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Sample records for affects cultural learning

  1. A Multi-Cultural Examination of the Relationship between Nonverbal Immediacy and Affective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, James C.; Fayer, Joan M.; Richmond, Virginia P.; Sallinen, Aino; Barraclough, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    Shows that increased teacher immediacy was associated with increased affective learning across the four diverse cultures of Australia, Finland, Puerto Rico, and the United States. Indicates that, whether the norms in the culture favor high or low immediacy, if the teacher is comparatively more immediate, the student's affective learning is…

  2. Does Combining the Embodiment and Personalization Principles of Multimedia Learning Affect Learning the Culture of a Foreign Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yanlin; Crooks, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how social cues associated with the personalization and embodiment principles in multimedia learning affect the learning and attitude of students studying the culture of a foreign language. University students were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions that consisted of an…

  3. Cultural dimensions of learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyford, Glen A.

    1990-06-01

    How, what, when and where we learn is frequently discussed, as are content versus process, or right brain versus left brain learning. What is usually missing is the cultural dimension. This is not an easy concept to define, but various aspects can be identified. The World Decade for Cultural Development emphasizes the need for a counterbalance to a quantitative, economic approach. In the last century poets also warned against brutalizing materialism, and Sorokin and others have described culture more recently in terms of cohesive basic values expressed through aesthetics and institutions. Bloom's taxonomy incorporates the category of affective learning, which internalizes values. If cultural learning goes beyond knowledge acquisition, perhaps the surest way of understanding the cultural dimension of learning is to examine the aesthetic experience. This can use myths, metaphors and symbols, and to teach and learn by using these can help to unlock the human potential for vision and creativity.

  4. How copying affects the amount, evenness and persistence of cultural knowledge: insights from the social learning strategies tournament.

    PubMed

    Rendell, L; Boyd, R; Enquist, M; Feldman, M W; Fogarty, L; Laland, K N

    2011-04-12

    Darwinian processes should favour those individuals that deploy the most effective strategies for acquiring information about their environment. We organized a computer-based tournament to investigate which learning strategies would perform well in a changing environment. The most successful strategies relied almost exclusively on social learning (here, learning a behaviour performed by another individual) rather than asocial learning, even when environments were changing rapidly; moreover, successful strategies focused learning effort on periods of environmental change. Here, we use data from tournament simulations to examine how these strategies might affect cultural evolution, as reflected in the amount of culture (i.e. number of cultural traits) in the population, the distribution of cultural traits across individuals, and their persistence through time. We found that high levels of social learning are associated with a larger amount of more persistent knowledge, but a smaller amount of less persistent expressed behaviour, as well as more uneven distributions of behaviour, as individuals concentrated on exploiting a smaller subset of behaviour patterns. Increased rates of environmental change generated increases in the amount and evenness of behaviour. These observations suggest that copying confers on cultural populations an adaptive plasticity, allowing them to respond to changing environments rapidly by drawing on a wider knowledge base.

  5. How copying affects the amount, evenness and persistence of cultural knowledge: insights from the social learning strategies tournament

    PubMed Central

    Rendell, L.; Boyd, R.; Enquist, M.; Feldman, M. W.; Fogarty, L.; Laland, K. N.

    2011-01-01

    Darwinian processes should favour those individuals that deploy the most effective strategies for acquiring information about their environment. We organized a computer-based tournament to investigate which learning strategies would perform well in a changing environment. The most successful strategies relied almost exclusively on social learning (here, learning a behaviour performed by another individual) rather than asocial learning, even when environments were changing rapidly; moreover, successful strategies focused learning effort on periods of environmental change. Here, we use data from tournament simulations to examine how these strategies might affect cultural evolution, as reflected in the amount of culture (i.e. number of cultural traits) in the population, the distribution of cultural traits across individuals, and their persistence through time. We found that high levels of social learning are associated with a larger amount of more persistent knowledge, but a smaller amount of less persistent expressed behaviour, as well as more uneven distributions of behaviour, as individuals concentrated on exploiting a smaller subset of behaviour patterns. Increased rates of environmental change generated increases in the amount and evenness of behaviour. These observations suggest that copying confers on cultural populations an adaptive plasticity, allowing them to respond to changing environments rapidly by drawing on a wider knowledge base. PMID:21357234

  6. Cultural Complexity That Affects Young Children's Contemporary Growth, Change, and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook

    Based on the view that the group orientation to multicultural education reinforces group stereotyping and seldom allows acknowledgement of diverse children's unique capabilities and differences or helps children build self-identity while learning to appreciate others, this paper presents and discusses contemporary cultures of young children's…

  7. Achieving Affective and Behavioral Outcomes in Culture Learning: The Case for Ethnographic Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Blair E.

    2004-01-01

    This study sought to extend previous research on ethnographic interviews as a method of culture learning in foreign language classes by employing a qualitative case study methodology. Fifty-four university students in a first-year Spanish course worked in pairs to conduct a series of three ethnographic interviews with a native speaker of Spanish.…

  8. Teaching Language, Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderski, Richard M.

    A discussion of language focuses on the relationship between language learning and culture learning. The first four chapters look at the cultural context of language learning, particularly in the language classroom. The second part examines culture learning through language teaching. The first chapter discusses lexical culture, or the vocabulary…

  9. A Study of Factors Affecting the Adoption of E-Learning Systems Enabled with Cultural Contextual Features by Instructions in Jamaican Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoden, Niccardo S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors affecting the acceptance of E-Learning Systems Enabled with Cultural Contextual Features by lnstructors in Jamaican Tertiary Institutions is an important topic that's relevant to not only educational institutions, but developers of software for on line learning. The use of the unified theory of acceptance and use of…

  10. A Study of Factors Affecting the Adoption of E-Learning Systems Enabled with Cultural Contextual Features by Instructions in Jamaican Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoden, Niccardo S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors affecting the acceptance of E-Learning Systems Enabled with Cultural Contextual Features by lnstructors in Jamaican Tertiary Institutions is an important topic that's relevant to not only educational institutions, but developers of software for on line learning. The use of the unified theory of acceptance and use of…

  11. Cultural Learning Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and…

  12. Cultural Learning Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael

    2016-01-01

    M. Tomasello, A. Kruger, and H. Ratner (1993) proposed a theory of cultural learning comprising imitative learning, instructed learning, and collaborative learning. Empirical and theoretical advances in the past 20 years suggest modifications to the theory; for example, children do not just imitate but overimitate in order to identify and…

  13. Does Culture Affect Reading Comprehension?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula

    1986-01-01

    Culture influences how and what people learn. When recalling what they read about an unfamiliar event, readers distorted information to render its meaning more familiar. Suggestions to help teachers be aware of culture incompatibility and to include a variety of perspectives in classroom materials and instruction are presented. (MT)

  14. Cultural variation in affect valuation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Knutson, Brian; Fung, Helene H

    2006-02-01

    The authors propose that how people want to feel ("ideal affect") differs from how they actually feel ("actual affect") and that cultural factors influence ideal more than actual affect. In 2 studies, controlling for actual affect, the authors found that European American (EA) and Asian American (AA) individuals value high-arousal positive affect (e.g., excitement) more than do Hong Kong Chinese (CH). On the other hand, CH and AA individuals value low-arousal positive affect (e.g., calm) more than do EA individuals. For all groups, the discrepancy between ideal and actual affect correlates with depression. These findings illustrate the distinctiveness of ideal and actual affect, show that culture influences ideal affect more than actual affect, and indicate that both play a role in mental health. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. FORUM: Affective Learning. Reclaiming Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housley Gaffney, Amy L.; Dannels, Deanna P.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  16. FORUM: Affective Learning. Reclaiming Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housley Gaffney, Amy L.; Dannels, Deanna P.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  17. Cultural Factors in Learning and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboud, Frances E., Ed.; Meade, Robert D., Ed.

    The Fifth Western Symposium on Learning, held November 15 and 16, 1973, considered the question of how cultural factors affect learning that produces important differences in personality. The following papers, with commentaries, are collected in this volume: (1) "Cultural Factors in Learning and Education: Opening Remarks," by Paul Woodring; (2)…

  18. Cultural Factors in Learning and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboud, Frances E., Ed.; Meade, Robert D., Ed.

    The Fifth Western Symposium on Learning, held November 15 and 16, 1973, considered the question of how cultural factors affect learning that produces important differences in personality. The following papers, with commentaries, are collected in this volume: (1) "Cultural Factors in Learning and Education: Opening Remarks," by Paul Woodring; (2)…

  19. Understanding Learning Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Biesta, Gert; James, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper sets out an explanation about the nature of learning cultures and how they work. In so doing, it directly addresses some key weaknesses in current situated learning theoretical writing, by working to overcome unhelpful dualisms, such as the individual and the social, and structure and agency. It does this through extensive use of some…

  20. Understanding Learning Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Biesta, Gert; James, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper sets out an explanation about the nature of learning cultures and how they work. In so doing, it directly addresses some key weaknesses in current situated learning theoretical writing, by working to overcome unhelpful dualisms, such as the individual and the social, and structure and agency. It does this through extensive use of some…

  1. Learning Cultures in Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Anderson, Graham; Colley, Helen; Davies, Jenny; Diment, Kim; Scaife, Tony; Tedder, Mike; Wahlberg, Madeleine; Wheeler, Eunice

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of learning cultures in English Further Education (FE), as revealed in the Transforming Learning Cultures in FE (TLC) research project. In it, we describe four characteristics of a generic FE learning culture: the significance of learning cultures in every site; the significance of the tutor in influencing site…

  2. Learning Cultures in Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodkinson, Phil; Anderson, Graham; Colley, Helen; Davies, Jenny; Diment, Kim; Scaife, Tony; Tedder, Mike; Wahlberg, Madeleine; Wheeler, Eunice

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of learning cultures in English Further Education (FE), as revealed in the Transforming Learning Cultures in FE (TLC) research project. In it, we describe four characteristics of a generic FE learning culture: the significance of learning cultures in every site; the significance of the tutor in influencing site…

  3. Topics in Culture Learning, Volume 4, 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislin, Richard W., Ed.

    Volume 4 of an annual series, this issue focuses chiefly on a variety of perspectives relating to cross-cultural research. The major article is comprised of 15 topics encompassing cognitive and affective aspects of culture contact, language and communication, and culture exchange. The topics address Japanese perceptions of foreigners, learning of…

  4. Culturally-Sensitive Learning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2010-01-01

    In today's global world, to provide meaningful education, teacher-librarians and their students need to become culturally competent: open to learning about other cultures and sharing one's own culture, able to change personal perspectives, and able to communicate effectively across cultures. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions provides a…

  5. When Does Social Learning Become Cultural Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Developmental research on selective social learning, or "social learning strategies", is currently a rich source of information about when children copy behaviour, and who they prefer to copy. It also has the potential to tell us when and how human social learning becomes cultural learning; i.e. mediated by psychological mechanisms that…

  6. When does social learning become cultural learning?

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Developmental research on selective social learning, or 'social learning strategies', is currently a rich source of information about when children copy behaviour, and who they prefer to copy. It also has the potential to tell us when and how human social learning becomes cultural learning; i.e. mediated by psychological mechanisms that are specialized, genetically or culturally, to promote cultural inheritance. However, this review article argues that, to realize its potential, research on the development of selective social learning needs more clearly to distinguish functional from mechanistic explanation; to achieve integration with research on attention and learning in adult humans and 'dumb' animals; and to recognize that psychological mechanisms can be specialized, not only by genetic evolution, but also by associative learning and cultural evolution.

  7. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  8. How Culture Shock Affects Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barna, LaRay M.

    The paper defines the term "culture shock" and discusses the changes that this state can make in a person's behavior. Culture shock refers to the emotional and physiological reaction of high activation that is brought about by sudden immersion in a new culture. Because one's own culture shields one from the unknown and reduces the need to make…

  9. Cultural Perspectives Toward Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    Cultural conflicts may be derived from using inappropriate language. Appropriate linguistic-pragmatic competence may also be produced by providing various and multicultural backgrounds. Culture and language are linked together naturally, unconsciously, and closely in daily social lives. Culture affects language and language affects culture through…

  10. Affecting culture change and performance improvement in Medicaid nursing homes: the Promote Understanding, Leadership, and Learning (PULL) Program.

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of nursing homes are implementing culture change programming to create a more homelike environment in which residents and direct care staff are empowered with greater participation in care activities. Although nursing homes that have adopted culture change practices have brought about positive transformation in their settings that have improved quality of care and life, as well as increased resident and staff satisfaction, they represent a minority of all nursing homes. Nursing homes that serve primarily a Medicaid population without supplemental sources of funding have been limited in the resources to support such change processes. The purpose of this project was to gain insight into effective strategies to provide culture change and quality improvement programming to low-performing, under-resourced nursing homes that represent the population of nursing homes least likely to have implemented this programming. Factors that interfered with transformation were identified and insights were gained into factors that need to be considered before transformational processes can be initiated. Effective educational strategies and processes that facilitate change in these types of nursing homes were identified. Despite limitations to the study, there was evidence that the experiences and findings can be of value to other low-performing, under-resourced nursing homes. Ongoing clinical work and research are needed to refine the implementation process and increase the ability to help these settings utilize resources and implement high quality cost effective care to nursing home residents. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Leadership for Learning: Tasks of Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This is a comparative analysis of leadership related to organizational culture and change that occurred at a large Canadian university during a twenty year period 1983-2003. From an institutional development perspective, leadership is characterized as a culture creation and development responsibility. By centering on the tasks of learning culture,…

  12. Cultural Variations in Learning and Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omidvar, Pegah; Tan, Bee Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The need for cross-cultural understanding of the relationship between culture and learning style is becoming increasingly important because of the changing cultural mix of classrooms and society at large. The research done regarding the two variables is mostly quantitative. This review summarizes results of the existing research on cultural…

  13. Do learning style and learning environment affect learning outcome?

    PubMed

    DiBartola, L M; Miller, M K; Turley, C L

    2001-01-01

    This study compared learning outcomes of students with different learning styles, as identified by the Kolb Learning Style Inventory indicators, in a traditional in-class environment with those taking the same course via distance education. The above-average scores were evenly distributed, 47% of the in-class group and 43% of the distance group. For three of the four learning styles, there was no relationship to learning outcome or environment. The Diverger group did show a relationship with above-average scores in the distance group (83%). The findings support that the classroom or distance environment did not influence learning outcome. Learning style did not appear to affect learning outcome in either group, except that the Diverger learning style may have a positive relationship to learning in the distance environment.

  14. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2010-06-01

    Today, safeguards culture can be a useful tool for measuring nonproliferation postures, but so far its impact on the international safeguards regime has been underappreciated. There is no agreed upon definition for safeguards culture nor agreement on how it should be measured. This paper argues that safeguards culture as an indicator of a country’s nonproliferation posture can be a useful tool.

  15. Teaching-Learning in the Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Brett J.; Hannon, James C.

    2006-01-01

    Affect is an important domain in which children learn. The affective domain of learning in physical education focuses on feelings, values, social behavior, and attitudes as they relate to human movement. Learning in the affective domain in physical education means that students learn such concepts as sportsmanship, "fair play," respect for others,…

  16. Safeguards Culture: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2009-05-27

    Abstract: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper builds on that theoretical discussion to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Paper: At the 2005 INMM/ESARDA Workshop on “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges,” in Santa Fe, New Mexico, I presented a paper entitled “Changing the Safeguards Culture: Broader Perspectives and Challenges.” That paper, coauthored by Karyn R. Durbin and Andrew Van Duzer, described a set of theoretical models that can be used as a basis for evaluating changes to safeguards culture. This paper updates that theoretical discussion, and seeks to address practical methods for influencing culture. It takes lessons from methods used to influence change in safety culture and security culture, and examines the applicability of these lessons to changing safeguards culture. Implicit in this discussion is an understanding that improving a culture is not an end in itself, but is one method of improving the underlying discipline, that is safety, security, or safeguards. Culture can be defined as a way of life, or general customs and beliefs of a particular group of people at a particular time. There are internationally accepted definitions of safety culture and nuclear security culture. As yet, there is no official agreed upon definition of safeguards culture. At the end of the paper I will propose my definition. At the Santa Fe Workshop the summary by the Co-Chairs of Working Group 1, “The Further Evolution of Safeguards,” noted: “It is clear that ‘safeguards culture

  17. Action Learning: Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian; de Vera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the experience of forming a set in a higher education institution and offers some observations and insights gained from the perspectives of the role of the set adviser, cultural differences and the challenges of attempting to align theory, practice and experience.

  18. Exploring Culture-Specific Learning Styles in Accounting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikkema, Seth E.; Sauerwein, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review whether culture affects accounting students' learning processes to identify practical guidance for accounting educators facing a culturally diverse classroom. In spite of a significant literature thread in accounting education on student learning, relatively, little emphasis has been placed on…

  19. Exploring Culture-Specific Learning Styles in Accounting Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikkema, Seth E.; Sauerwein, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review whether culture affects accounting students' learning processes to identify practical guidance for accounting educators facing a culturally diverse classroom. In spite of a significant literature thread in accounting education on student learning, relatively, little emphasis has been placed on…

  20. FORUM: Affective Learning. Pursuing and Measuring Affective Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  1. FORUM: Affective Learning. Affective Learning from a Cognitive Neuroscientific Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottet, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  2. FORUM: Affective Learning. The Instructional Communication Affective Learning Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  3. FORUM: Affective Learning. Pursuing and Measuring Affective Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  4. FORUM: Affective Learning. Affective Learning from a Cognitive Neuroscientific Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mottet, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  5. FORUM: Affective Learning. The Instructional Communication Affective Learning Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  6. Enhancing students' cultural competence using cross-cultural experiential learning.

    PubMed

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Bertolo, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate community health students' perceptions of their cultural competence. Little is known about students' cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills after their experience working with diverse cultural groups and language barriers. A cross-cultural experiential learning exercise was used as an educational approach. Reflective writing was used to elicit students' attitudes of the other culture and their coping skills. Three themes emerged as cultural awareness and knowledge, observation and learning, and cross-cultural communication. Results underscore the need for student academic preparation using cross-cultural educational approaches to enhance cultural competence.

  7. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  8. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  9. Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Andrea, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges" explores the issues educators, administrators, and instructional designers face when transferring knowledge and skills to other cultures through e-learning. Most e-learning courses have been designed in Western cultures, but the largest and fastest-growing consumer groups live in Eastern…

  10. Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Andrea, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Globalized E-Learning Cultural Challenges" explores the issues educators, administrators, and instructional designers face when transferring knowledge and skills to other cultures through e-learning. Most e-learning courses have been designed in Western cultures, but the largest and fastest-growing consumer groups live in Eastern…

  11. Conserving and managing animals that learn socially and share cultures.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Hal

    2010-08-01

    Socially learned behavior can be a crucial factor in how animals interact with their environment and, thus, in conservation and management. For species in which social learning and culture are important determinants of behavior, several factors complicate conservation and management. These include the rapid spread of novel behavior through social learning, the inhibition of adaptive behavior because of cultural conformism, the evolution of maladaptive behavior, and the development of culturally isolated but sometimes sympatric groups. These factors can affect habitat suitability, movements, how animals react to anthropogenic effects, and genetic structures. Social learning and culture may be important factors in translocation success, and should sometimes be considered when delineating population units for conservation and management. We should aim to protect cultural as well as genetic diversity. Unfortunately, clear data on social learning and culture in the wild are scarce. Hence, the ideas and methods outlined in this special issue have great potential.

  12. Learning in Cultural Context: Developing Destinies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogoff, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Over more than three decades spent researching cultural aspects of how children learn, the author has had the opportunity to learn about how individuals and cultural communities change and continue. During her research on children's learning by observing and "pitching in" in a Mayan community in Guatemala, the author learned a great deal…

  13. Learning in Cultural Context: Developing Destinies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogoff, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Over more than three decades spent researching cultural aspects of how children learn, the author has had the opportunity to learn about how individuals and cultural communities change and continue. During her research on children's learning by observing and "pitching in" in a Mayan community in Guatemala, the author learned a great deal…

  14. Transformative Learning, Enactivism, and Affectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiese, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Education theorists have emphasized that transformative learning is not simply a matter of students gaining access to new knowledge and information, but instead centers upon personal transformation: it alters students' perspectives, interpretations, and responses. How should learning that brings about this sort of self-transformation be understood…

  15. Transformative Learning, Enactivism, and Affectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiese, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Education theorists have emphasized that transformative learning is not simply a matter of students gaining access to new knowledge and information, but instead centers upon personal transformation: it alters students' perspectives, interpretations, and responses. How should learning that brings about this sort of self-transformation be understood…

  16. Does stimulus appearance affect learning?

    PubMed

    Pothos, Emmanuel M; Chater, Nick; Ziori, Eleni

    2006-01-01

    We examined the learning process with 3 sets of stimuli that have identical symbolic structure but differ in appearance (meaningless letter strings, arrangements of geometric shapes, and sequences of cities). One hypothesis is that the learning process aims to encode symbolic regularity in the same way, largely regardless of appearance. Another is that different types of stimuli bias the learning process to operate in different ways. Using the experimental paradigm of artificial grammar learning, we provided a preliminary test of these hypotheses. In Experiments 1 and 2 we measured performance in terms of grammaticality and found no difference across the 3 sets of stimuli. In Experiment 3 we analyzed performance in terms of both grammaticality and chunk strength. Again we found no differences in performance. Our tentative conclusion is that the learning process aims to encode symbolic regularity independent of stimulus appearance.

  17. Online Learning Satisfaction: Does Culture Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankari, Moussa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study, which used sociocultural learning theory as its framework, was to understand the differences between personal culture orientation and online learning satisfaction by examining culture at the macro and micro level in a global learning environment. More specifically, this paper investigated the cultural…

  18. Self-Directed Learning in Cultural Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, David

    1985-01-01

    Museums, libraries, zoos, parks, historical sites, and other cultural institutions can be vehicles for much self-directed learning. This article reviews these opportunities and efforts to utilize them. It discusses cultural institutions as invitational environments, conditions of learning in cultural institutions, and tools and initiatives for…

  19. Workplace Learning as a Cultural Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Nicky

    2001-01-01

    Despite the raised status of learning in workplace culture, workplace learning may be experienced as oppressive or disempowering when it must conform to cultural norms or learner differences are made invisible. Workplace educators should understand culture as an evolving entity and challenge oppressive workplace practices. (Contains 16…

  20. Cultures of Learning in Effective High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Research indicates that a culture of learning is a key factor in building high schools that foster academic achievement in all students. Yet less is known about which elements of a culture of learning differentiate schools with higher levels of academic performance. To fill this gap, this comparative case study examined the cultures of…

  1. Organisational Culture: Electronic Support for Occupational Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Murray

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the interrelationship between telematic learning support and organizational culture of the workplace, defines occupational learning and types of organizationally generated knowledge, identifies concepts of organizational culture, and assesses the argument that telematics can effect changes in culture. Contextualizes these issues in new…

  2. Cultures of Learning in Effective High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Harrison, Christopher; Cohen-Vogel, Lora

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Research indicates that a culture of learning is a key factor in building high schools that foster academic achievement in all students. Yet less is known about which elements of a culture of learning differentiate schools with higher levels of academic performance. To fill this gap, this comparative case study examined the cultures of…

  3. The Academic Library and the Culture for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufford, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    Several components of a campus culture affect learning, yet assessments regularly neglect some of them. Academic librarians should evaluate how they impact courses and student learning through their support of these neglected components. Assessment goals to address some of the components include measuring the level of support for courses with…

  4. The Academic Library and the Culture for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufford, Jon R.

    2016-01-01

    Several components of a campus culture affect learning, yet assessments regularly neglect some of them. Academic librarians should evaluate how they impact courses and student learning through their support of these neglected components. Assessment goals to address some of the components include measuring the level of support for courses with…

  5. Theories of willpower affect sustained learning.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eric M; Walton, Gregory M; Dweck, Carol S; Job, Veronika; Trzesniewski, Kali H; McClure, Samuel M

    2012-01-01

    Building cognitive abilities often requires sustained engagement with effortful tasks. We demonstrate that beliefs about willpower-whether willpower is viewed as a limited or non-limited resource-impact sustained learning on a strenuous mental task. As predicted, beliefs about willpower did not affect accuracy or improvement during the initial phases of learning; however, participants who were led to view willpower as non-limited showed greater sustained learning over the full duration of the task. These findings highlight the interactive nature of motivational and cognitive processes: motivational factors can substantially affect people's ability to recruit their cognitive resources to sustain learning over time.

  6. Empirical Testing of an Affective Learning Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmus, Edward P., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This investigation of a college music course examined the effectiveness of a cyclical affective learning paradigm based on the premise that student affect toward a course of instruction will dictate, in part, cognitive performance. Results suggest that teachers would be better advised to concentrate on cognitive instruction than on affect.…

  7. Learning Organizations. Developing Cultures for Tomorrow's Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chawla, Sarita, Ed.; Renesch, John, Ed.

    This anthology contains 32 essays: "Beginner's Mind" (Sarita Chawla);"Communities of Commitment: The Heart of Learning Organizations" (Fred Kofman, Peter Senge); "Managing the Dream" (Charles Handy); "Ahead of the Wave: Valuing Gender Perspective in Learning Cultures" (Marilynne Anderson); "Mastering…

  8. Gender, identity and culture in learning physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Katelin

    2016-06-01

    Student engagement in science, as defined by Iva Gurgel, Mauricio Pietrocola, and Graciella Watanabe, is of great importance because a student's perceived compatibility with science learning is highly influenced by personal identities, or how students see themselves in relations to the world. This can greatly impact their learning experiences. In this forum, I build on the work of Gurgel, Pietrocola, and Watanabe by exploring the relationships between engagement in physics and gender, and by looking at the expansive nature of the concept of culture. I expand the conversation by investigating ways in which learning science has impacted my own identity/worldview, particularly how it affects my personal teaching and learning experiences. I focus the conversation around the relationship between gender and the experience of learning science to further the dialogue concerning identity and how it impacts engagement in science. I also look at the role of didactic transposition in the perceived disconnect with science. I reveal my experiences and analysis through a personal narrative.

  9. Students' perceptions of aspects affecting seminar learning.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, A; Jaarsma, A D C; Wolfhagen, H A P; van Beukelen, P; Scherpbier, A J J A

    2012-01-01

    Many medical and veterinary schools have curricula in which they use seminars of approximately 25 students to achieve their learning goals. There is not much research on seminar learning. To explore students' views regarding aspects that affect seminar learning. Twenty-four second-year students of a 3-year bachelor curriculum participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. The sessions were audio-taped and transcribed. Two researchers independently coded the data using qualitative methods. An iterative process of data reduction resulted in emerging aspects. The participating students were asked to comment on the preliminary results. Course schedule, coherence and alignment of the different educational methods, the amount and type of seminar questions and the amount and clarity of the preparation materials affected seminar learning. Also, the didactic approach and facilitating methods used by the teachers, the group composition, size and atmosphere, the amount of active student participation and interaction and assessment influenced seminar learning according to students. Most aspects that affect seminar learning are consistent with aspects affecting small group learning. Course schedule and alignment seem to have a stronger impact on seminar learning.

  10. Adaptive strategies for cumulative cultural learning.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Micael; Laland, Kevin

    2012-05-21

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences the relative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers' paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers' paradox in a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  11. Cultures of Learning and Learning Culture: Socratic and Confucian Approaches to Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorry, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of British universities are expanding efforts to attract international students. This article argues that higher education's implicit claim to all-inclusive "universality" may hereby be challenged by subsequent issues of cultural particularity. Here I set to conceptualise possible differences in the learning culture of…

  12. Cultural Communication Learning Environment in Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Abdul-Latif, Salwana

    2012-01-01

    Classroom communication often involves interactions between students and teachers from dissimilar cultures, which influence classroom learning because of their dissimilar communication styles influenced by their cultures. It is therefore important to study the influence of culture on classroom communication that influences the classroom verbal and…

  13. The Whole World Guide to Culture Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, J. Daniel

    This guide to cross-cultural experiences is designed to help the student or traveler face the difficulties in cross cultural encounters squarely, so that the rewards of broadened experience become available. Part A contains five essays that serve as a foundation for the rest of the book. These chapters define culture learning and the cultural…

  14. Cultural Communication Learning Environment in Science Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Abdul-Latif, Salwana

    2012-01-01

    Classroom communication often involves interactions between students and teachers from dissimilar cultures, which influence classroom learning because of their dissimilar communication styles influenced by their cultures. It is therefore important to study the influence of culture on classroom communication that influences the classroom verbal and…

  15. Do Learning Style and Learning Environment Affect Learning Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartola, Leesa M.; Miller, Miriam K.; Turley, Catherine L.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was completed by 29 allied health students on campus and 27 in distance education. Both groups had similar learning outcomes. Only the Diverger learning style showed a correlation between learning environment and outcome: 83% of Divergers with above average grades were in distance education. (Contains 20…

  16. Do Learning Style and Learning Environment Affect Learning Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartola, Leesa M.; Miller, Miriam K.; Turley, Catherine L.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was completed by 29 allied health students on campus and 27 in distance education. Both groups had similar learning outcomes. Only the Diverger learning style showed a correlation between learning environment and outcome: 83% of Divergers with above average grades were in distance education. (Contains 20…

  17. A Culture of Learning: Inside a Living-Learning Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranzow, Jeannine; Hinkle, Sara E.; Muthiah, Richard; Davis, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Exploring the culture of a living-learning center, this study examines the educational practices that aim to link in- and out-of-class experiences. Through a cultural lens, the authors offer a glimpse into a living-learning center located within a state institution in the Midwest that models a way of effectively connecting the curricular and…

  18. A Culture of Learning: Inside a Living-Learning Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranzow, Jeannine; Hinkle, Sara E.; Muthiah, Richard; Davis, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Exploring the culture of a living-learning center, this study examines the educational practices that aim to link in- and out-of-class experiences. Through a cultural lens, the authors offer a glimpse into a living-learning center located within a state institution in the Midwest that models a way of effectively connecting the curricular and…

  19. Surfing USA: How Internet Use Prior to and during Study Abroad Affects Chinese Students' Stress, Integration, and Cultural Learning While in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikal, Jude P.; Yang, Junhong; Lewis, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Campuses across the United States continue to welcome a record number of Chinese students coming in pursuit of both academic and cultural goals. Yet, high levels of acculturative stress coupled with difficulties integrating into life abroad jeopardize accomplishing these goals. In this study, we examine Chinese students' Internet use both prior to…

  20. Surfing USA: How Internet Use Prior to and during Study Abroad Affects Chinese Students' Stress, Integration, and Cultural Learning While in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikal, Jude P.; Yang, Junhong; Lewis, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Campuses across the United States continue to welcome a record number of Chinese students coming in pursuit of both academic and cultural goals. Yet, high levels of acculturative stress coupled with difficulties integrating into life abroad jeopardize accomplishing these goals. In this study, we examine Chinese students' Internet use both prior to…

  1. Grist and mills: on the cultural origins of cultural learning.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-08-05

    Cumulative cultural evolution is what 'makes us odd'; our capacity to learn facts and techniques from others, and to refine them over generations, plays a major role in making human minds and lives radically different from those of other animals. In this article, I discuss cognitive processes that are known collectively as 'cultural learning' because they enable cumulative cultural evolution. These cognitive processes include reading, social learning, imitation, teaching, social motivation and theory of mind. Taking the first of these three types of cultural learning as examples, I ask whether and to what extent these cognitive processes have been adapted genetically or culturally to enable cumulative cultural evolution. I find that recent empirical work in comparative psychology, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience provides surprisingly little evidence of genetic adaptation, and ample evidence of cultural adaptation. This raises the possibility that it is not only 'grist' but also 'mills' that are culturally inherited; through social interaction in the course of development, we not only acquire facts about the world and how to deal with it (grist), we also build the cognitive processes that make 'fact inheritance' possible (mills).

