on metastatic disease and response to chemotherapy. Using multispectral imaging of human breast tumor specimens, we report that perivascular composition, as defined by the ratio of PDGFRβ– and desmin+ pericytes, provides information about the response to epirubicin but not paclitaxel. Using 17 distinct patient-derived breast cancer xenografts, we demonstrate a cancer cell–derived influence on stromal Ang2 production and a cancer cell–defined control over tumor vasculature and perivascular heterogeneity. The aggressive features of tumors and their distinct response to therapies may thus emerge by the cancer cell–defined engagement of distinct and heterogeneous angiogenic programs. PMID:28018977

  16. [Progress in monoclonal antibody-based immunotherapy for cancer treatment].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yajun

    2015-06-01

    More than 100 years ago, Paul Ehrlich first proposed the "magic bullets" concept in which antibody targeting disease related antigen can fight against human disease. Since then, with the development of hybridoma technology for monoclonal antibody production and cancer serum therapy, immunotherapy based monoclonal antibody bas been used in chinical practice to treat hematological and solid tumor. Up to now, more than 20 recombinant antibody drugs were approved for cancer treatment worldwide. In recent years, the next-generation antibody drug, including immune checkpoint antagonists, bi-specific antibody, and antibody drug conjugates have successfully cured various malignant tumor. This review recalled the history of monoclonal antibody as potent immunotherapy of cancer firstly, and focused on the next-generation antibody drug's mechanism of action, construction strategies, and the side effects in clinic. Lastly, the future trend of anti-tumor antibody drug was also discussed.

  17. Progress and controversies: Radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Martin, Neil E; D'Amico, Anthony V

    2014-01-01

    Radiation therapy remains a standard treatment option for men with localized prostate cancer. Alone or in combination with androgen-deprivation therapy, it represents a curative treatment and has been shown to prolong survival in selected populations. In this article, the authors review recent advances in prostate radiation-treatment techniques, photon versus proton radiation, modification of treatment fractionation, and brachytherapy-all focusing on disease control and the impact on morbidity. Also discussed are refinements in the risk stratification of men with prostate cancer and how these are better for matching patients to appropriate treatment, particularly around combined androgen-deprivation therapy. Many of these advances have cost and treatment burden implications, which have significant repercussions given the prevalence of prostate cancer. The discussion includes approaches to improve value and future directions for research.

  18. Molecular genetics and genomics progress in urothelial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Netto, George J

    2013-11-01

    The clinical management of solid tumor patients has recently undergone a paradigm shift as the result of the accelerated advances in cancer genetics and genomics. Molecular diagnostics is now an integral part of routine clinical management in lung, colon, and breast cancer patients. In a disappointing contrast, molecular biomarkers remain largely excluded from current management algorithms of urologic malignancies. The need for new treatment alternatives and validated prognostic molecular biomarkers that can help clinicians identify patients in need of early aggressive management is pressing. Identifying robust predictive biomarkers that can stratify response to newly introduced targeted therapeutics is another crucially needed development. The following is a brief discussion of some promising candidate biomarkers that may soon become a part of clinical management of bladder cancers.

  19. Detection of Prostate Cancer Progression by Serum DNA Integrity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    specimens from patients with PCa. A recent report demonstrated 0%– 18% rates of LOH for various chromosomal loci in plasma DNA; 44% of specimens tested...2004;351: 1802 –3. 4. Bock JL, Klee GG. How sensitive is a prostate- specific antigen measurement? How sensitive does it need to be? Arch Pathol Lab Med...in blood and bone marrow plasma from patients with prostate cancer. Int J Cancer 2007;120:1465–71. 28. Liu L, Yoon JH, Dammann R, Pfeifer GP. Frequent

  20. Recent Progress in Cancer-Related Lymphedema Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Shaitelman, Simona F.; Cromwell, Kate D.; Rasmussen, John C.; Stout, Nicole L.; Armer, Jane M.; Lasinski, Bonnie B.; Cormier, Janice N.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the recent developments in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of cancer-related lymphedema. Lymphedema incidence by tumor site is evaluated. Measurement techniques and trends in patient education and treatment are also summarized to include current trends in therapeutic and surgical treatment options as well as longer-term management. Finally, an overview of the policies related to insurance coverage and reimbursement will give the clinician an overview of important trends in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of cancer-related lymphedema. PMID:25410402

  1. SALL4 promotes gastric cancer progression through activating CD44 expression.

    PubMed

    Yuan, X; Zhang, X; Zhang, W; Liang, W; Zhang, P; Shi, H; Zhang, B; Shao, M; Yan, Y; Qian, H; Xu, W

    2016-11-07

    The stem cell factor SALL4 (Sal-like protein 4) plays important roles in the development and progression of cancer. SALL4 is critically involved in tumour growth, metastasis and therapy resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the oncogenic roles of SALL4 have not been well characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that SALL4 knockdown by short hairpin RNA greatly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. We further confirmed the inhibitory effects of SALL4 knockdown on gastric cancer cells by using a tetracycline-inducible system. Mechanistically, SALL4 knockdown downregulated the expression of CD44. The results of luciferase assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation study showed that SALL4 bound to CD44 promoter region and transcriptionally activated CD44. The results of rescue study revealed that CD44 overexpression antagonized SALL4 knockdown-mediated inhibition of gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and gastric cancer growth in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that SALL4 promotes gastric cancer progression through directly activating CD44 expression, which suggests a novel mechanism for the oncogenic roles of SALL4 in gastric cancer and represents a new target for gastric cancer therapy.

  2. SALL4 promotes gastric cancer progression through activating CD44 expression

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, X; Zhang, X; Zhang, W; Liang, W; Zhang, P; Shi, H; Zhang, B; Shao, M; Yan, Y; Qian, H; Xu, W

    2016-01-01

    The stem cell factor SALL4 (Sal-like protein 4) plays important roles in the development and progression of cancer. SALL4 is critically involved in tumour growth, metastasis and therapy resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the oncogenic roles of SALL4 have not been well characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that SALL4 knockdown by short hairpin RNA greatly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells. We further confirmed the inhibitory effects of SALL4 knockdown on gastric cancer cells by using a tetracycline-inducible system. Mechanistically, SALL4 knockdown downregulated the expression of CD44. The results of luciferase assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation study showed that SALL4 bound to CD44 promoter region and transcriptionally activated CD44. The results of rescue study revealed that CD44 overexpression antagonized SALL4 knockdown-mediated inhibition of gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and gastric cancer growth in vivo. Collectively, our findings indicate that SALL4 promotes gastric cancer progression through directly activating CD44 expression, which suggests a novel mechanism for the oncogenic roles of SALL4 in gastric cancer and represents a new target for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:27819668

  3. Breast Cancer Metastasis to Bone Affects Osteoblast Differentiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Miele, M.E., Babu, G.R., Melly, R., Beck, L.N., Kent, J., Gilman, V.R., Sosnowski, D.M., Campo , D.A., Gay, C.V., Budgeon, L.R., Christensen, N.D...a gift from Dr. Henry Donahue, Penn State Hershey Medical Center. MDA-MB-231 cells were maintained in DMEM containing 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and...metastasis of breast cancer to bone, J.Orthop.Sci. 5 (2000) 75-81. [15] E. Luegmayr, F. Varga , T. Frank, et al., Effects of triiodothyronine on

  4. A New Explanation for the Roles of Fhit Protein in the Progress of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    CHK1 protein - -- -- CHK1 •- - Fig. 2. An over-activation of the CHK1 activity- 0 4 W ATR/CHK1 pathway is shown in CDC2A protein - irradiated Fhit...AD Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-650 TITLE: A New Explanation for the Roles of Fhit Protein in the Progress of Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ya...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A New Explanation for the Roles of Fhit Protein in the Progress of Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1-0650 5c

  5. Smad3 promotes cancer progression by inhibiting E4BP4-mediated NK cell development

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Patrick Ming-Kuen; Zhou, Shuang; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Qing-Ming; Li, Chun-Jie; Lian, Guang-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Tang, Yong-Jiang; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Yan, Bryan Ping-Yen; To, Ka-Fai; Lan, Hui-Yao

    2017-01-01

    TGF-β is known to influence tumour progression. Here we report an additional role of Smad3 in the tumour microenvironment regulating cancer progression. Deletion or inhibition of Smad3 in the tumour microenvironment suppresses tumour growth, invasion and metastasis in two syngeneic mouse tumour models. Smad3−/− bone marrow gives rise to an expanded NK cell population with enhanced tumour-suppressive activities in vivo, and promotes differentiation of NK cells ex vivo. We identify E4BP4/NFIL3 as a direct Smad3 target gene critical for NK cell differentiation. Smad3 suppresses transcription of IFN-γ via E4BP4 in a T-bet independent manner. Therefore disruption of Smad3 enhances both the E4BP4-mediated NK cell differentiation and anti-cancer effector functions in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, systemic treatment with a Smad3 inhibitor SIS3 effectively suppresses cancer progression. In summary, suppression of NK cell-mediated immunosurveillance via the Smad3-E4BP4 axis contributes to cancer progression. We propose targeting Smad3-dependent tumour microenvironment may represent an effective anti-cancer strategy. PMID:28262747

  6. Smad3 promotes cancer progression by inhibiting E4BP4-mediated NK cell development.

    PubMed

    Tang, Patrick Ming-Kuen; Zhou, Shuang; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Qing-Ming; Li, Chun-Jie; Lian, Guang-Yu; Huang, Xiao-Ru; Tang, Yong-Jiang; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Yan, Bryan Ping-Yen; To, Ka-Fai; Lan, Hui-Yao

    2017-03-06

    TGF-β is known to influence tumour progression. Here we report an additional role of Smad3 in the tumour microenvironment regulating cancer progression. Deletion or inhibition of Smad3 in the tumour microenvironment suppresses tumour growth, invasion and metastasis in two syngeneic mouse tumour models. Smad3(-/-) bone marrow gives rise to an expanded NK cell population with enhanced tumour-suppressive activities in vivo, and promotes differentiation of NK cells ex vivo. We identify E4BP4/NFIL3 as a direct Smad3 target gene critical for NK cell differentiation. Smad3 suppresses transcription of IFN-γ via E4BP4 in a T-bet independent manner. Therefore disruption of Smad3 enhances both the E4BP4-mediated NK cell differentiation and anti-cancer effector functions in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, systemic treatment with a Smad3 inhibitor SIS3 effectively suppresses cancer progression. In summary, suppression of NK cell-mediated immunosurveillance via the Smad3-E4BP4 axis contributes to cancer progression. We propose targeting Smad3-dependent tumour microenvironment may represent an effective anti-cancer strategy.

  7. Contrasting breast cancer molecular subtypes across serial tumor progression stages: biological and prognostic implications

    PubMed Central

    Kimbung, Siker; Kovács, Anikó; Danielsson, Anna; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Lövgren, Kristina; Stolt, Marianne Frostvik; Tobin, Nicholas P.; Lindström, Linda; Bergh, Jonas; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Fernö, Mårten; Hatschek, Thomas; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the intrinsic subtypes for clinical management of metastatic breast cancer is not comprehensively established. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic significance of drifts in tumor molecular subtypes during breast cancer progression. A well-annotated cohort of 304 women with advanced breast cancer was studied. Tissue microarrays of primary tumors and synchronous lymph node metastases were constructed. Conventional biomarkers were centrally assessed and molecular subtypes were assigned following the 2013 St Gallen guidelines. Fine-needle aspirates of asynchronous metastases were transcriptionally profiled and subtyped using PAM50. Discordant expression of individual biomarkers and molecular subtypes was observed during tumor progression. Primary luminal-like tumors were relatively unstable, frequently adopting a more aggressive subtype in the metastases. Notably, loss of ER expression and a luminal to non-luminal subtype conversion was associated with an inferior post-recurrence survival. In addition, ER and molecular subtype assessed at all tumor progression stages were independent prognostic factors for post-recurrence breast cancer mortality in multivariable analyses. Our results demonstrate that drifts in tumor molecular subtypes may occur during tumor progression, conferring adverse consequences on outcome following breast cancer relapse. PMID:26375671

  8. Aberrant Splicing in Cancer: Mediators of Malignant Progression through an Imperfect Splice Program Shift.

    PubMed

    Luz, Felipe Andrés Cordero; Brígido, Paula Cristina; Moraes, Alberto Silva; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    Although the efforts to understand the genetic basis of cancer allowed advances in diagnosis and therapy, little is known about other molecular bases. Splicing is a key event in gene expression, controlling the excision of introns decoded inside genes and being responsible for 80% of the proteome amplification through events of alternative splicing. Growing data from the last decade point to deregulation of splicing events as crucial in carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Several alterations in splicing events were observed in cancer, caused by either missexpression of or detrimental mutations in some splicing factors, and appear to be critical in carcinogenesis and key events during tumor progression. Notwithstanding, it is difficult to determine whether it is a cause or consequence of cancer and/or tumorigenesis. Most reviews focus on the generated isoforms of deregulated splicing pattern, while others mainly summarize deregulated splicing factors observed in cancer. In this review, events associated with carcinogenesis and tumor progression mainly, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, which is also implicated in alternative splicing regulation, will be progressively discussed in the light of a new perspective, suggesting that splicing deregulation mediates cell reprogramming in tumor progression by an imperfect shift of the splice program.

  9. PTEN Regulates Beta-Catenin in Androgen Signaling: Implication in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    of androgens, whereas purified Wnt3a showed a pronounced effect in the presence of low concentrations of ligands. We also showed that Wnt3a-CM and the...that the effect of PI3K/Akt in prostate cells is mediated through androgen signaling. The PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, and a tumor suppressor, PTEN...progression of prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Androgen ablation is an effective treatment for the majority of advanced prostate cancer patients

  10. Special cancer microenvironment in human colonic cancer: Concept of cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal invasion (CMPI) and implication of subperitoneal fibroblast in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Motohiro; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2016-01-27

    Clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer are influenced not by tumor size, but by spread into the bowel wall. Although assessment of serosal involvement is an important pathological feature for classification of colon cancer, its diagnostic consistency has been questioned. Using elastic staining, we assessed elastic laminal invasion (ELI) for more objective stratification of deep tumor invasion around the peritoneal surface. In addition, pathological characteristic features of marked tumor budding, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration in the tumor area with ELI was elucidated. This characteristic tumor area was termed cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal elastic laminal invasion (CMPI). We elucidated histoanatomical layer-dependent heterogeneity of fibroblast in colonic tissue. Furthermore, subperitoneal fibroblasts (SPFs) play a crucial role in tumor progression and metastasis in CMPI. Our ELI and CMPI concept contributes not only to objective pathological diagnosis, but also sheds light on biological research of special cancer microenvironments detectable in human colorectal cancers. Herein, we describe the diagnostic utility of ELI and morphological alteration in advanced colorectal cancers to determine the phenomenon that occurs when tumors invade around the peritoneal surface. Next, biological research of CMPI is reviewed to stress the importance of pathological research to establish new biological concepts.

  11. Special cancer microenvironment in human colonic cancer: Concept of cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal invasion (CMPI) and implication of subperitoneal fibroblast in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of colorectal cancer are influenced not by tumor size, but by spread into the bowel wall. Although assessment of serosal involvement is an important pathological feature for classification of colon cancer, its diagnostic consistency has been questioned. Using elastic staining, we assessed elastic laminal invasion (ELI) for more objective stratification of deep tumor invasion around the peritoneal surface. In addition, pathological characteristic features of marked tumor budding, fibrosis, and macrophage infiltration in the tumor area with ELI was elucidated. This characteristic tumor area was termed cancer microenvironment formed by peritoneal elastic laminal invasion (CMPI). We elucidated histoanatomical layer‐dependent heterogeneity of fibroblast in colonic tissue. Furthermore, subperitoneal fibroblasts (SPFs) play a crucial role in tumor progression and metastasis in CMPI. Our ELI and CMPI concept contributes not only to objective pathological diagnosis, but also sheds light on biological research of special cancer microenvironments detectable in human colorectal cancers. Herein, we describe the diagnostic utility of ELI and morphological alteration in advanced colorectal cancers to determine the phenomenon that occurs when tumors invade around the peritoneal surface. Next, biological research of CMPI is reviewed to stress the importance of pathological research to establish new biological concepts. PMID:26816328

  12. Cancer and birth defects surveillance system for communities around the Savannah River Site. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Dunbar, J.B.

    1994-05-01

    The US DOE funded this grant to the Medical University of South Carolina for a cancer and birth defects registry for an initial three year period which was completed as of April 29, 1994. While this Technical Progress Report is prepared principally to document the activities of year 03, it also summarizes the accomplishments of the first two years in order to put into perspective the energy and progress of the program over the entire three year funding cycle.

