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Sample records for affects detection rate

  1. Does deep sedation with propofol affect adenoma detection rates in average risk screening colonoscopy exams?

    PubMed

    Thirumurthi, Selvi; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Pande, Mala; Ruiz, Joseph; Carlson, Richard; Hagan, Katherine B; Lee, Jeffrey H; Ross, William A

    2017-04-16

    To determine the effect of sedation with propofol on adenoma detection rate (ADR) and cecal intubation rates (CIR) in average risk screening colonoscopies compared to moderate sedation. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 2604 first-time average risk screening colonoscopies performed at MD Anderson Cancer Center from 2010-2013. ADR and CIR were calculated in each sedation group. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to adjust for potential confounders of age and body mass index (BMI). One-third of the exams were done with propofol (n = 874). Overall ADR in the propofol group was significantly higher than moderate sedation (46.3% vs 41.2%, P = 0.01). After adjustment for age and BMI differences, ADR was similar between the groups. CIR was 99% for all exams. The mean cecal insertion time was shorter among propofol patients (6.9 min vs 8.2 min; P < 0.0001). Deep sedation with propofol for screening colonoscopy did not significantly improve ADR or CIR in our population of average risk patients. While propofol may allow for safer sedation in certain patients (e.g., with sleep apnea), the overall effect on colonoscopy quality metrics is not significant. Given its increased cost, propofol should be used judiciously and without the implicit expectation of a higher quality screening exam.

  2. Analysis of variables affecting unemployment rate and detecting for cluster in West Java, Central Java, and East Java in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Putra A.; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Lestari, Dian

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is modeling the Unemployment Rate (UR) in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, with rate of disease, infant mortality rate, educational level, population size, proportion of married people, and GDRP as the explanatory variables. Spatial factors are also considered in the modeling since the closer the distance, the higher the correlation. This study uses the secondary data from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). The data will be analyzed using Moran I test, to obtain the information about spatial dependence, and using Spatial Autoregressive modeling to obtain the information, which variables are significant affecting UR and how great the influence of the spatial factors. The result is, variables proportion of married people, rate of disease, and population size are related significantly to UR. In all three regions, the Hotspot of unemployed will also be detected districts/cities using Spatial Scan Statistics Method. The results are 22 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed (Most likely cluster) in the study area; 2 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in West Java; 1 district/city as a regional groups with the highest unemployed in Central Java; 15 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in East Java.

  3. Affective ratings of sound stimuli.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Jaime; Fraga, Isabel; Padrón, Isabel; Piñeiro, Ana

    2008-08-01

    This article present the Spanish assessments of the 111 sounds included in the International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS; Bradley & Lang, 1999b). The sounds were evaluated by 159 participants in the dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance, using a computer version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (Bradley & Lang, 1994). Results are compared with those obtained in the American version of the IADS, as well as in the Spanish adaptations of the International Affective Picture System (P. J. Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1999; Moltó et al., 1999) and the Affective Norms for English Words (Bradley & Lang, 1999a; Redondo, Fraga, Padrón, & Comesaña, 2007).

  4. Do organic ligands affect calcite dissolution rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelkers, Eric H.; Golubev, Sergey V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Bénézeth, Pascale

    2011-04-01

    Steady state Iceland-spar calcite dissolution rates were measured at 25 °C in aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M NaCl and up to 0.05 M dissolved bicarbonate at pH from 7.9 to 9.1 in the presence of 13 distinct dissolved organic ligands in mixed-flow reactors. The organic ligands considered in this study include those most likely to be present in either (1) aquifers at the conditions pertinent to CO 2 sequestration or (2) soil/early diagenetic environments: acetate, phthalate, citrate, EDTA 4-, succinate, D-glucosaminate, L-glutamate, D-gluconate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, fumarate, malonate, and gallate. Results show that the presence of <0.05 mol/kg of these organic anions changes calcite dissolution rates by less than a factor of 2.5 with the exception of citrate and EDTA 4-. The presence of 0.05 mol/kg citrate and EDTA 4- increases calcite dissolution rates by as much as a factor of 35 and 500, respectively, compared to rates in organic anion-free solutions. Further calcite dissolution experiments were performed in the presence of organic polymers similar to bacterial exudates, cell exopolysaccharides, and analogs of microbial cell envelopes: alginate, lichen extract, humic acid, pectin, and gum xanthan. In no case did the presence of <100 ppm of these organics change calcite dissolution rates by more than a factor of 2.5. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of aqueous organic anions negligibly affects calcite forward dissolution rates in most natural environments. Some effect on calcite reactivity may be observed, however, by the presence of organic anions if they change substantially the chemical affinity of the fluid with respect to calcite.

  5. Bacillus spore inactivation methods affect detection assays.

    PubMed

    Dang, J L; Heroux, K; Kearney, J; Arasteh, A; Gostomski, M; Emanuel, P A

    2001-08-01

    Detection of biological weapons is a primary concern in force protection, treaty verification, and safeguarding civilian populations against domestic terrorism. One great concern is the detection of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Assays for detection in the laboratory often employ inactivated preparations of spores or nonpathogenic simulants. This study uses several common biodetection platforms to detect B. anthracis spores that have been inactivated by two methods and compares those data to detection of spores that have not been inactivated. The data demonstrate that inactivation methods can affect the sensitivity of nucleic acid- and antibody-based assays for the detection of B. anthracis spores. These effects should be taken into consideration when comparing laboratory results to data collected and assayed during field deployment.

  6. Bacillus Spore Inactivation Methods Affect Detection Assays

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Jessica L.; Heroux, Karen; Kearney, John; Arasteh, Ameneh; Gostomski, Mark; Emanuel, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    Detection of biological weapons is a primary concern in force protection, treaty verification, and safeguarding civilian populations against domestic terrorism. One great concern is the detection of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Assays for detection in the laboratory often employ inactivated preparations of spores or nonpathogenic simulants. This study uses several common biodetection platforms to detect B. anthracis spores that have been inactivated by two methods and compares those data to detection of spores that have not been inactivated. The data demonstrate that inactivation methods can affect the sensitivity of nucleic acid- and antibody-based assays for the detection of B. anthracis spores. These effects should be taken into consideration when comparing laboratory results to data collected and assayed during field deployment. PMID:11472945

  7. Environmental factors affecting rates of nitrogen cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lipschultz, F.

    1984-01-01

    The nitrogen cycle in the eutrophic Delaware river was studied in late summer, 1983 using /sup 15/N tracer additions of NHG/sub 4//sup +/, NO/sub 2//sup -/, and NO/sub 3//sup -/. Rates for nine different transformations were calculated simultaneously with a least-squares minimization analysis. Light was found to stimulate ammonium uptake and to inhibit ammonium oxidation. Rates for nitrification, ammonium uptake by phytoplankton, and photosynthesis were integrated over 24 hours and river depth. High turbidity lifted the effect of light inhibition on nitrification and restricted phytoplankton uptake. Uptake of ammonium contributed over 95% of the inorganic nitrogen ration for phytoplankton, with dark uptake accounting for more than 50%. A mass-conservation, box model of river was used to calculate rate constants required to reproduce observed nutrient concentration changes. The calculated constants correlated well with the measured /sup 15/N and oxygen integrated rates. Water-column nitrification was the major loss term for NH/sub 4//sup +/, while water column regeneration was the primary source. Loss of oxidized nitrogen was insignificant. Oxygen consumption and air-water exchange far exceeded net photosynthetic oxygen production. Nitrification contributed less than 1% to the oxygen demand near Philadelphia but up to 25% further downstream. Production of NO and N/sub 2/O was measured under varying oxygen concentrations in batch cultures of the nitrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosococcus oceanus. Production of both gases increased relative to nitrite production as oxygen levels decreased.

  8. Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep.

    PubMed

    Davis, George Henry

    2005-01-01

    Research conducted since 1980 in relation to inheritance patterns and DNA testing of major genes for prolificacy has shown that major genes have the potential to significantly increase the reproductive performance of sheep flocks throughout the world. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. A commercial DNA testing service enables some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection.

  9. Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Research conducted since 1980 in relation to inheritance patterns and DNA testing of major genes for prolificacy has shown that major genes have the potential to significantly increase the reproductive performance of sheep flocks throughout the world. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. A commercial DNA testing service enables some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection. PMID:15601592

  10. Floral symmetry affects speciation rates in angiosperms.

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, Risa D.

    2004-01-01

    Despite much recent activity in the field of pollination biology, the extent to which animal pollinators drive the formation of new angiosperm species remains unresolved. One problem has been identifying floral adaptations that promote reproductive isolation. The evolution of a bilaterally symmetrical corolla restricts the direction of approach and movement of pollinators on and between flowers. Restricting pollinators to approaching a flower from a single direction facilitates specific placement of pollen on the pollinator. When coupled with pollinator constancy, precise pollen placement can increase the probability that pollen grains reach a compatible stigma. This has the potential to generate reproductive isolation between species, because mutations that cause changes in the placement of pollen on the pollinator may decrease gene flow between incipient species. I predict that animal-pollinated lineages that possess bilaterally symmetrical flowers should have higher speciation rates than lineages possessing radially symmetrical flowers. Using sister-group comparisons I demonstrate that bilaterally symmetric lineages tend to be more species rich than their radially symmetrical sister lineages. This study supports an important role for pollinator-mediated speciation and demonstrates that floral morphology plays a key role in angiosperm speciation. PMID:15156918

  11. Lesion morphology on breast MRI affects targeted ultrasound correlation rate.

    PubMed

    Hollowell, Lauren; Price, Elissa; Arasu, Vignesh; Wisner, Dorota; Hylton, Nola; Joe, Bonnie

    2015-05-01

    Suspicious lesions on breast MRI are often initially evaluated using targeted ultrasound. However, workup varies. Data on the rate of correlate detection by morphology [mass, non-mass enhancement (NME), or focus] would be useful for developing practice guidelines. Breast MRI examinations from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 were reviewed. BI-RADS 4 or 5 lesions on MRI evaluated with targeted ultrasound where definitive diagnosis was obtained were included. Statistical analysis was performed on aggregate data and at the lesion level. A total of 204 lesions were included in the study. A statistically significant difference in ultrasound correlate identification by morphology was found; a correlate was found in 49.3 % of masses, 15 % of NME, and 42.3 % of foci (p = 0.0006). Additional analysis within each morphology demonstrated significantly greater rate of malignancy in masses with an ultrasound correlate than masses without a correlate (p = 0.0062), while the rate of malignancy in NME and foci did not differ with ultrasound correlation. Morphology of a suspicious lesion on breast MRI affects the probability of identifying an ultrasound correlate. As sonographic correlates are found in nearly half of masses and foci, targeted ultrasound should be the initial step in their workup. • Lesion morphology on breast MRI affects the probability of ultrasound correlate identification. • An ultrasound correlate is significantly more likely for masses and foci. • Mass or focus should undergo targeted ultrasound before MRI-guided biopsy.

  12. Performance report cards increase adenoma detection rate.

    PubMed

    Sey, Michael Sai Lai; Liu, Andy; Asfaha, Samuel; Siebring, Victoria; Jairath, Vipul; Yan, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is an important measure of colonoscopy quality, as are polyp, advanced ADR, and adenocarcinoma detection rates. We investigated whether performance report cards improved these outcome measures. Endoscopists were given report cards comparing their detection rates to the institutional mean on an annual basis. Detection rates were evaluated at baseline, 1 year after report cards (Year 1), and 2 years after report cards (Year 2). Endoscopists were unaware of the study and received no other interventions. The primary outcome was ADR and secondary outcomes were polyp detection rate (PDR), advanced ADR, and adenocarcinoma detection rate. Multivariate regression was performed to adjust for temporal trends in patient, endoscopists, and procedural factors.  Seventeen physicians performed 3,118 screening colonoscopies in patients with positive FOBT or family history of colon cancer. The ADR increased from 34.5 % (baseline) to 39.4 % (Year 1) and 41.2 % (Year 2) ( P  = 0.0037). The PDR increased from 45 % (baseline) to 48.8 % (Year 1) and 51.8 % (Year 2) ( P  = 0.011). There was no significant improvement in advanced ADR or adenocarcinoma detection rates. On multivariate analysis, the ADR increased by 22 % in Year 1 ( P  = 0.03) and 30 % in Year 2 ( P  = 0.008). Among physicians with a baseline ADR < 25 %, improvement in ADR was even greater, increasing 2.2 times by the end of the study ( P  = 0.004). Improvements in ADR were not correlated with specialty although gastroenterologists were 52 % more likely to find an adenoma than general surgeons.  Annual performance report cards increased adenoma detection rates, especially among physicians with low ADR < 25 %.

  13. Towards Sensor-Free Affect Detection in Cognitive Tutor Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S. J. d.; Gowda, Sujith M.; Wixon, Michael; Kalka, Jessica; Wagner, Angela Z.; Salvi, Aatish; Aleven, Vincent; Kusbit, Gail W.; Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Rossi, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the usefulness of affect detection for educational software has become clear. Accurate detection of student affect can support a wide range of interventions with the potential to improve student affect, increase engagement, and improve learning. In addition, accurate detection of student affect could play an essential role in…

  14. Phylogenetic estimates of diversification rate are affected by molecular rate variation.

    PubMed

    Duchêne, D A; Hua, X; Bromham, L

    2017-10-01

    Molecular phylogenies are increasingly being used to investigate the patterns and mechanisms of macroevolution. In particular, node heights in a phylogeny can be used to detect changes in rates of diversification over time. Such analyses rest on the assumption that node heights in a phylogeny represent the timing of diversification events, which in turn rests on the assumption that evolutionary time can be accurately predicted from DNA sequence divergence. But there are many influences on the rate of molecular evolution, which might also influence node heights in molecular phylogenies, and thus affect estimates of diversification rate. In particular, a growing number of studies have revealed an association between the net diversification rate estimated from phylogenies and the rate of molecular evolution. Such an association might, by influencing the relative position of node heights, systematically bias estimates of diversification time. We simulated the evolution of DNA sequences under several scenarios where rates of diversification and molecular evolution vary through time, including models where diversification and molecular evolutionary rates are linked. We show that commonly used methods, including metric-based, likelihood and Bayesian approaches, can have a low power to identify changes in diversification rate when molecular substitution rates vary. Furthermore, the association between the rates of speciation and molecular evolution rate can cause the signature of a slowdown or speedup in speciation rates to be lost or misidentified. These results suggest that the multiple sources of variation in molecular evolutionary rates need to be considered when inferring macroevolutionary processes from phylogenies. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Wearable sensor for heart rate detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cong; Liu, Xiaohua; Kong, Lingqin; Wu, Jizhe; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Hui, Mei; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    In recent years heart and blood vessel diseases kill more people than everything else combined. The daily test of heart rate for the prevention and treatment of the heart head blood-vessel disease has the vital significance. In order to adapt the transformation of medical model and solve the low accuracy problem of the traditional method of heart rate measuring, we present a new method to monitor heart rate in this paper. The heart rate detection is designed for daily heart rate detection .The heart rate signal is collected by the heart rate sensor. The signal through signal processing circuits converts into sine wave and square wave in turn. And then the signal is transmitted to the computer by data collection card. Finally, we use LABVIEW and MATLAB to show the heart rate wave and calculate the heart rate. By doing contrast experiment with medical heart rate product, experimental results show that the system can realize rapidly and accurately measure the heart rate value. A measurement can be completed within 10 seconds and the error is less than 3beat/min. And the result shows that the method in this paper has a strong anti-interference ability. It can effectively suppress the movement interference. Beyond that the result is insensitive to light.

  16. Video-Based Affect Detection in Noninteractive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuxuan; Bosch, Nigel; D'Mello, Sidney

    2015-01-01

    The current paper explores possible solutions to the problem of detecting affective states from facial expressions during text/diagram comprehension, a context devoid of interactive events that can be used to infer affect. These data present an interesting challenge for face-based affect detection because likely locations of affective facial…

  17. Indirect neutralino detection rates in neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bergstroem, L.; Edsjoe, J.; Gondolo, P.

    1997-02-01

    Neutralinos annihilating in the center of the Sun or the Earth may give rise to a detectable signal of neutrinos. We derive the indirect detection rates for neutrino telescopes in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model. We show that even after imposing all phenomenological and experimental constraints that make the theories viable, regions of parameter space exist which can already be probed by existing neutrino telescopes. We compare with the discovery potential of supersymmetry at CERN LEP 2 as well as direct detections and point out the complementarity of the methods. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Pregnancy does not affect human olfactory detection thresholds.

    PubMed

    Cameron, E Leslie

    2014-02-01

    Hyperosmia is suspected in pregnancy; however, no empirical study using validated measures of olfactory function has clearly confirmed the anecdotal reports of this phenomenon. The goal of the current study is to compare the olfactory sensitivity of pregnant women to that of nonpregnant women and men. All participants rated their sense of smell and pregnant women listed the odors to which they were most sensitive. Detection thresholds were measured using a well-validated protocol. A group of pregnant and nonpregnant women was studied longitudinally using a signal detection procedure designed to detect small differences in sensitivity. Pregnant women, particularly in the 1st trimester, rated their sense of smell to be higher than nonpregnant women and men and indicated many (primarily unpleasant) odors to which they were more sensitive. Women rated their sense of smell higher than men. However, there was no sex difference in thresholds and neither thresholds nor signal detection measures of sensitivity were significantly affected by either sex or pregnancy status. The implications of the lack of relationship between self-report and measures of olfactory sensitivity, particularly in pregnancy, are discussed.

  19. Crank inertial load affects freely chosen pedal rate during cycling.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Jørgensen, Lars Vincents; Jensen, Kurt; Fregly, Benjamin Jon; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2002-02-01

    Cyclists seek to maximize performance during competition, and gross efficiency is an important factor affecting performance. Gross efficiency is itself affected by pedal rate. Thus, it is important to understand factors that affect freely chosen pedal rate. Crank inertial load varies greatly during road cycling based on the selected gear ratio. Nevertheless, the possible influence of crank inertial load on freely chosen pedal rate and gross efficiency has never been investigated. This study tested the hypotheses that during cycling with sub-maximal work rates, a considerable increase in crank inertial load would cause (1) freely chosen pedal rate to increase, and as a consequence, (2) gross efficiency to decrease. Furthermore, that it would cause (3) peak crank torque to increase if a constant pedal rate was maintained. Subjects cycled on a treadmill at 150 and 250W, with low and high crank inertial load, and with preset and freely chosen pedal rate. Freely chosen pedal rate was higher at high compared with low crank inertial load. Notably, the change in crank inertial load affected the freely chosen pedal rate as much as did the 100W increase in work rate. Along with freely chosen pedal rate being higher, gross efficiency at 250W was lower during cycling with high compared with low crank inertial load. Peak crank torque was higher during cycling at 90rpm with high compared with low crank inertial load. Possibly, the subjects increased the pedal rate to compensate for the higher peak crank torque accompanying cycling with high compared with low crank inertial load.

  20. DOUBLE COMPACT OBJECTS. III. GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE DETECTION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Dominik, Michal; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Berti, Emanuele; O’Shaughnessy, Richard; Mandel, Ilya; Fryer, Christopher; Holz, Daniel E.; Pannarale, Francesco

    2015-06-20

    The unprecedented range of second-generation gravitational-wave (GW) observatories calls for refining the predictions of potential sources and detection rates. The coalescence of double compact objects (DCOs)—i.e., neutron star–neutron star (NS–NS), black hole–neutron star (BH–NS), and black hole–black hole (BH–BH) binary systems—is the most promising source of GWs for these detectors. We compute detection rates of coalescing DCOs in second-generation GW detectors using the latest models for their cosmological evolution, and implementing inspiral-merger-ringdown gravitational waveform models in our signal-to-noise ratio calculations. We find that (1) the inclusion of the merger/ringdown portion of the signal does not significantly affect rates for NS–NS and BH–NS systems, but it boosts rates by a factor of ∼1.5 for BH–BH systems; (2) in almost all of our models BH–BH systems yield by far the largest rates, followed by NS–NS and BH–NS systems, respectively; and (3) a majority of the detectable BH–BH systems were formed in the early universe in low-metallicity environments. We make predictions for the distributions of detected binaries and discuss what the first GW detections will teach us about the astrophysics underlying binary formation and evolution.

  1. APOE ϵ4, rated life experiences, and affect among centenarians.

    PubMed

    Martin, Peter; Jazwinski, S Michal; Davey, Adam; Green, Robert C; Macdonald, Maurice; Margrett, Jennifer A; Siegler, Ilene C; Arnold, Jonathan; Woodard, John L; Johnson, Mary Ann; Kim, Sangkyu; Dai, Jianliang; Li, Li; Batzer, Mark A; Poon, Leonard W; For The Georgia Centenarian Study

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between apolipoprotein E (APOE), life events and engagement, and subjective well-being (as measured by positive and negative affect) among centenarians. Based on the life stress paradigm, we predicted that higher levels of stress would allow APOE to influence positive and negative affect. 196 centenarians and near-centenarians (98 years and older) of the Georgia Centenarian Study participated in this research. The APOE, positive and negative affect, the number of recent (last 2 years) and lifelong (more than 20 years prior to testing) events, as well as a number of life engagement tasks were assessed. Results suggested that centenarians carrying the APOE ϵ4 allele rated lower in positive affect, the number of lifelong events, and in engaged lifestyle, when compared to centenarians without the APOE ϵ4 allele (t = 3.43, p < .01; t = 3.19, p < .01; and t = 2.33, p < .05, respectively). Blockwise multiple regressions indicated that the APOE ϵ4 predicted positive but not negative affect after controlling for demographics. Gene-environment interactions were obtained for the APOE ϵ4 and lifelong events, suggesting that carriers of the APOE ϵ4 allele had higher scores of negative affect after having experienced more events, whereas noncarriers had reduced negative affect levels after having experienced more events. APOE ϵ4 is directly related to positive affect and is related to negative affect in interaction with life events.

  2. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in legumes.

    PubMed

    Wong, S; Traianedes, K; O'Dea, K

    1985-07-01

    In an attempt to understand the mechanism for the extremely slow rate of digestion and absorption of carbohydrate from legumes, we have examined a number of factors which could potentially affect the process in vitro. The rate of hydrolysis of legume starch in vitro was not affected by the presence of fat (as either butter or an emulsion). However, it was significantly increased in commercially available canned bean preparations, suggesting that the high temperatures used in the canning process may alter the availability of starch in legumes. In vitro starch hydrolysis rate was also significantly increased by grinding legumes finely prior to cooking. Finally, the slow rate of digestion and absorption of legume carbohydrate does not appear to be due to viscosity since a) increasing the shaking rate of viscous mixture of either red kidney beans or lentils from 0 to 120 oscillations per minute did not affect the hydrolysis rate, and b) a thick viscous mixture of either of these legumes did not retard the diffusion of free glucose from a dialysis sac into the dialysate.

  3. Ice cream structural elements that affect melting rate and hardness.

    PubMed

    Muse, M R; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    Statistical models were developed to reveal which structural elements of ice cream affect melting rate and hardness. Ice creams were frozen in a batch freezer with three types of sweetener, three levels of the emulsifier polysorbate 80, and two different draw temperatures to produce ice creams with a range of microstructures. Ice cream mixes were analyzed for viscosity, and finished ice creams were analyzed for air cell and ice crystal size, overrun, and fat destabilization. The ice phase volume of each ice cream were calculated based on the freezing point of the mix. Melting rate and hardness of each hardened ice cream was measured and correlated with the structural attributes by using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. Fat destabilization, ice crystal size, and the consistency coefficient of the mix were found to affect the melting rate of ice cream, whereas hardness was influenced by ice phase volume, ice crystal size, overrun, fat destabilization, and the rheological properties of the mix.

  4. HOW COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUE AND SPIKE TRAIN PROPERTIES AFFECT COHERENCE DETECTION

    PubMed Central

    Terry, K; Griffin, L

    2008-01-01

    Spike train coherence is used to characterize common inputs that drive motor unit synchronization. However, data segmentation, overlap, and taper can affect coherence magnitude, thereby influencing the incidence at which significant coherence is detected. Also, the effect of spike train firing rate and common input variability on the detection of significant coherence is unknown. We used a pool of simulated synchronized spike trains with various firing rates (7–19 Hz), coefficients of variation (CV) (0.05–0.50), common input frequencies (10, 20, and 30 Hz, CV: 0.05–0.50), trial durations (30, 60, 90 and 120 sec.), and synchronization strength to explore the effects of segment length (1024 and 2048 1-ms samples), tapering (Hann, Nuttall, and rectangular), and overlap (0, 37.5, 50, 62.5, and 75%). Tapered segments overlapped by at least 50% maximized coherence, regardless of taper type. Coherence for 30-second trials revealed significant coherence for less than half of the motor unit pairs, demonstrating the advantages of longer trails. 2048-sample segments produced similar coherence values with twice the frequency resolution. Increasing the common input variability from 0.15–0.50 reduced coherence incidence by approximately 60%, indicating that synchronized physiological motor unit pairs may fail to show significant coherence if the common input frequency is sufficiently unstable. PMID:17976736

  5. Strategies to Increase Adenoma Detection Rates.

    PubMed

    Brand, Eelco C; Wallace, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR), i.e., the proportion of average risk patients with at least one adenoma detected during screening colonoscopy, is inversely associated with the development of interval colorectal cancer. Increasing the ADR is therefore an important proxy for increase in quality and efficacy of (screening) colonoscopy. Several potentially modifiable factors, such as, procedural and technological factors, and quality improvement programs, and their effect on the ADR will be reviewed. Procedural factors, such as, bowel preparation, withdrawal time, and position changes of the patient are associated with the ADR. While the relation of others, such as inspection during insertion, use of antispasmodic agents, and second inspection in the proximal colon, with the ADR is not completely clear. Many new colonoscopy technologies have been evaluated over recent years and are still under evaluation, but no unequivocal positive effect on the ADR has been observed in randomized trials that have mostly been performed by experienced endoscopists with high baseline ADRs. Several quality improvement programs have been evaluated and seem to have a positive effect on endoscopists' ADR. Increase in ADR is important for the protective benefit of colonoscopy. There are now extensive methods to measure, benchmark, and improve ADR but increased awareness of these is critical. We have provided an overview of potential factors that can be used to increase personal ADRs in every day practice.

  6. Drowsiness detection using heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Vicente, José; Laguna, Pablo; Bartra, Ariadna; Bailón, Raquel

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that 10-30 % of road fatalities are related to drowsy driving. Driver's drowsiness detection based on biological and vehicle signals is being studied in preventive car safety. Autonomous nervous system activity, which can be measured noninvasively from the heart rate variability (HRV) signal obtained from surface electrocardiogram, presents alterations during stress, extreme fatigue and drowsiness episodes. We hypothesized that these alterations manifest on HRV and thus could be used to detect driver's drowsiness. We analyzed three driving databases in which drivers presented different sleep-deprivation levels, and in which each driving minute was annotated as drowsy or awake. We developed two different drowsiness detectors based on HRV. While the drowsiness episodes detector assessed each minute of driving as "awake" or "drowsy" with seven HRV derived features (positive predictive value 0.96, sensitivity 0.59, specificity 0.98 on 3475 min of driving), the sleep-deprivation detector discerned if a driver was suitable for driving or not, at driving onset, as function of his sleep-deprivation state. Sleep-deprivation state was estimated from the first three minutes of driving using only one HRV feature (positive predictive value 0.80, sensitivity 0.62, specificity 0.88 on 30 drivers). Incorporating drowsiness assessment based on HRV signal may add significant improvements to existing car safety systems.

  7. Gross efficiency during rowing is not affected by stroke rate.

    PubMed

    Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Van Soest, Arthur J; De Koning, Jos J

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that the optimal stroke rate in rowing is partly determined by the stroke-rate dependence of internal power losses. This should be reflected in a stroke-rate dependency of gross efficiency (e(gross)). The purpose of this study was to investigate if e(gross) is affected by stroke rate. A second aim was to determine whether internal power losses can be estimated by the negative power output during the stroke cycle (P(negative)). Seventeen well-trained female rowers participated in this study. They rowed three trials on a modified rowing ergometer on slides at a submaximal intensity, with a respiratory exchange ratio of 1 or close to 1. Stroke rates were 28, 34, and 40 strokes per minute. The trials were fully randomized. Power transfer to the flywheel was kept constant whereas e(gross) was determined during each trial. No significant differences in e(gross) were found between conditions. This finding suggests that in rowing internal power losses are not influenced by stroke rate. Furthermore, although P(negative) increased at increasing stroke rate (P < 0.001), no relationship was found with e(gross). This suggests that P(negative) is not a reliable measure to estimate internal power losses. This study shows that within the range of stroke rates applied in competitive rowing, internal power losses are unrelated to rowing cycle frequency.

  8. Recovery rate affects the effective epidemic threshold with synchronous updating.

    PubMed

    Shu, Panpan; Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Zhao, Pengcheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Accurate identification of effective epidemic threshold is essential for understanding epidemic dynamics on complex networks. In this paper, we systematically study how the recovery rate affects the susceptible-infected-removed spreading dynamics on complex networks, where synchronous and asynchronous updating processes are taken into account. We derive the theoretical effective epidemic threshold and final outbreak size based on the edge-based compartmental theory. To validate the proposed theoretical predictions, extensive numerical experiments are implemented by using asynchronous and synchronous updating methods. When asynchronous updating method is used in simulations, recovery rate does not affect the final state of spreading dynamics. But with synchronous updating, we find that the effective epidemic threshold decreases with recovery rate, and final outbreak size increases with recovery rate. A good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the numerical results are observed on both synthetic and real-world networks. Our results extend the existing theoretical studies and help us to understand the phase transition with arbitrary recovery rate.

  9. Does Vessel Noise Affect Oyster Toadfish Calling Rates?

    PubMed

    Luczkovich, Joseph J; Krahforst, Cecilia S; Hoppe, Harry; Sprague, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    The question we addressed in this study is whether oyster toadfish respond to vessel disturbances by calling less when vessels with lower frequency spectra are present in a sound recording and afterward. Long-term data recorders were deployed at the Neuse (high vessel-noise site) and Pamlico (low vessel-noise site) Rivers. There were many fewer toadfish detections at the high vessel-noise site than the low-noise station. Calling rates were lower in the high-boat traffic area, suggesting that toadfish cannot call over loud vessel noise, reducing the overall calling rate, and may have to call more often when vessels are not present.

  10. Rate of language evolution is affected by population size

    PubMed Central

    Bromham, Lindell; Hua, Xia; Fitzpatrick, Thomas G.; Greenhill, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of population size on patterns and rates of language evolution is controversial. Do languages with larger speaker populations change faster due to a greater capacity for innovation, or do smaller populations change faster due to more efficient diffusion of innovations? Do smaller populations suffer greater loss of language elements through founder effects or drift, or do languages with more speakers lose features due to a process of simplification? Revealing the influence of population size on the tempo and mode of language evolution not only will clarify underlying mechanisms of language change but also has practical implications for the way that language data are used to reconstruct the history of human cultures. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first empirical, statistically robust test of the influence of population size on rates of language evolution, controlling for the evolutionary history of the populations and formally comparing the fit of different models of language evolution. We compare rates of gain and loss of cognate words for basic vocabulary in Polynesian languages, an ideal test case with a well-defined history. We demonstrate that larger populations have higher rates of gain of new words whereas smaller populations have higher rates of word loss. These results show that demographic factors can influence rates of language evolution and that rates of gain and loss are affected differently. These findings are strikingly consistent with general predictions of evolutionary models. PMID:25646448

  11. Rate of language evolution is affected by population size.

    PubMed

    Bromham, Lindell; Hua, Xia; Fitzpatrick, Thomas G; Greenhill, Simon J

    2015-02-17

    The effect of population size on patterns and rates of language evolution is controversial. Do languages with larger speaker populations change faster due to a greater capacity for innovation, or do smaller populations change faster due to more efficient diffusion of innovations? Do smaller populations suffer greater loss of language elements through founder effects or drift, or do languages with more speakers lose features due to a process of simplification? Revealing the influence of population size on the tempo and mode of language evolution not only will clarify underlying mechanisms of language change but also has practical implications for the way that language data are used to reconstruct the history of human cultures. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first empirical, statistically robust test of the influence of population size on rates of language evolution, controlling for the evolutionary history of the populations and formally comparing the fit of different models of language evolution. We compare rates of gain and loss of cognate words for basic vocabulary in Polynesian languages, an ideal test case with a well-defined history. We demonstrate that larger populations have higher rates of gain of new words whereas smaller populations have higher rates of word loss. These results show that demographic factors can influence rates of language evolution and that rates of gain and loss are affected differently. These findings are strikingly consistent with general predictions of evolutionary models.

  12. Detection of temporal changes in earthquake rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touati, S.

    2012-12-01

    Many statistical analyses of earthquake rates and time-dependent forecasting of future rates involve the detection of changes in the basic rate of events, independent of the fluctuations caused by aftershock sequences. We examine some of the statistical techniques for inferring these changes, using both real and synthetic earthquake data to check the statistical significance of these inferences. One common method is to use the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to choose between a single model and a double model with a changepoint; this criterion evaluates the strength of the fit and incorporates a penalty for the extra parameters. We test this method on many realisations of the ETAS model, with and without changepoints present, to see how often it chooses the correct model. A more rigorous method is to calculate the Bayesian evidence, or marginal likelihood, for each model and then compare these. The evidence is essentially the likelihood of the model integrated over the whole of the model space, giving a measure of how likely the data is for that model. It does not rely on estimation of best-fit parameters, making it a better comparator than the AIC; Occam's razor also arises naturally in this process due to the fact that more complex models tend to be able to explain a larger range of observations, and therefore the relative likelihood of any particular observations will be smaller than for a simpler model. Evidence can be calculated using Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques. We compare these two approaches on synthetic data. We also look at the 1997-98 Colfiorito sequence in Umbria-Marche, Italy, using maximum likelihood to fit the ETAS model and then simulating the ETAS model to create synthetic versions of the catalogue for comparison. We simulate using ensembles of parameter values sampled from the posterior for each parameter, with the largest events artificially inserted, to compare the resultant event rates, inter-event time distributions and other

  13. Courting disaster: How diversification rate affects fitness under risk

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Libby, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Life is full of risk. To deal with this uncertainty, many organisms have evolved bet-hedging strategies that spread risk through phenotypic diversification. These rates of diversification can vary by orders of magnitude in different species. Here we examine how key characteristics of risk and organismal ecology affect the fitness consequences of variation in diversification rate. We find that rapid diversification is strongly favored when the risk faced has a wide spatial extent, with a single disaster affecting a large fraction of the population. This advantage is especially great in small populations subject to frequent disaster. In contrast, when risk is correlated through time, slow diversification is favored because it allows adaptive tracking of disasters that tend to occur in series. Naturally evolved diversification mechanisms in diverse organisms facing a broad array of environmental risks largely support these results. The theory presented in this article provides a testable ecological hypothesis to explain the prevalence of slow stochastic switching among microbes and rapid, within-clutch diversification strategies among plants and animals. PMID:25410817

  14. Courting disaster: How diversification rate affects fitness under risk.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, William C; Hawthorne, Peter; Libby, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Life is full of risk. To deal with this uncertainty, many organisms have evolved bet-hedging strategies that spread risk through phenotypic diversification. These rates of diversification can vary by orders of magnitude in different species. Here we examine how key characteristics of risk and organismal ecology affect the fitness consequences of variation in diversification rate. We find that rapid diversification is strongly favored when the risk faced has a wide spatial extent, with a single disaster affecting a large fraction of the population. This advantage is especially great in small populations subject to frequent disaster. In contrast, when risk is correlated through time, slow diversification is favored because it allows adaptive tracking of disasters that tend to occur in series. Naturally evolved diversification mechanisms in diverse organisms facing a broad array of environmental risks largely support these results. The theory presented in this article provides a testable ecological hypothesis to explain the prevalence of slow stochastic switching among microbes and rapid, within-clutch diversification strategies among plants and animals. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Experimental evaluation of shark detection rates by aerial observers.

    PubMed

    Robbins, William D; Peddemors, Victor M; Kennelly, Steven J; Ives, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Aerial surveys are a recognised technique to identify the presence and abundance of marine animals. However, the capability of aerial observers to reliably sight coastal sharks has not been previously assessed, nor have differences in sighting rates between aircraft types been examined. In this study we investigated the ability of observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft to sight 2.5 m artificial shark analogues placed at known depths and positions. Initial tests revealed that the shark analogues could only be detected at shallow depths, averaging only 2.5 m and 2.7 m below the water surface for observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, respectively. We then deployed analogues at shallower depths along a 5 km-long grid, and assessed their sightability to aircraft observers through a series of transects flown within 500 m. Analogues were seen infrequently from all distances, with overall sighting rates of only 12.5% and 17.1% for fixed-wing and helicopter observers, respectively. Although helicopter observers had consistently higher success rates of sighting analogues within 250 m of their flight path, neither aircraft observers sighted more than 9% of analogues deployed over 300 m from their flight paths. Modelling of sighting rates against environmental and experimental variables indicated that observations were affected by distance, aircraft type, sun glare and sea conditions, while the range of water turbidities observed had no effect. We conclude that aerial observers have limited ability to detect the presence of submerged animals such as sharks, particularly when the sharks are deeper than ∼ 2.6 m, or over 300 m distant from the aircraft's flight path, especially during sunny or windy days. The low rates of detections found in this study cast serious doubts on the use of aerial beach patrols as an effective early-warning system to prevent shark attacks.

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Shark Detection Rates by Aerial Observers

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, William D.; Peddemors, Victor M.; Kennelly, Steven J.; Ives, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Aerial surveys are a recognised technique to identify the presence and abundance of marine animals. However, the capability of aerial observers to reliably sight coastal sharks has not been previously assessed, nor have differences in sighting rates between aircraft types been examined. In this study we investigated the ability of observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft to sight 2.5 m artificial shark analogues placed at known depths and positions. Initial tests revealed that the shark analogues could only be detected at shallow depths, averaging only 2.5 m and 2.7 m below the water surface for observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, respectively. We then deployed analogues at shallower depths along a 5 km-long grid, and assessed their sightability to aircraft observers through a series of transects flown within 500 m. Analogues were seen infrequently from all distances, with overall sighting rates of only 12.5% and 17.1% for fixed-wing and helicopter observers, respectively. Although helicopter observers had consistently higher success rates of sighting analogues within 250 m of their flight path, neither aircraft observers sighted more than 9% of analogues deployed over 300 m from their flight paths. Modelling of sighting rates against environmental and experimental variables indicated that observations were affected by distance, aircraft type, sun glare and sea conditions, while the range of water turbidities observed had no effect. We conclude that aerial observers have limited ability to detect the presence of submerged animals such as sharks, particularly when the sharks are deeper than ∼2.6 m, or over 300 m distant from the aircraft's flight path, especially during sunny or windy days. The low rates of detections found in this study cast serious doubts on the use of aerial beach patrols as an effective early-warning system to prevent shark attacks. PMID:24498258

  17. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  18. Maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Garbutt, Jennie S; Little, Tom J

    2014-07-01

    Maternal effects have wide-ranging effects on life-history traits. Here, using the crustacean Daphnia magna, we document a new effect: maternal food quantity affects offspring feeding rate, with low quantities of food triggering mothers to produce slow-feeding offspring. Such a change in the rate of resource acquisition has broad implications for population growth or dynamics and for interactions with, for instance, predators and parasites. This maternal effect can also explain the previously puzzling situation that the offspring of well-fed mothers, despite being smaller, grow and reproduce better than the offspring of food-starved mothers. As an additional source of variation in resource acquisition, this maternal effect may also influence relationships between life-history traits, i.e. trade-offs, and thus constraints on adaptation. Maternal nutrition has long-lasting effects on health and particularly diet-related traits in humans; finding an effect of maternal nutrition on offspring feeding rate in Daphnia highlights the utility of this organism as a powerful experimental model for exploring the relationship between maternal diet and offspring fitness. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Do lunar phases affect conception rates in assisted reproduction?

    PubMed

    Das, Sangeeta; Dodd, Susanna; Lewis-Jones, David I; Patel, Foram M; Drakeley, Andrew J; Kingsland, Charles R; Gazvani, Rafet

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effect of the phases of the moon on pregnancy rates in humans following in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Retrospective, observational study. Reproductive Medicine Unit, Liverpool Women's Hospital. Complete data for all women undergoing assisted conception procedures over a period of 13 years (1995-2002). Assisted conception procedures--IVF and ICSI. Biochemical pregnancy that is positive pregnancy test result following embryo transfer. There was no significant effect of any lunar phase on the incidence of biochemical pregnancy (p-value 0.71). Age of the woman significantly affects the chances of pregnancy, (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91, 0.998, and p-value 0.04). The chances of pregnancy rises significantly with increase in the number of embryos replaced from 1 to 2 (OR 2.97, CI 1.36, 6.48, and p-value 0.01). Pregnancy rates in humans, following assisted conception, appears to be independent of the effect of the lunar phase during which embryo transfer is carried out.

  20. High Heating Rates Affect Greatly the Inactivation Rate of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Aznar, Arantxa; Esnoz, Arturo; Fernández, Pablo S; Iguaz, Asunción; Periago, Paula M; Palop, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Heat resistance of microorganisms can be affected by different influencing factors. Although, the effect of heating rates has been scarcely explored by the scientific community, recent researches have unraveled its important effect on the thermal resistance of different species of vegetative bacteria. Typically heating rates described in the literature ranged from 1 to 20°C/min but the impact of much higher heating rates is unclear. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of different heating rates, such as those currently achieved in the heat exchangers used in the food industry, on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli. A pilot plant tubular heat exchanger and a thermoresistometer Mastia were used for this purpose. Results showed that fast heating rates had a deep impact on the thermal resistance of E. coli. Heating rates between 20 and 50°C/min were achieved in the heat exchanger, which were much slower than those around 20°C/s achieved in the thermoresistometer. In all cases, these high heating rates led to higher inactivation than expected: in the heat exchanger, for all the experiments performed, when the observed inactivation had reached about seven log cycles, the predictions estimated about 1 log cycle of inactivation; in the thermoresistometer these differences between observed and predicted values were even more than 10 times higher, from 4.07 log cycles observed to 0.34 predicted at a flow rate of 70 mL/min and a maximum heating rate of 14.7°C/s. A quantification of the impact of the heating rates on the level of inactivation achieved was established. These results point out the important effect that the heating rate has on the thermal resistance of E. coli, with high heating rates resulting in an additional sensitization to heat and therefore an effective food safety strategy in terms of food processing.

  1. High Heating Rates Affect Greatly the Inactivation Rate of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Aznar, Arantxa; Esnoz, Arturo; Fernández, Pablo S.; Iguaz, Asunción; Periago, Paula M.; Palop, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Heat resistance of microorganisms can be affected by different influencing factors. Although, the effect of heating rates has been scarcely explored by the scientific community, recent researches have unraveled its important effect on the thermal resistance of different species of vegetative bacteria. Typically heating rates described in the literature ranged from 1 to 20°C/min but the impact of much higher heating rates is unclear. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of different heating rates, such as those currently achieved in the heat exchangers used in the food industry, on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli. A pilot plant tubular heat exchanger and a thermoresistometer Mastia were used for this purpose. Results showed that fast heating rates had a deep impact on the thermal resistance of E. coli. Heating rates between 20 and 50°C/min were achieved in the heat exchanger, which were much slower than those around 20°C/s achieved in the thermoresistometer. In all cases, these high heating rates led to higher inactivation than expected: in the heat exchanger, for all the experiments performed, when the observed inactivation had reached about seven log cycles, the predictions estimated about 1 log cycle of inactivation; in the thermoresistometer these differences between observed and predicted values were even more than 10 times higher, from 4.07 log cycles observed to 0.34 predicted at a flow rate of 70 mL/min and a maximum heating rate of 14.7°C/s. A quantification of the impact of the heating rates on the level of inactivation achieved was established. These results point out the important effect that the heating rate has on the thermal resistance of E. coli, with high heating rates resulting in an additional sensitization to heat and therefore an effective food safety strategy in terms of food processing. PMID:27563300

  2. Playing a violent television game affects heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, Malena; Anderson, Martin; Akerstedt, Torbjörn; Lindblad, Frank

    2009-01-01

    To investigate how playing a violent/nonviolent television game during the evening affects sympathetic and parasympathetic reactions during and after playing as well as sleep quality during the night after playing. In total, 19 boys, 12-15 years of age, played television games on two occasions in their homes and participated once without gaming. Heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and physical activity were measured during gaming/participating and the night to follow using a portable combined heart rate and movement sensor. A sleep diary and questionnaires about gaming experiences and session-specific experiences were filled in. Criteria for Selection of Games: Violent game involves/rewards direct physical violence (no handguns) against another person, and nonviolent game involves/rewards no violence; same game design ('third-person game'); conducted in the same manner; no differences concerning motor activity; similar sound and light effects; no sexual content, violence against women or racial overtones. During violent (vs. nonviolent) gaming, there was significantly higher activity of the very low frequency component of the HRV and total power. During the night after playing, very low frequency, low frequency and high frequency components were significantly higher during the violent (vs. nonviolent) condition, just as total power. There were no significant differences between the three conditions (violent/nonviolent/no gaming) with respect to an index reflecting subjectively perceived sleep difficulties. Nor was there any difference between violent and nonviolent condition for any single sleep item. Violent gaming induces different autonomic responses in boys compared to nonviolent gaming--during playing and during the following night--suggesting different emotional responses. Subjectively perceived sleep quality is not influenced after a single gaming experience. Future studies should address the development of the autonomic balance after gaming over longer

  3. Common QTL Affect the Rate of Tomato Seed Germination under Different Stress and Nonstress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Foolad, Majid R.; Subbiah, Prakash; Zhang, Liping

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the rates of tomato seed germination under different stress and nonstress conditions were under common genetic controls by examining quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting such traits. Seeds of BC1 progeny of a cross between a slow-germinating tomato breeding line and a rapid-germinating tomato wild accession were evaluated for germination under nonstress as well as cold, salt, and drought stress conditions. In each treatment, the most rapidly-germinating seeds were selected, grown to maturity, and subjected to molecular marker analysis. A selective genotyping approach detected between 6 and 9 QTL affecting germination rate under each of the four conditions, with a total of 14 QTL identified. Ten QTL affected germination rate under 2 or 3 conditions, which were considered germination-related common QTL. Four QTL affected germination rate only in one treatment, which were considered germination-related, condition-specific QTL . The results indicated that mostly the same QTL affected seed germination under different stress and nonstress conditions, supporting a previous suggestion that similar physiological mechanisms contribute to rapid seed germination under different conditions. Marker-assisted selection for the common QTL may result in progeny with rapid seed germinability under different conditions. PMID:18317505

  4. Common QTL affect the rate of tomato seed germination under different stress and nonstress conditions.

    PubMed

    Foolad, Majid R; Subbiah, Prakash; Zhang, Liping

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the rates of tomato seed germination under different stress and nonstress conditions were under common genetic controls by examining quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting such traits. Seeds of BC(1) progeny of a cross between a slow-germinating tomato breeding line and a rapid-germinating tomato wild accession were evaluated for germination under nonstress as well as cold, salt, and drought stress conditions. In each treatment, the most rapidly-germinating seeds were selected, grown to maturity, and subjected to molecular marker analysis. A selective genotyping approach detected between 6 and 9 QTL affecting germination rate under each of the four conditions, with a total of 14 QTL identified. Ten QTL affected germination rate under 2 or 3 conditions, which were considered germination-related common QTL. Four QTL affected germination rate only in one treatment, which were considered germination-related, condition-specific QTL . The results indicated that mostly the same QTL affected seed germination under different stress and nonstress conditions, supporting a previous suggestion that similar physiological mechanisms contribute to rapid seed germination under different conditions. Marker-assisted selection for the common QTL may result in progeny with rapid seed germinability under different conditions.

  5. Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (τ) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

  6. Dial a feeling: Detecting moderation of affect decline during ostracism.

    PubMed

    Wesselmann, Eric D; Wirth, James H; Mroczek, Daniel K; Williams, Kipling D

    2012-10-01

    Ostracism, being excluded and ignored, is a common and painful experience. Previous research has found ostracism's immediate effects robust to moderation by individual differences. However, this could be the result of using retrospective measures taken after the ostracism occurs, rather than assessing the effects of ostracism throughout the episode. Participants completed measures of loneliness and social avoidance and distress before either being ostracized or included in a virtual ball-toss game, Cyberball. During Cyberball, participants recorded second-by-second phenomenological affect using a dial device. Individual differences in loneliness and social avoidance and distress moderated affective reactions throughout ostracism and inclusion. Lonely individuals, compared to less-lonely individuals, had slower affect decrease when ostracized but quicker affective increase when included. Additionally, socially-avoidant individuals recovered more slowly from ostracism than less-avoidant individuals. Replicating previous research, moderation by individual differences was not detected with measures taken only at end of the interaction or with retrospective measures.

  7. Choice of Flap Affects Fistula Rate after Salvage Laryngopharyngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Chang, Kai-Ping; Wu, Chao-Min; Hung, Shao-Yu; Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with pharyngocutaneous fistula in pharyngoesophageal reconstruction following cancer resection, the purpose of this retrospective study is to examine the selection of tubed skin flaps that impact anastomotic integrity. The flaps evaluated included radial forearm flap versus anterolateral thigh flap, and fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap versus chimeric anterolateral thigh flap. The outcome of interest is the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula. The radial forearm group had a significantly higher rate of fistula than the anterolateral thigh group (56.6% vs. 30.2%, p = 0.03). No significant difference in the incidence of fistula was demonstrated between fasciocutaneous and chimeric anterolateral thigh flap (36.8% vs. 25%, p = 0.51). The anastomotic integrity in pharyngoesopharyngeal reconstruction is affected by choice of skin flaps. Anterolateral thigh flap appears to be a viable option for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction. The more technical demand of the anterolateral thigh flap must be weighed against an easily harvested radial forearm flap. PMID:25776941

  8. Factors affecting visibility rate of aerial waterfowl surveys in the Mississippi alluvial valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Reinecke, K.J.; Conroy, M.J.; Brown, M.W.; Nassar, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Because visibility bias can confound attempts to detect changes in abundance, we evaluated factors that affect visibility rate in aerial surveys of wintering waterfowl. We placed waterfowl decoys in 32 2- x 0.25-kin strip transects in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) during February 1990 and 1991 and observed the decoys under different experimental conditions. Visibility rate was influenced (P 0.10) by habitat, transect width, and decoy group size. We simulated variation in use of habitat and found that changes in use between open and wooded wetlands would cause changes in visibility rate and affect the power to detect a change in abundance. The effect of changes in visibility rate on likelihood of detecting population change depended on the magnitude and direction of population change and precision of the population index. For transect surveys of wintering ducks in the MAV we recommend reducing transect width from 250 to 150 m on each side of the aircraft and restricting comparisons between years when 70% of the population is likely to be distributed in open wetlands. Improved techniques for estimating abundance of wintering waterfowl are also needed so use of questionable population indices can be avoided.

  9. Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  10. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems.

  11. Is heart rate variability affected by distinct motor imagery strategies?

    PubMed

    Peixoto Pinto, Talita; Mello Russo Ramos, Maitê; Lemos, Thiago; Domingues Vargas, Claudia; Imbiriba, Luis Aureliano

    2017-08-01

    Although some studies have reported significant changes in autonomic responses according to the perspective-taking during motor imagery [first person perspective (1P) and third person perspective (3P)], investigations on how the strategies adopted to mentally simulate a given movement affect the heart rate variability (HRV) seem so far unexplored. Twenty healthy subjects mentally simulated the movement of middle-finger extension in 1P and 3P, while electrocardiogram was recorded. After each task, the level of easiness was self-reported. Motor imagery ability was also assessed through the revised version of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ-R) and a mental chronometry index. The traditional measures of HRV in the time- and frequency-domain were compared between 1P and 3P tasks by using Student's t-test for dependent samples. The MIQ-R results showed that subjects had the same facility to imagine movements in 1P or 3P. The mental chronometry index revealed a similar temporal course only between 1P and execution, while the 3P strategy had a shorter duration. Additionally, the subjective report was similar between the experimental tasks. Regarding the HRV measures, the low frequency component, in log-transformed unit, was significantly higher (p=0.017) in 1P than 3P, suggesting a higher activity of the sympathetic system during 1P. This log-transformed HRV parameter seems to be more sensitive than normalized values for the assessment of the motor imagery ability, together with questionnaires, scales and mental chronometry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Load and Rate of Change of Load Detection System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting and recording the level and rate of change of landing loads in the struts of aircraft landing...to a minimum pressure to record the level and rate of change of pressure detected by the sensor.

  13. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  14. Factors affecting the detection of cytomegalovirus in urine by sandwich enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    el-Mekki, A; Al-Nakib, W; Bibi, R

    1987-01-01

    Some factors influencing the detection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in urine were investigated employing 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs); one utilised anti-CMV DNA polymerase while the other anti-CMV mouse monoclonals as the detecting antibodies. The use of anti-CMV DNA polymerase was found to be superior in detecting HCMV in both urine and tissue culture fluids than anti-CMV monoclonals. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase conjugates produced much lower background than did peroxidase conjugates. In reconstruction experiments, the extremes of pH in the urine clearly had an adverse effect on the detection rate of extracellular virus. pH correction of urines to neutrality improved the detection rate considerably. On the other hand, pH correction had little effect on the detection rate of intracellular HCMV in urine, although it was improved when specimens were subjected to repeated cycles of freeze-thawing, ultrasonication, and storage at 4 degrees C. It was concluded that, in addition to the factors investigated which all appear to affect virus detection rate, there may well be additional factors that interfere with CMV detection in the urine by ELISA particularly with intracellular virus.

  15. Probability of detection of clinical seizures using heart rate changes.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Ivan; Manly, B F J

    2015-08-01

    Heart rate-based seizure detection is a viable complement or alternative to ECoG/EEG. This study investigates the role of various biological factors on the probability of clinical seizure detection using heart rate. Regression models were applied to 266 clinical seizures recorded from 72 subjects to investigate if factors such as age, gender, years with epilepsy, etiology, seizure site origin, seizure class, and data collection centers, among others, shape the probability of EKG-based seizure detection. Clinical seizure detection probability based on heart rate changes, is significantly (p<0.001) shaped by patients' age and gender, seizure class, and years with epilepsy. The probability of detecting clinical seizures (>0.8 in the majority of subjects) using heart rate is highest for complex partial seizures, increases with a patient's years with epilepsy, is lower for females than for males and is unrelated to the side of hemisphere origin. Clinical seizure detection probability using heart rate is multi-factorially dependent and sufficiently high (>0.8) in most cases to be clinically useful. Knowledge of the role that these factors play in shaping said probability will enhance its applicability and usefulness. Heart rate is a reliable and practical signal for extra-cerebral detection of clinical seizures originating from or spreading to central autonomic network structures. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Arduino-based noise robust online heart-rate detection.