  2. So We Think You Can Learn: How Student Perceptions Affect Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Susan; Torres, Talani

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiences in rehearsals have led us to question how student dancers perceive the culture of rehearsal. We are interested in how the influence of shows like "So You Think You Can Dance" affects student expectations. How do students from competitive dance studio backgrounds approach learning in a rehearsal setting? Are there…

  3. So We Think You Can Learn: How Student Perceptions Affect Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haines, Susan; Torres, Talani

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiences in rehearsals have led us to question how student dancers perceive the culture of rehearsal. We are interested in how the influence of shows like "So You Think You Can Dance" affects student expectations. How do students from competitive dance studio backgrounds approach learning in a rehearsal setting? Are there…

  4. Ecologies of Learning: How Culture and Context Impact Outcomes of Workplace Literacy and Essential Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, Juliet

    2012-01-01

    Learning always takes place in a particular context and culture, yet educators have tended to focus their attention mainly on the form of learning, its methodology, content and teaching approach. While these can and do affect learning and its results, this paper looks beyond the particulars of the program to explore how the context and culture of…

  5. The Impact of National Culture on Informal Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sehoon; McLean, Gary N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to identify how differing cultural factors affect informal learning in the workplace. We have introduced concepts and reviewed studies on informal learning and national culture based on an extensive literature review on the factors influencing informal learning, particularly based on five Hofstede's dimensions of…

  6. The Impact of National Culture on Informal Learning in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sehoon; McLean, Gary N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to identify how differing cultural factors affect informal learning in the workplace. We have introduced concepts and reviewed studies on informal learning and national culture based on an extensive literature review on the factors influencing informal learning, particularly based on five Hofstede's dimensions of…

  7. Repeated learning makes cultural evolution unique

    PubMed Central

    Strimling, Pontus; Enquist, Magnus; Eriksson, Kimmo

    2009-01-01

    Although genetic information is acquired only once, cultural information can be both abandoned and reacquired during an individual's lifetime. Therefore, cultural evolution will be determined not only by cultural traits' ability to spread but also by how good they are at sticking with an individual; however, the evolutionary consequences of this aspect of culture have not previously been explored. Here we show that repeated learning and multiple characteristics of cultural traits make cultural evolution unique, allowing dynamical phenomena we can recognize as specifically cultural, such as traits that both spread quickly and disappear quickly. Importantly, the analysis of our model also yields a theoretical objection to the popular suggestion that biological and cultural evolution can be understood in similar terms. We find that the possibility to predict long-term cultural evolution by some success index, analogous to biological fitness, depends on whether individuals have few or many opportunities to learn. If learning opportunities are few, we find that the existence of a success index may be logically impossible, rendering notions of “cultural fitness” meaningless. On the other hand, if individuals can learn many times, we find a success index that works, regardless of whether the transmission pattern is vertical, oblique, or horizontal. PMID:19666615

  8. Innovation and Quality for New Learning Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Ulf-Daniel

    This chapter explores the potential of Web 2.0 technologies to leverage e-Learning to a new generation and assesses the consequences for quality assurance, management, and development in higher education. The chapter describes key characteristics of the e-Learning 2.0 phenomenon and how the related emerging learning scenarios can be used for the principles of quality development in learning communities. It explores a range of methods that can be deployed for quality development in community-oriented learning. Finally, it discusses if a new learning culture, which is based on the philosophy of Web 2.0 and exploits the potentials of social software for learning, automatically leads to a new quality culture.

  9. Dynamics of Affective States during Complex Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney; Graesser, Art

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model to explain the dynamics of affective states that emerge during deep learning activities. The model predicts that learners in a state of engagement/flow will experience cognitive disequilibrium and confusion when they face contradictions, incongruities, anomalies, obstacles to goals, and other impasses. Learners revert into the…

  10. How Performance Assessments Affect Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattri, Nidhi; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes results of a 3-year national study of performance assessments' effects on teaching and learning, based on visits to 16 schools implementing these assessments. Performance assessments marginally affected curriculum, but substantially influenced instruction and teacher role. Changing assignment and assessment format will not increase…

  11. Dynamics of Affective States during Complex Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mello, Sidney; Graesser, Art

    2012-01-01

    We propose a model to explain the dynamics of affective states that emerge during deep learning activities. The model predicts that learners in a state of engagement/flow will experience cognitive disequilibrium and confusion when they face contradictions, incongruities, anomalies, obstacles to goals, and other impasses. Learners revert into the…

  12. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children’s learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission—the cornerstone of human cultural diversity. PMID:28739945

  13. Cumulative cultural learning: Development and diversity.

    PubMed

    Legare, Cristine H

    2017-07-24

    The complexity and variability of human culture is unmatched by any other species. Humans live in culturally constructed niches filled with artifacts, skills, beliefs, and practices that have been inherited, accumulated, and modified over generations. A causal account of the complexity of human culture must explain its distinguishing characteristics: It is cumulative and highly variable within and across populations. I propose that the psychological adaptations supporting cumulative cultural transmission are universal but are sufficiently flexible to support the acquisition of highly variable behavioral repertoires. This paper describes variation in the transmission practices (teaching) and acquisition strategies (imitation) that support cumulative cultural learning in childhood. Examining flexibility and variation in caregiver socialization and children's learning extends our understanding of evolution in living systems by providing insight into the psychological foundations of cumulative cultural transmission-the cornerstone of human cultural diversity.

  14. Grist and mills: on the cultural origins of cultural learning

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Cumulative cultural evolution is what ‘makes us odd’; our capacity to learn facts and techniques from others, and to refine them over generations, plays a major role in making human minds and lives radically different from those of other animals. In this article, I discuss cognitive processes that are known collectively as ‘cultural learning’ because they enable cumulative cultural evolution. These cognitive processes include reading, social learning, imitation, teaching, social motivation and theory of mind. Taking the first of these three types of cultural learning as examples, I ask whether and to what extent these cognitive processes have been adapted genetically or culturally to enable cumulative cultural evolution. I find that recent empirical work in comparative psychology, developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience provides surprisingly little evidence of genetic adaptation, and ample evidence of cultural adaptation. This raises the possibility that it is not only ‘grist’ but also ‘mills’ that are culturally inherited; through social interaction in the course of development, we not only acquire facts about the world and how to deal with it (grist), we also build the cognitive processes that make ‘fact inheritance’ possible (mills). PMID:22734061

  15. Culture and resource management: factors affecting forests

    Treesearch

    Marjorie C. Falanruw

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to manage Pacific Island forest resources are more likely to succeed if they are based on an understanding of the cultural framework of land use activities. This paper explores the relationship between agricultural systems, population density, culture, and use of forest resources on the islands of Yap. Agricultural intensification is related to population...

  16. From Learning Cultures to Educational Cultures: Values and Judgements in Educational Research and Educational Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a new approach to the study of learning and the improvement of education. The approach consists of two elements: a theory of learning cultures and a cultural theory of learning. Learning cultures are different from learning contexts or learning environments in that they are to be understood as the social practices through…

  17. From Learning Cultures to Educational Cultures: Values and Judgements in Educational Research and Educational Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines a new approach to the study of learning and the improvement of education. The approach consists of two elements: a theory of learning cultures and a cultural theory of learning. Learning cultures are different from learning contexts or learning environments in that they are to be understood as the social practices through…

  18. The Effect of Culture on Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinasevych, Orest

    2010-01-01

    The author is conducting survey research to identify possible effects of culture on online learning success. The research will consider the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance identified by Hofstede (2001). The research participants will be students at Canadian post-secondary institutions. The survey will ask learners about their…

  19. Conditioning Factors of an Organizational Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebelo, Teresa Manuela; Gomes, Adelino Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between some variables (organizational structure, organizational dimension and age, human resource characteristics, the external environment, strategy and quality) and organizational learning culture and evaluate the way they interact with this kind of culture.…

  20. Conditioning Factors of an Organizational Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebelo, Teresa Manuela; Gomes, Adelino Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between some variables (organizational structure, organizational dimension and age, human resource characteristics, the external environment, strategy and quality) and organizational learning culture and evaluate the way they interact with this kind of culture.…

  1. Accounting for Cultural Preferences in the Design of Online Learning in the Arab World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    If cultural values affect the way that people learn, these should be accounted for in learning design. This article discusses innovative, pedagogically-sound design principles that were developed from theory and refined in an Arabic learning environment, in Oman. These principles are recommended for designing online learning that is culturally…

  2. FORUM: Affective Learning. Students' Affective Learning as Affective Experience: Significance, Reconceptualization, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  3. FORUM: Affective Learning. Students' Affective Learning as Affective Experience: Significance, Reconceptualization, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, San

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  4. Understanding Culture: A Pre-Condition for Effective Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela

    This paper is concerned with the cultures of learning and the customs of learners. A distinction is drawn between the base learning culture of the learner as that which represents the knowledge, learning orientations, and strategies the learner brings to a learning situation, and a cultural learning posture that comprises the knowledge, learning…

  5. Learning, Tablet, Culture-Coherence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norqvist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents understandings of learning in schools where Internet-enabled Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are taken for granted. The context is a full-scale 1:1 tablet project in Danish municipality schools where this study bring forward expressions of learning from one class (12-13 year old children) in order to offer…

  6. Grandparent Learning and Cultural Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Robert D.; Strom, Paris S.

    2017-01-01

    People are living longer so expectations of grandparents should be redefined. Learning for them should focus on fulfilling family and community roles to retain a sense of purpose. Grandparent education requires a willingness to learn from the observations of younger family members. The intergenerational perceptions of American grandparents were…

  7. Leveraging Affective Learning for Developing Future Airmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    brings a generic, systematic ap- proach based on foundations-of-learning principles and stan - dard system theory to the ID process (Tennyson, 989...skills, and build self-efficacy ( Metcalf , Clarke, & Dede, 2009). Virtual experiences can have a more profound influence on affective outcomes than...agents. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 65(4), 348–360. Metcalf , S., Clarke, J., & Dede, C. (2009). Virtual worlds for education

  8. Affective Education for Gifted, Culturally Diverse Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Alexinia

    2009-01-01

    Over the years, there has been an ongoing controversy about affective education. Some see it as an important element of good teaching, and some see it as fluff, diminishing academics, and playing into the "feel good" movement. While criticisms may be appropriate in some situations, affective education can play a fundamental role in other…

  9. Learning Analytics to Understand Cultural Impacts on Technology Enhanced Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittelmeier, Jenna; Tempelaar, Dirk; Rienties, Bart; Nguyen, Quan

    2016-01-01

    In this empirical study, we investigate the role of national cultural dimensions as distal antecedents of the use intensity of e-tutorials, which constitute the digital component within a blended learning course. Profiting from the context of a dispositional learning analytics application, we investigate cognitive processing strategies and…

  10. Gradient language dominance affects talker learning.

    PubMed

    Bregman, Micah R; Creel, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Traditional conceptions of spoken language assume that speech recognition and talker identification are computed separately. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies imply some separation between the two faculties, but recent perceptual studies suggest better talker recognition in familiar languages than unfamiliar languages. A familiar-language benefit in talker recognition potentially implies strong ties between the two domains. However, little is known about the nature of this language familiarity effect. The current study investigated the relationship between speech and talker processing by assessing bilingual and monolingual listeners' ability to learn voices as a function of language familiarity and age of acquisition. Two effects emerged. First, bilinguals learned to recognize talkers in their first language (Korean) more rapidly than they learned to recognize talkers in their second language (English), while English-speaking participants showed the opposite pattern (learning English talkers faster than Korean talkers). Second, bilinguals' learning rate for talkers in their second language (English) correlated with age of English acquisition. Taken together, these results suggest that language background materially affects talker encoding, implying a tight relationship between speech and talker representations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Culturally responsive instruction for english language learners with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused on how one teacher's knowledge of culturally responsive pedagogy affected her special education instruction. Findings resulted in three major themes that were aligned with the current literature in this area: Cultural Aspects of Teaching Reading, Culturally Relevant Skills-Based Instruction, and Collaborative Agency Time. The results indicated that the success of special education with ELLs at the elementary education level might be dependent on how well the special education teacher integrates culturally responsive instruction with ELLs' cultural and linguistic needs. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  12. Lifelong learning: fostering a culture of curiosity.

    PubMed

    Eason, Toni

    2010-01-01

    Lifelong learning contributes to the development of knowledge and skill in nursing. A focus on continuous learning is necessary to remain current on trends, practices, and the newest treatments in the field of nursing. Creation of a culture where educational growth is supported and promoted is vital to advancement of the nursing profession. Nurses' satisfaction with their professional role can be further enhanced by demonstrated expertise through lifelong learning. Expertise in nursing is solidly founded on evidence-based practice. Research, education, and experience in nursing practice are linked to evidence-based practice and lifelong learning; both are essential to remaining well versed in health care service delivery.

  13. Ammonia Affects Astroglial Proliferation in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bodega, Guillermo; Segura, Berta; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, María del Carmen; López-Fernández, Luis Andrés; García, María Isabel; Trabado, Isabel; Suárez, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Primary cultures of rat astroglial cells were exposed to 1, 3 and 5 mM NH4Cl for up to 10 days. Dose- and time-dependent reductions in cell numbers were seen, plus an increase in the proportion of cells in the S phase. The DNA content was reduced in the treated cells, and BrdU incorporation diminished. However, neither ammonia nor ammonia plus glutamine had any effect on DNA polymerase activity. iTRAQ analysis showed that exposure to ammonia induced a significant reduction in histone and heterochromatin protein 1 expression. A reduction in cell viability was also noted. The ammonia-induced reduction of proliferative activity in these cultured astroglial cells seems to be due to a delay in the completion of the S phase provoked by the inhibition of chromatin protein synthesis. PMID:26421615

  14. Learner Cultures and Corporate Cultural Differences in E-Learning Behaviors in the IT Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierczek, Fredric William; Bechter, Clemens; Chankiew, Jeerawan

    2012-01-01

    Corporate cultural values have a major influence on learning. For learning to be effective it must be adapted to the cultural context in which it takes place. E-learning neither eliminates cultural differences nor is it culture free. This study focuses on two major Indian IT companies with different Corporate Cultures sharing the same expected…

  15. Learner Cultures and Corporate Cultural Differences in E-Learning Behaviors in the IT Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swierczek, Fredric William; Bechter, Clemens; Chankiew, Jeerawan

    2012-01-01

    Corporate cultural values have a major influence on learning. For learning to be effective it must be adapted to the cultural context in which it takes place. E-learning neither eliminates cultural differences nor is it culture free. This study focuses on two major Indian IT companies with different Corporate Cultures sharing the same expected…

  16. Affective e-Learning: Using "Emotional" Data to Improve Learning in Pervasive Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Liping; Wang, Minjuan; Shen, Ruimin

    2009-01-01

    Using emotion detection technologies from biophysical signals, this study explored how emotion evolves during learning process and how emotion feedback could be used to improve learning experiences. This article also described a cutting-edge pervasive e-Learning platform used in a Shanghai online college and proposed an affective e-Learning model,…

  17. Visual variability affects early verb learning.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Katherine E; Lush, Lauren; Pearce, Ruth; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-09-01

    Research demonstrates that within-category visual variability facilitates noun learning; however, the effect of visual variability on verb learning is unknown. We habituated 24-month-old children to a novel verb paired with an animated star-shaped actor. Across multiple trials, children saw either a single action from an action category (identical actions condition, for example, travelling while repeatedly changing into a circle shape) or multiple actions from that action category (variable actions condition, for example, travelling while changing into a circle shape, then a square shape, then a triangle shape). Four test trials followed habituation. One paired the habituated verb with a new action from the habituated category (e.g., 'dacking' + pentagon shape) and one with a completely novel action (e.g., 'dacking' + leg movement). The others paired a new verb with a new same-category action (e.g., 'keefing' + pentagon shape), or a completely novel category action (e.g., 'keefing' + leg movement). Although all children discriminated novel verb/action pairs, children in the identical actions condition discriminated trials that included the completely novel verb, while children in the variable actions condition discriminated the out-of-category action. These data suggest that - as in noun learning - visual variability affects verb learning and children's ability to form action categories. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Fostering cultural inclusiveness and learning in culturally mixed business classes.

    PubMed

    Mak, Anita S; Daly, Anne; Barker, Michelle C

    2014-01-01

    Business educators have advocated that in order to build faculty's intercultural capability, it is vital to provide them with professional development in using intercultural training resources and with "community of practice" support in adapting such resources for enhancing their students' intercultural learning. This approach has been adopted in an Australian action research project titled "Internationalisation at Home" (IaH), which involved providing faculty with professional development adapted from an established intercultural training resource - the EXCELL (Excellence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership) Program. In this paper, we present two case studies of the implementation of the IaH Project in business schools at the University of Canberra and at Griffith University. Lessons learned from the first study were incorporated in the design and evaluation of the second one. Faculty leaders will describe how they engage and support colleagues in adapting components of EXCELL to foster cultural inclusiveness and facilitate students' intercultural competence development. As part of project evaluation, we hypothesised that students who participated in IaH courses would report greater levels of (1) cultural inclusiveness in their educational environment, and (2) cultural learning development, compared with students who were not enrolled in IaH courses. Research participants in the Canberra case study comprised an intervention group of 140 business undergraduates enrolled in an IaH course, and a control group of 59 non-IaH undergraduates. At Griffith, participants were 211 first year management students in the intervention group and 84 students enrolled in a non-IaH first year course. In each case study, an end-of-semester survey showed that students who had completed courses with the IaH project intervention reported significantly greater levels of perceived cultural inclusiveness in multicultural classes, and of cultural learning development, than

  19. Elementary Students in Substantive Culture Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.

    2004-01-01

    In today's culturally diverse and interconnected world, elementary teachers have a primary responsibility for opening students' eyes to the world and its peoples. Without understanding diverse cultures locally and globally, young people cannot make sense of issues and events that affect their lives nor can they make informed economic, political,…

  20. Cultural Influences on Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Gary J., Ed.; Fellenz, Robert A., Ed.

    Five projects are reported that examined factors related to adult learning in nontraditional environments. "Conrad, Montana: A Community of Memories" (Janice Counter, Lynn Paul, and Gary Conti) reports on a group of adults who for over 40 years have been active in building a better community for friends, relatives, and themselves. A…

  1. Evolution of social learning does not explain the origin of human cumulative culture.

    PubMed

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    2007-05-07

    Because culture requires transmission of information between individuals, thinking about the origin of culture has mainly focused on the genetic evolution of abilities for social learning. Current theory considers how social learning affects the adaptiveness of a single cultural trait, yet human culture consists of the accumulation of very many traits. Here we introduce a new modeling strategy that tracks the adaptive value of many cultural traits, showing that genetic evolution favors only limited social learning owing to the accumulation of maladaptive as well as adaptive culture. We further show that culture can be adaptive, and refined social learning can evolve, if individuals can identify and discard maladaptive culture. This suggests that the evolution of such "adaptive filtering" mechanisms may have been crucial for the birth of human culture.

  2. Integrating Culture into Language Teaching and Learning: Learner Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Trang Thi Thuy

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of learner outcomes in learning culture as part of their language learning. First, some brief discussion on the role of culture in language teaching and learning, as well as on culture contents in language lessons is presented. Based on a detailed review of previous literature related to culture in language teaching…

  3. Design of Affectively Evocative Smart Ambient Media for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Ron Chi-Wai; Cheng, Shuk Han; Ip, Horace Ho-Shing; Kong, Joseph Siu-Lung

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a teaching and research initiative, named SAMAL (Smart AMbience for Affective Learning) that will provide a unique ambient mediated environment for integrating cognitive and affective approaches to enhance learning. Also, this study illustrates a design of SAMAL classroom with affectively evocative scenarios for learning de…

  4. Design of Affectively Evocative Smart Ambient Media for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Ron Chi-Wai; Cheng, Shuk Han; Ip, Horace Ho-Shing; Kong, Joseph Siu-Lung

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a teaching and research initiative, named SAMAL (Smart AMbience for Affective Learning) that will provide a unique ambient mediated environment for integrating cognitive and affective approaches to enhance learning. Also, this study illustrates a design of SAMAL classroom with affectively evocative scenarios for learning de…

  5. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  6. How Do Learning Communities Affect First-Year Latino Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Juan Carlos; Bray, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Do learning communities with pedagogies of active learning, collaborative learning, and integration of course material affect the learning, achievement, and persistence of first-year Latino university students? The data for this project was obtained from a survey of 1,330 first-year students in the First-Year Learning Community Program at Texas…

  7. Organizational Learning Culture, Transfer Climate and Perceived Innovation in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Reid; Khasawneh, Samer

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate, and organizational innovation. The objective was to test the ability of learning organization culture to account for variance in learning transfer climate and subsequent organizational innovation, and to examine the role of learning transfer…

  8. Examining Culture's Impact on the Learning Behaviors of International Students from Confucius Culture Studying in Western Online Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Haijun; Chang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of shared understanding of how culture impacts learning in online environment. Utilizing document analysis, the authors in this research study culture's impact on the learning behaviors of student sojourners from Confucius culture studying in Western online learning context. The shared understandings of Confucius culture and…

  9. Who Learns More? Cultural Differences in Implicit Sequence Learning

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan; Shang, Junchen; Fu, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    Background It is well documented that East Asians differ from Westerners in conscious perception and attention. However, few studies have explored cultural differences in unconscious processes such as implicit learning. Methodology/Principal Findings The global-local Navon letters were adopted in the serial reaction time (SRT) task, during which Chinese and British participants were instructed to respond to global or local letters, to investigate whether culture influences what people acquire in implicit sequence learning. Our results showed that from the beginning British expressed a greater local bias in perception than Chinese, confirming a cultural difference in perception. Further, over extended exposure, the Chinese learned the target regularity better than the British when the targets were global, indicating a global advantage for Chinese in implicit learning. Moreover, Chinese participants acquired greater unconscious knowledge of an irrelevant regularity than British participants, indicating that the Chinese were more sensitive to contextual regularities than the British. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that cultural biases can profoundly influence both what people consciously perceive and unconsciously learn. PMID:23940773

  10. Forum: A New Culture of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Mary E.; Gallagher, Eugene V.; Turpin, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    These brief essays by Mary Hess, Eugene Gallagher, and Katherine Turpin are solicited responses from three different contexts to the provocative book by Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown, "The New Culture of Learning" (2011). Mary Hess writes from a seminary context, providing a critical summary of the authors' major concepts and…

  11. Language Planning at the Cultural Learning Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Joan

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses language planning activities at the East-West Culture Learning Institute in Hawaii. Activities have been planned to facilitate and orient the use of the language planning approach by practitioners who have increasingly focused on the relation of development and modernization to language, and need to understand how language…

  12. Forum: A New Culture of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Mary E.; Gallagher, Eugene V.; Turpin, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    These brief essays by Mary Hess, Eugene Gallagher, and Katherine Turpin are solicited responses from three different contexts to the provocative book by Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown, "The New Culture of Learning" (2011). Mary Hess writes from a seminary context, providing a critical summary of the authors' major concepts and…

  13. Learning to Teach: The Cultural Transmission Analogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Fleet, Alanson

    1979-01-01

    Drawing on anthropological theories of cultural transmission, the author suggests that the simple notion of teacher education be replaced with a concept incorporating teacher education (instruction in formal procedures), teacher enculturation (role-learning through observation), and teacher schooling (transmission of professional folklore which…

  14. Racial and Cultural Factors and Learning Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Baldwin and Ford (1988) specifically include learner characteristics as one of three key inputs into the learning transfer process but infrequently (actually almost never) has race, ethnicity, or culture been included as a variable when describing trainee characteristics. For the most part one is left to speculate as to the potential influence…

  15. Reflections on Adult Learning in Cultural Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Marilyn McKinley

    2010-01-01

    Cultural institutions are rich locations for adult learning. Despite apparent differences in mission, they are similar in many ways. Similarities include social and historical development, educational philosophy and objectives, epistemological tensions and contestations, and challenges associated when attracting and educating adult visitors. In an…

  16. Learning Styles across Cultures: Suggestions for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Zarina M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present research findings on the relationship between culture and learning styles, as defined by Honey and Mumford in a Higher Education setting. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted with first semester students studying in an International Institute of Higher Education. A questionnaire administered…

  17. Learning Styles across Cultures: Suggestions for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Zarina M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present research findings on the relationship between culture and learning styles, as defined by Honey and Mumford in a Higher Education setting. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted with first semester students studying in an International Institute of Higher Education. A questionnaire administered…

  18. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  19. Addressing Cultural Diversity: Effects of a Problem-Based Intercultural Learning Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Krause, Ulrike-Marie

    2015-01-01

    This article explores to what extent a problem-based learning unit in combination with cooperative learning and affectively oriented teaching methods facilitates intercultural learning. As part of the study, students reflected on critical incidents, which display misunderstandings or conflicts that arise as a result of cultural differences. In…

  20. Linking Positive Affect to Blood Lipids: A Cultural Perspective.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jiah; Miyamoto, Yuri; Rigotti, Attilio; Ryff, Carol D

    2017-10-01

    Higher levels of positive affect have been associated with better physical health. While positive affect is seen as highly desirable among Westerners, East Asians tend to deemphasize positive affect. Using large probability samples of Japanese and U.S. adult populations, the present study examined the relations of positive affect with serum lipid profiles, known to be strongly predictive of risk for cardiovascular disease, and tested whether their associations depend on cultural contexts. As predicted, positive affect was associated with healthier lipid profiles for Americans but not for Japanese. Further analyses showed that this cultural moderation was mediated by body mass index. This study highlights the role of culture in the link between positive emotions and key biological risk factors of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-02-22

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  2. Comment: Affect Control Theory and Cultural Priming: A Perspective from Cultural Neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y

    2014-04-01

    Affect control theory posits that emotions are constructed by social and cultural forces. Rogers, Schröder, and von Scheve (2014) introduce affect control theory as a conceptual and methodological "hub," linking theories from different disciplines across levels of analysis. To illustrate this further, we apply their framework to cultural priming, an experimental technique in cultural psychology and neuroscience for testing how exposure to cultural symbols (e.g., words and pictures) changes people's behavior, cognition, and emotion. Our analysis supports the use of affect control theory in linking different levels of analysis while leaving some opening questions for improving such a framework in future research.