  13. Differential Requirement for Src-family Tyrosine Kinases in the Initiation, Progression and Metastasis of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Irwin H.; Peresie, Jennifer; Eng, Kevin H.; Foster, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) recurrence after androgen ablation therapy (ADT) remains a significant cause of mortality in aging men. Malignant progression and metastasis are typically driven by genetic and epigenetic changes controlled by the androgen receptor (AR). However, evidence suggests that activated non-receptor tyrosine kinases, including those of the Src family (SFK), directly phosphorylate AR, thereby activating its transcriptional activity in the absence of serum androgen levels. To ascertain whether CaP progression and metastasis require SFK members an autochthonous transgenic adenocarcinoma (AD) of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model was crossed into Src-, Lyn- or Fyn-null backgrounds. Primary-site CaP formation was dependent on Src, to a lesser extent, Lyn, but not Fyn. Only Src−/−;TRAMP prostate tumors were marked by reactive stroma. SFK deficiency did not affect progression to neuroendocrine (NE) disease, although there were fewer new cancer cases initiating after 34 weeks in the SFK−/−;TRAMP mice compared to TRAMP controls. Fifteen to 21% of older (>33 weeks) Lyn- or Fyn-null TRAMP mice lacking primary-site tumors suffered from aggressive metastatic AD growths, compared with 3% of TRAMP mice. Taken with the data that TRAMP mice lacking Src or Lyn exhibited fewer macroscopic metastases compared to Fyn−/−;TRAMP and TRAMP controls, this suggests that SFK can either promote or suppress specific parameters of metastatic growth, possibly depending on cross-talk with primary tumors. These data identify critical, yet potentially opposing roles played by various SFKs in the initiation and metastatic potential of CaP using the TRAMP model. Implications: Genetically defined mouse models indicate a critical role for Src tyrosine kinase in prostate cancer initiation and metastatic progression. PMID:25053806

  14. Nuclear Receptor Activity and Liver Cancer Lesion Progression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that control diverse cellular processes. Chronic stimulation of some NRs is a non-genotoxic mechanism of rodent liver cancer with unclear relevance to humans. We explored this question using human CAR, PXR, PPARα,...

  15. Role of GGAP/PIKE-A in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    clones examined 55 55 55 total # of readable clones 40 37 39 total # of clones w/ mutations 1 18 12 total # of clones w/ silent mutations 2 0 0...GAP domain Normal Cancer total # of samples examined 30 72 total # of clones examined 320 764 total # of readable clones 216 520

  16. The role of MTDH/AEG-1 in the progression of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xue; Wang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Cancer progression is driven by an accumulation of numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer cells themselves as well as constructional changes in their microenvironment. Metadherin (MTDH)/Astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) has emerged in recent years as a key contributor to the carcinogenic process in diverse organs and tissues. As a multifunctional mediator of carcinogenesis, MTDH/AEG-1 has been found to be involved in multiple signaling pathways, such as: PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin and MAPK. Overexpression of MTDH/AEG-1 is observed in a variety of cancers belonging to all biological systems, and has crucial relevance with cancer progression, including initiation, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and chemoresistance. In addition, a plethora of studies have convincingly demonstrated that MTDH/AEG-1 overexpression markedly correlates with poor clinical prognosis. These findings suggest that MTDH/AEG-1 may be used as a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of cancer, monitoring of cancer progression, and target therapies which may simultaneously inhibit tumor growth, block metastasis, and intensify the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatments. PMID:26131054

  17. Effects of Androgen and Estrogen Receptor Signaling Pathways on Bladder Cancer Initiation and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Guilherme; Gakis, Georgios; Smith, Carolyn L.; Fahmy, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have long demonstrated clear differences in incidence and progression of bladder cancer between genders suggesting that the mechanisms of development and progression in these tumors have a strong association with steroid hormonal pathways. Such observations led to preclinical studies investigating the role of androgen and estrogen receptors, as well as their cognate hormones in bladder cancer initiation and progression. Using various in vitro cell line assays and in vivo mouse models, studies have elucidated different mechanisms and signaling pathways through which these steroid receptors may participate in this disease. More recently, RNA expression data from multiple studies revealed a luminal subtype of bladder cancer that exhibited an estrogen receptor signaling pathway, making it a strong candidate for further consideration of targeted therapies in the future. Despite the promising preclinical data demonstrating potential roles for both antiandrogen and antiestrogen strategies targeting these pathways in different stages of bladder cancer, only two clinical trials are currently active and accruing patients for such clinical studies. Targeted therapies in bladder cancer are a large unmet need and have the potential to change treatment paradigms and improve oncological outcomes of patients with bladder cancer. PMID:27376135

  18. Fibroblasts, an inconspicuous but essential player in colon cancer development and progression

    PubMed Central

    Mukaida, Naofumi; Sasaki, Soichiro

    2016-01-01

    Tumor microenvironments have a crucial role in cancer initiation and progression, and share many molecular and pathological features with wound healing process. Unless treated, tumors, however, do not heal in contrast to wounds that heal within a limited time framework. Wounds heal in coordination of a myriad of types of cells, particularly endothelial cells, leukocytes, and fibroblasts. Similar sets of cells also contribute to cancer initiation and progression, and as a consequence, anti-cancer treatment strategies have been proposed and tested by targeting endothelial cells and/or leukocytes. Compared with endothelial cells and leukocytes, less attention has been paid to the roles of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), fibroblasts present in tumor tissues, because their heterogeneity hinders the elucidation on them at cellular and molecular levels. Here, we will discuss the origin of CAFs and their crucial roles in cancer initiation and progression, and the possibility to develop a novel type of anti-cancer treatment by manipulating the migration and functions of CAFs. PMID:27340347

  19. Estimating successive cancer risks in Lynch Syndrome families using a progressive three-state model.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Briollais, Laurent; Green, Jane; Parfrey, Patrick; Kopciuk, Karen

    2014-02-20

    Lynch Syndrome (LS) families harbor mutated mismatch repair genes,which predispose them to specific types of cancer. Because individuals within LS families can experience multiple cancers over their lifetime, we developed a progressive three-state model to estimate the disease risk from a healthy (state 0) to a first cancer (state 1) and then to a second cancer (state 2). Ascertainment correction of the likelihood was made to adjust for complex sampling designs with carrier probabilities for family members with missing genotype information estimated using their family's observed genotype and phenotype information in a one-step expectation-maximization algorithm. A sandwich variance estimator was employed to overcome possible model misspecification. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the disease risk (penetrance) for age at a second cancer after someone has experienced a first cancer that is also associated with a mutated gene. Simulation study results indicate that our approach generally provides unbiased risk estimates and low root mean squared errors across different family study designs, proportions of missing genotypes, and risk heterogeneities. An application to 12 large LS families from Newfoundland demonstrates that the risk for a second cancer was substantial and that the age at a first colorectal cancer significantly impacted the age at any LS subsequent cancer. This study provides new insights for developing more effective management of mutation carriers in LS families by providing more accurate multiple cancer risk estimates.

  20. Functional roles of sialylation in breast cancer progression through miR-26a/26b targeting ST8SIA4

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaolu; Dong, Weijie; Su, Zhen; Zhao, Lifen; Miao, Yuan; Li, Nana; Zhou, Huimin; Jia, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sialylation is one of the altered glycosylation patterns associated with cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the N-glycan profiles of breast cancer patients and cell lines to reveal sialylation associated with breast cancer progression, and provided new evidences of miRNA-mediated sialylation. MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed that N-glycans found in breast cancer tissues and breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 featured increased levels of sialylation compared with adjacent tissues and normal breast epithelial cell MCF-10A. The expressional profiles of 20 sialyltransferase genes were then analyzed and found significantly different comparing breast cancer samples with adjacent tissues, and two breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 with different metastatic potential and MCF-10A cells. Tumor tissues and highly metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 exhibited higher levels of ST8SIA4. Knocking down ST8SIA4 in breast cancer cell lines significantly inhibited their malignant behaviors including cell proliferation and invasion in a sialyltransferase-dependent manner. By applying bioinformatic approaches for the prediction of miRNA targeting 3′-UTR of ST8SIA4, we identified ST8SIA4 as one of the miR-26a/26b-targeted genes. Further data analysis revealed the inversely related expression of ST8SIA4 and miR-26a/26b in breast cancer cells, tumor tissues and corresponding adjacent tissues. The ability of miR-26a/26b to interact specifically with and regulate the 3′-UTR of ST8SIA4 was demonstrated via a luciferase reporter assay. The forced expression of miR-26a/26b was able to induce a decrease of ST8SIA4 level and also to affect breast cancer cells progression, while altered expression of ST8SIA4 in breast cancer cells modulated progression upon transfection with miR-26a/26b mimics or inhibiter. Taken together, these results indicate that changes in the glycosylation patterns and sialylation levels may be useful markers of the progression of breast

  1. Multi-state relative survival modelling of colorectal cancer progression and mortality.

    PubMed

    Gilard-Pioc, Séverine; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Mahboubi, Amel; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Dejardin, Olivier; Huszti, Ella; Binquet, Christine; Quantin, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Accurate identification of factors associated with progression of colorectal cancer remains a challenge. In particular, it is unclear which statistical methods are most suitable to separate the effects of putative prognostic factors on cancer progression vs cancer-specific and other cause mortality. To address these challenges, we analyzed 10 year follow-up data for patients who underwent curative surgery for colorectal cancer in 1985-2000. Separate analyses were performed in two French cancer registries. Results of three multivariable models were compared: Cox model with recurrence as a time-dependent variable, and two multi-state models, which separated prognostic factor effects on recurrence vs death, with or without recurrence. Conventional multi-state model analyzed all-cause mortality while new relative survival multi-state model focused on cancer-specific mortality. Among the 2517 and 2677 patients in the two registries, about 50% died without a recurrence, and 28% had a recurrence, of whom almost 90% died. In both multi-state models men had significantly increased risk of cancer recurrence in both registries (HR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.68-0.92 and HR=0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.96). However, the two multi-state models identified different prognostic factors for mortality without recurrence. In contrast to the conventional model, in the relative survival analyses gender had no independent association with cancer-specific mortality whereas patients diagnosed with stage III cancer had significantly higher risks in both registries (HR=1.67; 95% CI: 1.27-2.22 and HR=2.38; 95% CI: 1.29-3.27). In conclusion, relative survival multi-state model revealed that different factors may be associated with cancer recurrence vs cancer-specific mortality either after or without a recurrence.

  2. Oral muscles are progressively affected in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: implications for dysphagia treatment.

    PubMed

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Erasmus, Corrie E; Hendriks, Jan C M; Geurts, Alexander C H; Klein, Willemijn M; Pillen, Sigrid; Sie, Lilian T; de Swart, Bert J M; de Groot, Imelda J M

    2013-05-01

    Dysphagia is reported in advanced stages of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The population of DMD is changing due to an increasing survival. We aimed to describe the dysphagia in consecutive stages and to assess the underlying mechanisms of dysphagia in DMD, in order to develop mechanism based recommendations for safe swallowing. In this cross-sectional study, participants were divided into: early and late ambulatory stage (AS, n = 6), early non-ambulatory stage (ENAS, n = 7), and late non-ambulatory stage (LNAS, n = 11). Quantitative oral muscle ultrasound was performed to quantify echo intensity. Swallowing was assessed with a video fluoroscopic swallow study, surface electromyography (sEMG) of the submental muscle group and tongue pressure. Differences in outcome parameters among the three DMD stages were tested with analysis of variance. Oral muscles related to swallowing were progressively affected, starting in the AS with the geniohyoid muscle. Tongue (pseudo) hypertrophy was found in 70 % of patients in the ENAS and LNAS. Oral phase problems and post-swallow residue were observed, mostly in the LNAS with solid food. sEMG and tongue pressure data of swallowing solid food revealed the lowest sEMG amplitude, the longest duration and lowest tongue pressure in the LNAS. In case of swallowing problems in DMD, based on the disturbed mechanisms of swallowing, it is suggested to (1) adjust meals in terms of less solid food, and (2) drink water after meals to clear the oropharyngeal area.

  3. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D. Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD )

    1990-05-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists and for nicotine and {alpha}-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides ({beta}-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  4. MicroRNA and Transcription Factor Gene Regulatory Network Analysis Reveals Key Regulatory Elements Associated with Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mehdi; Ranjbar, Bijan; Ganjalikhany, Mohamad Reza; M. Khan, Faiz; Schmitz, Ulf; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Gupta, Shailendra K.

    2016-01-01

    Technological and methodological advances in multi-omics data generation and integration approaches help elucidate genetic features of complex biological traits and diseases such as prostate cancer. Due to its heterogeneity, the identification of key functional components involved in the regulation and progression of prostate cancer is a methodological challenge. In this study, we identified key regulatory interactions responsible for primary to metastasis transitions in prostate cancer using network inference approaches by integrating patient derived transcriptomic and miRomics data into gene/miRNA/transcription factor regulatory networks. One such network was derived for each of the clinical states of prostate cancer based on differentially expressed and significantly correlated gene, miRNA and TF pairs from the patient data. We identified key elements of each network using a network analysis approach and validated our results using patient survival analysis. We observed that HOXD10, BCL2 and PGR are the most important factors affected in primary prostate samples, whereas, in the metastatic state, STAT3, JUN and JUNB are playing a central role. Benefiting integrative networks our analysis suggests that some of these molecules were targeted by several overexpressed miRNAs which may have a major effect on the dysregulation of these molecules. For example, in the metastatic tumors five miRNAs (miR-671-5p, miR-665, miR-663, miR-512-3p and miR-371-5p) are mainly responsible for the dysregulation of STAT3 and hence can provide an opportunity for early detection of metastasis and development of alternative therapeutic approaches. Our findings deliver new details on key functional components in prostate cancer progression and provide opportunities for the development of alternative therapeutic approaches. PMID:28005952

  5. Cancer cell survival during detachment from the ECM: multiple barriers to tumour progression.

    PubMed

    Buchheit, Cassandra L; Weigel, Kelsey J; Schafer, Zachary T

    2014-09-01

    Epithelial cells require attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) for survival. However, during tumour progression and metastasis, cancerous epithelial cells must adapt to and survive in the absence of ECM. During the past 20 years, several cellular changes, including anoikis, have been shown to regulate cell viability when cells become detached from the ECM. In this Opinion article, we review in detail how cancer cells can overcome or take advantage of these specific processes. Gaining a better understanding of how cancer cells survive during detachment from the ECM will be instrumental in designing chemotherapeutic strategies that aim to eliminate ECM-detached metastatic cells.

  6. The Potential Role of Nitric Oxide in Halting Cancer Progression Through Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Vahora, Huzefa; Khan, Munawwar Ali; Alalami, Usama; Hussain, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) in general plays a beneficial physiological role as a vasorelaxant and the role of NO is decided by its concentration present in physiological environments. NO either facilitates cancer-promoting characters or act as an anti-cancer agent. The dilemma in this regard still remains unanswered. This review summarizes the recent information on NO and its role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression, as well as dietary chemopreventive agents which have NO-modulating properties with safe cytotoxic profile. Understanding the molecular mechanisms and cross-talk modulating NO effect by these chemopreventive agents can allow us to develop better therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. PMID:27051643

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinases: The Gene Expression Signatures of Head and Neck Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Shinji; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Kudo, Yasusei

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression by promoting motility, invasion and angiogenesis. Studies have shown that MMP expression is increased in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), one of the most common cancers in the world, and contributes to poor outcome. In this review, we examine the expression pattern of MMPs in HNSCC by microarray datasets and summarize the current knowledge of MMPs, specifically MMP-1, -3, -7 -10, -12, -13, 14 and -19, that are highly expressed in HNSCCs and involved cancer invasion and angiogenesis. PMID:24531055

  8. Obesity and Cancer Progression: Is There a Role of Fatty Acid Metabolism?

    PubMed Central

    Balaban, Seher; Lee, Lisa S.; Schreuder, Mark; Hoy, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is renewed interest in elucidating the metabolic characteristics of cancer and how these characteristics may be exploited as therapeutic targets. Much attention has centered on glucose, glutamine and de novo lipogenesis, yet the metabolism of fatty acids that arise from extracellular, as well as intracellular, stores as triacylglycerol has received much less attention. This review focuses on the key pathways of fatty acid metabolism, including uptake, esterification, lipolysis, and mitochondrial oxidation, and how the regulators of these pathways are altered in cancer. Additionally, we discuss the potential link that fatty acid metabolism may serve between obesity and changes in cancer progression. PMID:25866768

  9. Role of Smac/DIABLO in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Ruiz, Gustavo; Maldonado, Vilma; Ceballos-Cancino, Gisela; Grajeda, Juan P Reyes; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2008-09-26

    Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase/direct inhibitor of apoptosis-binding protein with low pI (Smac/DIABLO) is a proapoptogenic mitochondrial protein that is released to the cytosol in response to diverse apoptotic stimuli, including commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs. In the cytosol, Smac/DIABLO interacts and antagonizes inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), thus allowing the activation of caspases and apoptosis. This activity has prompted the synthesis of peptidomimetics that could potentially be used in cancer therapy. For these reasons, several authors have analyzed the expression levels of Smac/DIABLO in samples of patients from different tumors. Although dissimilar results have been found, a tissue-specific role of this protein emerges from the data. The objective of this review is to present the current knowledge of the Smac/DIABLO role in cancer and its possible use as a marker or therapeutic target for drug design.