    PubMed

    Das, Sangita; Pal, Saurabh; Mitra, Madhuchhanda

    2017-04-01

    This paper introduces a noise robust real time heart rate detection system from electrocardiogram (ECG) data. An online data acquisition system is developed to collect ECG signals from human subjects. Heart rate is detected using window-based autocorrelation peak localisation technique. A low-cost Arduino UNO board is used to implement the complete automated process. The performance of the system is compared with PC-based heart rate detection technique. Accuracy of the system is validated through simulated noisy ECG data with various levels of signal to noise ratio (SNR). The mean percentage error of detected heart rate is found to be 0.72% for the noisy database with five different noise levels.

  17. Do Graduate Student Teacher Training Courses Affect Placement Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishiyama, John; Balarezo, Christine; Miles, Tom

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the existence of a required graduate course on "Teaching in Political Science" is related to overall job placement rates reported by graduate political science programs. We examine this in light of evidence from 73 public PhD-granting political science departments across the country. We find that the existence of…

  18. Do Graduate Student Teacher Training Courses Affect Placement Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishiyama, John; Balarezo, Christine; Miles, Tom

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the existence of a required graduate course on "Teaching in Political Science" is related to overall job placement rates reported by graduate political science programs. We examine this in light of evidence from 73 public PhD-granting political science departments across the country. We find that the existence of…

  19. Does raking basal duff affect tree growth rates or mortality?

    Treesearch

    Erin Noonan-Wright; Sharon M. Hood; Danny R. Cluck

    2010-01-01

    Mortality and reduced growth rates due to raking accumulated basal duff were evaluated for old, large-diameter ponderosa and Jeffrey pine trees on the Lassen National Forest, California. No fire treatments were included to isolate the effect of raking from fire. Trees were monitored annually for 5 years after the raking treatment for mortality and then cored to measure...

  20. Variables That Can Affect Student Ratings of Their Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gotlieb, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Attribution theory was applied to help predict the results of an experiment that examined the effects of three independent variables on students' ratings of their professors. The dependent variables were students' perceptions of whether the professor caused the students' grades and student satisfaction with their professor. The results suggest…

  1. The Affective Norms for Polish Short Texts (ANPST) Database Properties and Impact of Participants’ Population and Sex on Affective Ratings

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2017-01-01

    The Affective Norms for Polish Short Texts (ANPST) dataset (Imbir, 2016d) is a list of 718 affective sentence stimuli with known affective properties with respect to subjectively perceived valence, arousal, dominance, origin, subjective significance, and source. This article examines the reliability of the ANPST and the impact of population type and sex on affective ratings. The ANPST dataset was introduced to provide a recognized method of eliciting affective states with linguistic stimuli more complex than single words and that included contextual information and thus are less ambiguous in interpretation than single word. Analysis of the properties of the ANPST dataset showed that norms collected are reliable in terms of split-half estimation and that the distributions of ratings are similar to those obtained in other affective norms studies. The pattern of correlations was the same as that found in analysis of an affective norms dataset for words based on the same six variables. Female psychology students’ valence ratings were also more polarized than those of their female student peers studying other subjects, but arousal ratings were only higher for negative words. Differences also appeared for all other measured dimensions. Women’s valence ratings were found to be more polarized and arousal ratings were higher than those made by men, and differences were also present for dominance, origin, and subjective significance. The ANPST is the first Polish language list of sentence stimuli and could easily be adapted for other languages and cultures. PMID:28611707

  2. Task difficulty in mental arithmetic affects microsaccadic rates and magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, Eva; Costela, Francisco M; McCamy, Michael B; Di Stasi, Leandro L; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Sonderegger, Andreas; Groner, Rudolf; Macknik, Stephen; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Microsaccades are involuntary, small-magnitude saccadic eye movements that occur during attempted visual fixation. Recent research has found that attention can modulate microsaccade dynamics, but few studies have addressed the effects of task difficulty on microsaccade parameters, and those have obtained contradictory results. Further, no study to date has investigated the influence of task difficulty on microsaccade production during the performance of non-visual tasks. Thus, the effects of task difficulty on microsaccades, isolated from sensory modality, remain unclear. Here we investigated the effects of task difficulty on microsaccades during the performance of a non-visual, mental arithmetic task with two levels of complexity. We found that microsaccade rates decreased and microsaccade magnitudes increased with increased task difficulty. We propose that changes in microsaccade rates and magnitudes with task difficulty are mediated by the effects of varying attentional inputs on the rostral superior colliculus activity map.

  3. Parental Age Affects Somatic Mutation Rates in the Progeny of Flowering Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  4. Adenoma detection rate and risk of colorectal cancer and death.

    PubMed

    Corley, Douglas A; Jensen, Christopher D; Marks, Amy R; Zhao, Wei K; Lee, Jeffrey K; Doubeni, Chyke A; Zauber, Ann G; de Boer, Jolanda; Fireman, Bruce H; Schottinger, Joanne E; Quinn, Virginia P; Ghai, Nirupa R; Levin, Theodore R; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2014-04-03

    The proportion of screening colonoscopic examinations performed by a physician that detect one or more adenomas (the adenoma detection rate) is a recommended quality measure. However, little is known about the association between this rate and patients' risks of a subsequent colorectal cancer (interval cancer) and death. Using data from an integrated health care delivery organization, we evaluated the associations between the adenoma detection rate and the risks of colorectal cancer diagnosed 6 months to 10 years after colonoscopy and of cancer-related death. With the use of Cox regression, our estimates of attributable risk were adjusted for the demographic characteristics of the patients, indications for colonoscopy, and coexisting conditions. We evaluated 314,872 colonoscopies performed by 136 gastroenterologists; the adenoma detection rates ranged from 7.4 to 52.5%. During the follow-up period, we identified 712 interval colorectal adenocarcinomas, including 255 advanced-stage cancers, and 147 deaths from interval colorectal cancer. The unadjusted risks of interval cancer according to quintiles of adenoma detection rates, from lowest to highest, were 9.8, 8.6, 8.0, 7.0, and 4.8 cases per 10,000 person-years of follow-up, respectively. Among patients of physicians with adenoma detection rates in the highest quintile, as compared with patients of physicians with detection rates in the lowest quintile, the adjusted hazard ratio for any interval cancer was 0.52 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 0.69), for advanced-stage interval cancer, 0.43 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.64), and for fatal interval cancer, 0.38 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.65). Each 1.0% increase in the adenoma detection rate was associated with a 3.0% decrease in the risk of cancer (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96 to 0.98). The adenoma detection rate was inversely associated with the risks of interval colorectal cancer, advanced-stage interval cancer, and fatal interval cancer. (Funded by the Kaiser Permanente

  5. Does mineral surface area affect chemical weathering rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salome Eiriksdottir, Eydis; Reynir Gislason, Sigurdur; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2010-05-01

    Iceland is a basaltic volcanic island representative of the high relief, volcanic and tectonic active islands that contribute over 45% of river suspended material to the oceans worldwide (Milliman and Syvitski, 1992). These islands have enormous mechanical and chemical weathering rates due to the combined effects of high relief, high runoff, the presence of glaciers and easily weathered volcanic rocks, and a lack of sedimentary traps. In total, Iceland delivers 0.7% of the worldwide river suspended matter flux to the ocean, which is approximately one fourth that of Africa (Tómasson, 1990). River suspended matter from volcanic islands is highly reactive in seawater and might play an important role in the global carbon cycle (Gislason et al., 2006). Thus it is important to define and understand the mechanical and chemical weathering rates of these islands. Experimental dissolution experiments performed in the laboratory suggest that chemical weathering rates should be proportional to rock-water interfacial surface area. This hypothesis is tested in the present study through a study of the chemical composition of suspended material collected from rivers located in Northeast Iceland. These rivers were selected for this study because their catchments essentially monolithic, consisting of uniform compositioned and aged basalts. Gaillardet (1999) described weathering intensities of the worlds river systems to be from 1 (low weathering intensity) to 25 (high weathering intensity). These indexes were calculated to be from 1.8 to 3.2 in rivers in NE-Iceland (Eiriksdottir et al., 2008). The surface area of sediments is inversely proportional to particle size; smaller particles have larger specific surface areas. As a result, smaller particles should weather faster. This trend is confirmed by the measured compositions of analyzed suspended material. The concentration of insoluble elements (Zr, Fe, Cu, Ni, Y) is found to increase in the suspended material, whereas the

  6. Venipuncture procedure affects heart rate variability and chronotropic response.

    PubMed

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Esco, Michael R; Bechke, Emily; Feito, Yuri; Williamson, Cassie; Brown, Danielle; Price, Brandi

    2017-08-28

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been shown to be influenced by several factors such as noise, sleep status, light, and emotional arousal; however, little evidence is available concerning autonomic responses to a venipuncture. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of HRV indexes and heart rate (HR) during, and following a venipuncture procedure among healthy individuals. 33 healthy individuals (22.8 ± 0.56 yrs, 167 ± 1.56 cm, 69.5 ± 2.61 kg) participated. Testing included 10-minute HRV analysis prior to the venipuncture, a one-minute venipuncture procedure followed by a 10-minute analysis of HRV, a total recording of 21-minutes. The first 5-minutes of the 21-minute recordings were discarded, and the remaining 5-minutes of the resting segment was analyzed (PRE), and the last 5-minutes of the 21-minute recording (POST). The log transformation of the time domain Root Mean Squared of Successive Differences (lnRMSSD) and the frequency domains High Frequency (lnHF) and Low Frequency (lnLF) and LF/HF ratio (lnLF/HF) were used to quantify autonomic activity. HR was measured in 1-minute segments at 2-minutes prior (PRE), venipuncture (STICK), and post (P1-5). HR significantly increased at STICK (p = 0.002), and fell below resting at P-5 (p < 0.001). lnRMSSD and lnHF increased significantly by POST (p < 0.001, p = 0.005). lnLF/HF ratio significantly decreased at POST (p = 0.047), while no significant changes occurred for lnLF (p = 0.590). HRV and HR are influenced for ten-minutes following the venipuncture procedure. Practitioners and researchers who are interested in collecting blood and measuring HRV need to account for the influence of the venipuncture. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Probabilistic pipe fracture evaluations for leak-rate-detection applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, S.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D.; Wilkowski, G.

    1995-04-01

    Regulatory Guide 1.45, {open_quotes}Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary Leakage Detection Systems,{close_quotes} was published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1973, and provides guidance on leak detection methods and system requirements for Light Water Reactors. Additionally, leak detection limits are specified in plant Technical Specifications and are different for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). These leak detection limits are also used in leak-before-break evaluations performed in accordance with Draft Standard Review Plan, Section 3.6.3, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break Evaluation Procedures{close_quotes} where a margin of 10 on the leak detection limit is used in determining the crack size considered in subsequent fracture analyses. This study was requested by the NRC to: (1) evaluate the conditional failure probability for BWR and PWR piping for pipes that were leaking at the allowable leak detection limit, and (2) evaluate the margin of 10 to determine if it was unnecessarily large. A probabilistic approach was undertaken to conduct fracture evaluations of circumferentially cracked pipes for leak-rate-detection applications. Sixteen nuclear piping systems in BWR and PWR plants were analyzed to evaluate conditional failure probability and effects of crack-morphology variability on the current margins used in leak rate detection for leak-before-break.

  8. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  9. Scalable quantum computing in the presence of large detected-error rates

    SciTech Connect

    Knill, E.

    2005-04-01

    The theoretically tolerable erasure error rate for scalable quantum computing is shown to be well above 0.1, given standard scalability assumptions. This bound is obtained by implementing computations with generic stabilizer code teleportation steps that combine the necessary operations with error correction. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the only errors that affect the maximum tolerable error rate are storage and Bell measurement errors. If storage errors are negligible, then any detected Bell measurement error below 1/2 is permissible. For practical computation with high detected error rates, the implementation overheads need to be improved.

  10. Biases affecting radar detection of binary near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Naidu, Shantanu P.

    2016-10-01

    Radar observations at Arecibo and Goldstone provide a powerful tool for the discovery, characterization, and orbit estimation of binary near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). To date, 73% of binary and triple NEA systems have been discovered by radar and 87% have been detected by radar. Here we describe biases not discussed in detail in the peer-reviewed literature that can adversely affect radar detection of NEA satellites. In a Doppler-only echo power spectrum, most NEA binaries have a rapidly-spinning primary that appears as a broad echo, and a slowly orbiting, tidally-locked companion that appears as a narrow spike superimposed on the primary echo. The most important factor for detection of a companion is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which is proportional to (r -4)(D 3/2)(P 1/2), where r is the distance, D is the diameter, and P is the rotation period. Low SNRs occur primarily due to the distance, a small diameter, and rapid rotation and necessitate coarse frequency resolution that limits detection of narrow spikes. Spikes in echo power spectra also occur due to glints, self noise, and radar albedo features, so confirmation of a binary requires delay-Doppler images that show two separate echoes whose positions change with time. Most companions appear tidally locked, but ~25% rotate more rapidly than their orbital periods. For example, in October 2001 the companion of 1998 ST27 was not obvious in echo power spectra or in single delay-Doppler images but was seen only when all the images from each day were summed, revealing a trail of faint pixels. The satellite SNRs were weak because its rotation is much more rapid than its orbital period. Other important factors include differences between the bandwidth of the companion and the Doppler resolution; weak SNRs due to a small diameter; self noise due to a small number of Fourier transforms; rapid orbital motion that decreases the SNR of the satellite into the noise; failure to inspect the data at sufficiently high Doppler

  11. PEPA-1* genotype affects return rate for hatchery steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Hayes, M.C.; Rubin, S.P.; Wetzel, L.A.; Baker, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Allozymes continue to be useful as genetic markers in a variety of studies; however, their utility often hinges on the selective neutrality of the allelic variation. Our study tested for neutrality between the two most common alleles (*100 and *110) at the cytosol nonspecific dipeptidase locus (PEPA-1*) in steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Idaho. We tested for differential growth and survival among fish with the * 100/100, *100/ 110, and *110/110 genotypes rearing in a hatchery or a natural stream. We repeated the study for two year-classes, using heterozygous (*100/110) adults to make the experimental crosses. This design avoided differences in family contribution among genotypes because each cross produced all three genotypes. We divided the progeny from each family into two groups. One group was reared in a hatchery for 1 year and then released for migration to the sea and subsequent return to the hatchery as adults. The other group was released into a natural stream and monitored for 3 years. We found no significant differences in size or survival among PEPA-1* genotypes for either the naturally reared fish or the hatchery-reared fish immediately prior to release as smolts. For females, survival to returning adult also was similar among genotypes; however, hatchery-reared males with the *110/110 genotype returned at a higher rate than did males with the *100/ 100 genotype; heterozygous males were intermediate. These results indicate that selection occurs at the PEPA-1* locus or at one or more loci tightly linked to it. The finding of nearly equal frequencies for these two alleles in the source population suggests that selection differentials among genotypes reverse or vary from year to year; otherwise, steady directional selection would drive the *100 allele to low frequencies or extinction. Locus PEPA-1* seems inappropriate for genetic marks in studies of steelhead that span the full life cycle and probably should be avoided

  12. Temperature lapse rate as an adjunct to wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweifil, Terry

    1991-01-01

    Several meteorological parameters were examined to determine if measurable atmospheric conditions can improve windshear detection devices. Lapse rate, the temperature change with altitude, shows promise as being an important parameter in the prediction of severe wind shears. It is easily measured from existing aircraft instrumentation, and it can be important indicator of convective activity including thunderstorms and microbursts. The meteorological theory behind lapse rate measurement is briefly reviewed, and and FAA certified system is described that is currently implemented in the Honeywell Wind Shear Detection and Guidance System.

  13. Ocean Acidification Affects Prey Detection by a Predatory Reef Fish

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Ingrid L.; Munday, Philip L.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in olfactory-mediated behaviour caused by elevated CO2 levels in the ocean could affect recruitment to reef fish populations because larval fish become more vulnerable to predation. However, it is currently unclear how elevated CO2 will impact the other key part of the predator-prey interaction – the predators. We investigated the effects of elevated CO2 and reduced pH on olfactory preferences, activity levels and feeding behaviour of a common coral reef meso-predator, the brown dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus). Predators were exposed to either current-day CO2 levels or one of two elevated CO2 levels (∼600 µatm or ∼950 µatm) that may occur by 2100 according to climate change predictions. Exposure to elevated CO2 and reduced pH caused a shift from preference to avoidance of the smell of injured prey, with CO2 treated predators spending approximately 20% less time in a water stream containing prey odour compared with controls. Furthermore, activity levels of fish was higher in the high CO2 treatment and feeding activity was lower for fish in the mid CO2 treatment; indicating that future conditions may potentially reduce the ability of the fish to respond rapidly to fluctuations in food availability. Elevated activity levels of predators in the high CO2 treatment, however, may compensate for reduced olfactory ability, as greater movement facilitated visual detection of food. Our findings show that, at least for the species tested to date, both parties in the predator-prey relationship may be affected by ocean acidification. Although impairment of olfactory-mediated behaviour of predators might reduce the risk of predation for larval fishes, the magnitude of the observed effects of elevated CO2 acidification appear to be more dramatic for prey compared to predators. Thus, it is unlikely that the altered behaviour of predators is sufficient to fully compensate for the effects of ocean acidification on prey mortality. PMID:21829497

  14. Ocean acidification affects prey detection by a predatory reef fish.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Ingrid L; Munday, Philip L; McCormick, Mark I

    2011-01-01

    Changes in olfactory-mediated behaviour caused by elevated CO(2) levels in the ocean could affect recruitment to reef fish populations because larval fish become more vulnerable to predation. However, it is currently unclear how elevated CO(2) will impact the other key part of the predator-prey interaction--the predators. We investigated the effects of elevated CO(2) and reduced pH on olfactory preferences, activity levels and feeding behaviour of a common coral reef meso-predator, the brown dottyback (Pseudochromis fuscus). Predators were exposed to either current-day CO(2) levels or one of two elevated CO(2) levels (∼600 µatm or ∼950 µatm) that may occur by 2100 according to climate change predictions. Exposure to elevated CO(2) and reduced pH caused a shift from preference to avoidance of the smell of injured prey, with CO(2) treated predators spending approximately 20% less time in a water stream containing prey odour compared with controls. Furthermore, activity levels of fish was higher in the high CO(2) treatment and feeding activity was lower for fish in the mid CO(2) treatment; indicating that future conditions may potentially reduce the ability of the fish to respond rapidly to fluctuations in food availability. Elevated activity levels of predators in the high CO(2) treatment, however, may compensate for reduced olfactory ability, as greater movement facilitated visual detection of food. Our findings show that, at least for the species tested to date, both parties in the predator-prey relationship may be affected by ocean acidification. Although impairment of olfactory-mediated behaviour of predators might reduce the risk of predation for larval fishes, the magnitude of the observed effects of elevated CO(2) acidification appear to be more dramatic for prey compared to predators. Thus, it is unlikely that the altered behaviour of predators is sufficient to fully compensate for the effects of ocean acidification on prey mortality.

  15. Rate of Conditioned Reinforcement Affects Observing Rate but Not Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the resistance to change of operant behavior have not been examined. In addition, the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the rate of observing have not been adequately examined. In two experiments, a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures was used to examine the effects…

  16. Rate of Conditioned Reinforcement Affects Observing Rate but Not Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the resistance to change of operant behavior have not been examined. In addition, the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the rate of observing have not been adequately examined. In two experiments, a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures was used to examine the effects…

  17. Near-Earth Asteroids Detection Rate with LISA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tricarico, P.

    2009-01-01

    The LISA space mission, designed to monitor low frequency gravitational waves, is also sensitive to passages of asteroids nearby one of its three spacecrafts. We report the expected rate of detections of asteroid passages, using the known catalog of asteroids and a modeled population. The method adopted consists of determining for each known asteroid the critical encounter distance capable of producing a detectable event, and then computing the rate of encounters within this distance. Results are then scaled to the modeled population using its differential distribution in absolute magnitude, correcting for selection effects. We find that an average of 2.0 +/- 0.1 events per year at a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 will be detected by LISA, including all the asteroids in the modeled population with absolute magnitude H < 22, roughly equivalent to all asteroids with a diameter larger than 100 m.

  18. Towards a Semantic-Based Approach for Affect and Metaphor Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li; Barnden, John

    2013-01-01

    Affect detection from open-ended virtual improvisational contexts is a challenging task. To achieve this research goal, the authors developed an intelligent agent which was able to engage in virtual improvisation and perform sentence-level affect detection from user inputs. This affect detection development was efficient for the improvisational…

  19. Towards a Semantic-Based Approach for Affect and Metaphor Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li; Barnden, John

    2013-01-01

    Affect detection from open-ended virtual improvisational contexts is a challenging task. To achieve this research goal, the authors developed an intelligent agent which was able to engage in virtual improvisation and perform sentence-level affect detection from user inputs. This affect detection development was efficient for the improvisational…

  20. Gain-Loss versus Reinforcement-Affect Ordering of Student Rating of Teaching: Effect of Rating Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Shelly J. C.; Leventhal, Les

    1984-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of student rating instructions on primacy and recency effects when rank ordering four lecture quality sequences. Effects were measured on final instructor ratings, liking for the instructor, student affect, and student self-esteem. (Author/BS)

  1. Rate of conditioned reinforcement affects observing rate but not resistance to change.

    PubMed

    Shahan, Timothy A; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2005-07-01

    The effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the resistance to change of operant behavior have not been examined. In addition, the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the rate of observing have not been adequately examined. In two experiments, a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures was used to examine the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on observing rates and resistance to change. In a rich component, observing responses produced a higher frequency of stimuli correlated with alternating periods of random-interval schedule primary reinforcement or extinction. In a lean component, observing responses produced similar schedule-correlated stimuli but at a lower frequency. The rate of primary reinforcement in both components was the same. In Experiment 1, a 4:1 ratio of stimulus production was arranged by the rich and lean components. In Experiment 2, the ratio of stimulus production rates was increased to 6:1. In both experiments, observing rates were higher in the rich component than in the lean component. Disruptions in observing produced by presession feeding, extinction of observing responses, and response-independent food deliveries during intercomponent intervals usually were similar in the rich and lean components. When differences in resistance to change did occur, observing tended to be more resistant to change in the lean component. If resistance to change is accepted as a more appropriate measure of response strength than absolute response rates, then the present results provide no evidence that higher rates of stimuli generally considered to function as conditioned reinforcers engender greater response strength.

  2. Rate Of Conditioned Reinforcement Affects Observing Rate But Not Resistance To Change

    PubMed Central

    Shahan, Timothy A; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2005-01-01

    The effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the resistance to change of operant behavior have not been examined. In addition, the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the rate of observing have not been adequately examined. In two experiments, a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures was used to examine the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on observing rates and resistance to change. In a rich component, observing responses produced a higher frequency of stimuli correlated with alternating periods of random-interval schedule primary reinforcement or extinction. In a lean component, observing responses produced similar schedule-correlated stimuli but at a lower frequency. The rate of primary reinforcement in both components was the same. In Experiment 1, a 4:1 ratio of stimulus production was arranged by the rich and lean components. In Experiment 2, the ratio of stimulus production rates was increased to 6:1. In both experiments, observing rates were higher in the rich component than in the lean component. Disruptions in observing produced by presession feeding, extinction of observing responses, and response-independent food deliveries during intercomponent intervals usually were similar in the rich and lean components. When differences in resistance to change did occur, observing tended to be more resistant to change in the lean component. If resistance to change is accepted as a more appropriate measure of response strength than absolute response rates, then the present results provide no evidence that higher rates of stimuli generally considered to function as conditioned reinforcers engender greater response strength. PMID:16156134

  3. Measuring target detection performance in paradigms with high event rates.

    PubMed

    Bendixen, Alexandra; Andersen, Søren K

    2013-05-01

    Combining behavioral and neurophysiological measurements inevitably implies mutual constraints, such as when the neurophysiological measurement requires fast-paced stimulus presentation and hence the attribution of a behavioral response to a particular preceding stimulus becomes ambiguous. We develop and test a method for validly assessing behavioral detection performance in spite of this ambiguity. We examine four approaches taken in the literature to treat such situations. We analytically derive a new variant of computing the classical parameters of signal detection theory, hit and false alarm rates, adapted to fast-paced paradigms. Each of the previous approaches shows specific shortcomings (susceptibility towards response window choice, biased estimates of behavioral detection performance). Superior performance of our new approach is demonstrated for both simulated and empirical behavioral data. Further evidence is provided by reliable correspondence between behavioral performance and the N2b component as an electrophysiological indicator of target detection. The appropriateness of our approach is substantiated by both theoretical and empirical arguments. We demonstrate an easy-to-implement solution for measuring target detection performance independent of the rate of event presentation. Thus overcoming the measurement bias of previous approaches, our method will help to clarify the behavioral relevance of different measures of cortical activation. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Words That Fascinate the Listener: Predicting Affective Ratings of On-Line Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weninger, Felix; Staudt, Pascal; Schuller, Björn

    2013-01-01

    In a large scale study on 843 transcripts of Technology, Entertainment and Design (TED) talks, the authors address the relation between word usage and categorical affective ratings of lectures by a large group of internet users. Users rated the lectures by assigning one or more predefined tags which relate to the affective state evoked in the…

  5. Defective Pricing: An Analysis of Factors Affecting Sustention Rates and Disposition Times

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    AFIT/GCM/LAS/94S-5 0 .TIC Accespori For NTIS CRA&j DEFECTIVE PRICING: AN ANALYSIS OF OTIC TAB 0 FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTENTION U.:announced 0J1:;ti...the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. AFIT/GCM/LAS/94S-5 DEFECTIVE PRICING: AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTENTION RATES AND...2 Sustention Rates

  6. Extinction rate estimates for plant populations in revisitation studies: Importance of detectability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many researchers have obtained extinction-rate estimates for plant populations by comparing historical and current records of occurrence. A population that is no longer found is assumed to have gone extinct. Extinction can then be related to characteristics of these populations, such as habitat type, size, or species, to test ideas about what factors may affect extinction. Such studies neglect the fact that a population may be overlooked, however, which may bias estimates of extinction rates upward. In addition, if populations are unequally detectable across groups to be compared, such as habitat type or population size, comparisons become distorted to an unknown degree. To illustrate the problem, I simulated two data sets, assuming a constant extinction rate, in which populations occurred in different habitats or habitats of different size and these factors affected their detectability The conventional analysis implicitly assumed that detectability equalled 1 and used logistic regression to estimate extinction rates. It wrongly identified habitat and population size as factors affecting extinction risk. In contrast, with capture-recapture methods, unbiased estimates of extinction rates were recovered. I argue that capture-recapture methods should be considered more often in estimations of demographic parameters in plant populations and communities.

  7. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    PubMed

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d') and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  8. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d’) and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object’s stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  9. Detecting Seismicity Rate Transients in the Hokkaido Corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; McGuire, J. J.; Ogata, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Transient aseismic processes alter the stress state of a region and can cause seismicity rate anomalies in space and time detectable by models such as the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, 1988). The presence of such anomalies in subduction zones can therefore indicate stress changes are occurring due to processes such as afterslip or slow slip events. The Hokkaido corner in northeastern Japan is a good region to investigate these anomalies and their relationship to frictional conditions on the plate interface. This area consists of several asperities that rupture in great earthquakes such as the 2003 M8.3 Tokachi-oki earthquake. The abundance of high quality seismic and geodetic data for that event have led to the development of detailed coseismic and postseismic slip models (e.g., Yamanaka and Kikuchi, 2003; Miyazaki et al., 2004), from which stress changes can be inferred and compared to spatial and temporal variations in seismicity rate behavior. For example, an analysis of central Japan seismicity suggests that high aftershock productivities tend to cluster on the updip boundaries of major asperities (Ogata, 2005). Elevated stressing rates due to afterslip can also cause increased levels of background seismicity on the fault patches where afterslip is occurring. Therefore, mapping where these anomalies occur can lead to a better understanding of where and how stress is accumulating on the megathrust. We have developed a method that can directly map seismicity rate anomalies to the stressing rate changes due to aseismic processes. Because aftershocks often obscure changes in the background seismicity caused by these processes, we combine two models commonly used to estimate the time dependence of underlying driving mechanisms, the stochastic ETAS model and the physically based rate- and state-dependent friction model (Dieterich, 1994), into a single seismicity rate model that can explain both aftershock activity as well as changes in

  10. Elevated CO2 affects shell dissolution rate but not calcification rate in a marine snail

    PubMed Central

    Nienhuis, Sarah; Palmer, A. Richard; Harley, Christopher D. G.

    2010-01-01

    As CO2 levels increase in the atmosphere, so too do they in the sea. Although direct effects of moderately elevated CO2 in sea water may be of little consequence, indirect effects may be profound. For example, lowered pH and calcium carbonate saturation states may influence both deposition and dissolution rates of mineralized skeletons in many marine organisms. The relative impact of elevated CO2 on deposition and dissolution rates are not known for many large-bodied organisms. We therefore tested the effects of increased CO2 levels—those forecast to occur in roughly 100 and 200 years—on both shell deposition rate and shell dissolution rate in a rocky intertidal snail, Nucella lamellosa. Shell weight gain per day in live snails decreased linearly with increasing CO2 levels. However, this trend was paralleled by shell weight loss per day in empty shells, suggesting that these declines in shell weight gain observed in live snails were due to increased dissolution of existing shell material, rather than reduced production of new shell material. Ocean acidification may therefore have a greater effect on shell dissolution than on shell deposition, at least in temperate marine molluscs. PMID:20392726

  11. Elevated CO2 affects shell dissolution rate but not calcification rate in a marine snail.

    PubMed

    Nienhuis, Sarah; Palmer, A Richard; Harley, Christopher D G

    2010-08-22

    As CO(2) levels increase in the atmosphere, so too do they in the sea. Although direct effects of moderately elevated CO(2) in sea water may be of little consequence, indirect effects may be profound. For example, lowered pH and calcium carbonate saturation states may influence both deposition and dissolution rates of mineralized skeletons in many marine organisms. The relative impact of elevated CO(2) on deposition and dissolution rates are not known for many large-bodied organisms. We therefore tested the effects of increased CO(2) levels--those forecast to occur in roughly 100 and 200 years--on both shell deposition rate and shell dissolution rate in a rocky intertidal snail, Nucella lamellosa. Shell weight gain per day in live snails decreased linearly with increasing CO(2) levels. However, this trend was paralleled by shell weight loss per day in empty shells, suggesting that these declines in shell weight gain observed in live snails were due to increased dissolution of existing shell material, rather than reduced production of new shell material. Ocean acidification may therefore have a greater effect on shell dissolution than on shell deposition, at least in temperate marine molluscs.

  12. SETI Pulse Detection Algorithm: Analysis of False-alarm Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, B. K.

    1983-01-01

    Some earlier work by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Science Working Group (SWG) on the derivation of spectrum analyzer thresholds for a pulse detection algorithm based on an analysis of false alarm rates is extended. The algorithm previously analyzed was intended to detect a finite sequence of i periodically spaced pulses that did not necessarily occupy the entire observation interval. This algorithm would recognize the presence of such a signal only if all i-received pulse powers exceeded a threshold T(i): these thresholds were selected to achieve a desired false alarm rate, independent of i. To simplify the analysis, it was assumed that the pulses were synchronous with the spectrum sample times. This analysis extends the earlier effort to include infinite and/or asynchronous pulse trains. Furthermore, to decrease the possibility of missing an extraterrestrial intelligence signal, the algorithm was modified to detect a pulse train even if some of the received pulse powers fall below the threshold. The analysis employs geometrical arguments that make it conceptually easy to incorporate boundary conditions imposed on the derivation of the false alarm rates. While the exact results can be somewhat complex, simple closed form approximations are derived that produce a negligible loss of accuracy.

  13. Stress Detection Using Low Cost Heart Rate Sensors.

    PubMed

    Salai, Mario; Vassányi, István; Kósa, István

    2016-01-01

    The automated detection of stress is a central problem for ambient assisted living solutions. The paper presents the concepts and results of two studies targeted at stress detection with a low cost heart rate sensor, a chest belt. In the device validation study ( n = 5), we compared heart rate data and other features from the belt to those measured by a gold standard device to assess the reliability of the sensor. With simple synchronization and data cleaning algorithm, we were able to select highly (>97%) correlated, low average error (2.2%) data segments of considerable length from the chest data for further processing. The protocol for the clinical study ( n = 46) included a relax phase followed by a phase with provoked mental stress, 10 minutes each. We developed a simple method for the detection of the stress using only three time-domain features of the heart rate signal. The method produced accuracy of 74.6%, sensitivity of 75.0%, and specificity of 74.2%, which is impressive compared to the performance of two state-of-the-art methods run on the same data. Since the proposed method uses only time-domain features, it can be efficiently implemented on mobile devices.

  14. Stress Detection Using Low Cost Heart Rate Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Salai, Mario; Kósa, István

    2016-01-01

    The automated detection of stress is a central problem for ambient assisted living solutions. The paper presents the concepts and results of two studies targeted at stress detection with a low cost heart rate sensor, a chest belt. In the device validation study (n = 5), we compared heart rate data and other features from the belt to those measured by a gold standard device to assess the reliability of the sensor. With simple synchronization and data cleaning algorithm, we were able to select highly (>97%) correlated, low average error (2.2%) data segments of considerable length from the chest data for further processing. The protocol for the clinical study (n = 46) included a relax phase followed by a phase with provoked mental stress, 10 minutes each. We developed a simple method for the detection of the stress using only three time-domain features of the heart rate signal. The method produced accuracy of 74.6%, sensitivity of 75.0%, and specificity of 74.2%, which is impressive compared to the performance of two state-of-the-art methods run on the same data. Since the proposed method uses only time-domain features, it can be efficiently implemented on mobile devices. PMID:27372071

  15. Affective resonance in response to others' emotional faces varies with affective ratings and psychopathic traits in amygdala and anterior insula.

    PubMed

    Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Sebastian, Catherine L; Viding, Essi; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research on the neural basis of empathic responses for pain and disgust, there is limited data about the brain regions that underpin affective response to other people's emotional facial expressions. Here, we addressed this question using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses to emotional faces, combined with online ratings of subjective state. When instructed to rate their own affective response to others' faces, participants recruited anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus, and amygdala, regions consistently implicated in studies investigating empathy for disgust and pain, as well as emotional saliency. Importantly, responses in anterior insula and amygdala were modulated by trial-by-trial variations in subjective affective responses to the emotional facial stimuli. Furthermore, overall task-elicited activations in these regions were negatively associated with psychopathic personality traits, which are characterized by low affective empathy. Our findings suggest that anterior insula and amygdala play important roles in the generation of affective internal states in response to others' emotional cues and that attenuated function in these regions may underlie reduced empathy in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits.

  16. Affective resonance in response to others' emotional faces varies with affective ratings and psychopathic traits in amygdala and anterior insula

    PubMed Central

    Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Sebastian, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite extensive research on the neural basis of empathic responses for pain and disgust, there is limited data about the brain regions that underpin affective response to other people’s emotional facial expressions. Here, we addressed this question using event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to assess neural responses to emotional faces, combined with online ratings of subjective state. When instructed to rate their own affective response to others’ faces, participants recruited anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus, and amygdala; regions consistently implicated in studies investigating empathy for disgust and pain, as well as emotional saliency. Importantly, responses in anterior insula and amygdala were modulated by trial-by-trial variations in subjective affective responses to the emotional facial stimuli. Furthermore, overall task-elicited activations in these regions were negatively associated with psychopathic personality traits, which are characterized by low affective empathy. Our findings suggest that anterior insula and amygdala play important roles in the generation of affective internal states in response to others’ emotional cues, and that attenuated function in these regions may underlie reduced empathy in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits. PMID:25978492

  17. Coherent Detection of High-Rate Optical PPM Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor; Fernandez, Michela Munoz

    2006-01-01

    A method of coherent detection of high-rate pulse-position modulation (PPM) on a received laser beam has been conceived as a means of reducing the deleterious effects of noise and atmospheric turbulence in free-space optical communication using focal-plane detector array technologies. In comparison with a receiver based on direct detection of the intensity modulation of a PPM signal, a receiver based on the present method of coherent detection performs well at much higher background levels. In principle, the coherent-detection receiver can exhibit quantum-limited performance despite atmospheric turbulence. The key components of such a receiver include standard receiver optics, a laser that serves as a local oscillator, a focal-plane array of photodetectors, and a signal-processing and data-acquisition assembly needed to sample the focal-plane fields and reconstruct the pulsed signal prior to detection. The received PPM-modulated laser beam and the local-oscillator beam are focused onto the photodetector array, where they are mixed in the detection process. The two lasers are of the same or nearly the same frequency. If the two lasers are of different frequencies, then the coherent detection process is characterized as heterodyne and, using traditional heterodyne-detection terminology, the difference between the two laser frequencies is denoted the intermediate frequency (IF). If the two laser beams are of the same frequency and remain aligned in phase, then the coherent detection process is characterized as homodyne (essentially, heterodyne detection at zero IF). As a result of the inherent squaring operation of each photodetector, the output current includes an IF component that contains the signal modulation. The amplitude of the IF component is proportional to the product of the local-oscillator signal amplitude and the PPM signal amplitude. Hence, by using a sufficiently strong local-oscillator signal, one can make the PPM-modulated IF signal strong enough to

  18. Time and frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability in cattle affected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a method to assess the function of the autonomic nervous system. Brainstem nuclei that influence HRV are affected by vacuolar changes and accumulation of disease-associated prion protein (PrPd) in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) resulting in clinical signs suggestive of an increased parasympathetic tone. It was hypothesised that BSE in cattle causes changes in the autonomic nervous system; this was tested by comparing HRV indices derived from 1048 electrocardiograms, which were recorded from 51 naturally or experimentally infected cattle with BSE confirmed by postmortem tests, 321 clinical suspect cases or cattle inoculated with potentially infectious tissue without disease confirmation and 78 BSE-free control cattle. Findings Statistically significant differences were found for low or high frequency power, their normalised values and ratio when the last recording prior to cull or repeated recordings were compared but only between male and female cattle of the three groups and not between groups of the same gender, even though BSE cases of each gender appeared to be more nervous during the recording. The same findings were made for heart rate, deviation from the mean RR interval and vasovagal tonus index when repeated recordings were compared. BSE cases with severe vacuolar changes in the parasympathetic nucleus of the vagus nerve had a significantly lower low:high frequency power ratio but not a lower heart rate than BSE cases with mild vacuolation, whereas severity of vacuolar changes in the solitary tract nucleus or intensity of PrPd accumulation in both nuclei did not appear to have any affect on either index. Abnormalities in the electrocardiogram were detected in 3% of the recordings irrespective of the BSE status; sinus arrhythmia was present in 93% of the remaining recordings. Conclusions HRV analysis was not useful to distinguish BSE-positive from BSE-negative cattle grouped by gender, and HRV

  19. Motion-compensated non-contact detection of heart rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-12-01

    A new non-contact heart rate detection method based on the dual-wavelength technique is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. It is a well-known fact that the differences in the circuits of two detection modules result in different responses of two modules for motion artifacts. This poses a great challenge to compensate the motion artifacts during measurements. In order to circumvent this problem, we have proposed the amplitude spectrum and phase spectrum adaptive filter. Comparing with the time-domain adaptive filter and independent component analysis, the amplitude spectrum and phase spectrum adaptive filter can suppress the interference caused by the two circuit differences and effectively compensate the motion artifacts. To make the device is much compact and portable, a photoelectric probe is designed. The measurement distance is from several centimeters up to several meters. Moreover, the data obtained by using this non-contact detection system is compared with those of the conventional finger blood volume pulse (BVP) sensor by simultaneously measuring the heart rate of the subject. The data obtained from the proposed non-contact system are consistent and comparable with that of the BVP sensor.

  20. Factors affecting detectability of river otters during sign surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffress, Mackenzie R.; Paukert, Craig P.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Gipson, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Sign surveys are commonly used to study and monitor wildlife species but may be flawed when surveys are conducted only once and cover short distances, which can lead to a lack of accountability for false absences. Multiple observers surveyed for river otter (Lontra canadensis) scat and tracks along stream and reservoir shorelines at 110 randomly selected sites in eastern Kansas from January to April 2008 and 2009 to determine if detection probability differed among substrates, sign types, observers, survey lengths, and near access points. We estimated detection probabilities (p) of river otters using occupancy models in Program PRESENCE. Mean detection probability for a 400-m survey was highest in mud substrates (p = 0.60) and lowest in snow (p = 0.18) and leaf litter substrates (p = 0.27). Scat had a higher detection probability (p = 0.53) than tracks (p = 0.18), and experienced observers had higher detection probabilities (p < 0.71) than novice observers (p < 0.55). Detection probabilities increased almost 3-fold as survey length increased from 200 m to 1,000 m, and otter sign was not concentrated near access points. After accounting for imperfect detection, our estimates of otter site occupancy based on a 400-m survey increased >3-fold, providing further evidence of the potential negative bias that can occur in estimates from sign surveys when imperfect detection is not addressed. Our study identifies areas for improvement in sign survey methodologies and results are applicable for sign surveys commonly used for many species across a range of habitats.

  1. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Andres E; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M; Baker, Laura A

    2015-08-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole-tree methods for detecting differential diversification rates.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kai M A; Moore, Brian R

    2002-12-01

    Prolific cladogenesis, adaptive radiation, species selection, key innovations, and mass extinctions are a few examples of biological phenomena that lead to differential diversification among lineages. Central to the study of differential diversification rates is the ability to distinguish chance variation from that which requires deterministic explanation. To detect diversification rate variation among lineages, we propose a number of methods that incorporate information on the topological distribution of species diversity from all internal nodes of a phylogenetic tree. These whole-tree methods (M(Pi), M(Sigma), and M(R)) are explicitly connected to a null model of random diversification--the equal-rates Markov (ERM) random branching model--and an alternative model of differential diversification: M(Pi) is based on the product of individual nodal ERM probabilities; M(Sigma) is based on the sum of individual nodal ERM probabilities, and M(R) is based on a transformation of ERM probabilities that corresponds to a formalized system that orders trees by their relative symmetry. These methods have been implemented in a freely available computer program, SYMMETREE, to detect clades with variable diversification rates, thereby allowing the study of biological processes correlated with and possibly causal to shifts in diversification rate. Application of these methods to several published phylogenies demonstrates their ability to contend with relatively large, incompletely resolved trees. These topology-based methods do not require estimates of relative branch lengths, which should facilitate the analysis of phylogenies, such as supertrees, for which such data are unreliable or unavailable.

  3. A change detection approach to moving object detection in low frame-rate video

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Harvey, Neal R; Theiler, James P

    2009-01-01

    Moving object detection is of significant interest in temporal image analysis since it is a first step in many object identification and tracking applications. A key component in almost all moving object detection algorithms is a pixel-level classifier, where each pixel is predicted to be either part of a moving object or part of the background. In this paper we investigate a change detection approach to the pixel-level classification problem and evaluate its impact on moving object detection. The change detection approach that we investigate was previously applied to multi-and hyper-spectral datasets, where images were typically taken several days, or months apart. In this paper, we apply the approach to low-frame rate (1-2 frames per second) video datasets.

  4. Beneficial effect of Bradycardia Tachycardia Response (BTR) algorithm on VT detection in the presence of rate smoothing.

    PubMed

    Nikolidakis, Savvas; Luria, David; Weisemberg, Jessica Shayovich; Tanami, Nechemya; Lev, David Bar; Gurevitz, Osnat; Sham'a, Raed Abu; Eldar, Michael; Friedman, Paul; Glikson, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Rate smoothing algorithms, while known to help prevent ventricular tachyarrhythmias in some patients, have been shown to result in underdetection of ventricular tachycardia (VT) due to interaction between bradycardia pacing and tachycardia detection parameters. A new algorithm named Bradycardia Tachycardia Response (BTR) has been developed in order to prevent rate smoothing-induced underdetection. The efficacy of BTR is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of BTR in preventing VT underdetection due to rate smoothing. Two ICD models (TELIGEN and VITALITY AVT, Boston Scientific, St. Paul, MN, USA) bearing identical rate smoothing algorithms were connected to a VT simulator. Devices were programmed similarly except for the BTR feature that exists in TELIGEN only. The detection performance of both devices was tested using varying combinations of AV delay, rate smoothing down, and upper rate limit and compared between the two models. VT underdetection (delay or nondetection) occurred during pacing in 62% of the VT episodes with VITALITY AVT. In TELIGEN, all simulated VT episodes were detected appropriately as soon as their rates exceeded the programmed VT detection rate. Detection tended to be affected by higher upper rate, longer AV delays, and more aggressive rate smoothing. The BTR algorithm effectively counteracts VT detection delay caused by the interaction of rate smoothing with VT detection parameters, thus enabling safe use of the rate smoothing feature. ©2012, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Factors Affecting the Ability to Detect Spreadsheet Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harry; Simkin, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    The extensive computational and formatting capabilities of today's spreadsheets enable users to create sophisticated analytical models with professionally formatted outputs. But good-looking reports can mask a host of input errors, formula mistakes, and computational problems. This article examines the subject of spreadsheet error detection in…

  6. Factors affecting the surface shape and removal rate of workpiece in CMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Quantang; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Baoan; Shen, Weixing

    2006-02-01

    The factors affecting the removal rate and surface shape in CMP is introduced. The edge effect is a critical problem in CMP process, which behaves on the global planarization of workpiece-pad interface and change on local planarization and results in collapse or rise in workpiece edges. One of the main factors of edge effect is Von Mises stress, which is a composition stress. The main affecting factor of Von Mises is the axial stress component. The factors affecting the material removal rate (MRR) of workpiece surface and surface nonuniformity include shape, material properties and thickness of pad and polishing media. Factors of load and relative velocity in CMP are also discussed.

  7. Ionospheric Modulation of Venus Express Lightning Detection Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Richard A.; Russell, Christopher T.; Zhang, Tielong

    2015-11-01

    Venus Express completed its nearly 9 year campaign at Earth’s sister planet in late 2014. During this period the onboard fluxgate magnetometer collected data up to 64 Hz in frequency while near periapsis. This is the expected frequency range for lightning-generated whistler-mode waves at Venus, between the local electron and ion gyrofrequencies. These waves are right-hand circularly polarized and are guided by the local magnetic field. When the Venusian ionopause is low enough in altitude to reside in the collisional region, the interplanetary magnetic field can get carried down with the ions and magnetize the lower ionosphere. As the field travels towards the terminator it gains a radial component, enabling whistlers to reach higher altitudes and be detected by the spacecraft. The mission covered almost an entire solar cycle and frequently observed a magnetized ionosphere during the solar minimum phase when the ionosphere was weak due to reduced incident EUV. Detection was most common at 250 km altitude where the waves travel more slowly due to reduced ionospheric density. In response they increase in amplitude in order to conserve magnetic energy flux. Here, we examine the changes in the ionospheric properties associated with the evolution of the solar cycle and the rate of detection of these lightning-generated signals.

  8. High-definition colonoscopy increases adenoma detection rate.

    PubMed

    Jrebi, Nezar Y; Hefty, Matthew; Jalouta, Tarek; Ogilvie, James; Davis, Alan T; Asgeirsson, Theodor; Luchtefeld, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a quality indicator for colonoscopy. High-definition (HD) imaging has been reported to increase polyp detection rates. The primary objective of this study was to compare polyp detection rate (PDR) and adenoma detection rate (ADR) before and after the implementation of HD colonoscopy. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients aged 48-55 years old, who underwent first-time screening colonoscopy. The first group underwent standard-definition (SD) colonoscopy in the first 6 months of 2011. The second group underwent screening with HD colonoscopy during the first 6 months of 2012. We compared age, gender, PDR, ADR, and average sizes of adenomatous polyps between gastroenterologist and colorectal surgeon and among physicians themselves. Statistical analysis was performed with Fischer's exact test and Pearson Chi-square. A total of 1268 patients were involved in the study (634 in each group). PDR (35.6 vs. 48.2 %, p < 0.001) and ADR (22.2 vs. 30.4 %, p = 0.02) were higher in the HD group. The average size of an adenomatous polyp was the same in the two groups (0.58 vs. 0.57, p = 0.69). However, this difference was not seen among colorectal surgeons PDR (35.7 vs. 37 %, p = 0.789), ADR (22.9 vs. 24.5 % p = 0.513), but clearly seen among gastroenterologist, PDR (35.6 vs. 53.1 % p < 0.001) and ADR (21.9 vs. 32.9 % p < 0.001). When polyps were categorized into size groups, there was no difference in ADR between the two timeframes (<5 mm in size (41.5 vs. 35.4 %), 5-10 mm (49.3 vs. 60.1 %) and >10 mm (9.2 vs. 4.5 %), p = 0.07). Polyps were most commonly seen in the sigmoid colon (26.1 vs. 24.7 %). There was no difference in the rate of synchronous polyp detection between modalities (25.6 vs. 29 %, p = 0.51). Withdrawal time was the same in both procedure (9.2 vs. 8.5 min, p = 0.10). Screening colonoscopy with high-definition technology significantly improved both PDR and ADR. In addition

  9. Endoscopic innovations to increase the adenoma detection rate during colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dik, Vincent K; Moons, Leon MG; Siersema, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Up to a quarter of polyps and adenomas are missed during colonoscopy due to poor visualization behind folds and the inner curves of flexures, and the presence of flat lesions that are difficult to detect. These numbers may however be conservative because they mainly come from back-to-back studies performed with standard colonoscopes, which are unable to visualize the entire mucosal surface. In the past several years, new endoscopic techniques have been introduced to improve the detection of polyps and adenomas. The introduction of high definition colonoscopes and visual image enhancement technologies have been suggested to lead to better recognition of flat and small lesions, but the absolute increase in diagnostic yield seems limited. Cap assisted colonoscopy and water-exchange colonoscopy are methods to facilitate cecal intubation and increase patients comfort, but show only a marginal or no benefit on polyp and adenoma detection. Retroflexion is routinely used in the rectum for the inspection of the dentate line, but withdrawal in retroflexion in the colon is in general not recommended due to the risk of perforation. In contrast, colonoscopy with the Third-Eye Retroscope® may result in considerable lower miss rates compared to standard colonoscopy, but this technique is not practical in case of polypectomy and is more time consuming. The recently introduced Full Spectrum Endoscopy™ colonoscopes maintains the technical capabilities of standard colonoscopes and provides a much wider view of 330 degrees compared to the 170 degrees with standard colonoscopes. Remarkable lower adenoma miss rates with this new technique were recently demonstrated in the first randomized study. Nonetheless, more studies are required to determine the exact additional diagnostic yield in clinical practice. Optimizing the efficacy of colorectal cancer screening and surveillance requires high definition colonoscopes with improved virtual chromoendoscopy technology that visualize the

  10. Clinicians' Tendencies to Under-Rate Parkinsonian Tremors in the Less Affected Hand.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Ji; Kim, Sang Kyong; Park, Hyeyoung; Kim, Han Byul; Jeon, Hyo Seon; Jung, Yu Jin; Oh, Eungseok; Kim, Hee Jin; Yun, Ji Young; Jeon, Beom S; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-01-01

    The standard assessment method for tremor severity in Parkinson's disease is visual observation by neurologists using clinical rating scales. This is, therefore, a subjective rating that is dependent on clinical expertise. The objective of this study was to report clinicians' tendencies to under-rate Parkinsonian tremors in the less affected hand. This was observed through objective tremor measurement with accelerometers. Tremor amplitudes were measured objectively using tri-axis-accelerometers for both hands simultaneously in 53 patients with Parkinson's disease during resting and postural tremors. The videotaped tremor was rated by neurologists using clinical rating scales. The tremor measured by accelerometer was compared with clinical ratings. Neurologists tended to under-rate the less affected hand in resting tremor when the contralateral hand had severe tremor in Session I. The participating neurologists corrected this tendency in Session II after being informed of it. The under-rating tendency was then repeated by other uninformed neurologists in Session III. Kappa statistics showed high inter-rater agreements and high agreements between estimated scores derived from the accelerometer signals and the mean Clinical Tremor Rating Scale evaluated in every session. Therefore, clinicians need to be aware of this under-rating tendency in visual inspection of the less affected hand in order to make accurate tremor severity assessments.

  11. Clinicians’ Tendencies to Under-Rate Parkinsonian Tremors in the Less Affected Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Ji; Kim, Sang Kyong; Park, Hyeyoung; Kim, Han Byul; Jeon, Hyo Seon; Jung, Yu Jin; Oh, Eungseok; Kim, Hee Jin; Yun, Ji Young; Jeon, Beom S.; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-01-01

    The standard assessment method for tremor severity in Parkinson’s disease is visual observation by neurologists using clinical rating scales. This is, therefore, a subjective rating that is dependent on clinical expertise. The objective of this study was to report clinicians’ tendencies to under-rate Parkinsonian tremors in the less affected hand. This was observed through objective tremor measurement with accelerometers. Tremor amplitudes were measured objectively using tri-axis-accelerometers for both hands simultaneously in 53 patients with Parkinson’s disease during resting and postural tremors. The videotaped tremor was rated by neurologists using clinical rating scales. The tremor measured by accelerometer was compared with clinical ratings. Neurologists tended to under-rate the less affected hand in resting tremor when the contralateral hand had severe tremor in Session I. The participating neurologists corrected this tendency in Session II after being informed of it. The under-rating tendency was then repeated by other uninformed neurologists in Session III. Kappa statistics showed high inter-rater agreements and high agreements between estimated scores derived from the accelerometer signals and the mean Clinical Tremor Rating Scale evaluated in every session. Therefore, clinicians need to be aware of this under-rating tendency in visual inspection of the less affected hand in order to make accurate tremor severity assessments. PMID:26110768

  12. Temporal Structure and Complexity Affect Audio-Visual Correspondence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Denison, Rachel N.; Driver, Jon; Ruff, Christian C.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrony between events in different senses has long been considered the critical temporal cue for multisensory integration. Here, using rapid streams of auditory and visual events, we demonstrate how humans can use temporal structure (rather than mere temporal coincidence) to detect multisensory relatedness. We find psychophysically that participants can detect matching auditory and visual streams via shared temporal structure for crossmodal lags of up to 200 ms. Performance on this task reproduced features of past findings based on explicit timing judgments but did not show any special advantage for perfectly synchronous streams. Importantly, the complexity of temporal patterns influences sensitivity to correspondence. Stochastic, irregular streams – with richer temporal pattern information – led to higher audio-visual matching sensitivity than predictable, rhythmic streams. Our results reveal that temporal structure and its complexity are key determinants for human detection of audio-visual correspondence. The distinctive emphasis of our new paradigms on temporal patterning could be useful for studying special populations with suspected abnormalities in audio-visual temporal perception and multisensory integration. PMID:23346067

  13. The Dynamical Response of Dark Matter to Galaxy Evolution Affects Direct-Detection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Michael; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Over a handful of rotation periods, dynamical processes in barred galaxies induce non-axisymmetric structure in dark matter halos. Using n-body simulations of a Milky Way-like barred galaxy, we identify both a trapped dark-matter component, a shadow bar, and a strong response wake in the dark-matter distribution that affects the predicted dark-matter detection rates for current and future experiments. We find that the magnitude of the combined stellar and shadow bar evolution makes a 30% increase in disk-plane density. This is significantly larger that of previously claimed deviations from the standard halo model. The dark-matter density and kinematic wakes driven by the Milky Way bar increase the detectability of dark matter overall, especially for the experiments with higher minimum velocities. These astrophysical features increase the detection rate by more than a factor of two when compared to the standard halo model and by a factor of ten for experiments with high minimum recoil energy thresholds. These same features increase (decrease) the annual modulation for low (high) minimum recoil energy experiments. We present physical arguments for why these dynamics are generic for barred galaxies such as the Milky Way rather than contingent on a specific galaxy model.