  3. Affective Dimensions of Participatory Design Research in Informal Learning Environments: Placemaking, Belonging, and Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehret, Christian; Hollett, Ty

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that current approaches to participatory design research (PDR) risk eliding the affective life of making educational change by locating change in cultural mediation alone. Locating change only in mediation subordinates affect, potentially overlooking lived dimensions of learning and being essential to lasting, transformative…

  4. Affective Dimensions of Participatory Design Research in Informal Learning Environments: Placemaking, Belonging, and Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehret, Christian; Hollett, Ty

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that current approaches to participatory design research (PDR) risk eliding the affective life of making educational change by locating change in cultural mediation alone. Locating change only in mediation subordinates affect, potentially overlooking lived dimensions of learning and being essential to lasting, transformative…

  5. Case Studies of Organisations with Established Learning Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robyn; Hawke, Geof

    Researchers examined the way selected Australian organizations understand and enact the notion of a learning culture. The diverse approaches that have been used to foster the learning cultures revealed through the case studies confirmed that the concept of a culture of learning was not a homogenous one. The study revealed that embedding a culture…

  6. Blackboxing: social learning strategies and cultural evolution

    PubMed Central

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) enable humans, non-human animals, and artificial agents to make adaptive decisions about when they should copy other agents, and who they should copy. Behavioural ecologists and economists have discovered an impressive range of SLSs, and explored their likely impact on behavioural efficiency and reproductive fitness while using the ‘phenotypic gambit’; ignoring, or remaining deliberately agnostic about, the nature and origins of the cognitive processes that implement SLSs. Here I argue that this ‘blackboxing' of SLSs is no longer a viable scientific strategy. It has contributed, through the ‘social learning strategies tournament', to the premature conclusion that social learning is generally better than asocial learning, and to a deep puzzle about the relationship between SLSs and cultural evolution. The puzzle can be solved by recognizing that whereas most SLSs are ‘planetary'—they depend on domain-general cognitive processes—some SLSs, found only in humans, are ‘cook-like'—they depend on explicit, metacognitive rules, such as copy digital natives. These metacognitive SLSs contribute to cultural evolution by fostering the development of processes that enhance the exclusivity, specificity, and accuracy of social learning. PMID:27069046

  7. Blackboxing: social learning strategies and cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2016-05-05

    Social learning strategies (SLSs) enable humans, non-human animals, and artificial agents to make adaptive decisions aboutwhenthey should copy other agents, andwhothey should copy. Behavioural ecologists and economists have discovered an impressive range of SLSs, and explored their likely impact on behavioural efficiency and reproductive fitness while using the 'phenotypic gambit'; ignoring, or remaining deliberately agnostic about, the nature and origins of the cognitive processes that implement SLSs. Here I argue that this 'blackboxing' of SLSs is no longer a viable scientific strategy. It has contributed, through the 'social learning strategies tournament', to the premature conclusion that social learning is generally better than asocial learning, and to a deep puzzle about the relationship between SLSs and cultural evolution. The puzzle can be solved by recognizing that whereas most SLSs are 'planetary'--they depend on domain-general cognitive processes--some SLSs, found only in humans, are 'cook-like'--they depend on explicit, metacognitive rules, such ascopy digital natives. These metacognitive SLSs contribute to cultural evolution by fostering the development of processes that enhance the exclusivity, specificity, and accuracy of social learning.

  8. Lessons learned and their application to program development and cultural issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Gilbert L.

    1991-01-01

    The main objectives of space product assurance are, in effect, the same as those of Total Quality Management (TQM) or its many variants. The most significant ingredients are the lessons learned and their application to ongoing and future programs as they are affected by changes in the cultural environment. The cultural issues which affect almost everything done in technical programs and projects are considered. Understanding the lessons learned and the synergism which results from this combination of knowledge, culture, and lessons learned is identified as crucial. A brief discussion of the closed loop linkage that should exist between the world of hands on activities and that of educational institutions is presented.

  9. How does vision affect learning? Part II.

    PubMed

    Koller, H P

    1999-01-01

    1. Dyslexia is a language-based learning disability in which phontiec analysis is genetically deficient. 2. Nonverbal learning differences are frequently overlooked in evaluating learning disabled children. 3. Children often have more than one category of learning difference, all of which must be diagnosed correctly to be effectively remediated.

  10. [Anaesthetists learn--do institutions also learn? Importance of institutional learning and corporate culture in clinics].

    PubMed

    Schüpfer, G; Gfrörer, R; Schleppers, A

    2007-10-01

    In only a few contexts is the need for substantial learning more pronounced than in health care. For a health care provider, the ability to learn is essential in a changing environment. Although individual humans are programmed to learn naturally, organisations are not. Learning that is limited to individual professions and traditional approaches to continuing medical education is not sufficient to bring about substantial changes in the learning capacity of an institution. Also, organisational learning is an important issue for anaesthesia departments. Future success of an organisation often depends on new capabilities and competencies. Organisational learning is the capacity or processes within an organisation to maintain or improve performance based on experience. Learning is seen as a system-level phenomenon as it stays in the organisation regardless of the players involved. Experience from other industries shows that learning strategies tend to focus on single loop learning, with relatively little double loop learning and virtually no meta-learning or non-learning. The emphasis on team delivery of health care reinforces the need for team learning. Learning organisations make learning an intrinsic part of their organisations and are a place where people continually learn how to learn together. Organisational learning practice can help to improve existing skills and competencies and to change outdated assumptions, procedures and structures. So far, learning theory has been ignored in medicine, due to a wide variety of complex political, economic, social, organisational culture and medical factors that prevent innovation and resist change. The organisational culture is central to every stage of the learning process. Learning organisations move beyond simple employee training into organisational problem solving, innovation and learning. Therefore, teamwork and leadership are necessary. Successful organisations change the competencies of individuals, the systems

  11. Effects of a Peer Competition-based Mobile Learning Approach on Students' Affective Domain Exhibition in Social Studies Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    One of the important and challenging objectives of social studies courses is to promote students' affective domain exhibition, including learning interest, positive attitudes and local culture identity. In this paper, a location-aware mobile learning approach was proposed based on a competition strategy for conducting local cultural activities in…

  12. Effects of a Peer Competition-based Mobile Learning Approach on Students' Affective Domain Exhibition in Social Studies Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chang, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    One of the important and challenging objectives of social studies courses is to promote students' affective domain exhibition, including learning interest, positive attitudes and local culture identity. In this paper, a location-aware mobile learning approach was proposed based on a competition strategy for conducting local cultural activities in…

  13. The Impact of Induced Positive Affect on Incarcerated Males' Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Tanis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Incarcerated adolescent males (n=62) with high and low depression scores were assigned to a positive or neutral affect induction condition. Following affect induction, subjects participated in tasks involving learning to read Hindi words. Results showed a main effect for self-induced positive affect on learning but no main effect for depression…

  14. Affect and Learning: An Exploratory Look into the Role of Affect in Learning with AutoTutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Scotty D.; Graesser, Arthur C.; Sullins, Jeremiah; Gholson, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The role that affective states play in learning was investigated from the perspective of a constructivist learning framework. We observed six different affect states (frustration, boredom, flow, confusion, eureka and neutral) that potentially occur during the process of learning introductory computer literacy with AutoTutor, an intelligent…

  15. Singularities affect dynamics of learning in neuromanifolds.

    PubMed

    Amari, Shun-ichi; Park, Hyeyoung; Ozeki, Tomoko

    2006-05-01

    The parameter spaces of hierarchical systems such as multilayer perceptrons include singularities due to the symmetry and degeneration of hidden units. A parameter space forms a geometrical manifold, called the neuromanifold in the case of neural networks. Such a model is identified with a statistical model, and a Riemannian metric is given by the Fisher information matrix. However, the matrix degenerates at singularities. Such a singular structure is ubiquitous not only in multilayer perceptrons but also in the gaussian mixture probability densities, ARMA time-series model, and many other cases. The standard statistical paradigm of the Cramér-Rao theorem does not hold, and the singularity gives rise to strange behaviors in parameter estimation, hypothesis testing, Bayesian inference, model selection, and in particular, the dynamics of learning from examples. Prevailing theories so far have not paid much attention to the problem caused by singularity, relying only on ordinary statistical theories developed for regular (nonsingular) models. Only recently have researchers remarked on the effects of singularity, and theories are now being developed. This article gives an overview of the phenomena caused by the singularities of statistical manifolds related to multilayer perceptrons and gaussian mixtures. We demonstrate our recent results on these problems. Simple toy models are also used to show explicit solutions. We explain that the maximum likelihood estimator is no longer subject to the gaussian distribution even asymptotically, because the Fisher information matrix degenerates, that the model selection criteria such as AIC, BIC, and MDL fail to hold in these models, that a smooth Bayesian prior becomes singular in such models, and that the trajectories of dynamics of learning are strongly affected by the singularity, causing plateaus or slow manifolds in the parameter space. The natural gradient method is shown to perform well because it takes the singular

  16. Learning Cultures and Learning Styles: Myth-Understandings about Adult (Hong Kong) Chinese Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Compares stereotypes with realities of the effect of Chinese culture on learning styles. Reviews literature on effective adult learning. Discusses learning style preferences of Hong Kong Chinese adults, teacher expectations, and new approaches to adult learning. (Contains 68 references.) (SK)

  17. Rethinking the globalisation of problem-based learning: how culture challenges self-directed learning.

    PubMed

    Frambach, Janneke M; Driessen, Erik W; Chan, Li-Chong; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2012-08-01

    Medical schools worldwide are increasingly switching to student-centred methods such as problem-based learning (PBL) to foster lifelong self-directed learning (SDL). The cross-cultural applicability of these methods has been questioned because of their Western origins and because education contexts and learning approaches differ across cultures. This study evaluated PBL's cross-cultural applicability by investigating how it is applied in three medical schools in regions with different cultures in, respectively, East Asia, the Middle East and Western Europe. Specifically, it investigated how students' cultural backgrounds impact on SDL in PBL and how this impact affects students. A qualitative, cross-cultural, comparative case study was conducted in three medical schools. Data were collected through 88 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with Year 1 and 3 students, tutors and key persons involved in PBL, 32 observations of Year 1 and 3 PBL tutorials, document analysis, and contextual information. The data were thematically analysed using the template analysis method. Comparisons were made among the three medical schools and between Year 1 and 3 students across and within the schools. The cultural factors of uncertainty and tradition posed a challenge to Middle Eastern students' SDL. Hierarchy posed a challenge to Asian students and achievement impacted on both sets of non-Western students. These factors were less applicable to European students, although the latter did experience some challenges. Several contextual factors inhibited or enhanced SDL across the cases. As students grew used to PBL, SDL skills increased across the cases, albeit to different degrees. Although cultural factors can pose a challenge to the application of PBL in non-Western settings, it appears that PBL can be applied in different cultural contexts. However, its globalisation does not postulate uniform processes and outcomes, and culturally sensitive alternatives might be developed.

  18. Knowledge discovery based on experiential learning corporate culture management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Kai-Jan

    2014-10-01

    A good corporate culture based on humanistic theory can make the enterprise's management very effective, all enterprise's members have strong cohesion and centripetal force. With experiential learning model, the enterprise can establish an enthusiastic learning spirit corporate culture, have innovation ability to gain the positive knowledge growth effect, and to meet the fierce global marketing competition. A case study on Trend's corporate culture can offer the proof of industry knowledge growth rate equation as the contribution to experiential learning corporate culture management.

  19. Culturally Focused Community-Centered Service Learning: An International Cultural Immersion Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra M.; Clarke, Darren

    2010-01-01

    An immersion training model is described that incorporates culturally focused community-centered service in South Africa as an experiential learning approach. Recommendations for developing international cultural immersion training with a goal of developing cultural competencies are suggested.

  20. Using Instructional Pervasive Game for School Children's Cultural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cheng-Ping; Shih, Ju-Ling; Ma, Yi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    In the past ten years, mobile learning (m-learning) has created a new learning environment that enables learners, through active learning aids. Instructional pervasive gaming (IPG) seems to be an innovative way introduced to enhance m-learning. This study employed a theoretical IPG model to construct a cultural-based pervasive game. Individual and…

  1. Using Instructional Pervasive Game for School Children's Cultural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Cheng-Ping; Shih, Ju-Ling; Ma, Yi-Chun

    2014-01-01

    In the past ten years, mobile learning (m-learning) has created a new learning environment that enables learners, through active learning aids. Instructional pervasive gaming (IPG) seems to be an innovative way introduced to enhance m-learning. This study employed a theoretical IPG model to construct a cultural-based pervasive game. Individual and…

  2. Organizational Learning Culture, Learning Transfer Climate and Perceived Innovation in Jordanian Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Reid; Khasawneh, Samer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate, and organizational innovation. The objective was to test the ability of learning organization culture to account for variance in learning transfer climate and subsequent organizational innovation, and to examine the role of learning transfer…

  3. Organizational Learning Culture, Learning Transfer Climate and Perceived Innovation in Jordanian Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Reid; Khasawneh, Samer

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between organizational learning culture, learning transfer climate, and organizational innovation. The objective was to test the ability of learning organization culture to account for variance in learning transfer climate and subsequent organizational innovation, and to examine the role of learning transfer…

  4. Home culture, science, school and science learning: is reconciliation possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Aik-Ling

    2011-09-01

    In response to Meyer and Crawford's article on how nature of science and authentic science inquiry strategies can be used to support the learning of science for underrepresented students, I explore the possibly of reconciliation between the cultures of school, science, school science as well as home. Such reconciliation is only possible when science teachers are cognizant of the factors affecting the cultural values and belief systems of underrepresented students. Using my experience as an Asian learner of WMS, I suggest that open and honest dialogues in science classrooms will allow for greater clarity of the ideals that WMS profess and cultural beliefs of underrepresented students. This in-depth understanding will eliminate guesswork and unrealistic expectations and in the process promote tolerance and acceptance of diversity in ways of knowing.

  5. Cultural Norms Affect Oral Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ellen

    1997-01-01

    Students from different cultures follow differing norms for communication, affecting the classroom and students' grades. Such patterns are found in class discussions, question-and-answer sessions, small-group interactions (issues include cooperation, structure, competition, and gender), and formal class presentations. While no single teaching…

  6. You Like It, You Learn It: Affectivity and Learning in Competitive Social Role Play Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brom, Cyril; Šisler, Vít; Slussareff, Michaela; Selmbacherová, Tereza; Hlávka, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    Despite the alleged ability of digital game-based learning (DGBL) to foster positive affect and in turn improve learning, the link between affectivity and learning has not been sufficiently investigated in this field. Regarding learning from team-based games with competitive elements, even less is known about the relationship between…

  7. You Like It, You Learn It: Affectivity and Learning in Competitive Social Role Play Gaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brom, Cyril; Šisler, Vít; Slussareff, Michaela; Selmbacherová, Tereza; Hlávka, Zdenek

    2016-01-01

    Despite the alleged ability of digital game-based learning (DGBL) to foster positive affect and in turn improve learning, the link between affectivity and learning has not been sufficiently investigated in this field. Regarding learning from team-based games with competitive elements, even less is known about the relationship between…

  8. Critical Review on Affect of Personality on Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to review the affect of personality on learning styles. Costa and McCrae's Five-Factor Model of Personality (The Big 5) is explored against Kolb Learning Styles. The Big 5 factors are extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness, whereas Kolb Learning Styles are divergers, assimilators,…

  9. Residential Learning Communities Positively Affect College Binge Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brower, Aaron M.; Golde, Chris M.; Allen, Caitilyn

    2003-01-01

    Explores how living in a residential learning community affects drinking behaviors. Students living in three different residential learning communities were found to binge drink at significantly lower rates than did matched comparison groups who lived in another university residence hall. Further, learning community residents also suffered fewer…

  10. Motivational Factors Affecting Online Learning by Japanese MBA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikuchi, Hisayo

    2006-01-01

    In Japan, Internet based learning is still at an early stage. However, adult learners in Japanese society expect the development of flexible e-learning programs. This case study examines motivational factors affecting online learning in a Japanese and Australian MBA program, using observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey. The data were…

  11. Policy Options Affecting Adult Learning Services in Colorado. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knop, Sheila

    Several categories of problems affecting adult learning services in Colorado require state-level policy intervention for their solution. They include problems that limit adults' access to existing learning services, inadequacies in existing services, deficiencies in statewide planning and coordination of learning services, and financial…

  12. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  13. Is There a Difference in Learning Style among Cultures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Darlene

    Each child has a personal learning style that results from innate tendencies and environmental experiences. Because cultural groups often share common values, the experiences of children growing up with those values are reflected in their classroom learning behaviors. This paper discusses cultural differences in children's learning styles. The…

  14. How Language Supports Adaptive Teaching through a Responsive Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Peter; Dozier, Cheryl; Smit, Julie

    2016-01-01

    For students to learn optimally, teachers must design classrooms that are responsive to the full range of student development. The teacher must be adaptive, but so must each student and the learning culture itself. In other words, adaptive teaching means constructing a responsive learning culture that accommodates and even capitalizes on diversity…

  15. How an Intranet Provides Opportunities for Learning Organizational Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses a qualitative case study that addresses how an intranet can provide opportunities for learning about an organization's culture. Four primary findings are discussed with the study concluding that cultural knowledge is conveyed and renewed through an intranet in a learning process that emphasizes informal learning and…

  16. Tandem Language Learning through a Cross-Cultural Keypal Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabata, Kaori; Edasawa, Yasuyo

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of students' language learning were examined through an asynchronous cross-cultural bilingual communication project conducted between Japanese university students learning English and Canadian university students learning Japanese. Previous studies on cross-cultural communication projects have reported positive outcomes in providing…

  17. What Hearing Parents Should Learn about Deaf Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafer, Jan Christian; Richmond, Ellen Ditman

    1988-01-01

    Deaf culture is defined, and hearing parents of deaf children are encouraged to learn about deaf culture, by making contact with deaf people, learning sign language, and learning about deaf folklore and history. A resource list on deaf folklore and sign language includes books, articles, periodicals, and national organizations. (JDD)

  18. What Hearing Parents Should Learn about Deaf Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafer, Jan Christian; Richmond, Ellen Ditman

    1988-01-01

    Deaf culture is defined, and hearing parents of deaf children are encouraged to learn about deaf culture, by making contact with deaf people, learning sign language, and learning about deaf folklore and history. A resource list on deaf folklore and sign language includes books, articles, periodicals, and national organizations. (JDD)

  19. Technology-Supported Learning Innovation in Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianwei

    2010-01-01

    Many reform initiatives adopt a reductionist, proceduralized approach to cultural change, assuming that deep changes can be realized by introducing new classroom activities, textbooks, and technological tools. This article elaborates a complex system perspective of learning culture: A learning culture as a complex system involves macro-level…

  20. Culture and Tourism in the Learning Age: A Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    Cultural services and tourism are among the United Kingdom's fastest growing sectors in terms of employment and consumer demand. Cultural services and tourism bring the following elements to lifelong learning: active rather than passive learning; a means of interpreting the world around us; exposure to cultures other than one's own; confidence and…

  1. Technology-Supported Learning Innovation in Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianwei

    2010-01-01

    Many reform initiatives adopt a reductionist, proceduralized approach to cultural change, assuming that deep changes can be realized by introducing new classroom activities, textbooks, and technological tools. This article elaborates a complex system perspective of learning culture: A learning culture as a complex system involves macro-level…

  2. Attitudes Affecting Online Learning Implementation in Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Betty; Geva-May, Iris

    2009-01-01

    This study explores attitudes towards and affecting online learning implementation (OLI). In recent years there has been greater acceptance of online learning (OL) by institutional decision-makers, as evidenced by higher levels of institutional involvement; nevertheless, the increase in faculty acceptance lags behind. This gap affects the…

  3. The Effects of "Mere Exposure" on Learning and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stang, David J.

    The mediating role of learning in the relationship between repeated exposure and affect was explored and supported in three experiments involving a total of 229 undergraduate participants. It was found that both learning and affect measures behaved in essentially the same way as a function of exposure duration (experiments I and III), serial…

  4. Affective Transitions in Narrative-Centered Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuiggan, Scott W.; Robison, Jennifer L.; Lester, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Affect has been the subject of increasing attention in cognitive accounts of learning. Many intelligent tutoring systems now seek to adapt pedagogy to student affective and motivational processes in an effort to increase the effectiveness of tutorial interaction and improve learning outcomes. To this end, recent work has begun to investigate the…

  5. Affect, Epistemic Emotions, Metacognition, and Self-Regulated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efklides, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    This article deals with the functioning of affect and epistemic emotions, such as surprise and curiosity, in self-regulated learning (SRL). The claim is that affect plays a major role in SRL not only as an independent process that can facilitate or impede learning activities and performance but also through its interactions with cognition and…

  6. Demotivation: Affective States and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph; Elwood, James; Hood, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Demotivation can negatively influence the learner's attitudes and behaviors, degrade classroom group dynamics and teacher's motivation, and result in long-term and widespread negative learning outcomes. 900 university EFL learners were surveyed to investigate the demotivating factors in learning English as a foreign language (EFL) in Japan, and…

  7. Culture materials affect ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    LaIuppa, J A; McAdams, T A; Papoutsakis, E T; Miller, W M

    1997-09-05

    Ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic cells is important for applications such as cancer treatment, gene therapy, and transfusion medicine. While cell culture systems are widely used to evaluate the biocompatibility of materials for implantation, the ability of materials to support proliferation of primary human cells in cultures for reinfusion into patients has not been addressed. We screened a variety of commercially available polymer (15 types), metal (four types), and glass substrates for their ability to support expansion of hematopoietic cells when cultured under conditions that would be encountered in a clinical setting. Cultures of peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ cells and mononuclear cells (MNC) were evaluated for expansion of total cells and colony-forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM; progenitors committed to the granulocyte and/or monocyte lineage). Human hematopoietic cultures in serum-free medium were found to be extremely sensitive to the substrate material. The only materials tested that supported expansion at or near the levels of polystyrene were tissue culture polystyrene, Teflon perfluoroalkoxy, Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene, cellulose acetate, titanium, new polycarbonate, and new polymethylpentene. MNC were less sensitive to the substrate materials than the primitive CD34+ progenitors, although similar trends were seen for expansion of the two cell populations on the substrates tested. CFU-GM expansion was more sensitive to substrate materials than was total cell expansion. The detrimental effects of a number of the materials on hematopoietic cultures appear to be caused by protein adsorption and/or leaching of toxins. Factors such as cleaning, sterilization, and reuse significantly affected the performance of some materials as culture substrates. We also used PB CD34+ cell cultures to examine the biocompatibility of gas-permeable cell culture and blood storage bags and several types of tubing commonly used with biomedical equipment

  8. Comment: Affect Control Theory and Cultural Priming: A Perspective from Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Pornpattananangkul, Narun; Chiao, Joan Y.

    2014-01-01

    Affect control theory posits that emotions are constructed by social and cultural forces. Rogers, Schröder, and von Scheve (2014) introduce affect control theory as a conceptual and methodological “hub,” linking theories from different disciplines across levels of analysis. To illustrate this further, we apply their framework to cultural priming, an experimental technique in cultural psychology and neuroscience for testing how exposure to cultural symbols (e.g., words and pictures) changes people’s behavior, cognition, and emotion. Our analysis supports the use of affect control theory in linking different levels of analysis while leaving some opening questions for improving such a framework in future research. PMID:25866559

  9. Affective Influences on English Language Learning Among Indian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scoon, Annabelle R.

    Motivation has been called the most important variable in foreign language learning. Of the possible motivators, that of desire for integration with the culture of speakers of the language correlates most highly with learning success. American Indian students are faced with the need to integrate to a certain extent with speakers of English. Their…

  10. Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

  11. Popular Cultural Pedagogy, in Theory; Or: What Can Cultural Theory Learn about Learning from Popular Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Culture has been theorized as pedagogy. In several languages and many contexts "culture" and "education" can be used interchangeably. This issue of the journal "Educational Philosophy and Theory" seeks to explore the dual proposition (1) that pedagogy is central to politicized cultural theory, but (2) that it has been…

  12. Enriching the Student Experience Through a Collaborative Cultural Learning Model.

    PubMed

    McInally, Wendy; Metcalfe, Sharon; Garner, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a knowledge and understanding of an international, collaborative, cultural learning model for students from the United States and Scotland. Internationalizing the student experience has been instrumental for student learning for the past eight years. Both countries have developed programs that have enriched and enhanced the overall student learning experience, mainly through the sharing of evidence-based care in both hospital and community settings. Student learning is at the heart of this international model, and through practice learning, leadership, and reflective practice, student immersion in global health care and practice is immense. Moving forward, we are seeking new opportunities to explore learning partnerships to provide this collaborative cultural learning experience.

  13. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  14. Yeast Can Affect Behavior and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, William G.

    1984-01-01

    A pediatrician recounts his experiences in diagnosing and treating allergies to common yeast germs that may result in behavior and learning problems. He lists characteristics that may predispose children to yeast-connected health problems. (CL)

  15. Factors affecting Brucella spp. blood cultures positivity in children.

    PubMed

    Apa, Hurşit; Devrim, Ilker; Memur, Seyma; Günay, Ilker; Gülfidan, Gamze; Celegen, Mehmet; Bayram, Nuri; Karaarslan, Utku; Bağ, Ozlem; Işgüder, Rana; Oztürk, Aysel; Inan, Seyhan; Unal, Nurrettin

    2013-03-01

    Brucella infections have a wide spectrum of symptoms especially in children, making the diagnosis a complicated process. The gold standard for the final diagnosis for brucellosis is to identify the Brucella spp. isolated from blood or bone marrow cultures. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the factors affecting the isolation of Brucella spp. from blood cultures. In our study, the ratio of fever, presence of hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In addition, C-reactive protein levels and liver function enzymes were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In our opinion, while evaluating the febrile child with suspected Brucella infection, we highly recommend sampling blood cultures regardless of the history of previous antimicrobial therapy and duration of the symptoms.

  16. Visits to Cultural Learning Places in the Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudiappa, Michael; Kluczniok, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Studies show the important role of the home learning environment in early childhood for later school success. This article focuses on a particular aspect of the home learning environment: visits to cultural learning places (e.g. museums) as a component of the quality of the home learning environment. Therefore the educational concept of…

  17. A Situated Cultural Festival Learning System Based on Motion Sensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Kai; Fang, Rong-Jyue; Lu, You-Te

    2017-01-01

    A situated Chinese cultural festival learning system based on motion sensing is developed in this study. The primary design principle is to create a highly interactive learning environment, allowing learners to interact with Kinect through natural gestures in the designed learning situation to achieve efficient learning. The system has the…

  18. A Situated Cultural Festival Learning System Based on Motion Sensing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yi-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Kai; Fang, Rong-Jyue; Lu, You-Te

    2017-01-01

    A situated Chinese cultural festival learning system based on motion sensing is developed in this study. The primary design principle is to create a highly interactive learning environment, allowing learners to interact with Kinect through natural gestures in the designed learning situation to achieve efficient learning. The system has the…

  19. Attenuating social affective learning effects with Memory Suppression manipulations.

    PubMed

    Molet, Mikael; Kosinski, Thierry; Craddock, Paul; Miguez, Gonzalo; Mash, Lisa E; Miller, Ralph R

    2016-02-01

    People can form opinions of other individuals based on information about their good or bad behavior. The present study investigated whether this affective learning might depend on memory links formed between initially neutral people and valenced information. First, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing prosocial or antisocial behaviors. Second, memory suppression manipulations with the potential to aid in the forgetting of valenced information were administered. Using the Think/No think paradigm, the effectiveness of four different suppression instructions was compared: Unguided Suppression, Guided Suppression, Distraction, and Thought Substitution. Overall, all the tasks appreciably reduced affective learning based on prosocial information, but only the Guided Suppression and Thought Substitution tasks reduced affective learning based on antisocial information. These results suggest that weakening the putative memory link between initially neutral people and valenced information can decrease the effect of learned associations on the evaluation of other people. We interpreted this as indicative that social affective learning may rely on declarative memories.

  20. Negative affect reduces performance in implicit sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Shang, Junchen; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan; Shao, Can; Fu, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    It is well documented that positive rather than negative moods encourage integrative processing of conscious information. However, the extent to which implicit or unconscious learning can be influenced by affective states remains unclear. A Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task with sequence structures requiring integration over past trials was adopted to examine the effect of affective states on implicit learning. Music was used to induce and maintain positive and negative affective states. The present study showed that participants in negative rather than positive states learned less of the regularity. Moreover, the knowledge was shown by a Bayesian analysis to be largely unconscious as participants were poor at recognizing the regularity. The results demonstrated that negative rather than positive affect inhibited implicit learning of complex structures. Our findings help to understand the effects of affective states on unconscious or implicit processing.

  1. Home-School Learning of Science: The Culture of Homes, and Pupils' Difficult Border Crossing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Joan

    2003-01-01

    Describes science activities for home in terms of sociological theory to understand activities in the home. Demonstrates the existence of differences that cannot fail to affect children's learning in both home and school situations. Illustrates a variation in attitude affecting children as they daily cross boundaries from one culture to another,…

  2. Sweet and Slow: Diet Can Affect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton-Seifert, Joan; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Studies pointing to the relationship between caffeine-sugar intake and learning disorders are cited and suggestions to facilitate better nutrition in children are offered. Among suggestions made is that teachers be educated in matters of food, nutrition, and reading through inservice programs. A nutritional questionnaire is included. (SBH)

  3. Does Group Composition Affect Learning by Invention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedmann, Michael; Leach, Ryan C.; Rummel, Nikol; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Schwartz and Martin ("Cogn Instr" 22:129-184, 2004) as well as Kapur ("Instr Sci", this issue, 2012) have found that students can be better prepared to learn about mathematical formulas when they try to invent them in small groups before receiving the canonical formula from a lesson. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how the…

  4. How Learning Logic Programming Affects Recursion Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberman, Bruria

    2004-01-01

    Recursion is a central concept in computer science, yet it is difficult for beginners to comprehend. Israeli high-school students learn recursion in the framework of a special modular program in computer science (Gal-Ezer & Harel, 1999). Some of them are introduced to the concept of recursion in two different paradigms: the procedural…

  5. Does Group Composition Affect Learning by Invention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiedmann, Michael; Leach, Ryan C.; Rummel, Nikol; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Schwartz and Martin ("Cogn Instr" 22:129-184, 2004) as well as Kapur ("Instr Sci", this issue, 2012) have found that students can be better prepared to learn about mathematical formulas when they try to invent them in small groups before receiving the canonical formula from a lesson. The purpose of the present research was to investigate how the…

  6. Sweet and Slow: Diet Can Affect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlton-Seifert, Joan; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Studies pointing to the relationship between caffeine-sugar intake and learning disorders are cited and suggestions to facilitate better nutrition in children are offered. Among suggestions made is that teachers be educated in matters of food, nutrition, and reading through inservice programs. A nutritional questionnaire is included. (SBH)

  7. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures.

  8. Affective Infrastructures: Toward a Cultural Neuropsychology of Sport

    PubMed Central

    Heywood, Leslie L.