  10. Role of Smac/DIABLO in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Ruiz, Gustavo; Maldonado, Vilma; Ceballos-Cancino, Gisela; Grajeda, Juan P Reyes; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase/direct inhibitor of apoptosis-binding protein with low pI (Smac/DIABLO) is a proapoptogenic mitochondrial protein that is released to the cytosol in response to diverse apoptotic stimuli, including commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs. In the cytosol, Smac/DIABLO interacts and antagonizes inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), thus allowing the activation of caspases and apoptosis. This activity has prompted the synthesis of peptidomimetics that could potentially be used in cancer therapy. For these reasons, several authors have analyzed the expression levels of Smac/DIABLO in samples of patients from different tumors. Although dissimilar results have been found, a tissue-specific role of this protein emerges from the data. The objective of this review is to present the current knowledge of the Smac/DIABLO role in cancer and its possible use as a marker or therapeutic target for drug design. PMID:18822137

  11. Androgen Metabolism in Progression to Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    is reduced to DHT primarily by the type 2 5α-reductase (SRD5A2). Selective inhibition of type 2 5α-reductase with finasteride can decrease PC...PJ, Tangen CM, et al. The influence of finasteride on the development of prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;349:215-224. 27. Thomas LN, Douglas RC...51 (89) Nilutamide 6 (11) Flutamide 5 (9) Finasteride 2 (4) Estrogens (including estramustine) 8 (14) Chemotherapy 3 (5) At

  12. The Role of Central Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    part of a three-PI team for this synergy grant, our goal is to: 1. To identify differentially expressed proteins and phosphoproteins in prostate cancer...be able to start analyzing the clinical serum/ plasma samples within the next three months and finish the global expression proteomics part of the...ABSTRACT 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U UU 5 19b

  13. A Forward Genetic Screening for Prostate Cancer Progression Genes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    epidermis. This compartment contains the stem and progenitor cells that give rise to the hair follicle , sebaceous gland, and interfollicular epidermis [39...arises from stem cells in the epidermis and hair follicle [43,44]. Furthermore, histopathol- ogy of the skin tumors revealed palisading basaloid cells...Basal cell carcinomas arise from hair follicle stem cells in Ptch1(+/-) mice. Cancer Cell 19: 114–124. 44. Youssef KK, Van Keymeulen A, Lapouge G, Beck

  14. Discovery of Novel Gene Elements Associated with Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this...two independent cohorts of prostate tissues confirmed predicted cancer- specific expression patterns ( data for PCAT-1 is shown in Figure 1B...Supporting our overexpression data , knockdown of PCAT-1 with three independent siRNA oligos resulted in a 25% - 50% decrease in cell proliferation in LNCaP

  15. The Role ERG and CXCR4 in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    35] Maroni P , Bendinelli P , Matteucci E, and Desiderio MA (2007). HGF induces CXCR4 and CXCL12-mediated tumor invasion through Ets1 and NF-κB. Car...Symposium on Prostate Cancer. Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA. May 23-24, 2011. Publication: Cai, J., Kandagatla, P ., Singareddy, R...M., Pawitan, Y., Lee, C., Adami, H. O., Mucci, L. A., Kantoff, P . W., Andersson, S. O., Chinnaiyan, A. M., Johansson, J. E., and Rubin, M. A

  16. Novel Role of ANX7 in Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    measured microfluorometrically using MDA-MB- 435 cells loaded with the fluorescent Ca indicator Fura - 2 . Cells on glass coverslips were loaded Basal Ca...increase in ratio (F 340/F 38 0) induced by 100 jtM ACh in control and transfected cells. 15 with the membrane-permeable form of the indicator ( Fura - 2 ...breast cancer cell growth using cDNA microarray. 2 . We showed that regulating ANX7 levels involves apoptotic events and calcium response. In addition

  17. MicroRNAs to Pathways in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    from hyperplasia to dysplasia. These connections support a model where basal cell expansion and senescence form barriers for the transition to...tumors. Of course, blocking Drosha could be harmful to normal tissues as well. However, a partial block may be tolerable for normal tissues by...the processing machinery are tightly regulated by homeostatic feedback mechanisms in normal tissues [1–4]. However, in cancers, these levels can be

  18. Role of Reactive Stroma in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    approach, we are placing an inducible Cre recombinase behind the FAP gene promoter to target expression to reactive stroma. We will cross this mouse...using the FAP gene to specifically target the expression of an inducible Cre recombinase to cancer associated reactive stroma. Three Specific Aims and...inducible Cre recombinase (CrePR1) into the fibroblast activation protein (FAP) locus. This Aim is to generate a transgenic mouse that uses the FAP

  19. Annexin II Dependent Mechanism of Breast Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    dependent plasminogen activation. Biochemistry , 37: 16958-16966, 1998. 10 17. blasi, F. a. S., M.P Proteases and cancer invasion: from belief to certainty...2005. 29. Menaa, C., Devlin , R. D., Reddy, S. V., Gazitt, Y., Choi, S. J., and Roodman, G. D. Annexin II increases osteoclast formation by...Chirgwin, J. M., Devlin , R., Haipek, C., Anderson, J., and Roodman, G. D. Cloning and identification of annexin II as an autocrine/paracrine factor that

  20. Analysis of Preneoplasia Associated with Progression to Prostatic Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    mechanism underlying clonal evolution of PIN (Bostwick et al., 1998). The accumulation of genetic changes that occurs during the stepwise evolution from...Begley L, MacDonald JW, Squire JA. Evolution of 8p loss in transformed human prostate epithelial cells. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2004; 154(1): 36-43. 18...of human malignancies. Below we will summarise the evolution of WGA methods (both PCR and non-PCR based) as well as discuss the limitations of each

  1. Role of ETS Oncogenes in the Progression of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    EWS, on chromosome 22, solid tumors including Ewing sarcoma, related with either Fli-1 or erg genes, located on chromosomes 11 primitive ... neuroectodermal tumors , malignant and 21, respectively. The erg and Fli-I are members of the melanoma of soft parts and desmoplastic small round ets oncogene super...for these proteins in cell cycle regulation, tumor suppression, transcription activation, etc. Breast cancers have a reduced ability to undergo cell

  2. The Role of Central Metabolism in Prostrate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    6 Introduction Work from our laboratories and others suggests that the metabolites of dietary omega ~ 3 and ~6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ...tumorigenic ones. PCa cells also have elevated fatty acid synthase (FASN). FASN regulates the expression of a myriad of genes, including the PUFA ...efficacy of daily oral doses of purified fish oil omega ~3 fatty acid in prostate cancer patients scheduled to have a Radical Prostatectomy (RP). Through

  3. Androgen Metabolism in Progression to Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    related hormones. BJU. Int. 101, 1084- 1089 . Bao,B.Y., Chuang,B.F., Wang,Q., Sartor,O., Balk,S.P., Brown,M., Kantoff,P.W., and Lee,G.S. (2008). Androgen...in castration- resistant prostate cancer, with a correlative assessment of androgen-related hormones. BJU. Int. 101, 1084- 1089 . Bao,B.Y., Chuang,B.F

  4. Emerging roles of T helper 17 and regulatory T cells in lung cancer progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Erin A; Ng, Kevin W; Kung, Sonia H Y; Conway, Emma M; Martinez, Victor D; Halvorsen, Elizabeth C; Rowbotham, David A; Vucic, Emily A; Plumb, Adam W; Becker-Santos, Daiana D; Enfield, Katey S S; Kennett, Jennifer Y; Bennewith, Kevin L; Lockwood, William W; Lam, Stephen; English, John C; Abraham, Ninan; Lam, Wan L

    2016-10-27

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Lung cancer risk factors, including smoking and exposure to environmental carcinogens, have been linked to chronic inflammation. An integral feature of inflammation is the activation, expansion and infiltration of diverse immune cell types, including CD4(+) T cells. Within this T cell subset are immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells and pro-inflammatory T helper 17 (Th17) cells that act in a fine balance to regulate appropriate adaptive immune responses.In the context of lung cancer, evidence suggests that Tregs promote metastasis and metastatic tumor foci development. Additionally, Th17 cells have been shown to be an integral component of the inflammatory milieu in the tumor microenvironment, and potentially involved in promoting distinct lung tumor phenotypes. Studies have shown that the composition of Tregs and Th17 cells are altered in the tumor microenvironment, and that these two CD4(+) T cell subsets play active roles in promoting lung cancer progression and metastasis.We review current knowledge on the influence of Treg and Th17 cells on lung cancer tumorigenesis, progression, metastasis and prognosis. Furthermore, we discuss the potential biological and clinical implications of the balance among Treg/Th17 cells in the context of the lung tumor microenvironment and highlight the potential prognostic function and relationship to metastasis in lung cancer.

  5. Fulvestrant-mediated inhibition of estrogen receptor signaling slows lung cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hexiao; Liao, Yongde; Zhang, Chao; Chen, Guang; Xu, Liqiang; Liu, Zhaoguo; Fu, Shengling; Yu, Li; Zhou, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are key signaling molecules that regulate various physiological processes such as cell growth, development, and differentiation. They also play a major role in many pathological conditions, such as hormone-dependent cancer. The importance of inhibiting estrogen receptor signaling in diseases of estrogen target tissues, such as breast cancer, is well documented. However, the role of estrogen signaling in diseases of nontarget tissues, such as lung cancer, is not well characterized. The aim of the current study is to examine the expression of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) and the roles of estradiol (E2) and fulvestrant on the progression of lung cancer. Tissue microarray (TMA) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses were used to detect the expression of aromatase, ERα, and ERβ in 198 patients. We performed analyses to determine if there was any correlation among these three proteins. A mouse model of urethane-induced lung adenocarcinoma was used in the study. Mice were divided into three treatment groups: blank control, E2 alone, and E2 + fulvestrant (ERβ antagonist). Western blot analysis and fluorescence quantitative PCR (FQ-PCR) were used to measure expression of ERβ protein and mRNA levels, respectively. ERβ, but not ERα, was overexpressed in NSCLC samples. Lung cancer progression in mice treated with E2 was significantly increased compared to either the control group or the E2 + fulvestrant group. Mice in the E2 treatment group had significantly increased expression of ERβ at both the mRNA and protein levels compared to mice treated with E2 + fulvestrant or control. Our data suggest that ERβ promotes lung cancer progression in mice and that this progression can be inhibited with fulvestrant. These findings may help elucidate the role of ERβ in lung cancer and suggest that estrogen receptor antagonists, such as fulvestrant, may be therapeutically beneficial for the treatment of the disease.

  6. Topical immunomodulators--progress towards treating inflammation, infection, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Hengge, U R; Benninghoff, B; Ruzicka, T; Goos, M

    2001-10-01

    Immunomodulators include both immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive agents. Only recently have the basic mechanisms of topical immunotherapy been elucidated. Besides topical contact sensitisers (eg, diphencyprone or dinitrochlorobenzene), newer agents of the imidazoquinoline family such as imiquimod and resiquimod act by inducing cytokine secretion from monocytes or macrophages (interferon-alpha, interleukin-12, tumour-necrosis factor-alpha). The locally generated immune milieu leads to a Th1-dominance and cell-mediated immunity that have been used clinically to treat viral infections such as human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), mollusca, and cancerous lesions including initial squamous cell and basal cell carcinoma in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. While these agents improve antigen-presentation by dendritic cells, they also act on B cells and lead to the synthesis of antibodies such as IgG2a much like the recently discovered immunostimulatory CpG-sequences that stimulate innate immunity. These sequences act as "danger signals" since they occur in bacterial and viral DNA, but are selectively methylated and inactivated in the mammalian genome. They share the induction of the same cytokines as imidazoquinolines but they show different magnitudes and kinetics of response. Topical immunotherapy with immunostimulatory agents shows potential for effective and patient-friendly treatment of inflammatory, infectious, and cancerous skin diseases. Immunoenhancers such as imdazoquinolines and CpG-sequences also have adjuvant properties that could improve conventional (protein) and DNA vaccination against cancer, atopy, and allergies.

  7. Role of MAPK Activation in Prostate Cancer Development and Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    tumor progression and maintenance. (A) Schematic representation of CI-1040 (a MEK inhibitor ) treatment protocol using tissue recombination. Tissue...However, the tumor size with the treatment of a MEK inhibitor significantly increased compared to vehicle treated ones in tissue recombination...expression is often found to be elevated and B- Raf inhibitor expression reduced in human prostate tumors (25). Lastly, ETV1/ER85, a partner in the

  8. Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 expression accelerates skin cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Rao, Velidi H; Vogel, Kristen; Yanagida, Jodi K; Marwaha, Nitin; Kandel, Amrit; Trempus, Carol; Repertinger, Susan K; Hansen, Laura A

    2015-10-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause severe damage to the skin and is the primary cause of most skin cancer. UV radiation causes DNA damage leading to mutations and also activates the Erbb2/HER2 receptor through indirect mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that Erbb2 activation accelerates the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Following the induction of benign squamous papillomas by UV exposure of v-ras(Ha) transgenic Tg.AC mice, mice were treated topically with the Erbb2 inhibitor AG825 and tumor progression monitored. AG825 treatment reduced tumor volume, increased tumor regression, and delayed the development of malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Progression to malignancy was associated with increased Erbb2 and ADAM12 (A Disintegin And Metalloproteinase 12) transcripts and protein, while inhibition of Erbb2 blocked the increase in ADAM12 message upon malignant progression. Similarly, human SCC and SCC cell lines had increased ADAM12 protein and transcripts when compared to normal controls. To determine whether Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 contributed to malignant progression of skin cancer, Erbb2 expression was modulated in cultured SCC cells using forced over-expression or siRNA targeting, demonstrating up-regulation of ADAM12 by Erbb2. Furthermore, ADAM12 transfection or siRNA targeting revealed that ADAM12 increased both the migration and invasion of cutaneous SCC cells. Collectively, these results suggest Erbb2 up-regulation of ADAM12 as a novel mechanism contributing to the malignant progression of UV-induced skin cancer. Inhibition of Erbb2/HER2 reduced tumor burden, increased tumor regression, and delayed the progression of benign skin tumors to malignant SCC in UV-exposed mice. Inhibition of Erbb2 suppressed the increase in metalloproteinase ADAM12 expression in skin tumors, which in turn increased migration and tumor cell invasiveness.

  9. Regulatory T Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Progression: Role and Therapeutic Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Belal; Elkord, Eyad

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have seen significant efforts in understanding and modulating the immune response in cancer. In this context, immunosuppressive cells, including regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), have come under intense investigation for their proposed roles in suppressing tumor-specific immune responses and establishing an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, thus enabling tumor immune evasion. Additionally, recent evidence indicates that Tregs comprise diverse and heterogeneous subsets; phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets of tumor-infiltrating Tregs could contribute differently to cancer prognosis and clinical outcomes. Understanding Treg biology in the setting of cancer, and specifically the tumor microenvironment, is important for designing effective cancer therapies. In this review, we critically examine the role of Tregs in the tumor microenvironment and in cancer progression focusing on human studies. We also discuss the impact of current therapeutic modalities on Treg biology and the therapeutic opportunities for targeting Tregs to enhance anti-tumor immune responses and clinical benefits. PMID:27509527

  10. Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors Study

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI press release about the launch of the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) study, which will look at factors affecting cancer progression, recurrence, mortality, and quality of life among African-American cancer survivors.