  14. Does nitrogen fertilizer application rate to corn affect nitrous oxide emissions from the rotated soybean crop?

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Mitchell, David C; Barker, Daniel W; Miguez, Fernando; Sawyer, John E; Pantoja, Jose; Castellano, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Little information exists on the potential for N fertilizer application to corn ( L.) to affect NO emissions during subsequent unfertilized crops in a rotation. To determine if N fertilizer application to corn affects NO emissions during subsequent crops in rotation, we measured NO emissions for 3 yr (2011-2013) in an Iowa, corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation with three N fertilizer rates applied to corn (0 kg N ha, the recommended rate of 135 kg N ha, and a high rate of 225 kg N ha); soybean received no N fertilizer. We further investigated the potential for a winter cereal rye ( L.) cover crop to interact with N fertilizer rate to affect NO emissions from both crops. The cover crop did not consistently affect NO emissions. Across all years and irrespective of cover crop, N fertilizer application above the recommended rate resulted in a 16% increase in mean NO flux rate during the corn phase of the rotation. In 2 of the 3 yr, N fertilizer application to corn (0-225 kg N ha) did not affect mean NO flux rates from the subsequent unfertilized soybean crop. However, in 1 yr after a drought, mean NO flux rates from the soybean crops that received 135 and 225 kg N ha N application in the corn year were 35 and 70% higher than those from the soybean crop that received no N application in the corn year. Our results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that cover crop effects on NO emissions are not easily generalizable. When N fertilizer affects NO emissions during a subsequent unfertilized crop, it will be important to determine if total fertilizer-induced NO emissions are altered or only spread across a greater period of time.

  15. Heart rate analysis by sparse representation for acute pain detection.

    PubMed

    Tejman-Yarden, Shai; Levi, Ofer; Beizerov, Alex; Parmet, Yisrael; Nguyen, Tu; Saunders, Michael; Rudich, Zvia; Perry, James C; Baker, Dewleen G; Moeller-Bertram, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Objective pain assessment methods pose an advantage over the currently used subjective pain rating tools. Advanced signal processing methodologies, including the wavelet transform (WT) and the orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm (OMP), were developed in the past two decades. The aim of this study was to apply and compare these time-specific methods to heart rate samples of healthy subjects for acute pain detection. Fifteen adult volunteers participated in a study conducted in the pain clinic at a single center. Each subject's heart rate was sampled for 5-min baseline, followed by a cold pressor test (CPT). Analysis was done by the WT and the OMP algorithm with a Fourier/Wavelet dictionary separately. Data from 11 subjects were analyzed. Compared to baseline, The WT analysis showed a significant coefficients' density increase during the pain incline period (p < 0.01) and the entire CPT (p < 0.01), with significantly higher coefficient amplitudes. The OMP analysis showed a significant wavelet coefficients' density increase during pain incline and decline periods (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) and the entire CPT (p < 0.001), with suggestive higher amplitudes. Comparison of both methods showed that during the baseline there was a significant reduction in wavelet coefficient density using the OMP algorithm (p < 0.001). Analysis by the two-way ANOVA with repeated measures showed a significant proportional increase in wavelet coefficients during the incline period and the entire CPT using the OMP algorithm (p < 0.01). Both methods provided accurate and non-delayed detection of pain events. Statistical analysis proved the OMP to be by far more specific allowing the Fourier coefficients to represent the signal's basic harmonics and the wavelet coefficients to focus on the time-specific painful event. This is an initial study using OMP for pain detection; further studies need to prove the efficiency of this system in different settings.

  16. Fertility affects asymmetry detection not symmetry preference in assessments of 3D facial attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael B

    2017-09-01

    Consistent with theories from evolutionary psychology, facial symmetry correlates with attractiveness. Further, the preference for symmetrical faces appears to be affected by fertility in women. One limitation of previous research is that faces are often symmetrically lit front-views and so symmetry can be assessed using 2D pictorial information. Another limitation is that two-alternative-forced-choice (2afc) tasks are often used to assess symmetry preference and these cannot distinguish between differences in preference for symmetry and differences in ability of asymmetry detection. The current study used three tasks to assess the effects of facial symmetry: attractiveness ratings, 2afc preference and asymmetry detection. To break the link between 2D pictorial symmetry and facial symmetry, 3D computer generated heads were used with asymmetrical lighting and yaw rotation. Facial symmetry correlated with attractiveness even under more naturalistic viewing conditions. Path analysis indicates that the link between fertility and 2afc symmetry preference is mediated by asymmetry detection not increased preference for symmetry. The existing literature on symmetry preference and attractiveness is reinterpreted in terms of differences in asymmetry detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Socioeconomic factors affecting marriage, divorce and birth rates in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Uchida, E; Araki, S; Murata, K

    1993-10-01

    The effects of low income, urbanisation and young age population on age-adjusted rates of first marriage, divorce and live birth among the Japanese population in 46 prefectures were analysed by stepwise regression for 1970 and for 1975. During this period, Japanese society experienced a drastic change from long-lasting economic growth to serious recession in 1973. In both 1970 and 1975, the first marriage rate for females was inversely related to low income and the divorce rates for both males and females were positively related to low income. The live birth rate was significantly related to low income, urbanisation and young age population only in 1975. The first marriage rate for females and the divorce rates for both sexes increased significantly but the first marriage rate for males and live birth rate significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975. These findings suggest that low income was the essential factor affecting first marriage for females and divorce for males and females.

  18. A Comparison of Affect Ratings Obtained with Ecological Momentary Assessment and the Day Reconstruction Method

    PubMed Central

    Dockray, Samantha; Grant, Nina; Stone, Arthur A.; Kahneman, Daniel; Wardle, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of affective states in everyday life is of fundamental importance in many types of quality of life, health, and psychological research. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is the recognized method of choice, but the respondent burden can be high. The day reconstruction method (DRM) was developed by Kahneman and colleagues (Science, 2004, 306, 1776–1780) to assess affect, activities and time use in everyday life. We sought to validate DRM affect ratings by comparison with contemporaneous EMA ratings in a sample of 94 working women monitored over work and leisure days. Six EMA ratings of happiness, tiredness, stress, and anger/frustration were obtained over each 24 h period, and were compared with DRM ratings for the same hour, recorded retrospectively at the end of the day. Similar profiles of affect intensity were recorded with the two techniques. The between-person correlations adjusted for attenuation ranged from 0.58 (stress, working day) to 0.90 (happiness, leisure day). The strength of associations was not related to age, educational attainment, or depressed mood. We conclude that the DRM provides reasonably reliable estimates both of the intensity of affect and variations in affect over the day, so is a valuable instrument for the measurement of everyday experience in health and social research. PMID:21113328

  19. Bonding Pictures: Affective Ratings Are Specifically Associated to Loneliness But Not to Empathy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Heraldo D; Campagnoli, Rafaela R; Mota, Bruna Eugênia F; Araújo, Cássia Regina V; Álvares, Roberta Sônia R; Mocaiber, Izabela; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa; Volchan, Eliane; Souza, Gabriela G L

    2017-01-01

    Responding to pro-social cues plays an important adaptive role in humans. Our aims were (i) to create a catalog of bonding and matched-control pictures to compare the emotional reports of valence and arousal with the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures; (ii) to verify sex influence on the valence and arousal of bonding and matched-control pictures; (iii) to investigate if empathy and loneliness traits exert a specific influence on emotional reports for the bonding pictures. To provide a finer tool for social interaction studies, the present work defined two new sets of pictures consisting of "interacting dyads" (Bonding: N = 70) and matched controls "non-interacting dyads" (Controls: N = 70). The dyads could be either a child and an adult, or two children. Participants (N = 283, 182 women) were divided in 10 groups for the experimental sessions. The task was to rate the hedonic valence and emotional arousal of bonding and controls; and of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures from the IAPS. Effects of social-related traits, empathy and loneliness, on affective ratings were tested. Participants rated bonding pictures as more pleasant and arousing than control ones. Ratings did not differentiate bonding from IAPS pleasant pictures. Control pictures showed lower ratings than pleasant but higher ratings than neutral IAPS pictures. Women rated bonding and control pictures as more positive than men. There was no sex difference for arousal ratings. High empathic participants rated bonding and control pictures higher than low empathic participants. Also, they rated pleasant IAPS pictures more positive and arousing; and unpleasant pictures more negative and arousing than the less empathic ones. Loneliness trait, on the other hand, affected very specifically the ratings of bonding pictures; lonelier participants rated them less pleasant and less arousing than less lonely. Loneliness trait did not modulate ratings of other categories. In conclusion

  20. Bonding Pictures: Affective Ratings Are Specifically Associated to Loneliness But Not to Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Heraldo D.; Campagnoli, Rafaela R.; Mota, Bruna Eugênia F.; Araújo, Cássia Regina V.; Álvares, Roberta Sônia R.; Mocaiber, Izabela; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa; Volchan, Eliane; Souza, Gabriela G. L.

    2017-01-01

    Responding to pro-social cues plays an important adaptive role in humans. Our aims were (i) to create a catalog of bonding and matched-control pictures to compare the emotional reports of valence and arousal with the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures; (ii) to verify sex influence on the valence and arousal of bonding and matched-control pictures; (iii) to investigate if empathy and loneliness traits exert a specific influence on emotional reports for the bonding pictures. To provide a finer tool for social interaction studies, the present work defined two new sets of pictures consisting of “interacting dyads” (Bonding: N = 70) and matched controls “non-interacting dyads” (Controls: N = 70). The dyads could be either a child and an adult, or two children. Participants (N = 283, 182 women) were divided in 10 groups for the experimental sessions. The task was to rate the hedonic valence and emotional arousal of bonding and controls; and of pleasant, neutral, and unpleasant pictures from the IAPS. Effects of social-related traits, empathy and loneliness, on affective ratings were tested. Participants rated bonding pictures as more pleasant and arousing than control ones. Ratings did not differentiate bonding from IAPS pleasant pictures. Control pictures showed lower ratings than pleasant but higher ratings than neutral IAPS pictures. Women rated bonding and control pictures as more positive than men. There was no sex difference for arousal ratings. High empathic participants rated bonding and control pictures higher than low empathic participants. Also, they rated pleasant IAPS pictures more positive and arousing; and unpleasant pictures more negative and arousing than the less empathic ones. Loneliness trait, on the other hand, affected very specifically the ratings of bonding pictures; lonelier participants rated them less pleasant and less arousing than less lonely. Loneliness trait did not modulate ratings of other categories. In

  1. Factors affecting the validity of the oscillometric ankle brachial index to detect peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Herráiz-Adillo, Ángel; Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Diana P; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca

    2017-09-08

    The use of oscillometric ankle brachial index (ABI) to diagnose peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has raised concern, especially due to a lack of agreement and sensitivity. This study aimed to evaluate those factors affecting the validity of oscillometric ABI in comparison to Doppler ABI to detect PAD. Through univariate and multivariate linear regression, we studied those factors affecting the differences between oscillometric and Doppler ABI; through univariate and multivariate logistic regression we analyzed the false negative rate of oscillometric ABI to detect PAD. We analyzed 197 consecutive subjects (394 legs) from two settings: Primary Care and Vascular Service. The means of oscillometric ABI and Doppler ABI were 1.094 (95%CI: 0.843-1.345) and 1.073 (95%CI: 0.769-1.374) (p<0.001), respectively. In men, covariates explaining the differences between oscillometric and Doppler ABI were Doppler ankle blood pressure (β=‒0.610, p<0.001), ankle circumference (β=0.176, p=0.004) and oscillometric brachial blood pressure (β=0.136, p=0.037); in women, those were weight (β=0.351, p<0.001) and Doppler ankle blood pressure (β=‒0.318, p<0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of oscillometric ABI to detect PAD were 80.6% and 97.4%, respectively, and covariates explaining the rate of false negatives in PAD population were setting (Exp(β)=17.21, p=0.009) and tobacco (packs/year) (Exp(β)=1.049, p=0.002). Although some factors influencing the lack of agreement between oscillometric and Doppler ABI were identified, the correction of oscillometric ABI seems impractical, since Doppler is needed, the bias is not always uniformly distributed and its clinical relevance is small. According to sensitivity, borderline oscillometric ABI in Primary Care settings and smokers suggest PAD.

  2. Visual rating versus volumetry to detect frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Chow, T W; Gao, F; Links, K A; Ween, J E; Tang-Wai, D F; Ramirez, J; Scott, C J M; Freedman, M; Stuss, D T; Black, S E

    2011-01-01

    Automated, volumetrically defined atrophy in the left anterior cingulate (LAC) and anterior temporal regions (LAT) on MRI can be used to distinguish most patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) from controls. FTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD) can differ in the degree of anterior temporal atrophy. We explored whether clinicians can visually detect this atrophy pattern and whether they can use it to classify the 2 groups of dementia patients with the same accuracy. Four neurologists rated atrophy in the LAC and LAT regions on MRI slices from 21 FTD, 21 controls, and 14 AD participants. Inter-rater reliability and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. All 4 raters agreed on the presence of clinically significant atrophy, and their atrophy scoring correlated with the volumes, but without translation into high inter-rater diagnostic agreement. Volumetric analyses are difficult to translate into routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. High detection rate of dog circovirus in diarrheal dogs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Han-Siang; Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Lee-Shuan; Chung, Cheng-Shu; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lin, Chao-Nan

    2016-06-17

    Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms reported in companion animal clinics. Dog circovirus (DogCV) is a new mammalian circovirus that is considered to be a cause of alimentary syndromes such as diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis. DogCV has previously only been identified in the United States, Italy, Germany (GeneBank accession number: KF887949) and China (GeneBank accession number: KT946839). Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of DogCV in Taiwan and to explore the correlation between diarrhea and DogCV infection. Clinical specimens were collected between 2012 and 2014 from 207 dogs suffering from diarrhea and 160 healthy dogs. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assays to detected DogCV in naturally infected animals. Of the analyzed fecal samples from diarrheal dogs and health dogs, 58 (28.0 %) and 19 (11.9 %), respectively, were DogCV positive. The difference in DogCV prevalence was highly significant (P = 0.0002755) in diarrheal dogs. This is the first study to reveal that DogCV is currently circulating in domestic dogs in Taiwan and to demonstrate its high detection rate in dogs with diarrhea.

  4. Detection and assessment of wood decay in glulam beams using a decay rate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senalik, Adam; Beall, Frank C.; Reis, Henrique

    2010-04-01

    A glulam beam retired from the field and without visible indications of wood decay was used. Towards detection and assessing wood decay, X-ray computer tomography and ultrasonic measurements were carried out. It was observed that decrease in mass density with increasing levels of wood decay affects x-rays attenuation and allows radioscopy to detect and assess wood decay. To detect and assess decay when only one lateral side of the beam is available, a modified impulse-echo is presented. The modified impulse-echo approach is based on observing the dynamic response of each lamina in the glulam beam to the drop of a steel sphere onto a steel plate coupled to the glulam beam lamina and upon a decay rate analysis of the corresponding time domain signal in a frequency band of interest. The selection of the frequency band of interest only requires knowledge of the nominal transverse dimensions of each lamina in the beam and of the corresponding wood species. It was observed that decay rate analysis allows detection and assessment of wood decay. The decay rate approach leads to an overall rate of false calls of 7.2%. Considering the variability that exists in wood including the presence of splits, orientation and thickness of growth rings, etc., this relative low rate of false calls makes this approach very attractive. Results show that results from both X-ray computer tomography and impulse-echo decay-rated based measurements are consistent with each other and can be used to detect and assess wood decay in structural lumber.

  5. The affect of a clearcut environment on woody debris respiration rate dynamics, Harvard Forest, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderhoof, M. K.; Williams, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    At an ecosystem scale, the distribution of carbon is largely a function of stand development and disturbance processes. Clearcut logging remains a common practice both in the United States and globally and typically results in elevated storage of carbon in onsite woody debris and detritus. The residence time and decomposition rate of this woody debris and detritus will affect the rate of CO2 efflux to the atmosphere and thus affect the long term consequences of such disturbances on carbon flux and storage. The removal of a forest canopy also affects a site's microclimate including the albedo, air temperature, air humidity, as well as soil temperature and moisture, many of the same factors that affect the rate of woody debris decomposition. Thus it could be expected that differences in woody debris characteristics (e.g. size, abundance, state of decay), as well as differences in microclimate, between mature and recently clearcut forest sites, would result in differences in piece and site-level woody debris decomposition rates. Although woody debris stocks post-harvest have been well characterized, few studies have explored post-disturbance woody debris respiration rates, which directly measures carbon emissions from woody debris, distinguishing decomposition from mass loss due to fragmentation or leaching. This study addressed the question: does a clearcut environment in a temperate forest affect the rate of decomposition of coarse woody debris? The rate of respiration of downed spruce logs were repeatedly measured in-situ using an LI-6250 gas analyzer in Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts. Treatments included clear-cut, shaded clear-cut, mature spruce stand, and transfer (from clearcut to spruce stand). Gas analyzer measurements were accompanied by measurements of log temperature and percent water, soil temperature, moisture and pH, as well as light levels, air temperature and humidity to determine dominant drivers of respiration rates.

  6. Factors affecting evaporation rates of tear film components measured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Borchman, Douglas; Foulks, Gary N; Yappert, Marta C; Mathews, Jonathan; Leake, Kim; Bell, Jim

    2009-01-01

    With increasing age and in patients affected with dry-eye symptoms, the human tear film becomes more unstable and exhibits shorter tear break-up times. We examined whether the inclusion of proteins and lipids to water affected the evaporation rates measured in vitro and could account for the lower rates reported previously from in vivo measurements. The impact of temperature, air flow, and humidity on the evaporation rate of tears was measured in vitro. Lipid-protein interactions were measured using fluorescence spectroscopy and in vitro rates of evaporation were performed gravimetrically. Human reflex tears evaporated at a rate similar to that of water. A temperature increase from 25 degrees C to 34 degrees C caused a threefold increase in the evaporation rates of tears in still air. Further increases were observed under a current of dry air. Wax, mucin, lysozyme, or beta-lactoglobulin did not influence significantly the rates of evaporation measured in vitro. In contrast, lipid layered on the surface resulted in a 23% decrease in the rates. Environmental factors affect evaporation rates significantly and should be carefully controlled when performing in vivo measurements. The presence of a lipid layer lowers evaporation rates. The significantly lower rates of evaporation of tears measured in vivo suggest that with the lipid layer intact, the high reserve capacity of the lacrimal gland to provide both unstimulated and stimulated tear flow is more than enough to compensate for evaporative loss. However, with dry eye, increased rates of evaporation and decreased lacrimal tear flow could result in decreased break-up times.

  7. Detection and rate discrimination of amplitude modulation in electrical hearing.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Monita; Oberzut, Cherish

    2011-09-01

    Three experiments were designed to examine temporal envelope processing by cochlear implant (CI) listeners. In experiment 1, the hypothesis that listeners' modulation sensitivity would in part determine their ability to discriminate between temporal modulation rates was examined. Temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) obtained in an amplitude modulation detection (AMD) task were compared to threshold functions obtained in an amplitude modulation rate discrimination (AMRD) task. Statistically significant nonlinear correlations were observed between the two measures. In experiment 2, results of loudness-balancing showed small increases in the loudness of modulated over unmodulated stimuli beyond a modulation depth of 16%. Results of experiment 3 indicated small but statistically significant effects of level-roving on the overall gain of the TMTF, but no impact of level-roving on the average shape of the TMTF across subjects. This suggested that level-roving simply increased the task difficulty for most listeners, but did not indicate increased use of intensity cues under more challenging conditions. Data obtained with one subject, however, suggested that the most sensitive listeners may derive some benefit from intensity cues in these tasks. Overall, results indicated that intensity cues did not play an important role in temporal envelope processing by the average CI listener.

  8. fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Randi H.; Bolling, Danielle Z.; Anderson, Laura C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2014-01-01

    Touch plays a crucial role in social–emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, ‘social brain’ regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations. PMID:23327935

  9. fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Anderson, Laura C; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2014-04-01

    Touch plays a crucial role in social-emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, 'social brain' regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations.

  10. Emotionally Responsive Wearable Technology and Stress Detection for Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Jenny

    2017-09-01

    As humans, we are born with no knowledge of odour. Our sense of smell is linked directly to the limbic system, the emotional part of our brain responsible for memory and behaviour, and therefore, our individual sense of smell is based purely on life's deep experiences and impressions. The roots of "Aromatherapy" can be traced back more than 3,500 years, to a time when essential oils were first recorded in human history for their therapeutic and medicinal properties. However, in the 21(st) century, it remains one of the most controversial complementary therapies applied in medicine because of its pseudoscience connotations and limited available data on health benefits, despite the importance of smell on human health. Here I introduce the concept of "eScent", an emotionally responsive wearable technology that picks up on your emotions and vital signs and sends a personalisable 'scent bubble' to your nose. It combines sensing and dispensing aromatics for immersive experiences and multiple health benefits. It presents an empowering, sensory intervention and resilience builder that emits mood-enhancing aromas in a controllable way, depending on biofeedback. The advantage of essential oils merged with biometric sensors and intelligent tracking devices (e.g. an Apple Watch), could lead to a new palette of scents that are bio-synchronized to an individual's emotional, mental, and/or physical state and in a real-time manner alleviate high levels of stress, thus preventing the risk of a serious mental ill health relapse. Closure of the loop with wearable scent delivery systems requires an innovative, creative and collaborative approach, crossing many disciplines in psychological related sciences, biotechnology and industrial design. Testing such hypotheses in translational human studies is a matter of future research which could not only lead to valuable "prodromal" interventions for psychiatry, but new stress management tools for people suffering from affective disorders.

  11. Affective Instability in Daily Life Is Predicted by Resting Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Kuppens, Peter; Van den Bergh, Omer; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Sütterlin, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that being affectively unstable is an indicator of several forms of psychological maladjustment. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying affective instability. Our research aims to examine the possibility that being prone to extreme fluctuations in one’s feelings is related to maladaptive emotion regulation. We investigated this hypothesis by relating affective instability, assessed in daily life using the experience sampling method, to self-reported emotion regulation strategies and to parasympathetically mediated heart rate variability (HRV), a physiological indicator of emotion regulation capacity. Results showed that HRV was negatively related to instability of positive affect (as measured by mean square successive differences), indicating that individuals with lower parasympathetic tone are emotionally less stable, particularly for positive affect. PMID:24312315

  12. Factors affecting the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    The concentrations of approximately a dozen elements in the products of coal combustion affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used to construct the combustion system. The elements, including H, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe, affect corrosion rates in three ways: as primary corrodants of the materials, as secondary corrodants that affect the activities of the primary corrodants, and by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodants. A full factorial study of corrosion rates performed by varying the concentrations of these elements would involve X{sup n} tests, where X is the number of variations of each element and n is the number of different elements. For three variations (low, medium, and high concentrations) of each of 12 elements, the number of tests is 531,441 for a single temperature and pressure condition. The numbers can be reduced with the use of a fractional factorial test matrix, but the most effective way to perform corrosion tests is to base them on realistic system conditions. In this paper, the effects of the composition and physical state of the products of coal combustion on ceramic corrosion rates are given along with suggestions of appropriate test conditions for specific system components.

  13. Latest generation, wide-angle, high-definition colonoscopes increase adenoma detection rate.

    PubMed

    Adler, Andreas; Aminalai, Alireza; Aschenbeck, Jens; Drossel, Rolf; Mayr, Michael; Scheel, Mathias; Schröder, Andreas; Yenerim, Timur; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Gauger, Ulrich; Roll, Stephanie; Rösch, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Improvements to endoscopy imaging technologies might improve detection rates of colorectal cancer and patient outcomes. We compared the accuracy of the latest generation of endoscopes with older generation models in detection of colorectal adenomas. We compared data from 2 prospective screening colonoscopy studies (the Berlin Colonoscopy Project 6); each study lasted approximately 6 months and included the same 6 colonoscopists, who worked in private practice. Participants in group 1 (n = 1256) were all examined by using the latest generation of wide-angle, high-definition colonoscopes that were manufactured by the same company. Individuals in group 2 (n = 1400) were examined by endoscopists who used routine equipment (a mixture of endoscopes from different companies; none of those used to examine group 1). The adenoma detection rate was calculated on the basis of the number of all adenomas/number of all patients. There were no differences in patient parameters or withdrawal time between groups (8.0 vs 8.2 minutes). The adenoma detection rate was significantly higher in group 1 (0.33) than in group 2 (0.27; P = .01); a greater number of patients with least 1 adenoma were identified in group 1 (22.1%) than in group 2 (18.2%; P = .01). A higher percentage of high-grade dysplastic adenomas were detected in group 1 (1.19%) than in group 2 (0.57%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = .06). The latest generation of wide-angle, high-definition colonoscopes improves rates of adenoma detection by 22%, compared with mixed, older technology endoscopes used in routine private practice. These findings might affect definitions of quality control parameters for colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2012 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of stimulation rate, mode and level on modulation detection by cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2005-09-01

    In cochlear implant (CI) patients, temporal processing is often poorest at low listening levels, making perception difficult for low-amplitude temporal cues that are important for consonant recognition and/or speech perception in noise. It remains unclear how speech processor parameters such as stimulation rate and stimulation mode may affect temporal processing, especially at low listening levels. The present study investigated the effects of these parameters on modulation detection by six CI users. Modulation detection thresholds (MDTs) were measured as functions of stimulation rate, mode, and level. Results show that for all stimulation rate and mode conditions, modulation sensitivity was poorest at quiet listening levels, consistent with results from previous studies. MDTs were better with the lower stimulation rate, especially for quiet-to-medium listening levels. Stimulation mode had no significant effect on MDTs. These results suggest that, although high stimulation rates may better encode temporal information and widen the electrode dynamic range, CI patients may not be able to access these enhanced temporal cues, especially at the lower portions of the dynamic range. Lower stimulation rates may provide better recognition of weak acoustic envelope information.

  15. Loss of Sugar Detection by GLUT2 Affects Glucose Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stolarczyk, Emilie; Le Gall, Maude; Even, Patrick; Houllier, Anne; Serradas, Patricia; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Leturque, Armelle

    2007-01-01

    Background Mammals must sense the amount of sugar available to them and respond appropriately. For many years attention has focused on intracellular glucose sensing derived from glucose metabolism. Here, we studied the detection of extracellular glucose concentrations in vivo by invalidating the transduction pathway downstream from the transporter-detector GLUT2 and measured the physiological impact of this pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings We produced mice that ubiquitously express the largest cytoplasmic loop of GLUT2, blocking glucose-mediated gene expression in vitro without affecting glucose metabolism. Impairment of GLUT2-mediated sugar detection transiently protected transgenic mice against starvation and streptozotocin-induced diabetes, suggesting that both low- and high-glucose concentrations were not detected. Transgenic mice favored lipid oxidation, and oral glucose was slowly cleared from blood due to low insulin production, despite massive urinary glucose excretion. Kidney adaptation was characterized by a lower rate of glucose reabsorption, whereas pancreatic adaptation was associated with a larger number of small islets. Conclusions/Significance Molecular invalidation of sugar sensing in GLUT2-loop transgenic mice changed multiple aspects of glucose homeostasis, highlighting by a top-down approach, the role of membrane glucose receptors as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:18074013

  16. Does acquired resistance of rodent hosts affect metabolic rate of fleas?

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Irina S; Ghazaryan, Lusine; Krasnov, Boris R; Degen, A Allan

    2009-07-01

    We studied whether (a) previous infestation of a rodent host with fleas and (b) the reproductive effort of fleas affect the rate of CO(2) emission in two flea species, host-specific Parapulex chephrenis and host-opportunistic Xenopsylla ramesis when feeding on their typical and atypical rodent hosts. We measured the rate of CO(2) emission in preovipositing and ovipositing female fleas fed on either pristine or previously infested Acomys cahirinus (typical host of P. chephrenis) and Dipodillus dasyurus (typical host of X. ramesis). When P. chephrenis fed on a typical host, its mass-specific rate of CO(2) emission was not affected by previous infestation of a host, whereas when this flea fed on the atypical host, its rate of CO(2) emission was higher when a host was previously infested. This was manifested, however, mainly during the oviposition period. The rate of CO(2) emission by X. ramesis feeding on pristine hosts was significantly lower than in conspecifics feeding on previously infested hosts, independent of host species. Both flea species feeding on their typical hosts emitted CO(2) at similar mass-specific rates during preoviposition and oviposition, except for P. chephrenis feeding on D. dasyurus, which increased its rate during oviposition. There was no effect of the number of eggs produced per female on the rate of CO(2) emission during oviposition.

  17. Efficacy of surgical techniques and factors affecting residual stone rate in the treatment of kidney stones.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Hüseyin; Budak, Salih; Kumsar, Şükrü; Köse, Osman; Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Adsan, Öztuğ

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate, the efficacy of surgical methods and the factors affecting the residual stone rate by scrutinizing retrospectively the patients who had undergone renal stone surgery. Records of 109 cases of kidney stones who had been surgically treated between January 2010, and July 2013 were reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups in terms of surgical treatment; open stone surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). Patients' history, physical examination, biochemical and radiological images and operative and postoperative data were recorded. The patients had undergone PNL (n=74; 67.9%), RIRS (n=22;20.2%), and open renal surgery (n=13; 11.9%). The mean and median ages of the patients were 46±9, 41 (21-75) and, 42 (23-67) years, respectively. The mean stone burden was 2.6±0.7 cm(2) in the PNL, 1.4±0.1 cm(2) in the RIRS, and 3.1±0.9 cm(2) in the open surgery groups. The mean operative times were 126±24 min in the PNL group, 72±12 min in the RIRS group and 82±22 min in the open surgery group. The duration of hospitalisation was 3.1±0.2 days, 1.2±0.3 days and 3.4±1.1 days respectively. While the RIRS group did not need blood transfusion, in the PNL group blood transfusions were given in the PNL (n=18), and open surgery (n=2) groups. Residual stones were detected in the PNL (n=22), open surgery (n=2), and RIRS (n=5) groups. PNL and RIRS have been seen as safe and effective methods in our self application too. However, it should not be forgotten that as a basical method, open surgery may be needed in cases of necessity.

  18. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms among College Students: Item Positioning Affects Symptom Endorsement Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…

  19. Peer Rated Therapeutic Talent and Affective Sensitivity: A Multiple Regression Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Eugene

    1985-01-01

    Used peer rated measures of Warmth, Understanding and Openness to predict scores on the Kagan Affective Sensitivity Scale-E80 among 66 undergraduates who had participated in interpersonal skills training groups. Results indicated that, as an additively composite index of Therapeutic Talent, they were positively correlated with affective…

  20. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms among College Students: Item Positioning Affects Symptom Endorsement Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…

  1. Heart Rate Variability – a Tool to Differentiate Positive and Negative Affective States in Pigs?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The causal neurophysiological processes, such as autonomic nervous system activity, that mediate behavioral and physiological reactivity to an environment have largely been ignored. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a clinical diagnostic tool used to assess affective states (stressful and ple...

  2. Does a Rater's Familiarity with a Candidate's Pronunciation Affect the Rating in Oral Proficiency Interviews?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Michael D.; Mannell, Robert H.; Dunn, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that could affect inter-examiner reliability in the pronunciation assessment component of speaking tests. We hypothesized that the rating of pronunciation is susceptible to variation in assessment due to the amount of exposure examiners have to nonnative English accents. An inter-rater variability analysis was…

  3. Does a Rater's Familiarity with a Candidate's Pronunciation Affect the Rating in Oral Proficiency Interviews?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Michael D.; Mannell, Robert H.; Dunn, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that could affect inter-examiner reliability in the pronunciation assessment component of speaking tests. We hypothesized that the rating of pronunciation is susceptible to variation in assessment due to the amount of exposure examiners have to nonnative English accents. An inter-rater variability analysis was…

  4. Swithchgrass biomass quality as affected by nitrogen rate, harvest time and storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the sustainability of switchgrass biomass quality as affected by storage after harvesting, delaying the harvest time, and applying different rates of nitrogen (N). The present study was conducted at Bristol, South Dakota under switchgrass land previously ...

  5. Observation chart design features affect the detection of patient deterioration: a systematic experimental evaluation.

    PubMed

    Christofidis, Melany J; Hill, Andrew; Horswill, Mark S; Watson, Marcus O

    2016-01-01

    To systematically evaluate the impact of several design features on chart-users' detection of patient deterioration on observation charts with early-warning scoring-systems. Research has shown that observation chart design affects the speed and accuracy with which abnormal observations are detected. However, little is known about the contribution of individual design features to these effects. A 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 mixed factorial design, with data-recording format (drawn dots vs. written numbers), scoring-system integration (integrated colour-based system vs. non-integrated tabular system) and scoring-row placement (grouped vs. separate) varied within-participants and scores (present vs. absent) varied between-participants by random assignment. 205 novice chart-users, tested between March 2011-March 2014, completed 64 trials where they saw real patient data presented on an observation chart. Each participant saw eight cases (four containing abnormal observations) on each of eight designs (which represented a factorial combination of the within-participants variables). On each trial, they assessed whether any of the observations were physiologically abnormal, or whether all observations were normal. Response times and error rates were recorded for each design. Participants responded faster (scores present and absent) and made fewer errors (scores absent) using drawn-dot (vs. written-number) observations and an integrated colour-based (vs. non-integrated tabular) scoring-system. Participants responded faster using grouped (vs. separate) scoring-rows when scores were absent, but separate scoring-rows when scores were present. Our findings suggest that several individual design features can affect novice chart-users' ability to detect patient deterioration. More broadly, the study further demonstrates the need to evaluate chart designs empirically. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Technical interventions to increase adenoma detection rate in colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Rondonotti, Emanuele; Andrealli, Alida; Amato, Arnaldo; Paggi, Silvia; Conti, Clara Benedetta; Spinzi, Giancarlo; Radaelli, Franco

    2016-12-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is the most robust colonoscopy quality metric and clinical studies have adopted it as the ideal method to assess the impact of technical interventions. Areas covered: We reviewed papers focusing on the impact of colonoscopy technical issues on ADR, including withdrawal time and technique, second evaluation of the right colon, patient positional changes, gastrointestinal assistant participation during colonoscopy, water-aided technique, optimization of bowel preparation and antispasmodic administration. Expert commentary: Overall, technical interventions are inexpensive, available worldwide and easy to implement. Some of them, such as the adoption of split dose regimen and slow scope withdrawal to allow a careful inspection, have been demonstrated to significantly improve ADR. Emerging data support the use of water-exchange colonoscopy. According to published studies, other technical interventions seem to provide only marginal benefit to ADR. Unfortunately, the available evidence has methodological limitations, such as small sample sizes, the inclusion of expert endoscopists only and the evaluation of single technical interventions. Additionally, larger studies are needed to clarify whether these interventions might have a higher benefit on low adenoma detectors and whether the implementation of a bundle of them, instead of a single technical maneuver, might have a greater impact on ADR.

  7. Negative affect predicts adults' ratings of the current, but not childhood, impact of adverse childhood events.

    PubMed

    LaNoue, Marianna; Graeber, David A; Helitzer, Deborah L; Fawcett, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Adverse childhood events (ACE's) have been empirically related to a wide range of negative health and mental health outcomes. However, not all individuals who experience ACE's follow a trajectory of poor outcomes, and not all individuals perceive the impact of ACE's as necessarily negative. The purpose of this study was to investigate positive and negative affect as predictors of adults' ratings of both the childhood and adult impact of their childhood adversity. Self-report data on ACE experiences, including number, severity, and 'impact' were collected from 158 community members recruited on the basis of having adverse childhood experiences. Results indicated that, regardless of event severity and number of different types of adverse events experienced, high levels of negative affect were the strongest predictor of whether the adult impact of the adverse childhood events was rated as negative. All individuals rated the childhood impact of events the same. Implications are discussed.

  8. Does the presence or location of graphic markers affect untrained listeners' ratings of severity of dysphonia?

    PubMed

    Nagle, Kathy F; Helou, Leah B; Solomon, Nancy P; Eadie, Tanya L

    2014-07-01

    To determine the effect of presence and location of severity labels for different types of visual analog scales (VAS) on overall severity (OS) ratings in dysphonic speech. Experimental, between group comparisons. Dysphonic and normal voice samples from male and female speakers were presented to inexperienced listeners for judgments of OS. To rate samples, listeners used an undifferentiated 100-mm VAS labeled at the extremes, a VAS with nonlinearly distributed labels as in the "beta" version of the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V), or a VAS with symmetrically distributed labels as in the "official" version of the CAPE-V. Overall, mean OS ratings did not differ significantly across scale types, although ratings using the nonlinearly marked VAS were generally lower than those from other scales. This effect was significant for female speakers whose samples tended toward moderate OS. The ratings distribution, when compiled into 10-mm bins, differed significantly by scale type, with users of the nonlinearly marked scales skewing their ratings toward normal. The presence and placement of labels on VAS did not significantly affect OS ratings overall, but values were significantly lower when rating female voices with the nonlinearly labeled VAS. Results indicate that professionals should specify the scale type used for rating OS and use scales consistently when comparing voices. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  9. The Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project: Detection Rates and Initial Management.

    PubMed

    Waisbourd, Michael; Pruzan, Noelle L; Johnson, Deiana; Ugorets, Angela; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B; Henderer, Jeffery D; Hark, Lisa A; Katz, L Jay

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the detection rates of glaucoma-related diagnoses and the initial treatments received in the Philadelphia Glaucoma Detection and Treatment Project, a community-based initiative aimed at improving the detection, treatment, and follow-up care of individuals at risk for glaucoma. Retrospective analysis. A total of 1649 individuals at risk for glaucoma who were examined and treated in 43 community centers located in underserved communities of Philadelphia. Individuals were enrolled if they were African American aged ≥50 years, were any other adult aged ≥60 years, or had a family history of glaucoma. After attending an informational glaucoma workshop, participants underwent a targeted glaucoma examination including an ocular, medical, and family history; visual acuity testing, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and corneal pachymetry; slit-lamp and optic nerve examination; automated visual field testing; and fundus color photography. If indicated, treatments included selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT), laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI), or IOP-lowering medications. Follow-up examinations were scheduled at the community sites after 4 to 6 weeks or 4 to 6 months, depending on the clinical scenario. Detection rates of glaucoma-related diagnoses and types of treatments administered. Of the 1649 individuals enrolled, 645 (39.1%) received a glaucoma-related diagnosis; 20.0% (n = 330) were identified as open-angle glaucoma (OAG) suspects, 9.2% (n = 151) were identified as having narrow angles (or as a primary angle closure/suspect), and 10.0% (n = 164) were diagnosed with glaucoma, including 9.0% (n = 148) with OAG and 1.0% (n = 16) with angle-closure glaucoma. Overall, 39.0% (n = 64 of 164) of those diagnosed with glaucoma were unaware of their diagnosis. A total of 196 patients (11.9%) received glaucoma-related treatment, including 84 (5.1%) who underwent LPI, 13 (0.8%) who underwent SLT, and 103 (6.2%) who were prescribed IOP

  10. Affect and Self-Rated Health: A Dynamic Approach with Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health (SRH) predicts mortality above and beyond objective health risks and as such comprises an important aspect of health. Established contributors to self-rated health include affect, age, and disease, but neither their dynamic nor their synergistic contributions to SRH have been comprehensively tested. Methods The present study employed older adults (N = 150; M age = 75 years) and a longitudinal design with 6-month waves over up to 5 years. Positive and negative affect (PA, NA), chronic disease, and SRH were assessed at each wave. Results In multilevel models with single predictors, older age, more chronic disease, and higher NA predicted worse SRH, whereas higher PA predicted better SRH. Affect predicted SRH both between and within people. In multilevel models with interactions between affect and age or disease, individual differences in NA predicted worse SRH primarily in older people. Within people, changes in NA were associated with changes in SRH, but more so in younger than in older people. Within people, changes in PA were associated with changes in SRH, but only when health was better than usual. Conclusions There were both dynamic and synergistic relationships between affect and SRH that could only emerge in a multilevel, multivariable design. In the case of NA, between-person, trait NA had the opposite relationship to SRH and age compared with within-person, state NA. Which component of this relationship predicts mortality is an important question for future research. PMID:23914813

  11. Does non-ionizing radiant energy affect determination of the evaporation rate by the gradient method?

    PubMed

    Kjartansson, S; Hammarlund, K; Oberg, P A; Sedin, G

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate whether measurements of the evaporation rate from the skin of newborn infants by the gradient method are affected by the presence of non-ionizing radiation from phototherapy equipment or a radiant heater. The evaporation rate was measured experimentally with the measuring sensors either exposed to or protected from non-ionizing radiation. Either blue light (phototherapy) or infrared light (radiant heater) was used; in the former case the evaporation rate was measured from a beaker of water covered with a semipermeable membrane, and in the latter case from the hand of an adult subject, aluminium foil or with the measuring probe in the air. No adverse effect on the determinations of the evaporation rate was found in the presence of blue light. Infrared radiation caused an error of 0.8 g/m2h when the radiant heater was set at its highest effect level or when the ambient humidity was high. At low and moderate levels the observed evaporation rate was not affected. It is concluded that when clinical measurements are made from the skin of newborn infants nursed under a radiant heater, the evaporation rate can appropriately be determined by the gradient method.

  12. Does overall reinforcer rate affect discrimination of time-based contingencies?

    PubMed

    Cowie, Sarah; Davison, Michael; Blumhardt, Luca; Elliffe, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    Overall reinforcer rate appears to affect choice. The mechanism for such an effect is uncertain, but may relate to reinforcer rate changing the discrimination of the relation between stimuli and reinforcers. We assessed whether a quantitative model based on a stimulus-control approach could be used to account for the effects of overall reinforcer rate on choice under changing time-based contingencies. On a two-key concurrent schedule, the likely availability of a reinforcer reversed when a fixed time had elapsed since the last reinforcer, and the overall reinforcer rate was varied across conditions. Changes in the overall reinforcer rate produced a change in response bias, and some indication of a change in discrimination. These changes in bias and discrimination always occurred quickly, usually within the first session of a condition. The stimulus-control approach provided an excellent account of the data, suggesting that changes in overall reinforcer rate affect choice because they alter the frequency of reinforcers obtained at different times, or in different stimulus contexts, and thus change the discriminated relation between stimuli and reinforcers. These findings support the notion that temporal and spatial discriminations can be understood in terms of discrimination of reinforcers across time and space.

  13. Strain rate does not affect cortical microtubule orientation in the isolated epidermis of sunflower hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Burian, A; Hejnowicz, Z

    2010-05-01

    A hypothesis exists that external and internal factors affect the orientation of cortical microtubules in as much as these lead to changes in cell elongation rate. Factors that stimulate elongation are proposed to lead to transverse microtubule orientation, whereas factors that inhibit elongation lead to longitudinal orientation. The elongation rate is equal to the rate of longitudinal irreversible strain in cell walls. Incubated epidermis peeled from sunflower hypocotyls does not extend unless it is stretched by loading and the pH of the incubation medium is appropriately low. Thus, peels provide a convenient model to investigate the relationship between longitudinal strain rate and cortical microtubule orientation. In the present study, it was found that peeling affects microtubule orientation. Peels were incubated for several hours in Murashige & Skoog medium (both unbuffered and buffered) to attain a steady state of microtubule orientation before loading. The effects of loading and pH on strain rate and orientation of microtubules under the outer epidermal walls were examined in three portions of peels positioned with respect to the cotyledonary node. Appropriate loading caused longitudinal strain of peels at pH 4.5 but not at pH 6.5. However, no clear effect of strain rate on microtubule orientation in the peels was observed. Independent of applied load and pH of the incubation medium, the microtubule orientation remained unchanged, i.e. orientation was mainly oblique. Our results show that strain rate does not affect cortical microtubule orientation in isolated epidermis of the sunflower hypocotyl model system, although orientation could be changed by white light.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Corrosion Rate Prediction Models Utilized for Reinforced Concrete Affected by Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siamphukdee, Kanjana; Collins, Frank; Zou, Roger

    2013-06-01

    Chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion is one of the major causes of premature deterioration in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Given the high maintenance and replacement costs, accurate modeling of RC deterioration is indispensable for ensuring the optimal allocation of limited economic resources. Since corrosion rate is one of the major factors influencing the rate of deterioration, many predictive models exist. However, because the existing models use very different sets of input parameters, the choice of model for RC deterioration is made difficult. Although the factors affecting corrosion rate are frequently reported in the literature, there is no published quantitative study on the sensitivity of predicted corrosion rate to the various input parameters. This paper presents the results of the sensitivity analysis of the input parameters for nine selected corrosion rate prediction models. Three different methods of analysis are used to determine and compare the sensitivity of corrosion rate to various input parameters: (i) univariate regression analysis, (ii) multivariate regression analysis, and (iii) sensitivity index. The results from the analysis have quantitatively verified that the corrosion rate of steel reinforcement bars in RC structures is highly sensitive to corrosion duration time, concrete resistivity, and concrete chloride content. These important findings establish that future empirical models for predicting corrosion rate of RC should carefully consider and incorporate these input parameters.

  15. Children's Access to Dental Care Affected by Reimbursement Rates, Dentist Density, and Dentist Participation in Medicaid.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, Natalia I; Compton, Robert D

    2017-10-01

    To assess the relation between Medicaid reimbursement rates and access to dental care services in the context of dentist density and dentist participation in Medicaid in each state. Data were from Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment reports for 2014, Medicaid reimbursement rate in 2013, dentist density in 2014, and dentist participation in Medicaid in 2014. We assessed patterns of mediation or moderation. Reimbursement rates and access to dental care were directly related at the state level, but no evidence indicated that higher reimbursement rates resulted in overuse of dental services for those who had access. The relation between reimbursement rates and access to care was moderated by dentist density and dentist participation in Medicaid. We estimate that more than 1.8 million additional children would have had access to dental care if reimbursement rates were higher in states with low rates. Children who access the dental care system receive care, but reimbursement may significantly affect access. States with low dentist density and low dentist participation in Medicaid may be able to improve access to dental services significantly by increasing reimbursement rates.

  16. Effect of sertraline on regional metabolic rate in patients with affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, M S; Wu, J; Siegel, B V; Hackett, E; Trenary, M; Abel, L; Reynolds, C

    1997-01-01

    Seventeen patients with major affective disorder completed a 10-week, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline. Patients underwent positron emission tomography with 18F-deoxyglucose and were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at baseline and 10 weeks after treatment with sertraline or placebo. The middle frontal gyrus, an area previously characterized by decreased metabolic activity in depressive patients, showed relatively increased activity on both sides after sertraline when contrasted with temporal and some occipital areas. Sertraline was associated with a significantly increased relative metabolic rate in right parietal lobe and in left occipital area 19, and a decreased metabolic rate in right occipital area 18. Other areas that differed between controls and a larger cohort of 39 depressive patients--including medial frontal lobe, cingulate gyrus, and thalamus--also showed a normalization of metabolic rate after sertraline.

  17. Recent developments in statistical methods for detecting genetic loci affecting phenotypic variability.

    PubMed

    Rönnegård, Lars; Valdar, William

    2012-07-24

    A number of recent works have introduced statistical methods for detecting genetic loci that affect phenotypic variability, which we refer to as variability-controlling quantitative trait loci (vQTL). These are genetic variants whose allelic state predicts how much phenotype values will vary about their expected means. Such loci are of great potential interest in both human and non-human genetic studies, one reason being that a detected vQTL could represent a previously undetected interaction with other genes or environmental factors. The simultaneous publication of these new methods in different journals has in many cases precluded opportunity for comparison. We survey some of these methods, the respective trade-offs they imply, and the connections between them. The methods fall into three main groups: classical non-parametric, fully parametric, and semi-parametric two-stage approximations. Choosing between alternatives involves balancing the need for robustness, flexibility, and speed. For each method, we identify important assumptions and limitations, including those of practical importance, such as their scope for including covariates and random effects. We show in simulations that both parametric methods and their semi-parametric approximations can give elevated false positive rates when they ignore mean-variance relationships intrinsic to the data generation process. We conclude that choice of method depends on the trait distribution, the need to include non-genetic covariates, and the population size and structure, coupled with a critical evaluation of how these fit with the assumptions of the statistical model.

  18. Factors affecting the intramolecular decomposition of hexamethylene triperoxide diamine and implications for detection.

    PubMed

    Steinkamp, Frank Lucus; DeGreeff, Lauryn E; Collins, Greg E; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L

    2016-06-17

    Hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) is an easily synthesized and highly sensitive organic peroxide frequently used as a primary explosive. The vapor pressure of HMTD is very low, impeding vapor detection, especially when compared to other peroxide explosives, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP) or diacetone diperoxide (DADP). Despite this fact, HMTD has a perceptible odor that could be utilized in the indirect detection of HMTD vapor. Headspace measurements above solid HMTD samples confirm that HMTD readily decomposes under ambient conditions to form highly volatile products that include formic acid, ammonia, trimethylamine and formamides. The presence and quantity of these compounds are affected by storage condition, time, and synthetic method, with synthetic method having the most significant effect on the content of the headspace. A kinetic study of HMTD decomposition in solution indicated a correlation between degradation rate and the presence of decomposition species identified in the headspace, and provided further insight into the mechanism of decomposition. The study provided evidence for a proton assisted decomposition reaction with water, as well as an intramolecular decomposition process facilitated by the presence of water.

  19. Factors affecting stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for treatment of staghorn stone.

    PubMed

    el-Nahas, Ahmed R; Eraky, Ibrahim; Shokeir, Ahmed A; Shoma, Ahmed M; el-Assmy, Ahmed M; el-Tabey, Nasr A; Soliman, Shady; Elshal, Ahmed M; el-Kappany, Hamdy A; el-Kenawy, Mahmoud R

    2012-06-01

    To determine factors affecting the stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones. The computerized database of patients who underwent PNL for treatment of staghorn stones between January 2003 and January 2011 was reviewed. All perioperative complications were recorded and classified according to modified Clavien classification system. The stone-free rate was evaluated with low-dose noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free and complication rates. The study included 241 patients (125 male and 116 female) with a mean age of 48.7 ±14.3 years. All patients underwent 251 PNL (10 patients had bilateral stones). The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 56% (142 procedures). At 3 months, the stone-free rate increased to 73% (183 kidneys) after shock wave lithotripsy. Independent risk factors for residual stones were complete staghorn stone and presence of secondary calyceal stones (relative risks were 2.2 and 3.1, respectively). The complication rate was 27% (68 PNL). Independent risk factors for development of complications were performance of the procedure by urologists other than experienced endourologist and positive preoperative urine culture (relative risks were 2.2 and 2.1, respectively). Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PNL are complete staghorn stones and the presence of secondary calyceal stones. Complications are significantly high if PNL is not performed by an experienced endourologist or if preoperative urine culture is positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Keeping Pace with Your Eating: Visual Feedback Affects Eating Rate in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bosworth, Matthew L.; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Deliberately eating at a slower pace promotes satiation and eating quickly has been associated with a higher body mass index. Therefore, understanding factors that affect eating rate should be given high priority. Eating rate is affected by the physical/textural properties of a food, by motivational state, and by portion size and palatability. This study explored the prospect that eating rate is also influenced by a hitherto unexplored cognitive process that uses ongoing perceptual estimates of the volume of food remaining in a container to adjust intake during a meal. A 2 (amount seen; 300ml or 500ml) x 2 (amount eaten; 300ml or 500ml) between-subjects design was employed (10 participants in each condition). In two ‘congruent’ conditions, the same amount was seen at the outset and then subsequently consumed (300ml or 500ml). To dissociate visual feedback of portion size and actual amount consumed, food was covertly added or removed from a bowl using a peristaltic pump. This created two additional ‘incongruent’ conditions, in which 300ml was seen but 500ml was eaten or vice versa. We repeated these conditions using a savoury soup and a sweet dessert. Eating rate (ml per second) was assessed during lunch. After lunch we assessed fullness over a 60-minute period. In the congruent conditions, eating rate was unaffected by the actual volume of food that was consumed (300ml or 500ml). By contrast, we observed a marked difference across the incongruent conditions. Specifically, participants who saw 300ml but actually consumed 500ml ate at a faster rate than participants who saw 500ml but actually consumed 300ml. Participants were unaware that their portion size had been manipulated. Nevertheless, when it disappeared faster or slower than anticipated they adjusted their rate of eating accordingly. This suggests that the control of eating rate involves visual feedback and is not a simple reflexive response to orosensory stimulation. PMID:26828922

  1. Ejaculate and type of freezing extender affect rates of fertilization of horse oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roasa, L M; Choi, Y H; Love, C C; Romo, S; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2007-09-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed on in vitro-matured equine oocytes in three experiments. Frozen-thawed sperm were prepared using swim-up separation and heparin treatment. In Experiment 1, fertilization was achieved with sperm from only one frozen ejaculate of four obtained from the same stallion. Within this ejaculate, fertilization rates were higher with fresh media, as compared to media held for 6-8 days before use (39.6% versus 7.3%, respectively; P<0.001). The type of bovine serum albumin used affected fertilization rates (4% versus 39.6%; P<0.001). To determine if IVF rates were influenced by factors associated with the freezing process (Experiment 2), a single ejaculate from a second stallion was frozen using eight variations in timing of steps in the freezing protocol. There were no differences among treatments in fertilization rates (range, 0-3%). In Experiment 3, fertilization rates of semen frozen in an extender containing 21.5% egg yolk were lower than fertilization rates of semen from the same ejaculate but frozen with a 3% egg-yolk extender (0% versus 15%, respectively; P<0.01). We inferred that rates of equine IVF with frozen-thawed sperm were influenced by ejaculate, the composition and age of the media used, and freezing extender. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ejaculate or extender differences affecting in vitro fertilization in this species. These factors may help to explain the great variability in fertilization rates reported with equine IVF, both among and within laboratories.