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been a turn toward considerations of embodiment, cognition, and context in sport studies. Many researchers have argued that the traditional focus on clinical psychology and performance enhancement within the discipline is incomplete, and now emphasize the importance of athletes’ social and familial contexts in a research paradigm that examines interconnections between movement, cognition, emotion, and the social and cultural context in which movement takes place. While it is important that the sport studies focus is being expanded to consider these interactions, I will argue that this model is still incomplete in that it is missing a fundamental variable – that of our evolutionary neurobiological roots. I will use the work of affective neuroscientists Jaak Panksepp and Stephen Porges to show that because sport so clearly activates neural systems that function at both proximate and ultimate levels of causation, it can be seen to serve fundamental needs for affective balance. A neurobiology of affect shows how the evolution of the mammalian autonomic nervous system has resulted in neurophysiological substrates for affective processes and stress responses, and has wide-ranging implications for sport studies in terms of suggesting what forms of coaching might be the most effective in what context. I propose the term cultural neuropsychology of sport as a descriptor for a model that examines the relationships between neurophysiological substrates and athletes’ social and familial contexts in terms of how these variables facilitate or fail to facilitate athletes’ neuroceptions of safety, which in turn have a direct impact on their performance. A cultural neuropsychological model of sport might thereby be seen to elaborate a relationship between proximate and ultimate mechanisms in concretely applied ways. PMID:22069389

  9. Affective infrastructures: toward a cultural neuropsychology of sport.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Leslie L

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been a turn toward considerations of embodiment, cognition, and context in sport studies. Many researchers have argued that the traditional focus on clinical psychology and performance enhancement within the discipline is incomplete, and now emphasize the importance of athletes' social and familial contexts in a research paradigm that examines interconnections between movement, cognition, emotion, and the social and cultural context in which movement takes place. While it is important that the sport studies focus is being expanded to consider these interactions, I will argue that this model is still incomplete in that it is missing a fundamental variable - that of our evolutionary neurobiological roots. I will use the work of affective neuroscientists Jaak Panksepp and Stephen Porges to show that because sport so clearly activates neural systems that function at both proximate and ultimate levels of causation, it can be seen to serve fundamental needs for affective balance. A neurobiology of affect shows how the evolution of the mammalian autonomic nervous system has resulted in neurophysiological substrates for affective processes and stress responses, and has wide-ranging implications for sport studies in terms of suggesting what forms of coaching might be the most effective in what context. I propose the term cultural neuropsychology of sport as a descriptor for a model that examines the relationships between neurophysiological substrates and athletes' social and familial contexts in terms of how these variables facilitate or fail to facilitate athletes' neuroceptions of safety, which in turn have a direct impact on their performance. A cultural neuropsychological model of sport might thereby be seen to elaborate a relationship between proximate and ultimate mechanisms in concretely applied ways.

  10. An E-learning System based on Affective Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duo, Sun; Song, Lu Xue

    In recent years, e-learning as a learning system is very popular. But the current e-learning systems cannot instruct students effectively since they do not consider the emotional state in the context of instruction. The emergence of the theory about "Affective computing" can solve this question. It can make the computer's intelligence no longer be a pure cognitive one. In this paper, we construct an emotional intelligent e-learning system based on "Affective computing". A dimensional model is put forward to recognize and analyze the student's emotion state and a virtual teacher's avatar is offered to regulate student's learning psychology with consideration of teaching style based on his personality trait. A "man-to-man" learning environment is built to simulate the traditional classroom's pedagogy in the system.

  11. How adoption speed affects the abandonment of cultural tastes.

    PubMed

    Berger, Jonah; Le Mens, Gaël

    2009-05-19

    Products, styles, and social movements often catch on and become popular, but little is known about why such identity-relevant cultural tastes and practices die out. We demonstrate that the velocity of adoption may affect abandonment: Analysis of over 100 years of data on first-name adoption in both France and the United States illustrates that cultural tastes that have been adopted quickly die faster (i.e., are less likely to persist). Mirroring this aggregate pattern, at the individual level, expecting parents are more hesitant to adopt names that recently experienced sharper increases in adoption. Further analysis indicate that these effects are driven by concerns about symbolic value: Fads are perceived negatively, so people avoid identity-relevant items with sharply increasing popularity because they believe that they will be short lived. Ancillary analyses also indicate that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, identity-relevant cultural products that are adopted quickly tend to be less successful overall (i.e., reduced cumulative adoption). These results suggest a potential alternate way to explain diffusion patterns that are traditionally seen as driven by saturation of a pool of potential adopters. They also shed light on one factor that may lead cultural tastes to die out.

  12. How adoption speed affects the abandonment of cultural tastes

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Jonah; Le Mens, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    Products, styles, and social movements often catch on and become popular, but little is known about why such identity-relevant cultural tastes and practices die out. We demonstrate that the velocity of adoption may affect abandonment: Analysis of over 100 years of data on first-name adoption in both France and the United States illustrates that cultural tastes that have been adopted quickly die faster (i.e., are less likely to persist). Mirroring this aggregate pattern, at the individual level, expecting parents are more hesitant to adopt names that recently experienced sharper increases in adoption. Further analysis indicate that these effects are driven by concerns about symbolic value: Fads are perceived negatively, so people avoid identity-relevant items with sharply increasing popularity because they believe that they will be short lived. Ancillary analyses also indicate that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, identity-relevant cultural products that are adopted quickly tend to be less successful overall (i.e., reduced cumulative adoption). These results suggest a potential alternate way to explain diffusion patterns that are traditionally seen as driven by saturation of a pool of potential adopters. They also shed light on one factor that may lead cultural tastes to die out. PMID:19416813

  13. Demotivating Factors Affecting EFL Learning of Iranian Seminary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabatabaei, Omid; Molavi, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to determine the demotives affecting EFL learning of Iranian Islamic seminary students and also to distinguish the motivated and demotivated EFL learners in terms of their EFL learning as the major focus of this study. Fifty Iranian EFL seminary students were investigated using two validated…

  14. Factors Affecting Quality Enhancement Procedures for E-Learning Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jara, Magdalena; Mellar, Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports on an empirical study exploring the way in which campus-based higher education institutions (HEIs) in the UK apply their internal quality assurance and enhancement (QA/QE) procedures to their e-learning courses. The purpose of this paper is to identify those characteristics of e-learning courses which affected the…

  15. Does the Weekly Lesson Program Affect the Language Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engin, Ali Osman

    2006-01-01

    The subject we research is, "Does the weekly lesson program affect the language learning?". Our aim is to indicate the importance of the weekly lesson program in learning. And the research we made is for understanding the importance of the curriculum on students' successes. We have chosen questionnaire method and prepared a questionnaire…

  16. Toward Computer-Aided Affective Learning Systems: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moridis, C. N.; Economides, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this survey is to provide an overview of the various components of "computer aided affective learning systems." The research is classified into 3 main scientific areas that are integral parts of the development of these kinds of systems. The three main scientific areas are: i) emotions and their connection to learning; ii) affect…

  17. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  18. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  19. Early Learning and Development: Cultural-Historical Concepts in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    "Early Learning and Development" provides a unique synthesis of cultural-historical theory from Vygotsky, Elkonin and Leontiev in the 20th century to the ground-breaking research of scholars such as Siraj-Blatchford, Kratsova and Hedegaard today. It demonstrates how development and learning are culturally embedded and institutionally defined, and…

  20. Reinforcement of Science Learning through Local Culture: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to explore the ways to reinforce science learning through local culture by using Delphi technique. Twenty four participants in various fields of study were selected. The result of study provides a framework for reinforcement of science learning through local culture on the theme life and environment. (Contains 1 table.)

  1. Exploring Sociocultural Perspectives on Race, Culture, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasir, Na'ilah Suad; Hand, Victoria M.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the potential uses and extensions of sociocultural theoretical perspectives for integrating and further developing research on race, culture, and learning. Two bodies of literature are discussed and synthesized: (1) sociocultural theory and (2) studies on race, culture, and learning. The article proposes how a sociocultural…

  2. Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, Carel P; Burkart, Judith M

    2011-04-12

    If social learning is more efficient than independent individual exploration, animals should learn vital cultural skills exclusively, and routine skills faster, through social learning, provided they actually use social learning preferentially. Animals with opportunities for social learning indeed do so. Moreover, more frequent opportunities for social learning should boost an individual's repertoire of learned skills. This prediction is confirmed by comparisons among wild great ape populations and by social deprivation and enculturation experiments. These findings shaped the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which complements the traditional benefit hypotheses for the evolution of intelligence by specifying the conditions in which these benefits can be reaped. The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues that species with frequent opportunities for social learning should more readily respond to selection for a greater number of learned skills. Because improved social learning also improves asocial learning, the hypothesis predicts a positive interspecific correlation between social-learning performance and individual learning ability. Variation among primates supports this prediction. The hypothesis also predicts that more heavily cultural species should be more intelligent. Preliminary tests involving birds and mammals support this prediction too. The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer.

  3. Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    van Schaik, Carel P.; Burkart, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    If social learning is more efficient than independent individual exploration, animals should learn vital cultural skills exclusively, and routine skills faster, through social learning, provided they actually use social learning preferentially. Animals with opportunities for social learning indeed do so. Moreover, more frequent opportunities for social learning should boost an individual's repertoire of learned skills. This prediction is confirmed by comparisons among wild great ape populations and by social deprivation and enculturation experiments. These findings shaped the cultural intelligence hypothesis, which complements the traditional benefit hypotheses for the evolution of intelligence by specifying the conditions in which these benefits can be reaped. The evolutionary version of the hypothesis argues that species with frequent opportunities for social learning should more readily respond to selection for a greater number of learned skills. Because improved social learning also improves asocial learning, the hypothesis predicts a positive interspecific correlation between social-learning performance and individual learning ability. Variation among primates supports this prediction. The hypothesis also predicts that more heavily cultural species should be more intelligent. Preliminary tests involving birds and mammals support this prediction too. The cultural intelligence hypothesis can also account for the unusual cognitive abilities of humans, as well as our unique mechanisms of skill transfer. PMID:21357223

  4. Leaders’ Smiles Reflect Cultural Differences in Ideal Affect

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H.; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value (“ideal affect”). We conducted three studies to examine whether leaders’ smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief-executive-officers (CEOs), and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning vs. losing political candidates and higher vs. lower ranking CEOs and university presidents in the US and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N =266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then eight years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in GDP per capita, democratization, and human development. Together, these findings suggest that leaders’ smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  5. Attention to Affect in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jane

    2011-01-01

    As language teachers, we have to pay attention to many things in our work so why add "attention to affect"? Perhaps the simplest, most direct answer is that whatever we focus most on in our particular context, be it general English, morphosyntax, phonetics, literature, English for academic writing or any other special area, attention to…

  6. Affective Learning and the Classroom Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagger, Suzy

    2013-01-01

    A commonly used teaching method to promote student engagement is the classroom debate. This study evaluates how affective characteristics, as defined in Bloom's taxonomy, were stimulated during debates that took place on a professional ethics module for first year computing undergraduates. The debates led to lively interactive group discussions…

  7. Teachers' perceptions of aspects affecting seminar learning: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Annemarie; Wolfhagen, Ineke; Bok, Harold; Schuurmans, Eva; Scherpbier, Albert; van Beukelen, Peter; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2013-02-12

    Many medical schools have embraced small group learning methods in their undergraduate curricula. Given increasing financial constraints on universities, active learning groups like seminars (with 25 students a group) are gaining popularity. To enhance the understanding of seminar learning and to determine how seminar learning can be optimised it is important to investigate stakeholders' views. In this study, we qualitatively explored the views of teachers on aspects affecting seminar learning. Twenty-four teachers with experience in facilitating seminars in a three-year bachelor curriculum participated in semi-structured focus group interviews. Three focus groups met twice with an interval of two weeks led by one moderator. Sessions were audio taped, transcribed verbatim and independently coded by two researchers using thematic analysis. An iterative process of data reduction resulted in emerging aspects that influence seminar learning. Teachers identified seven key aspects affecting seminar learning: the seminar teacher, students, preparation, group functioning, seminar goals and content, course coherence and schedule and facilities. Important components of these aspects were: the teachers' role in developing seminars ('ownership'), the amount and quality of preparation materials, a non-threatening learning climate, continuity of group composition, suitability of subjects for seminar teaching, the number and quality of seminar questions, and alignment of different course activities. The results of this study contribute to the unravelling of the 'the black box' of seminar learning. Suggestions for ways to optimise active learning in seminars are made regarding curriculum development, seminar content, quality assurance and faculty development.

  8. Culture, Learning Styles, and Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaniran, Bolanle A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores Web 2.0 in interactive learning environments. Specifically, the article examines Web 2.0 as an interactive learning platform that holds potential, but is also limited by learning styles and cultural value preferences. The article explores the issue of control from both teacher and learner perspectives, and in particular the…

  9. Culture, Learning Styles, and Web 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olaniran, Bolanle A.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores Web 2.0 in interactive learning environments. Specifically, the article examines Web 2.0 as an interactive learning platform that holds potential, but is also limited by learning styles and cultural value preferences. The article explores the issue of control from both teacher and learner perspectives, and in particular the…

  10. Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ji Yong

    2015-01-01

    Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

  11. Culture Learning in Language Education: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paige, R. Michael; Jorstad, Helen; Siaya, Laura; Klein, Francine; Colby, Jeanette

    This study examined the theoretical and research literature pertaining to culture learning in language education programs, focusing on whether studies existed that could support or challenge current language education practices regarding the teaching of culture; provide guidance to language educators on effective culture teaching methods; suggest…

  12. Cooperative Learning that Features a Culturally Appropriate Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phuong-Mai, Nguyen; Terlouw, Cees; Pilot, Albert; Elliott, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Many recent intercultural studies have shown that people cooperate with each other differently across cultures. We argue that cooperative learning (CL), an educational method originating in the USA and with fundamental psychological assumptions based on Western values, should be adjusted to be culturally appropriate for any non-Western cultures in…

  13. Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ji Yong

    2015-01-01

    Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

  14. How Vietnamese Culture Influence on Learning and Teaching English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huong, Phan Thi Thu

    2008-01-01

    Vietnamese has to face a cross-culture issue with the teaching and learning of English as Vietnamese culture is "villagers' culture" which considers relationships in village as family relations and an emphasis "on hierarchical, social order in their dealings with one another" (Ellis, 1995: 9) with a traditional teaching method…

  15. Organizational Change, Leadership and Learning: Culture as Cognitive Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakomski, Gabriele

    2001-01-01

    Examines the claim that it is necessary to change an organization's culture in order to bring about organizational change. Considers the purported causal relationship between the role of the leader and organizational learning and develops the notion of culture as cognitive process based on research in cultural anthropology and cognitive science.…

  16. Has solar variability caused climate change that affected human culture?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feynman, Joan

    If solar variability affects human culture it most likely does so by changing the climate in which the culture operates. Variations in the solar radiative input to the Earth's atmosphere have often been suggested as a cause of such climate change on time scales from decades to tens of millennia. In the last 20 years there has been enormous progress in our knowledge of the many fields of research that impinge on this problem; the history of the solar output, the effect of solar variability on the Earth's mean climate and its regional patterns, the history of the Earth's climate and the history of mankind and human culture. This new knowledge encourages revisiting the question asked in the title of this talk. Several important historical events have been reliably related to climate change including the Little Ice Age in northern Europe and the collapse of the Classical Mayan civilization in the 9th century AD. In the first section of this paper we discus these historical events and review the evidence that they were caused by changes in the solar output. Perhaps the most important event in the history of mankind was the development of agricultural societies. This began to occur almost 12,000 years ago when the climate changed from the Pleistocene to the modern climate of the Holocene. In the second section of the paper we will discuss the suggestion ( Feynman and Ruzmaikin, 2007) that climate variability was the reason agriculture developed when it did and not before.

  17. Generating a Spanish Affective Dictionary with Supervised Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Gonzalez, Daniel; Miranda-Jiménez, Sabino; García-Moreno, Raúl-Ulises; Calderón-Nepamuceno, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, machine learning techniques are being used in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as Opinion Mining (OM). OM is used to analyse and determine the affective orientation of texts. Usually, OM approaches use affective dictionaries in order to conduct sentiment analysis. These lexicons are labeled manually with affective…

  18. How Do We Measure Affective Learning in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buissink-Smith, Nell; Mann, Samuel; Shephard, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Educational outcomes related to sustainability often include affective attributes such as values, attitudes and behaviours. Educators in higher education who attempt to research, monitor, assess or evaluate learning of affective attributes can face a bewildering array of methodologies and approaches and a research literature that spans several…

  19. How Do We Measure Affective Learning in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buissink-Smith, Nell; Mann, Samuel; Shephard, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Educational outcomes related to sustainability often include affective attributes such as values, attitudes and behaviours. Educators in higher education who attempt to research, monitor, assess or evaluate learning of affective attributes can face a bewildering array of methodologies and approaches and a research literature that spans several…

  20. Language Learning Strategies and Affect. CLCS Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djigunovic, Jelena Mihaljevic

    This highly technical and quantitatively-based study aims to investigate the strategy-affect interaction. The language learning strategies of the subjects were examined to find out the range and frequency of strategy use. The findings served as the basis for investigating the interactions with four affective learner factors: anxiety, self-concept,…

  1. Cultural Awareness: Learning Your Way Around a New Culture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, Glen; And Others

    This cultural awareness course has been designed to help American junior high school age students integrate various dimensions of Puerto Rican culture with their native culture through an experientially based program of instructional activities. Lessons on the identification, demonstration, and discussion of behaviors indigenous to persons of…

  2. FORUM: Affective Learning. Reconsidering the Conceptualization and Operationalization of Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Scott A.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  3. FORUM: Affective Learning. Reconsidering the Conceptualization and Operationalization of Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Scott A.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of "Communication Education" is to publish the best research on communication and learning. Researchers study the communication-learning interface in many ways, but a common approach is to explore how instructor and student communication can lead to better learning outcomes. Although scholars have long classified learning…

  4. Developing Management Student Cultural Fluency for the Real World: A Situated Cultural Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Yunxia; Okimoto, Tyler G.; Roan, Amanda; Xu, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To connect students with the real world of management practice, the purpose of this paper is to extend and operationalize the situated cultural learning approach (SiCuLA) through five learning processes occurring within communities of practice. These include integration of cultural contexts, authentic activities, reflections,…

  5. The prominent role of the cerebellum in the learning, origin and advancement of culture.

    PubMed

    Vandervert, Larry

    2016-01-01

    in sync with others, (2) how the recent evolutionary expansion of the cerebellum was involved in the co-evolution of earliest stone tools and language-leading to the cerebellum-driven origin of culture, (3) how cerebellar internal models are blended to produce the creative, forward advances in culture, (4) how the blending of cerebellar internal models led to human, multi-component, infinitely partitionable and communicable working memory, (5) how excessive television viewing may represent a cultural shift that diminishes the observational learning of internal models of the behavior of others and thus may result in a mild, parallel version of Schmahmann's cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome.

  6. Affecting factors in second language learning.

    PubMed

    Andreou, G; Vlachos, F; Andreou, E

    2005-09-01

    The present study investigated the influence of sex, handedness, level in second language (L2) and Faculty choice on the performance of phonological, syntactical and semantic tasks in L2. Level in L2 and sex were the most affecting factors. Subjects who achieved higher scores on L2 tasks had strong second language aptitude skills since they were those who had obtained a professional degree in the second language. Females performed better than males in syntax and semantics which is explained by the general female superiority on verbal tasks based on differences in hemispheric specialization for language functions between the sexes. Handedness and Faculty choice on the part of the participants had an impact on our results but only when combined with other factors.

  7. Culture and Language Learning: Middle Eastern Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas

    Middle Eastern students face cultural conflicts in adapting to the western value system. While feeling obligated to maintain their native culture they also need to feel comfortable with the culture of their target language. In attempting to identify with a new group, ESL students may sense a loss of membership in their native group. Culture stress…

  8. Culture: The Missing Link to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Nathan; Howard, Kathleen; Pearson, Carl

    2013-01-01

    A high functioning school and district culture is an essential underpinning to all improvement efforts. Yet school and district culture can be difficult to assess. Culture is the cornerstone of all good districts and schools. It is the foundation for all school improvement efforts. As one looks deeper into the culture of a school or district, one…

  9. Boundary Crossings in Research: Towards a Cultural Understanding of the Research Project "Transforming Learning Cultures in Further Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postlethwaite, Keith

    2007-01-01

    To achieve its aim of deepening understanding of the complexities of learning in Further Education (FE), the Transforming Learning Cultures in FE (TLC) project developed a model of learning as a cultural activity. The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of taking a cultural view, not of learning, but of the research itself. The…

  10. Boundary Crossings in Research: Towards a Cultural Understanding of the Research Project "Transforming Learning Cultures in Further Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postlethwaite, Keith

    2007-01-01

    To achieve its aim of deepening understanding of the complexities of learning in Further Education (FE), the Transforming Learning Cultures in FE (TLC) project developed a model of learning as a cultural activity. The purpose of this paper is to explore the implications of taking a cultural view, not of learning, but of the research itself. The…

  11. Culturally Mixed Groups on International Campuses: An Opportunity for Inter-Cultural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volet, S. E.; Ang, G.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major educational goals of the internationalisation of higher education is to prepare students to function in an international and inter-cultural context. Cultural diversity on university campuses creates ideal social forums for inter-cultural learning, yet, one of the most disturbing aspects of the internationalisation of higher…

  12. Culturally Responsive Practices for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Cheryl A.; Obiakor, Festus E.; Bakken, Jeffrey P.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses culturally responsive frameworks, principles, pedagogy, and curriculum for general and special educators who work with culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students with learning disabilities (LD). Culturally responsive teaching has critical features that could benefit CLD students with LD. For example, culturally…

  13. Culturally Mixed Groups on International Campuses: An Opportunity for Inter-Cultural Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volet, S. E.; Ang, G.

    2012-01-01

    One of the major educational goals of the internationalisation of higher education is to prepare students to function in an international and inter-cultural context. Cultural diversity on university campuses creates ideal social forums for inter-cultural learning, yet, one of the most disturbing aspects of the internationalisation of higher…

  14. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  15. Exogenous gangliosides may affect methylation mechanisms in neuronal cell cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Ferret, B.; Hubsch, A.; Dreyfus, H.; Massarelli, R. )

    1991-02-01

    Primary neurons in culture from chick embryo cerebral hemispheres were treated with a mixture of gangliosides added to the growth medium (final concentration: 10(-5)M and 10(-8)M) from the 3rd to the 6th day in vitro. Under these conditions methylation processes measured with (3H) and (35S) methionine and (3H)ethanolamine as precursors showed an increased methylation of (3H)ethanolamine containing phospholipids, a correspondent increased conversion of these compounds to (3H)choline containing phospholipids, and a general increased methylation of trichloroacetic acid precipitable macromolecules containing labeled methionine. A small increase in protein synthesis was observed after incubation of neurons with (3H)- and (35S)methionine. This was confirmed after electrophoretic separation of a protein extract with increased 3H- and 35S-labeling in protein bands with moecular weights between 50 and 60 KDaltons. A protein band of about 55 KDaltons appeared to be preferentially labelled when (3H) methionine was the precursor. The treatment with gangliosides increased the incorporation of (methyl-3H) label after incubation of neurons with (3H) methionine, into total DNA and decreased that of total RNA. The treatment of neurons in culture with exogenous gangliosides hence affects differently methylation processes, a finding which may confirm the involvement of gangliosides on the intracellular mediation of neuronal information mechanisms.

  16. International Students' Culture Learning and Cultural Adaptation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Ran; Chiang, Shiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This article examines international students' cultural adaptation at a major national university in China. A survey was designed to measure international students' adaptation to the Chinese sociocultural and educational environments in terms of five dimensions: (1) cultural empathy, (2) open-mindedness, (3) emotional stability, (4) social…

  17. International Students' Culture Learning and Cultural Adaptation in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Ran; Chiang, Shiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This article examines international students' cultural adaptation at a major national university in China. A survey was designed to measure international students' adaptation to the Chinese sociocultural and educational environments in terms of five dimensions: (1) cultural empathy, (2) open-mindedness, (3) emotional stability, (4) social…

  18. The Evolution of Individual and Cultural Variation in Social Learning.

    PubMed

    Mesoudi, Alex; Chang, Lei; Dall, Sasha R X; Thornton, Alex

    2016-03-01

    It is often assumed in experiments and models that social learning abilities - how often individuals copy others, plus who and how they copy - are species-typical. Yet there is accruing evidence for systematic individual variation in social learning within species. Here we review evidence for this individual variation, placing it within a continuum of increasing phenotypic plasticity, from genetically polymorphic personality traits, to developmental plasticity via cues such as maternal stress, to the individual learning of social learning, and finally the social learning of social learning. The latter, possibly restricted to humans, can generate stable between-group cultural variation in social learning. More research is needed to understand the extent, causes, and consequences of this individual and cultural variation.

  19. Feedback valence affects auditory perceptual learning independently of feedback probability.

    PubMed

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners' responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability.

  20. Feedback Valence Affects Auditory Perceptual Learning Independently of Feedback Probability

    PubMed Central

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R.; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners’ responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability. PMID:25946173

  1. Multimodal Design, Learning and Cultures of Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Gunther; Selander, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, a design-oriented, multimodal understanding of learning will be outlined. There seems to be a need for a new conceptualisation of learning in an era characterised by an increasing virtual space, blended media and new communicative patterns. This means a broader understanding of learning, and a theoretical understanding of…

  2. Student perceptions of their biology teacher's interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Wade Clay, Jr.

    The primary goals of this dissertation were to determine the relationships between interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes. The instrument used to collect student perceptions of teacher interpersonal teaching behaviors was the Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI). The instrument used to assess student affective learning outcomes was the Biology Student Affective Instrument (BSAI). The interpersonal teaching behavior data were collected using students as the observers. 111 students in an urban influenced, rural high school answered the QTI and BSAI in September 1997 and again in April 1998. At the same time students were pre and post tested using the Biology End of Course Examination (BECE). The QTI has been used primarily in European and Oceanic areas. The instrument was also primarily used in educational stratified environment. This was the first time the BSAI was used to assess student affective learning outcomes. The BECE is a Texas normed cognitive assessment test and it is used by Texas schools districts as the end of course examination in biology. The interpersonal teaching behaviors model was tested to ascertain if predictive power in the USA and in a non-stratified educational environment. Findings indicate that the QTI is an adequate predictor of student achievement in biology. The results were not congruent with the non-USA data and results, this indicates that the QTI is a society/culturally sensitive instrument and the instrument needs to be normed to a particular society/culture before it is used to affect teachers' and students' educational environments.

  3. The Cultural Context of Learning in International Joint Ventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shimin; Vince, Russ

    1999-01-01

    A study of Chinese-Western joint business ventures showed that cultural context and different modes of managing and organizing must be considered. Successful joint ventures involve a process of collective, two-way learning. (SK)

  4. Investigating Your School's Science Teaching and Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Mistilina; Bartiromo, Margo; Elko, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The authors report on their work with the Academy for Leadership in Science Instruction, a program targeted to help science teachers promote a science teaching and learning culture in their own schools.

  5. The Cultural Context of Learning in International Joint Ventures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Shimin; Vince, Russ

    1999-01-01

    A study of Chinese-Western joint business ventures showed that cultural context and different modes of managing and organizing must be considered. Successful joint ventures involve a process of collective, two-way learning. (SK)

  6. Investigating Your School's Science Teaching and Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Mistilina; Bartiromo, Margo; Elko, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The authors report on their work with the Academy for Leadership in Science Instruction, a program targeted to help science teachers promote a science teaching and learning culture in their own schools.

  7. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Motivation of Students Learning a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Jane; Chen, Yih-Lan E.

    This study examined the underlying factor structure of the Motivation Orientation Scale (MOS), determining its degree of consistency across two distinct cultures and identifying variables affecting students' motivation in learning a second language. The study investigated how intention theory with its three motivation orientations, and Gardner's…

  8. Maximizing Indigenous Student Learning in the Mainstream with Language and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwieter, John W.; Jaimes-Domínguez, J. Luis

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the importance of being conscious of the needs of indigenous students within the education system in order to increase their learning process and decrease their dropout rates. Specifically, we discuss how Mayan language, culture, and ideologies affect the educational outcome of Mayan students in mainstream classes in…

  9. Exploring Youth Cultures Geographically through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents strategies for actively involving students in studying cultural geography through a research project on youth cultures. It provides a basic framework to investigate selected "subcultures" focusing on the origin and diffusion of each culture, its material and non-material aspects and the attributes and meanings of spaces used by…

  10. Exploring Youth Cultures Geographically through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents strategies for actively involving students in studying cultural geography through a research project on youth cultures. It provides a basic framework to investigate selected "subcultures" focusing on the origin and diffusion of each culture, its material and non-material aspects and the attributes and meanings of spaces used by…

  11. Topics in Culture Learning, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislin, Richard W., Ed.; Hamnett, Michael P., Ed.

    The first section of this volume includes articles on cross-cultural teaching: "Mau Piailug's Navigation of Hokule'a from Hawaii to Tahiti," by David Lewis; "The New World Order and the Globalization of Social Science: Some Implications for Teaching Cross-Culturally," by Amarjit Singh; "Ponape: Cross-Cultural Contact,…

  12. Topics in Culture Learning, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brislin, Richard W., Ed.; Hamnett, Michael P., Ed.