  11. Therapeutic Rationales, Progresses, Failures, and Future Directions for Advanced Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wadosky, Kristine M; Koochekpour, Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    Patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) have several therapeutic options with good prognosis. However, survival of patients with high-risk, advanced PCa is significantly less than patients with early-stage, organ-confined disease. Testosterone and other androgens have been directly linked to PCa progression since 1941. In this review, we chronicle the discoveries that led to modern therapeutic strategies for PCa. Specifically highlighted is the biology of androgen receptor (AR), the nuclear receptor transcription factor largely responsible for androgen-stimulated and castrate-recurrent (CR) PCa. Current PCa treatment paradigms can be classified into three distinct but interrelated categories: targeting AR at pre-receptor, receptor, or post-receptor signaling. The continuing challenge of disease relapse as CR and/or metastatic tumors, destined to occur within three years of the initial treatment, is also discussed. We conclude that the success of PCa therapies in the future depends on targeting molecular mechanisms underlying tumor recurrence that still may affect AR at pre-receptor, receptor, and post-receptor levels. PMID:27019626

  12. Impact of hyperhomocysteinemia on breast cancer initiation and progression: epigenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Naushad, Shaik Mohammad; Reddy, Cheruku Apoorva; Kumaraswami, Konda; Divyya, Shree; Kotamraju, Srigiridhar; Gottumukkala, Suryanarayana Raju; Digumarti, Raghunadha Rao; Kutala, Vijay Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Our recent study showing association of hyperhomocysteinemia and hypomethioninemia in breast cancer and other studies indicating association of hyperhomocysteinemia with metastasis and development of drug resistance in breast cancer cells treated with homocysteine lead us to hypothesize that homocysteine might modulate the expression of certain tumor suppressors, i.e., RASSF1, RARβ1, CNND1, BRCA1, and p21, and might influence prognostic markers such as BNIP3 by inducing epigenetic alteration. To demonstrate this hypothesis, we have treated MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells with different doses of homocysteine and observed dose-dependent inhibition of BRCA1 and RASSF1, respectively. In breast cancer tissues, we observed the following expression pattern: BNIP3 > BRCA1 > RARβ1 > CCND1 > p21 > RASSF1. Hyperhomocysteinemia was positively associated with BRAC1 hypermethylation both in breast cancer tissue and corresponding peripheral blood. Peripheral blood CpG island methylation of BRCA1 in all types of breast cancer and methylation of RASSF1 in ER/PR-negative breast cancers showed positive correlation with total plasma homocysteine. The methylation of RASSF1 and BRCA1 was associated with breast cancer initiation as well as progression, while BRCA1 methylation was associated with DNA damage. Vitamin B12 showed inverse association with the methylation at both the loci. RFC1 G80A and cSHMT C1420T variants showed positive association with methylation at both the loci. Genetic variants influencing remethylation step were associated positively with BRCA1 methylation and inversely with RASSF1 methylation. GCPII C1561T variant showed inverse association with BRCA1 methylation. We found good correlation of BRAC1 (r = 0.90) and RASSF1 (0.92) methylation pattern between the breast cancer tissue and the corresponding peripheral blood. To conclude, elevated homocysteine influences methionine dependency phenotype of breast cancer cells and is associated with breast cancer progression by

  13. Overexpression of G protein-coupled receptors in cancer cells: involvement in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyu; Huang, Shuguang; Peng, Sheng-Bin

    2005-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play important roles in a variety of biological and pathological processes. They are considered among the most desirable targets for drug development. Recent studies have demonstrated that many GPCRs, such as endothelin receptors, chemokine receptors and lysophosphatidic acid receptors have been implicated in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of multiple human cancers. In this study, we conducted an in silico analysis of GPCR gene expression in primary human tumors by analyzing some publicly available gene expression profiling data. Statistical analysis was performed on eight microarray data sets of non-small cell lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, melanoma, gastric cancer and diffused large B cell lymphoma to identify GPCRs that are up-regulated in primary or metastatic cancer cells. Our analysis has demonstrated overexpression of several GPCRs in primary tumor cells, including chemokine receptors and protease-activated receptors that were shown to be important for tumorigenesis by previous studies. In addition, we have uncovered several GPCRs, such as neuropeptide receptors, adenosine A2B receptor, P2Y purinoceptor, calcium-sensing receptor and metabotropic glutamate receptors, that are expressed at a significantly higher level in some cancer tissue and may play a role in cancer progression. Analysis of cancer samples in different disease stages also suggests that some GPCRs, such as endothelin receptor A, may be involved in early tumor progression and others, such as CXCR4, may play a critical role in tumor invasion and metastasis. The present study demonstrates the value of publicly available microarray data as a resource to gain more understanding of cancer biology, to validate previous findings from in vitro experiments, and to identify potential novel anticancer targets and biomarkers.

  14. Role of the immune system in pancreatic cancer progression and immune modulating treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Sideras, K; Braat, H; Kwekkeboom, J; van Eijck, C H; Peppelenbosch, M P; Sleijfer, S; Bruno, M

    2014-05-01

    Traditional chemotherapeutics have largely failed to date to produce significant improvements in pancreatic cancer survival. One of the reasons for the resilience of pancreatic cancer towards intensive treatment is that the cancer is capable of high jacking the immune system: during disease progression the immune system is converted from a system that attacks tumor cells into a support structure for the cancer, exerting trophic actions on the cancer cells. This turn-around of immune system action is achieved through mobilization and activation of regulatory T cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages and fibroblasts, all of which suppress CD8 T cells and NK cells. This immune suppression occurs both through the expression of tolerance-inducing cell surface molecules, such as PD-L1, as well as through the production of "tolerogenic" cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. Based on the accumulating insight into the importance of the immune system for the outcome of pancreatic cancer patients multiple new immunotherapeutic approaches against pancreatic cancer are being currently tested in clinical trials. In this review we give an overview of both the immune escaping mechanisms of pancreatic cancer as well as the new immune related therapeutic strategies currently being tested in pancreatic cancer clinical trials.

  15. Monitoring the progression of metastatic breast cancer on nanoporous silica chips

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jia; Deng, Xiaoyong; Gallagher, James W.; Huang, Haiyu; Huang, Yi; Wen, Jianguo; Ferrari, Mauro; Shen, Haifa; Hu, Ye

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer accounted for 15 per cent of total cancer deaths in female patients in 2010. Although significant progress has been made in treating early-stage breast cancer patients, there is still no effective therapy targeting late-stage metastatic breast cancers except for the conventional chemotherapy interventions. Until effective therapy for later-stage cancers emerges, the identification of biomarkers for the early detection of tumour metastasis continues to hold the key to successful management of breast cancer therapy. Our study concentrated on the low molecular weight (LMW) region of the serum protein and the information it contains for identifying biomarkers that could reflect the ongoing physiological state of all tissues. Owing to technical difficulties in harvesting LMW species, studying these proteins/peptides has been challenging until now. In our study, we have recently developed nanoporous chip-based technologies to separate small proteins/peptides from the large proteins in serum. We used nanoporous silica chips, with a highly periodic nanostructure and uniform pore size distribution, to isolate LMW proteins and peptides from the serum of nude mice with MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer lung metastasis. By matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and biostatistical analysis, we were able to identify protein signatures unique to different stages of cancer development. The approach and results reported in this study possess a significant potential for the discovery of proteomic biomarkers that may significantly enhance personalized medicine targeted at metastatic breast cancer. PMID:22509065

  16. Role of abnormal lipid metabolism in development, progression, diagnosis and therapy of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swierczynski, Julian; Hebanowska, Areta; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic alterations play an important role in cancer development and progression. The metabolism of cancer cells is reprogrammed in order to support their rapid proliferation. Elevated fatty acid synthesis is one of the most important aberrations of cancer cell metabolism. An enhancement of fatty acids synthesis is required both for carcinogenesis and cancer cell survival, as inhibition of key lipogenic enzymes slows down the growth of tumor cells and impairs their survival. Based on the data that serum fatty acid synthase (FASN), also known as oncoantigen 519, is elevated in patients with certain types of cancer, its serum level was proposed as a marker of neoplasia. This review aims to demonstrate the changes in lipid metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with lipid metabolism in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common pancreatic neoplasm, characterized by high mortality. We also addressed the influence of some oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors on pancreatic cancer cell metabolism. Additionally the review discusses the potential role of elevated lipid synthesis in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. In particular, FASN is a viable candidate for indicator of pathologic state, marker of neoplasia, as well as, pharmacological treatment target in pancreatic cancer. Recent research showed that, in addition to lipogenesis, certain cancer cells can use fatty acids from circulation, derived from diet (chylomicrons), synthesized in liver, or released from adipose tissue for their growth. Thus, the interactions between de novo lipogenesis and uptake of fatty acids from circulation by PDAC cells require further investigation. PMID:24605027

  17. Dual Roles of RNF2 in Melanoma Progression | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Epigenetic regulators have emerged as critical factors governing the biology of cancer. Here, in the context of melanoma, we show that RNF2 is prognostic, exhibiting progression-correlated expression in human melanocytic neoplasms. Through a series of complementary gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in mouse and human systems, we establish that RNF2 is oncogenic and prometastatic.

  18. Magnetic-mediated hyperthermia for cancer treatment: Research progress and clinical trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ling-Yun; Liu, Jia-Yi; Ouyang, Wei-Wei; Li, Dan-Ye; Li, Li; Li, Li-Ya; Tang, Jin-Tian

    2013-10-01

    Research progress and frontiers of magnetic-mediated hyperthermia (MMH) are presented, along with clinical trials in Germany, the US, Japan, and China. Special attention is focused on MMH mediated by magnetic nanoparticles, and multifunctional magnetic devices for cancer multimodality treatment are also introduced.

  19. The Interplay of Reactive Oxygen Species, Hypoxia, Inflammation, and Sirtuins in Cancer Initiation and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Luigi; Limana, Federica; Arcangeli, Tania; De Santis, Elena; Polese, Milena; Fini, Massimo; Russo, Matteo A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of ROS is a constant feature in living cells metabolizing O2. ROS concentration and compartmentation determine their physiological or pathological effects. ROS overproduction is a feature of cancer cells and plays several roles during the natural history of malignant tumor. ROS continuously contribute to each step of cancerogenesis, from the initiation to the malignant progression, acting directly or indirectly. In this review, we will (a) underline the role of ROS in the pathway leading a normal cell to tumor transformation and progression, (b) define the multiple roles of ROS during the natural history of a tumor, (c) conciliate many conflicting data about harmful or beneficial effects of ROS, (d) rethink the importance of oncogene and tumor suppressor gene mutations in relation to the malignant progression, and (e) collocate all the cancer hallmarks in a mechanistic sequence which could represent a “physiological” response to the initial growth of a transformed stem/pluripotent cell, defining also the role of ROS in each hallmark. We will provide a simplified sketch about the relationships between ROS and cancer. The attention will be focused on the contribution of ROS to the signaling of HIF, NFκB, and Sirtuins as a leitmotif of cancer initiation and progression. PMID:26798421

  20. CD24 Is a Genetic Modifier for Risk and Progression of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifan; Li, Bingjin; Zhang, Xingyi; Sonpavde, Guru P.; Jiao, Kenneth; Zhang, Andrea; Zhang, Guangxin; Sun, Mei; Chu, Chengjing; Li, Feng; Wang, Lizhong; Cui, Ranji; Liu, Runhua

    2016-01-01

    CD24 plays an oncogenic role in the onset and progression of various human cancers, including prostate cancer. In the present study, we identified two linkage disequilibrium blocks with four recombination hotspot motifs in human CD24 locus. To elucidate whether genetic variants of CD24 associated with susceptibility to prostate cancer and its disease status, we conducted a case-control association study with two P170 C/T and P-534 A/C polymorphisms of CD24 in 590 patients with prostate cancer and 590 healthy controls. A significant increased risk of prostate cancer was found in men with the P170T/T genotype over the P170C/C genotype (odd ratio=1.74, 95% confidence interval=1.16–2.63, P=0.008), and in men with the P-534C/C genotype over the P-534A/A genotype (odd ratio=1.47, 95% confidence interval=1.18–2.26, P=0.003). Cochran-Armitage trend analysis showed that the P170T allele was significantly correlated with an increased risk of prostate cancer progression (P = 0.029, trend between genotypes and stages) and this observation was also validated in an independent sample cohort. Next, we found that tumors with P170T or P-534C alleles had more 2-fold increased protein expressions of CD24 as compared to those with P170C or P-534A alleles, respectively. Likewise, tumors with a combination of P170T/T and P-534C/C genotypes were associated with a high mRNA level of CD24. Our data suggest a significant association of CD24 genetic variants with prostate cancer onset and progression, which provides new insight into molecular genetics of prostate cancer; however, these findings need to be validated in multiple independent cohorts. PMID:27377469

  1. The lncRNA landscape of breast cancer reveals a role for DSCAM-AS1 in breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Niknafs, Yashar S.; Han, Sumin; Ma, Teng; Speers, Corey; Zhang, Chao; Wilder-Romans, Kari; Iyer, Matthew K.; Pitchiaya, Sethuramasundaram; Malik, Rohit; Hosono, Yasuyuki; Prensner, John R.; Poliakov, Anton; Singhal, Udit; Xiao, Lanbo; Kregel, Steven; Siebenaler, Ronald F.; Zhao, Shuang G.; Uhl, Michael; Gawronski, Alexander; Hayes, Daniel F.; Pierce, Lori J.; Cao, Xuhong; Collins, Colin; Backofen, Rolf; Sahinalp, Cenk S.; Rae, James M.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Feng, Felix Y.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular classification of cancers into subtypes has resulted in an advance in our understanding of tumour biology and treatment response across multiple tumour types. However, to date, cancer profiling has largely focused on protein-coding genes, which comprise <1% of the genome. Here we leverage a compendium of 58,648 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) to subtype 947 breast cancer samples. We show that lncRNA-based profiling categorizes breast tumours by their known molecular subtypes in breast cancer. We identify a cohort of breast cancer-associated and oestrogen-regulated lncRNAs, and investigate the role of the top prioritized oestrogen receptor (ER)-regulated lncRNA, DSCAM-AS1. We demonstrate that DSCAM-AS1 mediates tumour progression and tamoxifen resistance and identify hnRNPL as an interacting protein involved in the mechanism of DSCAM-AS1 action. By highlighting the role of DSCAM-AS1 in breast cancer biology and treatment resistance, this study provides insight into the potential clinical implications of lncRNAs in breast cancer. PMID:27666543

  2. Deregulation of MiR-34b/Sox2 Predicts Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Maria Veronica; Gazzano, Giacomo; Giangiobbe, Sara; Montanari, Emanuele; Del Nero, Alberto; Rocco, Bernardo; Albo, Giancarlo; Languino, Lucia R.; Altieri, Dario C.; Vaira, Valentina; Bosari, Silvano

    2015-01-01

    Most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will have an indolent and curable disease, whereas approximately 15% of these patients will rapidly progress to a castrate-resistant and metastatic stage with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the identification of molecular signature(s) that detect men at risk of progressing disease remains a pressing and still unmet need for these patients. Here, we used an integrated discovery platform combining prostate cancer cell lines, a Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model and clinically-annotated human tissue samples to identify loss of expression of microRNA-34b as consistently associated with prostate cancer relapse. Mechanistically, this was associated with epigenetics silencing of the MIR34B/C locus and increased DNA copy number loss, selectively in androgen-dependent prostate cancer. In turn, loss of miR-34b resulted in downstream deregulation and overexpression of the “stemness” marker, Sox2. These findings identify loss of miR-34b as a robust biomarker for prostate cancer progression in androgen-sensitive tumors, and anticipate a potential role of progenitor/stem cell signaling in this stage of disease. PMID:26107383

  3. Stress-resistant Translation of Cathepsin L mRNA in Breast Cancer Progression*

    PubMed Central

    Tholen, Martina; Wolanski, Julia; Stolze, Britta; Chiabudini, Marco; Gajda, Mieczyslaw; Bronsert, Peter; Stickeler, Elmar; Rospert, Sabine; Reinheckel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The cysteine protease cathepsin L (CTSL) is often thought to act as a tumor promoter by enhancing tumor progression and metastasis. This goes along with increased CTSL activity in various tumor entities; however, the mechanisms leading to high CTSL levels are incompletely understood. With the help of the polyoma middle T oncogene driven breast cancer mouse model expressing a human CTSL genomic transgene, we show that CTSL indeed promotes breast cancer metastasis to the lung. During tumor formation and progression high expression levels of CTSL are maintained by enduring translation of CTSL mRNA. Interestingly, human breast cancer specimens expressed the same pattern of 5′ untranslated region (UTR) splice variants as the transgenic mice and the human cancer cell line MDA-MB 321. By polyribosome profiling of tumor tissues and human breast cancer cells, we observe an intrinsic resistance of CTSL to stress-induced shutdown of translation. This ability can be attributed to all 5′ UTR variants of CTSL and is not dependent on a previously described internal ribosomal entry site motif. In conclusion, we provide in vivo functional evidence for overexpressed CTSL as a promoter of lung metastasis, whereas high CTSL levels are maintained during tumor progression due to stress-resistant mRNA translation. PMID:25957406

  4. Metabolic genes in cancer: their roles in tumor progression and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Eiji; Okuda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Aya; Watabe, Kounosuke

    2010-01-01

    Re-programming of metabolic pathways is a hallmark of physiological changes in cancer cells. The expression of certain genes that directly control the rate of key metabolic pathways including glycolysis, lipogenesis and nucleotide synthesis are drastically altered at different stages of tumor progression. These alterations are generally considered as an adaptation of tumor cells; however, they also contribute to the progression of tumor cells to become more aggressive phenotypes. This review summarizes the recent information about the mechanistic link of these genes to oncogenesis and their potential utility as diagnostic markers as well as for therapeutic targets. We particularly focus on three groups of genes; GLUT1, G6PD, TKTL1 and PGI/AMF in glycolytic pathway, ACLY, ACC1 and FAS in lipogenesis and RRM1, RRM2 and TYMS for nucleotide synthesis. All these genes are highly up-regulated in a variety of tumor cells in cancer patients, and they play active roles in tumor progression rather than expressing merely as a consequence of phenotypic change of the cancer cells. Molecular dissection of their orchestrated networks and understanding the exact mechanism of their expression will provide a window of opportunity to target these genes for specific cancer therapy. We also reviewed existing database of gene microarray to validate the utility of these genes for cancer diagnosis. PMID:20122995