  2. Observer effects on the rating of perceived exertion and affect during exercise in recreationally active males.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Rachel; Turner, Louise A; Thomas, Kevin; Ansley, Les; Thompson, Kevin G; Micklewright, Dominic; St Clair Gibson, Alan

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of introducing either a male or female observer on the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and affect of male runners during a moderate intensity running task. 10 moderately active men completed three 20-min. moderate intensity running trials at 60% of their peak treadmill running speed. Each participant completed three trials in random order: control, male-observed, and female-observed, where either the male or female observer joined the trial after 10 min. of the trial had elapsed, during which RPE and affect were monitored. The introduction of a female observer caused a significant decrease in RPE, whereas the introduction of a male observer caused a significant increase in RPE compared to the control trial. Affect was higher in the presence of both a male and female observer compared to control. It was concluded that there is a social, interpersonal, psychological dimension to RPE during exercise.

  3. Size of clearcut opening affects species composition, growth rate, and stand characteristics.

    Treesearch

    Martin E. Dale; H. Clay Smith; Jeffrey N. Pearcy

    1995-01-01

    In the late 1950's and early 1960's, a series of studies was installed in the central hardwood forest to determine if size of clearcut opening affects the growth rate and species composition of new stands. In 1991, about 30 years after cutting, stand data were collected in 89 openings ranging in size from 0.04 to 1.61 acres. The number of stems per acre...

  4. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people’s perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects’ personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs’ emotional facial expressions. PMID:28114335

  5. Reduced nicotine content cigarette advertising: How false beliefs and subjective ratings affect smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Mercincavage, Melissa; Saddleson, Megan L; Gup, Emily; Halstead, Angela; Mays, Darren; Strasser, Andrew A

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco advertising can create false beliefs about health harms that are reinforced by product design features. Reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes may reduce harm, but research has not addressed advertising influences. This study examined RNC cigarette advertising effects on false harm beliefs, and how these beliefs - along with initial subjective ratings of RNC cigarettes - affect subsequent smoking behaviors. We further explored whether subjective ratings moderate associations between false beliefs and behavior. Seventy-seven daily, non-treatment-seeking smokers (66.2% male) participated in the first 15days of a randomized, controlled, open-label RNC cigarette trial. Participants viewed an RNC cigarette advertisement at baseline before completing a 5-day period of preferred brand cigarette use, followed by a 10-day period of RNC cigarette use (0.6mg nicotine yield). Participants provided pre- and post-advertisement beliefs, and subjective ratings and smoking behaviors for cigarettes smoked during laboratory visits. Viewing the advertisement increased beliefs that RNC cigarettes contain less nicotine and are healthier than regular cigarettes (p's<0.001 and 0.011), and decreased the belief that they are less likely to cause cancer (p=0.046). Neither false beliefs nor subjective ratings directly affected smoking behaviors. Significant interactions of strength and taste ratings with beliefs (p's<0.001), however, indicated that among smokers with less negative initial subjective ratings, greater false beliefs were associated with greater RNC cigarette consumption. Smokers may misconstrue RNC cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes. These beliefs, in conjunction with favorable subjective ratings, may increase product use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.

  7. Gait Event Detection during Stair Walking Using a Rate Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Formento, Paola Catalfamo; Acevedo, Ruben; Ghoussayni, Salim; Ewins, David

    2014-01-01

    Gyroscopes have been proposed as sensors for ambulatory gait analysis and functional electrical stimulation systems. These applications often require detection of the initial contact (IC) of the foot with the floor and/or final contact or foot off (FO) from the floor during outdoor walking. Previous investigations have reported the use of a single gyroscope placed on the shank for detection of IC and FO on level ground and incline walking. This paper describes the evaluation of a gyroscope placed on the shank for determination of IC and FO in subjects ascending and descending a set of stairs. Performance was compared with a reference pressure measurement system. The absolute mean difference between the gyroscope and the reference was less than 45 ms for IC and better than 135 ms for FO for both activities. Detection success was over 93%. These results provide preliminary evidence supporting the use of a gyroscope for gait event detection when walking up and down stairs. PMID:24651724

  8. Gait event detection during stair walking using a rate gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Formento, Paola Catalfamo; Acevedo, Ruben; Ghoussayni, Salim; Ewins, David

    2014-03-19

    Gyroscopes have been proposed as sensors for ambulatory gait analysis and functional electrical stimulation systems. These applications often require detection of the initial contact (IC) of the foot with the floor and/or final contact or foot off (FO) from the floor during outdoor walking. Previous investigations have reported the use of a single gyroscope placed on the shank for detection of IC and FO on level ground and incline walking. This paper describes the evaluation of a gyroscope placed on the shank for determination of IC and FO in subjects ascending and descending a set of stairs. Performance was compared with a reference pressure measurement system. The absolute mean difference between the gyroscope and the reference was less than 45 ms for IC and better than 135 ms for FO for both activities. Detection success was over 93%. These results provide preliminary evidence supporting the use of a gyroscope for gait event detection when walking up and down stairs.

  9. Has deinstitutionalization affected inpatient suicide? Psychiatric inpatient suicide rates between 1990 and 2013 in Israel.

    PubMed

    Levi, Linda; Werbeloff, Nomi; Pugachova, Inna; Yoffe, Rinat; Large, Matthew; Davidson, Michael; Weiser, Mark

    2016-05-01

    To examine variations in rates of inpatient suicide and clinical risk factors for this phenomenon. The National Israeli Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry was used to study inpatient suicide. Clinical risk factors for inpatient suicide were examined in a nested case control design. Between 1990 and 2013 there were 326 inpatient suicides, at an average of one inpatient suicide per 1614 admissions. A significant decline in rates of suicide per admission over time (p<0.001) was associated with a reduced number of beds (p<0.001) and a decline in nationwide suicide rates (p=0.001). Clinical risk factors for inpatient suicide were: affective disorders (OR=5.95), schizoaffective disorder (OR=5.27), schizophrenia (OR=3.82), previous suicide attempts (OR=2.59), involuntary hospitalization (OR=1.67), and more previous hospitalizations (OR=1.16,). A multivariate model with sensitivity of 27.3% and specificity of 95.3% for inpatient suicide, showed a positive predictive value of 0.4%. The absolute number and rates of inpatient suicide per admission have decreased over time, probably due to the decreased number of beds lowering total time at risk. Patients with affective and psychotic disorders and with previous suicide attempts have the greatest risk of inpatient suicide. However, clinical characteristics do not enable identification of patients who are at risk for suicide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  11. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  12. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  13. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  14. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  15. Does Favorable Selection Among Medicare Advantage Enrollees Affect Measurement of Hospital Readmission Rates?

    PubMed

    Wong, Edwin S; Hebert, Paul L; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Perkins, Mark; Bryson, Chris L; Au, David H; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2014-08-01

    Literature indicates favorable selection among Medicare Advantage (MA) enrollees compared with fee-for-service (FFS) enrollees. This study examined whether favorable selection into MA affected readmission rates among Medicare-eligible veterans following hospitalization for congestive heart failure in the Veterans Affairs Health System (VA). We measured total (VA + Medicare FFS) 30-day all-cause readmission rates across hospitals and all of VA. We used Heckman's correction to adjust readmission rates to be representative of all Medicare-eligible veterans, not just FFS-enrolled veterans. The adjusted all-cause readmission rate among FFS veterans was 27.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.5% to 27.7%), while the adjusted readmission rate among Medicare-eligible veterans was 25.3% (95% CI = 23.6% to 27.1%) after correcting for favorable selection. Readmission rate estimates among FFS veterans generalize to all Medicare-eligible veterans only after accounting for favorable selection into MA. Estimation of quality metrics should carefully consider sample selection to produce valid policy inferences.

  16. Does a child's language ability affect the correspondence between parent and teacher ratings of ADHD symptoms?

    PubMed

    Gooch, Debbie; Maydew, Harriet; Sears, Claire; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier

    2017-04-05

    Rating scales are often used to identify children with potential Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), yet there are frequently discrepancies between informants which may be moderated by child characteristics. The current study asked whether correspondence between parent and teacher ratings on the Strengths and Weakness of ADHD symptoms and Normal behaviour scale (SWAN) varied systematically with child language ability. Parent and teacher SWAN questionnaires were returned for 200 children (aged 61-81 months); 106 had low language ability (LL) and 94 had typically developing language (TL). After exploring informant correspondence (using Pearson correlation) and the discrepancy between raters, we report inter-class correlation coefficients, to assess inter-rater reliability, and Cohen's kappa, to assess agreement regarding possible ADHD caseness. Correlations between informant ratings on the SWAN were moderate. Children with LL were rated as having increased inattention and hyperactivity relative to children with TL; teachers, however, rated children with LL as having more inattention than parents. Inter-rater reliability of the SWAN was good and there were no systematic differences between the LL and TL groups. Case agreement between parent and teachers was fair; this varied by language group with poorer case agreement for children with LL. Children's language abilities affect the discrepancy between informant ratings of ADHD symptomatology and the agreement between parents and teachers regarding potential ADHD caseness. The assessment of children's core language ability would be a beneficial addition to the ADHD diagnostic process.

  17. Clinical pearls: factors affecting reported contraceptive efficacy rates in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Burkman, Ronald T

    2002-01-01

    Current combination oral contraceptives (OCs) are among the most popular, safe, and effective methods of reversible contraception. There are, however, many factors that can affect contraceptive failure rates as reported in clinical trials, including subject characteristics, factors related to study methodology and data analysis, and publication biases. The variability of these factors among clinical trials makes meaningful comparisons of contraceptive efficacy data across studies difficult, if not misleading or erroneous. It is even more difficult to reconcile the differences between clinical trial efficacy rates and everyday use rates; for instance, the National Survey of Family Growth reported that the rate of OC failure is close to 8% in the United States, which is higher than rates reported in clinical trials. Thus, it is important for the clinician to consider the many factors that can influence reporting of contraceptive failure rates in clinical trials and be aware of the limitations in differentiating OCs on the basis of contraceptive efficacy derived from clinical trial data. Furthermore, clinical trial data may not accurately predict contraceptive efficacy in everyday use.

  18. Factors affecting faecal immunochemical test positive rates: demographic, pathological, behavioural and environmental variables.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Erin L; Osborne, Joanne M; Cole, Stephen R; Bampton, Peter A; Fraser, Robert J L; Young, Graeme P

    2015-12-01

    Positive rates in faecal immunochemical test (FIT)-based colorectal cancer screening programmes vary, suggesting that differences between programmes may affect test results. We examined whether demographic, pathological, behavioural, and environmental factors affected haemoglobin concentration and positive rates where samples are mailed. A retrospective cohort study; 34,298 collection devices were sent, over five years, to screening invitees (median age 60.6). Participant demographics, temperature on sample postage day, and previous screening were recorded. Outcomes from colonoscopy performed within a year following FIT were collected. Multivariate logistic regression identified significant predictors of test positivity. Higher positive rate was independently associated with male gender, older age, lower socioeconomic status, and distally located neoplasia, and negatively associated with previous screening (p < 0.05). Older males had higher faecal haemoglobin concentrations and were less likely to have a false positive result at colonoscopy (p < 0.05). High temperature on the sample postage day was associated with reduced haemoglobin concentration and positivity rate (26-35℃: Odds ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.93), but was not associated with missed significant neoplasia at colonoscopy (p > 0.05). Haemoglobin concentrations, and therefore FIT positivity, were affected by factors that vary between screening programmes. Participant demographics and high temperature at postage had significant effects. The impact of temperature could be reduced by seasonal scheduling of invitations. The importance of screening, and following up positive test results, particularly in older males, should be promoted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Does childhood cancer affect parental divorce rates? A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Syse, Astri; Loge, Jon H; Lyngstad, Torkild H

    2010-02-10

    PURPOSE Cancer in children may profoundly affect parents' personal relationships in terms of psychological stress and an increased care burden. This could hypothetically elevate divorce rates. Few studies on divorce occurrence exist, so the effect of childhood cancers on parental divorce rates was explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on the entire Norwegian married population, age 17 to 69 years, with children age 0 to 20 years in 1974 to 2001 (N = 977,928 couples) were retrieved from the Cancer Registry, the Central Population Register, the Directorate of Taxes, and population censuses. Divorce rates for 4,590 couples who were parenting a child with cancer were compared with those of otherwise similar couples by discrete-time hazard regression models. Results Cancer in a child was not associated with an increased risk of parental divorce overall. An increased divorce rate was observed with Wilms tumor (odds ratio [OR], 1.52) but not with any of the other common childhood cancers. The child's age at diagnosis, time elapsed from diagnosis, and death from cancer did not influence divorce rates significantly. Increased divorce rates were observed for couples in whom the mothers had an education greater than high school level (OR, 1.16); the risk was particularly high shortly after diagnosis, for CNS cancers and Wilms tumors, for couples with children 0 to 9 years of age at diagnosis, and after a child's death. CONCLUSION This large, registry-based study shows that cancer in children is not associated with an increased parental divorce rate, except with Wilms tumors. Couples in whom the wife is highly educated appear to face increased divorce rates after a child's cancer, and this may warrant additional study.

  20. A variable fork rate affects timing of origin firing and S phase dynamics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Supady, Adriana; Klipp, Edda; Barberis, Matteo

    2013-10-20

    Activation (in the following referred to as firing) of replication origins is a continuous and irreversible process regulated by availability of DNA replication molecules and cyclin-dependent kinase activities, which are often altered in human cancers. The temporal, progressive origin firing throughout S phase appears as a characteristic replication profile, and computational models have been developed to describe this process. Although evidence from yeast to human indicates that a range of replication fork rates is observed experimentally in order to complete a timely S phase, those models incorporate velocities that are uniform across the genome. Taking advantage of the availability of replication profiles, chromosomal position and replication timing, here we investigated how fork rate may affect origin firing in budding yeast. Our analysis suggested that patterns of origin firing can be observed from a modulation of the fork rate that strongly correlates with origin density. Replication profiles of chromosomes with a low origin density were fitted with a variable fork rate, whereas for the ones with a high origin density a constant fork rate was appropriate. This indeed supports the previously reported correlation between inter-origin distance and fork rate changes. Intriguingly, the calculated correlation between fork rate and timing of origin firing allowed the estimation of firing efficiencies for the replication origins. This approach correctly retrieved origin efficiencies previously determined for chromosome VI and provided testable prediction for other chromosomal origins. Our results gain deeper insights into the temporal coordination of genome duplication, indicating that control of the replication fork rate is required for the timely origin firing during S phase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dynamic N-occupancy models: estimating demographic rates and local abundance from detection-nondetection data.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Sam; Yackulic, Charles B; Saunders, Sarah P; Reid, Janice; Davis, Ray; Zipkin, Elise F

    2016-12-01

    Occupancy modeling is a widely used analytical technique for assessing species distributions and range dynamics. However, occupancy analyses frequently ignore variation in abundance of occupied sites, even though site abundances affect many of the parameters being estimated (e.g., extinction, colonization, detection probability). We introduce a new model ("dynamic N-occupancy") capable of providing accurate estimates of local abundance, population gains (reproduction/immigration), and apparent survival probabilities while accounting for imperfect detection using only detection/nondetection data. Our model utilizes heterogeneity in detection based on variations in site abundances to estimate latent demographic rates via a dynamic N-mixture modeling framework. We validate our model using simulations across a wide range of values and examine the data requirements, including the number of years and survey sites needed, for unbiased and precise estimation of parameters. We apply our model to estimate spatiotemporal heterogeneity in abundances of barred owls (Strix varia) within a recently invaded region in Oregon (USA). Estimates of apparent survival and population gains are consistent with those from a nearby radio-tracking study and elucidate how barred owl abundances have increased dramatically over time. The dynamic N-occupancy model greatly improves inferences on individual-level population processes from occupancy data by explicitly modeling the latent population structure. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Noninvasive detection of gas exchange rate by near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guodong; Mao, Zongzhen; Wang, Bangde

    2008-12-01

    In order to study the relationship among the oxygen concentration in skeletal muscle tissues and the heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during incremental running exercises on a treadmill, a near-infrared spectroscopy muscle oxygen monitor system is employed to measure the relative change in muscle oxygenation, with the heart rate, oxygen uptake, production of carbon dioxide (VCO2) and respiratory exchange ratio are recorded synchronously. The results indicate parameters mentioned above present regular changes during the incremental exercise. High correlations are discovered between relative change of oxy-hemoglobin concentration and heart rate, oxygen uptake, respiratory exchange ratio at the significance level (P=0.01). This research might introduce a new measurement technology and/or a novel biological monitoring parameter to the evaluation of physical function status, control the training intensity, estimation of the effectiveness of exercise. Keywords: near-infrared spectroscopy; muscle oxygen concentration; heart rate; oxygen uptake; respiratory exchange ratio.

  3. Respiratory rate detection using a wearable electromagnetic generator.

    PubMed

    Padasdao, Bryson; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Wearable health and fitness monitoring systems are a promising new way of collecting physiological data without inconveniencing patients. Human energy harvesting may be used to power wearable sensors. In this paper, we explore this zero-net energy biosensor concept through sensing and harvesting of respiratory effort. An off the shelf servo motor operation in reverse was used to successfully obtain respiratory rate, while also demonstrating significant harvested power. These are the first reported respiratory rate sensing results using electromagnetic generators.

  4. Energy Expenditure is Affected by Rate of Accumulation of Sleep Deficit in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Aimee M.; Stephenson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Short sleep is a putative risk factor for obesity. However, prolonged total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to negative energy balance and weight loss in rodents, whereas sleep-restricted humans tend to gain weight. We hypothesized that energy expenditure (V̇O2) is influenced by the rate of accumulation of sleep deficit in rats. Design and Intervention: Six Sprague-Dawley rats underwent chronic sleep-restriction (CSR, 6-h sleep opportunity at ZT0-6 for 10 days) and stimulus-control protocols (CON, 12-h sleep opportunity for 10 days, matched number of stimuli) in a balanced cross-over design. Four additional rats underwent TSD (4 days). Sleep was manipulated using a motor-driven walking wheel. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalography, electromyography, and body temperature were measured by telemetry, and V̇O2, by respirometry. Total sleep deficits of 55.1 ± 6.4 hours, 31.8 ± 6.8 hours, and 38.2 ± 2.3 hours accumulated over the CSR, CON, and TSD protocols, respectively. Responses to TSD confirmed previous reports of elevated V̇O2 and body temperature. These responses were attenuated in CSR, despite a greater cumulative sleep deficit. Rate of rise of O2 was strongly correlated with rate of accumulation of sleep deficit, above a threshold deficit of 3.6 h·day−1. Conclusion: The change in V̇O2 is affected by rate of accumulation of sleep deficit and not the total sleep loss accrued. Negative energy balance, observed during TSD, is strongly attenuated when brief daily sleep opportunities are available to rats (CSR), despite greater accumulated sleep deficit. Citation: Caron AM; Stephenson R. Energy expenditure is affected by rate of accumulation of sleep deficit in rats. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1226-1235. PMID:20857870

  5. Heart rate, activity, duration, and affect in added-purpose versus single-purpose jumping activities.

    PubMed

    Bloch, M W; Smith, D A; Nelson, D L

    1989-01-01

    This research replicates and extends an occupational therapy research project reported by Kircher in 1984. Thirty women aged 18 to 31 years jumped with a rope on one day and jumped in place on another day in a counterbalanced design. Each subject stopped jumping when she reached what she perceived as the very hard level on the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion (Borg, 1970). Differences from Kircher's design included an imposed target zone formula for safe maximum exertion, use of a portable, more easily read heart rate monitor (Exersentry, Model 3), use of the Osgood Semantic Differential to measure affective meanings, and asking the subjects to identify the type of jumping they preferred. Data analysis supported Kircher's finding that at the given rate of perceived exertion, heart rate increase after jumping rope was significantly higher (p = .01) than after jumping without a rope. The difference in duration of jumping approached significance (p = .06), but in the direction opposite to what Kircher found. There were no significant differences in affective meanings or preference. Results are discussed in terms of the need for a growing body of occupational therapy literature in regard to the purposefulness of activities.

  6. Affective norms for 720 French words rated by children and adolescents (FANchild).

    PubMed

    Monnier, Catherine; Syssau, Arielle

    2016-12-07

    FANchild (French Affective Norms for Children) provides norms of valence and arousal for a large corpus of French words (N = 720) rated by 908 French children and adolescents (ages 7, 9, 11, and 13). The ratings were made using the Self-Assessment Manikin (Lang, 1980). Because it combines evaluations of arousal and valence and includes ratings provided by 7-, 9-, 11-, and 13-year-olds, this database complements and extends existing French-language databases. Good response reliability was observed in each of the four age groups. Despite a significant level of consensus, we found age differences in both the valence and arousal ratings: Seven- and 9-year-old children gave higher mean valence and arousal ratings than did the other age groups. Moreover, the tendency to judge words positively (i.e., positive bias) decreased with age. This age- and sex-related database will enable French-speaking researchers to study how the emotional character of words influences their cognitive processing, and how this influence evolves with age. FANchild is available at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Catherine_Monnier/contributions .

  7. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates for a multispecies sample of neotropical birds from Panama have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses by Kart et al. (1990. Am. Nat. 136:277-91) contradicted that view, suggesting tropical birds may not have systematically high survival rates. A persistent criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses using these models indicate that, despite some variation among species, overall estimates of survival rates for understory birds in Panama are not strongly affected by adjustments for transients. We also compare estimates of survival rates based on mark-recapture models with observations of colour-marked birds. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to combinations of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding sources of this variation is the challenge for future work.

  8. Technologies that affect the weaning rate in beef cattle production systems.

    PubMed

    Dill, Matheus Dhein; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Costa, João Batista Gonçalves; Canellas, Leonardo Canali; Peripolli, Vanessa; Neto, José Braccini; Sant'Anna, Danilo Menezes; McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the differences between weaning rates and technologies adopted by farmers in cow-calf production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Interviews were carried out with 73 farmers about 48 technologies that could affect reproductive performance. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis using a non-hierarchical cluster method. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Three distinct clusters of farmers were created (R (2) = 0.90), named as low (LWR), intermediate (IWR), and high (HWR) weaning rate, with 100, 91, and 96 % of the farmers identified within their respective groups and average weaning rates of 59, 72, and 83 %, respectively. IWR and HWR farmers used more improved natural pasture, fixed-time artificial insemination, selection for birth weight, and proteinated salt compared to LWR. HWR farmers used more stocking rate control, and IWR farmers used more ultrasound to evaluate reproductive performance compared to the LWR group. IWR and HWR adopted more technologies related to nutrition and reproductive aspects of the herd in comparison to LWR. We concluded that farmers with higher technology use on farm had higher weaning rates which could be used to benefit less efficient farmers.

  9. Identifying Critical Road Geometry Parameters Affecting Crash Rate and Crash Type

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lannér, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this traffic safety investigation was to find critical road parameters affecting crash rate (CR). The study was based on crash and road maintenance data from Western Sweden. More than 3000 crashes, reported from 2000 to 2005 on median-separated roads, were collected and combined with road geometric and surface data. The statistical analysis showed variations in CR when road elements changed confirming that road characteristics affect CR. The findings indicated that large radii right-turn curves were more dangerous than left curves, in particular, during lane changing manoeuvres. However sharper curves are more dangerous in both left and right curves. Moreover, motorway carriageways with no or limited shoulders have the highest CR when compared to other carriageway widths, while one lane carriageway sections on 2+1 roads were the safest. Road surface results showed that both wheel rut depth and road roughness have negative impacts on traffic safety. PMID:20184841

  10. Ambulatory respiratory rate detection using ECG and a triaxial accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alexander M; Ferdosi, Nima; Narasimhan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of respiratory rate in ambulatory conditions has widespread applications for screening of respiratory diseases and remote patient monitoring. Unfortunately, minimally obtrusive techniques often suffer from low accuracy. In this paper, we describe an algorithm with low computational complexity for combining multiple respiratory measurements to estimate breathing rate from an unobtrusive chest patch sensor. Respiratory rates derived from the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and modulation of the QRS amplitude of electrocardiography (ECG) are combined with a respiratory rate derived from tri-axial accelerometer data. The three respiration rates are combined by a weighted average using weights based on quality metrics for each signal. The algorithm was evaluated on 15 elderly subjects who performed spontaneous and metronome breathing as well as a variety of activities of daily living (ADLs). When compared to a reference device, the mean absolute error was 1.02 breaths per minute (BrPM) during metronome breathing, 1.67 BrPM during spontaneous breathing, and 2.03 BrPM during ADLs.

  11. Physiological Arousal and Juvenile Psychopathy: Is Low Resting Heart Rate Associated with Affective Dimensions?

    PubMed

    Kavish, Nicholas; Vaughn, Michael G; Cho, Eunsoo; Barth, Amy; Boutwell, Brian; Vaughn, Sharon; Capin, Philip; Stillman, Stephanie; Martinez, Leticia

    2017-03-01

    A wealth of past research has examined the relationship between low physiological arousal and violence or antisocial behavior. Relatively little research; however, has examined the relationship between low physiological arousal and psychopathic traits, with even less having been conducted with juveniles. The current study attempts to fill this gap by evaluating juveniles' physiological arousal using resting heart rate and their levels of psychopathic traits. Results suggest that there is indeed an inverse relationship between resting heart rate and the affective traits of psychopathy (Uncaring, Callousness, and Unemotionality) as well as Thrill or Sensation Seeking in males. No significant relationship was found in females. Implications of the findings as well as study limitations and future directions are discussed.

  12. Factors affecting the age of onset and rate of progression of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, J.; Munoz, D.; Merskey, H.; Hachinski, V.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the role of cerebrovascular disease, sex, education, occupation, year of birth, leukoaraiosis, congophilic angiopathy, family history, and other demographic factors on the reported age of onset and rate of progression of Alzheimer's disease.
METHODS—Analysis of data from the University of Western Ontario Dementia Study, a prospective longitudinal study of dementia patients with clinical and 6 monthly psychometric follow up to postmortem based in a university memory disorders clinic with secondary and tertiary referrals. There were 172 patients with dementia. The main outcome measures were the reported age of onset of cognitive decline as described by the family (available in 168) and rate of progression as measured during the linear phase of the extended scale for dementia, which could be calculated in 66. The cases subdivided into 49 cases of definite Alzheimer's disease without infarcts, 25 cases of otherwise definite Alzheimer's disease with infarcts, 79 cases of probable Alzheimer's disease without infarcts, and 19 such cases with infarcts.
RESULTS—The age of onset was not influenced by the rate of progression, the presence of cerebral infarcts, or congophilic angiopathy. Educational level, occupational level, sex, family history, year of birth, reported age of onset, severity at entry, an ischaemic score, and the presence of leukoariosis, affected neither age of onset nor the rate of progression. An earlier year of birth had a major effect and higher education had a minor effect on earlier age of onset. The earlier the year of birth, the lower the educational level and the greater the accrual of cerebral infarcts.
CONCLUSIONS—Contrary to series without pathological verification, age of onset in this study was not affected by occupation. Education had a modest effect on earlier reported onset, probably reflecting earlier recognition. As birth year has a strong effect on educational level and the occurrence of cerebral infarcts

  13. Digital mammography: its impact on recall rates and cancer detection rates in a small community-based radiology practice.

    PubMed

    Vernacchia, Fred S; Pena, Zachary G

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact on recall rates and cancer detection when converting from film-screen to digital mammography in a small community-based radiology practice. Audits of our institution's records were compiled during a 4-year period: the year before conversion to digital mammography, and the first, second, and third years after conversion. We found that 4,838 film-screenings were performed during the period of audit 1 without the use of the digital system; 6,875 screenings were performed using the digital system during audit 2; 7,379 screenings during audit 3; and 7,294 during audit 4. Cancer detection and recall rates for each of the audits were determined retrospectively. Results were compared between audits using the chi-square test. Cancer detection rates increased from 4.1/1,000 during film-screenings to 7.9/1,000 (p = 0.01) the year after the introduction of digital mammography. Recall rates also increased the year after digital mammography was introduced, from 6.1% to 10.2% (p < 0.001). Audit 3 showed no statistically significant difference in cancer detection rates from those in audit 1, decreasing to 5.1/1,000 (p = 0.42). However, audit 4 noted an increase in the cancer detection rate to 6.9/1,000. In this community-based mammography practice, an increase in the cancer detection rate occurred initially during the conversion from film-screen to digital mammography, which subsequently decreased but remained higher than before digital conversion. This study suggests that the new technology alone is responsible for the increased number of cancers detected in patients with dense breasts that were not previously found using film-screening.

  14. Cholinesterase affects dynamic transduction properties from vagal stimulation to heart rate.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, T; Kawada, T; Sugimachi, M; Miyano, H; Sato, T; Shishido, T; Yoshimura, R; Miyashita, H; Sunagawa, K

    1998-08-01

    Recent investigations in our laboratory using a Gaussian white noise technique showed that the transfer function representing the dynamic properties of transduction from vagus nerve activity to heart rate had characteristics of a first-order low-pass filter. However, the physiological determinants of those characteristics remain to be elucidated. In this study, we stimulated the vagus nerve according to a Gaussian white noise pattern to estimate the transfer function from vagal stimulation to the heart rate response in anesthetized rabbits and examined how changes in acetylcholine kinetics affected the transfer function. We found that although increases in the mean frequency of vagal stimulation from 5 to 10 Hz did not change the characteristics of the transfer function, administration of neostigmine (30 microg . kg-1 . h-1 iv), a cholinesterase inhibitor, increased the dynamic gain from 8.19 +/- 3.66 to 11.7 +/- 4.88 beats . min-1 . Hz-1 (P < 0.05), decreased the corner frequency from 0.12 +/- 0.05 to 0.04 +/- 0.01 Hz (P < 0.01), and increased the lag time from 0.17 +/- 0.12 to 0.27 +/- 0.08 s (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the rate of acetylcholine degradation at the neuroeffector junction, rather than the amount of available acetylcholine, plays a key role in determining the dynamic properties of transduction from vagus nerve activity to heart rate.

  15. Systematic review of first-trimester ultrasound screening for detection of fetal structural anomalies and factors that affect screening performance.

    PubMed

    Karim, J N; Roberts, N W; Salomon, L J; Papageorghiou, A T

    2017-10-01

    To determine the sensitivity and specificity of first-trimester ultrasound for the detection of fetal abnormalities and to establish which factors might impact on screening performance. A systematic review and meta-analysis of all relevant publications was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of two-dimensional transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound in the detection of congenital fetal anomalies prior to 14 weeks' gestation. The reference standard was detection of abnormalities at birth or postmortem. Factors that may impact on detection rates were evaluated, including population characteristics, gestational age, healthcare setting, ultrasound modality, use of an anatomical checklist for detection of first-trimester anomalies and type of malformation included in the study. In an effort to reduce the impact of study heterogeneity on the results of the meta-analysis, data from the studies were analyzed within subgroups of major anomalies vs all types of anomaly and low-risk/unselected populations vs high-risk populations. An electronic search (until 29 July 2015) identified 2225 relevant citations, from which a total of 30 studies, published between 1991 and 2014, were selected for inclusion. The pooled estimate for the detection of major abnormalities in low-risk or unselected populations (19 studies, 115 731 fetuses) was 46.10% (95% CI, 36.88-55.46%). The detection rate for all abnormalities in low-risk or unselected populations (14 studies, 97 976 fetuses) was 32.35% (95% CI, 22.45-43.12%), whereas in high-risk populations (six studies, 2841 fetuses) it was 61.18% (95% CI, 37.71-82.19%). Of the factors examined for their impact on detection rate, there was a statistically significant relationship (P < 0.0001) between the use of a standardized anatomical protocol during first-trimester anomaly screening and its sensitivity for the detection of fetal anomalies in all subgroups. Detection rates of first-trimester fetal anomalies ranged from 32

  16. Urbanicity Affects Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Reactivity to a Speech Stressor in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Armstead, Cheryl A.; Anderson, Norman B.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Hébert, James R.; Muna, Walinjom F. T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the interactive influence of urbanicity on cardiovascular reactivity to speech stressors among 103 urban and 93 rural Cameroonians. Method Heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure (HR, SBP, and DBP) changes from baseline were assessed during a speech preparation period, speech stressor task, and post-speech recovery period. Results After adjusting for income, age, BMI, and sex, urban subjects showed greater diastolic reactivity to the pre-speech and speech conditions than to recovery. Urban subjects also showed greater reactivity to the speech stressor than to other conditions. Urban subjects showed greater HR reactivity to the speech stressor. Rural subjects showed greater diastolic reactivity to the pre-speech and speech stressor and less recovery. Conclusion Urbanicity affects blood pressure and heart rate differently for urban and rural Cameroonians. It also affects recovery from stressors. More exploration into the influence of urbanization on hypertension risk factors in developing countries is warranted. (Ethn Dis. 2010;20:251–256) PMID:20828098

  17. Individual variation affects departure rate from the natal pond in an ephemeral pond-breeding anuran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelgren, N.D.; Rosenberg, D.K.; Heppell, S.S.; Gitelman, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Frogs exhibit extreme plasticity and individual variation in growth and behavior during metamorphosis, driven by interactions of intrinsic state factors and extrinsic environmental factors. In northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora Baird and Girard, 1852), we studied the timing of departure from the natal pond as it relates to date and size of individuals at metamorphosis in the context of environmental uncertainty. To affect body size at metamorphosis, we manipulated food availability during the larval stage for a sample (317) of 1045 uniquely marked individuals and released them at their natal ponds as newly metamorphosed frogs. We recaptured 34% of marked frogs in pitfall traps as they departed and related the timing of their initial terrestrial movements to individual properties using a time-to-event model. Median age at first capture was 4 and 9 days postmetamorphosis at two sites. The rate of departure was positively related to body size and to date of metamorphosis. Departure rate was strongly negatively related to time elapsed since rainfall, and this effect was diminished for smaller and later metamorphosing frogs. Individual variation in metamorphic traits thus affects individuals' responses to environmental variability, supporting a behavioral link with variation in survival associated with these same metamorphic traits. ?? 2008 NRC.

  18. Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.

  19. Spectral photoplethysmographic imaging sensor fusion for enhanced heart rate detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Continuous heart rate monitoring can provide important context for quantitative clinical assessment in scenarios such as long-term health monitoring and disability prevention. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems are particularly useful for such monitoring scenarios as contact-based devices pose problems related to comfort and mobility. Each pixel can be regarded as a virtual PPG sensor, thus enabling simultaneous measurements of multiple skin sites. Existing PPGI systems analyze temporal PPGI sensor uctuations related to hemodynamic pulsations across a region of interest to extract the blood pulse signal. However, due to spatially varying optical properties of the skin, the blood pulse signal may not be consistent across all PPGI sensors, leading to inaccurate heart rate monitoring. To increase the hemodynamic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we propose a novel spectral PPGI sensor fusion method for enhanced estimation of the true blood pulse signal. Motivated by the observation that PPGI sensors with high hemodynamic SNR exhibit a spectral energy peak at the heart rate frequency, an entropy-based fusion model was formulated to combine PPGI sensors based on the sensors' spectral energy distribution. The optical PPGI device comprised a near infrared (NIR) sensitive camera and an 850 nm LED. Spatially uniform irradiance was achieved by placing optical elements along the LED beam, providing consistent illumination across the skin area. Dual-mode temporally coded illumination was used to negate the temporal effect of ambient illumination. Experimental results show that the spectrally weighted PPGI method can accurately and consistently extract heart rate information where traditional region-based averaging fails.

  20. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State is...

  1. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State is...

  2. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State is...

  3. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State is...

  4. 45 CFR 260.73 - How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How do existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? 260.73 Section 260.73 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... existing welfare reform waivers affect the participation rates and work rules? (a) If a State is...

  5. How do "ghost transients" from past earthquakes affect GPS slip rate estimates on southern California faults?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, E. H.; Pollitz, F. F.; Thatcher, W. R.; Onishi, C. T.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the extent to which viscoelastic velocity perturbations (or "ghost transients") from individual fault segments can affect elastic block model-based inferences of fault slip rates from GPS velocity fields. We focus on the southern California GPS velocity field, exploring the effects of known, large earthquakes for two end-member rheological structures. Our approach is to compute, at each GPS site, the velocity perturbation relative to a cycle average for earthquake cycles on particular fault segments. We then correct the SCEC CMM4.0 velocity field for this perturbation and invert the corrected field for fault slip rates. We find that if asthenosphere viscosities are low (3 × 1018 Pa s), the current GPS velocity field is significantly perturbed by viscoelastic earthquake cycle effects associated with the San Andreas Fault segment that last ruptured in 1857 (Mw = 7.9). Correcting the GPS velocity field for this perturbation (or "ghost transient") adds about 5 mm/a to the SAF slip rate along the Mojave and San Bernardino segments. The GPS velocity perturbations due to large earthquakes on the Garlock Fault (most recently, events in the early 1600s) and the White Wolf Fault (most recently, the Mw = 7.3 1952 Kern County earthquake) are smaller and do not influence block-model inverted fault slip rates. This suggests that either the large discrepancy between geodetic and geologic slip rates for the Garlock Fault is not due to a ghost transient or that un-modeled transients from recent Mojave earthquakes may influence the GPS velocity field.

  6. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ) over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics and assessed postoperative complications including seroma, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, and need for reintervention. We reviewed ADM thickness and time to Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain removal. Results. Fifty-five patients underwent 77 ADM-associated tissue expander based breast reconstructions, with average age of 48.1 years and average BMI of 25.9. Average ADM thickness was 1.21 mm. We found higher complication rates in the thick ADM group. Significant associations were found between smokers and skin necrosis (p < 0.0001) and seroma and prolonged JP drainage (p = 0.0004); radiated reconstructed breasts were more likely to suffer infections (p = 0.0085), and elevated BMI is a significant predictor for increased infection rate (p = 0.0037). Conclusion. We found a trend toward increased complication rates with thicker ADMs. In the future, larger prospective studies evaluating thickness may provide more information. PMID:27190645

  7. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    De Rubeis, Jannika; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lange, Diane; Pawelzik, Markus; van Randenborgh, Annette; Victor, Daniela; Vögele, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing). We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate) to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball) in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52) and disorganized attachment status (n = 45). Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051). These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship. PMID:26943924

  8. The Rate of Change of Vergence-Accommodation Conflict Affects Visual Discomfort

    PubMed Central

    Kane, David; Banks, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort. PMID:25448713

  9. Caffeine does not affect the rate of gain in spine bone in young women.

    PubMed

    Packard, P T; Recker, R R

    1996-01-01

    The effect of nutrition and dietary caffeine consumption and physical activity on bone gain in women during the third decade of life was determined in a longitudinal, descriptive study of 145 healthy college-aged women. Estimates of caffeine and other dietary intakes were determined by repeated 7-day diet diaries. Measurements of bone mineral in the spine and total body mineral content were determined by dual-photon absorptiometry. Measures of physical activity were ascertained by physical activity monitor. The mean estimated caffeine, calcium and protein intakes for the young women students were 103 +/- 106 mg/day (mean +/- SEM), 831 +/- 334 mg/day (mean +/- SEM) and 66 +/- 16 g/day (mean +/- SEM) respectively. The median rates of bone gain were 5.9% for spine bone mineral content, 6.8% for spine bone mineral density and 12.5% for total body bone mineral. In a multiple regression analysis the significant predictors (+ or -) of the rate of gain were age (-), activity (+), calcium intake (+) and protein intake (-). Caffeine consumption was not associated with significant reduction in rates of bone gain. While calcium and protein nutrition affect bone gain in the third decade of life in women, moderate caffeine intake (one cup of coffee per day, or 103 mg) appears to be safe with respect to bone health in this age group.

  10. The rate of change of vergence-accommodation conflict affects visual discomfort.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joohwan; Kane, David; Banks, Martin S

    2014-12-01

    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort.

  11. A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Mannering, Fred L; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E

    2012-03-01

    A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data instead of count data creates a problem in that roadway segments that do not have any observed accidents over the identified time period create continuous data that are left-censored at zero. Past research has appropriately applied a tobit regression model to address this censoring problem, but this research has been limited in accounting for unobserved heterogeneity because it has been assumed that the parameter estimates are fixed over roadway-segment observations. Using 9-year data from urban interstates in Indiana, this paper employs a random-parameters tobit regression to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the study of motor-vehicle accident rates. The empirical results show that the random-parameters tobit model outperforms its fixed-parameters counterpart and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident rates on specific roadway segments.

  12. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    PubMed

    De Rubeis, Jannika; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lange, Diane; Pawelzik, Markus; van Randenborgh, Annette; Victor, Daniela; Vögele, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing). We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate) to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball) in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52) and disorganized attachment status (n = 45). Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051). These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  13. Using a Calculated Pulse Rate with an Artificial Neural Network to Detect Irregular Interbeats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Bih-Chyun; Lin, Wen-Piao

    2016-03-01

    Heart rate is an important clinical measure that is often used in pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Valid detection of irregular heartbeats is crucial in the clinical practice. We propose an artificial neural network using the calculated pulse rate to detect irregular interbeats. The proposed system measures the calculated pulse rate to determine an "irregular interbeat on" or "irregular interbeat off" event. If an irregular interbeat is detected, the proposed system produces a danger warning, which is helpful for clinicians. If a non-irregular interbeat is detected, the proposed system displays the calculated pulse rate. We include a flow chart of the proposed software. In an experiment, we measure the calculated pulse rates and achieve an error percentage of < 3% in 20 participants with a wide age range. When we use the calculated pulse rates to detect irregular interbeats, we find such irregular interbeats in eight participants.

  14. Multiple, zonal and multi-zone adenoma detection rates according to quality of cleansing during colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Cesare; Maselli, Roberta; Pontone, Paolo; Angelini, Rita; Brighi, Manuela; Patrizi, Gregorio; Pironi, Daniele; Magliocca, Fabio Massimo; Filippini, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Background The safety and diagnostic accuracy of colonoscopy depend on the quality of colon cleansing. The adenoma detection rate is usually used as a quality measurement score. Objective We aimed to introduce and evaluate three new parameters to determine polyps and adenomas segmental localization and their distribution in association with different bowel preparation levels during colonoscopy. We introduce the multiple adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy), the zonal adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy in different colon areas (rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, ascending and cecum colon)), and multi-zone adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy in different colon areas with at least a segment between them with or without lesions (i.e. rectum and descending colon with or without lesions in the sigmoid)). Methods We prospectively enrolled outpatients who underwent colonoscopy from January 2013 to October 2014. The bowel preparation quality, according to the Aronchick modified scale, number and location of lesions, Paris classification and histology, were recorded. The multiple adenoma/polyp detection rate, zonal adenoma/polyp detection rate, and multi-zone adenoma/polyp detection rate were determined. Results In total, 519 consecutive patients (266/253 M/F; mean age 55.3 ± 12.8 years) were enrolled. The adenoma and polyp detection rates were 21% and 35%, respectively. Multiple adenomas were detected in 28 patients. Adenoma and polyp detection rate and new parameters were statistically significantly higher in the optimal as compared with the adequate bowel preparation. Conclusions An optimal level of bowel preparation was strongly associated not only with a higher adenoma detection rate, but also with a higher chance of detecting multiple clinically relevant lesions in adjacent or

  15. Honeybees enhance reproduction without affecting the outcrossing rate in endemic Pedicularis densispica (Orobanchaceae).

    PubMed

    Xia, J; Sun, S G; Guo, Y H

    2007-11-01

    There has been substantial debate in recent years surrounding the impact of introduced honeybees on native biota. This study reports on an investigation of Pedicularis densispica, a subalpine annual herb endemic to Southwest China, in an attempt to determine the impact of introduced domestic honeybees on pollen dispersal and thus on their reproductive success and mating system. Honeybees were introduced into the study site in 2004, and a sudden seasonal pollinator shift from bumblebees to honeybees was observed. Intra- and inter-plant visits by different pollinators were recorded in the field in 2003 and 2004. Fruit and seed sets prior to and after the pollinator shift were measured. Experimental pollinations were performed to characterize the breeding system. Outcrossing rates at the seed stage were estimated for both years using RAPD markers. Our results indicated that honeybees foraged between plants more frequently than bumblebees did. Our results also revealed that the introduction of honeybees significantly enhanced reproductive success. However, no significant difference was detected between the outcrossing rates due to bumblebee and honeybee pollination. P. densispica was almost completely outcrossing ( T(m) = 0.956 and 0.967, respectively in 2003 and 2004) but partially self-compatible. This study presents the first report of the outcrossing rate in the genus pedicularis and reveals a limited influence of pollination on the mating system in P. densispica. The pollinator shift did not reduce reproductive success of the plants and honeybees may be used to augment pollinator services for nectariferous P. densispica.

  16. Digital mammography screening: association between detection rate and nuclear grade of ductal carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Weigel, Stefanie; Heindel, Walter; Heidinger, Oliver; Berkemeyer, Shoma; Hense, Hans Werner

    2014-04-01

    To determine the relationship between overall detection rates of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and the specific detection rates of low-, intermediate-, and high-grade DCIS at the start of a digital mammography screening program. The study was approved by the local ethics board and did not require informed consent. Data were included of the first round of digital mammography examinations, performed in 17 screening units in women aged 50-69 years from 2005 to 2008. Grading was provided by the cancer registry for 1018 DCIS cases. The association between the overall cancer detection rate (cases per 100 women screened) and the separate cancer detection rate for invasive cancers and for DCIS was assessed. Likewise, the total DCIS cancer detection rate was separated into rates for low, intermediate, and high grades. Spearman rank correlations were used for analysis. The overall cancer detection rate correlated with both the cancer detection rate of invasive cancers and the cancer detection rate of DCIS (r = 0.96 and r = 0.88, respectively; P < .001 for both). The cancer detection rate of total DCIS with grading varied among screening units (range, 0.05-0.25), it was borderline not significantly correlated with the cancer detection rate of low-grade DCIS (range, 0.004-0.05; r = 0.49; P = .052), and it showed significant correlations with higher cancer detection rate of intermediate-grade DCIS (range, 0.02-0.12; r = 0.89; P < .001) and of high-grade DCIS (range, 0.03-0.11; r = 0.88; P < .001). This study demonstrates that high overall cancer detection rates in digital mammography screening are related to high detection rates of invasive cancers, as well as DCIS. Increases in the detection rates of DCIS were not driven by disproportionate increments of the slowly progressive low-grade subtype but rather by increased rates of intermediate- and high-grade subtypes that carry a higher risk of transition to invasive cancers. RSNA, 2013

  17. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release.

  18. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2–10 months for known ADRs and 19–44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0–122.5 days and 185.5–306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release. PMID:26641634

  19. Does the physician density affect suicide rates among adolescents and young adults?

    PubMed

    Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Higher physician-per-population ratio may improve access to medical care, decrease waiting times, increase the opportunity for contact between the patient and physician, and has been associated with earlier stage of diagnosis and better prognosis in patients with some medical conditions. It appears that an increase in the physician density generally improves the quality of healthcare and should prevent suicides. However, several research reports suggest that of those people who committed suicide, many saw a physician shortly before their suicide completion. Besides, studies show that many physicians do not have adequate training in suicide evaluation techniques and treatment approaches to suicidal patients, especially young people. Therefore, we hypothesized that the physician density does not affect suicide rates among adolescents and young adults. Correlations were computed to examine relationships between suicide rates in 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old males and females and the physician density in European countries. Countries were also divided into two groups, according to the median split of the physician density. Suicide rates among 15-24-year-old and 25-34-year-old males and females in these two groups were compared using the t-test. We found no relationships between suicide rates and the physician density. The results of our study suggest that either physicians do not take an appropriate care of suicidal patients, or suicide is not preventable, or both. The results of this study should be treated with caution because many confounding variables are not taken into account.

  20. Energy expenditure is affected by rate of accumulation of sleep deficit in rats.

    PubMed

    Caron, Aimee M; Stephenson, Richard

    2010-09-01

    Short sleep is a putative risk factor for obesity. However, prolonged total sleep deprivation (TSD) leads to negative energy balance and weight loss in rodents, whereas sleep-restricted humans tend to gain weight. We hypothesized that energy expenditure (VO2) is influenced by the rate of accumulation of sleep deficit in rats. Six Sprague-Dawley rats underwent chronic sleep-restriction (CSR, 6-h sleep opportunity at ZT0-6 for 10 days) and stimulus-control protocols (CON, 12-h sleep opportunity for 10 days, matched number of stimuli) in a balanced cross-over design. Four additional rats underwent TSD (4 days). Sleep was manipulated using a motor-driven walking wheel. Electroencephalography, electromyography, and body temperature were measured by telemetry, and VO2, by respirometry. Total sleep deficits of 55.1 +/- 6.4 hours, 31.8 +/- 6.8 hours, and 38.2 +/- 2.3 hours accumulated over the CSR, CON, and TSD protocols, respectively. Responses to TSD confirmed previous reports of elevated VO2 and body temperature. These responses were attenuated in CSR, despite a greater cumulative sleep deficit. Rate of rise of VO2 was strongly correlated with rate of accumulation of sleep deficit, above a threshold deficit of 3.6 h x day(-1). The change in VO2 is affected by rate of accumulation of sleep deficit and not the total sleep loss accrued. Negative energy balance, observed during TSD, is strongly attenuated when brief daily sleep opportunities are available to rats (CSR), despite greater accumulated sleep deficit.

  1. Muscular contraction mode differently affects autonomic control during heart rate matched exercise.

    PubMed

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Martin; Gonschorek, Ray; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. The aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN) and isometric contractions (ISO) at a similar, low heart rate (HR) level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs) performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively), rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV) indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a non-linear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  2. Influenza and Pneumonia Vaccination Rates and Factors Affecting Vaccination among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Aka Aktürk, Ülkü; Görek Dilektaşlı, Aslı; Şengül, Aysun; Musaffa Salepçi, Banu; Oktay, Nuray; Düger, Mustafa; Arık Taşyıkan, Hale; Durmuş Koçak, Nagihan

    2017-05-05

    Influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients to decrease associated risks at all stages. Although the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is high in our country, as previously reported, vaccination rates are low. To assess the vaccination rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and factors that may affect these. Multi-centre cross-sectional study. Patients admitted to the chest diseases clinics of six different centres between 1 February 2013 and 1 January 2014 with a pre-diagnosis of Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to the Global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease criteria, who were in a stable condition were included in the study. The survey, which included demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, severity of disease and vaccination information, was first tested on a small patient population before the study. The survey was completed by the investigators after obtaining written informed consent. The average age of the 296 included patients was 66.3±9.3 years and 91.9% were male. Of these, 36.5% had the influenza vaccination and 14.1% had the pneumococcal vaccination. The most common reason for not being vaccinated was 'no recommendation by doctors': 57.2% in the case of influenza vaccinations, and 46.8% in the case of pneumococcal vaccinations. Both vaccination rates were significantly higher in those patients with comorbidities (influenza vaccination p<0.001; pneumococcal vaccination p=0.06). There was no significant correlation with age, gender, smoking and severity of disease (p>0.05). Vaccination rates were significantly higher in those with a white-collar occupation and higher education level, and who presented to a university hospital (p<0.001). Medical professionals do not request vaccinations as often as the International Guidelines suggest for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. Awareness of the importance of

  3. Dehydration rate and time of desiccation affect recovery of the lichen alga [corrected] Trebouxia erici: alternative and classical protective mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, Francisco; de Nova, Pedro Gómez; Esteban-Carrasco, Alberto; Zapata, José M; Barreno, Eva; Guéra, Alfredo

    2009-12-01

    The mechanisms involved in desiccation tolerance of lichens and their photobionts are still poorly understood. To better understand these mechanisms we have studied dehydration rate and desiccation time in Trebouxia, the most abundant chlorophytic photobiont in lichen. Our findings indicate that the drying rate has a profound effect on the recovery of photosynthetic activity of algae after rehydration, greater than the effects of desiccation duration. The basal fluorescence (F'(o)) values in desiccated algae were significantly higher after rapid dehydration, than after slow dehydration, suggesting higher levels of light energy dissipation in slow-dried algae. Higher values of PSII electron transport were recovered after rehydration of slow-dried Trebouxia erici compared to rapid-dried algae. The main component of non-photochemical quenching after slow dehydration was energy dependent (q (E)), whereas after fast dehydration it was photoinhibition (q (I)). Although q (E) seems to play a role during desiccation recovery, no significant variations were detected in the xanthophyll cycle components. Desiccation did not affect PSI functionality. Classical antioxidant activities like superoxide dismutase or peroxidase decreased during desiccation and early recovery. Dehydrins were detected in the lichen-forming algae T. erici and were constitutively expressed. There is probably a minimal period required to develop strategies which will facilitate transition to the desiccated state in this algae. In this process, the xanthophyll cycle and classical antioxidant mechanisms play a very limited role, if any. However, our results indicate that there is an alternative mechanism of light energy dissipation during desiccation, where activation is dependent on a sufficiently slow dehydration rate.