    The first section of this volume includes articles on cross-cultural teaching: "Mau Piailug's Navigation of Hokule'a from Hawaii to Tahiti," by David Lewis; "The New World Order and the Globalization of Social Science: Some Implications for Teaching Cross-Culturally," by Amarjit Singh; "Ponape: Cross-Cultural Contact,…

  13. Managing Across Cultures: A Learning Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Meena S.; And Others

    An approach to managing personnel across cultures is outlined. A framework is provided to help the supervisor become aware of beliefs and values that underlie the workplace preferences of managers in the United States and of other cultures. It integrates research in anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, and international business management. An…

  14. Managing Across Cultures: A Learning Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Meena S.; And Others

    An approach to managing personnel across cultures is outlined. A framework is provided to help the supervisor become aware of beliefs and values that underlie the workplace preferences of managers in the United States and of other cultures. It integrates research in anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, and international business management. An…

  15. How social learning adds up to a culture: from birdsong to human public opinion.

    PubMed

    Tchernichovski, Ofer; Feher, Olga; Fimiarz, Daniel; Conley, Dalton

    2017-01-01

    Distributed social learning may occur at many temporal and spatial scales, but it rarely adds up to a stable culture. Cultures vary in stability and diversity (polymorphism), ranging from chaotic or drifting cultures, through cumulative polymorphic cultures, to stable monolithic cultures with high conformity levels. What features can sustain polymorphism, preventing cultures from collapsing into either chaotic or highly conforming states? We investigate this question by integrating studies across two quite separate disciplines: the emergence of song cultures in birds, and the spread of public opinion and social conventions in humans. In songbirds, the learning process has been studied in great detail, while in human studies the structure of social networks has been experimentally manipulated on large scales. In both cases, the manner in which communication signals are compressed and filtered - either during learning or while traveling through the social network - can affect culture polymorphism and stability. We suggest a simple mechanism of a shifting balance between converging and diverging social forces to explain these effects. Understanding social forces that shape cultural evolution might be useful for designing agile communication systems, which are stable and polymorphic enough to promote gradual changes in institutional behavior. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Culture temperature affects human chondrocyte messenger RNA expression in monolayer and pellet culture systems.

    PubMed

    Ito, Akira; Nagai, Momoko; Tajino, Junichi; Yamaguchi, Shoki; Iijima, Hirotaka; Zhang, Xiangkai; Aoyama, Tomoki; Kuroki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapy has been explored for articular cartilage regeneration. Autologous chondrocyte implantation is a promising cell-based technique for repairing articular cartilage defects. However, there are several issues such as chondrocyte de-differentiation. While numerous studies have been designed to overcome some of these issues, only a few have focused on the thermal environment that can affect chondrocyte metabolism and phenotype. In this study, the effects of different culture temperatures on human chondrocyte metabolism- and phenotype-related gene expression were investigated in 2D and 3D environments. Human chondrocytes were cultured in a monolayer or in a pellet culture system at three different culture temperatures (32°C, 37°C, and 41°C) for 3 days. The results showed that the total RNA level, normalized to the threshold cycle value of internal reference genes, was higher at lower temperatures in both culture systems. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and citrate synthase (CS), which are involved in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, respectively, were expressed at similar levels at 32°C and 37°C in pellet cultures, but the levels were significantly lower at 41°C. Expression of the chondrogenic markers, collagen type IIA1 (COL2A1) and aggrecan (ACAN), was higher at 37°C than at 32°C and 41°C in both culture systems. However, this phenomenon did not coincide with SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 (SOX9), which is a fundamental transcription factor for chondrogenesis, indicating that a SOX9-independent pathway might be involved in this phenomenon. In conclusion, the expression of chondrocyte metabolism-related genes at 32°C was maintained or enhanced compared to that at 37°C. However, chondrogenesis-related genes were further induced at 37°C in both culture systems. Therefore, manipulating the culture temperature may be an advantageous approach for regulating human chondrocyte metabolic activity and chondrogenesis.

  17. Culturally Responsive Online Design: Learning at Intercultural Intersections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morong, Gail; DesBiens, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents evidence-based guidelines to inform culturally responsive online learning design in higher education. Intercultural understanding is now a recognised core learning outcome in a large majority of Canadian public universities; however, supporting design methodology is underdeveloped, especially in online contexts. Our search…

  18. Understanding Game-Based Learning Cultures: Introduction to Special Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engerman, Jason A.; Carr-Chellman, Alison

    2017-01-01

    This special issue expands our understanding of teaching and learning through video game play, with specific attention to culture. The issue gives insight into the ways educators, researchers, and developers should be discussing and designing for impactful learner-centered game-based learning experiences. The issue features forward-thinking…

  19. Digital Game Building: Learning in a Participatory Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Background: The emergence of a participatory culture, brought about mainly by the use of Web2.0 technology, is challenging us to reconsider aspects of teaching and learning. Adapting the learning-as-digital-game-building approach, this paper explores how new educational practices can help students build skills for the 21st century. Purpose: This…

  20. Does Culture Influence Learning Styles in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikutty, Sankaran; Anuradha, N. S.; Hansen, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for understanding the relationships between approaches to learning adopted by students in the context of higher education and the culture of the country they were brought up in. The paper, after examining the more widely used Kolb's learning styles, opts for another categorisation, namely the so called learning…

  1. Culturally Responsive Online Design: Learning at Intercultural Intersections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morong, Gail; DesBiens, Donna

    2016-01-01

    This article presents evidence-based guidelines to inform culturally responsive online learning design in higher education. Intercultural understanding is now a recognised core learning outcome in a large majority of Canadian public universities; however, supporting design methodology is underdeveloped, especially in online contexts. Our search…

  2. Digital Game Building: Learning in a Participatory Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Background: The emergence of a participatory culture, brought about mainly by the use of Web2.0 technology, is challenging us to reconsider aspects of teaching and learning. Adapting the learning-as-digital-game-building approach, this paper explores how new educational practices can help students build skills for the 21st century. Purpose: This…

  3. Does Culture Influence Learning Styles in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manikutty, Sankaran; Anuradha, N. S.; Hansen, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for understanding the relationships between approaches to learning adopted by students in the context of higher education and the culture of the country they were brought up in. The paper, after examining the more widely used Kolb's learning styles, opts for another categorisation, namely the so called learning…

  4. Learning Culture, Spirituality and Local Knowledge: Implications for African Schooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sefa Dei, George J.

    2002-09-01

    (Learning, Culture, Spirituality and Local Knowedge: Implications for African Schooling) - Using a Ghanaian case study, this paper looks at the relevance and implications of local knowledge, culture and spirituality for understanding and implementing educational change in Africa. It examines how teachers, educators, and students use local cultural knowledge about self, personhood and community. Among the critical issues raised are: How do subjects understand the nature, impact and implications of spirituality for schooling and education? What is the role of spirituality, culture, language and social politics in knowledge production? What contribution does the local cultural knowledge base make to the search for genuine educational options in Africa?

  5. The Impacts of Team Learning on the Development of a Learning Organisation: A Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chao-Hua; Su, Kun-Shan

    2015-01-01

    Generalisability of a learning organisation (LO) for cross-cultural applications is doubtful. Some cultural values may be opposed to the nature in a LO which calls for voluntary participation in learning activities by all employees. The study reveals a dynamic analysis of a LO with the sense of the difficulties organisations typically face and how…

  6. Affective Learning in Higher Education: A Regional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nina; Ziaian, Tahereh; Sawyer, Janet; Gillham, David

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted in a regional university setting to promote awareness of the value of affective teaching and learning amongst staff and students. Academic staff and students from diverse disciplines at University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE) were recruited to the study. The research investigated…

  7. Respecting and Supporting Students' Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Too often educators pay too little attention to the psychological and emotional impact subject matter has on students. Teaching effectiveness would be greatly enhanced if educators would consider students' affective reactions to material delivered in courses, workshops, and other collegiate learning experiences.

  8. Quality of Affectional Bonding, Learned Helplessness, and Clinical Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Ronald P.

    John Bowlby's theory of affectional bonding and the reformulated learned helplessness theory of depression were integrated into a multivariate model in order to expand the breadth of current attributional theories of depression. This retrospective study focused upon the quality of parent-child relations, the types of discipline parents employed,…

  9. The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

  10. Affective Learning in Higher Education: A Regional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Nina; Ziaian, Tahereh; Sawyer, Janet; Gillham, David

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted in a regional university setting to promote awareness of the value of affective teaching and learning amongst staff and students. Academic staff and students from diverse disciplines at University of South Australia's (UniSA) Centre for Regional Engagement (CRE) were recruited to the study. The research investigated…

  11. Noise as It Affects the Learning Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devens, John S.

    Audiological assessments were performed on 20 learning disabled students (6-16 years old). Results of Speech Reception Threshold testing and Discrimination Testing indicated that Ss generally scored lower on discrimination tasks, were more affected by the introduction of noise, and showed a greater variability in discrimination performance than 10…

  12. Designing for Automatic Affect Inference in Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afzal, Shazia; Robinson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Emotions play a significant role in healthy cognitive functioning; they impact memory, attention, decision-making and attitude; and are therefore influential in learning and achievement. Consequently, affective diagnoses constitute an important aspect of human teacher-learner interactions motivating efforts to incorporate skills of affect…

  13. GOAL: Guidance Opportunities for Affective Learning (K-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine Unified School District, CA.

    This document contains two curriculum guides, the first dealing with accountability skills and the second with social skills. The guides are products of project GOAL (Guidance Opportunities for Affective Learning), a program intended to meet the social/emotional needs of handicapped mainstreamed students in grades K-6 by improving classroom…

  14. The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

  15. High Fidelity Images--How They Affect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwinn, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of graphics in instruction and concludes that cosmetic and motivational graphics can be more realistic and detailed for affective goals, while schematic graphics may be best for the more cognitive functions of focusing attention and presenting actual content. Domains of learning, mental models, and visualization are examined.…

  16. High Fidelity Images--How They Affect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwinn, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of graphics in instruction and concludes that cosmetic and motivational graphics can be more realistic and detailed for affective goals, while schematic graphics may be best for the more cognitive functions of focusing attention and presenting actual content. Domains of learning, mental models, and visualization are examined.…

  17. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  18. Designing for Automatic Affect Inference in Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afzal, Shazia; Robinson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Emotions play a significant role in healthy cognitive functioning; they impact memory, attention, decision-making and attitude; and are therefore influential in learning and achievement. Consequently, affective diagnoses constitute an important aspect of human teacher-learner interactions motivating efforts to incorporate skills of affect…

  19. The Impact of Cultural Dimensions on Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Rey, Pilar; Barbera, Elena; Fernández-Navarro, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasingly multicultural nature of e-learning environments, it is critical that instructors and instructional designers be aware of the importance of cultural factors in education and that they deliver culturally adaptive instruction. The main challenge of this paper is identifying the critical success factors for multicultural online…

  20. Learning and Teaching across Cultures in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfreyman, David, Ed.; McBride, Dawn, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In today's world, contact with other cultures is an inevitable part of university and college life. "Learning and Teaching across Cultures in Higher Education" is intended for anyone who has an interest in intercultural aspects of higher education. The book contains theoretical rationale, resources and examples to help readers understand…

  1. Learning and Teaching across Cultures in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfreyman, David, Ed.; McBride, Dawn, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    In today's world, contact with other cultures is an inevitable part of university and college life. "Learning and Teaching across Cultures in Higher Education" is intended for anyone who has an interest in intercultural aspects of higher education. The book contains theoretical rationale, resources and examples to help readers understand…

  2. Community Service-Learning and Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), to provide new insights into community service-learning (CSL) in higher education. While CSL literature acknowledges the influences of John Dewey and Paolo Freire, discussion of the potential contribution of cultural-historical activity theory, rooted in the work of…

  3. Open and Distance Learning: Cultural Practices in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pangeni, Shesha Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Nepali education culture is dominated by face-to-face tutoring. It has a long history starting from the Gurukul culture to the present formal schooling. Emerging practices of using technology in education have been promoting online learning as a form of distance education and gaining popularity. This paper focuses on digging out the contextual…

  4. Cultural Learning in the EFL Classroom: The Role of Visuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiss, Tamás; Weninger, Csilla

    2017-01-01

    Visual texts are part of everyday communication and they have the potential to carry multiple layers of meaning. This complexity is what makes them an ideal resource not only for language learning, but also for developing learners' intercultural communicative competence and cultural awareness. Cultural meanings are not locked into these materials;…

  5. Black Children: Their Roots, Culture, and Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Janice E.

    Focusing on the influence of cultural background on learning among black children, this book examines black culture and its effects on childrearing, play behavior, and cognition and explores the development of curricula relevant to blacks. Chapter 1 examines distinctive features of black life in the United States, emphasizing their West African…

  6. Nonverbal Immediacy and Cognitive Learning: A Cross-cultural Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCroskey, James C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes research based on data drawn from the cultures of Puerto Rico, Finland, Australia, and the United States. Finds a very positive relationship between immediacy and perceived cognitive learning in each culture studied, but the magnitude of the relationships varied substantially. Discusses implications. (PA)

  7. Cultural Differences in Online Learning: International Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Shijuan; Lee, Seung-hee; Magjuka, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a case study that investigated the perceptions of international students regarding the impact of cultural differences on their learning experiences in an online MBA program. The study also revealed that online instructors need to design courses in such a way as to remove potential cultural barriers, including…

  8. Cultural Differences in Online Learning: International Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaojing; Liu, Shijuan; Lee, Seung-hee; Magjuka, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a case study that investigated the perceptions of international students regarding the impact of cultural differences on their learning experiences in an online MBA program. The study also revealed that online instructors need to design courses in such a way as to remove potential cultural barriers, including…

  9. The Impact of Cultural Dimensions on Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Rey, Pilar; Barbera, Elena; Fernández-Navarro, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasingly multicultural nature of e-learning environments, it is critical that instructors and instructional designers be aware of the importance of cultural factors in education and that they deliver culturally adaptive instruction. The main challenge of this paper is identifying the critical success factors for multicultural online…

  10. A Cultural Analysis of e-Learning for China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesner, Tim; Hart, Mike

    2004-01-01

    This e-paper discusses e-Learning for China based upon the experiences of a free content website. Chinese culture, The Internet, and education are discussed using a number of deep links into online bibliographies, online journals and other knowledge objects. A cultural analysis is undertaken and conclusions are made. The future of research into…

  11. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener.

    PubMed

    Gold, Benjamin P; Frank, Michael J; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy.

  12. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Benjamin P.; Frank, Michael J.; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy. PMID:23970875

  13. Some cultural factors affecting costs of fertility regulation.

    PubMed

    Nag, M

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of the costs or constraints in the use of fertility regulation, reviews the existing knowledge on the subject in a cross-cultural context, and indicates the need for further studies. It is suggested that the apparent contradiction noted in fertility surveys between a couple's desire to have no more children or to postpone the next birth and actual behavior can be explained by the costs involved in the use of fertility regulation methods. The costs of fertility regulation can be broadly classified into 4 categories: 1) physical/health (disruption of menstrual cycle, side effects and health hazards of contraceptive methods, perceived health hazards based on ethno-physical concepts, and sacrifice of sexual pleasure); 2) psychic (violation of sexual modesty and human dignity, conflict with religious beliefs; 3) social opinion (challenges to spouse and sex role expectations, challenges to social influence group); and 4) economic (money, time). The economic costs of fertility regulation to individuals vary greatly according to the presence or absence of public sector family planning programs. A substantial part of these costs could be eliminated by national and international programs. So far, no study has focused on the costs of fertility regulation and factors affecting them. A methodology that combines elements of both a questionnaire survey and anthropological investigation and collects data on both the individual and community levels may be most amenable to assessing the impact of costs on the use or nonuse of fertility regulation.

  14. SUB-CULTURAL PATTERNS WHICH AFFECT LANGUAGE AND READING DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LLOYD, DONALD J.

    IMPROVING THE READING ABILITY OF CHILDREN OF THE "HAVE-NOT" POPULATION, ESPECIALLY THOSE OF CULTURAL SUB-GROUPS, REQUIRES THE TEACHER'S ACCEPTANCE OF THE CHILD'S SPOKEN LANGUAGE. CULTURALLY DISADVANTAGED AND CULTURALLY DIVERGENT CHILDREN HAVE PRONUNCIATIONS AND VOCABULARIES DIFFERENT FROM THOSE OF AVERAGE STUDENTS, BUT THE TEACHER SHOULD RESIST…

  15. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  16. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  17. Should we learn culture in chemistry classroom? Integration ethnochemistry in culturally responsive teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmawati, Yuli; Ridwan, Achmad; Nurbaity

    2017-08-01

    The papers report the first year of two-year longitudinal study of ethnochemistry integration in culturally responsive teaching in chemistry classrooms. The teaching approach is focusing on exploring the culture and indigenous knowledge in Indonesia from chemistry perspectives. Ethnochemistry looks at the culture from chemistry perspectives integrated into culturally responsive teaching has developed students' cultural identity and students' engagement in chemistry learning. There are limited research and data in exploring Indonesia culture, which has around 300 ethics, from chemistry perspectives. Students come to the chemistry classrooms from a different background; however, their chemistry learning disconnected with their background which leads to students' disengagement in chemistry learning. Therefore this approach focused on students' engagement within their differences. This research was conducted with year 10 and 11 from four classrooms in two secondary schools through qualitative methodology with observation, interviews, and reflective journals as data collection. The results showed that the integration of ethnochemistry in culturally responsive teaching approach can be implemented by involving 5 principles which are content integration, facilitating knowledge construction, prejudice reduction, social justice, and academic development. The culturally responsive teaching has engaged students in their chemistry learning and developed their cultural identity and soft skills. Students found that the learning experiences has helped to develop their chemistry knowledge and understand the culture from chemistry perspectives. The students developed the ability to work together, responsibility, curiosity, social awareness, creativity, empathy communication, and self-confidence which categorized into collaboration skills, student engagement, social and cultural awareness, and high order thinking skills. The ethnochemistry has helped them to develop the critical self

  18. Embryo density may affect embryo quality during in vitro culture in a microwell group culture dish.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Adam; Kaszas, Zita; Murber, Akos; Rigo, Janos; Urbancsek, Janos; Fancsovits, Peter

    2017-08-01

    Culturing embryos in groups is a common practice in mammalian embryology. Since the introduction of different microwell dishes, it is possible to identify oocytes or embryos individually. As embryo density (embryo-to-volume ratio) may affect the development and viability of the embryos, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different embryo densities on embryo quality. Data of 1337 embryos from 228 in vitro fertilization treatment cycles were retrospectively analyzed. Embryos were cultured in a 25 μl microdrop in a microwell group culture dish containing 9 microwells. Three density groups were defined: Group 1 with 2-4 (6.3-12.5 μl/embryo), Group 2 with 5-6 (4.2-5.0 μl/embryo), and Group 3 with 7-9 (2.8-3.6 μl/embryo) embryos. Proportion of good quality embryos was higher in Group 2 on both days (D2: 18.9 vs. 31.5 vs. 24.7%; p < 0.001; D3: 19.7 vs. 27.1 vs. 21.2%; p = 0.029; Group 1. vs. Group 2. vs. Group 3). Cell number on Day 3 differed between Groups 1 and 2 (6.8 ± 2.2; 7.3 ± 2.1; p = 0.004) and Groups 2 and 3 (7.3 ± 2.1 vs. 7.0 ± 2.0; p = 0.014). Culturing 5-6 embryos together in a culture volume of 25 μl may benefit embryo quality. As low egg number, position, and distance of the embryos may influence embryo quality, results should be interpreted with caution.

  19. Infant Contingency Learning in Different Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Goertz, Claudia; Kolling, Thorsten; Freitag, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Vierhaus, Marc; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Three-month-old Cameroonian Nso farmer and German middle-class infants were compared regarding learning and retention in a computerized mobile task. Infants achieving a preset learning criterion during reinforcement were tested for immediate and long-term retention measured in terms of an increased response rate after reinforcement and after a…

  20. Infant Contingency Learning in Different Cultural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, Frauke; Lamm, Bettina; Goertz, Claudia; Kolling, Thorsten; Freitag, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Fassbender, Ina; Teubert, Manuel; Vierhaus, Marc; Keller, Heidi; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Knopf, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Three-month-old Cameroonian Nso farmer and German middle-class infants were compared regarding learning and retention in a computerized mobile task. Infants achieving a preset learning criterion during reinforcement were tested for immediate and long-term retention measured in terms of an increased response rate after reinforcement and after a…

  1. Gender, Identity and Culture in Learning Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Katelin

    2016-01-01

    Student engagement in science, as defined by Iva Gurgel, Mauricio Pietrocola, and Graciella Watanabe, is of great importance because a student's perceived compatibility with science learning is highly influenced by personal identities, or how students see themselves in relations to the world. This can greatly impact their learning experiences. In…

  2. Gender, Identity and Culture in Learning Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Katelin

    2016-01-01

    Student engagement in science, as defined by Iva Gurgel, Mauricio Pietrocola, and Graciella Watanabe, is of great importance because a student's perceived compatibility with science learning is highly influenced by personal identities, or how students see themselves in relations to the world. This can greatly impact their learning experiences. In…

  3. eLearning for Pluralism: The Culture of eLearning in Building a Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurubacak, Gulsun

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses culture, as a source of conflict than of synergy, how affects the use of elearning for pluralism to build a knowledge society. It also argues that the cultural dimensions of Geert Hofstede, who demonstrates that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of organizations, are very persistent…

  4. eLearning for Pluralism: The Culture of eLearning in Building a Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurubacak, Gulsun

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses culture, as a source of conflict than of synergy, how affects the use of elearning for pluralism to build a knowledge society. It also argues that the cultural dimensions of Geert Hofstede, who demonstrates that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the behavior of organizations, are very persistent…

  5. Imitation and Innovation: The Dual Engines of Cultural Learning.

    PubMed

    Legare, Cristine H; Nielsen, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Imitation and innovation work in tandem to support cultural learning in children and facilitate our capacity for cumulative culture. Here we propose an integrated theoretical account of how the unique demands of acquiring instrumental skills and cultural conventions provide insight into when children imitate, when they innovate, and to what degree. For instrumental learning, with an increase in experience, high fidelity imitation decreases and innovation increases. By contrast, for conventional learning, imitative fidelity stays high, regardless of experience, and innovation stays low. We synthesize cutting edge research on the development of imitative flexibility and innovation to provide insight into the social learning mechanisms underpinning the uniquely human mind. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Culture as the Core: Perspectives on Culture in Second Language Learning. A Volume in Research in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Dale, Ed.; Paige, R. Michael, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes 12 chapters in two parts. Part 1 "Culture as the Core: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Culture Teaching and Learning in the Second Language Curriculum," includes: (1) "Extending Communicative Concepts in the Second Language Curriculum: A Sociolinguistic Perspective" (Muriel Saville-Troike); (2) "Teaching along…

  7. Culture as the Core: Perspectives on Culture in Second Language Learning. A Volume in Research in Second Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Dale, Ed.; Paige, R. Michael, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes 12 chapters in two parts. Part 1 "Culture as the Core: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Culture Teaching and Learning in the Second Language Curriculum," includes: (1) "Extending Communicative Concepts in the Second Language Curriculum: A Sociolinguistic Perspective" (Muriel Saville-Troike); (2) "Teaching along…

  8. Creating a Culture of Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Frank, Valerie, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This compilation of articles from NSDC's newsletters and JSD is a comprehensive resource on creating a positive school culture. The collection includes descriptions of healthy cultures and specific information about how district and school leaders can take actions to create more positive environments, beginning with the audits provided and…

  9. Exploring Cultural Rituals. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Nanci; Ruddy, Mary

    This two-week lesson plan exploring cultural rituals guides students to: improve their oral and written communication skills; write correct bibliographic citations for primary sources; and gain tolerance and acceptance of all cultures through the exploration and analysis of holiday and stages of life rituals. Aimed at students in grades 6 through…

  10. Classroom Activities for Cross-Cultural Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanger, Virginia Vogel, Ed.; And Others

    One-fourth of the students in Boston public schools have parents who were born outside of the United States. This guide contains a series of classroom activities, produced by Boston teachers and aides, that are designed to take advantage of the abundant cultural diversity found in Boston schools by encouraging these dual-culture students to share…

  11. Cultural factors affecting behavior guidance and family compliance.

    PubMed

    Goleman, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Culturally effective care is all about relationships and these involve interpersonal interactions with patients and parents from diverse cultures. Important aspects of effective cultural care include understanding and respecting the role of family, the concept of time, the social structure, and the concept of fate in health. This overview will give examples of some cultural issues and offer basic skills in communication and tips for working with an interpreter. Skills such as ask-tell-ask, teach back, the explanatory model using the four C's of culture, and motivational interviewing are discussed. The goal of these strategies is to build strong supportive relationships needed to support change in behavior and optimal dental health.

  12. Reflexive photography: an alternative method for documenting the learning process of cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Amerson, Roxanne; Livingston, Wade G

    2014-04-01

    This qualitative descriptive study used reflexive photography to evaluate the learning process of cultural competence during an international service-learning project in Guatemala. Reflexive photography is an innovative qualitative research technique that examines participants' interactions with their environment through their personal reflections on images that they captured during their experience. A purposive sample of 10 baccalaureate nursing students traveled to Guatemala, where they conducted family and community assessments, engaged in home visits, and provided health education. Data collection involved over 100 photographs and a personal interview with each student. The themes developed from the photographs and interviews provided insight into the activities of an international experience that influence the cognitive, practical, and affective learning of cultural competence. Making home visits and teaching others from a different culture increased students' transcultural self-efficacy. Reflexive photography is a more robust method of self-reflection, especially for visual learners.

  13. Learning about faces: effects of trustworthiness on affective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Luis; Román, Francisco J; Fernández-Cahill, María; Diéguez-Risco, Teresa; Romero-Ferreiro, Verónica

    2011-11-01

    The results of two studies on the relationship between evaluations of trustworthiness, valence and arousal of faces are reported. In Experiment 1, valence and trustworthiness judgments of faces were positively correlated, while arousal was negatively correlated with both trustworthiness and valence. In Experiment 2, learning about faces based on their emotional expression and the extent to which this learning is influenced by perceived trustworthiness was investigated. Neutral faces of different models differing in trustworthiness were repeatedly associated with happy or with angry expressions and the participants were asked to categorize each neutral face as belonging to a "friend" or to an "enemy" based on these associations. Four pairing conditions were defined in terms of the congruency between trustworthiness level and expression: Trustworthy-congruent, trustworthy-incongruent, untrustworthy-congruent and untrustworthy-incongruent. Categorization accuracy during the learning phase and face evaluation after learning were measured. During learning, participants learned to categorize with similar efficiency trustworthy and untrustworthy faces as friends or enemies and thus no effects of congruency were found. In the evaluation phase, faces of enemies were rated as more negative and arousing than those of friends, thus showing that learning was effective to change the affective value of the faces. However, faces of untrustworthy models were still judged on average more negative and arousing than those of trustworthy ones. In conclusion, although face trustworthiness did not influence learning of associations between faces and positive or negative social information it did have a significant influence on face evaluation that was manifest even after that learning.

  14. Equitable Learning Outcomes: Supporting Economically and Culturally Disadvantaged Students in "Formative Learning Environments"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The central and distinguishing thesis of social and cultural perspectives on outcome equity is that public school classrooms are culturally biased environments. Such environments disaffect children who arrive at school from the economic or cultural margin. The "formative learning environment" (FoLE) establishes and sustains legitimate…

  15. The Writing Consultant and the Corporate/Industry Culture: How to Learn the Lingo, Mind-Set, and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornatowski, Cezar M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses ways to make the professional consulting experience successful and to understand an organization's communication problems. States that consultants should be aware of how the organization's culture may affect its members' communication practices, and should learn to read various signs of organizational culture. Emphasizes that effective…

  16. The Writing Consultant and the Corporate/Industry Culture: How to Learn the Lingo, Mind-Set, and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornatowski, Cezar M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses ways to make the professional consulting experience successful and to understand an organization's communication problems. States that consultants should be aware of how the organization's culture may affect its members' communication practices, and should learn to read various signs of organizational culture. Emphasizes that effective…

  17. Culturally Responsive Gifted Classrooms for Culturally Different Students: A Focus on Invitational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Donna Y.

    2015-01-01

    This article expands the notion of culturally responsive learning environments by including Purkey and Novak's (1996) work on invitational learning. Their typology of four types of schools is described and applied to gifted education classrooms, along with associated characteristics of each. Specific attention is focused on implications for…

  18. The Culture of Experiential Community Based Learning: Developing Cultural Awareness in Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Droppert, Alida J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the culture of experiential community based learning at Central College, a rural liberal arts college in Midwestern, USA. Pre-service teachers use experiential community based learning to reflect on their personal growth in understanding the needs of diverse learners. Reflections demonstrate how the program contributes to the…

  19. Group affective learning in training for psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Scharff, Jill Savege; Scharff, David E

    2017-03-04

    This paper describes The Group Affective Model, a method for teaching psychoanalytic concepts and their clinical application, using multi-channel teaching, process and review in group settings, and learning from experience in an open systems learning community for psychoanalysts and psychotherapists. This innovation arose in response to criticism of existing methods in psychoanalytic education that have subordinated the primary educational task to that of the training analysis. Noticing this split between education and training analysis, between cognition and affect, and between concepts of individual and group unconscious processes, we developed the Group Affective Model for teaching and learning psychoanalysis and psychotherapy in an open psychological space in which students and faculty experience individual and group processes of digestion, assimilation, and review, which demonstrate the concepts in action and make them available for internalization selectively. We discuss our philosophy and our educational stance. We describe our institution and our participants. We give examples of teaching situations that we have studied to provide some insight about assimilation and internalization of the concepts and clinical approaches being taught. We discuss the transferability of the Group Affective Model to other teaching settings and psychoanalytic training institutions and propose it as the fourth pillar of psychoanalytic training, next to analytic treatment, clinical supervision, and didactic seminars.

  20. Translating theory into practice: integrating the affective and cognitive learning dimensions for effective instruction in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, Maizam; Lashari, Tahira Anwar; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd.