  5. Nanochips of Tantalum Oxide Nanodots as artificial-microenvironments for monitoring Ovarian cancer progressiveness

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Udesh; Wang, Ssu-Meng; Chu, Ying Hao; Huang, Guewha S.; Lin, Yan Ren; Hung, Yao Ching; Chen, Wen Liang

    2016-01-01

    Nanotopography modulates cell characteristics and cell behavior. Nanotopological cues can be exploited to investigate the in-vivo modulation of cell characteristics by the cellular microenvironment. However, the studies explaining the modulation of tumor cell characteristics and identifying the transition step in cancer progressiveness are scarce. Here, we engineered nanochips comprising of Tantalum oxide nanodot arrays of 10, 50, 100 and 200 nm as artificial microenvironments to study the modulation of cancer cell behavior. Clinical samples of different types of Ovarian cancer at different stages were obtained, primary cultures were established and then seeded on different nanochips. Immunofluorescence (IF) was performed to compare the morphologies and cell characteristics. Indices corresponding to cell characteristics were defined. A statistical comparison of the cell characteristics in response to the nanochips was performed. The cells displayed differential growth parameters. Morphology, Viability, focal adhesions, microfilament bundles and cell area were modulated by the nanochips which can be used as a measure to study the cancer progressiveness. The ease of fabrication of nanochips ensures mass-production. The ability of the nanochips to act as artificial microenvironments and modulate cell behavior may lead to further prospects in the markerless monitoring of the progressiveness and ultimately, improving the prognosis of Ovarian cancer. PMID:27534915

  6. Nanochips of Tantalum Oxide Nanodots as artificial-microenvironments for monitoring Ovarian cancer progressiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhawan, Udesh; Wang, Ssu-Meng; Chu, Ying Hao; Huang, Guewha S.; Lin, Yan Ren; Hung, Yao Ching; Chen, Wen Liang

    2016-08-01

    Nanotopography modulates cell characteristics and cell behavior. Nanotopological cues can be exploited to investigate the in-vivo modulation of cell characteristics by the cellular microenvironment. However, the studies explaining the modulation of tumor cell characteristics and identifying the transition step in cancer progressiveness are scarce. Here, we engineered nanochips comprising of Tantalum oxide nanodot arrays of 10, 50, 100 and 200 nm as artificial microenvironments to study the modulation of cancer cell behavior. Clinical samples of different types of Ovarian cancer at different stages were obtained, primary cultures were established and then seeded on different nanochips. Immunofluorescence (IF) was performed to compare the morphologies and cell characteristics. Indices corresponding to cell characteristics were defined. A statistical comparison of the cell characteristics in response to the nanochips was performed. The cells displayed differential growth parameters. Morphology, Viability, focal adhesions, microfilament bundles and cell area were modulated by the nanochips which can be used as a measure to study the cancer progressiveness. The ease of fabrication of nanochips ensures mass-production. The ability of the nanochips to act as artificial microenvironments and modulate cell behavior may lead to further prospects in the markerless monitoring of the progressiveness and ultimately, improving the prognosis of Ovarian cancer.

  7. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer: recent progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Yazan S; Ammori, Basil J; Elkord, Eyad

    2013-09-01

    Immunosuppressive cells, mainly myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and T regulatory cells, downregulate antitumour immunity and cancer immunotherapy. MDSCs are a heterogeneous group of immature myeloid cells that negatively regulate the immune responses during tumour progression, inflammation and infection. Whilst there have been extensive laboratory investigations aimed at characterising the MDSC subsets in cancer, there remains a significant gap in our understanding of their phenotypical and functional heterogeneity. In this article, we review data concerning the phenotypical and functional role of MDSCs in cancers. Importantly, we analyse the value of MDSCs as a prognostic factor in various clinical settings and the possible therapeutic approaches towards elimination of their immunosuppressive activity and enhancement of beneficial antitumour immune responses. MDSCs promote tumour immune evasion by inhibiting T-cell responses, as well as by supporting tumour progression. Accumulation of MDSCs is associated with the progression of human cancers, and their elimination was shown to improve anti-tumour immune responses. Phenotypical characterisation of MDSCs has been poorly investigated in many human cancers and lacks comprehensive clinicopathological correlation data. Although the need for effective therapeutic agents to eliminate the MDSC suppressive effect is immense, their role has been examined only in a few clinical settings.

  8. Conditional ablation of TGF-β signaling inhibits tumor progression and invasion in an induced mouse bladder cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yu; Zhu, Fengyu; Zhang, Haojie; Chen, Demeng; Zhang, Xiuhong; Gao, Qian; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The role of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling in cancer progression is still under debate. To determine the function of TGF-β signaling in bladder cancer progression, we conditionally knocked out the Tgfbr2 in mouse model after a N-butyl-N-4-hydroxybutyl Nitrosamine induced bladder carcinogenesis. We found the ablation of TGF-β signaling could inhibit the cancer cell proliferation, cancer stem cell population and EMT, hence suppressed the invasive cancer progression, which is similar with the result of TGF-β receptor I inhibitor treatment. These findings recognize the roles and mechanisms of TGF-β signaling in bladder cancer progression in vivo for the first time. PMID:27378170

  9. Copper and angiogenesis : unraveling a relationship key to cancer progression.

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, L. F.; Vogt, S. V.; Fukai, TF; Glesne, DG; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries from existing vasculature, is a critical process in normal physiology as well as several physiopathologies. A desire to curb the supportive role angiogenesis plays in the development and metastasis of cancers has driven exploration into anti-angiogenic strategies as cancer therapeutics. Key to this, angiogenesis additionally displays an exquisite sensitivity to bioavailable copper. Depletion of copper has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in a wide variety of cancer cell and xenograft systems. Several clinical trials using copper chelation as either an adjuvant or primary therapy have been conducted. Yet, the biological basis for the sensitivity of angiogenesis remains unclear. Numerous molecules important to angiogenesis regulation have been shown to be either directly or indirectly influenced by copper, yet a clear probative answer to the connection remains elusive. Measurements of copper in biological systems have historically relied on techniques that, although demonstrably powerful, provide little or no information as to the spatial distribution of metals in a cellular context. Therefore, several new approaches have been developed to image copper in a biological context. One such approach relies on synchrotron-derived X-rays from third-generation synchrotrons and the technique of high resolution X-ray fluorescence microprobe (XFM) analysis. Recent applications of XFM approaches to the role of copper in regulating angiogenesis have provided unique insight into the connection between copper and cellular behaviour. Using XFM, copper has been shown to be highly spatially regulated, as it is translocated from perinuclear areas of the cell towards the tips of extending filopodia and across the cell membrane into the extracellular space during angiogenic processes. Such findings may explain the heightened sensitivity of this cellular process to this transition metal and set a new paradigm for the kinds of regulatory

  10. Copper and angiogenesis : unravelling a relationship key to cancer progression.

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, L. A.; Vogt, S.; Fukai, T.; Glesne, D.; Univ. of Illinois

    2009-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new capillaries from existing vasculature, is a critical process in normal physiology as well as several physiopathologies. A desire to curb the supportive role angiogenesis plays in the development and metastasis of cancers has driven exploration into anti-angiogenic strategies as cancer therapeutics. Key to this, angiogenesis additionally displays an exquisite sensitivity to bioavailable copper. Depletion of copper has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis in a wide variety of cancer cell and xenograft systems. Several clinical trials using copper chelation as either an adjuvant or primary therapy have been conducted. Yet, the biological basis for the sensitivity of angiogenesis remains unclear. Numerous molecules important to angiogenesis regulation have been shown to be either directly or indirectly influenced by copper, yet a clear probative answer to the connection remains elusive. Measurements of copper in biological systems have historically relied on techniques that, although demonstrably powerful, provide little or no information as to the spatial distribution of metals in a cellular context. Therefore, several new approaches have been developed to image copper in a biological context. One such approach relies on synchrotron-derived X-rays from third-generation synchrotrons and the technique of high resolution X-ray fluorescence microprobe (XFM) analysis. Recent applications of XFM approaches to the role of copper in regulating angiogenesis have provided unique insight into the connection between copper and cellular behaviour. Using XFM, copper has been shown to be highly spatially regulated, as it is translocated from perinuclear areas of the cell towards the tips of extending filopodia and across the cell membrane into the extracellular space during angiogenic processes. Such findings may explain the heightened sensitivity of this cellular process to this transition metal and set a new paradigm for the kinds of regulatory

  11. Role of ets Oncogenes in the Progression of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    4 Introduction 5-9 Body 9-17 Conclusion 17-18 Figures 19-31 References 32-36 Veena N. Rao, Ph.D. INTRODUCTION Majority of the ets-oncogene superfamily...threshold by BRCA 1/elk-I gene therapy may have the potential to prevent the progression of these malignancies. BODY Task 1 COMPLETED PREVIOUSLY Task 2...weights of ýý 175, 125 and BRCAI protein using several BRCA1 specific anti- 110 kD (Figure 2a). All these results suggest BRCA1 bodies in normal, breast

  12. Progression of Structural Change in the Breast Cancer Genome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    mutations),! NanoString !Copy!Number!Variation!beta!( NanoString !CNV;!targeted!copy!number),!bisulfite!converted! RainDance!targeted!amplification...process,!To!send=will!begin!in!~1!month.!! Patient Sample Type Site Tumor Type Affy6.0 AmpliSeq2.0 NanoString CNV RainDance Mate-Pair RJH-MET-1 Tumor...during# progression/metastasis.# In#addition#to#the#genomeHwide#copy#number#analysis,#a#targeted#approach#was#undertaken#using#the# NanoString # Copy

  13. The Sweet Side of Immune Evasion: Role of Glycans in the Mechanisms of Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Nardy, Ana Flávia Fernandes Ribas; Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Freire-de-Lima, Célio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Glycans are part of the essential components of a cell. These compounds play a fundamental role in several physiopathological processes, including cell differentiation, adhesion, motility, signal transduction, host–pathogen interactions, tumor cell invasion, and metastasis development. Glycans are also able to exert control over the changes in tumor immunogenecity, interfering with tumor editing events and leading to immune-resistant cancer cells. The involvement of glycans in cancer progression is related to glycosylation alterations. Understanding such changes is, therefore, extremely useful to set the stage for their use as biomarkers, improving the diagnostics and therapeutic strategies. Herein, we discuss the basis of how modifications in glycosylation patterns may contribute to cancer genesis and progression as well as their importance in oncology field. PMID:27014629

  14. The Sweet Side of Immune Evasion: Role of Glycans in the Mechanisms of Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Nardy, Ana Flávia Fernandes Ribas; Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Freire-de-Lima, Célio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Glycans are part of the essential components of a cell. These compounds play a fundamental role in several physiopathological processes, including cell differentiation, adhesion, motility, signal transduction, host-pathogen interactions, tumor cell invasion, and metastasis development. Glycans are also able to exert control over the changes in tumor immunogenecity, interfering with tumor editing events and leading to immune-resistant cancer cells. The involvement of glycans in cancer progression is related to glycosylation alterations. Understanding such changes is, therefore, extremely useful to set the stage for their use as biomarkers, improving the diagnostics and therapeutic strategies. Herein, we discuss the basis of how modifications in glycosylation patterns may contribute to cancer genesis and progression as well as their importance in oncology field.

  15. Prostate cancer progression and metastasis: potential regulatory pathways for therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Nandana, Srinivas; Chung, Leland WK

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis in advanced prostate cancer (PCa) patients remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Research utilizing animal models during the past decade has reached a consensus that PCa progression and distant metastasis can be tackled at the molecular level. Although there are a good number of models that have shown to facilitate the study of PCa initiation and progression at the primary site, models that mimic the distant dissemination of cancer cells, particularly bone metastasis, are scarce. Despite this limitation, the field has gleaned valuable knowledge on the underlying molecular mechanisms and pathways of PCa progression, including local invasion and distant metastasis, and has moved forward in developing the concepts of current therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this review is to put together recent work on pathways that are currently being targeted for therapy, as well as other prospective novel therapeutic targets to be developed in the future against metastatic and potentially lethal PCa in patients. PMID:25374910

  16. Integrated extracellular matrix signaling in mammary gland development and breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jieqing; Xiong, Gaofeng; Trinkle, Christine; Xu, Ren

    2014-09-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM), a major component of the cellular microenvironment, plays critical roles in normal tissue morphogenesis and disease progression. Binding of ECM to membrane receptor proteins, such as integrin, discoidin domain receptors, and dystroglycan, elicits biochemical and biomechanical signals that control cellular architecture and gene expression. These ECM signals cooperate with growth factors and hormones to regulate cell migration, differentiation, and transformation. ECM signaling is tightly regulated during normal mammary gland development. Deposition and alignment of fibrillar collagens direct migration and invasion of mammary epithelial cells during branching morphogenesis. Basement membrane proteins are required for polarized acinar morphogenesis and milk protein expression. Deregulation of ECM proteins in the long run is sufficient to promote breast cancer development and progression. Recent studies demonstrate that the integrated biophysical and biochemical signals from ECM and soluble factors are crucial for normal mammary gland development as well as breast cancer progression.

  17. Being Overweight or Obese Increases the Risk of Progression in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer after Surgical Resection.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yunseon; Park, Sung Kwang; Ahn, Ki Jung; Cho, Heunglae; Kim, Tae Hyun; Yoon, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Yun-Han

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and progression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 50 patients with TNBC who underwent breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy between 2007 and 2014. All patients were classified according to BMI (median 23.5 kg/m(2), range 17.2-31.6 kg/m(2)): 31 patients (62%) were classified as being overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2)) and 19 patients (38%) were classified as having a normal body weight (BMI < 23 kg/m(2)). The median follow-up for patients was 31.1 months (range, 6.7-101.9 months). Progression occurred in 7 patients (14%), including 5 ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences, 2 regional lymph node metastases, and 5 distant metastases. Progression was significantly correlated with overweight or obese patients (P = 0.035), while none of the normal weight patients showed progression. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 85.0% and 87.7%, respectively. DFS was significantly reduced in overweight or obese patients compared to that in normal weight patients (P = 0.035). However, OS was not significantly compromised by being overweight or obese (P = 0.134). In conclusion, being overweight or obese negatively affects DFS in TNBC patients.

  18. Deregulation of FOXO3A During Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sanjeev; Shukla, Meenakshi; MacLennan, Gregory T; Fu, Pingfu; Gupta, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Forkhead box transcription factor FOXO3A is an important regulator of cellular function, is thought to act as a tumor suppressor. We studied whether alterations in FOXO3A activity occur in prostate tumorigenesis. Our studies demonstrate that FOXO3A activity is negatively regulated by Akt/PKB through posttranslational modifications. In prostate cancer cells, Akt activation causes increased accumulation of FOXO3A and its binding chaperone protein 14-3-3 in the cytosol. Higher levels of FOXO3A in the cytosol correlated with phosphorylation at Ser253, which accounted for its nuclear exclusion. Dominant negative Akt approach in PC-3 cells increased FOXO3A accumulation in the nucleus, causing upregulation of the downstream target, MnSOD. Conversely, stable DU145-Akt over-expressing cells exhibited decreased FOXO3A levels in the nucleus. Similar findings were noted in prostate tumor specimens, in which marked cytoplasmic accumulation of FOXO3A and 14-3-3 in prostate tumors was observed with increasing Gleason grade, in contrast to exclusively nuclear accumulation in benign prostate cells. These findings correlate with decreased FOXO3A DNA binding activity along with down modulation of FOXO3A transcriptional activity with increasing tumor grade. Our findings demonstrate that tumor associated alterations and redistribution of FOXO3A are frequent events in the etiology of prostate cancer. PMID:19424579

  19. Apoptotic cell signaling in cancer progression and therapy†

    PubMed Central

    Plati, Jessica; Bucur, Octavian; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis is a tightly regulated cell suicide program that plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis by eliminating unnecessary or harmful cells. Impairment of this native defense mechanism promotes aberrant cellular proliferation and the accumulation of genetic defects, ultimately resulting in tumorigenesis, and frequently confers drug resistance to cancer cells. The regulation of apoptosis at several levels is essential to maintain the delicate balance between cellular survival and death signaling that is required to prevent disease. Complex networks of signaling pathways act to promote or inhibit apoptosis in response to various cues. Apoptosis can be triggered by signals from within the cell, such as genotoxic stress, or by extrinsic signals, such as the binding of ligands to cell surface death receptors. Various upstream signaling pathways can modulate apoptosis by converging on, and thereby altering the activity of, common central control points within the apoptotic signaling pathways, which involve the BCL-2 family proteins, inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, and FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). This review highlights the role of these fundamental regulators of apoptosis in the context of both normal apoptotic signaling mechanisms and dysregulated apoptotic pathways that can render cancer cells resistant to cell death. In addition, therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the activity of BCL-2 family proteins, IAPs, and c-FLIP for the targeted induction of apoptosis are briefly discussed. PMID:21340093

  20. Apoptotic cell signaling in cancer progression and therapy.

    PubMed

    Plati, Jessica; Bucur, Octavian; Khosravi-Far, Roya

    2011-04-01

    Apoptosis is a tightly regulated cell suicide program that plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis by eliminating unnecessary or harmful cells. Impairment of this native defense mechanism promotes aberrant cellular proliferation and the accumulation of genetic defects, ultimately resulting in tumorigenesis, and frequently confers drug resistance to cancer cells. The regulation of apoptosis at several levels is essential to maintain the delicate balance between cellular survival and death signaling that is required to prevent disease. Complex networks of signaling pathways act to promote or inhibit apoptosis in response to various cues. Apoptosis can be triggered by signals from within the cell, such as genotoxic stress, or by extrinsic signals, such as the binding of ligands to cell surface death receptors. Various upstream signaling pathways can modulate apoptosis by converging on, and thereby altering the activity of, common central control points within the apoptotic signaling pathways, which involve the BCL-2 family proteins, inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins, and FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP). This review highlights the role of these fundamental regulators of apoptosis in the context of both normal apoptotic signaling mechanisms and dysregulated apoptotic pathways that can render cancer cells resistant to cell death. In addition, therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the activity of BCL-2 family proteins, IAPs, and c-FLIP for the targeted induction of apoptosis are briefly discussed.