  4. Myasthenia gravis in patients with thymoma affects survival rate following extended thymectomy

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHEFENG; CUI, YOUBIN; JIA, RUI; XUE, LEI; LIANG, HUAGANG

    2016-01-01

    Thymomas are the most common adult tumors in the anterior mediastinal compartment, and a significant amount of thymomas are complicated by myasthenia gravis (MG). Extended thymectomy (ET) is the primary treatment method for thymomas and is used to completely resect possible ectopic thymus to avoid recurrence. Studies on the effect of MG in thymoma patients following ET are limited. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the presence of MG affects the prognosis of patients with thymoma. The present study consisted of 104 patients with thymoma that underwent ET; 61 men (58.7%) and 43 women (41.3%) (mean age, 54.6 years). In total, 38 patients had MG (36.5%). MG was most frequently observed in World Health Organization (WHO) classification type B2 thymoma compared with other types of thymoma. During the 5-year follow-up period, 11 patients succumbed to a recurrence of thymoma or respiratory failure due to MG. The overall 5-year survival rate in patients without MG or with MG was 89.1 and 76.0%, respectively. The overall survival (OS) rate in patients with Masaoka stages I + II and III + IV was 90.0 and 68.0%, respectively. The OS rate in patients with WHO type A + AB + B1 and type B2 + B3 was 96.9 and 76.8%, respectively. The patients with MG (P=0.026), Masaoka stages III + IV (P=0.008) and WHO type B2 + B3 (P=0.032) had a poorer prognosis compared with patients without these characteristics. Furthermore, multivariate analysis by Cox regression revealed that age [P=0.032; relative risk (RR)=1.097; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.097–1.192] and MG (P=0.042; RR=0.167; 95% CI=0.037–0.940) significantly affected OS rate. In summary, ET is a reliable method for the treatment of thymoma. Long-term survival is expected for patients at early Masaoka stages, and for patients without MG. The prognosis of patients with thymomas with MG is poorer compared with patients without MG. The present findings provide useful information for the future management of

  5. The value of prior information for detection of QTL affecting longitudinal traits: an example using Von Bertalanffy growth function.

    PubMed

    Varona, L; Gómez-Raya, L; Rauw, W M; Ovilo, C; Clop, A; Noguera, J L

    2005-02-01

    A Bayesian procedure is presented for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting longitudinal traits. The statistical model assumes a QTL affecting the prior distribution of the parameters of a given production function, under a hierarchical Bayesian scheme. Marginal posterior distributions for the effects associated with the QTL are calculated using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Furthermore, the Bayesian analysis allows the use of some available relevant information that can improve the detection of the QTL substantially. To illustrate the procedure, an example of QTL detection using the Von Bertalanffy growth function is presented with a F2 pig population bred from Iberian boars and Landrace sows. Animals of the F2 population were genotyped for seven markers in chromosome 2 (SSC2). Two prior distributions for the mean effect of the parameters related with birth and adult weight were compared. On the one hand, vague prior distributions were used, and, on the other, there were assumed univariate Gaussian distributions that ensure biologically meaningful adult and birth weights on the posterior growth curves. Results from the second prior distribution supported the presence of QTL, by showing that individuals with both alleles of Iberian origin had lower rates of maturation. On the contrary, when vague priors were used, the procedure was not able to detect QTL.

  6. Does epidural analgesia affect the rate of spontaneous obstetric lacerations in normal births?

    PubMed

    Albers, Leah L; Migliaccio, Laura; Bedrick, Edward J; Teaf, Dusty; Peralta, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The precise relationship between epidural use and genital tract lacerations in normal childbirth is unclear. Data from a clinical trial on measures to lower genital tract trauma in vaginal birth were used for a secondary analysis. The goal was to assess whether epidurals affect the rate of spontaneous obstetric lacerations in normal vaginal births. Maternal characteristics and intrapartum variables were compared in women who did and did not use an epidural in labor, and also in those with and without any sutured lacerations following vaginal birth. Variables that were statistically different in both cases were entered into regression equations for simultaneous adjustment. Epidural use was not an independent predictor of sutured lacerations. Predictors of sutured lacerations included nulliparity, a prolonged second stage, being non-Hispanic white, and an infant birthweight greater than 4000 grams. Elements of midwifery management need further research.

  7. The thiamine content of phytoplankton cells is affected by abiotic stress and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Sylvander, Peter; Häubner, Norbert; Snoeijs, Pauline

    2013-04-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is produced by many plants, algae and bacteria, but by higher trophic levels, it must be acquired through the diet. We experimentally investigated how the thiamine content of six phytoplankton species belonging to five different phyla is affected by abiotic stress caused by changes in temperature, salinity and photon flux density. Correlations between growth rate and thiamine content per cell were negative for the five eukaryotic species, but not for the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena. We demonstrate a high variability in thiamine content among phytoplankton species, with the highest content in N. spumigena. Salinity was the factor with the strongest effect, followed by temperature and photon flux density, although the responses varied between the investigated phytoplankton species. Our results suggest that regime shifts in phytoplankton community composition through large-scale environmental changes has the potential to alter the thiamine availability for higher trophic levels. A decreased access to this essential vitamin may have serious consequences for aquatic food webs.

  8. Factors affecting success rate of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) courses.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Mohammad, Alshafi; Jamal, Abdulla; Chetty, Diane; Gautam, Subash C; van Dyke, Murray; Branicki, Frank J

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the factors that affect passing the assessments for successful completion of the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) Provider Courses in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The ATLS Provider Course has been taught in three medical centers in the UAE since 2004. A total of 1,041 doctors completed the course during the period 2004-2010. A special protocol was designed to enter data accrued for each course, participants' demographics, and assessments, including the final results. Direct logistic regression was performed to define factors affecting success in multiple choice questions (MCQ) and in the practical initial assessment station exam. The studied variables included the year, the course site, speciality, level of practice, and pre-test score. The majority of participants were surgeons (33.2 %), followed by Emergency Medicine physicians (27.3 %). The logistic regression model showed that having a low pre-test score (p < 0.0001) and being a family medicine practitioner (p < 0.0001) increased the likelihood of failing the MCQ exam. The chance of passing the end of course practical exam increased with time (p = 0.002). A low pre-test score (p < 0.0001) and being examined in site A (p = 0.04) increased the chance of failing in the initial assessment exam. The pass rate for the ATLS exam significantly increased after adoption of the interactive approach to teaching. Prior knowledge and preparation is essential to passing the ATLS exam. Doctors who deal clinically with all aspects of airway, breathing, and circulation of the ATLS course are more likely to pass the MCQ exam in our setting, followed by those who usually manage only the circulation or disability aspects of ATLS. It is possible that the interactive approach to teaching ATLS has improved the overall ATLS success rate.

  9. How do rain drops affect atmospheric radiative fluxes and heating rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Peter; Chiu, Christine; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Allan, Richard; Hill, Adrian

    2017-04-01

    General circulation model (GCM) radiation schemes are becoming increasingly sophisticated; the treatment of clouds has become more refined while the number of gases and aerosol species that are represented continues to rise. However, all GCMs continue to ignore the radiative effect of precipitating liquid water (rain). The resulting biases are expected to be small, but they have yet to be quantified. This study aims to provide a first estimate of how rain affects the atmospheric radiation budget at a range of temporal and spatial scales. This is a necessary first step towards determining whether GCM radiation schemes should include rain. We define the rain radiative effect here as the difference between radiative fluxes calculated with and without rain. We perform calculations using the SOCRATES (Suite Of Community Radiative Transfer codes based on Edwards-Slingo) radiative tranfser scheme. Input atmospheric profiles are taken from two weeks (one week during boreal winter and the other during boreal summer) of a Goddard multiscale modelling framework (MMF) simulation. Based on these calculations, we shall quantify and explain how rain affects the transfer of radiation through the atmosphere and thus radiative heating rates and fluxes at both the surface and top of atmosphere.

  10. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence diagram of physiological and environmental factors affecting heart rate variability: an extended literature overview.

    PubMed

    Fatisson, Julien; Oswald, Victor; Lalonde, François

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) corresponds to the adaptation of the heart to any stimulus. In fact, among the pathologies affecting HRV the most, there are the cardiovascular diseases and depressive disorders, which are associated with high medical cost in Western societies. Consequently, HRV is now widely used as an index of health. In order to better understand how this adaptation takes place, it is necessary to examine which factors directly influence HRV, whether they have a physiological or environmental origin. The primary objective of this research is therefore to conduct a literature review in order to get a comprehensive overview of the subject. The system of these factors affecting HRV can be divided into the following five categories: physiological and pathological factors, environmental factors, lifestyle factors, non-modifiable factors and effects. The direct interrelationships between these factors and HRV can be regrouped into an influence diagram. This diagram can therefore serve as a basis to improve daily clinical practice as well as help design even more precise research protocols.

  12. How the growth rate of host cells affects cancer risk in a deterministic way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draghi, Clément; Viger, Louise; Denis, Fabrice; Letellier, Christophe

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that cancers are significantly more often encountered in some tissues than in other ones. In this paper, by using a deterministic model describing the interactions between host, effector immune and tumor cells at the tissue level, we show that this can be explained by the dependency of tumor growth on parameter values characterizing the type as well as the state of the tissue considered due to the "way of life" (environmental factors, food consumption, drinking or smoking habits, etc.). Our approach is purely deterministic and, consequently, the strong correlation (r = 0.99) between the number of detectable growing tumors and the growth rate of cells from the nesting tissue can be explained without evoking random mutation arising during DNA replications in nonmalignant cells or "bad luck". Strategies to limit the mortality induced by cancer could therefore be well based on improving the way of life, that is, by better preserving the tissue where mutant cells randomly arise.

  13. Atrial fibrillation detection by heart rate variability in Poincare plot.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinho; Lee, Sangwook; Jeon, Moongu

    2009-12-11

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is one of the prominent causes of stroke, and its risk increases with age. We need to detect AFib correctly as early as possible to avoid medical disaster because it is likely to proceed into a more serious form in short time. If we can make a portable AFib monitoring system, it will be helpful to many old people because we cannot predict when a patient will have a spasm of AFib. We analyzed heart beat variability from inter-beat intervals obtained by a wavelet-based detector. We made a Poincare plot using the inter-beat intervals. By analyzing the plot, we extracted three feature measures characterizing AFib and non-AFib: the number of clusters, mean stepping increment of inter-beat intervals, and dispersion of the points around a diagonal line in the plot. We divided distribution of the number of clusters into two and calculated mean value of the lower part by k-means clustering method. We classified data whose number of clusters is more than one and less than this mean value as non-AFib data. In the other case, we tried to discriminate AFib from non-AFib using support vector machine with the other feature measures: the mean stepping increment and dispersion of the points in the Poincare plot. We found that Poincare plot from non-AFib data showed some pattern, while the plot from AFib data showed irregularly irregular shape. In case of non-AFib data, the definite pattern in the plot manifested itself with some limited number of clusters or closely packed one cluster. In case of AFib data, the number of clusters in the plot was one or too many. We evaluated the accuracy using leave-one-out cross-validation. Mean sensitivity and mean specificity were 91.4% and 92.9% respectively. Because pulse beats of ventricles are less likely to be influenced by baseline wandering and noise, we used the inter-beat intervals to diagnose AFib. We visually displayed regularity of the inter-beat intervals by way of Poincare plot. We tried to design an

  14. Do ABFM board pass rates or additional curriculum activities affect match rates for family medicine residency programs?

    PubMed

    Mims, Lisa D; Mainous, Arch G; Chirina, Svetlana; Carek, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    While standard characteristics, such as location and size of family medicine residency programs, have been found to be significantly associated with initial Match rates, the association of characteristics potentially related to quality or non-Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) required curricular activities (NRCA) with initial Match rates has not been previously studied. The aim of this study is to examine the association between initial program Match rates and previously uninvestigated measures of potential quality and curriculum. Using information from the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), American Medical Association's (AMA) FRIEDA Online® database, and National Resident Matching Program (NRMP), program-specific information was obtained. Five-year aggregate initial Match rates and American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) board pass rates were calculated. The relationship between program quality characteristics, such as accreditation cycle length, ABFM examination pass rate, and participation in NRCA (ie, specialized tracks, Preparing the Personal Physician for Practice (P4) initiative, integrative or alternative medicine curriculum, and opportunities for additional training through international experiences or training beyond accredited length), and initial program Match rates were analyzed. Fifty-two percent of residency programs have ABFM board pass rates ? 90%. The initial Match rate for programs was significantly associated with regional location and program size. No significant difference in initial Match rates was found between programs with board pass rates ? or < 90% or those with reported additional curricula. The selected measures of program quality and reported non-ACGME required curricular activities, as listed in the AMA FRIEDA Online® database, are not associated with initial Match rates.

  15. Co-cultivation of human aortic smooth muscle cells with epicardial adipocytes affects their proliferation rate.

    PubMed

    Ždychová, J; Čejková, S; Králová Lesná, I; Králová, A; Malušková, J; Janoušek, L; Kazdová, L

    2014-01-01

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Adipocytes produce several bioactive paracrine substances that can affect the growth and migration of VSMCs. Our study focuses on the direct effect of the bioactive substances in conditioned media (CM) that was obtained by incubation with primary adipocyte-derived cell lines, including cell lines derived from both preadipocytes and from more mature cells, on the proliferation rate of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). We used a Luminex assay to measure the adipokine content of the CM and showed that there was a higher concentration of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in renal preadipocyte-CM compared with the HAoSMC control (p<0.5). The addition of both renal preadipocyte- and epicardial adipocyte- CM resulted in the elevated production of vascular endothelial growth factor compared with the control HASoSMC CM (p<0.001). The adiponectin content in renal adipocyte-CM was increased compared to all the remaining adipocyte-CM (p<0.01). Moreover, the results showed a higher proliferation rate of HAoSMCs after co-culture with epicardial adipocyte-CM compared to the HAoSMC control (p<0.05). These results suggest that bioactive substances produced by adipocytes have a stimulatory effect on the proliferation of VSMCs.

  16. Aerobic exercise affects T-wave alternans and heart rate variability in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shen, T-W; Wen, H-J

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 10-week high-intermediate exercise intervention on heart rate variability/microscopic T-wave alternans (HRV/MTWA) in healthy postmenopausal women (PMW). 62 healthy PMW were recruited and randomly divided into an exercise group (EG, n=32) or a control group (CG, n=30). The EG attended a progressively high-intermediate intensity (75-85% heart rate reserve, HRR) group-based step aerobic exercise program for 10 weeks, whereas the CG did not receive any intervention. HRV/MTWA, blood chemistry and physical function-related indices were measured before and within 24 h following the 10-week exercise program. Following a 10-week exercise intervention, the EG had significant mean decreases in SDNN (22.4%), CV (21.4%), NN50 (72.6%), LF (ms2; 55.8%), HF (ms2; 39.9%), LF (n.u.; 11.2%), and LF/HF (34.5%). The EG showed a significant increase in HF (n.u.; 40.0%) and CAV (44.4%), whereas there was no significant finding in the CG. The coupling effect of MTWA and HRV after intervention suggests that exercise intervention potentially affects regulation changes of the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular condition synchronically in PMW. The rebound effect of biomarkers has proven to be a considerable factor on HRV/MTWA measurements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Daniel W; Rocke, Tonie E; Streich, Sean P; Brown, Nathanael L; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥ 65/ha (or ≥ 1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

  18. Investigation of factors affecting terrestrial passive sampling device performance and uptake rates in laboratory chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.; Weisskopf, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDS) for soil contaminant characterization shows extreme promise. The use of PSDs increases ease and speed of analysis, decreases solvent usage and cost, and minimizes the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a high sampling frequency, providing a more thorough site characterization than traditional methods. The authors have conducted both laboratory and field studies with terrestrial PSDS. Laboratory studies demonstrated the concentration and moisture dependence of sampler uptake and provided an estimate of the optimal field sampling time for soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These PSDs were also used to accurately estimate PCB concentrations at hazardous waste site where concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 200 ug PCB/g soil. However, PSDs in the field had sampling rates approximately three times greater than in the laboratory. As a result several factors affecting PSD sampling rates and/or performance in laboratory chambers were evaluated. The parameters investigated were soil bulk density or compactness, chamber size and air flow. The chemicals used in these studies included two PCB congeners (52 and 153), three organochlorine pesticides (DDT, dieldrin and methoxychlor), three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon and terbufos) and three herbicides (alachlor, atrazine and metolachlor).

  19. Neuronal uptake affects dynamic characteristics of heart rate response to sympathetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, T; Kawada, T; Sugimachi, M; Miyano, H; Sato, T; Shishido, T; Yoshimura, R; Miyashita, H; Inagaki, M; Alexander, J; Sunagawa, K

    1999-07-01

    Recently, studies in our laboratory involving the use of a Gaussian white noise technique demonstrated that the transfer function from sympathetic stimulation frequency to heart rate (HR) response showed dynamic characteristics of a second-order low-pass filter. However, determinants for the characteristics remain to be established. We examined the effect of an increase in mean sympathetic stimulation frequency and that of a blockade of the neuronal uptake mechanism on the transfer function in anesthetized rabbits. We found that increasing mean sympathetic stimulation frequency from 1 to 4 Hz significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the dynamic gain of the transfer function without affecting other parameters, such as the natural frequency, lag time, or damping coefficient. In contrast, the administration of desipramine (0.3 mg/kg iv), a neuronal uptake blocking agent, significantly (P < 0.01) decreased both the dynamic gain and the natural frequency and prolonged the lag time. These results suggest that the removal rate of norepinephrine at the neuroeffector junction, rather than the amount of available norepinephrine, plays an important role in determining the low-pass filter characteristics of the HR response to sympathetic stimulation.

  20. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Brown, Nathanael L.; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥65/ha (or ≥1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

  1. Recall and Cancer Detection Rates for Screening Mammography: Finding the Sweet Spot.

    PubMed

    Grabler, Paula; Sighoko, Dominique; Wang, Lilian; Allgood, Kristi; Ansell, David

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the optimal screening mammography recall rate range on the basis of cancer detection rates among breast imaging specialists at an academic institution. Medical outcome audit data collected in accordance with the Mammography Quality Standards Act from September 1, 2007, through August 31, 2012, were reviewed. Cancer detection rates were calculated from 984 screen-detected cancers identified in 188,959 total digital screening mammograms. The percentages of minimally invasive and early-stage cancers were also calculated. The 75 annual recall rates were analyzed two ways. First, they were separated into recall groups to assess cancer detection rate variation by the recall categories using rate ratios: less than 10%, 10% to less than 12%, 12% to less than 14%, and 14% or higher. Next, a linear regression with bootstrap bias correction was performed to assess changes in cancer detection rate with each unit increase in the recall rate up to 20%, with the recall category of less than 7% taken as reference. Annual cancer detection rates for a physician were grouped according to annual percentage recall rate. Statistically significantly higher cancer detection rates were seen for recall rates 12% or higher, with rate ratios of 1.75 (95% CI, 1.40-2.19) and 2.06 (95% CI, 1.72-2.46) for the recall groups 12% to less than 14% and 14% and higher, respectively, compared with the less than 10% group. When taking the category 12% to less than 14% as the reference, there were no statistically significant differences between recall groups 12% to less than 14% and 14% or higher in cancer detection rate. A statistically significant increase in the cancer detection rate with each unit increase in the recall rate was seen only for recall rates 12% or higher. These observations suggest that the sweet spot for optimal cancer detection is in the recall rate range 12% to less than 14% with the incremental benefit above this to be relatively small. A

  2. General traits of personality and affectivity as predictors of satisfaction in intimate relationships: evidence from self- and partner-ratings.

    PubMed

    Watson, D; Hubbard, B; Wiese, D

    2000-06-01

    Self- and partner-ratings on trait affect and the Big Five were obtained from 74 married and 136 dating couples. The relationship satisfaction of each person (the "target") was correlated with four sets of ratings: (a) target's self-rated personality, (b) target's partner-rated personality, (c) partner's self-rated personality, and (d) partner's target-rated personality. Self- and partner-ratings of the target's personality yielded very similar results. Negative and positive affectivity were consistent predictors of satisfaction in both samples. Conscientiousness and agreeableness were reliably related to satisfaction in the dating couples, whereas extraversion consistently correlated with satisfaction in the married couples. These traits jointly predicted as much as 34% (self-ratings) and 26% (partner-ratings) of the variance in satisfaction. In contrast, the partner's personality played a lesser role in satisfaction.

  3. Recent heart rate history affects QT interval duration in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Riad, Fady S.; Razak, Eathar; Saba, Samir; Shalaby, Alaa; Nemec, Jan

    2017-01-01

    QT interval prolongation is associated with a risk of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. QT interval shortens with increasing heart rate and correction for this effect is necessary for meaningful QT interval assessment. We aim to improve current methods of correcting the QT interval during atrial fibrillation (AF). Digitized Holter recordings were analyzed from patients with AF. Models of QT interval dependence on RR intervals were tested by sorting the beats into 20 bins based on corrected RR interval and assessing ST-T variability within the bins. Signal-averaging within bins was performed to determine QT/RR dependence. Data from 30 patients (29 men, 69.3±7.3 years) were evaluated. QT behavior in AF is well described by a linear function (slope ~0.19) of steady-state corrected RR interval. Corrected RR is calculated as a combination of an exponential weight function with time-constant of 2 minutes and a smaller “immediate response” component (weight ~ 0.18). This model performs significantly (p<0.0001) better than models based on instantaneous RR interval only including Bazett and Fridericia. It also outperforms models based on shorter time-constants and other previously proposed models. This model may improve detection of repolarization delay in AF. QT response to heart rate changes in AF is similar to previously published QT dynamics during atrial pacing and in sinus rhythm. PMID:28273109

  4. Recent heart rate history affects QT interval duration in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Riad, Fady S; Razak, Eathar; Saba, Samir; Shalaby, Alaa; Nemec, Jan

    2017-01-01

    QT interval prolongation is associated with a risk of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. QT interval shortens with increasing heart rate and correction for this effect is necessary for meaningful QT interval assessment. We aim to improve current methods of correcting the QT interval during atrial fibrillation (AF). Digitized Holter recordings were analyzed from patients with AF. Models of QT interval dependence on RR intervals were tested by sorting the beats into 20 bins based on corrected RR interval and assessing ST-T variability within the bins. Signal-averaging within bins was performed to determine QT/RR dependence. Data from 30 patients (29 men, 69.3±7.3 years) were evaluated. QT behavior in AF is well described by a linear function (slope ~0.19) of steady-state corrected RR interval. Corrected RR is calculated as a combination of an exponential weight function with time-constant of 2 minutes and a smaller "immediate response" component (weight ~ 0.18). This model performs significantly (p<0.0001) better than models based on instantaneous RR interval only including Bazett and Fridericia. It also outperforms models based on shorter time-constants and other previously proposed models. This model may improve detection of repolarization delay in AF. QT response to heart rate changes in AF is similar to previously published QT dynamics during atrial pacing and in sinus rhythm.

  5. Factors affecting pregnancy rate to estrous synchronization and fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Echternkamp, S E; Thallman, R M

    2011-10-01

    Application of AI in extensive beef cattle production would be facilitated by protocols that effectively synchronize ovarian follicular development and ovulation to enable fixed-time AI (TAI). The objectives were to determine whether use of a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device to administer progesterone in a GnRH-based estrous synchronization protocol would optimize blood progesterone concentrations, improve synchronization of follicular development and estrus, and increase pregnancy rates to TAI in beef cows. Beef cows (n = 1,240) in 6 locations within the US Meat Animal Research Center received 1 of 2 treatments: 1) an injection of GnRH [100 µg intramuscularly (i.m.)] followed by PGF(2α) (PGF; 25 mg i.m.) 7 d later (CO-Synch), or 2) CO-Synch plus a CIDR during the 7 d between GnRH and PGF injections (CO-Synch + CIDR). Cows received TAI and GnRH (100 µg i.m.) at 60 h after PGF. Progesterone was measured by RIA in blood samples collected 2 wk before and at initiation of treatment (d 0) and at PGF injection (d 7). Estrous behavior was monitored by Estrotect Heat Detectors. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography 72 to 77 d after TAI. Plasma progesterone concentrations did not differ (P > 0.10) between synchronization protocols at first GnRH injection (d 0), but progesterone was greater (P < 0.01) at PGF injection (d 7) in cows receiving CO-Synch + CIDR vs. CO-Synch as a result of fewer CIDR-treated cows having progesterone ≤1 ng/mL at PGF (10.7 vs. 29.6%, respectively). A greater (P < 0.01) proportion of CO-Synch + CIDR vs. CO-Synch cows were detected in estrus within 60 h after PGF (66.7 vs. 57.8 ± 2.6%, respectively) and a greater (P < 0.01) proportion were pregnant to TAI (54.6 vs. 44.3 ± 2.6%, respectively). For both synchronization protocols, cows expressing estrus within 60 h before TAI had a greater pregnancy rate than cows without estrus. For cows with plasma progesterone ≤1 ng/mL at PGF injection, CO-Synch + CIDR increased pregnancy

  6. Sensor-Free or Sensor-Full: A Comparison of Data Modalities in Multi-Channel Affect Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Luc; Rowe, Jonathan; Baker, Ryan; Mott, Bradford; Lester, James; DeFalco, Jeanine; Brawner, Keith; Sottilare, Robert; Georgoulas, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    Computational models that automatically detect learners' affective states are powerful tools for investigating the interplay of affect and learning. Over the past decade, affect detectors--which recognize learners' affective states at run-time using behavior logs and sensor data--have advanced substantially across a range of K-12 and postsecondary…

  7. A New Algorithm for Detection of Cloudiness and Moon Affect Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dindar, Murat; Helhel, Selcuk; Ünal Akdemir, Kemal

    2016-07-01

    Cloud detection is a crucial issue for observatories already operating and during phase of the site selection. Sky Quality Meter (SQM) devices mostly use to determine parameters of the quality of sky such as cloudiness, light flux. But, those parameters do not give us exact information about the cloudiness and moon affects. In this study we improved a new cloudiness and moon affects area detection algorithm. The algorithm is based on image processing methods and different approaches applied to both day time and night time images to calculate the sky coverage. The new algorithm also implemented with Matlab by using the images taken by all sky camera located at TÜBİTAK National Observatory and results were given.

  8. Impact of Tachyarrhythmia Detection Rate and Time from Detection to Shock on Outcomes in Nationwide US Practice.

    PubMed

    Piccini, Jonathan P; Sanders, Prashanthan; Shah, Riddhi; Roberts, Greg; Karst, Edward; Turakhia, Mintu P

    2017-10-15

    Although higher detection rates and delayed detection improve survival in implantable cardioverter defibrillator clinical trials, their effectiveness in clinical practice has limited validation. To evaluate the effectiveness of programming strategies for reducing shocks and mortality, we conducted a nationwide assessment of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators with linked remote monitoring data. We categorized patients based on the presence or absence of high rate detection and delayed detection: higher rate delayed detection (HRDD), higher rate early detection (HRED), lower rate delayed detection (LRDD), and lower rate early detection (LRED). Cox regression was used to compare mortality and shock-free survival. There were 64,769 patients (age 68 ± 12 years; 27% female; 46% cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator; follow-up 1.7 ± 1.1 years). In the first year, 13% of HRDD, 14% of HRED, 18% of LRDD, and 20% in the LRED group experienced a shock. After adjustment, HRDD was associated with lower risk of shock than HRED (hazard ratio [HR] 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89 to 0.98, p = 0.002), LRDD (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.66, p <0.001), and LRED (HR 0.58, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.61, p <0.001). HRDD was also associated with lower risk of mortality than HRED (adjusted HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.86, p <0.001), LRDD (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.83, p <0.001), and LRED (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.73, p <0.001). Similar results were observed in patients with or without a shock in the first 6 months after implant. In conclusion, high rate programming is associated with lower risk of shocks or death compared with delayed detection. Optimal outcomes are observed in patients programmed with both high rate and delayed detection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Optimization of scat detection methods for a social ungulate, the wild pig, and experimental evaluation of factors affecting detection of scat

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, David A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Rhodes, Jr., Olin E.; Irwin, Brian J.; Beasley, James C.

    2016-05-25

    Collection of scat samples is common in wildlife research, particularly for genetic capture-mark-recapture applications. Due to high degradation rates of genetic material in scat, large numbers of samples must be collected to generate robust estimates. Optimization of sampling approaches to account for taxa-specific patterns of scat deposition is, therefore, necessary to ensure sufficient sample collection. While scat collection methods have been widely studied in carnivores, research to maximize scat collection and noninvasive sampling efficiency for social ungulates is lacking. Further, environmental factors or scat morphology may influence detection of scat by observers. We contrasted performance of novel radial search protocols with existing adaptive cluster sampling protocols to quantify differences in observed amounts of wild pig (Sus scrofa) scat. We also evaluated the effects of environmental (percentage of vegetative ground cover and occurrence of rain immediately prior to sampling) and scat characteristics (fecal pellet size and number) on the detectability of scat by observers. We found that 15- and 20-m radial search protocols resulted in greater numbers of scats encountered than the previously used adaptive cluster sampling approach across habitat types, and that fecal pellet size, number of fecal pellets, percent vegetative ground cover, and recent rain events were significant predictors of scat detection. Our results suggest that use of a fixed-width radial search protocol may increase the number of scats detected for wild pigs, or other social ungulates, allowing more robust estimation of population metrics using noninvasive genetic sampling methods. Further, as fecal pellet size affected scat detection, juvenile or smaller-sized animals may be less detectable than adult or large animals, which could introduce bias into abundance estimates. In conclusion, knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and scat detection may allow

  10. Optimization of scat detection methods for a social ungulate, the wild pig, and experimental evaluation of factors affecting detection of scat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keiter, David A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Rhodes, Olin E.; Irwin, Brian J.; Beasley, James

    2016-01-01

    Collection of scat samples is common in wildlife research, particularly for genetic capture-mark-recapture applications. Due to high degradation rates of genetic material in scat, large numbers of samples must be collected to generate robust estimates. Optimization of sampling approaches to account for taxa-specific patterns of scat deposition is, therefore, necessary to ensure sufficient sample collection. While scat collection methods have been widely studied in carnivores, research to maximize scat collection and noninvasive sampling efficiency for social ungulates is lacking. Further, environmental factors or scat morphology may influence detection of scat by observers. We contrasted performance of novel radial search protocols with existing adaptive cluster sampling protocols to quantify differences in observed amounts of wild pig (Sus scrofa) scat. We also evaluated the effects of environmental (percentage of vegetative ground cover and occurrence of rain immediately prior to sampling) and scat characteristics (fecal pellet size and number) on the detectability of scat by observers. We found that 15- and 20-m radial search protocols resulted in greater numbers of scats encountered than the previously used adaptive cluster sampling approach across habitat types, and that fecal pellet size, number of fecal pellets, percent vegetative ground cover, and recent rain events were significant predictors of scat detection. Our results suggest that use of a fixed-width radial search protocol may increase the number of scats detected for wild pigs, or other social ungulates, allowing more robust estimation of population metrics using noninvasive genetic sampling methods. Further, as fecal pellet size affected scat detection, juvenile or smaller-sized animals may be less detectable than adult or large animals, which could introduce bias into abundance estimates. Knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and scat detection may allow researchers to

  11. Optimization of scat detection methods for a social ungulate, the wild pig, and experimental evaluation of factors affecting detection of scat

    DOE PAGES

    Keiter, David A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Rhodes, Jr., Olin E.; ...

    2016-05-25

    Collection of scat samples is common in wildlife research, particularly for genetic capture-mark-recapture applications. Due to high degradation rates of genetic material in scat, large numbers of samples must be collected to generate robust estimates. Optimization of sampling approaches to account for taxa-specific patterns of scat deposition is, therefore, necessary to ensure sufficient sample collection. While scat collection methods have been widely studied in carnivores, research to maximize scat collection and noninvasive sampling efficiency for social ungulates is lacking. Further, environmental factors or scat morphology may influence detection of scat by observers. We contrasted performance of novel radial search protocolsmore » with existing adaptive cluster sampling protocols to quantify differences in observed amounts of wild pig (Sus scrofa) scat. We also evaluated the effects of environmental (percentage of vegetative ground cover and occurrence of rain immediately prior to sampling) and scat characteristics (fecal pellet size and number) on the detectability of scat by observers. We found that 15- and 20-m radial search protocols resulted in greater numbers of scats encountered than the previously used adaptive cluster sampling approach across habitat types, and that fecal pellet size, number of fecal pellets, percent vegetative ground cover, and recent rain events were significant predictors of scat detection. Our results suggest that use of a fixed-width radial search protocol may increase the number of scats detected for wild pigs, or other social ungulates, allowing more robust estimation of population metrics using noninvasive genetic sampling methods. Further, as fecal pellet size affected scat detection, juvenile or smaller-sized animals may be less detectable than adult or large animals, which could introduce bias into abundance estimates. In conclusion, knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and scat detection may allow

  12. Optimization of Scat Detection Methods for a Social Ungulate, the Wild Pig, and Experimental Evaluation of Factors Affecting Detection of Scat

    PubMed Central

    Keiter, David A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Rhodes, Olin E.; Irwin, Brian J.; Beasley, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Collection of scat samples is common in wildlife research, particularly for genetic capture-mark-recapture applications. Due to high degradation rates of genetic material in scat, large numbers of samples must be collected to generate robust estimates. Optimization of sampling approaches to account for taxa-specific patterns of scat deposition is, therefore, necessary to ensure sufficient sample collection. While scat collection methods have been widely studied in carnivores, research to maximize scat collection and noninvasive sampling efficiency for social ungulates is lacking. Further, environmental factors or scat morphology may influence detection of scat by observers. We contrasted performance of novel radial search protocols with existing adaptive cluster sampling protocols to quantify differences in observed amounts of wild pig (Sus scrofa) scat. We also evaluated the effects of environmental (percentage of vegetative ground cover and occurrence of rain immediately prior to sampling) and scat characteristics (fecal pellet size and number) on the detectability of scat by observers. We found that 15- and 20-m radial search protocols resulted in greater numbers of scats encountered than the previously used adaptive cluster sampling approach across habitat types, and that fecal pellet size, number of fecal pellets, percent vegetative ground cover, and recent rain events were significant predictors of scat detection. Our results suggest that use of a fixed-width radial search protocol may increase the number of scats detected for wild pigs, or other social ungulates, allowing more robust estimation of population metrics using noninvasive genetic sampling methods. Further, as fecal pellet size affected scat detection, juvenile or smaller-sized animals may be less detectable than adult or large animals, which could introduce bias into abundance estimates. Knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and scat detection may allow researchers to

  13. Effect of the Brazilian conditional cash transfer and primary health care programs on the new case detection rate of leprosy.

    PubMed

    Nery, Joilda Silva; Pereira, Susan Martins; Rasella, Davide; Penna, Maria Lúcia Fernandes; Aquino, Rosana; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Social determinants can affect the transmission of leprosy and its progression to disease. Not much is known about the effectiveness of welfare and primary health care policies on the reduction of leprosy occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer (Bolsa Família Program-BFP) and primary health care (Family Health Program-FHP) programs on new case detection rate of leprosy. We conducted the study with a mixed ecological design, a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design in the period 2004-2011 with the Brazilian municipalities as unit of analysis. The main independent variables were the BFP and FHP coverage at the municipal level and the outcome was new case detection rate of leprosy. Leprosy new cases, BFP and FHP coverage, population and other relevant socio-demographic covariates were obtained from national databases. We used fixed-effects negative binomial models for panel data adjusted for relevant socio-demographic covariates. A total of 1,358 municipalities were included in the analysis. In the studied period, while the municipal coverage of BFP and FHP increased, the new case detection rate of leprosy decreased. Leprosy new case detection rate was significantly reduced in municipalities with consolidated BFP coverage (Risk Ratio 0.79; 95% CI  =0.74-0.83) and significantly increased in municipalities with FHP coverage in the medium (72-95%) (Risk Ratio 1.05; 95% CI  =1.02-1.09) and higher coverage tertiles (>95%) (Risk Ratio 1.12; 95% CI  =1.08-1.17). At the same time the Family Health Program had been effective in increasing the new case detection rate of leprosy in Brazil, the Bolsa Família Program was associated with a reduction of the new case detection rate of leprosy that we propose reflects a reduction in leprosy incidence.

  14. How does habitat filtering affect the detection of conspecific and phylogenetic density dependence?

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjie; Swenson, Nathan G; Brown, Calum; Zhang, Caicai; Yang, Jie; Ci, Xiuqin; Li, Jie; Sha, Liqing; Cao, Min; Lin, Luxiang

    2016-05-01

    Conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) has been recognized as a key mechanism underlying species coexistence, especially in tropical forests. Recently, some studies have reported that seedling survival is also negatively correlated with the phylogenetic relatedness between neighbors and focal individuals, termed phylogenetic negative density dependence (PNDD). In contrast to CNDD or PNDD, shared habitat requirements between closely related individuals are thought to be a cause of observed positive effects of closely related neighbors, which may affect the strength and detectability of CNDD or PNDD. In order to investigate the relative importance of these mechanisms for tropical tree seedling survival, we used generalized linear mixed models to analyze how the survival of more than 10 000 seedlings of woody plant species related to neighborhood and habitat variables in a tropical rainforest in southwest China. By comparing models with and without habitat variables, we tested how habitat filtering affected the detection of CNDD and PNDD. The best-fitting model suggested that CNDD and habitat filtering played key roles in seedling survival; but that, contrary to our expectations, phylogenetic positive density dependence (PPDD) had a distinct and important effect. While habitat filtering affected the detection of CNDD by decreasing its apparent strength, it did not explain the positive effects of closely related neighbors. Our results demonstrate that a failure to control for habitat variables and phylogenetic relationships may obscure the importance of conspecific and heterospecific neighbor densities for seedling survival.

  15. Topographic changes detection through Structure-from-Motion in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Pradetto Sordo, Nicoletta; Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Terol Esparza, Enric; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the world, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as land-use changes on large scales and unsustainable farming practices (Boardman et al., 1990; Cerdà 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Tillage operations, combined with weather conditions, are recognized to primarily influence soil erosion rates. If, on one hand, tillage operations cause uniform changes based on the tool used, on the other, weather conditions, such as rainfalls, produce more random changes, less easily traceable (Snapir et al., 2014). Within this context, remote-sensing technologies can facilitate the detection and quantification of these topographic changes. In particular, a real opportunity and challenge is offered by the low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique, called 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM), combined with the use of smartphones (Micheletti et al., 2014; Prosdocimi et al., 2015). This represents a significant advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner - TLS) (Tarolli, 2014). This work wants to test the Structure from Motion to obtain high-resolution topography for the detection of topographic changes in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes. Two case studies were selected: i) a tilled plot characterized by bare soil and affected by rill erosion located in the hilly countryside of Marche region (central Italy), and ii) a Mediterranean vineyard located within the province of Valencia (south eastern Spain) where rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Extensive photosets were obtained by using one standalone reflex digital camera and one smartphone built-in digital camera. Digital

  16. Linear and nonlinear analysis of normal and CAD-affected heart rate signals.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Faust, Oliver; Sree, Vinitha; Swapna, G; Martis, Roshan Joy; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Suri, Jasjit S

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the dangerous cardiac disease, often may lead to sudden cardiac death. It is difficult to diagnose CAD by manual inspection of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. To automate this detection task, in this study, we extracted the heart rate (HR) from the ECG signals and used them as base signal for further analysis. We then analyzed the HR signals of both normal and CAD subjects using (i) time domain, (ii) frequency domain and (iii) nonlinear techniques. The following are the nonlinear methods that were used in this work: Poincare plots, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) parameters, Shannon entropy, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Sample Entropy (SampEn), Higher Order Spectra (HOS) methods, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Cumulants, and Correlation Dimension. As a result of the analysis, we present unique recurrence, Poincare and HOS plots for normal and CAD subjects. We have also observed significant variations in the range of these features with respect to normal and CAD classes, and have presented the same in this paper. We found that the RQA parameters were higher for CAD subjects indicating more rhythm. Since the activity of CAD subjects is less, similar signal patterns repeat more frequently compared to the normal subjects. The entropy based parameters, ApEn and SampEn, are lower for CAD subjects indicating lower entropy (less activity due to impairment) for CAD. Almost all HOS parameters showed higher values for the CAD group, indicating the presence of higher frequency content in the CAD signals. Thus, our study provides a deep insight into how such nonlinear features could be exploited to effectively and reliably detect the presence of CAD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology.

  18. Does Mutual Interference Affect the Feeding Rate of Aphidophagous Coccinellids? A Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Nikos E.; Demiris, Nikos; Milonas, Panagiotis G.; Preston, Simon; Kypraios, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Mutual interference involves direct interactions between individuals of the same species that may alter their foraging success. Larvae of aphidophagous coccinellids typically stay within a patch during their lifetime, displaying remarkable aggregation to their prey. Thus, as larvae are exposed to each other, frequent encounters may affect their foraging success. A study was initiated in order to determine the effect of mutual interference in the coccinellids’ feeding rate. One to four 4th larval instars of the fourteen-spotted ladybird beetle Propylea quatuordecimpunctata were exposed for 6 hours into plastic containers with different densities of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, on potted Vicia faba plants. The data were used to fit a purely prey-dependent Holling type II model and its alternatives which account for interference competition and have thus far been underutilized, i.e. the Beddington-DeAngelis, the Crowley-Martin and a modified Hassell-Varley model. The Crowley-Martin mechanistic model appeared to be slightly better among the competing models. The results showed that although the feeding rate became approximately independent of predator density at high prey density, some predator dependence in the coccinellid’s functional response was observed at the low prey—high predator density combination. It appears that at low prey densities, digestion breaks are negligible so that the predators do waste time interfering with each other, whereas at high prey densities time loss during digestion breaks may fully accommodate the cost of interference, so that the time cost may be negligible. PMID:26756980

  19. Does the environment affect suicide rates in Spain? A spatiotemporal analysis.

    PubMed

    Santurtún, Maite; Santurtún, Ana; Zarrabeitia, María T

    2017-06-05

    Suicide is an important public health problem, it represents one of the major causes of unnatural death, and there are many factors that affect the risk of suicidal behaviour. The present study analyzes the temporal and spatial variations of mortality by suicide in Spain and its relationship with gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. A retrospective study was performed, in which deaths by suicide, sex and age group in 50 Spanish provinces between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed. The annual trend of suicide mortality was assessed using Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient. Seasonality and monthly and weekly behaviour were evaluated by performing the ANOVA test and the Bonferroni adjustment. Finally, the relationship between GDP per capita and suicide was studied. Between 2000 and 2012, 42,905adult people died by suicide in Spain. The annual average incidence rate was 95 suicides per million population. The regions located in the south and in the northwest of the country registered the highest per capita mortality rates. There is a decreasing trend in mortality by suicide over the period studied (CC=-.744; P=.0004) in adults over the age of 64, and a seasonal behaviour was identified with summer maximum and autumn minimum values (f=.504; P<.0001). The regions with the highest GDP per capita showed the lowest mortality by suicide (r=-.645; P<.0001) and the relationship is stronger among older age groups. Mortality by suicide does not follow a homogenous geographical distribution in Spain. Mortality in men was higher than in women. Over the period of study, there has been a decrease in mortality by suicide in Spain in adults over the age of 64. The seasonal cycle of suicides and the inverse relationship with GDP per capita found in this study, provide information which may be used as a tool for developing prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Variable terrestrial GPS telemetry detection rates: Addressing the probability of successful acquisitions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ironside, Kirsten E.; Mattson, David J.; Choate, David; Stoner, David; Arundel, Terry; Hansen, Jered R.; Theimer, Tad; Holton, Brandon; Jansen, Brian; Sexton, Joseph O.; Longshore, Kathleen; Edwards, Thomas C.; Peters, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Studies using global positioning system (GPS) telemetry rarely result in 100% fix success rates (FSR), which may bias datasets because data loss is systematic rather than a random process. Previous spatially explicit models developed to correct for sampling bias have been limited to small study areas, a small range of data loss, or were study-area specific. We modeled environmental effects on FSR from desert to alpine biomes, investigated the full range of potential data loss (0–100% FSR), and evaluated whether animal body position can contribute to lower FSR because of changes in antenna orientation based on GPS detection rates for 4 focal species: cougars (Puma concolor), desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Terrain exposure and height of over story vegetation were the most influential factors affecting FSR. Model evaluation showed a strong correlation (0.88) between observed and predicted FSR and no significant differences between predicted and observed FSRs using 2 independent validation datasets. We found that cougars and canyon-dwelling bighorn sheep may select for environmental features that influence their detectability by GPS technology, mule deer may select against these features, and elk appear to be nonselective. We observed temporal patterns in missed fixes only for cougars. We provide a model for cougars, predicting fix success by time of day that is likely due to circadian changes in collar orientation and selection of daybed sites. We also provide a model predicting the probability of GPS fix acquisitions given environmental conditions, which had a strong relationship (r 2 = 0.82) with deployed collar FSRs across species.

  1. Development and validation of the Affect in Play Scale-brief rating version (APS-BR).

    PubMed

    Cordiano, Tori J Sacha; Russ, Sandra W; Short, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    The Affect in Play Scale (APS; Russ, 1987, 2004) is one of few reliable, standardized measures of pretend play, yet the fact that it requires videotaping and extensive training to score compromises its clinical utility. In this study, we developed and validated a brief rating version (APS-BR) that does not require videotaping. Construct validity was established by comparing scores from the original APS and the APS-BR using an existing data set of videotaped play (n = 46). We examined associations between scores on the APS-BR and theoretically relevant measures of divergent thinking and emotional memories. Scores on the APS-BR related strongly to those on the APS, and the pattern of correlations for each scale and relevant criterion measures was similar in strength and direction, supporting the APS-BR as an alternate form of the APS. In addition, we completed a pilot study to examine the efficacy of using the APS-BR in its intended in vivo format (n = 28). Results from both studies suggest that the APS-BR is a promising brief measure of children's pretend play that can be substituted for the APS in clinical and research settings.

  2. Paternal Depression Rates in Prenatal and Postpartum Periods and Affecting Factors.

    PubMed

    Top, Ekin Dila; Cetisli, Nuray Egelioglu; Guclu, Serkan; Zengin, Esma Burcak

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the paternal depression rates and affecting factors in prenatal and postpartum periods. The study, which was descriptive and cross-sectional, was conducted with 92 volunteer couples that suited the criteria for the sample. These participants were selected from couples that applied to the gynecology clinic of a private hospital between September 2014 and April 2015 and who were in their 37th-40th weeks of pregnancy. Data collection was planned in two interviews; the first one was done between the 37th and 40th weeks of the pregnancy, and the second was conducted between the 4th and 6th weeks after the birth. Interviews were completed with 84 couples. In this study, it was determined that there was no relationship between average paternal and maternal scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in prenatal and postpartum periods. It was found that the average score of the Family-Work Conflict Scale increased and couples' marriage harmony decreased as the EPDS average score for fathers increased. In addition, it was found that the EPDS average score for fathers that wanted the pregnancy was less compared to fathers that did not want the pregnancy, and the difference between the two groups was statistically meaningful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Initial phylogenetic relatedness of saprotrophic fungal communities affects subsequent litter decomposition rates.

    PubMed

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Treseder, Kathleen K

    2015-05-01

    Ecosystem-level consequences of biodiversity loss of macroorganisms are well understood, while the repercussions of species extirpation in microbial systems are not. We manipulated species richness and phylogenetic relatedness of saprotrophic fungi in situ in a boreal forest to address this issue. Litter decomposition rates (as total mass loss) after 2 months were significantly higher in the least phylogenetically related fungal assemblages. Likewise, cellulose loss was also highest in the most distantly related treatments after 1 year. There were marginal effects of species richness on mass loss that only affected decomposition after 2 months. At the end of 1 year of decomposition, most fungal communities had collapsed from their original diversity to two species, mainly in the Penicillium or Hypocrea clades. Two concurrent processes may explain these results: competition between closely related fungal taxa and phylogenetic conservation in cellulose decomposition. Our results suggest that phylogenetic relatedness of fungal communities may be a more appropriate metric than species richness or community composition to predict functional responses of fungal communities to global change.

  4. Affective Norms for Italian Words in Older Adults: Age Differences in Ratings of Valence, Arousal and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Fairfield, Beth; Ambrosini, Ettore; Mammarella, Nicola; Montefinese, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages. More importantly, we found high correlations between younger and older adults, showing that our data are generalizable across different ages. However, despite this across-ages accord, we obtained age-related differences on three affective dimensions for a great number of words. In particular, older adults rated as more arousing and more unpleasant a number of words that younger adults rated as moderately unpleasant and arousing in our previous affective norms. Moreover, older participants rated negative stimuli as more arousing and positive stimuli as less arousing than younger participants, thus leading to a less-curved distribution of ratings in the valence by arousal space. We also found more extreme ratings for older adults for the relationship between dominance and arousal: older adults gave lower dominance and higher arousal ratings for words rated by younger adults with middle dominance and arousal values. Together, these results suggest that our affective norms are reliable and can be confidently used to select words matched for the affective dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance across younger and older participants for future research in aging. PMID:28046070

  5. Detection of prostate cancer: comparison of cancer detection rates of sextant and extended ten-core biopsy protocols.

    PubMed

    Ojewola, R W; Tijani, K H; Jeje, E A; Anunobi, C C; Ogunjimi, M A; Ezenwa, E V; Ogundiniyi, O S

    2012-09-01

    To compare the cancer detection rates of sextant and ten- core biopsy protocol amongst patients being evaluated for prostate cancer. This is a prospective study involving 125 men with suspicion of prostate cancer. They all had an extended 10-core transrectal digitally-guided prostatic biopsy using Tru-Cut needle. Indications for biopsy were presence of one or more of the following: elevated Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), abnormal Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) findings and abnormal prostate scan. Sextant biopsies were collected first, followed by four lateral biopsies in all patients. Both groups of specimen were kept and analyzsed separately by the same pathologist. The cancer detection rates of sextant and extended (combination of sextant and lateral) 10-core biopsy protocols were determined and compared. Pearson's Chi square and McNemar tests at two degrees of freedom with level of significance set at 0.05 ( P <0.005) were used to determine the statistical significance. The overall cancer detection rate of 10-core prostate biopsy was 48.8%. Of all positive biopsies, the sextant biopsy protocol detected 52 cancers (85.2%) while the lateral biopsy protocol detected 58 cases (95.1%). Three (3) cancers were detected by the sextant protocol only while the lateral protocol detected nine (9) cancers where sextant technique was negative for malignancy. Ten-core extended protocol showed a statistically significant increase of 14.8% over the traditional sextant. (P=0.046). The overall complication rate of ten-core biopsy was 26.4% and the procedure was well tolerated in most patients. We conclude that a ten-core prostate biopsy protocol significantly improves cancer detection and should be considered as the optimum biopsy protocol.

  6. Evaluating some factors that affect feasility of using ground penetrating radar for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwaly, Mohamed; Ismail, Ahmed; Matsushima, Jun

    2007-09-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is one of the promising technologies that can be used to detect landmines. Many factors may affect the ability of GPR to detect landmines. Among those factors are: 1) the type of landmine material (metallic or plastic), 2) conditions of the host soil (soil texture and soil moisture), and 3) the radar frequency utilized. The impact of these factors on the ability of GPR to detect landmines is investigated by studying their effect on the dielectric permittivity contrast between the landmine and the host soil, as well as on the attenuation of the radar waves. The impact of each factor was theoretically reviewed and modeled using the Matlab and Mathcad software packages. Results of the computer modeling were correlated with GPR data acquired for metallic and plastic landmine types. It was found that the ability of GPR to detect landmines depends to a great extent on the landmine type, water content of the host soil, utilized radar frequency, and soil texture. The landmines are much easier to detect than plastic landmines for any soil conditions and any radar frequency. Increasing the soil’s moisture content, regardless of soil texture, eases the detection of the plastic landmine and worsens the detection of the metallic mines. Increasing the percentage of clay in the soil causes the same effect as the moisture content. However, higher radar frequency delivers better results for landmine detection as long as the percentage of clay and the moisture content in the soil remains low. The results of this study are expected to help in selecting optimum radar antennae and data acquisition parameters depending on the landmine type and environmental conditions.

  7. Feed and Feeding Regime Affect Growth Rate and Gonadosomatic Index of Adult Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Law, Sheran Hiu Wan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A 5-week study was conducted to evaluate commercially available Artemia, Ziegler zebrafish diet, and Calamac diet fed in five different feeding regimes on the growth and reproductive development of 7-month-old zebrafish. Zebrafish were fed to satiation three times daily during the normal work week and twice daily during the weekend and holidays. Zebrafish in dietary groups CCC (Calamac three times daily) and CCA (Calamac twice daily, Artemia once daily) had a significantly (p<0.05) greater weight gain and specific growth rate as compared to all other dietary groups. Male zebrafish in dietary group 5 had significantly larger gonadosomatic index (GSI) values than all other groups, while female zebrafish in dietary group CCC had significantly larger GSI values than all other groups. No differences in the fatty acid content of female gonads were detected. Zebrafish fed solely Artemia had the greatest weight loss and lowest GSI values. Preliminary evidence of protein sparing in zebrafish is reported. Collectively, this study sheds more light into the effects of the use of commercially available feeds and feeding regime on the rearing of zebrafish. PMID:23902461

  8. Feed and feeding regime affect growth rate and gonadosomatic index of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, John M; Law, Sheran Hiu Wan

    2013-12-01

    A 5-week study was conducted to evaluate commercially available Artemia, Ziegler zebrafish diet, and Calamac diet fed in five different feeding regimes on the growth and reproductive development of 7-month-old zebrafish. Zebrafish were fed to satiation three times daily during the normal work week and twice daily during the weekend and holidays. Zebrafish in dietary groups CCC (Calamac three times daily) and CCA (Calamac twice daily, Artemia once daily) had a significantly (p<0.05) greater weight gain and specific growth rate as compared to all other dietary groups. Male zebrafish in dietary group 5 had significantly larger gonadosomatic index (GSI) values than all other groups, while female zebrafish in dietary group CCC had significantly larger GSI values than all other groups. No differences in the fatty acid content of female gonads were detected. Zebrafish fed solely Artemia had the greatest weight loss and lowest GSI values. Preliminary evidence of protein sparing in zebrafish is reported. Collectively, this study sheds more light into the effects of the use of commercially available feeds and feeding regime on the rearing of zebrafish.

  9. Factors affecting the size of ovulatory follicles and conception rate in high-yielding dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, A; Kafi, M; Zamiri, M J; Akbari, R

    2016-03-01

    14.1 to 19 mm in diameter (60% and 50%), respectively (P < 0.05). In study 2, the ovulatory follicle in cows with clinical uterine infections was smaller than that in cows without clinical uterine infections (16.4 vs. 17.1 mm; P = 0.04). In conclusion, the size of the ovulatory follicle is affected by ovulation synchronizing protocols and postpartum clinical uterine infections. In addition, cows with higher serum IGF-1 concentrations on the day of AI had higher Day 68 conception rate and lower E/F death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An exploratory study of factors affecting single trial P300 detection.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Ben H; Allam, Anand; Kota, Prashant; Lachance, Kathleen; Osho, Ayokunle; Sundaresan, Karthik

    2004-06-01

    A threshold detector for single-trial P300 detection has been evaluated. The detector operates on the 0-4 Hz band, isolated from the raw electroencephalogram using low-pass filtering, wavelet transforms, or the piecewise prony method (PPM). A detection rate around 70% was found, irregardless of stimulus type, interstimulus interval (ISI), probability of occurrence (Pr) of the target stimuli, intrasession and intersession effects, or filtering method. This suggests that P300-based brain-machine interfaces can use an ISI as short as 1 s and a Pr of 45%, to increase throughput.