    2014-03-01

    Learning in the cognitive domain is highly emphasised and has been widely investigated in engineering education. Lesser emphasis is placed on the affective dimension although the role of affects has been supported by research. The lack of understanding on learning theories and how they may be translated into classroom application of teaching and learning is one factor that contributes to this situation. This paper proposes a working framework for integrating the affective dimension of learning into engineering education that is expected to promote better learning within the cognitive domain. Four major learning theories namely behaviourism, cognitivism, socio-culturalism, and constructivism were analysed and how affects are postulated to influence cognition are identified. The affective domain constructs identified to be important are self-efficacy, attitude and locus of control. Based on the results of the analysis, a framework that integrates methodologies for achieving learning in the cognitive domain with the support of the affective dimension of learning is proposed. It is expected that integrated approach can be used as a guideline to engineering educators in designing effective and sustainable instructional material that would result in the effective engineers for future development.

  1. Learning to Overcome Cultural Conflict through Engaging with Intelligent Agents in Synthetic Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lynne; Tazzyman, Sarah; Hume, Colette; Endrass, Birgit; Lim, Mei-Yii; Hofstede, GertJan; Paiva, Ana; Andre, Elisabeth; Kappas, Arvid; Aylett, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Providing opportunities for children to engage with intercultural learning has frequently focused on exposure to the ritual, celebrations and festivals of cultures, with the view that such experiences will result in greater acceptance of cultural differences. Intercultural conflict is often avoided, bringing as it does particular pedagogical,…

  2. Social-comparative feedback affects motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Lewthwaite, Rebecca; Wulf, Gabriele

    2010-04-01

    This study examined motivational effects of feedback on motor learning. Specifically, we investigated the influence of social-comparative feedback on the learning of a balance task (stabilometer). In addition to veridical feedback (error scores reflecting deviation from the target horizontal platform position) about their own performance after each trial, two groups received false normative information about the "average" score of others on that trial. Average performance scores indicated that the participant's performance was either above (better group) or below (worse group) the average, respectively. A control group received veridical feedback about trial performance without normative feedback. Learning as a function of social-comparative feedback was determined in a retention test without feedback, performed on a third day following two days of practice. Normative feedback affected the learning of the balance task: The better group demonstrated more effective balance performance than both the worse and control groups on the retention test. Furthermore, high-frequency/low-amplitude balance adjustments, indicative of more automatic control of movement, were greater in the better than in the worse group. The control group exhibited more limited learning and less automaticity than both the better and the worse groups. The findings indicate that positive normative feedback had a facilitatory effect on motor learning.

  3. Culture pH affects exopolysaccharide production in submerged mycelial culture of Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Mi; Park, Moon Ki; Yun, Jong Won

    2006-09-01

    In submerged culture of Ganoderma lucidum, the pH optimum for cell growth has been shown to be lower than that for exopolysaccharides (EPS) formation. Therefore, in the present study, a two-stage pH-control strategy was employed to maximize the productions of mycelial biomass and EPS. When compared, a batch culture without pH control had a maximum concentration of EPS and endopolysaccharides, which was much lower than those with pH control. Maximum mycelial growth (12.5 g/L) and EPS production (4.7 g/L) were achieved by shifting the controlled pH from 3.0 to 6.0 after day 4. The contrast between the controlled-pH process and uncontrolled pH was marked. By using various two-stage culture processes, it was also observed that culture pH has a significant affect on the yield of product, mycelial morphology, chemical composition, and molecular weight of EPS. A detailed observation of mycelial morphology revealed that the productive morphological form for EPS production was a dispersed pellet (controlled pH shifting from 3.0 to 6.0) rather than a compact pellet with a dense core area (controlled pH 4.5) or a feather-like pellet (controlled pH shifting from 6.0 to 3.0). Three different polysaccharides were obtained from each pH conditions, and their molecular weights and chemical compositions were significantly different.

  4. A comparative study about learning styles preferences of two cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutay, Huban

    From an anthropologist's (Maddock, 1981) point of view, "science and science education are cultural enterprises which form a part of the wider cultural matrix of society and educational considerations concerning science must be made in the light of this wider perspective" (p.10). In addition, Spindler (1987) states that teaching science is considered cultural transmission while, Wolcott (1991) focuses on learning science as culture acquisition. In these statements, culture is defined as "an ordered system of meaning and symbols, in terms of which social interaction takes place" (Geertz, 1973). Thus, learning and culture are a partnership. Jones and Fennimore (1990) state: "Every culture brings habits of thought, resources, and context, which have built into them vehicles that promote learning and inquiry. Accordingly, children of any culture can and should have curriculum and instructional practices that draw from that culture." (p.16). Unfortunately, even though this statement is probably accurate, most schools still use the same curriculum, instructional methods, and assessment strategies for all students regardless of their differences in learning styles. The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between students' learning styles and their culture. This is a correlational study. Does culture limit or expand the learning of individuals? For this study Turkish students who graduated from a Turkish high school and undertook undergraduate education in the United States or finished their undergraduate education in Turkey and pursued graduate education in the United States were identified. These Turkish subjects were compared to American college students through learning styles data and anxiety levels as cultural markers. To identify individuals' learning styles we used the Building Excellence (BE) instrument, which is an adult version of The Learning Style Inventory by Dunn, and Rundle (1996.1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000). BE assesses twenty four

  5. Communicating Investment: Cultural Studies, Affect and the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, publishers' catalogues have showcased a continuing supply of introductory readers, taxonomies and evaluations of cultural studies, largely for teaching purposes. In this article, the author suggests that the current climate of academic publishing has allowed cultural studies' particular investment and commitment to scholarly…

  6. Artificial Grammar Learning of Melody Is Constrained by Melodic Inconsistency: Narmour's Principles Affect Melodic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Cross, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that people acquire artificial grammars incidentally and implicitly, an indispensable capacity for the acquisition of music or language. However, less research has been devoted to exploring constraints affecting incidental learning. Within the domain of music, the extent to which Narmour's (1990) melodic principles affect implicit learning of melodic structure was experimentally explored. Extending previous research (Rohrmeier, Rebuschat & Cross, 2011), the identical finite-state grammar is employed having terminals (the alphabet) manipulated so that melodies generated systematically violated Narmour's principles. Results indicate that Narmour-inconsistent melodic materials impede implicit learning. This further constitutes a case in which artificial grammar learning is affected by prior knowledge or processing constraints. PMID:23874388

  7. An Efficacious Measurement of Learning Initiatives: E-Learning Systems, Learning-Organization Culture, Knowledge Creation, and Innovativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundhoefer, Raymie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is twofold: (a) develop a validated measure for learning initiatives based on knowledge-creation theory and (b) conduct a quantitative study to investigate the relationships between electronic learning systems, learning-organization culture, efficacious knowledge creation (EKC), and innovativeness. Although Cheng-Chang…

  8. An Efficacious Measurement of Learning Initiatives: E-Learning Systems, Learning-Organization Culture, Knowledge Creation, and Innovativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grundhoefer, Raymie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is twofold: (a) develop a validated measure for learning initiatives based on knowledge-creation theory and (b) conduct a quantitative study to investigate the relationships between electronic learning systems, learning-organization culture, efficacious knowledge creation (EKC), and innovativeness. Although Cheng-Chang…

  9. Floral odor learning within the hive affects honeybees' foraging decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Farina, Walter M.

    2007-03-01

    Honeybees learn odor cues quickly and efficiently when visiting rewarding flowers. Memorization of these cues facilitates the localization and recognition of food sources during foraging flights. Bees can also use information gained inside the hive during social interactions with successful foragers. An important information cue that can be learned during these interactions is food odor. However, little is known about how floral odors learned in the hive affect later decisions of foragers in the field. We studied the effect of food scent on foraging preferences when this learning is acquired directly inside the hive. By using in-hive feeders that were removed 24 h before the test, we showed that foragers use the odor information acquired during a 3-day stimulation period with a scented solution during a food-choice situation outside the nest. This bias in food preference is maintained even 24 h after the replacement of all the hive combs. Thus, without being previously collected outside by foragers, food odors learned within the hive can be used during short-range foraging flights. Moreover, correct landings at a dual-choice device after replacing the storing combs suggests that long-term memories formed within the colony can be retrieved while bees search for food in the field.

  10. Floral odor learning within the hive affects honeybees' foraging decisions.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M; Farina, Walter M

    2007-03-01

    Honeybees learn odor cues quickly and efficiently when visiting rewarding flowers. Memorization of these cues facilitates the localization and recognition of food sources during foraging flights. Bees can also use information gained inside the hive during social interactions with successful foragers. An important information cue that can be learned during these interactions is food odor. However, little is known about how floral odors learned in the hive affect later decisions of foragers in the field. We studied the effect of food scent on foraging preferences when this learning is acquired directly inside the hive. By using in-hive feeders that were removed 24 h before the test, we showed that foragers use the odor information acquired during a 3-day stimulation period with a scented solution during a food-choice situation outside the nest. This bias in food preference is maintained even 24 h after the replacement of all the hive combs. Thus, without being previously collected outside by foragers, food odors learned within the hive can be used during short-range foraging flights. Moreover, correct landings at a dual-choice device after replacing the storing combs suggests that long-term memories formed within the colony can be retrieved while bees search for food in the field.

  11. SOCIO-CULTURAL INFLUENCES AND LEARNING CHANNELS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEUTSCH, CYNTHIA P.

    THE HYPOTHESIS THAT ENVIRONMENTAL CIRCUMSTANCES INFLUENCE THE PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION IS DISCUSSED. THE ROLE OF PARTIAL AND FULL SENSORY ISOLATION AND DEPRIVATION AND ITS NEGATIVE EFFECT ON LEARNING IS SHOWN TO BE SUPPORTED BY RESEARCH. THE INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENTAL STUDIES AT NEW YORK UNIVERSITY IS ENGAGED IN RESEARCH DEALING WITH THE…

  12. Lifelong Learning: Crossing Generations and Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Lorna

    2000-01-01

    Those outside the dominant groups in Canadian society have a need for ongoing learning at least equal to those among the dominant groups. Both must be satisfied through social agencies, volunteers, schools, and colleges. Building a comprehensive educational system requires sensitivity to generations, genders, new arrivals, and people whose…

  13. Strangers in Stranger Lands: Language, Learning, Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hong; Fox, Roy F.; Almarza, Dario J.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates international students' perceptions of the issues they face using English as a second language while attending American higher education institutions. In order to fully understand those challenges involved in learning English as a Second Language, it is necessary to know the extent to which international students have…

  14. Cross Cultural Learning with the Navajo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckmann, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Describes the final segment of a Seattle high school anthropology course--a four-week stay on the Navajo Reservation. Examines how this immersion in Navajo culture changed the values and perspectives of White students as they were forced to confront paradoxes in their own lives. (SV)

  15. Learning to See across a Cultural Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the need for child caregivers to be aware of cultural differences as they relate to individual autonomy and the family. Relates ideas on teaching toddlers self-help skills so they can become independent, and shares a personal story illustrating connected, yet independent, family members. (TJQ)

  16. Cultural Differences, Learning Styles and Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Troy; Morrison, Mark; Basu, Parikshit; Sweeney, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Australian universities have been active participants in the transnational education market over the past twenty years. Many Australian universities have structured various forms of franchising arrangements with universities and other education providers, particularly with educational institutions in China. However, the cultural differences…

  17. Cultural Differences, Learning Styles and Transnational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heffernan, Troy; Morrison, Mark; Basu, Parikshit; Sweeney, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Australian universities have been active participants in the transnational education market over the past twenty years. Many Australian universities have structured various forms of franchising arrangements with universities and other education providers, particularly with educational institutions in China. However, the cultural differences…

  18. Journey towards Cultural Competency: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John E.

    This report highlights initiatives and accomplishments of the National Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Resource Center on Cultural Competency and a related consortium of 12 states and the District of Columbia from October 1992 through September 1995. Following an introductory section, the first chapter focuses on the role of the National MCH…

  19. School & Society. Learning Content through Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trueba, Henry T., Ed.; Delgado-Gaitan, Concha, Ed.

    Over the last 30 years, educational anthropologists have been exploring the organizational structure of schools and their relationship to society in order to shed light on the complex processes of acquisition, organization, and transmission of cultural knowledge. This volume covers the need to provide a field-based, well-documented cultural…

  20. Cultural Alignment and Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Jessica; Davidson, Drew

    2017-01-01

    Culture can be understood as systems that produce and reproduce meaning, or as stable sets of meanings within a community. The authors illustrate how educational games produce and reproduce meaning, both related to the content being addressed and about the educational process itself. Educational games also rely on shared meanings and norms, which…

  1. Learning about World Cultures through Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhler, Carol J.; Farris, Pamela J.; Hatch, Lynda

    1998-01-01

    Explores folktales from China, Africa, and Russia suggesting ways to utilize them in the social studies classroom as a means to teaching children about other cultures. Warns that when using folktales it is important to explain that the folktales do not bear a one-to-one relationship with present-day societies. (CMK)

  2. Intercultural Competence and Cultural Learning through Telecollaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenker, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a six-week telecollaborative project between sixteen American students enrolled in a second-semester German class at an American university and sixteen German students enrolled in an advanced English course at a high school in Germany. Students discussed various cultural topics with their partner in two e-mails…

  3. School & Society. Learning Content through Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trueba, Henry T., Ed.; Delgado-Gaitan, Concha, Ed.

    Over the last 30 years, educational anthropologists have been exploring the organizational structure of schools and their relationship to society in order to shed light on the complex processes of acquisition, organization, and transmission of cultural knowledge. This volume covers the need to provide a field-based, well-documented cultural…

  4. American Holidays: Culture and Language Learning Combined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Grace Scott

    Suggestions for combining cultural exposure and language instruction through class activities geared to American holidays are outlined. General information about gathering holiday-related realia and instructional materials from local newspapers and magazines is provided, and four specific holidays are highlighted. For each holiday, sources of…

  5. The Cultural Work of Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Ray; Goldman, Shelley; Varenne, Herve

    2006-01-01

    Culturally and educationally, the United States specializes in the production of kinds of persons described first by ethnic, racial, and linguistic lines and second by supposed mental abilities. Overlaps between the two systems of classification are frequent, systematically haphazard, and often deleterious. An examination of classrooms around the…

  6. Blood culture results do not affect treatment in complicated cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Paolo, William F; Poreda, Andrew R; Grant, William; Scordino, David; Wojcik, Susan

    2013-08-01

    Cellulitis, a frequently encountered complaint in the Emergency Department, is typically managed with antibiotics. There is some debate as to whether obtaining blood cultures and knowing their results would change the management of cellulitis, although most authors argue that information from blood cultures does not change the empirical management of uncomplicated cellulitis. However, for complicated cellulitis (as defined by the presence of significant comorbidity), there is considerable disagreement and lack of evidence as to the utility of blood cultures. Our aim was to determine the role of blood cultures in the management of complicated cellulitis. This retrospective chart review assessed the utility of obtaining blood cultures in complicated cellulitis (as defined by active chemotherapy, dialysis, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome, diabetes, or organ transplantation) vs. a cohort of individuals without medical comorbidity. Six hundred and thirty-nine patients were identified, 314 of which were deemed cases and 325 controls. Within the cases, 29 of 314 returned as positive blood cultures vs. 17 of 325 positive blood culture controls within the cases (p = 0.05; odds ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval 0.99-3.43). A clinically significant change in management (a change in the class of antibiotic) was found in 6 of 314 cases vs. 4 of 325 controls (p = 0.578; odds ratio = 1.5525; 95% confidence interval 0.434-5.5541). Within this cohort of patients with complicated cellulitis, blood cultures rarely changed management from empirical coverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Feeding Frequency Affects Cultured Rat Pituitary Cells in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Mukai, C.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we describe the results of a rat pituitary cell culture experiment done on STS-65 in which the effect of cell feeding on the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones was studied. We found complex microgravity related interactions between the frequency of cell feeding and the quantity and quality (i.e. biological activity) of some of the six hormones released in flight. Analyses of growth hormone (GH) released from cells into culture media on different mission days using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography yielded qualitatively similar results between ground and flight samples. Lack of cell feeding resulted in extensive cell clumping in flight (but not ground) cultures. Vigorous fibroblast growth occurred in both ground and flight cultures fed 4 times. These results are interpreted within the context of autocrine and or paracrine feedback interactions. Finally the payload specialist successfully prepared a fresh trypsin solution in microgravity, detached the cells from their surface and reinserted them back into the culture chamber. These cells reattached and continued to release hormone in microgravity. In summary, this experiment shows that pituitary cells are microgravity sensitive and that coupled operations routinely associated with laboratory cel1 culture can also be accomplished in low gravity.

  8. A model for culturally adapting a learning system.

    PubMed

    Del Rosario, M L

    1975-12-01

    The Cross-Cultural Adaption Model (XCAM) is designed to help identify cultural values contained in the text, narration, or visual components of a learning instrument and enables the adapter to evaluate his adapted model so that he can modify or revise it, and allows him to assess the modified version by actually measuring the amount of cultural conflict still present in it. Such a model would permit world-wide adaption of learning materials in population regulation. A random sample of the target group is selected. The adapter develops a measurin g instrument, the cross-cultural adaption scale (XCA), a number of statements about the cultural affinity of the object evaluated. The pretest portion of the sample tests the clarity and understandability of the rating scale to be used for evaluating the instructional materials; the pilot group analyzes the original version of the instructional mater ials, determines the criteria for change, and analyzes the adapted version in terms of these criteria; the control group is administered the original version of the learning materials; and the experimental group is administered the adapted version. Finally, the responses obtained from the XRA rating scale and discussions of both the experimental and control groups are studied and group differences are ev aluated according to cultural conflicts met with each version. With this data, the preferred combination of elements is constructed.

  9. A contemporary examination of workplace learning culture: an ethnomethodology study.

    PubMed

    Newton, Jennifer M; Henderson, Amanda; Jolly, Brian; Greaves, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Creating and maintaining a sustainable workforce is currently an international concern. Extensive literature suggest that students and staff need to be 'engaged', that is they need to interact with the health team if they are to maximise learning opportunities. Despite many studies since the 1970s into what creates a 'good' learning environment, ongoing issues continue to challenge healthcare organisations and educators. A 'good' learning environment has been an intangible element for many professions as learning is hindered by the complexity of practice and by limitations on practitioners' time available to assist and guide novices. This study sought to explore the nature of the learning interactions and experiences in clinical nursing practice that enhance a 'good' workplace learning culture for both nursing students and qualified nurses. An ethnomethodology study. A range of clinical settings in Victoria and Queensland, Australia. Students and registered nurses (n=95). Fieldwork observations were carried out on student nurses and registered nurses, followed by an individual interview with each participant. An iterative approach to analysis was undertaken; field notes of observations were reviewed, interviews transcribed verbatim and entered into NVivo10. Major themes were then extracted. Three central themes: learning by doing, navigating through communication, and 'entrustability', emerged providing insights into common practices potentially enhancing or detracting from learning in the workplace. Students' and registered nurses' learning is constrained by a myriad of interactions and embedded workplace practices, which can either enhance the individual's opportunities for learning or detract from the richness of affordances that healthcare workplace settings have to offer. Until the culture/or routine practices of the healthcare workplace are challenged, the trust and meaningful communication essential to learning in practice, will be achievable only

  10. The sensory modality used for learning affects grades.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Beatriz U

    2011-09-01

    Second-year undergraduated students from 2008, 2009, and 2010 cohorts were asked to respond a questionnaire to determine their learning style preferences, the VARK questionnaire (where V is visual, A is aural, R is reading-writing, and K is kinesthetic), which was translated into Spanish by the author. The translated questionnaire was tested for wording comprehension before its application in the actual study. Using the results of the VARK questionnaire, students were classified as unimodal or multimodal and according to the first preferred sensory modality used for learning as V, A, R, or K learners. Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) and problems that required simple arithmetic calculations (arithmetic-type questions) were applied to the students. The relation between the main sensory modality used for learning and the grades obtained in each question type was analyzed both in unimodal and multimodal students. It was found that R unimodal students performed significantly better in arithmetic questions than A and K unimodal students (P < 0.001 by a Bonferroni multiple-comparison test after ANOVA). R unimodal students also performed better than R multimodal students in arithmetic questions (P = 0.02 by a Mann-Whitney U-test). However, no differences were observed after MCQs in either unimodal or multimodal students with different first sensory modalities used for learning. When MCQ scores between unimodal and multimodal students were compared, no differences were detected. It was concluded that the sensory learning style used for learning affects student outcome when students receive arithmetic questions but not when MCQs are applied.

  11. Encoding Conditions Affect Recognition of Vocally Expressed Emotions Across Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Jürgens, Rebecca; Drolet, Matthis; Pirow, Ralph; Scheiner, Elisabeth; Fischer, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Although the expression of emotions in humans is considered to be largely universal, cultural effects contribute to both emotion expression and recognition. To disentangle the interplay between these factors, play-acted and authentic (non-instructed) vocal expressions of emotions were used, on the assumption that cultural effects may contribute differentially to the recognition of staged and spontaneous emotions. Speech tokens depicting four emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear) were obtained from German radio archives and re-enacted by professional actors, and presented to 120 participants from Germany, Romania, and Indonesia. Participants in all three countries were poor at distinguishing between play-acted and spontaneous emotional utterances (58.73% correct on average with only marginal cultural differences). Nevertheless, authenticity influenced emotion recognition: across cultures, anger was recognized more accurately when play-acted (z = 15.06, p < 0.001) and sadness when authentic (z = 6.63, p < 0.001), replicating previous findings from German populations. German subjects revealed a slight advantage in recognizing emotions, indicating a moderate in-group advantage. There was no difference between Romanian and Indonesian subjects in the overall emotion recognition. Differential cultural effects became particularly apparent in terms of differential biases in emotion attribution. While all participants labeled play-acted expressions as anger more frequently than expected, German participants exhibited a further bias toward choosing anger for spontaneous stimuli. In contrast to the German sample, Romanian and Indonesian participants were biased toward choosing sadness. These results support the view that emotion recognition rests on a complex interaction of human universals and cultural specificities. Whether and in which way the observed biases are linked to cultural differences in self-construal remains an issue for further investigation. PMID

  12. Culturally inconsistent spatial structure reduces learning.

    PubMed

    McCrink, Koleen; Shaki, Samuel

    2016-09-01

    Human adults tend to use a spatial continuum to organize any information they consider to be well-ordered, with a sense of initial and final position. The directionality of this spatial mapping is mediated by the culture of the subject, largely as a function of the prevailing reading and writing habits (for example, from left-to-right for English speakers or right-to-left for Hebrew speakers). In the current study, we tasked American and Israeli subjects with encoding and recalling a set of arbitrary pairings, consisting of frequently ordered stimuli (letters with shapes: Experiment 1) or infrequently ordered stimuli (color terms with shapes: Experiment 2), that were serially presented in a left-to-right, right-to-left, or central-only manner. The subjects were better at recalling information that contained ordinal stimuli if the spatial flow of presentation during encoding matched the dominant directionality of the subjects' culture, compared to information encoded in the non-dominant direction. This phenomenon did not extend to infrequently ordered stimuli (e.g., color terms). These findings suggest that adults implicitly harness spatial organization to support memory, and this harnessing process is culturally mediated in tandem with our spatial biases.

  13. Culturally Inconsistent Spatial Structure Reduces Learning

    PubMed Central

    McCrink, Koleen; Shaki, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Human adults tend to use a spatial continuum to organize any information they consider to be well-ordered, with a sense of initial and final position. The directionality of this spatial mapping is mediated by the culture of the subject, largely as a function of the prevailing reading and writing habits (for example, from left-to-right for English speakers or right-to-left for Hebrew speakers). In the current study, we tasked American and Israeli subjects with encoding and recalling a set of arbitrary pairings, consisting of frequently ordered stimuli (letters with shapes: Experiment 1) or infrequently ordered stimuli (color terms with shapes: Experiment 2), that were serially presented in a left-to-right, right-to-left, or central-only manner. The subjects were better at recalling information that contained ordinal stimuli if the spatial flow of presentation during encoding matched the dominant directionality of the subjects’ culture, compared to information encoded in the non-dominant direction. This phenomenon did not extend to infrequently ordered stimuli (e.g., color terms). These findings suggest that adults implicitly harness spatial organization to support memory, and this harnessing process is culturally mediated in tandem with our spatial biases. PMID:27208418

  14. The Effects of Organizational Learning Culture and Job Satisfaction on Motivation to Transfer Learning and Turnover Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Toby Marshall; Yang, Baiyin; Bartlett, Kenneth R.

    2004-01-01

    Although organizational learning theory and practice have been clarified by practitioners and scholars over the past several years, there is much to be explored regarding interactions between organizational learning culture and employee learning and performance outcomes. This study examined the relationship of organizational learning culture, job…

  15. Immigrant sex: the transport of affection and sensuality across cultures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Frederick Y; Akhtar, Salman

    2005-06-01

    This paper outlines the ways in which an individual's notions of sexuality are challenged by immigration. It describes four basic facets of sexuality and the ways in which each are rooted in culture. These include (1) the relative importance of sexuality in daily life; (2) potential or overt homosexuality; (3) marriage-whether based on arrangement or love; and (4) cross-cultural romantic and marital relationships. Immigration can stir up conflicts in each of these realms and lead to defensive retreat into familiar customs or a counter-phasic plunge into new cultural avenues. Ideally, it would lead to a working-through of these conflicts and subsequent growth in the immigrant's understanding of his or her sexual self.

  16. The "Simmie" Side of Life: Old Order Amish Youths' Affective Response to Culturally Prescribed Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiling, Denise M.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed the counterintuitive affective response Old Order Amish youth make to unique cultural prescriptions for adolescent deviance (constructed by adult Amish culture). Interview data supported the basic principles of Terror Management Theory in an unexpected, indirect fashion. Rather than functioning as a specialized cultural-anxiety buffer…

  17. Of Cultural Tools and Kinds of Knowledge: Investigating Field Trip-Based Learning about Art, Culture, and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Sandra Toro

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on field trip-based experiences across the disciplines of art, culture, and science. The author addresses gaps in the learning sciences' research about children learning both art and cultural content as well as how they learn cross-disciplinary practices. She offers one strategy, video-based interpretive case studies (VICS). By…

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Affective Meanings of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Frances M.; Osgood, Charles E.

    1973-01-01

    Color data from the Osgood et al. 23-culture semantic differential study of affective meanings reveal cross-cultural similarities in feelings about colors. The concept RED is affectively quite salient; BLACK and GREY are bad, and WHITE, BLUE, and GREEN are good; YELLOW, WHITE, and GREY are weak; RED and BLACK are strong. (RJ)

  19. The Socio-Cultural Context of Operations: Culture and Foreign Language Learning for Company-Grade Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    officers’ encounters with foreign cultures on deployment. Results informed the development of a draft cultural competency framework describing what... competency framework describing what officers do, or should do, to perform their missions effectively in an unfamiliar culture. The competency ...enhance. To address the learning question, we revised the ACFLS learning objectives based on the data we obtained from officers, the competency

  20. Nested Contexts That Shape Assessment "for" Learning: School-Based Professional Learning Community and Classroom Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birenbaum, Menucha; Kimron, Helena; Shilton, Hany

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the relationships between assessment for learning (AfL) and attributes of two school-related contexts--the classroom assessment culture (CAC) in which AfL is embedded, and the larger context in which CAC is nested, namely the school-based professional learning community (SBPLC). The research design comprised two…

  1. Nested Contexts That Shape Assessment "for" Learning: School-Based Professional Learning Community and Classroom Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birenbaum, Menucha; Kimron, Helena; Shilton, Hany

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the relationships between assessment for learning (AfL) and attributes of two school-related contexts--the classroom assessment culture (CAC) in which AfL is embedded, and the larger context in which CAC is nested, namely the school-based professional learning community (SBPLC). The research design comprised two…

  2. The Influence of Music Learning Cultures on the Construction of Teaching-Learning Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas-Mas, Amalia; Pozo, Juan Ignacio; Montero, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Current research in music education tends to put the emphasis on learning processes outside formal academic contexts, both to rethink and to renew academic educational formats. Our aim is to observe and describe three music learning cultures simultaneously, including formal, non-formal and informal settings: Classical, Jazz and Flamenco,…

  3. Meaningful Learning in the Teaching of Culture: The Project Based Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kean, Ang Chooi; Kwe, Ngu Moi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a collaborative effort taken by a team of three teacher educators in using the Project Based Learning (PBL) approach in the teaching of Japanese culture with the aim to investigate the presence of actual "meaningful learning" among 15 students of a 12-Week Preparatory Japanese Language course under a teacher…

  4. The Influence of Music Learning Cultures on the Construction of Teaching-Learning Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas-Mas, Amalia; Pozo, Juan Ignacio; Montero, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Current research in music education tends to put the emphasis on learning processes outside formal academic contexts, both to rethink and to renew academic educational formats. Our aim is to observe and describe three music learning cultures simultaneously, including formal, non-formal and informal settings: Classical, Jazz and Flamenco,…

  5. Home Culture, Science, School and Science Learning: Is Reconciliation Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Aik-Ling

    2011-01-01

    In response to Meyer and Crawford's article on how nature of science and authentic science inquiry strategies can be used to support the learning of science for underrepresented students, I explore the possibly of reconciliation between the cultures of school, science, school science as well as home. Such reconciliation is only possible when…

  6. Physical Education Cultures in Sweden: Fitness, Sports, Dancing … Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Håkan; Karlefors, Inger

    2015-01-01

    In a significant article from 1993, Crum describes the purpose of physical education (PE) as a "planned introduction into movement culture". In broad terms, this purpose is tantamount to the stated purpose of Swedish PE in national steering documents. Crum contends, however, that physical educators do not prioritise learning, which is…

  7. A Comparison of Learning Cultures in Different Sizes and Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Paula D.; Finch, Kim S.; MacGregor, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    This study compared relevant data and information about leadership and learning cultures in different sizes and types of high schools. Research was conducted using a quantitative design with a qualitative element. Quantitative data were gathered using a researcher-created survey. Independent sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the means of…

  8. Home Culture, Science, School and Science Learning: Is Reconciliation Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Aik-Ling

    2011-01-01

    In response to Meyer and Crawford's article on how nature of science and authentic science inquiry strategies can be used to support the learning of science for underrepresented students, I explore the possibly of reconciliation between the cultures of school, science, school science as well as home. Such reconciliation is only possible when…

  9. Addressing Academic Culture: Service Learning, Organizations, and Faculty Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kelly

    1998-01-01

    Explores the relationship between service learning and organizational commitment by examining the complexities of faculty and organizational culture, including administrative support, campus familiarity with course-based service, financial support, the nature of faculty involvement, and faculty work and rewards. Makes practical suggestions for…

  10. Implications from Learning Principles for Multi-Cultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Charles

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the cultural implications of eight learning principles identified by C.M. Charles in his book "Educational Psychology: The Instructional Endeavor." The author states that in attempting to prepare teachers to function in a multicultural society, it is necessary to instill in them both a thorough knowledge of…

  11. Lifelong Learning and Cultural Identity: Canada's Native People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Brian; Steckley, John

    This paper focuses on lifelong learning and the cultural identity of Canada's native people. The introduction reviews educational programs instituted by indigenous minority groups in New Zealand and Hawaii. The second section reviews the importance of storytelling and ritual ceremonies in Native education. The third section discusses the tension…

  12. Online Literacies and Learning: Operational, Cultural and Critical Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of literacy practices in online distance learning environments, specifically those involved in text-based collaborative discussion at post-compulsory level. A three-dimensional framework, relating operational, cultural and critical aspects of linguistic interaction online, is used to argue that research in this…

  13. Measuring Learning and Development in Cross-Cultural Competence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Technical Report 1317 Measuring Learning and Development in Cross-Cultural Competence Michael J. McCloskey, Kyle J...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 622785 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael J. McCloskey, Kyle J. Behymer, Elizabeth L. Papautsky, and Aniko Grandjean (361 Interactive, LLC...Michael J. McCloskey, Kyle J. Behymer, Elizabeth L. Papautsky, and Aniko Grandjean 361 Interactive, LLC

  14. Children's Play and Culture Learning in an Egalitarian Foraging Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyette, Adam H.