  1. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-02-09

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment.

  2. FDA Approves Immunotherapy for a Cancer that Affects Infants and Children | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved dinutuximab (ch14.18) as an immunotherapy for neuroblastoma, a rare type of childhood cancer that offers poor prognosis for about half of the children who are affected. The National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Biopharmaceutical Development Program (BDP) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research produced ch14.18 for the NCI-sponsored clinical trials that proved the drug’s effectiveness against the disease.

  3. Identification of serum proteome components associated with progression of non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Pietrowska, Monika; Jelonek, Karol; Michalak, Malwina; Roś, Małgorzata; Rodziewicz, Paweł; Chmielewska, Klaudia; Polański, Krzysztof; Polańska, Joanna; Gdowicz-Kłosok, Agnieszka; Giglok, Monika; Suwiński, Rafał; Tarnawski, Rafał; Dziadziuszko, Rafał; Rzyman, Witold; Widłak, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform comparative analysis of serum from patients with different stages of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using the three complementary proteomic approaches to identify proteome components associated with the progression of cancer. Serum samples were collected before any treatment from 200 patients with NSCLC, including 103 early stage, 64 locally advanced and 33 metastatic cancer samples, and from 200 donors without malignancy. The low-molecular-weight fraction of serum proteome was MALDI-profiled in all samples. Serum proteins were characterized using 2D-PAGE and LC-MS/MS approaches in a representative group of 30 donors. Several significant differences were detected between serum samples collected from patients with early stage cancer and patients with locally advanced cancer, as well as between patients with metastatic cancer and patients with local disease. Of note, serum components discriminating samples from early stage cancer and healthy persons were also detected. In general, about 70 differentiating serum proteins were identified, including inflammatory and acute phase proteins already reported to be associated with the progression of lung cancer (serum amyloid A or haptoglobin). Several differentiating proteins, including apolipoprotein H or apolipoprotein A1, were not previously associated with NSCLC. No significant differences in patterns of serum proteome components were detected between patients with adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. In conclusion, we identified the biomarker candidates with potential importance for molecular proteomic staging of NSCLC. Additionally, several serum proteome components revealed their potential applicability in early detection of the lung cancer.

  4. Human Subperitoneal Fibroblast and Cancer Cell Interaction Creates Microenvironment That Enhances Tumor Progression and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Mitsuru; Ishii, Genichiro; Saito, Norio; Aoyagi, Kazuhiko; Sasaki, Hiroki; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds Peritoneal invasion in colon cancer is an important prognostic factor. Peritoneal invasion can be objectively identified as periotoneal elastic laminal invasion (ELI) by using elastica stain, and the cancer microenvironment formed by the peritoneal invasion (CMPI) can also be observed. Cases with ELI more frequently show distant metastasis and recurrence. Therefore, CMPI may represent a particular milieu that facilitates tumor progression. Pathological and biological investigations into CMPI may shed light on this possibly distinctive cancer microenvironment. Methods We analyzed area-specific tissue microarrays to determine the pathological features of CMPI, and propagated subperitoneal fibroblasts (SPFs) and submucosal fibroblasts (SMFs) from human colonic tissue. Biological characteristics and results of gene expression profile analyses were compared to better understand the peritoneal invasion of colon cancer and how this may form a special microenvironment through the interaction with SPFs. Mouse xenograft tumors, derived by co-injection of cancer cells with either SPFs or SMFs, were established to evaluate their active role on tumor progression and metastasis. Results We found that fibrosis with alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression was a significant pathological feature of CMPI. The differences in proliferation and gene expression profile analyses suggested SPFs and SMFs were distinct populations, and that SPFs were characterized by a higher expressions of extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated genes. Furthermore, compared with SMFs, SPFs showed more variable alteration in gene expressions after cancer-cell-conditioned medium stimulation. Gene ontology analysis revealed that SPFs-specific upregulated genes were enriched by actin-binding or contractile-associated genes including α-SMA encoding ACTA2. Mouse xenograft tumors derived by co-injection of cancer cells with SPFs showed enhancement of tumor growth, metastasis, and capacity for

  5. An improved syngeneic orthotopic murine model of human breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Omar M; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Ramachandran, Suburamaniam; Dumur, Catherine; Schaum, Julia; Yamada, Akimitsu; Terracina, Krista P; Milstien, Sheldon; Spiegel, Sarah; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2014-10-01

    Breast cancer drug development costs nearly $610 million and 37 months in preclinical mouse model trials with minimal success rates. Despite these inefficiencies, there are still no consensus breast cancer preclinical models. Murine mammary adenocarcinoma 4T1-luc2 cells were implanted subcutaneous (SQ) or orthotopically percutaneous (OP) injection in the area of the nipple, or surgically into the chest 2nd mammary fat pad under direct vision (ODV) in Balb/c immunocompetent mice. Tumor progression was followed by in vivo bioluminescence and direct measurements, pathology and survival determined, and tumor gene expression analyzed by genome-wide microarrays. ODV produced less variable-sized tumors and was a reliable method of implantation. ODV implantation into the chest 2nd mammary pad rather than into the abdominal 4th mammary pad, the most common implantation site, better mimicked human breast cancer progression pattern, which correlated with bioluminescent tumor burden and survival. Compared to SQ, ODV produced tumors that differentially expressed genes whose interaction networks are of importance in cancer research. qPCR validation of 10 specific target genes of interest in ongoing clinical trials demonstrated significant differences in expression. ODV implantation into the chest 2nd mammary pad provides the most reliable model that mimics human breast cancer compared from subcutaneous implantation that produces tumors with different genome expression profiles of clinical significance. Increased understanding of the limitations of the different preclinical models in use will help guide new investigations and may improve the efficiency of breast cancer drug development .

  6. Pigment epithelium-derived factor has a role in the progression of papillary thyroid carcinoma by affecting the HIF1α-VEGF signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yichen; Sun, Yu; Shi, Tiefeng; Shi, Chenlei; Qin, Huadong; Li, Zhaozhu

    2016-01-01

    The progression mechanism of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains largely unknown. Accumulating evidence has suggested that various targets of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) are able to inhibit cancer progression. The aim of the present study was to examine PEDF expression in PTC patients and to investigate its relationship with aggressive clinicopathological features, as well as to explore whether PEDF affects the progression of PTC via the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α)-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. A total of 271 patients with PTC, including 24 men and 247 women, were enrolled in the present study. Relevant patient data, including demographic features, preoperative clinical features and pathological features, were collected for analysis. The protein expression levels of PEDF in PTC tissues were detected using immunohistochemical staining, and the mRNA expression levels of PEDF, VEGF and HIF1α in 15 PTC tissues with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and 10 tissues without LNM were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemical staining with an anti-PEDF antibody detected PEDF expression in 74.5% of the PTC tissues. PEDF expression levels were significantly correlated with LNM, extrathyroid invasion, a high TNM stage, the presence of the BRAFV600E mutation and tumor size. PEDF mRNA expression levels were significantly decreased in PTC tissues with LNM, as compared with PTC tissues without LNM, while the mRNA expression levels of HIF1α and VEGF were markedly increased in PTC tissues with LNM. Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that PEDF plays a role in the progression of PTC, and that PEDF may exert an anti-angiogenesis role by affecting the HIF1α-VEGF pathway, eventually inhibiting the metastasis of PTC. PMID:28105231

  7. Inflammation and breast cancer. Balancing immune response: crosstalk between adaptive and innate immune cells during breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    DeNardo, David G; Coussens, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    Recent insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying cancer development have revealed that immune cells functionally regulate epithelial cancer development and progression. Moreover, accumulated clinical and experimental data indicate that the outcome of an immune response toward an evolving breast neoplasm is largely determined by the type of immune response elicited. Acute tumor-directed immune responses involving cytolytic T lymphocytes appear to protect against tumor development, whereas immune responses involving chronic activation of humoral immunity, infiltration by Th2 cells, and protumor-polarized innate inflammatory cells result in the promotion of tumor development and disease progression. Herein we review this body of literature and summarize important new findings revealing the paradoxical role of innate and adaptive leukocytes as regulators of breast carcinogenesis. PMID:17705880

  8. Balancing protein stability and activity in cancer: a new approach for identifying driver mutations affecting CBL ubiquitin ligase activation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minghui; Kales, Stephen C.; Ma, Ke; Shoemaker, Benjamin A.; Crespo-Barreto, Juan; Cangelosi, Andrew L.; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Panchenko, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in the monomeric Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (Cbl) gene have been found in many tumors, but their significance remains largely unknown. Several human c-Cbl (CBL) structures have recently been solved depicting the protein at different stages of its activation cycle and thus provide mechanistic insight underlying how stability-activity tradeoffs in cancer-related proteins may influence disease onset and progression. In this study, we computationally modeled the effects of missense cancer mutations on structures representing four stages of the CBL activation cycle to identify driver mutations that affect CBL stability, binding, and activity. We found that recurrent, homozygous, and leukemia-specific mutations had greater destabilizing effects on CBL states than did random non-cancer mutations. We further tested the ability of these computational models assessing the changes in CBL stability and its binding to ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2, by performing blind CBL-mediated EGFR ubiquitination assays in cells. Experimental CBL ubiquitin ligase activity was in agreement with the predicted changes in CBL stability and, to a lesser extent, with CBL-E2 binding affinity. Two-thirds of all experimentally tested mutations affected the ubiquitin ligase activity by either destabilizing CBL or disrupting CBL-E2 binding, whereas about one-third of tested mutations were found to be neutral. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that computational methods incorporating multiple protein conformations and stability and binding affinity evaluations can successfully predict the functional consequences of cancer mutations on protein activity, and provide a proof of concept for mutations in CBL. PMID:26676746

  9. Progress and remaining challenges for cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Debiasi, Marcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Dizon, Don; Cazap, Eduardo; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Touya, Diego; Nunes, Joāo Soares; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline; Bukowski, Alexandra; Ramos-Elias, Pier; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Brandao, Denise Froes; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Luciani, Silvana; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; Del Carmen, Marcela G; Rauh-Hain, Jose Alejandro; Schmeler, Kathleen; Sala, Raúl; Goss, Paul E

    2015-10-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, and an increasing threat in low-income and middle-income countries. Our findings in the 2013 Commission in The Lancet Oncology showed several discrepancies between the cancer landscape in Latin America and more developed countries. We reported that funding for health care was a small percentage of national gross domestic product and the percentage of health-care funds diverted to cancer care was even lower. Funds, insurance coverage, doctors, health-care workers, resources, and equipment were also very inequitably distributed between and within countries. We reported that a scarcity of cancer registries hampered the design of credible cancer plans, including initiatives for primary prevention. When we were commissioned by The Lancet Oncology to write an update to our report, we were sceptical that we would uncover much change. To our surprise and gratification much progress has been made in this short time. We are pleased to highlight structural reforms in health-care systems, new programmes for disenfranchised populations, expansion of cancer registries and cancer plans, and implementation of policies to improve primary cancer prevention.

  10. Gastric cancer stem cells in gastric carcinogenesis, progression, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Dan, Zeng; Nie, Yu-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the study of the mechanism of tumorigenesis has brought much progress to cancer treatment. However, cancer stem cell (CSC) theory has changed previous views of tumors, and has provided a new method for treatment of cancer. The discovery of CSCs and their characteristics have contributed to understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor genesis and development, resulting in a new effective strategy for cancer treatment. Gastric CSCs (GCSCs) are the basis for the onset of gastric cancer. They may be derived from gastric stem cells in gastric tissues, or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. As with other stem cells, GCSCs highly express drug-resistance genes such as aldehyde dehydrogenase and multidrug resistance, which are resistant to chemotherapy and thus form the basis of drug resistance. Many specific molecular markers such as CD44 and CD133 have been used for identification and isolation of GCSCs, diagnosis and grading of gastric cancer, and research on GCSC-targeted therapy for gastric cancer. Therefore, discussion of the recent development and advancements in GCSCs will be helpful for providing novel insight into gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833872

  11. Progress with palbociclib in breast cancer: latest evidence and clinical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Andrea; Schirone, Alessio; Maltoni, Roberta; Bravaccini, Sara; Cecconetto, Lorenzo; Farolfi, Alberto; Bronte, Giuseppe; Andreis, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of the cell cycle is a hallmark of cancer, and research on cell cycle control has allowed identification of potential targets for anticancer treatment. Palbociclib is a selective inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6), which are involved, with their coregulatory partners cyclin D, in the G1-S transition. Inhibition of this step halts cell cycle progression in cells in which the involved pathway, including the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and the E2F family of transcription factors, is functioning, although having been deregulated. Among breast cancers, those with functioning cyclin D-CDK4/6-Rb-E2F are mainly hormone-receptor (HR) positive, with some HER2-positive and rare triple-negative cases. Deregulation results from genetic or otherwise occurring hyperactivation of molecules subtending cell cycle progression, or inactivation of cell cycle inhibitors. Based on results of randomized clinical trials, palbociclib was granted accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in combination with letrozole as initial endocrine-based therapy for metastatic disease in postmenopausal women with HR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, and was approved for use in combination with fulvestrant in women with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer with disease progression following endocrine therapy. This review provides an update of the available knowledge on the cell cycle and its regulation, on the alterations in cyclin D-CDK4/6-Rb-E2F axis in breast cancer and their roles in endocrine resistance, on the preclinical activity of CDK4/6 inhibitors in breast cancer, both as monotherapy and as partners of combinatorial synergic treatments, and on the clinical development of palbociclib in breast cancer. PMID:28203301

  12. Progress with palbociclib in breast cancer: latest evidence and clinical considerations.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Andrea; Schirone, Alessio; Maltoni, Roberta; Bravaccini, Sara; Cecconetto, Lorenzo; Farolfi, Alberto; Bronte, Giuseppe; Andreis, Daniele

    2017-02-01

    Deregulation of the cell cycle is a hallmark of cancer, and research on cell cycle control has allowed identification of potential targets for anticancer treatment. Palbociclib is a selective inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4/6), which are involved, with their coregulatory partners cyclin D, in the G1-S transition. Inhibition of this step halts cell cycle progression in cells in which the involved pathway, including the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and the E2F family of transcription factors, is functioning, although having been deregulated. Among breast cancers, those with functioning cyclin D-CDK4/6-Rb-E2F are mainly hormone-receptor (HR) positive, with some HER2-positive and rare triple-negative cases. Deregulation results from genetic or otherwise occurring hyperactivation of molecules subtending cell cycle progression, or inactivation of cell cycle inhibitors. Based on results of randomized clinical trials, palbociclib was granted accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in combination with letrozole as initial endocrine-based therapy for metastatic disease in postmenopausal women with HR-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, and was approved for use in combination with fulvestrant in women with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer with disease progression following endocrine therapy. This review provides an update of the available knowledge on the cell cycle and its regulation, on the alterations in cyclin D-CDK4/6-Rb-E2F axis in breast cancer and their roles in endocrine resistance, on the preclinical activity of CDK4/6 inhibitors in breast cancer, both as monotherapy and as partners of combinatorial synergic treatments, and on the clinical development of palbociclib in breast cancer.

  13. Do Breast Cancer Risk Factors Affect the Survival of Breast Cancer Patients in Southern Sri Lanka?

    PubMed

    Peiris, H H; Mudduwa, L K B; Thalagala, N I; Jayatilaka, K A P W

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity among women in Sri Lanka. Possible effects of etiological risk factors on breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) of the disease is not clear.This study was designed to explore the impact of breast cancer risk factors on the BCSS of patients in Southern Sri Lanka. Method: This retro-prospective study included all breast cancer patients who had sought immunohistochemistry services at our unit from May 2006 to December 2012. A pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on risk factors. BCSS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier model. Univariate Cox-regression analysis was performed with 95% confidence intervals using the SPSS statistical package. Results: A total of 944 breast cancer patients were included. Five year BCSS was 78.8%. There was a statistically significant difference between the patients who had a family history of breast cancer and no family history of any cancer in terms of the presence/absence of lymph node metastasis (p=0.011) and pathological stage (p=0.042). The majority of the premenopausal patients had associated DCIS (p<0.001) and large tumours (p=0.015) with positive lymph nodes (p=0.016). There was no statistically significant association between hormone receptor subtypes and hormone related risk factors. Univariate analysis revealed that breast cancer risk factors had no significant effect on the BCSS. Conclusion: Even though family history of breast cancer and premenopausal status are associated with poor prognostic features, they, in line with the other breast cancer risk factors, appear to have no significant effect on the BCSS of patients in Southern Sri Lanka.