  11. Rate discrimination, gap detection and ranking of temporal pitch in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Stefano; Carlyon, Robert P; Deeks, John M; Parkinson, Wendy; Bierer, Julie A

    2016-08-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users have poor temporal pitch perception, as revealed by two key outcomes of rate discrimination tests: (i) rate discrimination thresholds (RDTs) are typically larger than the corresponding frequency difference limen for pure tones in normal hearing listeners, and (ii) above a few hundred pulses per second (i.e. the "upper limit" of pitch), CI users cannot discriminate further increases in pulse rate. Both RDTs at low rates and the upper limit of pitch vary across listeners and across electrodes in a given listener. Here, we compare across-electrode and across-subject variation in these two measures with the variation in performance on another temporal processing task, gap detection, in order to explore the limitations of temporal processing in CI users. RDTs were obtained for 4-5 electrodes in each of 10 Advanced Bionics CI users using two interleaved adaptive tracks, corresponding to standard rates of 100 and 400 pps. Gap detection was measured using the adaptive procedure and stimuli described by Bierer et al. (JARO 16:273-284, 2015), and for the same electrodes and listeners as for the rate discrimination measures. Pitch ranking was also performed using a mid-point comparison technique. There was a marginal across-electrode correlation between gap detection and rate discrimination at 400 pps, but neither measure correlated with rate discrimination at 100 pps. Similarly, there was a highly significant across-subject correlation between gap detection and rate discrimination at 400, but not 100 pps, and these two correlations differed significantly from each other. Estimates of low-rate sensitivity and of the upper limit of pitch, obtained from the pitch ranking experiment, correlated well with rate discrimination for the 100- and 400-pps standards, respectively. The results are consistent with the upper limit of rate discrimination sharing a common basis with gap detection. There was no evidence that this limitation also applied to rate

  12. Reduced heart rate variability in pet dogs affected by anxiety-related behaviour problems.

    PubMed

    Wormald, Dennis; Lawrence, Andrew J; Carter, Gabrielle; Fisher, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    We present here the first evidence of correlation between canine anxiety-related behavioural problems and heart rate variability (HRV). HRV is known to be related to a range of mental disorders in humans; however this has not been explored in dogs. Behavioural problems in dogs can result in suffering, property destruction and human injury. Dog behaviour problems were assessed by owner questionnaire and the extreme high and low scoring dogs were recruited into either affected (n=10) or unaffected (n=20) groups. HRV was assessed in dogs at their homes, while being held in lateral recumbency for 5min using manual restraint. Salivary cortisol samples were taken before and after HRV testing. Dogs were assessed as either being reactive to the procedure (barking, growling, struggling or shaking) or unreactive. There was no effect of reactivity or behaviour problems on salivary cortisol levels at baseline or in response to the treatment. There was a significant effect of reactivity on HR (F1,26=5.54; P=0.026), and no effect of behaviour problems (F1,26=1.07; P=0.311). There was no effect of reactivity on any of the HRV measures. The presence of behaviour problems had a significant effect on a range of measures of HRV, with unaffected dogs having higher standard deviation of RR intervals (F1,26=6.39; P=0.018), higher high frequency spectrum (F1,26=5.23; P=0.031) and higher low frequency spectrum (F1,26=9.25; P=0.005) power. There was no effect of behaviour problems on very low frequency spectrum power (F1,26=1.40; P=0.248). Together these results provide evidence for a fundamental physiological difference between dogs affected or unaffected with behaviour problems. This study provides evidence for further investigation into the role of HRV in the pathophysiology of canine anxiety-related behaviour problems. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. LATE CENOZOIC INCREASE IN ACCUMULATION RATES OF TERRESTRIAL SEDIMENT: How Might Climate Change Have Affected Erosion Rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Accumulation rates of terrestrial sediment have increased in the past few million years both on and adjacent to continents, although not everywhere. Apparently, erosion has increased in elevated terrain regardless of when last tectonically active or what the present-day climate. In many regions, sediment coarsened abruptly in late Pliocene time. Sparser data suggest increased sedimentation rates at 15 Ma, approximately when oxygen isotopes in benthic foraminifera imply high-latitude cooling. If climate change effected accelerated erosion, understanding how it did so remains the challenge. Some obvious candidates, such as lowered sea level leading to erosion of continental shelves or increased glaciation, account for increased sedimentation in some, but not all, areas. Perhaps stable climates that varied slowly allowed geomorphic processes to maintain a state of equilibrium with little erosion until 34 Ma, when large oscillations in climate with periods of 20,00040,000 years developed and denied the landscape the chance to reach equilibrium.

  14. How Travel Demand Affects Detection of Non-Recurrent Traffic Congestion on Urban Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbaroglu, B.; Heydecker, B.; Cheng, T.

    2016-06-01

    Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London's urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  15. Persistence rates and detection probabilities of oiled king eider carcasses on St Paul Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, A.C.; Flint, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Following an oil spill off St Paul Island, Alaska in February 1996, persistence rates and detection probabilities of oiled king eider (Somateria spectabilis) carcasses were estimated using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. Carcass persistence rates varied by day, beach type and sex, while detection probabilities varied by day and beach type. Scavenging, wave action and weather influenced carcass persistence. The patterns of persistence differed on rock and sand beaches and female carcasses had a different persistence function than males. Weather, primarily snow storms, and degree of carcass scavenging, diminished carcass detectability. Detection probabilities on rock beaches were lower and more variable than on sand beaches. The combination of persistence rates and detection probabilities can be used to improve techniques of estimating total mortality.

  16. QTL detection in maize testcross progenies as affected by related and unrelated testers.

    PubMed

    Frascaroli, Elisabetta; Canè, Maria Angela; Pè, Mario Enrico; Pea, Giorgio; Morgante, Michele; Landi, Pierangelo

    2009-03-01

    The evaluation of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) per se can be biased by inbreeding depression in case of allogamous species. To overcome this drawback, RILs can be evaluated in combination with testers; however, testers can carry dominant alleles at the quantitative trait loci (QTL), thus hampering their detection. This study was conducted on the maize (Zea mays L.) population of 142 RILs derived from the single cross B73 x H99 to evaluate the role of different testers in affecting: (1) QTL detection, (2) the estimates of their effects, and (3) the consistency of such estimates across testers. Testcrosses (TCs) were produced by crossing RILs with inbred testers B73 [TC(B)], H99 [TC(H)], and Mo17 [TC(M)]. TCs were field tested in three environments. TC(B) mean was higher than TC(H) mean for all traits, while TC(M) mean was the highest for plant vigor traits and grain yield. As to the number of detected QTL, tester Mo17 was superior to H99 and B73 for traits with prevailing additive effects. Several overlaps among the QTL were detected in two or all the three TC populations with QTL effects being almost always consistent (same sign). For traits with prevailing dominance-overdominance effects, as grain yield, the poor performing tester H99 was clearly the most effective; fewer overlaps were found and some of them were inconsistent (different sign). Epistatic interactions were of minor importance. In conclusion, the three testers proved to affect QTL detection and estimation of their effects, especially for traits showing high dominance levels.

  17. Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  18. Do bells affect behaviour and heart rate variability in grazing dairy cows?

    PubMed

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare.

  19. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  20. The effects of pulse rate, power, width and coding on signal detectability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects on the signal detectability of varying the pulse repetition rate (PRF), peak pulse power (p(pk)) and pulse width (tau(p)) (tp) are examined. Both coded and uncoded pulses are considered. The following quantities are assumed to be constant; (1) antenna area, (z)echo reflectivity, (3) Doppler shift, (4) spectral width, (5) spectral resolution, (6) effective sampling rate, and (7) total incoherent spectral averagaing time. The detectability is computed for two types of targets.

  1. Integrating affective and cognitive correlates of heart rate variability: A structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Mann, Sarah L; Selby, Edward A; Bates, Marsha E; Contrada, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    High frequency heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of neurocardiac communication thought to reflect predominantly parasympathetic cardiac regulation. Low HRV has been associated empirically with clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression and, more recently, high levels of HRV have been associated with better performance on some measures of executive functioning (EF). These findings have offered support for theories proposing HRV as an index measure of a broad, self-regulatory capacity underlying aspects of emotion regulation and executive control. This study sought to test that proposition by using a structural equation modeling approach to examine the relationships of HRV to negative affect (NA) and EF in a large sample of U.S. adults ages 30s-80s. HRV was modeled as a predictor of an NA factor (self-reported trait anxiety and depression symptoms) and an EF factor (performance on three neuropsychological tests tapping facets of executive abilities). Alternative models also were tested to determine the utility of HRV for predicting NA and EF, with and without statistical control of demographic and health-related covariates. In the initial structural model, HRV showed a significant positive relationship to EF and a nonsignificant relationship to NA. In a covariate-adjusted model, HRV's associations with both constructs were nonsignificant. Age emerged as the only significant predictor of NA and EF in the final model, showing inverse relationships to both. Findings may reflect population and methodological differences from prior research; they also suggest refinements to the interpretations of earlier findings and theoretical claims regarding HRV.

  2. Quadriceps Rate of Force Development affects Gait and Function in People with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Joshua D.; Rudolph, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Quadriceps weakness exists in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) but other muscle factors like rate of force development (RFD) may also be affected by knee OA. The purpose of this study was to determine if people with knee OA have deficits in quadriceps RFD, determine if quadriceps RFD would improve predicting knee joint power absorption and generation during free and fast walking, and determine if RFD would improve predicting functional outcomes. Methods 26 subjects with knee OA and 23 healthy control subjects performed maximal voluntary isometric strength (MVIC) and RFD measures of the quadriceps. Subjects also underwent a 3-D motion analysis of both self-selected free and self-selected fast walking speeds. Joint kinetics were calculated from inverse dynamics. Results RFD was not different by group (p=0.763), however the OA subjects generated the highest peak RFD at a lower %MVIC (p=0.008). Controls walked significantly faster at both free and fast walking speeds (p=0.001, p=0.029). Knee angles at heel strike and peak knee extension were lower (p=0.004, p=0.027) in the OA group. During fast walking knee power generation was higher in Controls (p=0.028). MVIC and force of highest peak RFD predicted KOOS ADL score in the OA subjects, but only MVIC predicted stair climbing time. Conclusions The submaximal force at which peak RFD occurs plays a significant role in knee joint power as well as functional measures in the OA subjects, providing further evidence that factors other than maximal strength are also important in people with knee OA. PMID:24240535

  3. Participant-Informant Relationships Affect Quality of Life Ratings in Incipient and Clinical Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Amy; Brook, Jenny; Grill, Joshua D; Teng, Edmond

    2017-03-01

    Clinical trials in incipient and clinical Alzheimer disease (AD) often include informant-reported outcomes. Whereas informant reports in AD dementia may be modulated by the nature of participant-informant relationships, whether informant type affects reporting at earlier disease stages is less certain. We sought to determine the effects of participant-informant relationships on informant assessments of quality of life (QOL), functional abilities, and behavioral symptoms in individuals with normal cognition (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mild-to-moderate AD dementia. Cross-sectional. Easton Center for Alzheimer Disease Research at the University of California, Los Angeles. A total of 399 individuals who met criteria for NC (N = 100), MCI [amnestic (N = 125) and nonamnestic (N = 61)], and AD (N = 113). Participants were subdivided into groups based on informant-participant relationships (spouse versus other). We examined informant effects on the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease (QOL-AD) scale, the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ), and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). After adjustments for demographic and cognitive factors, spouse informants reported higher participant QOL in the amnestic MCI and AD groups than did other informants. No informant effects were seen on QOL-AD ratings in the nonamnestic MCI or NC groups or on the FAQ or NPI in the MCI and AD groups. Participant-informant relationships may modulate informant responses on subjective measures such as the QOL-AD in both incipient and clinical AD. Clinical trials that use informant measures may need to address these effects. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Temperature-induced elevation of basal metabolic rate does not affect testis growth in great tits.

    PubMed

    Caro, Samuel P; Visser, Marcel E

    2009-07-01

    The timing of reproduction varies from year to year in many bird species. To adjust their timing to the prevailing conditions of that year, birds use cues from their environment. However, the relative importance of these cues, such as the initial predictive (e.g. photoperiod) and the supplemental factors (e.g. temperature), on the seasonal sexual development are difficult to distinguish. In particular, the fine-tuning effect of temperature on gonadal growth is not well known. One way temperature may affect timing is via its strong effect on energy expenditure as gonadal growth is an energy-demanding process. To study the interaction of photoperiod and temperature on gonadal development, we first exposed 35 individually housed male great tits (Parus major) to mid-long days (after 6 weeks of 8 h L:16 h D at 15 degrees C, photoperiod was set to 13 h L:11 h D at 15 degrees C). Two weeks later, for half of the males the temperature was set to 8 degrees C, and for the other half to 22 degrees C. Unilateral laparotomies were performed at weeks 5 (i.e one week before the birds were transferred to mid-long days), 8 and 11 to measure testis size. Two measures of basal metabolic rate (BMR) were performed at the end of the experiment (weeks 11 and 12). Testis size increased significantly during the course of the experiment, but independently of the temperature treatment. BMR was significantly higher in birds exposed to the cold treatment. These results show that temperature-related elevation of BMR did not impair the long-day-induced testis growth in great tits. As a consequence, temperature may not be a crucial cue and/or constraint factor in the fine-tuning of the gonadal recrudescence in male great tits, and testis growth is not a high energy-demanding seasonal process.

  5. High counting rates of x-ray photon detection using APD detectors on synchrotron machines

    SciTech Connect

    Kakuno, E. M.; Giacomolli, B. A.; Scorzato, C. R.

    2012-05-17

    In this work we show the results of 10 x 10 mm{sup 2} Si-APD detector's test with guard ring detecting x-rays. The result of mapping surface is also exhibited. We show and discuss the difficulty of single photon detection in high counting rate experiments in synchrotrons machines.

  6. Cost and detection rate of glaucoma screening with imaging devices in a primary care center.

    PubMed

    Anton, Alfonso; Fallon, Monica; Cots, Francesc; Sebastian, María A; Morilla-Grasa, Antonio; Mojal, Sergi; Castells, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the cost and detection rate of a screening program for detecting glaucoma with imaging devices. In this cross-sectional study, a glaucoma screening program was applied in a population-based sample randomly selected from a population of 23,527. Screening targeted the population at risk of glaucoma. Examinations included optic disk tomography (Heidelberg retina tomograph [HRT]), nerve fiber analysis, and tonometry. Subjects who met at least 2 of 3 endpoints (HRT outside normal limits, nerve fiber index ≥30, or tonometry ≥21 mmHg) were referred for glaucoma consultation. The currently established ("conventional") detection method was evaluated by recording data from primary care and ophthalmic consultations in the same population. The direct costs of screening and conventional detection were calculated by adding the unit costs generated during the diagnostic process. The detection rate of new glaucoma cases was assessed. The screening program evaluated 414 subjects; 32 cases were referred for glaucoma consultation, 7 had glaucoma, and 10 had probable glaucoma. The current detection method assessed 677 glaucoma suspects in the population, of whom 29 were diagnosed with glaucoma or probable glaucoma. Glaucoma screening and the conventional detection method had detection rates of 4.1% and 3.1%, respectively, and the cost per case detected was 1,410 and 1,435€, respectively. The cost of screening 1 million inhabitants would be 5.1 million euros and would allow the detection of 4,715 new cases. The proposed screening method directed at population at risk allows a detection rate of 4.1% and a cost of 1,410 per case detected.

  7. Cost and detection rate of glaucoma screening with imaging devices in a primary care center

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Alfonso; Fallon, Monica; Cots, Francesc; Sebastian, María A; Morilla-Grasa, Antonio; Mojal, Sergi; Castells, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the cost and detection rate of a screening program for detecting glaucoma with imaging devices. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional study, a glaucoma screening program was applied in a population-based sample randomly selected from a population of 23,527. Screening targeted the population at risk of glaucoma. Examinations included optic disk tomography (Heidelberg retina tomograph [HRT]), nerve fiber analysis, and tonometry. Subjects who met at least 2 of 3 endpoints (HRT outside normal limits, nerve fiber index ≥30, or tonometry ≥21 mmHg) were referred for glaucoma consultation. The currently established (“conventional”) detection method was evaluated by recording data from primary care and ophthalmic consultations in the same population. The direct costs of screening and conventional detection were calculated by adding the unit costs generated during the diagnostic process. The detection rate of new glaucoma cases was assessed. Results The screening program evaluated 414 subjects; 32 cases were referred for glaucoma consultation, 7 had glaucoma, and 10 had probable glaucoma. The current detection method assessed 677 glaucoma suspects in the population, of whom 29 were diagnosed with glaucoma or probable glaucoma. Glaucoma screening and the conventional detection method had detection rates of 4.1% and 3.1%, respectively, and the cost per case detected was 1,410 and 1,435€, respectively. The cost of screening 1 million inhabitants would be 5.1 million euros and would allow the detection of 4,715 new cases. Conclusion The proposed screening method directed at population at risk allows a detection rate of 4.1% and a cost of 1,410 per case detected. PMID:28243057

  8. Biases in grant proposal success rates, funding rates and award sizes affect the geographical distribution of funding for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Wahls, Wayne P

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the United States to most efficiently make breakthroughs on the biology, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases requires that physicians and scientists in each state have equal access to federal research grants and grant dollars. However, despite legislative and administrative efforts to ensure equal access, the majority of funding for biomedical research is concentrated in a minority of states. To gain insight into the causes of such disparity, funding metrics were examined for all NIH research project grants (RPGs) from 2004 to 2013. State-by-state differences in per application success rates, per investigator funding rates, and average award size each contributed significantly to vast disparities (greater than 100-fold range) in per capita RPG funding to individual states. To the extent tested, there was no significant association overall between scientific productivity and per capita funding, suggesting that the unbalanced allocation of funding is unrelated to the quality of scientists in each state. These findings reveal key sources of bias in, and new insight into the accuracy of, the funding process. They also support evidence-based recommendations for how the NIH could better utilize the scientific talent and capacity that is present throughout the United States.

  9. Biases in grant proposal success rates, funding rates and award sizes affect the geographical distribution of funding for biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the United States to most efficiently make breakthroughs on the biology, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases requires that physicians and scientists in each state have equal access to federal research grants and grant dollars. However, despite legislative and administrative efforts to ensure equal access, the majority of funding for biomedical research is concentrated in a minority of states. To gain insight into the causes of such disparity, funding metrics were examined for all NIH research project grants (RPGs) from 2004 to 2013. State-by-state differences in per application success rates, per investigator funding rates, and average award size each contributed significantly to vast disparities (greater than 100-fold range) in per capita RPG funding to individual states. To the extent tested, there was no significant association overall between scientific productivity and per capita funding, suggesting that the unbalanced allocation of funding is unrelated to the quality of scientists in each state. These findings reveal key sources of bias in, and new insight into the accuracy of, the funding process. They also support evidence-based recommendations for how the NIH could better utilize the scientific talent and capacity that is present throughout the United States. PMID:27077009

  10. Variables Affecting Probability of Detection in Bolt Hole Eddy Current Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemire, H.; Krause, T. W.; Bunn, M.; Butcher, D. J.

    2009-03-01

    Physical variables affecting probability of detection (POD) in a bolt-hole eddy current inspection were examined. The POD study involved simulated bolt holes in 7075-T6 aluminum coupons representative of wing areas on CC-130 and CP-140 aircraft. The data were obtained from 24 inspectors who inspected 468 coupons, containing a subset of coupons with 45 electric discharge machined notches and 72 laboratory grown fatigue cracks located at the inner surface corner of the bi-layer structures. A comparison of physical features of cracks and notches in light of skin depth effects and probe geometry was used to identify length rather than depth as the significant variable producing signal variation. Probability of detection based on length produced similar results for the two discontinuity types, except at lengths less than 0.4 mm, where POD for cracks was found to be higher than that of notches.

  11. An evaluation of some factors affecting the detection of blood group antibodies by automated methods.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, J; Nordhagen, R

    1975-01-01

    Some factors affecting the sensitivity of the automated methods for blood group antibody detection have been evaluated. The experiments revealed influencing differences between various albumin preparations. In the BMC method, one lot of albumin permitted no significant antibody detection. In the LISP technique, a plateau of maximum Polybrene activity was found. The beginning of this plateau depended on both the albumin preparation and the Polybrene lot. In the BMC method, methyl cellulose gave optimal sensitivity within a concentration range of 0.3 to 0.5 per cent. The stability of test cells stored in ACD at 4 C was studied. All test cells could be used safely up to two weeks. Cells from different donors showed variable reactivity after three weeks.

  12. Detection of circulating antibodies in patients affected by chromoblastomycosis by Cladosporium carrionii using double immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Villalba, E; Yegres, J F

    1988-04-01

    The antibodies in sera of patients affected by Chromoblastomycosis are detected using the technique of double immunodiffusion and the mycelial somatic antigens and the culture filtrates antigens of Cladosporium carrionii. From the 13 sera tested 8 have given positive results. The fresh serum from a patient under treatment gives 2 bands, while fresh serum from a non-treated patient gives 3 bands. The titre of antibodies was also determined for the two fresh sera, having found 1/4 for the patient under treatment and 1/32 for the non-treated one.

  13. Individual surgeon mortality rates: can outliers be detected? A national utility analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Thomas M; Shaw, Catherine A; Garden, O James; Wigmore, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is controversy on the proposed benefits of publishing mortality rates for individual surgeons. In some procedures, analysis at the level of an individual surgeon may lack statistical power. The aim was to determine the likelihood that variation in surgeon performance will be detected using published outcome data. Design A national analysis surgeon-level mortality rates to calculate the level of power for the reported mortality rate across multiple surgical procedures. Setting The UK from 2010 to 2014. Participants Surgeons who performed colon cancer resection, oesophagectomy or gastrectomy, elective aortic aneurysm repair, hip replacement, bariatric surgery or thyroidectomy. Outcomes The likelihood of detecting an individual with a 30-day, 90-day or in-patient mortality rate of up to 5 times the national mean or median (as available). This was represented using a novel heat-map approach. Results Overall mortality rates for the procedures ranged from 0.07% to 4.5% and mean/median surgeon volume was between 23 and 75 cases. The national median case volume for colorectal (n=55) and upper gastrointestinal (n=23) cancer resections provides around 20% power to detect a mortality rate of 3 times the national median, while, for hip replacement, this is a rate 5 times the national average. At the mortality rates reported for thyroid (0.08%) and bariatric (0.07%) procedures, it is unlikely a surgeon would perform a sufficient number of procedures in his/her entire career to stand a good chance of detecting a mortality rate 5 times the national average. Conclusions At present, surgeons with increased mortality rates are unlikely to be detected. Performance within an expected mortality rate range cannot be considered reliable evidence of acceptable performance. Alternative approaches should focus on commonly occurring meaningful outcome measures, with infrequent events analysed predominately at the hospital level. PMID:27799243

  14. Design of on line detection system for static evaporation rate of LNG vehicle cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, P.; Wang, M.; Tan, W. H.; Ling, Z. W.; Li, F.

    2017-06-01

    In order to solve the problems existing in the regular inspection of LNG vehicle cylinders, the static evaporation rate on line detection system of LNG cylinders is discussed in this paper. A non-disassembling, short-term and high-efficiency on line detection system for LNG vehicle cylinders is proposed, which can meet the requirement of evaporation rate test under different media and different test pressures. And then test methods under the experimental conditions, atmospheric pressure and pressure are given respectively. This online detection system designed in this paper can effectively solve the technical problems during the inspection of the cylinder.

  15. Can Sample-Specific Simulations Help Detect Low Base-Rate Taxonicity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Amir, Nader; Bau, Jinn Jonp

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the role of the sample-specific simulations (SSS; A. M. Ruscio & J. Ruscio, 2002; J. Ruscio & A. M. Ruscio, 2004) procedure in detecting low base-rate taxa that might otherwise prove elusive. The procedure preserved key distributional characteristics for moderate to high base-rate taxa, but it performed inadequately for low…

  16. Can Sample-Specific Simulations Help Detect Low Base-Rate Taxonicity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Amir, Nader; Bau, Jinn Jonp

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the role of the sample-specific simulations (SSS; A. M. Ruscio & J. Ruscio, 2002; J. Ruscio & A. M. Ruscio, 2004) procedure in detecting low base-rate taxa that might otherwise prove elusive. The procedure preserved key distributional characteristics for moderate to high base-rate taxa, but it performed inadequately for low…

  17. Detection Rates for Surveys for Fast Transients with Next Generation Radio Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre

    2011-06-01

    We relate the underlying properties of a population of fast radio-emitting transient events to its expected detection rate in a survey of finite sensitivity. The distribution of the distances of the detected events is determined in terms of the population luminosity distribution and survey parameters, for both extragalactic and Galactic populations. The detection rate as a function of Galactic position is examined to identify regions that optimize survey efficiency in a survey whose field of view is limited. The impact of temporal smearing caused by scattering in the interstellar medium has a large and direction-dependent bearing on the detection of impulsive signals, and we present a model for the effects of scattering on the detection rate. We show that the detection rate scales as ΩS -3/2 + δ 0, where Ω is the field of view, S 0 is the minimum detectable flux density, and 0 < δ <= 3/2 for a survey of Galactic transients in which interstellar scattering or the finite volume of the Galaxy is important. We derive formal conditions on the optimal survey strategy to adopt under different circumstances for fast transient surveys on next generation large-element, wide-field arrays, such as ASKAP, LOFAR, the MWA, and the SKA, and show how interstellar scattering and the finite spatial extent of a Galactic population modify the choice of optimal strategy.

  18. Detecting Identity by Descent and Estimating Genotype Error Rates in Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Brian L.; Browning, Sharon R.

    2013-01-01

    Existing methods for identity by descent (IBD) segment detection were designed for SNP array data, not sequence data. Sequence data have a much higher density of genetic variants and a different allele frequency distribution, and can have higher genotype error rates. Consequently, best practices for IBD detection in SNP array data do not necessarily carry over to sequence data. We present a method, IBDseq, for detecting IBD segments in sequence data and a method, SEQERR, for estimating genotype error rates at low-frequency variants by using detected IBD. The IBDseq method estimates probabilities of genotypes observed with error for each pair of individuals under IBD and non-IBD models. The ratio of estimated probabilities under the two models gives a LOD score for IBD. We evaluate several IBD detection methods that are fast enough for application to sequence data (IBDseq, Beagle Refined IBD, PLINK, and GERMLINE) under multiple parameter settings, and we show that IBDseq achieves high power and accuracy for IBD detection in sequence data. The SEQERR method estimates genotype error rates by comparing observed and expected rates of pairs of homozygote and heterozygote genotypes at low-frequency variants in IBD segments. We demonstrate the accuracy of SEQERR in simulated data, and we apply the method to estimate genotype error rates in sequence data from the UK10K and 1000 Genomes projects. PMID:24207118

  19. A Novel Microfluidic Flow Rate Detection Method Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Temperature Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shijie; Wang, Peng; Liu, Shengnan; Zhao, Tianze; Xu, Shanzhi; Guo, Mingjiang; Yu, Xinglong

    2016-01-01

    A novel microfluidic flow rate detection method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) temperature imaging is proposed. The measurement is performed by space-resolved SPR imaging of the flow induced temperature variations. Theoretical simulations and analysis were performed to demonstrate a proof of concept using this approach. Experiments were implemented and results showed that water flow rates within a wide range of tens to hundreds of μL/min could be detected. The flow rate sensor is resistant to disturbances and can be easily integrated into microfluidic lab-on-chip systems. PMID:27347960

  20. Compressed imagery detection rate through map seeking circuit (MSC) pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newtson, Kathy A.; Creusere, Charles C.

    2016-05-01

    This research investigates the features retained after image compression for automatic pattern recognition purposes. Images were significantly compressed using open-source JPEG and JPEG2000 compression algorithms. The original and compressed images were processed with a Map Seeking Circuit (MSC) pattern recognition algorithm. [1] The resulting target detection rates for the compressed images were very similar to the original images, which included compression rates ranging from 10 to 0.2. Target detection location precision and target aspect were degraded for the lowest compression rates.

  1. Existence detection and embedding rate estimation of blended speech in covert speech communications.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijuan; Gao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Covert speech communications may be used by terrorists to commit crimes through Internet. Steganalysis aims to detect secret information in covert communications to prevent crimes. Herein, based on the average zero crossing rate of the odd-even difference (AZCR-OED), a steganalysis algorithm for blended speech is proposed; it can detect the existence and estimate the embedding rate of blended speech. First, the odd-even difference (OED) of the speech signal is calculated and divided into frames. The average zero crossing rate (ZCR) is calculated for each OED frame, and the minimum average ZCR and AZCR-OED of the entire speech signal are extracted as features. Then, a support vector machine classifier is used to determine whether the speech signal is blended. Finally, a voice activity detection algorithm is applied to determine the hidden location of the secret speech and estimate the embedding rate. The results demonstrate that without attack, the detection accuracy can reach 80 % or more when the embedding rate is greater than 10 %, and the estimated embedding rate is similar to the real value. And when some attacks occur, it can also reach relatively high detection accuracy. The algorithm has high performance in terms of accuracy, effectiveness and robustness.

  2. Accuracy rate of lie-detection in China: estimate the validity of CQT on field cases.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yuan-yi; Liang, Yun-dan; Hu, Ze-qing

    2015-03-01

    To explore the accuracy rate of the comparison question test (CQT) by Binomial Distribution way on field cases in Chengdu area of China. In detail, the study revealed the accuracy rate of detecting guilty and innocent examinees, and the rate of False Positive and False Negative. The study was built on the field cases with only two examinees that held the opposite opinions to the same single case. The original evaluators and four experienced polygraph specialists independently chose and scored 148 field criminal cases into the final study, among which 111 paired-records were concluded as indicative records and the rest, 37 ones, were ruled as non-indicative. Judging from all records, the accuracy rate of detecting guilty examinees was 0.836 with a 0.164 False Negative rate. In addition, the rate to detect innocents was 0.822 with a 0.178 False Positive rate. Judging from indicative cases only excluding the non-indicative, the accuracy rate rose to 0.958 for perceiving guilty examinees with a 0.042 False Negative rate. To innocents, the accuracy rate was 0.859 with a 0.141 False Positive rate. The study with non-standard methodology was not limited to mock cases and the final confessions. It was able to estimate validity of other lie-detection ways, GKT, POT, etc., with this method being applied. With high accuracy rate and validity, polygraph examinations were able to give better decisions to real-life investigations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Correlation Between Bowel Preparation and the Adenoma Detection Rate in Screening Colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Hun; Kim, Sang Jin; Hyun, Jong Hee; Han, Kyung Su; Kim, Byung Chang; Hong, Chang Won; Lee, Sang-Jeon; Sohn, Dae Kyung

    2017-06-01

    The adenoma detection rate is commonly used as a measure of the quality of colonoscopy. This study assessed both the association between the adenoma detection rate and the quality of bowel preparation and the risk factors associated with the adenoma detection rate in screening colonoscopy. This retrospective analysis involved 1,079 individuals who underwent screening colonoscopy at the National Cancer Center between December 2012 and April 2014. Bowel preparation was classified by using the Aronchick scale. Individuals with inadequate bowel preparations (n = 47, 4.4%) were excluded because additional bowel preparation was needed. The results of 1,032 colonoscopies were included in the analysis. The subjects' mean age was 53.1 years, and 657 subjects (63.7%) were men. The mean cecal intubation time was 6.7 minutes, and the mean withdrawal time was 8.7 minutes. The adenoma and polyp detection rates were 28.1% and 41.8%, respectively. The polyp, adenoma, and advanced adenoma detection rates did not correlate with the quality of bowel preparation. The multivariate analysis showed age ≥ 60 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.97; P = 0.040), body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.17-2.08; P = 0.002) and current smoking (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01-2.06; P = 0.014) to be independent risk factors for adenoma detection. The adenoma detection rate was unrelated to the quality of bowel preparation for screening colonoscopy. Older age, obesity, and smoking were independent risk factors for adenoma detection.

  4. Affective Video Retrieval: Violence Detection in Hollywood Movies by Large-Scale Segmental Feature Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Eyben, Florian; Weninger, Felix; Lehment, Nicolas; Schuller, Björn; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology “out of the lab” to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding “disturbing” scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP) on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis. PMID:24391704

  5. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Eyben, Florian; Weninger, Felix; Lehment, Nicolas; Schuller, Björn; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP) on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis.

  6. How do kV and mAs affect CT lesion detection performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, W.; Ogden, K. M.; Shah, K.; Jadoo, C.; Scalzetti, E. M.; Lavallee, R. L.; Roskopf, M. L.

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how output (mAs) and x-ray tube voltage (kV) affect lesion detection in CT imaging. An adult Rando phantom was scanned on a GE LightSpeed CT scanner at x-ray tube voltages from 80 to 140 kV, and outputs from 90 to 360 mAs. Axial images of the abdomen were reconstructed and viewed on a high quality monitor at a soft tissue display setting. We measured detection of 2.5 to 12.5 mm sized lesions using a 2 Alternate Forced Choice (2-AFC) experimental paradigm that determined lesion contrast (I) corresponding to a 92% accuracy (I 92%) of lesion detection. Plots of log(I 92%) versus log(lesion size) were all approximately linear. The slope of the contrast detail curve was ~ -1.0 at 90 mAs, close to the value predicted by the Rose model, but monotonically decreased with increasing mAs to a value of ~ -0.7 at 360 mAs. Increasing the x-ray tube output by a factor of four improved lesion detection by a factor of 1.9 for the smallest lesion (2.5 mm), close to the value predicted by the Rose model, but only by a factor of 1.2 for largest lesion (12.5 mm). Increasing the kV monotonically decreased the contrast detail slopes from -1.02 at 80 kV to -0.71 at 140 kV. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV improved lesion detection by a factor of 2.8 for the smallest lesion (2.5 mm), but only by a factor of 1.7 for largest lesion (12.5 mm). We conclude that: (i) quantum mottle is an important factor for low contrast lesion detection in images of anthropomorphic phantoms; (ii) x-ray tube voltage has a much greater influence on lesion detection performance than x-ray tube output; (iii) the Rose model only predicts CT lesion detection performance at low x-ray tube outputs (90 mAs) and for small lesions (2.5 mm).

  7. Indirect genetic effects and inbreeding: consequences of BLUP selection for socially affected traits on rate of inbreeding.

    PubMed

    Khaw, Hooi Ling; Ponzoni, Raul W; Bijma, Piter

    2014-06-24

    Social interactions often occur among living organisms, including aquatic animals. There is empirical evidence showing that social interactions may genetically affect phenotypes of individuals and their group mates. In this context, the heritable effect of an individual on the phenotype of another individual is known as an Indirect Genetic Effect (IGE). Selection for socially affected traits may increase response to artificial selection, but also affect rate of inbreeding. A simulation study was conducted to examine the effect of Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) selection for socially affected traits on the rate of inbreeding. A base scenario without IGE and three alternative scenarios with different magnitudes of IGE were simulated. In each generation, 25 sires and 50 dams were mated, producing eight progeny per dam. The population was selected for 20 generations using BLUP. Individuals were randomly assigned to groups of eight members in each generation, with two families per group, each contributing four individuals. "Heritabilities" (for both direct and indirect genetic effects) were equal to 0.1, 0.3 or 0.5, and direct-indirect genetic correlations were -0.8, -0.4, 0, 0.4, or 0.8. The rate of inbreeding was calculated from generation 10 to 20. For the base scenario, the rates of inbreeding were 4.09, 2.80 and 1.95% for "heritabilities" of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5, respectively. Overall, rates of inbreeding for the three scenarios with IGE ranged from 2.21 to 5.76% and were greater than for the base scenarios. The results show that social interaction within groups of two families increases the resemblance between estimated breeding values of relatives, which, in turn, increases the rate of inbreeding. BLUP selection for socially affected traits increased the rate of inbreeding. To maintain inbreeding at an acceptable rate, a selection algorithm that restricts the increase in mean kinship, such as optimum contribution selection, is required.

  8. An MCM4 mutation detected in cancer cells affects MCM4/6/7 complex formation.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Ruriko; Ishimi, Yukio

    2017-03-01

    An MCM4 mutation detected in human cancer cells from endometrium was characterized. The mutation of G486D is located within MCM-box and the glycine at 486 in human MCM4 is conserved in Saccharomyces cerevisiae MCM4 and Sulfolobus solfataricus MCM. This MCM4 mutation affected human MCM4/6/7 complex formation, since the complex containing the mutant MCM4 protein is unstable and the mutant MCM4 protein is tend to be degraded. It is likely that the MCM4 mutation affects the interaction with MCM7 to destabilize the MCM4/6/7 complex. Cells with abnormal nuclear morphology were detected when the mutant MCM4 was expressed in HeLa cells, suggesting that DNA replication was perturbed in the presence of the mutant MCM4. Role of the conserved amino acid in MCM4 function is discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of affective states from text and speech for real-time human--computer interaction.

    PubMed

    Calix, Ricardo A; Javadpour, Leili; Knapp, Gerald M

    2012-08-01

    The goal of this work is to develop and test an automated system methodology that can detect emotion from text and speech features. Affective human-computer interaction will be critical for the success of new systems that will be prevalent in the 21st century. Such systems will need to properly deduce human emotional state before they can determine how to best interact with people. Corpora and machine learning classification models are used to train and test a methodology for emotion detection. The methodology uses a stepwise approach to detect sentiment in sentences by first filtering out neutral sentences, then distinguishing among positive, negative, and five emotion classes. Results of the classification between emotion and neutral sentences achieved recall accuracies as high as 77% in the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) corpus and 61% in the Louisiana State University medical drama (LSU-MD) corpus for emotion samples. Once neutral sentences were filtered out, the methodology achieved accuracy scores for detecting negative sentences as high as 92.3%. Results of the feature analysis indicate that speech spectral features are better than speech prosodic features for emotion detection. Accumulated sentiment composition text features appear to be very important as well. This work contributes to the study of human communication by providing a better understanding of how language factors help to best convey human emotion and how to best automate this process. Results of this study can be used to develop better automated assistive systems that interpret human language and respond to emotions through 3-D computer graphics.

  10. Ongoing pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination are affected by late follicular-phase progesterone levels.

    PubMed

    Requena, Antonio; Cruz, María; Pacheco, Alberto; García-Velasco, Juan Antonio

    2015-10-01

    To determine the relationship between serum P levels on the day of hCG administration and ongoing pregnancy rates. Retrospective study. University-affiliated private IVF. A total of 2,458 couples undergoing IUI. Ovarian stimulation with human recombinant FSH. Ongoing pregnancy and miscarriage rates. Progesterone concentrations were significantly higher given that the E2 concentration increased. Ongoing pregnancy rates were significantly decreased in women with P levels higher than 1.1 ng/mL; similar results were obtained in relation to miscarriage rates. Significant differences in ongoing pregnancy rates when P levels were elevated on the day of hCG administration may help clinicians to counsel patients about the reduced success rates with IUI and manage the timing of insemination to optimize implantation. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Feeding rate may affect dispersal in the orb-web spider Nephila clavata.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Tadashi

    1992-12-01

    Population parameters of the orb-web spider Nephila clavata were estimated at two sites with different spider densities (for 2 successive years at the high density site and 1 year at the low density site), and the relationship between survival rate and feeding conditions was examined. The rate of decrease of population density was almost constant over time and nearly the same at the two sites. Daily survival rate (sum of the effects of mortality and emigration) was low during August to early September and increased markedly thereafter. Daily immigration rate (number of immigrants/number of residents) was high during August to early September. Since there were strong negative correlations between survival and immigration rates, low survival rate seems to be caused by a high rate of emigration. Strong positive correlations were found between survival rate and feeding frequency (mean percent observed feeding). Analysis of covariance revealed that the parameters of the regression between survival rate and feeding frequency did not differ significantly among three occasions. These results suggest that feeding condition has a significant influence on dispersal activity of populations in this spider.

  12. Sampling rate of heart rate variability impacts the ability to detect acidemia in ovine fetuses near-term.

    PubMed

    Durosier, L Daniel; Green, Geoffrey; Batkin, Izmail; Seely, Andrew J; Ross, Michael G; Richardson, Bryan S; Frasch, Martin G

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of sampling rate on the predictive capability of continuous fetal heart rate (FHR) variability (fHRV) monitoring for detecting fetal acidemia during labor, we tested the performance of the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in R-R intervals from the ECG when acquired with the sampling rate of 4 Hz currently available in FHR monitors, in comparison to the gold standard of 1000 Hz. Near-term ovine fetuses (N = 9) were chronically prepared with precordial electrodes for recording ECG, vascular catheters for blood sampling, and an umbilical cord occluder. For 1 min every 2.5 min, animals underwent mild partial umbilical cord occlusions (UCO) × 1 h, moderate partial UCO × 1 h, then complete UCO × 2 h, or until arterial pH reached <7.00. Arterial blood samples were drawn at baseline and every 20 min during the UCO series. RMSSD was calculated continuously in 5 min windows using an automated, standardized system (CIMVA.com). RESULTS are presented as mean ± SEM with significance assumed for p < 0.05. Repetitive UCO resulted in pH decreasing from 7.35 ± 0.01 to 7.00 ± 0.03. In all nine animals, RMSSD increased from 16.7 ± 1.0 ms at baseline to 44.4 ± 2.3 ms, 70 ± 15 min prior to reaching the pH nadir when sampled at 1000 Hz. When sampled at 4 Hz, RMSSD at baseline measured 36.1 ± 6.0 ms and showed no significant increase during the UCO series until the pH nadir was reached. Consequently, early detection of severe hypoxic-acidemia would have been missed in all fetuses. RMSSD as a measure of fHRV when calculated from FHR sampled at 1000 Hz allowed for the early detection of worsening hypoxic-acidemia in each fetus. However, when calculated at the low sampling rate of 4 Hz used clinically, RMSSD remained unchanged until terminally when the nadir pH was reached. For early detection of fetal acidemia during labor, more sensitive means of acquiring

  13. Sampling Rate of Heart Rate Variability Impacts the Ability to Detect Acidemia in Ovine Fetuses Near-Term

    PubMed Central

    Durosier, L. Daniel; Green, Geoffrey; Batkin, Izmail; Seely, Andrew J.; Ross, Michael G.; Richardson, Bryan S.; Frasch, Martin G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the impact of sampling rate on the predictive capability of continuous fetal heart rate (FHR) variability (fHRV) monitoring for detecting fetal acidemia during labor, we tested the performance of the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) in R–R intervals from the ECG when acquired with the sampling rate of 4 Hz currently available in FHR monitors, in comparison to the gold standard of 1000 Hz. Methods: Near-term ovine fetuses (N = 9) were chronically prepared with precordial electrodes for recording ECG, vascular catheters for blood sampling, and an umbilical cord occluder. For 1 min every 2.5 min, animals underwent mild partial umbilical cord occlusions (UCO) × 1 h, moderate partial UCO × 1 h, then complete UCO × 2 h, or until arterial pH reached <7.00. Arterial blood samples were drawn at baseline and every 20 min during the UCO series. RMSSD was calculated continuously in 5 min windows using an automated, standardized system (CIMVA.com). Results are presented as mean ± SEM with significance assumed for p < 0.05. Results: Repetitive UCO resulted in pH decreasing from 7.35 ± 0.01 to 7.00 ± 0.03. In all nine animals, RMSSD increased from 16.7 ± 1.0 ms at baseline to 44.4 ± 2.3 ms, 70 ± 15 min prior to reaching the pH nadir when sampled at 1000 Hz. When sampled at 4 Hz, RMSSD at baseline measured 36.1 ± 6.0 ms and showed no significant increase during the UCO series until the pH nadir was reached. Consequently, early detection of severe hypoxic-acidemia would have been missed in all fetuses. Conclusion: RMSSD as a measure of fHRV when calculated from FHR sampled at 1000 Hz allowed for the early detection of worsening hypoxic-acidemia in each fetus. However, when calculated at the low sampling rate of 4 Hz used clinically, RMSSD remained unchanged until terminally when the nadir pH was reached. For early detection of fetal acidemia during

  14. Dynamic N -occupancy models: estimating demographic rates and local abundance from detection-nondetection data

    Treesearch

    Sam Rossman; Charles B. Yackulic; Sarah P. Saunders; Janice Reid; Ray Davis; Elise F. Zipkin

    2016-01-01

    Occupancy modeling is a widely used analytical technique for assessing species distributions and range dynamics. However, occupancy analyses frequently ignore variation in abundance of occupied sites, even though site abundances affect many of the parameters being estimated (e.g., extinction, colonization, detection probability). We introduce a new model (“dynamic

  15. Summary of intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting detection probability of marsh birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Gibbs, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Many species of marsh birds (rails, bitterns, grebes, etc.) rely exclusively on emergent marsh vegetation for all phases of their life cycle, and many organizations have become concerned about the status and persistence of this group of birds. Yet, marsh birds are notoriously difficult to monitor due to their secretive habits. We synthesized the published and unpublished literature and summarized the factors that influence detection probability of secretive marsh birds in North America. Marsh birds are more likely to respond to conspecific than heterospecific calls, and seasonal peak in vocalization probability varies among co-existing species. The effectiveness of morning versus evening surveys varies among species and locations. Vocalization probability appears to be positively correlated with density in breeding Virginia Rails (Rallus limicola), Soras (Porzana carolina), and Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris). Movement of birds toward the broadcast source creates biases when using count data from callbroadcast surveys to estimate population density. Ambient temperature, wind speed, cloud cover, and moon phase affected detection probability in some, but not all, studies. Better estimates of detection probability are needed. We provide recommendations that would help improve future marsh bird survey efforts and a list of 14 priority information and research needs that represent gaps in our current knowledge where future resources are best directed. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2011.

  16. Detection of enteric pathogens in Turkey flocks affected with severe enteritis, in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura-Alvarez, Joelma; Nuñez, Luis F N; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Knöbl, Terezinha; Chacón, Jorge L; Moreno, Andrea M; Jones, Richard C; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-two flocks of turkeys affected by enteric problems, with ages between 10 and 104 days and located in the Southern region of Brazil, were surveyed for turkey by PCR for turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2), turkey coronavirus (TCoV), hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), rotavirus, reovirus, Salmonella spp., and Lawsonia intracellularis (Li) infections. Eleven profiles of pathogen combination were observed. The most frequently encountered pathogen combinations were TCoV-Li, followed by TCoV-TAstV-2-Li, TCoV-TastV-2. Only TCoV was detected as the sole pathogen in three flocks. Eight and 19 flocks of the 22 were positive for TAstV-2 and TCoV, respectively. Six were positive for Salmonella spp. and L. intracellularis was detected in 12 turkey flocks. Reovirus and HEV were not detected in this survey. These results throw new light on the multiple etiology of enteritis in turkeys. The implications of these findings and their correlation with the clinical signs are comprehensively discussed, illustrating the complexity of the enteric diseases.

  17. Simultaneous estimation of b-values and detection rates of earthquakes for the application to aftershock probability forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, K.; Ogata, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Reasenberg and Jones [Science, 1989, 1994] proposed the aftershock probability forecasting based on the joint distribution [Utsu, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., 1970] of the modified Omori formula of aftershock decay and Gutenberg-Richter law of magnitude frequency, where the respective parameters are estimated by the maximum likelihood method [Ogata, J. Phys. Earth, 1983; Utsu, Geophys Bull. Hokkaido Univ., 1965, Aki, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., 1965]. The public forecast has been implemented by the responsible agencies in California and Japan. However, a considerable difficulty in the above procedure is that, due to the contamination of arriving seismic waves, detection rate of aftershocks is extremely low during a period immediately after the main shock, say, during the first day, when the forecasting is most critical for public in the affected area. Therefore, for the forecasting of a probability during such a period, they adopt a generic model with a set of the standard parameter values in California or Japan. For an effective and realistic estimation, I propose to utilize the statistical model introduced by Ogata and Katsura [Geophys. J. Int., 1993] for the simultaneous estimation of the b-values of Gutenberg-Richter law together with detection-rate (probability) of earthquakes of each magnitude-band from the provided data of all detected events, where the both parameters are allowed for changing in time. Thus, by using all detected aftershocks from the beginning of the period, we can estimate the underlying modified Omori rate of both detected and undetected events and their b-value changes, taking the time-varying missing rates of events into account. The similar computation is applied to the ETAS model for complex aftershock activity or regional seismicity where substantial missing events are expected immediately after a large aftershock or another strong earthquake in the vicinity. Demonstrations of the present procedure will be shown for the recent examples

  18. Updating the M Dwarf Planet Occurrence Rate by Injecting and Detecting Transits in Kepler Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Charbonneau, D.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the Kepler mission is to constrain the occurrence rate of planets around stars with a range of spectral types. Previously, we estimated the M dwarf planet occurrence rate by revising the stellar parameters of the Kepler M dwarfs and analyzing the first six quarters of Kepler data. We found that there are 0.90 Earth-size (0.5-1.4 Earth radius) planets with periods <50 days per small star. We also found an occurrence rate of 0.15 Earth-size planets within the habitable zone per small star, implying a most probable distance of 13 pc to the nearest transiting potentially habitable planet. Our previous estimate of the occurrence rate assumed 100% detection efficiency at SNR=7.1 sigma, but the occurrence rate would have been underestimated if the actual detection efficiency is lower. In order to more accurately model the detection efficiency, we have developed a customized transit search pipeline tailored for application to M dwarfs. We measure the detection efficiency of our pipeline by injecting known transit signals into Kepler light curves and attempting to recover the signals. We are currently conducting a search for additional transiting planets using our pipeline and will compare our list of detected candidates to the candidates found by the Kepler team. We will then combine our more sophisticated model for the detection threshold and the list of planet candidates found using an additional ten quarters of Kepler data with our revised stellar parameters to present an updated measurement of the planet occurrence rate for M dwarfs. Our revised measurement will help enable predictions of the population of planets that will be detected by ongoing and future planet surveys such as MEarth and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite.

  19. Trends in Adenoma Detection Rates During the First 10 Years of the German Screening Colonoscopy Program.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Altenhofen, Lutz; Kretschmann, Jens; Rösch, Thomas; Pox, Christian; Stock, Christian; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2015-08-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is an important quality indicator of screening colonoscopy; it is inversely associated with risk of interval cancers and colorectal cancer mortality. We assessed trends in the ADR in the first 10 years of the German screening colonoscopy program. We calculated age-adjusted and age-specific detection rates of nonadvanced adenomas and advanced adenomas for each calendar year based on 4.4 million screening colonoscopies conducted from 2003 through 2012 and reported to the German screening colonoscopy registry. We observed a steady and strong increase in rate of detection of nonadvanced adenomas in both sexes and all age groups. Age-adjusted rates of detection of nonadvanced adenomas increased from 13.3% to 22.3% among men and from 8.4% to 14.9% among women. This increase was mostly due to an increase in detection rates of adenomas <0.5 cm, and it is partly explained by an innovation effect (higher ADRs among incoming colonoscopists than among leaving colonoscopists, and relatively stable ADRs among continuing colonoscopists). Only modest increases were observed in detection rates of advanced adenomas (from 7.4% to 9.0% among men, and from 4.4% to 5.2% among women) and colorectal cancer. In 2012, overall ADR reached 31.3% and 20.1% in men and women, respectively. We observed a strong increase in ADRs from 2003 through 2012 in Germany. Although we cannot exclude the effects of secular trends in colorectal neoplasm prevalence, the observed increase was mainly the result of a steady increase in detection of nonadvanced adenomas (especially adenomas <0.5 cm). Further research should address potential implications for defining screening and surveillance intervals. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Novel Fingertip Image-Based Heart Rate Detection Methods for a Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rifat; Cho, Chae Ho; Hartmann-Vaccarezza, Konrad; Phan, Tra Nguyen; Yoon, Gwonchan; Chong, Jo Woon

    2017-02-12

    We hypothesize that our smartphone-based fingertip image-based heart rate detection methods reliably detect the heart rhythm and rate of subjects. We propose fingertip curve line movement-based and fingertip image intensity-based detection methods, which both use the movement of successive fingertip images obtained from smartphone cameras. To investigate the performance of the proposed methods, heart rhythm and rate of the proposed methods are compared to those of the conventional method, which is based on average image pixel intensity. Using a smartphone, we collected 120 s pulsatile time series from each recruited subject. The results show that the proposed fingertip curve line movement-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.0832 Hz and 0.124 Hz using time- and frequency-domain based estimation, respectively, compared to the conventional method. Moreover, another proposed fingertip image intensity-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.125 Hz and 0.03 Hz using time- and frequency-based estimation, respectively.

  1. Novel Fingertip Image-Based Heart Rate Detection Methods for a Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Rifat; Cho, Chae Ho; Hartmann-Vaccarezza, Konrad; Phan, Tra Nguyen; Yoon, Gwonchan; Chong, Jo Woon

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesize that our fingertip image-based heart rate detection methods using smartphone reliably detect the heart rhythm and rate of subjects. We propose fingertip curve line movement-based and fingertip image intensity-based detection methods, which both use the movement of successive fingertip images obtained from smartphone cameras. To investigate the performance of the proposed methods, heart rhythm and rate of the proposed methods are compared to those of the conventional method, which is based on average image pixel intensity. Using a smartphone, we collected 120 s pulsatile time series data from each recruited subject. The results show that the proposed fingertip curve line movement-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.0832 Hz and 0.124 Hz using time- and frequency-domain based estimation, respectively, compared to the conventional method. Moreover, another proposed fingertip image intensity-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.125 Hz and 0.03 Hz using time- and frequency-based estimation, respectively. PMID:28208678

  2. High Rates of Detection of Respiratory Viruses in Tonsillar Tissues from Children with Chronic Adenotonsillar Disease

    PubMed Central

    Proenca-Modena, Jose Luiz; Pereira Valera, Fabiana Cardoso; Jacob, Marcos Gerhardinger; Buzatto, Guilherme Pietrucci; Saturno, Tamara Honorato; Lopes, Lucia; Souza, Jamila Mendonça; Paula, Flavia Escremim; Silva, Maria Lucia; Carenzi, Lucas Rodrigues; Tamashiro, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Chronic tonsillar diseases are an important health problem, leading to large numbers of surgical procedures worldwide. Little is known about pathogenesis of these diseases. In order to investigate the role of respiratory viruses in chronic adenotonsillar diseases, we developed a cross-sectional study to determine the rates of viral detections of common respiratory viruses detected by TaqMan real time PCR (qPCR) in nasopharyngeal secretions, tonsillar tissues and peripheral blood from 121 children with chronic tonsillar diseases, without symptoms of acute respiratory infections. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 97.5% of patients. The viral co-infection rate was 69.5%. The most frequently detected viruses were human adenovirus in 47.1%, human enterovirus in 40.5%, human rhinovirus in 38%, human bocavirus in 29.8%, human metapneumovirus in 17.4% and human respiratory syncytial virus in 15.7%. Results of qPCR varied widely between sample sites: human adenovirus, human bocavirus and human enterovirus were predominantly detected in tissues, while human rhinovirus was more frequently detected in secretions. Rates of virus detection were remarkably high in tonsil tissues: over 85% in adenoids and close to 70% in palatine tonsils. In addition, overall virus detection rates were higher in more hypertrophic than in smaller adenoids (p = 0.05), and in the particular case of human enteroviruses, they were detected more frequently (p = 0.05) in larger palatine tonsils than in smaller ones. While persistence/latency of DNA viruses in tonsillar tissues has been documented, such is not the case of RNA viruses. Respiratory viruses are highly prevalent in adenoids and palatine tonsils of patients with chronic tonsillar diseases, and persistence of these viruses in tonsils may stimulate chronic inflammation and play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:22870291

  3. High rates of detection of respiratory viruses in tonsillar tissues from children with chronic adenotonsillar disease.