    2016-01-01

    Few systematic studies of play in foragers exist despite their significance for understanding the breadth of contexts for human development and the ontogeny of cultural learning. Forager societies lack complex social hierarchies, avenues for prestige or wealth accumulation, and formal educational institutions, and thereby represent a contrast to…

  15. The Teaching Artist as Cultural Learning Entrepreneur: An Introductory Conceptualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    In the field of teaching artists a new professional profile might be arising: the cultural learning entrepreneur. Compelled by European standards for business and social innovation, the new role is in search of identity and shared understanding. In the present article, the author presents a network project, funded by the European Community, which…

  16. Learning Culture, Line Manager and HR Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the role of line management and learning culture in the development of professional practice for the human resource (HR) practitioner. Design/methodology/approach: Three-year longitudinal, matched-pair study involving five participants and their line managers. Findings: Two of the five participants experienced…

  17. Learning Across Cultures: Intercultural Communication and International Educational Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althen, Gary, Ed.; And Others

    Aspects of intercultural educational activity, research on learning, and implications for educational interchange, and case studies of the application of ideas from the intercultural communication field to work in international educational interchange are addressed in nine papers. Contents include: "Dynamics of Cross-cultural Adjustment: from…

  18. Learning Culture, Line Manager and HR Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the role of line management and learning culture in the development of professional practice for the human resource (HR) practitioner. Design/methodology/approach: Three-year longitudinal, matched-pair study involving five participants and their line managers. Findings: Two of the five participants experienced…

  19. Transformational Learning in Botswana: How Culture Shapes the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan B.; Ntseane, Gabo

    2008-01-01

    Transformational learning as presented by Jack Mezirow has been critiqued for its Western, rational, and cognitive orientation. This qualitative study was conducted in the African nation of Botswana and examines how that culture shaped the process. In-depth interviews were held with 12 adults who acknowledged having an experience that had…

  20. Context and Culture in Language Teaching and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byram, Mike; Grundy, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Introduces this special issue of the journal on context and culture in language teaching and learning, as well as each of the articles, most of which were contributions to a conference. The origins of this topic lie partly within theory and practice of language teaching and partly in response to the recognition of the social and political…

  1. Learning Cultures on the Move: Where Are We Heading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the globally recognized cultural move towards a more learner-centred education and discusses the implications for the adoption of mobile technologies and design for learning. Current expectations vis-a-vis learner attributes, skills and competences are explored. The pervasiveness of mobile technologies is precipitating these…

  2. Developing International Managers: The Contribution of Cultural Experience to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Peter; Regan, Padraic; Li, Liang Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate cultural experience as a learning strategy for developing international managers. Design/methodology/approach: Using an integrated framework, two quantitative studies, based on empirical methodology, are conducted. Study 1, with an undergraduate sample situated in the Asia Pacific, aimed to examine…

  3. The Cultural Dimensions of Language Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risager, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Language teaching and learning has many different cultural dimensions, and over the years more and more of these have been the subject of research. The first dimension to be explored was that of content: the images of target language countries and the world that were offered in textbooks and presented in class. The next dimension was that of the…

  4. Changing Faces: Parenting, Culture, and Child Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Durden, Tonia; Kennel, Portia

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies how parenting, culture, and education of ethnically diverse children influence their development and learning outcomes. As U.S. communities become more ethnically diverse, it is critical for educators, practitioners, researchers, and policy leaders to have an ideological and pedagogical understanding of how to maximize the…

  5. Team Psychological Safety and Team Learning: A Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauwelier, Peter; Ribière, Vincent M.; Bennet, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if the concept of team psychological safety, a key driver of team learning and originally studied in the West, can be applied in teams from different national cultures. The model originally validated for teams in the West is applied to teams in Thailand to evaluate its validity, and the views team…

  6. Study Abroad: Enhanced Learning Experience in Cultural Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaoko, Japheth

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how a study abroad experiential learning course in diversity provided a cultural immersion experience for a group of social work students from a small private university in central Kentucky. The students participated in a three-week international education experience in Kenya and reported this experience helped them become more…

  7. Physical Education Cultures in Sweden: Fitness, Sports, Dancing … Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Håkan; Karlefors, Inger

    2015-01-01

    In a significant article from 1993, Crum describes the purpose of physical education (PE) as a "planned introduction into movement culture". In broad terms, this purpose is tantamount to the stated purpose of Swedish PE in national steering documents. Crum contends, however, that physical educators do not prioritise learning, which is…

  8. Changing Faces: Parenting, Culture, and Child Learning and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Durden, Tonia; Kennel, Portia

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies how parenting, culture, and education of ethnically diverse children influence their development and learning outcomes. As U.S. communities become more ethnically diverse, it is critical for educators, practitioners, researchers, and policy leaders to have an ideological and pedagogical understanding of how to maximize the…

  9. Learning Across Cultures: Intercultural Communication and International Educational Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althen, Gary, Ed.; And Others

    Aspects of intercultural educational activity, research on learning, and implications for educational interchange, and case studies of the application of ideas from the intercultural communication field to work in international educational interchange are addressed in nine papers. Contents include: "Dynamics of Cross-cultural Adjustment: from…

  10. Professional Learning Communities Allow a Transformational Culture to Take Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses a new approach to teaching--professional learning community (PLC). Teachers have long collaborated with colleagues and participated in continuing education, but becoming a PLC is a new experience. A PLC is perhaps best defined as a fundamental shift in a school's culture. It is distinguished by three key elements: (1) a…

  11. Other Ways to Wisdom: Learning through the Senses across Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Constance

    1999-01-01

    Contends that Westerners are accustomed to learning about the world through our senses of sight and hearing, and that "lower" senses--smell, taste, and touch--tend to be associated with "savagery" or sensualism. Provides a cross-cultural look at the Colombian Desana people who acquire knowledge through full-bodied experience…

  12. Culture Learning in a Changed World: Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Erin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author explores the views of a group whose perspectives have not often been included in discussions of new directions for foreign language education--students. Drawing from a larger ethnographic, discourse-analytic study of the nature of culture learning for one group of college students and their teacher, this paper presents…

  13. Culturally Responsive Instruction for English Language Learners with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orosco, Michael John; O'Connor, Rollanda

    2014-01-01

    This case study describes the culturally responsive instruction of one special education teacher with Latino English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities in an urban elementary school setting. This study was situated in a social constructivist research based framework. In investigating this instruction with ELLs, this study focused…

  14. Other Ways to Wisdom: Learning through the Senses across Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classen, Constance

    1999-01-01

    Contends that Westerners are accustomed to learning about the world through our senses of sight and hearing, and that "lower" senses--smell, taste, and touch--tend to be associated with "savagery" or sensualism. Provides a cross-cultural look at the Colombian Desana people who acquire knowledge through full-bodied experience…

  15. A National Sports Institute as a Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jessica; Price, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the learning culture for elite athletes who resided at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) from the perspective of the athletes themselves. As a government entity, the AIS is highly regulated by policies and strategies concerning allocation of funding, facilities, services, and…

  16. Drivers of Learning Cultures within Organisations: Findings from Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robyn; Hawke, Geof

    The factors driving learning cultures within organizations were examined in case studies of seven organizations in New South Wales and South Australia. The seven organizations represented the pharmaceutical manufacturing, community services and health, agriculture, information technology, and local government sectors. In some cases, organizations'…

  17. Implications from Learning Principles for Multi-Cultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Charles

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the cultural implications of eight learning principles identified by C.M. Charles in his book "Educational Psychology: The Instructional Endeavor." The author states that in attempting to prepare teachers to function in a multicultural society, it is necessary to instill in them both a thorough knowledge of…

  18. What Have We Learned from Cross-Cultural Surveys?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, David

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes what behavioral science has learned from holocultural studies of social problems, child rearing, kinship, and cultural evolution. Holocultural studies test or derive a theory by mathematical analysis of data drawn from a sample of primitive societies representing three or more geographical regions of the world. (Author/AV)

  19. Developing International Managers: The Contribution of Cultural Experience to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Peter; Regan, Padraic; Li, Liang Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate cultural experience as a learning strategy for developing international managers. Design/methodology/approach: Using an integrated framework, two quantitative studies, based on empirical methodology, are conducted. Study 1, with an undergraduate sample situated in the Asia Pacific, aimed to examine…

  20. The Teaching Artist as Cultural Learning Entrepreneur: An Introductory Conceptualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    In the field of teaching artists a new professional profile might be arising: the cultural learning entrepreneur. Compelled by European standards for business and social innovation, the new role is in search of identity and shared understanding. In the present article, the author presents a network project, funded by the European Community, which…

  1. Children's Play and Culture Learning in an Egalitarian Foraging Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyette, Adam H.

    2016-01-01

    Few systematic studies of play in foragers exist despite their significance for understanding the breadth of contexts for human development and the ontogeny of cultural learning. Forager societies lack complex social hierarchies, avenues for prestige or wealth accumulation, and formal educational institutions, and thereby represent a contrast to…

  2. Transferring Knowledge across Cultures: A Learning Competencies Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayes, Anna B.; Kayes, D. Christopher; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka

    2005-01-01

    At the heart of any successful cross-cultural knowledge transfer effort lies an individual or group of individuals with the skills to manage a complex, ambiguous and often stressful process. The ability to manage the knowledge transfer process depends as much on learning in real time as it does on rational planning. Yet, few approaches to…

  3. Team Psychological Safety and Team Learning: A Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauwelier, Peter; Ribière, Vincent M.; Bennet, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to evaluate if the concept of team psychological safety, a key driver of team learning and originally studied in the West, can be applied in teams from different national cultures. The model originally validated for teams in the West is applied to teams in Thailand to evaluate its validity, and the views team…

  4. A National Sports Institute as a Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jessica; Price, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the learning culture for elite athletes who resided at the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) from the perspective of the athletes themselves. As a government entity, the AIS is highly regulated by policies and strategies concerning allocation of funding, facilities, services, and…

  5. Learning through the Soul: Concepts Relating to Learning and Knowledge in the Mayan Cultures of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Describes the central concept of Mayan culture, the possession of the soul, or ch'ulel, in the process of forming a knowledgeable person. Soul acquisition is important to becoming the ideal person, and to the educational formation of future generations. Looks at the role language plays in culture as memory, thought formation, and learning process.…

  6. Global Organizations and E-Learning: Leveraging Adult Learning in Different Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Edward P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines a number of issues regarding the leveraged use of global training within multinational organizations. Given a common purpose and using technology that may minimize cultural differences, is it possible for these organizations to overcome some of the cultural barriers to adult learning? In examining this concept, this article…

  7. Can medical students from two cultures learn effectively from a shared web-based learning environment?

    PubMed

    Evans, Phillip; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Begg, Michael; Lam, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to establish whether medical students from 2 different cultures can learn effectively from a shared web-based learning environment. Students from the College of Medicine, Edinburgh, UK and the Medical School, Gifu, Japan shared 2 weeks of teaching and learning in clinical genetics, using problem-based learning in a web-based application (WBA). Questions about language, time zone, agreement about the curriculum (learning outcomes, tutor activity and assessment) and specific pedagogical issues about the educational effectiveness of students' learning were considered. The evidence indicates that a shared WBA is practical where the learning outcomes and problem scenarios are common and students are fluent in the same language. Problem-based learning transfers itself best to online discussion boards when the numbers in the group are 16 or more. Students do not use the WBA as a primary source of resource material, and they augment the discussion boards with face-to-face meetings with peers and tutors.

  8. Teaching and learning about culture: a European journey.

    PubMed

    Wimpenny, Peter; Gault, Barry; MacLennan, Vivienne; Boast-Bowen, Lesley; Shepherd, Patricia

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the evolving nature of an understanding of culture through attendance on an Intensive Programme (IP) funded by ERASMUS-SOCRATES. The purpose of this paper is to report a journey of learning about culture through attendance on a ERASMUS-SOCRATES funded Intensive Programme (IP) for nurses in Hasselt, Belgium. This paper seeks to describe the process and experience of our involvement through an examination of the authors' participation as teachers and students. This was undertaken using serial taped group and individual interviews. The metaphor of the IP as a journey is described and used as the vehicle for data collection and analysis. The key findings were the development of key themes relating to: Personal Values and Culture, Engagement and Culture, Personality and Culture and Physicality and Culture. Discussion of these findings raises issues of language and language skill, communication and listening skills, stereotyping, personal awareness, cultural awareness, sensitivity and competence. It is proposed that direct engagement through programmes, such as the reported IP, with other nurses and nurse educationalists in Europe is an essential part of any modern nursing curriculum and aids the development of internationalisation. Without such direct engagement there is potential for a narrower, limited view of culture and a lack of sensitivity in understanding our own and other cultures.

  9. Design Factors Affect User Experience for Different Cultural Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Sauman

    2016-01-01

    With increasing changes in our demographic populations and new immigrants settling in the US, there is an increasing need for visual communications that address the diversity of our populations. This paper draws from the results of the researcher's several past research and teaching projects that worked with different cultural populations. These…

  10. Observational learning in orangutan cultural transmission chains

    PubMed Central

    Dindo, Marietta; Stoinski, Tara; Whiten, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Field reports suggest that orangutans acquire local traditions by observing neighbouring conspecifics. However, there is little direct evidence of social learning to support this conclusion. The present study investigated whether orangutans would learn a novel foraging method through observation of a conspecific in a diffusion-chain paradigm testing for the spread of the behaviour. A foraging box with two possible methods for extracting food was used to investigate the transmission of a foraging tradition among zoo-living subjects. In a socially housed group of five orangutans, the dominant male was trained to use one technique exclusively to retrieve food. He then performed this technique in the presence of another group member, who was then allowed to forage. After several trials, the observer became the model for the next individual. A second experimental group of six individuals was introduced to the alternative method. The model-seeded technique was successfully transmitted along both experimental chains, with significant preferences for the model method. These results are consistent with claims for social transmission of foraging methods in wild orangutans. PMID:20843841

  11. Culture, Communication, and Competence: A Commentary on Variables Affecting Social and Academic Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Rob

    2011-01-01

    The editors of this special issue have recruited six papers focused on the ways that language and communication interact with culture to influence student behavior. Two themes that emerge from these papers are the fundamental role of communication in learning and living, and the impact of culture on the functions of communication. The present…

  12. Computational Modeling of Emotions and Affect in Social-Cultural Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-02

    YIP-10) COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF EMOTIONS AND AFFECT IN SOCIAL-CULTURAL INTERACTION YANG LIU UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT DALLAS 10/02/2013 Final Report...Final report July 15, 2010-July 14, 2013 Computational Modeling of Emotions and Affect in Social-Cultural Interaction AFOSR FA9550-10-1-0388 Yang Liu...computational models for emotion recognition in speech and study various impacting factors including social, cultural, and language effect on such models

  13. Reassessing culture media and critical metabolites that affect adenovirus production.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chun Fang; Voyer, Robert; Tom, Roseanne; Kamen, Amine

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus production is currently operated at low cell density because infection at high cell densities still results in reduced cell-specific productivity. To better understand nutrient limitation and inhibitory metabolites causing the reduction of specific yields at high cell densities, adenovirus production in HEK 293 cultures using NSFM 13 and CD 293 media were evaluated. For cultures using NSFM 13 medium, the cell-specific productivity decreased from 3,400 to 150 vp/cell (or 96% reduction) when the cell density at infection was increased from 1 to 3 x 10(6) cells/mL. In comparison, only 50% of reduction in the cell-specific productivity was observed under the same conditions for cultures using CD 293 medium. The effect of medium osmolality was found critical on viral production. Media were adjusted to an optimal osmolality of 290 mOsm/kg to facilitate comparison. Amino acids were not critical limiting factors. Potential limiting nutrients including vitamins, energy metabolites, bases and nucleotides, or inhibitory metabolites (lactate and ammonia) were supplemented to infected cultures to further investigate their effect on the adenovirus production. Accumulation of lactate and ammonia in a culture infected at 3 x 10(6) cells/mL contributed to about 20% reduction of the adenovirus production yield, whereas nutrient limitation appeared primarily responsible for the decline in the viral production when NSFM 13 medium was used. Overall, the results indicate that multiple factors contribute to limiting the specific production yield at cell densities beyond 1 x 10(6) cells/mL and underline the need to further investigate and develop media for better adenoviral vector productions.

  14. Variables affecting learning in a simulation experience: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Beischel, Kelly P

    2013-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model describing the direct effects of learning variables on anxiety and cognitive learning outcomes in a high-fidelity simulation (HFS) experience. The secondary purpose was to explain and explore student perceptions concerning the qualities and context of HFS affecting anxiety and learning. This study used a mixed methods quantitative-dominant explanatory design with concurrent qualitative data collection to examine variables affecting learning in undergraduate, beginning nursing students (N = 124). Being ready to learn, having a strong auditory-verbal learning style, and being prepared for simulation directly affected anxiety, whereas learning outcomes were directly affected by having strong auditory-verbal and hands-on learning styles. Anxiety did not quantitatively mediate cognitive learning outcomes as theorized, although students qualitatively reported debilitating levels of anxiety. This study advances nursing education science by providing evidence concerning variables affecting learning outcomes in HFS.

  15. Affective Learning Profiles in Compulsory High School Physical Education: An Instructional Communication Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Mindrila, Diana; Weaver, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    Affective learning is a major focus of the national K-12 physical education (PE) content standards (National Association for Sport and Physical Education [NASPE, 2004]). Understanding how students might fit into different affective learning subgroups would help extend affective learning theory in PE and suggest possible intervention strategies for…

  16. Review of Affective Computing in Education/Learning: Trends and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chih-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hwang, Jan-Pan

    2016-01-01

    Affect can significantly influence education/learning. Thus, understanding a learner's affect throughout the learning process is crucial for understanding motivation. In conventional education/learning research, learner motivation can be known through postevent self-reported questionnaires. With the advance of affective computing technology,…

  17. Review of Affective Computing in Education/Learning: Trends and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chih-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min; Hwang, Jan-Pan

    2016-01-01

    Affect can significantly influence education/learning. Thus, understanding a learner's affect throughout the learning process is crucial for understanding motivation. In conventional education/learning research, learner motivation can be known through postevent self-reported questionnaires. With the advance of affective computing technology,…

  18. Integrating Learning Styles and Personality Traits into an Affective Model to Support Learner's Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontidis, Makis; Halatsis, Constantin

    The aim of this paper is to present a model in order to integrate the learning style and the personality traits of a learner into an enhanced Affective Style which is stored in the learner’s model. This model which can deal with the cognitive abilities as well as the affective preferences of the learner is called Learner Affective Model (LAM). The LAM is used to retain learner’s knowledge and activities during his interaction with a Web-based learning environment and also to provide him with the appropriate pedagogical guidance. The proposed model makes use of an ontological approach in combination with the Bayesian Network model and contributes to the efficient management of the LAM in an Affective Module.

  19. Reactions to Receiving a Gift-Maternal Scaffolding and Cultural Learning in Berlin and Delhi.

    PubMed

    Kärtner, Joscha; Crafa, Daina; Chaudhary, Nandita; Keller, Heidi

    2016-05-01

    This study shows how Berlin (n = 35) and Delhi (n = 28) mothers scaffold a common and highly scripted social situation, namely gift giving, and enable cultural learning in 19-month-olds. Using modeling and prompting to encourage appropriate responses, mothers took culture-specific directions during scaffolding that were in line with the broader cultural model as assessed by maternal socialization goals (SGs). Whereas Berlin mothers prioritized autonomous SGs, Delhi mothers emphasized autonomous and relational SGs to similar degrees. During scaffolding, Berlin mothers focused on maximizing positive affect and acknowledging the gift, whereas Delhi mothers prompted toddlers to acknowledge the giver more often. Furthermore, there were differences in toddlers' behavior in line with these culture-specific scripts guiding gift giving. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. Cultural factors affecting urban Mexican male homosexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Carrier, J M

    1976-03-01

    Some aspects of the mestizoized urban culture in Mexico are linked to male homosexuality in support of the theory that cultural factors play an important role in the kind of life styles and sex practices of males involved in homosexual behavior. The following factors are considered relevant: the sharp dichotomization of gender roles, dual categorization of females as good or bad, separate social networks maintained by males before and after marriage, proportion of unmarried males, and distribution of income. One result of the sharp dichotomization of male and female gender roles is the widely held belief that effeminate males generally prefer to play the female role rather than the male. Effeminacy and homosexuality are also linked by the belief that as a result of this role preference effeminate males are sexually interested only in masculine males with whom they play the passive sex role. The participation of masculine males in homosexual encounters is related in part to a relatively high level of sexual awareness in combination with the lack of stigmatization of the insertor sex role and in part to the restraints placed on alternative sexual outlets by available income and/or marital status. Males involved in homosexual behavior in Mexico operate in a sociocultural environment which gives rise to expectations that they should play either the insertee or insertor sex role but not both and that they should obtain ultimate sexual satisfaction with anal intercourse rather than fellatio. In spite of cultural imperatives, however, individual preferences stemming from other variables such as personality needs, sexual gratification, desires of wanted partners, and amount of involvement may override the imperatives with resulting variations in sexual behavior patterns.

  1. Somatic, Affective and Behavioral Distress Reactions across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canel-Cinarbas, Deniz; Aegisdottir, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the expression and frequency of somatic, affective and cognitive symptoms of distress across Turkish and U.S. university students. An open-ended free-list question was used to elicit distress responses from 827 Turkish and U.S. participants. The coding was done using classical content analysis. It…

  2. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ya-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  3. Digital Culture Clash: "Massive" Education in the "E-Learning and Digital Cultures" MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    While education has been both open and online, the sizeable enrolment numbers associated with massive open online courses (MOOCs) are somewhat unprecedented. In order to gauge the significance of education at scale, this article analyses specific examples of massive participation derived from E-learning and Digital Cultures, a MOOC from the…

  4. Cross-Cultural Service Learning with Native Americans: Pedagogy for Building Cultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolea, Patricia S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper articulates a curricular approach that centers on a Native American service learning course. Social work students engaged in cross-cultural immersion on a reservation in the United States. By examination of historical United States policy impacting Indian tribes and contemporary experiences that challenge basic instruction in public…

  5. "Working" Culture: Exploring Notions of Workplace Culture and Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This article is based on research into the practical problem of masculinity and learning and practising safety in the mining industry. The research began with a post-structural analysis of gendered subjectivity in miners' yarns but argues that a concept of "culture" is needed to elucidate a middle-level relationship between individual…

  6. Cultural Speak: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and Experiential Learning in a Public Speaking Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Janet; Tobler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the efficacy of modifications made to a higher education Latina/o public speaking course to enhance student growth and understanding. The changes included the addition of a service-learning component and the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy. Selected research, particularly related to college students, on…

  7. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ya-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  8. Cross-Cultural Service Learning with Native Americans: Pedagogy for Building Cultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolea, Patricia S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper articulates a curricular approach that centers on a Native American service learning course. Social work students engaged in cross-cultural immersion on a reservation in the United States. By examination of historical United States policy impacting Indian tribes and contemporary experiences that challenge basic instruction in public…

  9. "Working" Culture: Exploring Notions of Workplace Culture and Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    This article is based on research into the practical problem of masculinity and learning and practising safety in the mining industry. The research began with a post-structural analysis of gendered subjectivity in miners' yarns but argues that a concept of "culture" is needed to elucidate a middle-level relationship between individual…

  10. Cultural Challenges to Education: The Influences of Cultural Factors in School Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brembeck, Cole S., Ed.; Hill, Walker H., Ed.

    The larger environment in which individuals live has become the arena for exploring the influence and uses of cultural values in school learning and educational decision making. The aim of this book is to explore this arena. Anthropologist Henry G. Burger, in Part I, discusses the assimilation of all groups into a single average Yankee, and…

  11. Kinship Online: Engaging "Cultural Praxis" in a Teaching and Learning Framework for Cultural Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Lynette; Howard-Wagner, Deirdre; Mooney, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the teaching and learning framework that underpins a Kinship Online Module aimed at delivering online cross-cultural training at the university level. It is based on an existing workshop designed and presented to non-Aboriginal staff and students by Lynette Riley, a Wiradjuri and Gamilaroi woman from Dubbo and Moree. In doing…

  12. Cultural Speak: Culturally Relevant Pedagogy and Experiential Learning in a Public Speaking Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Janet; Tobler, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the efficacy of modifications made to a higher education Latina/o public speaking course to enhance student growth and understanding. The changes included the addition of a service-learning component and the incorporation of culturally relevant pedagogy. Selected research, particularly related to college students, on…

  13. Preparing Culturally Competent Health Educators: The Development and Evaluation of a Cultural Immersion Service-Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremethick, Mary Jane; Smit, Eileen M.

    2009-01-01

    The United States is becoming an increasingly diverse culture. To function in this diverse setting, health education students need opportunities to develop cultural competence. Cultural immersion service-learning courses are one way to meet this need. Using a combination of literature review and experiences with a cultural immersion…

  14. Developing Cultural Attitudes in Teacher Candidates through a Cross-Cultural Service Learning Intervention: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Victoria L. Ringling

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to ascertain the impact of an intense cultural classroom experience combined with a cross-cultural service-learning intervention experience on the cultural attitudes of teacher candidates. The research focused specifically on the study of the Lakota culture both currently and in the historical context and then…

  15. Promoting Teachers of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) Students as Change Agents: A Cultural Approach to Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Guofang

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes a cultural approach to professional learning to empower pre- and in-service teachers to successfully address increasingly diverse student populations and become culturally responsive to students' diverse backgrounds. This cultural approach treats culture as a vital source for reshaping the politics of identity and…

  16. Mild hypoxia affects synaptic connectivity in cultured neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Mulder, Alex T B; Farinha, Ana C; van Putten, Michel J A M; le Feber, Joost

    2014-04-04

    Eighty percent of patients with chronic mild cerebral ischemia/hypoxia resulting from chronic heart failure or pulmonary disease have cognitive impairment. Overt structural neuronal damage is lacking and the precise cause of neuronal damage is unclear. As almost half of the cerebral energy consumption is used for synaptic transmission, and synaptic failure is the first abrupt consequence of acute complete anoxia, synaptic dysfunction is a candidate mechanism for the cognitive deterioration in chronic mild ischemia/hypoxia. Because measurement of synaptic functioning in patients is problematic, we use cultured networks of cortical neurons from new born rats, grown over a multi-electrode array, as a model system. These were exposed to partial hypoxia (partial oxygen pressure of 150Torr lowered to 40-50Torr) during 3 (n=14) or 6 (n=8) hours. Synaptic functioning was assessed before, during, and after hypoxia by assessment of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses to electrical stimulation. Action potential heights and shapes and non-synaptic stimulus responses were used as measures of individual neuronal integrity. During hypoxia of 3 and 6h, there was a statistically significant decrease of spontaneous network activity, functional connectivity, and synaptically driven network responses, whereas direct responses and action potentials remained unchanged. These changes were largely reversible. Our results indicate that in cultured neuronal networks, partial hypoxia during 3 or 6h causes isolated disturbances of synaptic connectivity.