  14. Recent progress and clinical importance on pharmacogenetics in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Thomas I Peng; Yong, Wei Peng; Innocenti, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances have provided unprecedented opportunities to identify prognostic and predictive markers of efficacy of cancer therapy. Genetic markers can be used to exclude patients who will not benefit from therapy, exclude patients at high risk of severe toxicity, and adjust dosing. Genomic approaches for marker discovery now include genome-wide association studies and tumor DNA sequencing. The challenge is now to select markers for which there is enough evidence to transition them to the clinic. The hurdles include the inherent low frequency of many of these markers, the lengthy validation process through trials, as well as legislative and economic hurdles. Attempts to answer questions about certain markers more quickly have led to an increased popularity of trials with enrichment design, especially in the light of the dramatic phase I results seen in recent months. Personalized medicine in oncology is a step closer to reality. PMID:21950596

  15. Cancer radioimmunotherapy: Development of an effective approach. Progress report, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    DeNardo, S.J.

    1985-12-31

    The objective of this program is the development of effective approaches for delivering radiation therapy to patients with cancer using radiopharmaceuticals produced from monoclonal antibodies. One major achievement of this program has been the development of a new, Cu-67 chelator (Teta). This chelator firmly holds copper even in the presence of competitive serum proteins. Copper has proven to be labile with other chelators. Also, a single photon emission tomographic camera was purchased with University and philanthropic funds specifically for this program. This allows full-time developmental work on quantitative imaging approaches and in vivo kinetics of our various radiopharmaceutical antibody products. The pharmakinetics of I-123 antibody and antibody fragments have been obtained in patients utilizing quantitative imaging and have demonstrated significant differences as well as the need for long- term studies with I-131 and Cu-67.

  16. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-4 and Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    variant arising from a cryptic promoter (ptd- FGFR-4) is expressed in pituitary adenomas and that expression of this variant resulted in increased inva...siveness of pituitary cells. Expression of the ptd-FGFR- 4 variant decreased adhesion to collagen IV in pituitary cells and NIH3T3 fibroblasts...formation of NCAM and N- cadherin complexes in pituitary cells which could affect adhesion to collagen IV. On the other hand, Coppolino and Dedhar [37

  17. The Role of Central Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFAs ) decreases PCa risk while ω- 6 intake increases risk. Work from our laboratories and others suggests that the...catabolic fatty acid pathways as well as possibly other pathways, modulate PCa. We hypothesize that by enriching the diet with ω-3 PUFAs PCa tumor...metabolites of dietary ω-3 and -6 PUFAs directly affect PCa and the ability to do so depends on intake and metabolic enzyme expression. Omega -3 and -6

  18. Estrogens decrease {gamma}-ray-induced senescence and maintain cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells independently of p53

    SciTech Connect

    Toillon, Robert-Alain . E-mail: robert.toillon@univ-lille1.fr; Magne, Nicolas; Laios, Ioanna; Castadot, Pierre; Kinnaert, Eric; Van Houtte, Paul; Desmedt, Christine B.Sc.; Leclercq, Guy; Lacroix, Marc

    2007-03-15

    Purpose: Sequential administration of radiotherapy and endocrine therapy is considered to be a standard adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Recent clinical reports suggest that radiotherapy could be more efficient in association with endocrine therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the estrogen effects on irradiated breast cancer cells (IR-cells). Methods and Materials: Using functional genomic analysis, we examined the effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}, a natural estrogen) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Results: Our results showed that E{sub 2} sustained the growth of IR-cells. Specifically, estrogens prevented cell cycle blockade induced by {gamma}-rays, and no modification of apoptotic rate was detected. In IR-cells we observed the induction of genes involved in premature senescence and cell cycle progression and investigated the effects of E{sub 2} on the p53/p21{sup waf1/cip1}/Rb pathways. We found that E{sub 2} did not affect p53 activation but it decreased cyclin E binding to p21{sup waf1/cip1} and sustained downstream Rb hyperphosphorylation by functional inactivation of p21{sup waf1/cip1}. We suggest that Rb inactivation could decrease senescence and allow cell cycle progression in IR-cells. Conclusion: These results may help to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the maintenance of breast cancer cell growth by E{sub 2} after irradiation-induced damage. They also offer clinicians a rational basis for the sequential administration of ionizing radiation and endocrine therapies.

  19. Metabolomic profiling reveals potential markers and bioprocesses altered in bladder cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Putluri, Nagireddy; Shojaie, Ali; Vasu, Vihas T; Vareed, Shaiju K; Nalluri, Srilatha; Putluri, Vasanta; Thangjam, Gagan Singh; Panzitt, Katrin; Tallman, Christopher T; Butler, Charles; Sana, Theodore R; Fischer, Steven M; Sica, Gabriel; Brat, Daniel J; Shi, Huidong; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Lotan, Yair; Weizer, Alon Z; Terris, Martha K; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun

    2011-12-15

    Although alterations in xenobiotic metabolism are considered causal in the development of bladder cancer, the precise mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this study, we used high-throughput mass spectrometry to measure over 2,000 compounds in 58 clinical specimens, identifying 35 metabolites which exhibited significant changes in bladder cancer. This metabolic signature distinguished both normal and benign bladder from bladder cancer. Exploratory analyses of this metabolomic signature in urine showed promise in distinguishing bladder cancer from controls and also nonmuscle from muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Subsequent enrichment-based bioprocess mapping revealed alterations in phase I/II metabolism and suggested a possible role for DNA methylation in perturbing xenobiotic metabolism in bladder cancer. In particular, we validated tumor-associated hypermethylation in the cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) promoters of bladder cancer tissues by bisulfite sequence analysis and methylation-specific PCR and also by in vitro treatment of T-24 bladder cancer cell line with the DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Furthermore, we showed that expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 was reduced significantly in an independent cohort of bladder cancer specimens compared with matched benign adjacent tissues. In summary, our findings identified candidate diagnostic and prognostic markers and highlighted mechanisms associated with the silencing of xenobiotic metabolism. The metabolomic signature we describe offers potential as a urinary biomarker for early detection and staging of bladder cancer, highlighting the utility of evaluating metabolomic profiles of cancer to gain insights into bioprocesses perturbed during tumor development and progression.

  20. Octamer-binding protein 4 affects the cell biology and phenotypic transition of lung cancer cells involving β-catenin/E-cadherin complex degradation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong-Shu; Ling, Dong-Jin; Zhang, Yang-De; Feng, Jian-Xiong; Zhang, Xue-Yu; Shi, Tian-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Clinical studies have reported evidence for the involvement of octamer‑binding protein 4 (Oct4) in the tumorigenicity and progression of lung cancer; however, the role of Oct4 in lung cancer cell biology in vitro and its mechanism of action remain to be elucidated. Mortality among lung cancer patients is more frequently due to metastasis rather than their primary tumors. Epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a prominent biological event for the induction of epithelial cancer metastasis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Oct4 had the capacity to induce lung cancer cell metastasis via the promoting the EMT in vitro. Moreover, the effect of Oct4 on the β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex, associated with EMT, was examined using immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation assays as well as western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that Oct4 enhanced cell invasion and adhesion accompanied by the downregulation of epithelial marker cytokeratin, and upregulation of the mesenchymal markers vimentin and N‑cadherin. Furthermore, Oct4 induced EMT of lung cancer cells by promoting β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex degradation and regulating nuclear localization of β‑catenin. In conclusion, the present study indicated that Oct4 affected the cell biology of lung cancer cells in vitro through promoting lung cancer cell metastasis via EMT; in addition, the results suggested that the association and degradation of the β‑catenin/E‑cadherin complex was regulated by Oct4 during the process of EMT.

  1. Notch3 overexpression causes arrest of cell cycle progression by inducing Cdh1 expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Fa; Dou, Xiao-Wei; Liang, Yuan-Ke; Lin, Hao-Yu; Bai, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Xi-Xun; Wei, Xiao-Long; Li, Yao-Chen; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Uncontrolled cell proliferation, genomic instability and cancer are closely related to the abnormal activation of the cell cycle. Therefore, blocking the cell cycle of cancer cells has become one of the key goals for treating malignancies. Unfortunately, the factors affecting cell cycle progression remain largely unknown. In this study, we have explored the effects of Notch3 on the cell cycle in breast cancer cell lines by 3 methods: overexpressing the intra-cellular domain of Notch3 (N3ICD), knocking-down Notch3 by RNA interference, and using X-ray radiation exposure. The results revealed that overexpression of Notch3 arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, and inhibited the proliferation and colony-formation rate in the breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, overexpressing N3ICD upregulated Cdh1 expression and resulted in p27(Kip) accumulation by accelerating Skp2 degradation. Conversely, silencing of Notch3 in the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, caused a decrease in expression levels of Cdh1 and p27(Kip) at both the protein and mRNA levels, while the expression of Skp2 only increased at the protein level. Correspondingly, there was an increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and an elevated proliferative ability and colony-formation rate, which may be caused by alterations of the Cdh1/Skp2/p27 axis. These results were also supported by exposing MDA-MB-231 cells or MCF-7 treated with siN3 to X-irradiation at various doses. Overall, our data showed that overexpression of N3ICD upregulated the expression of Cdh1 and caused p27(Kip) accumulation by accelerating Skp2 degradation, which in turn led to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, in the context of proliferating breast cancer cell lines. These findings help to illuminate the precision therapy targeted to cell cycle progression, required for cancer treatment.

  2. Notch3 overexpression causes arrest of cell cycle progression by inducing Cdh1 expression in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Fa; Dou, Xiao-Wei; Liang, Yuan-Ke; Lin, Hao-Yu; Bai, Jing-Wen; Zhang, Xi-Xun; Wei, Xiao-Long; Li, Yao-Chen; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Uncontrolled cell proliferation, genomic instability and cancer are closely related to the abnormal activation of the cell cycle. Therefore, blocking the cell cycle of cancer cells has become one of the key goals for treating malignancies. Unfortunately, the factors affecting cell cycle progression remain largely unknown. In this study, we have explored the effects of Notch3 on the cell cycle in breast cancer cell lines by 3 methods: overexpressing the intra-cellular domain of Notch3 (N3ICD), knocking-down Notch3 by RNA interference, and using X-ray radiation exposure. The results revealed that overexpression of Notch3 arrested the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase, and inhibited the proliferation and colony-formation rate in the breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, overexpressing N3ICD upregulated Cdh1 expression and resulted in p27Kip accumulation by accelerating Skp2 degradation. Conversely, silencing of Notch3 in the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, caused a decrease in expression levels of Cdh1 and p27Kip at both the protein and mRNA levels, while the expression of Skp2 only increased at the protein level. Correspondingly, there was an increase in the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase and an elevated proliferative ability and colony-formation rate, which may be caused by alterations of the Cdh1/Skp2/p27 axis. These results were also supported by exposing MDA-MB-231 cells or MCF-7 treated with siN3 to X-irradiation at various doses. Overall, our data showed that overexpression of N3ICD upregulated the expression of Cdh1 and caused p27Kip accumulation by accelerating Skp2 degradation, which in turn led to cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, in the context of proliferating breast cancer cell lines. These findings help to illuminate the precision therapy targeted to cell cycle progression, required for cancer treatment. PMID:26694515

  3. Progress in circulating tumor cell capture and analysis: implications for cancer management

    PubMed Central

    Balic, Marija; Lin, Henry; Williams, Anthony; Datar, Ram H; Cote, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The hematogenous dissemination of cancer and development of distant metastases is the cause of nearly all cancer deaths. Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a surrogate biomarker of metastases has gained increasing interest. There is accumulating evidence on development of novel technologies for CTC detection, their prognostic relevance and their use in therapeutic response monitoring. Many clinical trials in the early and metastatic cancer setting, particularly in breast cancer, are including CTCs in their translational research programs and as secondary end points. We summarize the progress of detection methods in the context of their clinical importance and speculate on the possibilities of wider implementation of CTCs as a diagnostic oncology tool, the likelihood that CTCs will be used as a useful biomarker, especially to monitor therapeutic response, and what may be expected from the future improvements in technologies. PMID:22468820

  4. Lung cancer epidemiology in New Mexico uranium miners. Progress report, March 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Samet, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    This investigation assesses the health effects of radon progeny exposure in New Mexico uranium miners. Cumulative exposures sustained by most New Mexico miners are well below those received earlier in the Colorado Plateau. This project utilizes the research opportunity offered by New Mexico miners to address unresolved issues related to radon progeny exposure: (1) the lung cancer risk of lower levels of exposure, (2) interaction between radon progeny exposure and cigarette smoking in the causation of lung cancer, (3) the relationship between lung cancer histologic type and radon progeny exposure, and (4) possible effects of radon progeny exposure other than lung cancer. A cohort study of 3800 men with at least one year of underground uranium mining experience in New Mexico is in progress. Results are discussed.

  5. Role and therapeutic potential of G-protein coupled receptors in breast cancer progression and metastases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anukriti; Nunes, Jessica J; Ateeq, Bushra

    2015-09-15

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large family of cell-surface receptors, which have recently emerged as key players in tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this review, we discussed our current understanding of the many roles played by GPCRs in general, and particularly Angiotensin II type I receptor (AGTR1), a member of the seven-transmembrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and its significance in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We have also discussed different strategies for targeting AGTR1, and its ligand Angiotension II (Ang II), which might unravel unique opportunities for breast cancer prevention and treatment. For example, AGTR1 blockers (ARBs) which are already in clinical use for treating hypertension, merit further investigation as a therapeutic strategy for AGTR1-positive cancer patients and may have the potential to prevent Ang II-AGTR1 signalling mediated cancer pathogenesis and metastases.

  6. Role and therapeutic potential of G-protein coupled receptors in breast cancer progression and metastases

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Anukriti; Nunes, Jessica J.; Ateeq, Bushra

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large family of cell-surface receptors, which have recently emerged as key players in tumorigenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. In this review, we discussed our current understanding of the many roles played by GPCRs in general, and particularly Angiotensin II type I receptor (AGTR1), a member of the seven-transmembrane-spanning G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and its significance in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We have also discussed different strategies for targeting AGTR1, and its ligand Angiotension II (Ang II), which might unravel unique opportunities for breast cancer prevention and treatment. For example, AGTR1 blockers (ARBs) which are already in clinical use for treating hypertension, merit further investigation as a therapeutic strategy for AGTR1-positive cancer patients and may have the potential to prevent Ang II-AGTR1 signalling mediated cancer pathogenesis and metastases. PMID:25981295

  7. [Research progress of nutrition support for patients with lung cancer during chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yiqiao; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Primary lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Nowadays, both its morbidity and mortality rank first, patients with lung cancer are often goes with some affiliating symptoms such as malnutrition and weight loss. The side effects of cytotoxicity during chemotherapy may lead to further deteriorate of the nutritional status and worsen the anti-tumor therapy's efficacy and the patients' quality of life. With the development of palliative treatment and the higher request of patients for quality of life, nutritional support will be an important adjunctive treatment to maintain a good nutritional status and enhance the patients' immunity during chemotherapy. It will play an active role in improving tolerability of chemotherapy and prognosis for patients with lung cancer. Here is a review about research progress of nutrition support treatment during chemotherapy for the patients with lung cancer.