    PubMed

    Proenca-Modena, Jose Luiz; Pereira Valera, Fabiana Cardoso; Jacob, Marcos Gerhardinger; Buzatto, Guilherme Pietrucci; Saturno, Tamara Honorato; Lopes, Lucia; Souza, Jamila Mendonça; Escremim Paula, Flavia; Silva, Maria Lucia; Carenzi, Lucas Rodrigues; Tamashiro, Edwin; Arruda, Eurico; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha

    2012-01-01

    Chronic tonsillar diseases are an important health problem, leading to large numbers of surgical procedures worldwide. Little is known about pathogenesis of these diseases. In order to investigate the role of respiratory viruses in chronic adenotonsillar diseases, we developed a cross-sectional study to determine the rates of viral detections of common respiratory viruses detected by TaqMan real time PCR (qPCR) in nasopharyngeal secretions, tonsillar tissues and peripheral blood from 121 children with chronic tonsillar diseases, without symptoms of acute respiratory infections. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 97.5% of patients. The viral co-infection rate was 69.5%. The most frequently detected viruses were human adenovirus in 47.1%, human enterovirus in 40.5%, human rhinovirus in 38%, human bocavirus in 29.8%, human metapneumovirus in 17.4% and human respiratory syncytial virus in 15.7%. Results of qPCR varied widely between sample sites: human adenovirus, human bocavirus and human enterovirus were predominantly detected in tissues, while human rhinovirus was more frequently detected in secretions. Rates of virus detection were remarkably high in tonsil tissues: over 85% in adenoids and close to 70% in palatine tonsils. In addition, overall virus detection rates were higher in more hypertrophic than in smaller adenoids (p = 0.05), and in the particular case of human enteroviruses, they were detected more frequently (p = 0.05) in larger palatine tonsils than in smaller ones. While persistence/latency of DNA viruses in tonsillar tissues has been documented, such is not the case of RNA viruses. Respiratory viruses are highly prevalent in adenoids and palatine tonsils of patients with chronic tonsillar diseases, and persistence of these viruses in tonsils may stimulate chronic inflammation and play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases.

  4. Interactions between rates of temperature change and acclimation affect latitudinal patterns of warming tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jessica L.; Chown, Steven L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Clusella-Trullas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Critical thermal limits form an increasing component of the estimation of impacts of global change on ectotherms. Whether any consistent patterns exist in the interactive effects of rates of temperature change (or experimental ramping rates) and acclimation on critical thermal limits and warming tolerance (one way of assessing sensitivity to climate change) is, however, far from clear. Here, we examine the interacting effects of ramping rate and acclimation on the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and minima (CTmin) and warming tolerance of six species of springtails from sub-tropical, temperate and polar regions. We also provide microhabitat temperatures from 26 sites spanning 5 years in order to benchmark environmentally relevant rates of temperature change. Ramping rate has larger effects than acclimation on CTmax, but the converse is true for CTmin. Responses to rate and acclimation effects are more consistent among species for CTmax than for CTmin. In the latter case, interactions among ramping rate and acclimation are typical of polar species, less marked for temperate ones, and reduced in species from the sub-tropics. Ramping rate and acclimation have substantial effects on estimates of warming tolerance, with the former being more marked. At the fastest ramping rates (>1.0°C/min), tropical species have estimated warming tolerances similar to their temperate counterparts, whereas at slow ramping rates (<0.4°C/min) the warming tolerance is much reduced in tropical species. Rates of temperate change in microhabitats relevant to the springtails are typically <0.05°C/min, with rare maxima of 0.3–0.5°C/min depending on the site. These findings emphasize the need to consider the environmental setting and experimental conditions when assessing species’ vulnerability to climate change using a warming tolerance approach. PMID:27933165

  5. Interactions between rates of temperature change and acclimation affect latitudinal patterns of warming tolerance.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica L; Chown, Steven L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Clusella-Trullas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Critical thermal limits form an increasing component of the estimation of impacts of global change on ectotherms. Whether any consistent patterns exist in the interactive effects of rates of temperature change (or experimental ramping rates) and acclimation on critical thermal limits and warming tolerance (one way of assessing sensitivity to climate change) is, however, far from clear. Here, we examine the interacting effects of ramping rate and acclimation on the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and minima (CTmin) and warming tolerance of six species of springtails from sub-tropical, temperate and polar regions. We also provide microhabitat temperatures from 26 sites spanning 5 years in order to benchmark environmentally relevant rates of temperature change. Ramping rate has larger effects than acclimation on CTmax, but the converse is true for CTmin. Responses to rate and acclimation effects are more consistent among species for CTmax than for CTmin. In the latter case, interactions among ramping rate and acclimation are typical of polar species, less marked for temperate ones, and reduced in species from the sub-tropics. Ramping rate and acclimation have substantial effects on estimates of warming tolerance, with the former being more marked. At the fastest ramping rates (>1.0°C/min), tropical species have estimated warming tolerances similar to their temperate counterparts, whereas at slow ramping rates (<0.4°C/min) the warming tolerance is much reduced in tropical species. Rates of temperate change in microhabitats relevant to the springtails are typically <0.05°C/min, with rare maxima of 0.3-0.5°C/min depending on the site. These findings emphasize the need to consider the environmental setting and experimental conditions when assessing species' vulnerability to climate change using a warming tolerance approach.

  6. Does the availability of artificial cavities affect cavity excavation rates in red-cockaded woodpeckers?

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz; D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer

    2002-01-01

    Rates of cavity excavation by Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) were examined from 1983 to 1999 on the Angelina National Forest in east Texas. We compared the rare of natural cavity excavation between 1983 and 1990 (before artificial cavities were available) with the rate of cavity excavation between 1992 and 1993, a period when...

  7. Which molecular features affect the intrinsic hepatic clearance rate of ionizable organic chemicals in fish?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater knowledge of biotransformation rates for ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) in fish is required to properly assess the bioaccumulation potential of many environmentally relevant contaminants. In this study we measured in vitro hepatic clearance rates for 50 IOCs using a p...

  8. Factors Affecting Student Loan Default Rates: Nevada System of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypuros, Christopher Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Nevada's rate of default on college loans is among the highest in the nation. At the time of this study, there were no research studies on defaulters in the state of Nevada. The present study was designed for initial exploration regarding the relationship between various kinds of student factors and default rates from institutions at the Nevada…

  9. An Experiment To Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copper, Christine L.; Koubeck, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Describes a chemistry experiment that allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reaction, and activation energies. The activity demonstrates that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having lower activation energy. (WRM)

  10. Which molecular features affect the intrinsic hepatic clearance rate of ionizable organic chemicals in fish?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater knowledge of biotransformation rates for ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) in fish is required to properly assess the bioaccumulation potential of many environmentally relevant contaminants. In this study we measured in vitro hepatic clearance rates for 50 IOCs using a p...

  11. An Experiment To Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copper, Christine L.; Koubeck, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Describes a chemistry experiment that allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reaction, and activation energies. The activity demonstrates that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having lower activation energy. (WRM)

  12. Factors Affecting Student Loan Default Rates: Nevada System of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypuros, Christopher Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Nevada's rate of default on college loans is among the highest in the nation. At the time of this study, there were no research studies on defaulters in the state of Nevada. The present study was designed for initial exploration regarding the relationship between various kinds of student factors and default rates from institutions at the Nevada…

  13. A double-observer method to estimate detection rate during aerial waterfowl surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Otto, M.C.; Wortham, J.S.; Bidwell, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated double-observer methods for aerial surveys as a means to adjust counts of waterfowl for incomplete detection. We conducted our study in eastern Canada and the northeast United States utilizing 3 aerial-survey crews flying 3 different types of fixed-wing aircraft. We reconciled counts of front- and rear-seat observers immediately following an observation by the rear-seat observer (i.e., on-the-fly reconciliation). We evaluated 6 a priori models containing a combination of several factors thought to influence detection probability including observer, seat position, aircraft type, and group size. We analyzed data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos), which are among the most abundant duck species in this region. The best-supported model for both black ducks and mallards included observer effects. Sample sizes of black ducks were sufficient to estimate observer-specific detection rates for each crew. Estimated detection rates for black ducks were 0.62 (SE = 0.10), 0.63 (SE = 0.06), and 0.74 (SE = 0.07) for pilot-observers, 0.61 (SE = 0.08), 0.62 (SE = 0.06), and 0.81 (SE = 0.07) for other front-seat observers, and 0.43 (SE = 0.05), 0.58 (SE = 0.06), and 0.73 (SE = 0.04) for rear-seat observers. For mallards, sample sizes were adequate to generate stable maximum-likelihood estimates of observer-specific detection rates for only one aerial crew. Estimated observer-specific detection rates for that crew were 0.84 (SE = 0.04) for the pilot-observer, 0.74 (SE = 0.05) for the other front-seat observer, and 0.47 (SE = 0.03) for the rear-seat observer. Estimated observer detection rates were confounded by the position of the seat occupied by an observer, because observers did not switch seats, and by land-cover because vegetation and landform varied among crew areas. Double-observer methods with on-the-fly reconciliation, although not without challenges, offer one viable option to account for detection bias in aerial waterfowl

  14. Ten-year detection rate of brain arteriovenous malformations in a large, multiethnic, defined population.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Rodney A; Kim, Helen; Sidney, Stephen; McCulloch, Charles E; Singh, Vineeta; Johnston, S Claiborne; Ko, Nerissa U; Achrol, Achal S; Zaroff, Jonathan G; Young, William L

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate whether increased neuroimaging use is associated with increased brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) detection, we examined detection rates in the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program of northern California between 1995 and 2004. We reviewed medical records, radiology reports, and administrative databases to identify BAVMs, intracranial aneurysms (IAs: subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH] and unruptured aneurysms), and other vascular malformations (OVMs: dural fistulas, cavernous malformations, Vein of Galen malformations, and venous malformations). Poisson regression (with robust standard errors) was used to test for trend. Random-effects meta-analysis generated a pooled measure of BAVM detection rate from 6 studies. We identified 401 BAVMs (197 ruptured, 204 unruptured), 570 OVMs, and 2892 IAs (2079 SAHs and 813 unruptured IAs). Detection rates per 100 000 person-years were 1.4 (95% CI, 1.3 to 1.6) for BAVMs, 2.0 (95% CI, 1.8 to 2.3) for OVMs, and 10.3 (95% CI, 9.9 to 10.7) for IAs. Neuroimaging utilization increased 12% per year during the time period (P<0.001). Overall, rates increased for IAs (P<0.001), remained stable for OVMs (P=0.858), and decreased for BAVMs (P=0.001). Detection rates increased 15% per year for unruptured IAs (P<0.001), with no change in SAHs (P=0.903). However, rates decreased 7% per year for unruptured BAVMs (P=0.016) and 3% per year for ruptured BAVMs (P=0.005). Meta-analysis yielded a pooled BAVM detection rate of 1.3 (95% CI, 1.2 to 1.4) per 100 000 person-years, without heterogeneity between studies (P=0.25). Rates for BAVMs, OVMs, and IAs in this large, multiethnic population were similar to those in other series. During 1995 to 2004, a period of increasing neuroimaging utilization, we did not observe an increased rate of detection of unruptured BAVMs, despite increased detection of unruptured IAs.

  15. Rating competitors before tournament starts: How it's affecting team progression in a soccer tournament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Muhammad Mat; Sulaiman, Tajularipin; Khalid, Ruzelan; Hamid, Mohamad Shukri Abdul; Mansor, Rosnalini

    2014-12-01

    In professional sporting events, rating competitors before tournament start is a well-known approach to distinguish the favorite team and the weaker teams. Various methodologies are used to rate competitors. In this paper, we explore four ways to rate competitors; least squares rating, maximum likelihood strength ratio, standing points in large round robin simulation and previous league rank position. The tournament metric we used to evaluate different types of rating approach is tournament outcome characteristics measure. The tournament outcome characteristics measure is defined by the probability that a particular team in the top 100q pre-tournament rank percentile progress beyond round R, for all q and R. Based on simulation result, we found that different rating approach produces different effect to the team. Our simulation result shows that from eight teams participate in knockout standard seeding, Perak has highest probability to win for tournament that use the least squares rating approach, PKNS has highest probability to win using the maximum likelihood strength ratio and the large round robin simulation approach, while Perak has the highest probability to win a tournament using previous league season approach.

  16. Technological advances for improving adenoma detection rates: The changing face of colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ishaq, Sauid; Siau, Keith; Harrison, Elizabeth; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Hoffman, Arthur; Gross, Seth; Kiesslich, Ralf; Neumann, Helmut

    2017-07-01

    Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer. Over 90% follow an adenoma-to-cancer sequence over many years. Colonoscopy is the gold standard method for cancer screening and early adenoma detection. However, considerable variation exists between endoscopists' detection rates. This review considers the effects of different endoscopic techniques on adenoma detection. Two areas of technological interest were considered: (1) optical technologies and (2) mechanical technologies. Optical solutions, including FICE, NBI, i-SCAN and high definition colonoscopy showed mixed results. In contrast, mechanical advances, such as cap-assisted colonoscopy, FUSE, EndoCuff and G-EYE™, showed promise, with reported detections rates of up to 69%. However, before definitive recommendations can be made for their incorporation into daily practice, further studies and comparison trials are required. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Instantaneous Heart Rate detection using short-time autocorrelation for wearable healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Masanao; Konishi, Toshihiro; Izumi, Shintaro; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimoto, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a robust method of Instantaneous Heart Rate (IHR) detection from noisy electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Generally, the IHR is calculated from the interval of R-waves. Then, the R-waves are extracted from the ECG using a threshold. However, in wearable biosignal monitoring systems, various noises (e.g. muscle artifacts from myoelectric signals, electrode motion artifacts) increase incidences of misdetection and false detection because the power consumption and electrode distance of the wearable sensor are limited to reduce its size and weight. To prevent incorrect detection, we use a short-time autocorrelation technique. The proposed method uses similarity of the waveform of the QRS complex. Therefore, it has no threshold calculation Process and it is robust for noisy environment. Simulation results show that the proposed method improves the success rate of IHR detection by up to 37%.

  18. Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones improves rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing

    2013-08-01

    To improve the rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection, we compared different specimens from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Feces, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stones collected from 179 consecutive patients with cholecystolithiasis underwent microscopic examination, and according to the results, 30 egg-positive and 30 egg-negative fecal, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stone specimens, respectively, underwent real-time fluorescent PCR. The detection rates of eggs in feces, bile, and gallbladder stones were 30.7%, 44.7%, and 69.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The PCR results confirmed that the eggs in the specimens were C. sinensis eggs. Eggs in the feces were "fresh" and in the gallbladder stones were "old." Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones may improve the detection rates of C. sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma.

  19. A Comparison of Affect Ratings Obtained with Ecological Momentary Assessment and the Day Reconstruction Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockray, Samantha; Grant, Nina; Stone, Arthur A.; Kahneman, Daniel; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of affective states in everyday life is of fundamental importance in many types of quality of life, health, and psychological research. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is the recognized method of choice, but the respondent burden can be high. The day reconstruction method (DRM) was developed by Kahneman and colleagues ("Science,"…

  20. A Comparison of Affect Ratings Obtained with Ecological Momentary Assessment and the Day Reconstruction Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockray, Samantha; Grant, Nina; Stone, Arthur A.; Kahneman, Daniel; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of affective states in everyday life is of fundamental importance in many types of quality of life, health, and psychological research. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is the recognized method of choice, but the respondent burden can be high. The day reconstruction method (DRM) was developed by Kahneman and colleagues ("Science,"…

  1. Rethinking Speed Theories of Cognitive Development: Increasing the Rate of Recall Without Affecting Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson; Elliott, Emily M.; Saults, J. Scott; Nugent, Lara D.; Bomb, Pinky; Hismjatullina, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that developmental improvements in immediate recall stem from increases in the speed of mental processes. However, that inference has depended on evidence from correlation, regression, and structural equation modeling. We provide counterexamples in two experiments in which the speed of spoken recall is manipulated. In one experiment, second-grade children and adults recalled lists of digits more quickly than usual when the lists were presented at a rapid rate of 2 items per second (items/s). In a second experiment, children received lists at a 1 item/s rate but half of them were successfully trained to respond more quickly than usual, and similar to adults' usual rate. Recall accuracy was completely unaffected by either of these response-speed manipulations. Although response rate is a strong marker of an individual's maturational level, it thus does not appear to determine immediate recall. There are important implications for developmental methodology. PMID:16371146

  2. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae).

    PubMed

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ) as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant.

  3. Transient and residual stresses in dental porcelains as affected by cooling rates.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, K; Tesk, J A

    1989-06-01

    The development of either transient or residual stress in a slab of dental porcelain during cooling was simulated by use of a super-computer. The temperature dependences of the elastic modulus, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the shear viscosity, and the cooling rate dependence of the glass transition temperature, Tg, were considered in this calculation. Internal stress and viscoelastic creep were computed for several cooling rates. Calculated results display stress profiles which agree reasonably well with reported measured profiles in quenched, tempered glasses. The calculated residual surface stress, sigma, could be fit by the following empirical formula, sigma = kl2(q/q0)n, q is the cooling rate, q0 is a reference cooling rate and l is the half-thickness of the porcelain. The method by which residual stress develops is also discussed. This discussion suggests a method for strengthening of the porcelain by the development of high-compressive residual stress on the surface.

  4. Mechanical properties of Rene-41 affected by rate of cooling after solution annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, M.

    1970-01-01

    Investigation of Rene-41 cooling rate from 1975 to 1400 degrees F reveals that slow cooling improves high-temperature ductility and provides more uniform properties throughout a manifold. Ambient elongation and impact resistance are not significantly changed.

  5. Long-term temporal tracking of speech rate affects spoken-word recognition.

    PubMed

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Heffner, Christopher C; Dilley, Laura C; Pitt, Mark A; Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin

    2014-08-01

    Humans unconsciously track a wide array of distributional characteristics in their sensory environment. Recent research in spoken-language processing has demonstrated that the speech rate surrounding a target region within an utterance influences which words, and how many words, listeners hear later in that utterance. On the basis of hypotheses that listeners track timing information in speech over long timescales, we investigated the possibility that the perception of words is sensitive to speech rate over such a timescale (e.g., an extended conversation). Results demonstrated that listeners tracked variation in the overall pace of speech over an extended duration (analogous to that of a conversation that listeners might have outside the lab) and that this global speech rate influenced which words listeners reported hearing. The effects of speech rate became stronger over time. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neural entrainment by speech occurs on multiple timescales, some lasting more than an hour. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ) as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant. PMID:25187878

  7. Does malalignment affect revision rate in total knee replacements: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Mohammed; Barlow, Tim; Ahmed, Imran; Dunbar, Mark; McCulloch, Peter; Griffin, Damian

    2015-01-01

    To ensure implant durability following Modern total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, one long held principle in condylar total knee arthroplasty is positioning the components in alignment with the mechanical axis and restoring the overall limb alignment to 180° ± 3°. However, this view has been challenged recently. Given the high number of TKR performed, clarity on this integral aspect of the procedure is necessary. To investigate the association between malalignment following primary TKR and revision rates. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using a computerised literature search of Medline, CINHAL, and EMBASE to identify English-language studies published from 2000 through to 2014. Studies with adequate information on the correlation between malalignment and revision rate with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were considered for inclusion. A study protocol, including the detailed search strategy was published on the PROSPERO database for systematic reviews. From an initial 2107 citations, eight studies, with variable methodological qualities, were eligible for inclusion. Collectively, nine parameters of alignment were studied, and 20 assessments were made between an alignment parameter and revision rate. Four out of eight studies demonstrated an association between a malalignment parameter and increased revision rates. In the coronal plane, only three studies assessed the mechanical axis. None of these studies found an association with revision rates, whereas four of the five studies investigating the anatomical axis found an association between malalignment and increased revision rate. This study demonstrates the effect of malalignment on revision rates is likely to be modest. Interestingly, studies that used mechanical alignment in the coronal plane demonstrated no association with revision rates. This questions the premise of patient specific instrumentation devices based on the mechanically aligned knee when considering revision as the

  8. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates of neotropical birds have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses of a multispecies assemblage from Panama by Karr et al. (1990) provided a counterexample to that view. One criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses indicate that these models are indeed useful in modelling the data from Panama. Nonetheless, there is considerable interspecific variation and overall estimates of annual survival rates for understorey birds in Panama remain lower than those from other studies in the Neotropics and well below the rates long assumed for tropical birds (i.e. > 0.80). Therefore, tropical birds may not have systematically higher survival rates than temperate-zone species. Variation in survival rates among tropical species suggests that theory based on a simple tradeoff between clutch size and longevity is inadequate. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to some combination of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding these processes is the challenge for future work.

  9. Irish Medicines Board safety warnings: do they affect prescribing rates in primary care?

    PubMed

    Musleh, S; Kraus, S; Bennett, K; Zaharan, N L

    2011-09-01

    To examine the impact of safety warnings issued between 2005 and 2007 by the Irish Medicines Board (IMB) on the rate of prescribing of clopidogrel, co-amoxiclav, celecoxib and haloperidol by primary care physicians in the General Medical Services (GMS) scheme across Ireland. This study was performed using the Irish Health Service Executive-Primary Care Reimbursement Services national prescribing database. Rate of prescribing per 1000 GMS population was calculated for each of the 12 months before and after the IMB warnings were issued to physicians. A segmented regression analysis was used to examine the change in level and trend in prescribing rates before and after the IMB warnings. Regression coefficients are presented with SEs. Significance at p < 0.05 was assumed. SPSS 16 and SAS were used for statistical analysis. Prescribing of clopidogrel continued to rise in both genders following the warning. This increase was slightly higher in male patients. The prescribing of co-amoxiclav showed seasonal variation with significant autocorrelation. The rate of prescribing of celecoxib declined approximately 4  months prior to the IMB warning. A significant decrease in the level and trend of the rate of prescribing of celecoxib was observed with evident discontinuity. The IMB warning had no significant effect on the level of trend in the prescribing of haloperidol, suggesting no discontinuity. Results indicate that the IMB safety warnings had inconsistent effects on the rate of prescribing of drugs considered. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Does unemployment affect child abuse rates? Evidence from New York State.

    PubMed

    Raissian, Kerri M

    2015-10-01

    This article used child maltreatment reports from New York State from 2000 to 2010 to investigate the relationship between county level unemployment and county level child maltreatment rates. Models showed that a 1 percentage point increase in unemployment rates reduced the child report rate by approximately 4.25%. Report rates for young children (children under the age of 6) and older children (children ages 6 and over) responded similarly to changes in local unemployment, but the relationship between unemployment rates and child maltreatment reports did vary by a county's metropolitan designation. The negative relationship between unemployment and child maltreatment reports was largely contained to metropolitan counties. The relationship between unemployment and child maltreatment reports in non-metropolitan counties was often positive but not statistically significant. These findings were robust to a number of specifications. In alternate models, the county's mandated reporter employment rate was added as a control; the inclusion of this variable did not alter the results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. How Does Relaxing the Algorithm for Autism Affect DSM-V Prevalence Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Williams, Lindsey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is still unclear what causes autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), over time researchers and clinicians have become more precise with detecting and diagnosing ASD. Many diagnoses, however, are based on the criteria established within the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM"); thus, any change in these diagnostic…

  12. How Does Relaxing the Algorithm for Autism Affect DSM-V Prevalence Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Williams, Lindsey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is still unclear what causes autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), over time researchers and clinicians have become more precise with detecting and diagnosing ASD. Many diagnoses, however, are based on the criteria established within the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM"); thus, any change in these diagnostic…

  13. TLC surface integrity affects the detection of alkali adduct ions in TLC-MALDI analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yonghui; Ferrazza, Ruggero; Anesi, Andrea; Guella, Graziano; Franceschi, Pietro

    2017-07-20

    Direct coupling of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry allows fast and detailed characterization of a large variety of analytes. The use of this technique, however, presents great challenges in semiquantitative applications because of the complex phenomena occurring at the TLC surface. In our laboratory, we recently observed that the ion intensities of several alkali adduct ions were significantly different between the top and interior layer of the TLC plate. This indicates that the integrity of the TLC surface can have an important effect on the reproducibility of TLC- MALDI analyses. Graphical Abstract MALDI imaging reveals that surface integrity affects the detection of alkali adductions in TLC-MALDI.

  14. Factors Affecting College-Going Rates in California: A Study Prospectus. Working Paper WP/06-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This working paper announces a report proposed by the California Postsecondary Education Commission to conduct a further statistical study on the factors affecting college-going rates in California. These factors would include school demographics, neighborhood characteristics, and regional labor market forces. Such a study could reveal insights…

  15. Does time of day influence cancer detection and recall rates in mammography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinton, Chris; Jenkinson, David; Adekanmbi, Victor; Clarke, Aileen; Taylor-Phillips, Sian

    2017-03-01

    Background: The interpretation of screening mammograms is influenced by factors such as reader experience and their annual interpretative volume. There is some evidence that time of day can also have an effect, with better diagnostic accuracy for readings conducted early in the day. This is not a consistent finding, however. The aim of our study is to provide further evidence on whether there is an effect of time of day on recall- and breast cancer detection rates. Method: We analysed breast screening data from 222,577 women from the Midlands of England. Data were split into three eight hour periods: 0900-1700, 1700-0100, 0100-0900. Differences in recall- and cancer detection rates were analysed using multilevel logistic regression models. Results: Recall rates were lowest for mammograms read between the 1700-0100 time period. Cancer detection rates were lowest during the 0100-0900 time period. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there are fluctuations in recall- and cancer detection rates over the course of the day.

  16. Affective learning enhances visual detection and responses in primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Padmala, Srikanth; Pessoa, Luiz

    2008-06-11

    The affective significance of a visual item is thought to lead to enhanced visual processing. However, the precise link between enhanced visual perception of emotion-laden items and increased visual responses remains poorly understood. To investigate this link, we acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data while participants performed a challenging visual detection task. Grating stimuli were physically identical and differed only as a function of their previous exposure history; CS+ stimuli were initially paired with shock, whereas CS- stimuli were not. Behaviorally, subjects were both faster and more accurate during CS+ relative to CS- target detection. These behavioral results were paralleled by increases in fMRI responses across early, retinotopically organized visual cortex, which was mapped in a separate fMRI session. Logistic regression analyses revealed that trial-by-trial fluctuations in fMRI responses were closely linked to trial type, such that fMRI signal strength reliably predicted the probability of a hit trial across retinotopically organized visual cortex, including area V1. For instance, during the CS+ condition, a 0.5% signal change increased the probability of a hit from chance to 67.3-73.5% in V1-V4 (the highest increase was observed in area V1). Furthermore, across participants, differential fMRI responses to hits versus correct rejects were correlated with behavioral performance. Our findings provide a close link between increased activation in early visual cortex and improved behavioral performance as a function of the affective significance of an item.

  17. An improved lane detection algorithm and the definition of the error rate standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chung-Hsien; Su, Chung-Yen

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to improve the problem that the assistant lane marks caused by pulse. We also define a method to distinguish the assistant lane marks' error rate objectively. To improve the problem, we mainly use the Sobel edge detection to replace the Canny edge detection. Also, we make use of the Gaussian filter to filter noise. Finally, we improve the ellipse ROI size in tracking part and the performance of the FPS (frame per second) from 32 to 39. In the past, we distinguished the assistant lane marks' error rate very subjectively. To avoid judging subjectively, we propose an objective method to define the assistant lane marks' error rate as a standard. We use the performance and the error rate to choose the ellipse ROI parameter.

  18. Obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus affect complication rate of different nephrectomy techniques.

    PubMed

    Hua, X; Ying-Ying, C; Zu-Jun, F; Gang, X; Zu-Quan, X; Qiang, D; Hao-Wen, J

    2014-12-01

    To investigate whether obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (DM) would increase post-nephrectomy complication rates using standardized classification method. We retrospectively included 843 patients from March 2006 to November 2012, of whom 613 underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) and 229 had partial nephrectomy (PN). Modified Clavien classification system was applied to quantify complication severity of nephrectomy. Fisher's exact or chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between complication rates and obesity, hypertension, as well as DM. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and DM was 11.51%, 30.84%, 8.78%, respectively. The overall complication rate was 19.31%, 30.04%, 35.71% and 36.36% for laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN), open-RN, LPN and open-PN respectively. An increasing trend of low grade complication rate as BMI increased was observed in LRN (P=.027) and open-RN (P<.001). Obese patients had greater chance to have low grade complications in LRN (OR=4.471; 95% CI: 1.290-17.422; P=0.031) and open-RN (OR=2.448; 95% CI: 1.703-3.518; P<.001). Patients with hypertension were more likely to have low grade complications, especially grade ii complications in open-RN (OR=1.526; 95% CI: 1.055-2.206; P=.026) and open PN (OR=2.032; 95% CI: 1.199-3.443; P=.009). DM was also associated with higher grade i complication rate in open-RN (OR=2.490; 95% CI: 331-4.657; P=.016) and open-PN (OR=4.425; 95% CI: 1.815-10.791; P=.013). High grade complication rates were similar in comparison. Obesity, hypertension, and DM were closely associated with increased post-nephrectomy complication rates, mainly low grade complications. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of the Brazilian Conditional Cash Transfer and Primary Health Care Programs on the New Case Detection Rate of Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Joilda Silva; Pereira, Susan Martins; Rasella, Davide; Penna, Maria Lúcia Fernandes; Aquino, Rosana; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Background Social determinants can affect the transmission of leprosy and its progression to disease. Not much is known about the effectiveness of welfare and primary health care policies on the reduction of leprosy occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer (Bolsa Família Program-BFP) and primary health care (Family Health Program-FHP) programs on new case detection rate of leprosy. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted the study with a mixed ecological design, a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design in the period 2004–2011 with the Brazilian municipalities as unit of analysis. The main independent variables were the BFP and FHP coverage at the municipal level and the outcome was new case detection rate of leprosy. Leprosy new cases, BFP and FHP coverage, population and other relevant socio-demographic covariates were obtained from national databases. We used fixed-effects negative binomial models for panel data adjusted for relevant socio-demographic covariates. A total of 1,358 municipalities were included in the analysis. In the studied period, while the municipal coverage of BFP and FHP increased, the new case detection rate of leprosy decreased. Leprosy new case detection rate was significantly reduced in municipalities with consolidated BFP coverage (Risk Ratio 0.79; 95% CI  = 0.74–0.83) and significantly increased in municipalities with FHP coverage in the medium (72–95%) (Risk Ratio 1.05; 95% CI  = 1.02–1.09) and higher coverage tertiles (>95%) (Risk Ratio 1.12; 95% CI  = 1.08–1.17). Conclusions At the same time the Family Health Program had been effective in increasing the new case detection rate of leprosy in Brazil, the Bolsa Família Program was associated with a reduction of the new case detection rate of leprosy that we propose reflects a reduction in leprosy incidence. PMID:25412418

  20. Reproductive rate, not dominance status, affects fecal glucocorticoid levels in breeding female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Barrette, Marie-France; Monfort, Steven L; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Russell, Andrew F

    2012-04-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) have been studied intensively to understand the associations between physiological stress and reproductive skew in animal societies. However, we have little appreciation of the range of either natural levels within and among individuals, or the associations among dominance status, reproductive rate and GCs levels during breeding. To address these shortcomings, we examined variation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGC) during breeding periods in free-ranging female meerkats (Suricata suricatta) over 11 years. The vast majority of variation in fGC levels was found within breeding events by the same female (~87%), with the remaining variation arising among breeding events and among females. Concentrations of fGC generally tripled as pregnancy progressed. However, females with a high reproductive rate, defined as those conceiving within a month following parturition (mean = 9 days postpartum), showed significant reductions in fGC in the final 2 weeks before parturition. Despite these reductions, females with a high reproductive rate had higher fGC levels at conception of the following litter than those breeding at a low rate. After controlling for the higher reproductive rate of dominants, we found no association between levels of fGC and either age or dominance status. Our results suggest that one should be cautious about interpreting associations between dominance status, reproductive skew and GCs levels, without knowledge of the natural variation in GCs levels within and among females.

  1. Virulence factor genotypes of Helicobacter pylori affect cure rates of eradication therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    The cure rates of Helicobacter pylori infection by using a combination of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and antimicrobial agents are mainly influenced by bacterial susceptibility to antimicrobial agents and the magnitude of acid inhibition during the treatment. Currently used empirical triple therapies do not reliably produce a ≥80% cure rate on an intention-to-treat basis. Therefore, tailored regimens based on relevant microbiological findings and pharmacogenomics are recommended for attaining an acceptable ≥95% cure rate. Recently, virulence factors of H. pylori, such as cagA and vacA, are reported to be major factors determining the cure rates. Individuals infected with strains with cagA-negative and vacA s2 genotypes have significantly increased risk of eradication failure of H. pylori infection. These virulence factors enhance gastric mucosal inflammation and are associated with the development of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. H. pylori virulence factors induce proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, which influence mucosal inflammation and/or gastric acid secretion. When physicians select an H. pylori eradication regimen with an acceptable cure rate, they might need to consider H. pylori virulence factors, especially cagA and vacA. PMID:19219527

  2. Rate of novel host invasion affects adaptability of evolving RNA virus lineages

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Valerie J.; Mendiola, Sandra Y.; Turner, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Although differing rates of environmental turnover should be consequential for the dynamics of adaptive change, this idea has been rarely examined outside of theory. In particular, the importance of RNA viruses in disease emergence warrants experiments testing how differing rates of novel host invasion may impact the ability of viruses to adaptively shift onto a novel host. To test whether the rate of environmental turnover influences adaptation, we experimentally evolved 144 Sindbis virus lineages in replicated tissue-culture environments, which transitioned from being dominated by a permissive host cell type to a novel host cell type. The rate at which the novel host ‘invaded’ the environment varied by treatment. The fitness (growth rate) of evolved virus populations was measured on each host type, and molecular substitutions were mapped via whole genome consensus sequencing. Results showed that virus populations more consistently reached high fitness levels on the novel host when the novel host ‘invaded’ the environment more gradually, and gradual invasion resulted in less variable genomic outcomes. Moreover, virus populations that experienced a rapid shift onto the novel host converged upon different genotypes than populations that experienced a gradual shift onto the novel host, suggesting a strong effect of historical contingency. PMID:26246544

  3. Does amiodarone affect heart rate by inhibiting the intracellular generation of triiodothyronine from thyroxine?

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmeyer, M.; Spörri, S.; Stäubli, M.; Studer, A.; Studer, H.

    1984-01-01

    The hypothesis that the antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone slows down the heart rate by its inhibitory action on the intracellular conversion of thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3' triiodothyronine (T3) was investigated. For this purpose we compared the effect of amiodarone with that of another potent inhibitor of the T4----T3 conversion, i.e. the radiographic contrast medium iopanoic acid, on the heart rate of unanaesthetized guinea-pigs. Both amiodarone and, to an even greater extent, iopanoic acid induced an increase in serum 3.5',3' triiodothyronine (reverse T3), indicating effective inhibition of T4----T3 conversion. Both amiodarone and iopanoic acid were accumulated in the liver and in the heart (measured as iodine). While amiodarone induced bradycardia, iopanoic acid did not change the heart rate. Supraphysiological amounts of exogenous T3 reverted the amiodarone induced bradycardia to near normal values. A comparable effect was observed with isoprenaline. The intracellular inhibition of the T4----T3 conversion is not the ultimate mode of the action of the amiodarone effect on heart rate. It is thought that amiodarone interacts with T3 at its receptor or somewhere later along the pathway from the T3-receptor interaction to the final effect of T3 on heart rate. PMID:6733357

  4. Rethinking speed theories of cognitive development. Increasing the rate of recall without affecting accuracy.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Nelson; Elliott, Emily M; Saults, J Scott; Nugent, Lara D; Bomb, Pinky; Hismjatullina, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that developmental improvements in immediate recall stem from increases in the speed of mental processes. However, that inference has depended on evidence from correlation, regression, and structural equation modeling. We provide counter-examples in two experiments in which the speed of spoken recall was manipulated. In one experiment, second-grade children and adults recalled lists of digits more quickly than usual when the lists were presented at a rapid rate of two items per second. In a second experiment, children received lists at a rate of one item per second; half the children were trained (successfully) to speak their responses more quickly than usual, at a rate similar to adults' usual rate. Recall accuracy was completely unaffected by either of these response-speed manipulations. Thus, although response rate is a strong marker of an individual's maturational level, it does not appear to determine the accuracy of immediate recall. These results have important methodological and theoretical implications for human development.

  5. Detection of frequency modulation by hearing-impaired listeners: Effects of carrier frequency, modulation rate, and added amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Brian C. J.; Skrodzka, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that the detection of frequency modulation (FM) of sinusoidal carriers can be mediated by two mechanisms: a place mechanism based on FM-induced amplitude modulation (AM) in the excitation pattern, and a temporal mechanism based on phase-locking in the auditory nerve. The temporal mechanism appears to be ``sluggish'' and does not play a role for FM rates above about 10 Hz. It also does not play a role for high carrier frequencies (above about 5 kHz). This experiment examined FM detection in three young subjects with normal hearing and four elderly subjects with cochlear hearing loss. Carrier frequencies were 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 kHz and modulation rates were 2, 5, 10, and 20 Hz. FM detection thresholds were measured both in the absence of AM, and with AM of a fixed depth (m=0.33) added in both intervals of a forced-choice trial. The added AM was intended to disrupt cues based on FM-induced AM in the excitation pattern. Generally, the hearing-impaired subjects performed markedly more poorly than the normal-hearing subjects. For the normal-hearing subjects, the disruptive effect of the AM tended to increase with increasing modulation rate, for carrier frequencies below 6 kHz, as found previously by Moore and Sek [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2320-2331 (1996)]. For the hearing-impaired subjects, the disruptive effective of the AM was generally larger than for the normal-hearing subjects, and the magnitude of the disruption did not consistently increase with increasing modulation rate. The results suggest that cochlear hearing impairment adversely affects both temporal and excitation pattern mechanisms of FM detection.

  6. Plant terpenes affect intensity and temporal parameters of pheromone detection in a moth.

    PubMed

    Party, Virginie; Hanot, Christophe; Said, Imene; Rochat, Didier; Renou, Michel

    2009-11-01

    In moths, the components of the female pheromone blend are detected in the male antennae by pheromone olfactory receptor neurons (Ph-ORNs) expressing narrowly tuned olfactory receptors. Responses to sex pheromones have generally been thought to be independent from the odorant background. However, interactions between pheromone components and plant volatiles have been reported at behavioral and detection levels. To document the mechanisms of such interactions, we analyzed Ph-ORN responses of Spodoptera littoralis to the main pheromone component, Z9E11-14:Ac, in the presence of 4 monoterpenes. To mimic natural contexts in which plant odors and pheromone emanate from different sources, the 2 stimuli were presented with different temporal patterns and from independent sources. Linalool reversibly reduced the firing response to Z9E11-14:Ac and produced an off effect. Geraniol and geranyl and linalyl acetates reduced the responses to Z9E11-14:Ac with a longer time course. Pulses of linalool over prolonged pheromone stimulation resulted in a discontinuous firing activity. Pulses of pheromone were better separated over a background of linalool, compared with odorless air. The data confirm that plant compounds may modulate the intensity and the temporal coding by Ph-ORNs of pheromone information. This modulation might positively affect mate location at high pheromone density especially nearby a pheromone source.

  7. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) detection, avoidance, and chemosensory effects of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Lari, Ebrahim; Pyle, Greg G

    2017-06-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) - a byproduct of the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada - is currently stored in on-site tailings ponds. The goal of the present study was to investigate the interaction of OSPW with the olfactory system and olfactory-mediated behaviours of fish upon the first encounter with OSPW. The response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to different concentrations (0.1, 1, and 10%) of OSPW was studied using a choice maze and electro-olfactography (EOG), respectively. The results of the present study showed that rainbow trout are capable of detecting and avoiding OSPW at a concentration as low as 0.1%. Exposure to 1% OSPW impaired (i.e. reduced sensitivity) the olfactory response of rainbow trout to alarm and food cues within 5 min or less. The results of the present study demonstrated that fish could detect and avoid minute concentrations of OSPW. However, if fish were exposed to OSPW-contaminated water and unable to escape, their olfaction would be impaired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Computer-Detected Attention Affects Foreign Language Listening but Not Reading Performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Ping

    2016-08-01

    No quantitative study has explored the influence of attention on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This study investigated whether computer-detected attention is associated with EFL reading and listening and reading and listening anxiety. Traditional paper-based English tests used as entrance examinations and tests of general trait anxiety, reading, listening, reading test state anxiety, and listening test state anxiety were administered in 252 Taiwan EFL college students who were divided into High Attention (Conners' Continuous Performance Test, CPT < 50) and Low Attention (CPT ≥ 50) groups. No differences were found between the two groups for traditional paper-based English tests, trait anxieties, general English reading anxiety scales, and general English listening anxiety scales. The Low Attention group had higher test state anxiety and lower listening test scores than the High Attention group, but not in reading. State anxiety during listening tests for EFL students with computer-detected low attention tendency was elevated and their EFL listening performance was affected, but those differences were not found in reading. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. From research to practice: factors affecting implementation of prospective targeted injury-detection systems.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, A V; Harrison, M I; Kane, H L; Roussel, A E; Halpern, M T; Bernard, S L

    2011-06-01

    AIM This paper describes key factors that shaped implementation of prospective targeted injury-detection systems (TIDS) for adverse drug events (ADEs) and nosocomial pressure ulcers (PrU). METHODS Using case-study methodology, the authors conducted semistructured interviews with implementation champions and TIDS users at five hospitals. Interviews focused on implementation experiences, assessment of TIDS' effectiveness and utility, and plans for sustainability. The authors used content analysis techniques to compare implementation experiences within and across organisations and triangulated data for explanation and confirmation of common themes. FINDINGS Participating hospitals were more successful in implementing the low-complexity PrU-TIDS, as compared with high-complexity ADE-TIDS. This pattern reflected the greater complexity of ADE-TIDS, its higher costs and poorer alignment with existing workflows. Complexity affected the innovations' perceived usability, the time needed to learn and install the trigger systems, and their costs. Local factors affecting implementation and sustainability of both innovations included turnover affecting champions and other staff, shifting organisational priorities, changing information infrastructures, and institutional constraints on adapting existing IT to the electronic TIDS. CONCLUSIONS To facilitate implementation of complex healthcare innovations such as ADE-TIDS, staff in adopting organisations should give high priority to innovation implementation; allocate sufficient resources; effectively communicate with and involve local champions and users; and align innovations with workflows and information systems. In addition, they should monitor local factors, such as changes in organisational priorities and IT, availability of implementation staff and champions, and external regulations and constraints that may pose barriers to innovation implementation and sustainability.

  10. An Experiment to Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward

    1999-12-01

    By performing this experiment, students in general and introductory physical chemistry can learn more about the effect of a catalyst on a chemical reaction. This experiment, which is a modified version of the traditional iodine clock reaction, allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reactants, and activation energies. It also lets students discover that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having a lower activation energy. This experiment is designed so that students will notice that the amount of catalyst used is important. Furthermore, the slight amount (~10-5 M MoO42-) of catalyst needed to increase the overall reaction rate and the abrupt color change that occurs seem to pique the interest of our students.

  11. Does administering a comprehensive examination affect pass rates on the Registered Health Information Administrator certification examination?

    PubMed

    McNeill, Marjorie H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine whether the administration of a comprehensive examination before graduation increases the percentage of students passing the Registered Health Information Administrator certification examination. A t-test for independent means yielded a statistically significant difference between the Registered Health Information Administrator certification examination pass rates of health information administration programs that administer a comprehensive examination and programs that do not administer a comprehensive examination. Programs with a high certification examination pass rate do not require a comprehensive examination when compared with those programs with a lower pass rate. It is concluded that health information administration faculty at the local level should perform program self-analysis to improve student progress toward achievement of learning outcomes and entry-level competencies.

  12. Factors influencing variation in physician adenoma detection rates: a theory-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Louise; Hunkeler, Enid M.; Jensen, Christopher D.; Michie, Susan; Lee, Jeffrey K.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Zauber, Ann G.; Levin, Theodore R.; Quinn, Virginia P.; Corley, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Interventions to improve physician adenoma detection rates for colonoscopy have generally not been successful and there are little data on the factors contributing to variation that may be appropriate targets for intervention. We sought to identify factors that may influence variation in detection rates using theory-based tools for understanding behavior. Methods We separately studied gastroenterologists and endoscopy nurses at three Kaiser Permanente Northern California medical centers to identify potentially modifiable factors relevant to physician adenoma detection rate variability using structured group interviews (focus groups) and theory-based tools for understanding behavior and eliciting behavior change: the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation behavior model; the Theoretical Domains Framework; and the Behavior Change Wheel. Results Nine factors potentially associated with detection rate variability were identified, including six related to capability (uncertainty about which types of polyps to remove; style of endoscopy team leadership; compromised ability to focus during an examination due to distractions; examination technique during withdrawal; difficulty detecting certain types of adenomas; and examiner fatigue and pain), two related to opportunity (perceived pressure due to the number of examinations expected per shift and social pressure to finish examinations before scheduled breaks or the end of a shift), and one related to motivation (valuing a meticulous examination as the top priority). Examples of potential intervention strategies are provided. Conclusions Using theory-based tools, this study identified several novel and potentially modifiable factors relating to capability, opportunity, and motivation that may contribute to adenoma detection rate variability and be appropriate targets for future intervention trials. PMID:26366787

  13. Higher Adenoma Detection Rates with Endocuff-Assisted Colonoscopy – A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fitzlaff, Rüdiger; Röming, Hermann; Ameis, Detlev; Heinecke, Achim; Kunsch, Steffen; Ellenrieder, Volker; Ströbel, Philipp; Schepke, Michael; Meister, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Endocuff is a device mounted on the tip of the colonoscope to help flatten the colonic folds during withdrawal. This study aimed to compare the adenoma detection rates between Endocuff-assisted (EC) colonoscopy and standard colonoscopy (SC). Methods This randomized prospective multicenter trial was conducted at four academic endoscopy units in Germany. Participants: 500 patients (235 males, median age 64[IQR 54–73]) for colon adenoma detection purposes were included in the study. All patients were either allocated to EC or SC. The primary outcome measure was the determination of the adenoma detection rates (ADR). Results The ADR significantly increased with the use of the Endocuff compared to standard colonoscopy (35.4%[95% confidence interval{CI} 29–41%] vs. 20.7%[95%CI 15–26%], p<0.0001). Significantly more sessile polyps were detected by EC. Overall procedure time and withdrawal time did not differ. Caecal and ileum intubation rates were similar. No major adverse events occurred in both groups. In multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03; 95%[CI] 1.01–1.05), male sex (OR 1.74; 95%CI 1.10–2.73), withdrawal time (OR 1.16; 95%CI 1.05–1.30), procedure time (OR 1.07; 95%CI 1.04–1.10), colon cleanliness (OR 0.60; 95%CI 0.39–0.94) and use of Endocuff (OR 2.09; 95%CI 1.34–3.27) were independent predictors of adenoma detection rates. Conclusions EC increases the adenoma detection rate by 14.7%(95%CI 6.9–22.5%). EC is safe, effective, easy to handle and might reduce colorectal interval carcinomas. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02034929. PMID:25470133

  14. Which Factors Affect Citation Rates in the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Literature?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kristie L; Dodson, Thomas B; Egbert, Mark A; Susarla, Srinivas M

    2017-07-01

    Citation rate is one of several tools to measure academic productivity. The purposes of this study were to estimate and identify factors associated with citation rates in the oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) literature. This was a retrospective longitudinal study of publications in the Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (JOMS), International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (IJOMS), and Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, and Oral Radiology (OOOO) from January through December 2012. The predictor variables were author- and article-specific factors. The outcome variable was the citation rate, defined as the total number of citations for each article over a 4-year period. Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple regression statistics were computed. The authors identified 993 articles published during 2012. The mean number of citations at 4 years after publication was 5.6 ± 5.3 (median, 4). In bivariate analyses, several author- and article-specific factors were associated with citation rates. In a multiple regression model adjusting for potential confounders and effect modifiers, first author H-index, number of authors, journal, OMS focus area, and Oxford level of evidence were significantly associated with citation rate (P ≤ .002). The authors identified 5 factors associated with citation rates in the OMS literature. These factors should be considered in context when evaluating citation-based metrics for OMS. Studies that focus on core OMS procedures (eg, dentoalveolar surgery, dental implant surgery), are published in specialty-specific journals (eg, JOMS or IJOMS), and have higher levels of evidence are more likely to be cited. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Collaborative Project: Understanding the Chemical Processes tat Affect Growth rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles

    SciTech Connect

    McMurry, Peter; Smuth, James

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate.

  16. Do method and species lifestyle affect measures of maximum metabolic rate in fishes?

    PubMed

    Killen, S S; Norin, T; Halsey, L G

    2017-03-01

    The rate at which active animals can expend energy is limited by their maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR). Two methods are commonly used to estimate MMR as oxygen uptake in fishes, namely during prolonged swimming or immediately following brief exhaustive exercise, but it is unclear whether they return different estimates of MMR or whether their effectiveness for estimating MMR varies among species with different lifestyles. A broad comparative analysis of MMR data from 121 fish species revealed little evidence of different results between the two methods, either for fishes in general or for species of benthic, benthopelagic or pelagic lifestyles.

  17. Parameters of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Affect the Occurrence of Colorectal Adenomas Detected by Surveillance Colonoscopies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Suh, Jung Yul; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Kyuyong; Jung, Yoon Suk

    2017-03-01

    Limited data are available regarding the associations between parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and the occurrence of metachronous adenomas. We investigated whether these parameters affect the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. This longitudinal study was performed on 5289 subjects who underwent follow-up colonoscopy between 2012 and 2013 among 62171 asymptomatic subjects who underwent an initial colonoscopy for a health check-up between 2010 and 2011. The risk of adenoma occurrence was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. The mean interval between the initial and follow-up colonoscopy was 2.2±0.6 years. The occurrence of adenomas detected by the follow-up colonoscopy increased linearly with the increasing quartiles of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides measured at the initial colonoscopy. These associations persisted after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted hazard ratios for adenoma occurrence comparing the fourth with the first quartiles of fasting glucose, HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides were 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-1.77; p(trend)<0.001], 1.22 (95% CI, 1.04-1.43; p(trend)=0.024), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02-1.46; p(trend)=0.046), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.14-1.63; p(trend)=0.004), and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.99-1.42; p(trend)=0.041), respectively. In addition, increasing quartiles of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were associated with an increasing occurrence of adenomas. The levels of parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism were significantly associated with the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Improving the parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism through lifestyle changes or medications may be helpful in preventing metachronous adenomas.

  18. Annosus Root Disease Hazard Rating, Detection, and Management Strategies in the Southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    S. A. Alexander

    1989-01-01

    Annosus root disease (ARD), is the major root disease of pines in the southeastern United States where severely affected trees exhibit growth loss. Assessing the potential damage of ARD is essential for making effective disease control and management decisions. A soil hazard rating system developed to identify potential for tree mortality is described. The Annosus...

  19. Speaking Rate Affects the Perception of Duration as a Suprasegmental Lexical-Stress Cue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment segmentally but differed in lexical stress…

  20. Dynamics of Choice: Relative Rate and Amount Affect Local Preference at Three Different Time Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Carlos F.; Baum, William M.

    2009-01-01

    To examine extended control over local choice, the present study investigated preference in transition as food-rate ratio provided by two levers changed across seven components within daily sessions, and food-amount ratio changed across phases. Phase 1 arranged a food-amount ratio of 4:1 (i.e., the left lever delivered four pellets and the right…

  1. Replication Rate, Framing, and Format Affect Attitudes and Decisions about Science Claims.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Ralph M; Tobin, Stephanie J; Johnston, Heather M; MacKenzie, Noah; Taglang, Chelsea M

    2016-01-01

    A series of five experiments examined how the evaluation of a scientific finding was influenced by information about the number of studies that had successfully replicated the initial finding. The experiments also tested the impact of frame (negative, positive) and numeric format (percentage, natural frequency) on the evaluation of scientific findings. In Experiments 1 through 4, an attitude difference score served as the dependent measure, while a measure of choice served as the dependent measure in Experiment 5. Results from a diverse sample of 188 non-institutionalized U.S. adults (Experiment 2) and 730 undergraduate college students (Experiments 1, 3, and 4) indicated that attitudes became more positive as the replication rate increased and attitudes were more positive when the replication information was framed positively. The results also indicate that the manner in which replication rate was framed had a greater impact on attitude than the replication rate itself. The large effect for frame was attenuated somewhat when information about replication was presented in the form of natural frequencies rather than percentages. A fifth study employing 662 undergraduate college students in a task in which choice served as the dependent measure confirmed the framing effect and replicated the replication rate effect in the positive frame condition, but provided no evidence that the use of natural frequencies diminished the effect.