  17. The evolution of culture: from primate social learning to human culture.

    PubMed

    Castro, Laureano; Toro, Miguel A

    2004-07-06

    Cultural transmission in our species works most of the time as a cumulative inheritance system allowing members of a group to incorporate behavioral features not only with a positive biological value but sometimes also with a neutral, or even negative, biological value. Most of models of dual inheritance theory and gene-culture coevolution suggest that an increase, either qualitative or quantitative, in the efficiency of imitation is the key factor to explain the transformation of primate social learning in a cumulative cultural system of inheritance as it happens during hominization. We contend that more efficient imitation is necessary but not enough for this transformation to occur and that the key factor enabling such a transformation is that some hominids developed the capacity to approve or disapprove their offspring's learned behavior. This capacity to approve or disapprove offspring's behavior makes learning both less costly and more accurate, and it transformed the hominid culture into a system of cumulative cultural inheritance similar to that of humans, although the system was still prelinguistic in nature.

  18. Building and Leading a Learning Culture among Teachers: A Case Study of a Shanghai Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiyan, Qian; Walker, Allan; Xiaowei, Yang

    2017-01-01

    A positive teacher learning culture is important to effect meaningful changes in schools. Literature has established that successful school leaders can build and nurture learning cultures among teachers. However, less is known about how school leaders can shape the culture and make learning conditions happen at the schools in the Chinese education…

  19. Building and Leading a Learning Culture among Teachers: A Case Study of a Shanghai Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haiyan, Qian; Walker, Allan; Xiaowei, Yang

    2017-01-01

    A positive teacher learning culture is important to effect meaningful changes in schools. Literature has established that successful school leaders can build and nurture learning cultures among teachers. However, less is known about how school leaders can shape the culture and make learning conditions happen at the schools in the Chinese education…

  20. Culturally Sensitive Transformational Learning: Incorporating the Afrocentric Paradigm and African Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntseane, Peggy Gabo

    2011-01-01

    Informed by the Afrocentric learning paradigm, this conceptual piece argues that Mezirow's version of the theory of transformative learning is useful, but it would be more so if applied to be culturally sensitive. Using Botswana cultural learning values as an example, the article demonstrates how the theory can be made culturally sensitive to an…

  1. Culturally Sensitive Transformational Learning: Incorporating the Afrocentric Paradigm and African Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntseane, Peggy Gabo

    2011-01-01

    Informed by the Afrocentric learning paradigm, this conceptual piece argues that Mezirow's version of the theory of transformative learning is useful, but it would be more so if applied to be culturally sensitive. Using Botswana cultural learning values as an example, the article demonstrates how the theory can be made culturally sensitive to an…

  2. Cultural Factors Affecting Chinese ESL Students' Academic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jinyan; Brown, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Confucianism meets Constructivism in North American universities and our classrooms are failing to meet the educational expectations of Chinese students. Specifically, students from the People's Republic of China mentioned six areas where they feel discomfort: (a) They feel uncomfortable with the classroom behavior of North American students; (b)…

  3. Cultural Factors Affecting Chinese ESL Students' Academic Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jinyan; Brown, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Confucianism meets Constructivism in North American universities and our classrooms are failing to meet the educational expectations of Chinese students. Specifically, students from the People's Republic of China mentioned six areas where they feel discomfort: (a) They feel uncomfortable with the classroom behavior of North American students; (b)…

  4. The evolution of social learning mechanisms and cultural phenomena in group foragers.

    PubMed

    van der Post, Daniel J; Franz, Mathias; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-02-10

    Advanced cognitive abilities are widely thought to underpin cultural traditions and cumulative cultural change. In contrast, recent simulation models have found that basic social influences on learning suffice to support both cultural phenomena. In the present study we test the predictions of these models in the context of skill learning, in a model with stochastic demographics, variable group sizes, and evolved parameter values, exploring the cultural ramifications of three different social learning mechanisms. Our results show that that simple forms of social learning such as local enhancement, can generate traditional differences in the context of skill learning. In contrast, we find cumulative cultural change is supported by observational learning, but not local or stimulus enhancement, which supports the idea that advanced cognitive abilities are important for generating this cultural phenomenon in the context of skill learning. Our results help to explain the observation that animal cultures are widespread, but cumulative cultural change might be rare.

  5. Cognitive styles, cultural pluralism and effective teaching and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B. R.

    1988-09-01

    In a pluralistic society, there is a need for increased sensitivity in the selection of teaching styles. This paper considers evidence which shows that future responses to teaching and learning style are determined in pre-school years by the child's socio-cultural environment. The teaching methods in common use in Britain, however, presuppose cognitive styles current in white middle-class culture, which may be inappropriate to children from other backgrounds. While some will respond only to co-operative, social methods, others will act analytically and competitively. Factors of social class are also considered. The paper argues that curriculum, methodology and materials should allow all children to identify with the educational process, and should enable them eventually to function bi-cognitively. Teachers will therefore need to recognize the range of cognitive and learning styles among their pupils.

  6. Shifting workplace behavior to inspire learning: a journey to building a learning culture.

    PubMed

    Schoonbeek, Sue; Henderson, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the process of building a learning culture. It began with establishing acceptance and connection with the nurse unit manager and the ward team. In the early phases of developing rapport, bullying became apparent. Because bullying undermines sharing and trust, the hallmarks of learning environments, the early intervention work assisted staff to recognize and counteract bullying behaviors. When predominantly positive relationships were restored, interactions that facilitated open communication, including asking questions and providing feedback-behaviors commensurate with learning in the workplace-were developed during regular in-service sessions. Staff participated in role-play and role modeling desired behaviors. Once staff became knowledgeable about positive learning interactions, reward and recognition strategies began to reinforce attitudes and behaviors that align with learning. Through rewards, all nurses had the opportunity to be recognized for their contribution. Nurses who excelled were invited to become champions to continue engaging the key stakeholders to further build the learning environment.

  7. Positive affect and learning: exploring the "Eureka Effect" in dogs.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Ragen T S; Rehn, Therese; Norling, Yezica; Keeling, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    Animals may experience positive affective states in response to their own achievements. We investigated emotional responses to problem-solving in dogs, separating these from reactions to rewards per se using a yoked control design. We also questioned whether the intensity of reaction would vary with reward type. We examined the response (behavior and heart rate) of dogs as they learned to gain access to different rewards: (1) food (2) human contact, and (3) dog contact. Twelve beagles were assigned to matched pairs, and each dog served as both an experimental and a control animal during different stages of the experiment. We trained all dogs to perform distinct operant tasks and exposed them to additional devices to which they were not trained. Later, dogs were tested in a new context. When acting as an experimental dog, access to the reward was granted immediately upon completion of trained operant tasks. When acting as a control, access to the reward was independent of the dog's actions and was instead granted after a delay equal to their matched partner's latency to complete their task. Thus, differences between the two situations could be attributed to experimental dogs having the opportunity to learn to control access to the reward. Experimental dogs showed signs of excitement (e.g., increased tail wagging and activity) in response to their achievements, whereas controls showed signs of frustration (e.g., chewing of the operant device) in response to the unpredictability of the situation. The intensity of emotional response in experimental dogs was influenced by the reward type, i.e., greatest response to food and least to another dog. Our results suggest that dogs react emotionally to problem-solving opportunities and that tail wagging may be a useful indicator of positive affective states in dogs.

  8. From putative genes to temperament and culture: cultural characteristics of the distribution of dominant affective temperaments in national studies.

    PubMed

    Gonda, Xenia; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Akiskal, Kareen K; Akiskal, Hagop S

    2011-06-01

    Affective temperaments may carry distinct evolutionary advantages both on the individual or a group level, so we can expect that in different cultural and national samples the frequency of dominant affective temperaments will show characteristic differences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of distribution of dominant affective temperaments in different national studies of general non-clinical population. In our study we included six studies published in different countries around the world (Argentina, Germany, Hungary, Korea, Portugal, and Lebanon) which investigated a large sample of non-clinical population using TEMPS-A, and reported frequencies for dominant affective temperaments. The frequencies of dominant affective temperaments were compared using chi square tests. We found a significant difference in the frequency of affective temperaments among the different national studies in case of the cyclothymic, hyperthymic and irritable temperaments. We found important parallels between the frequency of affective temperaments and cultural dimensions described by Hofstede (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005). The characteristics encompassed by the depressive temperament show considerable similarities with Hofstede's individualism-collectivism dimension, while those of the hyperthymic temperament seem to be similar to uncertainty avoidance, and the irritable temperament shows similarities with Hofstede's power distance. Furthermore, the relative frequency of these dominant temperaments in case of the different national samples paralleled the relative scores of these countries on the corresponding cultural scales. Our results indicate an important relationship between affective temperaments and cultural dimensions, which suggests that these phenomena may be the manifestations of the same genetically determined predispositions in different forms. We included a study by Erfurth et al. (2005), in which affective temperaments were evaluated

  9. Cultural and learning differences in the Judd illusion.

    PubMed

    van der Kamp, John; Withagen, Rob; de Wit, Matthieu M

    2013-07-01

    In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in the perception of illusory Judd drawings point to variability in the pickup of informational variables. Two sources for these individual differences were addressed: culture and learning. East Asian (n = 24) and Western (n = 24) participants made perceptual judgments of the midpoint of the shaft of various Judd figures in a pretest-practice-posttest design. During practice, half of the participants received feedback about the actual midpoint after each trial, while the other half did not receive feedback. The results showed differences among perceivers of different cultures in judging the midpoints of the shafts of Judd figures, particularly with respect to their propensity to improve perceptual accuracy after repeated practice and feedback. For most participants, changes in illusory bias as a consequence of learning were shown to reflect either a change in what informational variable they exploited or a rescaling or calibration of the perception to the informational variable. However, the individual differences in illusory bias related to culture could not be unequivocally attributed to either of these perceptual-learning processes.

  10. Culture Media and Individual Hosts Affect the Recovery of Culturable Bacterial Diversity from Amphibian Skin.

    PubMed

    Medina, Daniel; Walke, Jenifer B; Gajewski, Zachary; Becker, Matthew H; Swartwout, Meredith C; Belden, Lisa K

    2017-01-01

    One current challenge in microbial ecology is elucidating the functional roles of the large diversity of free-living and host-associated bacteria identified by culture-independent molecular methods. Importantly, the characterization of this immense bacterial diversity will likely require merging data from culture-independent approaches with work on bacterial isolates in culture. Amphibian skin bacterial communities have become a recent focus of work in host-associated microbial systems due to the potential role of these skin bacteria in host defense against the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is associated with global amphibian population declines and extinctions. As there is evidence that some skin bacteria may inhibit growth of Bd and prevent infection in some cases, there is interest in using these bacteria as probiotic therapy for conservation of at-risk amphibians. In this study, we used skin swabs from American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) to: (1) assess the diversity and community structure of culturable amphibian skin bacteria grown on high and low nutrient culture media, (2) determine which culture media recover the highest proportion of the total skin bacterial community of individual toads relative to culture-independent data, and (3) assess whether the plated communities from the distinct media types vary in their ability to inhibit Bd growth in in-vitro assays. Overall, we found that culture media with low nutrient concentrations facilitated the growth of more diverse bacterial taxa and grew distinct communities relative to media with higher nutrient concentrations. Use of low nutrient media also resulted in culturing proportionally more of the bacterial diversity on individual toads relative to the overall community defined using culture-independent methods. However, while there were differences in diversity among media types, the variation among individual hosts was greater than variation among media types, suggesting that

  11. A cross-cultural comparison of anatomy learning: learning styles and strategies.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Barry S; Xu, Qin; Jin, Lixian; Patten, Debra; Gouldsborough, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Cultural influences on anatomy teaching and learning have been investigated by application of a questionnaire to medical students in British and Chinese Medical Schools. Results from the responses from students of the two countries were analyzed. Both groups found it easier to understand anatomy in a clinical context, and in both countries, student learning was driven by assessment. Curriculum design differences may have contributed to the British view wherein students were less likely to feel time pressure and enjoyed studying anatomy more than their Chinese counterparts. Different teaching approaches resulted in British students being more likely to recite definitions to learn, and the Chinese students found learning from cross-sectional images easy. Cultural differences may account for the observation that British students were more inclined to ask questions in class, and the preference of Chinese students to study in small groups. The findings give evidence to show how 'cultures of learning' influence students' approaches and indicate the importance of cultural influences as factors amongst international and home learner groups.

  12. Regenerated extracellular NH4 (+) affects the motile chemosensory responses of batch-cultured Oxyrrhis marina.

    PubMed

    Martel, Claire M

    2010-04-01

    Regenerated extracellular NH4 (+)in laboratory batch cultures of the heterotrophic marine microzooplankter Oxyrrhis marina affects the strength and consistency of chemotaxes elicited by synthetic and biogenic chemoattractants. The ecological relevance of experiments with batch-cultured O. marina and limitations of the microcapillary assay for the study of chemosensory behaviours are discussed.

  13. Cultural toolkits in the urban physics learning community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabella, Mel S.; Van Duzor, Andrea Gay

    2013-01-01

    Chicago State University has been involved in curriculum development, teacher preparation, and education research that targets urban physics learners on the south-side of Chicago. Through this work we have begun to recognize specific cultural norms that our students bring to the classroom. These cultural norms appear to help our students establish strong communities in classes. Because of the homogeneity of our population, with most students coming from within a five-mile radius of our campus, there are a set of shared experiences that help establish a level of trust and sense of community that manifests itself in the science learning environment. Aspects of community play a major role in the preparation of teachers. In this paper we discuss our understanding of CSU student culture, its importance in the development of community, and its role in the preparation of future physics teachers. [1

  14. Investigating Learner Affective Performance in Web-Based Learning by Using Entrepreneurship as a Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ming-Chou; Chi, Ming-Hsiao

    2012-01-01

    In the era of the Internet, factors which influence effective learning in a Web-based learning environment are well worth exploring. In addition to knowledge acquisition and skills training, affect is also an important factor, since successful learning requires excellent affective performance. Thus this study focuses on learners' affective…

  15. Text Messaging for Out-of-Class Communication: Impact on Affective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Paul; Weibelzahl, Stephan; Hall, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Learning in the affective domain includes the manner by which people deal with things emotionally, such as feelings, values, appreciation, enthusiasms, motivations and attitudes. While out-of-class communication between instructors and students can impact all types of student learning it has its greatest impact on student affective learning. One…

  16. Universal and culture-specific factors in the recognition and performance of musical affect expressions.

    PubMed

    Laukka, Petri; Eerola, Tuomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S; Yamasaki, Teruo; Beller, Grégory

    2013-06-01

    We present a cross-cultural study on the performance and perception of affective expression in music. Professional bowed-string musicians from different musical traditions (Swedish folk music, Hindustani classical music, Japanese traditional music, and Western classical music) were instructed to perform short pieces of music to convey 11 emotions and related states to listeners. All musical stimuli were judged by Swedish, Indian, and Japanese participants in a balanced design, and a variety of acoustic and musical cues were extracted. Results first showed that the musicians' expressive intentions could be recognized with accuracy above chance both within and across musical cultures, but communication was, in general, more accurate for culturally familiar versus unfamiliar music, and for basic emotions versus nonbasic affective states. We further used a lens-model approach to describe the relations between the strategies that musicians use to convey various expressions and listeners' perceptions of the affective content of the music. Many acoustic and musical cues were similarly correlated with both the musicians' expressive intentions and the listeners' affective judgments across musical cultures, but the match between musicians' and listeners' uses of cues was better in within-cultural versus cross-cultural conditions. We conclude that affective expression in music may depend on a combination of universal and culture-specific factors.

  17. Developmental Vitamin D Deficiency Affects Spatial Learning in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Anwar N; Khan, Khalid M; Rahman, Abdur

    2017-09-01

    Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a global problem. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D is involved in brain development and function. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with poor cognitive function in adults, but the effect of developmental vitamin D deficiency (DVDD) on cognitive function and brain development in children has not been well established.Objective: We explored the effects of DVDD on cognitive functions and brain morphology of rat pups.Methods: Wistar rat pups born to control and vitamin D-deficient dams were divided into 4 groups: control (C), deficient during gestation (dG), deficient during lactation (dL), and deficient during gestation and lactation (dGL). Spatial learning and memory were assessed by the Morris water maze test at postnatal day (PND) 24 and PND 45. Cortical thickness at the level of the hippocampus was measured at PND 63, and synapses were counted in specified areas of the hippocampus at PND 32 and PND 63.Results: Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that at PND 24, learning (escape latency) was impaired (by 42%) in the dGL group, whereas at PND 45, both the dL and the dGL groups showed learning impairment (by 47% and 45%, respectively) compared with their respective C groups (P < 0.05). Short-term or long-term memory was largely unaffected by DVDD either at PND 24 or PND 45. Compared with the C group, all the DVDD groups had fewer synapses in the molecular layer of the hippocampus (P < 0.001). The synapse number decreased by 54% in the dGL group at PND 33 and by 70% in the dL and dGL groups at PND 63. All the DVDD groups at PND 63 showed a reduced cortical thickness (by 22%) compared with the C group (P < 0.05).Conclusion: These results suggest that a combined prenatal and postnatal DVDD for ≥6 wk in rat pups affects learning but not memory. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Higher frequency of social learning in China than in the West shows cultural variation in the dynamics of cultural evolution.

    PubMed

    Mesoudi, Alex; Chang, Lei; Murray, Keelin; Lu, Hui Jing

    2015-01-07

    Cultural evolutionary models have identified a range of conditions under which social learning (copying others) is predicted to be adaptive relative to asocial learning (learning on one's own), particularly in humans where socially learned information can accumulate over successive generations. However, cultural evolution and behavioural economics experiments have consistently shown apparently maladaptive under-utilization of social information in Western populations. Here we provide experimental evidence of cultural variation in people's use of social learning, potentially explaining this mismatch. People in mainland China showed significantly more social learning than British people in an artefact-design task designed to assess the adaptiveness of social information use. People in Hong Kong, and Chinese immigrants in the UK, resembled British people in their social information use, suggesting a recent shift in these groups from social to asocial learning due to exposure to Western culture. Finally, Chinese mainland participants responded less than other participants to increased environmental change within the task. Our results suggest that learning strategies in humans are culturally variable and not genetically fixed, necessitating the study of the 'social learning of social learning strategies' whereby the dynamics of cultural evolution are responsive to social processes, such as migration, education and globalization.

  19. Higher frequency of social learning in China than in the West shows cultural variation in the dynamics of cultural evolution

    PubMed Central

    Mesoudi, Alex; Chang, Lei; Murray, Keelin; Lu, Hui Jing

    2015-01-01

    Cultural evolutionary models have identified a range of conditions under which social learning (copying others) is predicted to be adaptive relative to asocial learning (learning on one's own), particularly in humans where socially learned information can accumulate over successive generations. However, cultural evolution and behavioural economics experiments have consistently shown apparently maladaptive under-utilization of social information in Western populations. Here we provide experimental evidence of cultural variation in people's use of social learning, potentially explaining this mismatch. People in mainland China showed significantly more social learning than British people in an artefact-design task designed to assess the adaptiveness of social information use. People in Hong Kong, and Chinese immigrants in the UK, resembled British people in their social information use, suggesting a recent shift in these groups from social to asocial learning due to exposure to Western culture. Finally, Chinese mainland participants responded less than other participants to increased environmental change within the task. Our results suggest that learning strategies in humans are culturally variable and not genetically fixed, necessitating the study of the ‘social learning of social learning strategies' whereby the dynamics of cultural evolution are responsive to social processes, such as migration, education and globalization. PMID:25392473

  20. On "feeling right" in cultural contexts: how person-culture match affects self-esteem and subjective well-being.

    PubMed

    Fulmer, C Ashley; Gelfand, Michele J; Kruglanski, Arie W; Kim-Prieto, Chu; Diener, Ed; Pierro, Antonio; Higgins, E Tory

    2010-11-01

    Whether one is in one's native culture or abroad, one's personality can differ markedly from the personalities of the majority, thus failing to match the "cultural norm." Our studies examined how the interaction of individual- and cultural-level personality affects people's self-esteem and well-being. We propose a person-culture match hypothesis that predicts that when a person's personality matches the prevalent personalities of other people in a culture, culture functions as an important amplifier of the positive effect of personality on self-esteem and subjective well-being at the individual level. Across two studies, using data from more than 7,000 individuals from 28 societies, multilevel random-coefficient analyses showed that when a relation between a given personality trait and well-being or self-esteem exists at the individual level, the relation is stronger in cultures characterized by high levels of that personality dimension. Results were replicated across extraversion, promotion focus, and locomotive regulatory mode. Our research has practical implications for the well-being of both cultural natives and migrants.

  1. Building Collaborative Structures for Teachers' Autonomy and Self-Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Participative Management and Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jiafang; Jiang, Xinhui; Yu, Huen; Li, Dongyu

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the collaborative structure-building behavior of school principals and examined how such behavior affects teacher empowerment. More important, it tested the mediating effects of participative management and learning culture. By collecting nested data from 104 schools in Hong Kong and adopting multilevel structural equation…

  2. The Role of Organizational Learning Culture and Psychological Empowerment in Reducing Turnover Intention and Enhancing Citizenship Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Talat; Khan, Mubbsher Munawar; Bukhari, Fida Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the association among organizational learning culture (OLC), psychological empowerment (PE), affective commitment (AC), organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intention. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was undertaken via a questionnaire conducted among Malay-Chinese working in…

  3. The Role of Organizational Learning Culture and Psychological Empowerment in Reducing Turnover Intention and Enhancing Citizenship Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, Talat; Khan, Mubbsher Munawar; Bukhari, Fida Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the association among organizational learning culture (OLC), psychological empowerment (PE), affective commitment (AC), organizational citizenship behavior and turnover intention. Design/Methodology/Approach: This study was undertaken via a questionnaire conducted among Malay-Chinese working in…

  4. Building Collaborative Structures for Teachers' Autonomy and Self-Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Participative Management and Learning Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jiafang; Jiang, Xinhui; Yu, Huen; Li, Dongyu

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the collaborative structure-building behavior of school principals and examined how such behavior affects teacher empowerment. More important, it tested the mediating effects of participative management and learning culture. By collecting nested data from 104 schools in Hong Kong and adopting multilevel structural equation…

  5. Cultural Differences in Affect Intensity Perception in the Context of Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Pogosyan, Marianna; Engelmann, Jan B.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese, and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity, or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal (HA) images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal (LA) images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1) perceptual differences in the extent to which HA images were discriminated from LA images, and (2) categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for global advertising are discussed. PMID:22084635

  6. Nencki Affective Picture System: Cross-Cultural Study in Europe and Iran.

    PubMed

    Riegel, Monika; Moslehi, Abnoos; Michałowski, Jarosław M; Żurawski, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Wypych, Marek; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Although emotions have been assumed conventionally to be universal, recent studies have suggested that various aspects of emotions may be mediated by cultural background. The purpose of our research was to test these contradictory views, in the case of the subjective evaluation of visual affective stimuli. We also sought to validate the recently introduced Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) database on a different cultural group. Since there has been, to date, no attempt to compare the emotions of a culturally distinct sample of Iranians with those of Europeans, subjective ratings were collected from 40 Iranians and 39 Europeans. Each cultural group was asked separately to provide normative affective ratings and classify pictures according to discrete emotions. The results were analyzed to identify cultural differences in the ratings of individual images. One hundred and seventy NAPS pictures were rated with regard to the intensity of the basic emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust) they elicited, as well as in terms of affective dimensions (valence and arousal). Contrary to previous studies using the International Affective Picture System, our results for Europeans and Iranians show that neither the ratings for affective dimensions nor for basic emotions differed across cultural groups. In both cultural groups, the relationship between valence and arousal ratings could be best described by a classical boomerang-shaped function. However, the content of the pictures (animals, faces, landscapes, objects, or people) had a significant effect on the ratings for valence and arousal. These findings indicate that further studies in cross-cultural affective research should control for the content of stimuli.

  7. Nencki Affective Picture System: Cross-Cultural Study in Europe and Iran

    PubMed Central

    Riegel, Monika; Moslehi, Abnoos; Michałowski, Jarosław M.; Żurawski, Łukasz; Horvat, Marko; Wypych, Marek; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur

    2017-01-01

    Although emotions have been assumed conventionally to be universal, recent studies have suggested that various aspects of emotions may be mediated by cultural background. The purpose of our research was to test these contradictory views, in the case of the subjective evaluation of visual affective stimuli. We also sought to validate the recently introduced Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS) database on a different cultural group. Since there has been, to date, no attempt to compare the emotions of a culturally distinct sample of Iranians with those of Europeans, subjective ratings were collected from 40 Iranians and 39 Europeans. Each cultural group was asked separately to provide normative affective ratings and classify pictures according to discrete emotions. The results were analyzed to identify cultural differences in the ratings of individual images. One hundred and seventy NAPS pictures were rated with regard to the intensity of the basic emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust) they elicited, as well as in terms of affective dimensions (valence and arousal). Contrary to previous studies using the International Affective Picture System, our results for Europeans and Iranians show that neither the ratings for affective dimensions nor for basic emotions differed across cultural groups. In both cultural groups, the relationship between valence and arousal ratings could be best described by a classical boomerang-shaped function. However, the content of the pictures (animals, faces, landscapes, objects, or people) had a significant effect on the ratings for valence and arousal. These findings indicate that further studies in cross-cultural affective research should control for the content of stimuli. PMID:28316576

  8. Learning Style Preferences of Student Teachers: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sywelem, Mohamed; Al-Harbi, Qassem; Fathema, Nafsaniath; Witte, James E.

    2012-01-01

    All students learn, but not all learn in the same way. Educational researchers postulate that everyone has a learning style. This article examines how cultural variability is reflected in the learning style of students in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and United States. In this study, the learning styles of over 300 students in Teacher Education…

  9. The Impact of Personality Traits on the Affective Category of English Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims at discovering the impact of personality traits in the prediction use of the Affective English Language Learning Strategies (AELLSs) for learners of English as a foreign language. Four instruments were used, which were Adapted Inventory for Affective English Language Learning Strategies based on Affective category of…

  10. The Effects of the Cultural Portfolio Project on Cultural and EFL Learning in Taiwan's EFL College Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Learning about foreign language (FL) cultures is becoming an important objective in the FL curricula and national standards of different countries throughout the world. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of the cultural portfolio project on (1) students' specific aspects of development of cultural knowledge and change in…

  11. The Effects of the Cultural Portfolio Project on Cultural and EFL Learning in Taiwan's EFL College Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Learning about foreign language (FL) cultures is becoming an important objective in the FL curricula and national standards of different countries throughout the world. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of the cultural portfolio project on (1) students' specific aspects of development of cultural knowledge and change in…

  12. Cultural Models of Teaching and Learning in Math and Science: Exploring the Intersections of Culture, Cognition, and Pedagogical Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrare, Joseph J.; Hora, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    While researchers have examined how disciplinary and departmental cultures influence instructional practices in higher education, there has yet to be an examination of this relationship at the embodied level of culture. In this article we utilize cultural models theory to examine the theories of student learning and teaching practice espoused and…

  13. Cultural Models of Teaching and Learning in Math and Science: Exploring the Intersections of Culture, Cognition, and Pedagogical Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrare, Joseph J.; Hora, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    While researchers have examined how disciplinary and departmental cultures influence instructional practices in higher education, there has yet to be an examination of this relationship at the embodied level of culture. In this article we utilize cultural models theory to examine the theories of student learning and teaching practice espoused and…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Anatomy Learning: Learning Styles and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Barry S.; Xu, Qin; Jin, Lixian; Patten, Debra; Gouldsborough, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Cultural influences on anatomy teaching and learning have been investigated by application of a questionnaire to medical students in British and Chinese Medical Schools. Results from the responses from students of the two countries were analyzed. Both groups found it easier to understand anatomy in a clinical context, and in both countries,…

  15. Place of Learning, Place of Practice: Elements That Affect the Transfer of Teachers' Professional Development to Students' Learning in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrill, Leslie D.; Thomas, Timothy G.; Reynolds, Timothy L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to bring to light elements that teachers require in order for learning gained during professional development sessions to find a place in their classroom practices and to affect student learning. Through their inquiry with K-12 educators at the Margaret Sue Copenhaver Institute for Teaching and Learning, a professional…

  16. Incorporating Meaningful Gamification in a Blended Learning Research Methods Class: Examining Student Learning, Engagement, and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Meng; Hew, Khe Foon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the use of meaningful gamification affects student learning, engagement, and affective outcomes in a short, 3-day blended learning research methods class using a combination of experimental and qualitative research methods. Twenty-two postgraduates were randomly split into two groups taught by the same…

  17. Incorporating Meaningful Gamification in a Blended Learning Research Methods Class: Examining Student Learning, Engagement, and Affective Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Meng; Hew, Khe Foon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how the use of meaningful gamification affects student learning, engagement, and affective outcomes in a short, 3-day blended learning research methods class using a combination of experimental and qualitative research methods. Twenty-two postgraduates were randomly split into two groups taught by the same…

  18. Innovations Affecting Us: Technology to Learn Anytime Anywhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Norman

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of laptop computers in higher education, including students' increased motivation, performance, cooperative learning and critical thinking. Describes a Microsoft/Toshiba pilot laptop learning program, technology implementation models for schools, changes in teaching and learning, and teacher training. (AEF)

  19. Factors Affecting M-Learners' Course Satisfaction and Learning Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joo, Young Ju; Joung, Sunyoung; Lim, Eugene; Kim, Hae Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether college students' self-efficacy, level of learning strategy use, academic burnout, and school support predict course satisfaction and learning persistence. To this end, self-efficacy, level of learning strategy use, academic burnout, and school support were used as prediction variables, and course satisfaction and…

  20. Language Learning Strategies of Turkish and Arabic Students: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köksal, Dinçay; Ulum, Ömer Gökhan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the language learning strategy use of Turkish and Arabic students enrolled in middle schools and having different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Using a strategy inventory for language learning, the study examines the cross-cultural differences in strategy use of the mentioned students while learning English as a…