  8. Ligand-activated PPARγ downregulates CXCR4 gene expression through a novel identified PPAR response element and inhibits breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Rovito, Daniela; Gionfriddo, Giulia; Barone, Ines; Giordano, Cinzia; Grande, Fedora; De Amicis, Francesca; Lanzino, Marilena; Catalano, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Stromal Derived Factor-1α (SDF-1α) and its cognate receptor CXCR4 play a key role in mediating breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Therefore, drugs able to inhibit CXCR4 activation may add critical tools to reduce tumor progression, especially in the most aggressive form of the breast cancer disease. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, has been found to downregulate CXCR4 gene expression in different cancer cells, however the molecular mechanism underlying this effect is not fully understood. Here, we identified a novel PPARγ-mediated mechanism that negatively regulates CXCR4 expression in both epithelial and stromal breast cancer cells. We found that ligand-activated PPARγ downregulated CXCR4 transcriptional activity through the recruitment of the silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) corepressor onto a newly identified PPAR response element (PPRE) within the CXCR4 promoter in breast cancer cell lines. As a consequence, the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (BRL) significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion and this effect was PPARγ-mediated, since it was reversed in the presence of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. According to the ability of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the most abundant component of breast cancer stroma, to secrete high levels of SDF-1α, BRL reduced migratory promoting activities induced by conditioned media (CM) derived from CAFs and affected CXCR4 downstream signaling pathways activated by CAF-CM. In addition, CAFs exposed to BRL showed a decreased expression of CXCR4, a reduced motility and invasion along with a phenotype characterized by an altered morphology. Collectively, our findings provide novel insights into the role of PPARγ in inhibiting breast cancer progression and further highlight the utility of PPARγ ligands for future therapies aimed at targeting both cancer and surrounding stromal cells in breast cancer patients

  9. MicroRNA-17~92 inhibits colorectal cancer progression by targeting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huabin; Pan, Jin-Shui; Jin, Li-Xin; Wu, Jianfeng; Ren, Yan-Dan; Chen, Pengda; Xiao, Changchun; Han, Jiahuai

    2016-07-01

    The miR-17~92 microRNA (miRNA) cluster host gene is upregulated in a broad spectrum of human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Previous studies have shown that miR-17~92 promotes tumorigenesis and cancer angiogenesis in some tumor models. However, its role in the initiation and progression of CRC remains unknown. In this study, we found that transgenic mice overexpressing miR-17~92 specifically in epithelial cells of the small and large intestines exhibited decreased tumor size and tumor angiogenesis in azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium salt (AOM-DSS)-induced CRC model as compared to their littermates control. Further study showed that miR-17~92 inhibited the progression of CRC via suppressing tumor angiogenesis through targeting multiple tumor angiogenesis-inducing genes, TGFBR2, HIF1α, and VEGFA in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, we demonstrated that miR-17~92 suppressed tumor progression by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis in a genetically engineered mouse model, indicating the presence of cellular context-dependent pro- and anti-cancer effects of miR-17~92.

  10. FOXM1 participates in PLK1-regulated cell cycle progression in renal cell cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHE; ZHANG, GUOJUN; KONG, CHUIZE

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of entry into and progression through mitosis is important for cell proliferation. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is involved in multiple stages of mitosis. Forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) has multiple functions in tumorigenesis and, in elevated levels, is frequently associated with cancer progression. The present study reports that FOXM1, a substrate of PLK1, controls the transcription mechanism that mediates the PLK1-dependent regulation of the cell cycle. The present study investigated the expression of PLK1 and FOXM1 in the clear renal cell carcinoma 769-P and ACHN cell lines, and indicated that the expression of PLK1 and FOXM1 are correlated in human renal cell cancer cell lines and that the suppression of PLK1 may decrease the expression of FOXM1. The knockdown of FOXM1 or PLK1 in renal cell cancer cell lines caused cell cycle progression to be blocked. As a result, the present study indicated the involvement of FOXM1 in PLK1-regulated cell cycle progression. PMID:27073539

  11. Inhibition of androgen receptor by decoy molecules delays progression to castration-recurrent prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Jae-Kyung; Wang, Gang; Chiu, Helen H. L.; Wang, Jun; Mawji, Nasrin R.; Sadar, Marianne D.

    2017-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the steroid receptor family and a therapeutic target for all stages of prostate cancer. AR is activated by ligand binding within its C-terminus ligand-binding domain (LBD). Here we show that overexpression of the AR NTD to generate decoy molecules inhibited both the growth and progression of prostate cancer in castrated hosts. Specifically, it was shown that lentivirus delivery of decoys delayed hormonal progression in castrated hosts as indicated by increased doubling time of tumor volume, prolonged time to achieve pre-castrate levels of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA nadir. These clinical parameters are indicative of delayed hormonal progression and improved therapeutic response and prognosis. Decoys reduced the expression of androgen-regulated genes that correlated with reduced in situ interaction of the AR with androgen response elements. Decoys did not reduce levels of AR protein or prevent nuclear localization of the AR. Nor did decoys interact directly with the AR. Thus decoys did not inhibit AR transactivation by a dominant negative mechanism. This work provides evidence that the AR NTD plays an important role in the hormonal progression of prostate cancer and supports the development of AR antagonists that target the AR NTD. PMID:28306720

  12. Quantitative assessment of smoking-induced emphysema progression in longitudinal CT screening for lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Mizuguchi, R.; Matsuhiro, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2015-03-01

    Computed tomography has been used for assessing structural abnormalities associated with emphysema. It is important to develop a robust CT based imaging biomarker that would allow quantification of emphysema progression in early stage. This paper presents effect of smoking on emphysema progression using annual changes of low attenuation volume (LAV) by each lung lobe acquired from low-dose CT images in longitudinal screening for lung cancer. The percentage of LAV (LAV%) was measured after applying CT value threshold method and small noise reduction. Progression of emphysema was assessed by statistical analysis of the annual changes represented by linear regression of LAV%. This method was applied to 215 participants in lung cancer CT screening for five years (18 nonsmokers, 85 past smokers, and 112 current smokers). The results showed that LAV% is useful to classify current smokers with rapid progression of emphysema (0.2%/year, p<0.05). This paper demonstrates effectiveness of the proposed method in diagnosis and prognosis of early emphysema in CT screening for lung cancer.

  13. Topoisomerase 2 Alpha Cooperates with Androgen Receptor to Contribute to Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer-Klein, J. L.; Murphy, Stephen J.; Johnson, Sarah H.; Vasmatzis, George; Kovtun, Irina V.

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of TOP2A is associated with risk of systemic progression in prostate cancer patients, and higher levels of TOP2A were found in hormone-resistant cases. To elucidate the mechanism by which high levels of TOP2A contribute to tumor progression we generated TOP2A overexpressing prostate cancer cell lines. We show that TOP2A promotes tumor aggressiveness by inducing chromosomal rearrangements of genes that contribute to a more invasive phenotype. Anti-androgen treatment alone was ineffective in killing TOP2A overexpressing cells due to activation of an androgen receptor network. TOP2A poisons killed tumor cells more efficiently early in the progression course, while at later stages they provided greater benefit when combined with anti-androgen therapy. Mechanistically, we find that TOP2A enhances androgen signaling by facilitating transcription of androgen responsive genes, thereby promoting tumor cell growth. These studies revealed a relationship between TOP2A and androgen receptor signaling pathway that contributes to prostate cancer progression and confers sensitivity to treatments. PMID:26560244

  14. Three-Dimensional Breast Cancer Models Mimic Hallmarks of Size-Induced Tumor Progression.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjulata; Mukundan, Shilpaa; Jaramillo, Maria; Oesterreich, Steffi; Sant, Shilpa

    2016-07-01

    Tumor size is strongly correlated with breast cancer metastasis and patient survival. Increased tumor size contributes to hypoxic and metabolic gradients in the solid tumor and to an aggressive tumor phenotype. Thus, it is important to develop three-dimensional (3D) breast tumor models that recapitulate size-induced microenvironmental changes and, consequently, natural tumor progression in real time without the use of artificial culture conditions or gene manipulations. Here, we developed size-controlled multicellular aggregates ("microtumors") of subtype-specific breast cancer cells by using non-adhesive polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate hydrogel microwells of defined sizes (150-600 μm). These 3D microtumor models faithfully represent size-induced microenvironmental changes, such as hypoxic gradients, cellular heterogeneity, and spatial distribution of necrotic/proliferating cells. These microtumors acquire hallmarks of tumor progression in the same cell lines within 6 days. Of note, large microtumors of hormone receptor-positive cells exhibited an aggressive phenotype characterized by collective cell migration and upregulation of mesenchymal markers at mRNA and protein level, which was not observed in small microtumors. Interestingly, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines did not show size-dependent upregulation of mesenchymal markers. In conclusion, size-controlled microtumor models successfully recapitulated clinically observed positive association between tumor size and aggressive phenotype in hormone receptor-positive breast cancer while maintaining clinically proven poor correlation of tumor size with aggressive phenotype in TNBC. Such clinically relevant 3D models generated under controlled experimental conditions can serve as precise preclinical models to study mechanisms involved in breast tumor progression as well as antitumor drug effects as a function of tumor progression. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3732-43. ©2016 AACR.

  15. Meat, Fish, Poultry, and Egg Intake at Diagnosis and Risk of Prostate Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Drake, Bettina F; Preston, Mark A; Stampfer, Meir J; Giovannucci, Edward; Kibel, Adam S

    2016-12-01

    Little information exists on diet and prostate cancer progression. We examined the association between intakes of total red meat, processed and unprocessed red meat, poultry, fish, and eggs and prostate cancer recurrence. We conducted a prospective study of 971 men treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer between 2003 and 2010. Men completed a food frequency questionnaire at diagnosis. We used logistic regression to study the association between diet and high-grade or advanced-stage disease. We used Cox models to study the risk of progression [N = 94 events, mainly prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence]. Total red meat intake was marginally associated with risk of high-grade disease [Gleason ≥ 4+3; adjusted OR top vs. bottom quartile: 1.66; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.93-2.97; Ptrend = 0.05], as was very high intake of eggs (OR top decile vs. bottom quartile: 1.98; 95% CI, 1.08-3.63, Ptrend = 0.08). Well-done red meat was associated with advanced disease (≥pT3; OR top vs. bottom quartile: 1.74, 95% CI, 1.05-2.90; Ptrend = 0.01). Intakes of red meat, fish, and eggs were not associated with progression. Very high poultry intake was inversely associated with progression (HR top decile vs. bottom quartile: 0.19; 95% CI, 0.06-0.63; Ptrend = 0.02). Substituting 30 g/d of poultry or fish for total or unprocessed red meat was associated with significantly lower risk of recurrence. Lower intakes of red meat and well-done red meat and higher intakes of poultry and fish are associated with lower risk of high grade and advanced prostate cancer and reduced recurrence risk, independent of stage and grade. Cancer Prev Res; 9(12); 933-41. ©2016 AACR.

  16. CD97 amplifies LPA receptor signaling and promotes thyroid cancer progression in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ward, Y; Lake, R; Martin, P L; Killian, K; Salerno, P; Wang, T; Meltzer, P; Merino, M; Cheng, S-y; Santoro, M; Garcia-Rostan, G; Kelly, K

    2013-05-30

    CD97, a member of the adhesion family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), complexes with and potentiates lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor signaling to the downstream effector RHOA. We show here that CD97 was expressed in a majority of thyroid cancers but not normal thyroid epithelium and that the level of CD97 expression was further elevated with progression to poorly differentiated and undifferentiated carcinoma. Intratumoral progression also showed that CD97 expression correlates with invasiveness and dedifferentiation. To determine the functional role of CD97, we produced a transgenic model of thyroglobulin promoter-driven CD97 expression. Transgenic CD97 in combination with Thrb(PV), an established mouse model of thyroid follicular cell carcinogenesis, significantly increased the occurrence of vascular invasion and lung metastasis. Expression of transgenic CD97 in thyroid epithelium led to elevated ERK phosphorylation and increased numbers of Ki67+ cells in developing tumors. In addition, tumor cell cultures derived from CD97 transgenic as compared with non-transgenic mice demonstrated enhanced, constitutive and LPA-stimulated ERK activation. In human thyroid cancer cell lines, CD97 depletion reduced RHO-GTP and decreased LPA-stimulated invasion but not EGF-stimulated invasion, further suggesting that CD97 influences an LPA-associated mechanism of progression. Consistent with the above, CD97 expression in human thyroid cancers correlated with LPA receptor and markers of aggressiveness including Ki67 and pAKT. This study shows an autonomous effect of CD97 on thyroid cancer progression and supports the investigation of this GPCR as a therapeutic target for these cancers.

  17. Expression and functional role of orphan receptor GPR158 in prostate cancer growth and progression.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nitin; Itakura, Tatsuo; Jeong, Shinwu; Liao, Chun-Peng; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Zandi, Ebrahim; Groshen, Susan; Pinski, Jacek; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Gross, Mitchell E; Fini, M Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality, after lung cancer, in men from developed countries. In its early stages, primary tumor growth is dependent on androgens, thus generally can be controlled by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Eventually however, the disease progresses to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), a lethal form in need of more effective treatments. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large clan of cell surface proteins that have been implicated as therapeutic targets in PCa growth and progression. The findings reported here provide intriguing evidence of a role for the newly characterized glutamate family member GPR158 in PCa growth and progression. We found that GPR158 promotes PCa cell proliferation independent of androgen receptor (AR) functionality and that this requires its localization in the nucleus of the cell. This suggests that GPR158 acts by mechanisms different from other GPCRs. GPR158 expression is stimulated by androgens and GPR158 stimulates AR expression, implying a potential to sensitize tumors to low androgen conditions during ADT via a positive feedback loop. Further, we found GPR158 expression correlates with a neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation phenotype and promotes anchorage-independent colony formation implying a role for GPR158 in therapeutic progression and tumor formation. GPR158 expression was increased at the invading front of prostate tumors that formed in the genetically defined conditional Pten knockout mouse model, and co-localized with elevated AR expression in the cell nucleus. Kaplan-Meier analysis on a dataset from the Memorial Sloan Kettering cancer genome portal showed that increased GPR158 expression in tumors is associated with lower disease-free survival. Our findings strongly suggest that pharmaceuticals targeting GPR158 activities could represent a novel and innovative approach to the prevention and management of CRPC.

  18. Old age at diagnosis increases risk of tumor progression in nasopharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Yao-Xuan; Chen, Xiao-Di; Zhang, Guo-Ye; Li, Zhi-Kun; Hong, Jing; Xie, Dan; Cai, Mu-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Age at diagnosis has been found to be a prognostic factor of outcomes in various cancers. However, the effect of age at diagnosis on nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) progression has not been explored. We retrospectively evaluated the relationship between age and disease progression in 3,153 NPC patients who underwent radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy between 2007 and 2009. Patients were randomly assigned to either a testing cohort or a validation cohort by computer-generated random assignment. X-tile plots determined the optimal cut-point of age based on survival status to be ≤61 vs. >61 years. Further correlation analysis showed that age >61 years was significantly correlated with the tumor progression and therapeutic regimen in both testing and validation cohorts (P <0.05). In the present study, we observed that older age (>61 years) was a strong and independent predictor of poor disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS), in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Age was also found to be a significant prognostic predictor as well (P <0.05) when evaluating patients with the same disease stage. ROC analysis confirmed the predictive value of age on NPC-specific survival in both cohorts (P <0.001) and suggested that age may improve the ability to discriminate outcomes in NPCs, especially regarding tumor progression. In conclusion, our study suggests that older age at NPC diagnosis is associated with a higher incidence of tumor progression and cancer-specific mortality. Age is a strong and independent predictor of poor outcomes and may allow for more tailored therapeutic decision-making and individualized patient counseling. PMID:27463012

  19. Somatic microsatellite variability as a predictive marker for colorectal cancer and liver cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Vaksman, Zalman; Garner, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellites (MSTs) are short tandem repeated genetic motifs that comprise ~3% of the genome. MST instability (MSI), defined as acquired/lost primary alleles at a small subset of microsatellite loci (e.g. Bethesda markers), is a clinically relevant marker for colorectal cancer. However, these markers are not applicable to other types of cancers, specifically, for liver cancer which has a high mortality rate. Here we show that somatic MST variability (SMV), defined as the presence of additional, non-primary (aka minor) alleles at MST loci, is a complementary measure of MSI, and a genetic marker for colorectal and liver cancer. Re-analysis of Illumina sequenced exomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas indicates that SMV may distinguish a subpopulation of African American patients with colorectal cancer, which represents ~33% of the population in this study. Further, for liver cancer, a higher rate of SMV may be indicative of an earlier age of onset. The work presented here suggests that classical MSI should be expanded to include SMV, going beyond alterations of the primary alleles at a small number of microsatellite loci. This measure of SMV may represent a potential new diagnostic for a variety of cancers and may provide new information for colorectal cancer patients. PMID:25691061

  20. PRL-3 activates mTORC1 in Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zu; Al-Aidaroos, Abdul Qader Omer; Park, Jung Eun; Yuen, Hiu Fung; Zhang, Shu Dong; Gupta, Abhishek; Lin, Youbin; Shen, Han-Ming; Zeng, Qi

    2015-11-24

    PRL-3, a metastasis-associated phosphatase, is known to exert its oncogenic functions through activation of PI3K/Akt, which is a key regulator of the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1), but a coherent link between PRL-3 and activation of mTOR has not yet been formally demonstrated. We report a positive correlation between PRL-3 expression and mTOR phospho-activation in clinical tumour samples and mouse models of cancer and demonstrate that PRL-3 increased downstream signalling to the mTOR substrates, p70S6K and 4E-BP1, by increasing PI3K/Akt-mediated activation of Rheb-GTP via TSC2 suppression. We also show that PRL-3 increases mTOR translocation to lysosomes via increased mTOR binding affinity to Rag GTPases in an Akt-independent manner, demonstrating a previously undescribed mechanism of action for PRL-3. PRL-3 also enhanced matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion and cellular invasiveness via activation of mTOR, attributes which were sensitive to rapamycin treatment. The downstream effects of PRL-3 were maintained even under conditions of environmental stress, suggesting that PRL-3 provides a strategic survival advantage to tumour cells via its effects on mTOR.