  2. Do Expenditures Other than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of tuition increases in both private and public higher education that continually exceed inflation, coupled with the fact that the United States no longer leads the world in terms of the fraction of young adults who have college degrees, have focused attention on why costs keep increasing in higher education and what categories of higher…

  3. Online College Laboratory Courses: Can They Be Done and Will They Affect Graduation and Retention Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hunnik, Eddy

    2015-01-01

    Online education has been steadily growing during the last decade. This growth has mainly taken place in the non-laboratory science fields. This essay describes some of the best practices to increase and maintain student retention, increase student engagement and increase graduation rates for college running online laboratory science courses. This…

  4. The Use of Heart Rate Variability as a Novel Method to Differentiate between Affective States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The major goal of animal welfare scientists is to determine when animals are experiencing a state of good welfare or poor welfare. The goal of this research was to determine if measures of heart rate variability can be used to differentiate whether animals are experiencing ‘unpleasant’ versus ‘pleas...

  5. Applying Models to National Surveys of Undergraduate Science Students: What Affects Ratings of Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Anthony Mark; Dunleavy, Peter; Fielding, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Many countries use national-level surveys to capture student opinions about their university experiences. It is necessary to interpret survey results in an appropriate context to inform decision-making at many levels. To provide context to national survey outcomes, we describe patterns in the ratings of science and engineering subjects from the…

  6. Runoff nutrient transport as affected by land application method, swine growth stage, and runoff rate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was conducted to measure the effects of slurry application method, swine growth stage, and flow rate on runoff nutrient transport. Swine slurry was obtained from production units containing grower pigs, finisher pigs, or sows and gilts. The swine slurry was applied using broadcast, disk, ...

  7. Quercetin does not affect rating of perceived exertion in athletes during the Western States endurance run.

    PubMed

    Utter, Alan C; Nieman, David C; Kang, Jie; Dumke, Charles L; Quindry, John C; McAnulty, Steven R; McAnulty, Lisa S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of quercetin supplementation on ratings of perceived exertion in ultramarathon runners competing in the 160-km Western States Endurance Run (WSER). Sixty-three runners were randomized to quercetin (Q) and placebo (P) groups, and under double blinded methods ingested four supplements per day with or without 250 mg quercetin for 3 weeks before the WSER. Thirty-nine of the 63 subjects (quercetin N = 18, placebo N = 21) finished the race. At the completion of exercise ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed at aid stations located at 40, 90, 125, 150, and 160 km (finish line). The pattern of change in RPE over time was not significantly different between the Q and P groups. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) did not significantly increase throughout the race (15.2 +/- 2.9 at 40 km -14.2 +/- 4.0 at 160 km) for both groups combined. Race times were not different between the groups (Q = 26.4 +/- 0.7 h and P = 27.5 +/- 0.6 h). Significant time main effects (p < 0.001) were found for both serum glucose and cortisol throughout the race. Quercetin supplementation for 3 weeks prior to the WSER had no effect on RPE during competitive self-paced ultramarathon running. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) did not increase in a linear fashion but instead fluctuated nonmonotonically throughout the self-paced endurance running event.

  8. Replication Rate, Framing, and Format Affect Attitudes and Decisions about Science Claims

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Ralph M.; Tobin, Stephanie J.; Johnston, Heather M.; MacKenzie, Noah; Taglang, Chelsea M.

    2016-01-01

    A series of five experiments examined how the evaluation of a scientific finding was influenced by information about the number of studies that had successfully replicated the initial finding. The experiments also tested the impact of frame (negative, positive) and numeric format (percentage, natural frequency) on the evaluation of scientific findings. In Experiments 1 through 4, an attitude difference score served as the dependent measure, while a measure of choice served as the dependent measure in Experiment 5. Results from a diverse sample of 188 non-institutionalized U.S. adults (Experiment 2) and 730 undergraduate college students (Experiments 1, 3, and 4) indicated that attitudes became more positive as the replication rate increased and attitudes were more positive when the replication information was framed positively. The results also indicate that the manner in which replication rate was framed had a greater impact on attitude than the replication rate itself. The large effect for frame was attenuated somewhat when information about replication was presented in the form of natural frequencies rather than percentages. A fifth study employing 662 undergraduate college students in a task in which choice served as the dependent measure confirmed the framing effect and replicated the replication rate effect in the positive frame condition, but provided no evidence that the use of natural frequencies diminished the effect. PMID:27920743

  9. Characteristics and Activities of Teachers on Distance Learning Programs That Affect Their Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanišic Stojic, Svetlana M.; Dobrijevic, Gordana; Stanišic, Nemanja; Stanic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of teachers' ratings on distance learning undergraduate study programs: 7,156 students enrolled in traditional and 528 students enrolled in distance learning studies took part in the evaluation questionnaire, assessing 71 teachers. The data were collected from the Moodle platform and from the Singidunum University…

  10. Self- versus parent-ratings of industriousness, affect, and life satisfaction in relation to academic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Gerard J; Davies, Janet E; MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D

    2014-06-01

    Parents consult with schools on how to help their children succeed, but schools rarely consult with parents, even though most parents have considerable expertise concerning their children's thoughts, feelings, and abilities. This study compares the prediction of academic achievement from self- and parent-ratings of feelings towards school (both positive and negative), life satisfaction, and the conscientiousness facet of industriousness for 357 adolescents. The student sample consisted of 383 participants (194 boys) mostly aged between 12 and 14. The parent sample consisted of 374 participants, 83% of whom were mothers. Self-report and other-report scales measuring the above-mentioned constructs were administered to students and parents. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test hypotheses concerning the incremental validity of parent-ratings. Self-ratings explained 28.6% of the variance in grade point average (GPA) with parent-ratings explaining an additional 12.1%. The incremental effect was strongest for industriousness. These results suggest that parent-reports are often more accurate than adolescent self-reports, but that both methods of assessment make unique contributions to the explanation of variance in school grades. Parental understanding constitutes a relatively untapped reservoir of knowledge available to teachers, school counsellors and administrators, education policy makers, and beyond. It makes sense to ask parents about their children when assessing those individual differences that contribute to better educational outcomes. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Self- Versus Parent-Ratings of Industriousness, Affect, and Life Satisfaction in Relation to Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; Davies, Janet E.; MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents consult with schools on how to help their children succeed, but schools rarely consult with parents, even though most parents have considerable expertise concerning their children's thoughts, feelings, and abilities. Aims: This study compares the prediction of academic achievement from self- and parent-ratings of feelings…

  12. Self- Versus Parent-Ratings of Industriousness, Affect, and Life Satisfaction in Relation to Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; Davies, Janet E.; MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents consult with schools on how to help their children succeed, but schools rarely consult with parents, even though most parents have considerable expertise concerning their children's thoughts, feelings, and abilities. Aims: This study compares the prediction of academic achievement from self- and parent-ratings of feelings…

  13. One (rating) from many (observations): Factors affecting the individual assessment of voice behavior in groups.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Maynes, Timothy D; Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M

    2015-07-01

    This article reports an investigation into how individuals form perceptions of overall voice behavior in group contexts. More specifically, the authors examine the effect of the proportion of group members exhibiting voice behavior in the group, the frequency of voice events in the group, and the measurement item referent (group vs. individual) on an individual's ratings of group voice behavior. In addition, the authors examine the effect that measurement item referent has on the magnitude of the relationship observed between an individual's ratings of group voice behavior and perceptions of group performance. Consistent with hypotheses, the results from 1 field study (N = 220) and 1 laboratory experiment (N = 366) indicate that: (a) When group referents were used, raters relied on the frequency of voice events (and not the proportion of group members exhibiting voice) to inform their ratings of voice behavior, whereas the opposite was true when individual-referent items were used, and (b) the magnitude of the relationship between observers' ratings of group voice behavior and their perceptions of group performance was higher when raters used group-referent, as opposed to an individual-referent, items. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for scholars interested in studying behavioral phenomena occurring in teams, groups, and work units in organizational behavior research.

  14. Nitrogen fertilizer rate affects root exudation, the rhizosphere microbiome and nitrogen-use-efficiency of maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The composition and function of microbial communities present in the rhizosphere of crops has been linked to edaphic factors and root exudate composition. In this paper, we examined the effect of N fertilizer rate on maize root exudation, the associated rhizosphere community, and nitrogen-use-effici...

  15. Factors and Interactions That Affect Air Force C-17 Aircraft Mission Capable Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    regression models developed in that particular research portrayed DDs as important factors (Gray and Ranalli , 1993). - One Naval Postgraduate School...aircraft data with a structural equations modeling approach to evaluate relationships between MC rates and selected variables. The research...addresses linkages between several areas not addressed in prior research and currently used models , and provides recommendations for both existing tools and

  16. Do Expenditures Other than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades, median instructional spending per full-time equivalent (FTE) student at American 4-year colleges and universities has grown at a slower rate than median spending per FTE student in a number of other expenditure categories, including academic support, student services and research. Our paper uses institutional level…

  17. Do Expenditures Other than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of tuition increases in both private and public higher education that continually exceed inflation, coupled with the fact that the United States no longer leads the world in terms of the fraction of young adults who have college degrees, have focused attention on why costs keep increasing in higher education and what categories of higher…

  18. Does chronic kidney disease affect the mortality rate in patients undergoing spine surgery?

    PubMed

    Bains, Ravi S; Kardile, Mayur; Mitsunaga, Lance; Chen, Yuexin; Harris, Jessica; Paxton, Elizabeth; Majid, Kamran

    2017-09-01

    The number of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and their life expectancy has been increasing. With time number of patients undergoing spine surgery has also been on a rise. This study we did a retrospective review of registry data to investigate the mortality rate of chronic kidney disease patients following spine surgery using a large, multi-center spine registry. 12,276 consecutive spine-fusion patients from January 2009 to December 2012 were included and mortality rates in patients with CKD compared to those with normal kidney function following spine surgery. Logistic regression was usedto evaluate risk of mortality following spine surgery. The average age of the cohort was 59 (SD=13.4). 53% were female. Patients who had stage 3, 4 or 5 CKD were older than non-CKD patients (mean=71,SD=9.2 vs. 59, SD=13.3). After adjusting for confounding variables, patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD had higher mortality rates than patients with normal kidney function (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.3-2.45) Hemodialysis-dependent patients (stage 5 CKD) had even higher rates of mortality compared to patients with normal function (OR 4.18, 95% CI1.87-9.34). our findings suggest that spine surgery is associated with significantly higher mortality rates in patients with CKD compared to patients with normal kidney function. Understanding the additional morbidity and mortality of spine surgery in this medically complicated group of patients is imperative for accurate preoperative risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High repetition rate laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using acousto-optically gated detection

    SciTech Connect

    Pořízka, Pavel; Kaiser, Jozef

    2014-07-15

    This contribution introduces a new type of setup for fast sample analysis using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The novel design combines a high repetition rate laser (up to 50 kHz) as excitation source and an acousto-optical modulator (AOM) as a fast switch for temporally gating the detection of the emitted light. The plasma radiation is led through the active medium of the AOM where it is diffracted on the transient ultrasonic Bragg grid. The diffracted radiation is detected by a compact Czerny-Turner spectrometer equipped with a CCD line detector. Utilizing the new combination of high repetition rate lasers and AOM gated detection, rapid measurements with total integration times of only 10 ms resulted in a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.13 wt.% for magnesium in aluminum alloys. This short integration time corresponds to 100 analyses/s. Temporal gating of LIP radiation results in improved LODs and consecutively higher sensitivity of the LIBS setup. Therefore, an AOM could be beneficially utilized to temporally detect plasmas induced by high repetition rate lasers. The AOM in combination with miniaturized Czerny-Turner spectrometers equipped with CCD line detectors and small footprint diode pumped solid state lasers results in temporally gateable compact LIBS setups.

  20. Detection and Modeling of Non-Tidal Oceanic Effects on the Earth's Rotation Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, S. L.; Chao, Y.; Dickey, J. O.; Gegout, P.

    1998-01-01

    Sub-decadal changes in the Earth's rotation rate, and hence in the length-of-day (LOD), are largely controlled by variations in atmospheric angular momentum. Results from two oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), forced by observed wind stress and heat flux for the years 1992-1994, show that ocean current and mass distribution changes also induce detectable LOD variations.

  1. Low-power system-on-chip implementation for respiratory rate detection and transmission.

    PubMed

    Padasdao, Bryson; Yee, Roxanne; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Recent biosensors can measure respiratory rate non-invasively, but limits patient mobility or requires regular battery replacement. Respiratory effort, which can scavenge mW, may power the sensor, but requires minimal sensor power usage. This paper demonstrates feasibility of respiratory rate measurement by using a comparator instead of ADC. A low-power system-on-chip can implement respiratory rate detection and wireless data transmission with a total power consumption under 82 µW. This approach produces significant power savings, and transmission uses under 30% of total power consumption.

  2. Climate factors affecting conception rate of high producing dairy cows in northeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F; Bech-Sabat, G; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J L; Nogareda, C; De Rensis, F; López-Béjar, M

    2007-05-01

    Summer heat stress is a main factor related to low conception rate in high producing dairy herds in warm areas worldwide. We assessed the impact of several climate variables on conception rate in high producing dairy cows in northeastern Spain by examining 10,964 inseminations. The temperature-humidity index (THI) was compared with maximum temperature in terms of its efficiency at predicting conception rate. The following data were recorded for each animal: herd, lactation number, insemination number, insemination date, inseminating bull, and AI technician along with climate variables such as mean and maximum temperatures, rainfall, mean and maximum THI for individual time points Days 7 to 1 before insemination, the day of insemination and 1, 2 and 3 days after insemination. Averages were also established for the following periods: from 7 days before insemination to the insemination day, from 3 days before insemination to the insemination day and from the insemination day to 3 days postinsemination. Based on the odds ratios, the likelihood of conception rate increased significantly by factors of 1.48, 1.47, 1.5, and 1.1 for the respective maximum THI classes <70, 71-75, 76-80, and 81-85 only on Day 3 before AI, while on the insemination day, it increased by factors of 1.73, 1.53, 1.11, and 1.3 for the respective maximum THI classes <70, 71-75, 76-80, and 81-85. In a subsequent logistic regression excluding mean and maximum THI, the effectiveness of temperature at predicting conception rate was evaluated. Although high, the fit of the second logistic regression model was slightly lower than that of the full model (P=0.88 versus P=0.98, respectively) and the information provided by the THI model. The likelihood of conception rate increased significantly by factors of 1.5, 1.2, 1.0, 1.0 for the respective maximum temperature classes <20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35 degrees C on Day 1 after AI. The choice of the THI or temperature to monitor the farm environment would have to

  3. The Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS): Ratings of Dominance, Familiarity, Subjective Age of Acquisition and Sensory Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hinojosa, José A.; Rincón-Pérez, Irene; Romero-Ferreiro, Mª Verónica; Martínez-García, Natalia; Villalba-García, Cristina; Montoro, Pedro R.; Pozo, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents ratings by 540 Spanish native speakers for dominance, familiarity, subjective age of acquisition (AoA), and sensory experience (SER) for the 875 Spanish words included in the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS). The norms can be downloaded as supplementary materials for this manuscript from https://figshare.com/s/8e7b445b729527262c88 These ratings may be of potential relevance to researches who are interested in characterizing the interplay between language and emotion. Additionally, with the aim of investigating how the affective features interact with the lexicosemantic properties of words, we performed correlational analyses between norms for familiarity, subjective AoA and SER, and scores for those affective variables which are currently included in the MADs. A distinct pattern of significant correlations with affective features was found for different lexicosemantic variables. These results show that familiarity, subjective AoA and SERs may have independent effects on the processing of emotional words. They also suggest that these psycholinguistic variables should be fully considered when formulating theoretical approaches to the processing of affective language. PMID:27227521

  4. The Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS): Ratings of Dominance, Familiarity, Subjective Age of Acquisition and Sensory Experience.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, José A; Rincón-Pérez, Irene; Romero-Ferreiro, M Verónica; Martínez-García, Natalia; Villalba-García, Cristina; Montoro, Pedro R; Pozo, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents ratings by 540 Spanish native speakers for dominance, familiarity, subjective age of acquisition (AoA), and sensory experience (SER) for the 875 Spanish words included in the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS). The norms can be downloaded as supplementary materials for this manuscript from https://figshare.com/s/8e7b445b729527262c88 These ratings may be of potential relevance to researches who are interested in characterizing the interplay between language and emotion. Additionally, with the aim of investigating how the affective features interact with the lexicosemantic properties of words, we performed correlational analyses between norms for familiarity, subjective AoA and SER, and scores for those affective variables which are currently included in the MADs. A distinct pattern of significant correlations with affective features was found for different lexicosemantic variables. These results show that familiarity, subjective AoA and SERs may have independent effects on the processing of emotional words. They also suggest that these psycholinguistic variables should be fully considered when formulating theoretical approaches to the processing of affective language.

  5. Current Mood Symptoms Do Not Affect the Accuracy of Retrospective Self-Ratings of Childhood ADHD Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Katie; Bramham, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    Given that the diagnosis of adulthood ADHD depends on the retrospective self-report of childhood ADHD symptoms, this study aimed to establish whether current mood affects the accuracy of retrospective self-ratings of childhood ADHD. Barkley's Adult ADHD Rating Scale (BAARS) was used to assess the retrospective self- and parent-reports of childhood ADHD symptoms of 160 adults with ADHD and 92 adults without ADHD. Self-rated current mood was also measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Higher BAARS self-ratings correlated with higher HADS self-ratings. Strongest correlations were evident between hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. There was no relationship between current mood and accuracy of self-report. Current mood does not affect the accuracy of retrospective self-ratings of ADHD. Future research should aim to provide new measures of anxiety in ADHD to avoid the double counting of hyperactive/impulsive and anxiety symptoms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. SETI: The transmission rate of radio communication and the signal's detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, P. A.

    2011-11-01

    The transmission rate of communication between radio telescopes on Earth and extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) is here calculated up to distances of 1000 light years. Both phase-shift keying (PSK) and frequency-shift keying (FSK) modulation schemes are considered. It is shown that M-ary FSK is advantageous in terms of energy. Narrow-band pulses scattered over the spectrum sharing a common drift rate can be the probable signals of ETI. Modern SETI spectrum analyzers are well suited to searching for these types of signals. Such signals can be detected using the Hough transform which is a dedicated tool for detecting patterns in an image. The time-frequency plane representing the power output of the spectrum analyzer during the search for ETI gives an image from which the Hough transform (HT) can detect signal patterns with frequency drift.

  7. Reducing sojourn points from recurrence plots to improve transition detection: Application to fetal heart rate transitions.

    PubMed

    Zaylaa, Amira; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of biomedical signals demonstrating complexity through recurrence plots is challenging. Quantification of recurrences is often biased by sojourn points that hide dynamic transitions. To overcome this problem, time series have previously been embedded at high dimensions. However, no one has quantified the elimination of sojourn points and rate of detection, nor the enhancement of transition detection has been investigated. This paper reports our on-going efforts to improve the detection of dynamic transitions from logistic maps and fetal hearts by reducing sojourn points. Three signal-based recurrence plots were developed, i.e. embedded with specific settings, derivative-based and m-time pattern. Determinism, cross-determinism and percentage of reduced sojourn points were computed to detect transitions. For logistic maps, an increase of 50% and 34.3% in sensitivity of detection over alternatives was achieved by m-time pattern and embedded recurrence plots with specific settings, respectively, and with a 100% specificity. For fetal heart rates, embedded recurrence plots with specific settings provided the best performance, followed by derivative-based recurrence plot, then unembedded recurrence plot using the determinism parameter. The relative errors between healthy and distressed fetuses were 153%, 95% and 91%. More than 50% of sojourn points were eliminated, allowing better detection of heart transitions triggered by gaseous exchange factors. This could be significant in improving the diagnosis of fetal state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Final Report: "Collaborative Project. Understanding the Chemical Processes That Affect Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James N.; McMurry, Peter H.

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate. Our measurements include a self-organized, DOE-ARM funded project at the Southern Great Plains site, the New Particle Formation Study (NPFS), which took place during spring 2013. NPFS data are available to the research community on the ARM data archive, providing a unique suite observations of trace gas and aerosols that are associated with the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles.

  9. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

  10. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

  11. Factors affecting quality for beta dose rate measurements using ISO 6980 series I reference sources

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.E. Jr.; O`Brien, J.M. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Atlan-Tech, Inc. has performed several calibrations of ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources over the past two to three years. There were many problems encountered in attempting to compare the results of these calibrations with those from other laboratories, indicating the need for more standardization in the methodology employed for the measurement of the absorbed dose rate from ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources. This document describes some of the problems encountered in attempting to intercompare results of beta dose-rate measurements. It proposes some solutions in an attempt to open a dialogue among facilities using reference beta standards for the purpose of promoting better measurement quality assurance through data intercomparison.

  12. Activity affects intraspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Douglas Stewart

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass (M) to the 3/4 power. However, the metabolic scaling exponent (b) may vary with activity state, as has been shown chiefly for interspecific relationships. Here I use a meta-analysis of literature data to test whether b changes with activity level within species of ectothermic animals. Data for 19 species show that b is usually higher during active exercise (mean +/- 95% confidence limits = 0.918 +/- 0.038) than during rest (0.768 +/- 0.069). This significant upward shift in b to near 1 is consistent with the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, which predicts that maximal metabolic rate during exercise should be chiefly influenced by volume-related muscular power production (scaling as M (1)). This dependence of b on activity level does not appear to be a simple temperature effect because body temperature in ectotherms changes very little during exercise.

  13. Intraoperative MRI electrical noise and monitor ECG filters affect arrhythmia detection and identification.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Melissa; Kirchen, Gwynne; Bonaventura, Bridget; Rosborough, Kelly; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Dzwonczyk, Roger

    2012-06-01

    Most electrical equipment in the modern operating room (OR) radiates electrical noise (EN) that can interfere with patient monitors. We have described the EN that an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) system emits and have shown that this high-energy EN diminishes the quality of the ECG waveform during iMRI scans in our neurosurgical OR. We have also shown that the ECG signal filters in our iMRI-compatible patient monitor reduce this interference but, in the process, disturb the true morphology of the displayed waveform. This simulation study evaluates how iMRI-generated EN affects the ability of the anesthetist to detect and identify ECG arrhythmias and whether the patient monitor's ECG signal filters can improve arrhythmia recognition. Using an ECG simulator, we generated Lead II and V5 ECG signal segments that contained either no arrhythmia or one of four common cardiac arrhythmias. We filtered the ECG segments with four filters available on our iMRI-compatible monitor (Veris MR, MEDRAD Inc., Indianola, PA USA). We then digitized the segments and mixed simulated iMRI EN into the resultant tracings. With institutional approval and written informed consent, board-certified anesthesiologists reviewed the tracings, determined if an arrhythmia was present and identified the arrhythmia. We conducted the study anonymously. We reported the data as percent correct arrhythmia detection and correct arrhythmia identification. Thirty-one anesthesiologists completed the study. Overall, the participants correctly detected 79.5% (95% CI: 77.2, 81.7%) of the arrhythmias and correctly identified 62.5% (95% CI: 59.8, 65.3%) of the arrhythmias, regardless of EN presence. Although the proportions among monitor noise filters studied were not significant, the manufacturer-designated MR5 Veris MR filter optimized arrhythmia detection and arrhythmia identification for our participants, regardless if EN was present in the ECG tracings. In the neurosurgical OR, the

  14. Vocal performance affects metabolic rate in dolphins: implications for animals communicating in noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Dunkin, Robin C; Williams, Terrie M

    2015-06-01

    Many animals produce louder, longer or more repetitious vocalizations to compensate for increases in environmental noise. Biological costs of increased vocal effort in response to noise, including energetic costs, remain empirically undefined in many taxa, particularly in marine mammals that rely on sound for fundamental biological functions in increasingly noisy habitats. For this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in vocal effort would result in an energetic cost to the signaler by experimentally measuring oxygen consumption during rest and a 2 min vocal period in dolphins that were trained to vary vocal loudness across trials. Vocal effort was quantified as the total acoustic energy of sounds produced. Metabolic rates during the vocal period were, on average, 1.2 and 1.5 times resting metabolic rate (RMR) in dolphin A and B, respectively. As vocal effort increased, we found that there was a significant increase in metabolic rate over RMR during the 2 min following sound production in both dolphins, and in total oxygen consumption (metabolic cost of sound production plus recovery costs) in the dolphin that showed a wider range of vocal effort across trials. Increases in vocal effort, as a consequence of increases in vocal amplitude, repetition rate and/or duration, are consistent with behavioral responses to noise in free-ranging animals. Here, we empirically demonstrate for the first time in a marine mammal, that these vocal modifications can have an energetic impact at the individual level and, importantly, these data provide a mechanistic foundation for evaluating biological consequences of vocal modification in noise-polluted habitats.

  15. How Does Legalization of Physician-Assisted Suicide Affect Rates of Suicide?

    PubMed

    Jones, David Albert; Paton, David

    2015-10-01

    Several US states have legalized or decriminalized physician-assisted suicide (PAS) while others are considering permitting PAS. Although it has been suggested that legalization could lead to a reduction in total suicides and to a delay in those suicides that do occur, to date no research has tested whether these effects can be identified in practice. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by examining the association between the legalization of PAS and state-level suicide rates in the United States between 1990 and 2013. We used regression analysis to test the change in rates of nonassisted suicides and total suicides (including assisted suicides) before and after the legalization of PAS. Controlling for various socioeconomic factors, unobservable state and year effects, and state-specific linear trends, we found that legalizing PAS was associated with a 6.3% (95% confidence interval 2.70%-9.9%) increase in total suicides (including assisted suicides). This effect was larger in the individuals older than 65 years (14.5%, CI 6.4%-22.7%). Introduction of PAS was neither associated with a reduction in nonassisted suicide rates nor with an increase in the mean age of nonassisted suicide. Legalizing PAS has been associated with an increased rate of total suicides relative to other states and no decrease in nonassisted suicides. This suggests either that PAS does not inhibit (nor acts as an alternative to) nonassisted suicide, or that it acts in this way in some individuals but is associated with an increased inclination to suicide in other individuals.

  16. In vivo loading increases mechanical properties of scaffold by affecting bone formation and bone resorption rates.

    PubMed

    Roshan-Ghias, Alireza; Lambers, Floor M; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Müller, Ralph; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2011-12-01

    A successful bone tissue engineering strategy entails producing bone-scaffold constructs with adequate mechanical properties. Apart from the mechanical properties of the scaffold itself, the forming bone inside the scaffold also adds to the strength of the construct. In this study, we investigated the role of in vivo cyclic loading on mechanical properties of a bone scaffold. We implanted PLA/β-TCP scaffolds in the distal femur of six rats, applied external cyclic loading on the right leg, and kept the left leg as a control. We monitored bone formation at 7 time points over 35 weeks using time-lapsed micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. The images were then used to construct micro-finite element models of bone-scaffold constructs, with which we estimated the stiffness for each sample at all time points. We found that loading increased the stiffness by 60% at 35 weeks. The increase of stiffness was correlated to an increase in bone volume fraction of 18% in the loaded scaffold compared to control scaffold. These changes in volume fraction and related stiffness in the bone scaffold are regulated by two independent processes, bone formation and bone resorption. Using time-lapsed micro-CT imaging and a newly-developed longitudinal image registration technique, we observed that mechanical stimulation increases the bone formation rate during 4-10 weeks, and decreases the bone resorption rate during 9-18 weeks post-operatively. For the first time, we report that in vivo cyclic loading increases mechanical properties of the scaffold by increasing the bone formation rate and decreasing the bone resorption rate.

  17. Does Nursing Home Ownership Change Affect Family Ratings on Experience with Care?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lauren J; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Person-centeredness may suffer in nursing homes (NHs) with recent ownership changes. This study identifies associations between ownership change and reported care experiences, important measures of person-centered care for long-term residents in Maryland NHs. Care experience measures and ownership change data were collected from Maryland Health Care Commission reports, which reported data on 220 Maryland NHs from 2011 and 2012. Facility and market covariates were obtained from 2011 NH Compare and Area Health Resource Files. Linear regression was used to examine whether ownership change in 2011 was associated with lower care experience ratings reported during April to June 2012. Dependent variables were overall care rating (scale 1-10), percentage of respondents answering that they would recommend the NH, and assessments of five care and resident life domains (scale 1-4). Care experiences reported in 2012 were high; however, after controlling for covariates, ownership change was associated with significant decreases in 6 out of 7 measures, including a 0.39-point decrease in overall care rating (p = .001). NH managers and policy makers should consider strategies to improve patient-centeredness after ownership change.

  18. Oxygen Consumption by Postfermentation Wine Yeast Lees: Factors Affecting Its Rate and Extent under Oenological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jonas; Schmidt, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Summary Postfermentation wine yeast lees show antioxidant properties based on their ability to consume dissolved oxygen. The oxygen consumption capacity of suspended yeast lees obtained after fermentations with six commercial active dry yeast strains was investigated in model, white and red wines using fluorescence-based oxygen sensors operating in a nondestructive way. In model solution, the oxygen consumption rate of yeast lees was shown to depend on their amount, yeast strain, sulfur dioxide and temperature. It is slightly lower in red than in white wines. It is strongly decreased by current levels of free sulfur dioxide, thus excluding the complementary use of both as antioxidants in wine. However, in 25 randomly sampled white wines produced under commercial conditions, the rate and extent of oxygen consumption during the first six months of postfermentation had no significant correlation with any of these interacting factors, making it difficult to predict the actual antioxidant effect of yeast lees. In these wines, yeast lees consumed 0 to 47% of the dissolved oxygen. Although total oxygen consumption capacity of yeast lees is not a limiting factor under commercial winemaking conditions, their oxygen consumption proceeds at a limited rate that reduces but cannot totally prevent concomitant chemical oxidation of the wine. PMID:28115896

  19. Inertial properties and loading rates affect buckling modes and injury mechanisms in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, R W; Camacho, D L; Armstrong, A J; Robinette, J J; Myers, B S

    2000-02-01

    Cervical spine injuries continue to be a costly societal problem. Future advancements in injury prevention depend on improved physical and computational models which, in turn, are predicated on a better understanding of the responses of the neck during dynamic loading. Previous studies have shown that the tolerance of the neck is dependent on its initial position and its buckling behavior. This study uses a computational model to examine the mechanical factors influencing buckling behavior during impact to the neck. It was hypothesized that the inertial properties of the cervical spine influence the dynamics during compressive axial loading. The hypothesis was tested by performing parametric analyses of vertebral mass, mass moments of inertia, motion segment stiffness, and loading rate. Increases in vertebral mass resulted in increasingly complex kinematics and larger peak loads and impulses. Similar results were observed for increases in stiffness. Faster loading rates were associated with higher peak loads and higher-order buckling modes. The results demonstrate that mass has a great deal of influence on the buckling behavior of the neck, particularly with respect to the expression of higher-order modes. Injury types and mechanisms may be substantially altered by loading rate because inertial effects may influence whether the cervical spine fails in a compressive mode, or a bending mode.

  20. Nonlinear flow affects hydrodynamic forces and neutrophil adhesion rates in cone-plate viscometers.

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, H; Neelamegham, S

    2001-01-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of the effects of nonlinear flow in a cone-plate viscometer. The analysis predicts that flow in the viscometer is a function of two parameters, the Reynolds number and the cone angle. Nonlinear flow occurs at high shear rates and causes spatial variations in wall shear stress, collision frequency, interparticle forces and attachment times within the viscometer. We examined the effect of these features on cellular adhesion kinetics. Based on recent data (Taylor, A. D., S. Neelamegham, J. D. Hellums, et al. 1996. Biophys. J. 71:3488-3500), we modeled neutrophil homotypic aggregation as a process that is integrin-limited at low shear and selectin-limited at high shear. Our calculations suggest that selectin and integrin on-rates lie in the order of 10(-2)-10(-4)/s. They also indicate that secondary flow causes positional variations in adhesion efficiency in the viscometer, and that the overall efficiency is dependent not only on the shear rate, but also the sample volume and the cone angle. Experiments performed with isolated neutrophils confirmed these predictions. In these experiments, enhancing secondary flow by increasing the sample volume from 100 to 1000 microl at 1500/s for a 2 degrees cone caused up to an approximately 45% drop in adhesion efficiency. Our results suggest that secondary flow may significantly influence cellular aggregation, platelet activation, and endothelial cell mechanotransduction measurements made in the viscometer over the range of conditions applied in typical biological studies. PMID:11371440

  1. A retrospective study on related factors affecting the survival rate of dental implants

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Kyung; Lee, Ki; Lee, Yong-Sang; Park, Pil-Kyoo

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this retrospective study is to analyze the relationship between local factors and survival rate of dental implant which had been installed and restored in Seoul Veterans Hospital dental center for past 10 years. And when the relationship is found out, it could be helpful to predict the prognosis of dental implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of patients receiving root-shaped screw-type dental implants placed from January 2000 to December 2009 was conducted. 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients. The following data were collected from the dental records and radiographs: patient's age, gender, implant type and surface, length, diameter, location of implant placement, bone quality, prosthesis type. The correlations between these data and survival rate were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with the use of Kaplan-Meier analysis, Chi-square test and odds ratio. RESULTS In all, 6385 implants were placed in 3755 patients (3120 male, 635 female; mean age 65 ± 10.58 years). 108 implants failed and the cumulative survival rate was 96.33%. There were significant differences in age, implant type and surface, length, location and prosthesis type (P<.05). No significant differences were found in relation to the following factors: gender, diameter and bone quality (P>.05). CONCLUSION Related factors such as age, implant type, length, location and prosthesis type had a significant effect on the implant survival. PMID:22259704

  2. Does Nursing Home Ownership Change Affect Family Ratings on Experience with Care?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Person-centeredness may suffer in NHs with recent ownership changes. This study identifies associations between ownership change and reported care experiences, important measures of person-centered care, for long-term residents in Maryland NHs. Care experience measures and ownership change data were collected from Maryland Health Care Commission reports, which reported data on 220 Maryland NHs from 2011–2012. Facility and market covariates were obtained from 2011 NH Compare and Area Health Resource Files. Linear regression was used to examine whether ownership change in 2011 was associated with lower care experience ratings reported during April–June 2012. Dependent variables were overall care rating (scale 1–10), percent of respondents answering that they would recommend the NH, and assessments of five care and resident life domains (scale 1–4). Care experiences reported in 2012 were high; however, after controlling for covariates, ownership change was associated with significant decreases in 6 out of 7 measures, including a 0.39-point decrease in overall care rating (P=0.001). NH managers and policymakers should consider strategies to improve patient-centeredness post-ownership change. PMID:26162057

  3. International collaboration between Japan and Chile to improve detection rates in colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takuya; Tanaka, Koji; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Ito, Takashi; Nishikage, Tetsuro; Odagaki, Tomoyuki; Zárate, Alejandro J; Kronberg, Udo; López-Köstner, Francisco; Karelovic, Stanko; Flores, Sergio; Estela, Ricardo; Tsubaki, Masahiro; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Kawano, Tatsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    In Chile, mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) has increased rapidly. To help address this issue, the Prevention Project for Neoplasia of the Colon and Rectum (PRENEC) program was initiated in 2012 with intensive support from Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU) in Tokyo, Japan, as part of an international collaboration. From June 2012 to July 2014, a total of 10,575 asymptomatic participants were enrolled in PRENEC. Participants with positive immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) results or a family history of CRC underwent colonoscopy. The colonoscopy results from a similar, previous project in Chile (PREVICOLON) were compared with those from PRENEC. Furthermore, the initial colonoscopies of 1562 participants in PRENEC were analyzed according to whether the colonoscopists were from TMDU or Chile. The complete colonoscopy, adenoma detection, and cancer detection rates were 88.0%, 26.7%, and 1.1%, respectively, in PREVICOLON, while the corresponding values were 94.4%, 41.8%, and 6.0%, respectively, in PRENEC. In PRENEC, 107 cases of CRC were detected, amounting for 1.0% of all participants. Considering initial colonoscopies in PRENEC, the complete colonoscopy, adenoma detection, and cancer detection rates were 97.4%, 45.3%, and 9.3%, respectively, for physicians at TMDU and 93.3%, 41.5%, and 5.1%, respectively for Chilean physicians. The detection rates of intramucosal cancer were 7.3% and 3.7%, respectively, for TMDU and Chilean physicians. Quality indicators of colonoscopy substantially improved from PREVICOLON to PRENEC. The assessments made by Chilean physicians alone were improved in PRENEC, but remained better in the TMDU group. Moreover, physicians from TMDU detected more CRCs than Chilean physicians, especially at earlier stages. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  4. Rate of warming affects temperature sensitivity of anaerobic peat decomposition and greenhouse gas production.

    PubMed

    Sihi, Debjani; Inglett, Patrick W; Gerber, Stefan; Inglett, Kanika S

    2017-07-26

    Temperature sensitivity of anaerobic carbon mineralization in wetlands remains poorly represented in most climate models and is especially unconstrained for warmer subtropical and tropical systems which account for a large proportion of global methane emissions. Several studies of experimental warming have documented thermal acclimation of soil respiration involving adjustments in microbial physiology or carbon use efficiency (CUE), with an initial decline in CUE with warming followed by a partial recovery in CUE at a later stage. The variable CUE implies that the rate of warming may impact microbial acclimation and the rate of carbon-dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) production. Here, we assessed the effects of warming rate on the decomposition of subtropical peats, by applying either a large single-step (10°C within a day) or a slow ramping (0.1°C/day for 100 days) temperature increase. The extent of thermal acclimation was tested by monitoring CO2 and CH4 production, CUE, and microbial biomass. Total gaseous C loss, CUE, and MBC were greater in the slow (ramp) warming treatment. However, greater values of CH4 -C:CO2 -C ratios lead to a greater global warming potential in the fast (step) warming treatment. The effect of gradual warming on decomposition was more pronounced in recalcitrant and nutrient-limited soils. Stable carbon isotopes of CH4 and CO2 further indicated the possibility of different carbon processing pathways under the contrasting warming rates. Different responses in fast vs. slow warming treatment combined with different endpoints may indicate alternate pathways with long-term consequences. Incorporations of experimental results into organic matter decomposition models suggest that parameter uncertainties in CUE and CH4 -C:CO2 -C ratios have a larger impact on long-term soil organic carbon and global warming potential than uncertainty in model structure, and shows that particular rates of warming are central to understand the response of

  5. Dynamics of choice: relative rate and amount affect local preference at three different time scales.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Carlos F; Baum, William M

    2009-05-01

    To examine extended control over local choice, the present study investigated preference in transition as food-rate ratio provided by two levers changed across seven components within daily sessions, and food-amount ratio changed across phases. Phase 1 arranged a food-amount ratio of 4:1 (i.e., the left lever delivered four pellets and the right lever one pellet); Phase 2 reversed the food-amount ratio to 1:4, and in Phase 3 the food-amount ratio was 3:2. At a relatively extended time scale, preference was described well by a linear relation between log response ratio and log rate ratio (the generalized matching law). A small amount of carryover occurred from one rate ratio to the next but disappeared after four food deliveries. Estimates of sensitivity to food-amount ratio were around 1.0 and were independent of rate ratio. Analysis across food deliveries within rate-ratio components showed that the effect of a small amount was diminished by the presence of a large amount-that is, when a larger amount was present in the situation (three or four pellets), the value of a small amount (one or two pellets) became paltry. More local analysis of visits to the levers between food deliveries showed that postfood visits following a large amount were disproportionately longer than following a small amount. Continuing food deliveries from the same source tended to make visits less dependent on relative amount, but a discontinuation (i.e., food from the other lever) reinstated dependence on relative amount. Analysis at a still smaller time scale revealed preference pulses following food deliveries that confirmed the tendency toward dependence on absolute amount with continuing deliveries, and toward dependence on relative amount following discontinuations. A mathematical model based on a linear-operator equation accounts for many of the results. The larger and longer preference following a switch to a larger amount is consistent with the idea that local preference depends on

  6. DYNAMICS OF CHOICE: RELATIVE RATE AND AMOUNT AFFECT LOCAL PREFERENCE AT THREE DIFFERENT TIME SCALES

    PubMed Central

    Aparicio, Carlos F; Baum, William M

    2009-01-01

    To examine extended control over local choice, the present study investigated preference in transition as food-rate ratio provided by two levers changed across seven components within daily sessions, and food-amount ratio changed across phases. Phase 1 arranged a food-amount ratio of 4∶1 (i.e., the left lever delivered four pellets and the right lever one pellet); Phase 2 reversed the food-amount ratio to 1∶4, and in Phase 3 the food-amount ratio was 3∶2. At a relatively extended time scale, preference was described well by a linear relation between log response ratio and log rate ratio (the generalized matching law). A small amount of carryover occurred from one rate ratio to the next but disappeared after four food deliveries. Estimates of sensitivity to food-amount ratio were around 1.0 and were independent of rate ratio. Analysis across food deliveries within rate-ratio components showed that the effect of a small amount was diminished by the presence of a large amount—that is, when a larger amount was present in the situation (three or four pellets), the value of a small amount (one or two pellets) became paltry. More local analysis of visits to the levers between food deliveries showed that postfood visits following a large amount were disproportionately longer than following a small amount. Continuing food deliveries from the same source tended to make visits less dependent on relative amount, but a discontinuation (i.e., food from the other lever) reinstated dependence on relative amount. Analysis at a still smaller time scale revealed preference pulses following food deliveries that confirmed the tendency toward dependence on absolute amount with continuing deliveries, and toward dependence on relative amount following discontinuations. A mathematical model based on a linear-operator equation accounts for many of the results. The larger and longer preference following a switch to a larger amount is consistent with the idea that local preference

  7. Estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are less than one

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Nichols, J.D.; Lachman, G.B.; Droege, S.; Royle, J. Andrew; Langtimm, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nondetection of a species at a site does not imply that the species is absent unless the probability of detection is 1. We propose a model and likelihood-based method for estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are 0.3). We estimated site occupancy rates for two anuran species at 32 wetland sites in Maryland, USA, from data collected during 2000 as part of an amphibian monitoring program, Frogwatch USA. Site occupancy rates were estimated as 0.49 for American toads (Bufo americanus), a 44% increase over the proportion of sites at which they were actually observed, and as 0.85 for spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), slightly above the observed proportion of 0.83.

  8. Social network effects of nonlifesaving early-stage breast cancer detection on mammography rates.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Sarah A; Parker, Andrew M

    2014-12-01

    We estimated the effect of anecdotes of early-stage, screen-detected cancer for which screening was not lifesaving on the demand for mammography. We constructed an agent-based model of mammography decisions, in which 10 000 agents that represent women aged 40 to 100 years were linked together on a social network, which was parameterized with a survey of 716 women conducted through the RAND American Life Panel. Our model represents a population in equilibrium, with demographics reflecting the current US population based on the most recent available census data. The aggregate effect of women learning about 1 category of cancers-those that would be detected but would not be lethal in the absence of screening-was a 13.8 percentage point increase in annual screening rates. Anecdotes of detection of early-stage cancers relayed through social networks may substantially increase demand for a screening test even when the detection through screening was nonlifesaving.

  9. When can decreasing diversification rates be detected with molecular phylogenies and the fossil record?

    PubMed

    Liow, Lee Hsiang; Quental, Tiago B; Marshall, Charles R

    2010-12-01

    Traditionally, patterns and processes of diversification could only be inferred from the fossil record. However, there are an increasing number of tools that enable diversification dynamics to be inferred from molecular phylogenies. The application of these tools to new data sets has renewed interest in the question of the prevalence of diversity-dependent diversification. However, there is growing recognition that the absence of extinct species in molecular phylogenies may prevent accurate inferences about the underlying diversification dynamics. On the other hand, even though the fossil record provides direct data on extinct species, its incompleteness can also mask true diversification processes. Here, using computer-generated diversity-dependent phylogenies, we mimicked molecular phylogenies by eliminating extinct lineages. We also simulated the fossil record by converting the temporal axis into discrete intervals and imposing a variety of preservation processes on the lineages. Given the lack of reliable phylogenies for many fossil marine taxa, we also stripped away phylogenetic information from the computer-generated phylogenies. For the simulated molecular phylogenies, we examined the efficacy of the standard metric (the γ statistic) for identifying decreasing rates of diversification. We find that the underlying decreasing rate of diversification is detected only when the rate of change in the diversification rate is high, and if the molecular phylogeny happens to capture the diversification process as the equilibrium diversity is first reached or shortly thereafter. In contrast, estimating rates of diversification from the simulated fossil record captures the expected zero rate of diversification after equilibrium is reached under a wide range of preservation scenarios. The ability to detect the initial decreasing rate of diversification is lost as the temporal resolution of the fossil record drops and with a decreased quality of preservation. When the

  10. Series Length Used during Trend Analysis Affects Sensitivity to Changes in Progression Rate in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Stuart K.; Demirel, Shaban; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Cioffi, George A.; Ritch, Robert; Gordon, Mae O.; Kass, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Trend analysis techniques to detect glaucomatous progression typically assume a constant rate of change. This study uses data from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study to assess whether this assumption decreases sensitivity to changes in progression rate, by including earlier periods of stability. Methods. Series of visual fields (mean 24 per eye) completed at 6-month intervals from participants randomized initially to observation were split into subseries before and after the initiation of treatment (the “split-point”). The mean deviation rate of change (MDR) was derived using these entire subseries, and using only the window length (W) tests nearest the split-point, for different window lengths of W tests. A generalized estimating equation model was used to detect changes in MDR occurring at the split-point. Results. Using shortened subseries with W = 7 tests, the MDR slowed by 0.142 dB/y upon initiation of treatment (P < 0.001), and the proportion of eyes showing “rapid deterioration” (MDR <–0.5 dB/y with P < 5%) decreased from 11.8% to 6.5% (P < 0.001). Using the entire sequence, no significant change in MDR was detected (P = 0.796), and there was no change in the proportion of eyes progressing (P = 0.084). Window lengths 6 ≤ W ≤ 9 produced similar benefits. Conclusions. Event analysis revealed a beneficial treatment effect in this dataset. This effect was not detected by linear trend analysis applied to entire series, but was detected when using shorter subseries of length between six and nine fields. Using linear trend analysis on the entire field sequence may not be optimal for detecting and monitoring progression. Nonlinear analyses may be needed for long series of fields. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000125.) PMID:23349433

  11. Direct analysis of trace elements in crude oils by high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser ablation coupled to ICPMS detection.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Estelle; Pécheyran, Christophe; Sanabria Ortega, Georgia; Prinzhofer, Alain; Donard, Olivier F X

    2011-02-01

    IR-femtosecond pulses were used at high repetition rates (up to 10 kHz) to ablate viscous crude oils for the determination of trace elements by ICPMS. A special internal glass cap was fitted into the ablation cell to minimise oil splashes and remove big particles that would be otherwise spread into the cell. Laser ablation in static and dynamic conditions (i.e. the laser beam being moved rapidly at the surface of the sample) was studied together with some fundamental parameters like repetition rate and fluence. Signal sensitivity and stability were found to be strongly affected by repetition rate and fluence, though not in linear manner, and in some circumstances by the laser beam velocity. Sample transport efficiency was found to decrease with increasing repetition rate, probably due to stronger particle agglomeration when increasing the density of primary particles. ICPMS plasma atomisation/ionisation efficiency was also found to be affected to some extent at the highest repetition rates. Moderate repetition rate (1 kHz), high fluence (24 J cm(-2)) and fast scanning velocity (100 mm s(-1)) were preferred taking into account signal intensity and stability. Sample transport elemental fractionation was also evidenced, particularly as regards to carbon due to volatilisation of volatile organic species. Matrix effect occurring when comparing the ablation of transparent (base oil) and opaque (crude oil) samples could not be completely suppressed by the use of IR femtosecond pulses, requiring a matrix matching or a standard addition calibration approach. This approach provided good accuracy and very low detection limits in the crude oil, in the range of ng g(-1).

  12. Love and suicide: the structure of the Affective Intensity Rating Scale (AIRS) and its relation to suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Zimri S; Fisher, Karin; Morales, Esperanza; Galynker, Igor I

    2012-01-01

    Suicide has been linked to intense negative affect. However, little is known about the range of affects experienced by suicidal persons, or the separate effects of affect valence and intensity. We examine a novel self-report scale, the 17-item Affective Intensity Rating Scale (AIRS), and its relation to suicidality in a high-risk sample. Patients presenting with suicidality were recruited from the Emergency Department in a large urban hospital, and completed a battery of assessments there. Structure of the AIRS was assessed using Maximum Likelihood Factor Analysis with Oblimin rotation. Convergent and divergent validity were assessed by regressing AIRS subscales against Brief Symptom Inventory subscales. Relation to suicidality was assessed by regression of suicide attempt status against scale and subscale scores, and individual items and two-way item interactions, along with significant clinical and demographic factors. 176 subjects were included in analyses. Three reliable subscales were identified within the AIRS measure: positive feelings towards self, negative feelings towards self, and negative feelings towards other. Only individual AIRS items associated significantly with suicide attempt status; strong 'feelings of love' associated positively with actual suicide attempt, while 'feelings of calm' and 'positive feelings towards self' associated negatively. Interaction analyses suggest 'calm' moderates the association of 'love' with suicide attempt. Factor analysis of the AIRS is consistent with a circumplex model of affect. Affective dimensions did not predict suicidal behavior, but intense feelings of love, particularly in the absence of protective feelings of calm or positive self-view associated with current attempt.

  13. Multichannel NIRS analysis of brain activity during semantic differential rating of drawing stimuli containing different affective polarities.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miho; Gyoba, Jiro; Sakuta, Yuiko

    2005-02-25

    We used 24-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure activity in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions of the brain in eight Japanese women while the participants rated line drawings using semantic differential scales. Participants rated the seven line drawings on 15 bipolar semantic scales, each of which belonged to one of three semantic classes: Evaluation, Activity, or Potency. Suzuki et al. [M. Suzuki, J. Gyoba, Y. Sakuta, Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy analysis of brain activities during semantic differential rating of drawings, Tohoku Psychologica Folia 62 (2003) 86-98.] had reported previously that the right superior temporal gyrus and the right inferior parietal lobule are associated with Activity rating, while the brain regions around the central fissure were related to Potency rating. Based on these suggestions, we investigated the brain activity in these regions during rating of stimuli containing different affective polarities. When drawings were reported as 'static' or 'calm', oxyhemoglobin concentration was higher around the right superior temporal gyrus as compared to when they were considered 'noisy' or 'excitable'. Oxyhemoglobin concentrations around the central fissure were also higher when drawings were rated as 'soft', 'smooth', or 'blunt' compared to 'hard', 'rough', or 'sharp'. Any characteristic oxyhemoglobin changes were not found during the ratings on the evaluation scales. Our results suggest that activation patterns of the temporal and parietal regions are significantly modified by semantic polarities of Activity and Potency.

  14. Factors affecting diazepam infusion: solubility, administration-set composition, and flow rate.

    PubMed

    Mason, N A; Cline, S; Hyneck, M L; Berardi, R R; Ho, N F; Flynn, G L

    1981-10-01

    The sorption of diazepam in large-volume i.v. admixtures to administration-set components and in i.v. containers was analyzed quantitatively. Solubility of diazepam in phosphate buffer at various pH levels and in i.v. fluids was measured. Partition coefficients of diazepam into components of i.v. administration sets and i.v. containers were studied by shaking a solution of diazepam in 0.9% sodium chloride, with finely cut components and measuring the change in diazepam in the aqueous phase. Flow studies through an administration set of a 0.04-mg/ml diazepam solution in 5% dextrose injection were done, varying both the flow rate and the length of tubing. The maximum free-base solubility of diazepam in phosphate buffer was 0.048 mg/ml; its solubility was 0.058, 0.050, and 0.064 mg/ml in lactated Ringer's, 0.9% sodium chloride, and 5% dextrose injections, respectively. Equilibrium partition coefficients were highest for polyvinyl chloride tubing and flexible bags. Volume-control sets made of cellulose propionate had lower but sufficiently large partition coefficients to cause diazepam loss. Polyolefin semi-rigid and glass containers had low partition coefficients. In the flow studies, the amount of solution-contact time correlated with the extent of absorption. As flow rate decreased or tubing length increased, the amount of diazepam absorbed increased proportionately. A nomogram and a predictive dosing chart are presented for calculation of actual diazepam doses delivered at various flow rates and tubing lengths. Diazepam can be administered safely and effectively by i.v. infusion. The use of volume-control sets and flexible polyvinyl chloride bags should be avoided with diazepam solutions. Polyolefin semi-rigid containers are acceptable alternatives to glass. The concentration of diazepam infusions should not exceed 0.04 mg/ml.

  15. The affects on Titan atmospheric modeling by variable molecular reaction rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Mark D.

    The main effort of this thesis is to study the production and loss of molecular ions in the ionosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan. Titan's atmosphere is subject to complex photochemical processes that can lead to the production of higher order hydrocarbons and nitriles. Ion-molecule chemistry plays an important role in this process but remains poorly understood. In particular, current models that simulate the photochemistry of Titan's atmosphere overpredict the abundance of the ionosphere's main ions suggesting a flaw in the modeling process. The objective of this thesis is to determine which reactions are most important for production and loss of the two primary ions, C2H5+ and HCNH+, and what is the impact of uncertainty in the reaction rates on the production and loss of these ions. In reviewing the literature, there is a contention about what reactions are really necessary to illuminate what is occurring in the atmosphere. Approximately seven hundred reactions are included in the model used in this discussion (INT16). This paper studies what reactions are fundamental to the atmospheric processes in Titan's upper atmosphere, and also to the reactions that occur in the lower bounds of the ionosphere which are used to set a baseline molecular density for all species, and reflects what is expected at those altitudes on Titan. This research was conducted through evaluating reaction rates and cross sections available in the scientific literature and through conducting model simulations of the photochemistry in Titan's atmosphere under a range of conditions constrained by the literature source. The objective of this study is to determine the dependence of ion densities of C2H5+ and HCNH+ on the uncertainty in the reaction rates that involve these two ions in Titan's atmosphere.

  16. New myocardial infarction definition affects incidence, mortality, hospitalization rates and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Agüero, Fernando; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Sala, Joan; Masiá, Rafael; Ramos, Rafel; Grau, María

    2015-10-01

    To analyse differences in myocardial infarction incidence, mortality and hospitalization rates, 28-day case-fatality and two-year prognosis using two myocardial infarction case definitions: the classical World Health Organization definition (1994) and the European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology definition (2000), which added cardiac troponin as a diagnostic biomarker. Population-based cohort of 4170 consecutive myocardial infarction patients aged 35-74 years from Girona (Spain) recruited between 2002 and 2009. Incidence, mortality rates standardized to the European population and 28-day case-fatality were calculated. To estimate the association between case definition and prognosis, Cox models were fitted. Use of the 2000 European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology definition significantly increased myocardial infarction incidence per 100,000 population (238.3 vs. 274.5 in men and 54.1 vs. 69.7 in women). Applying this definition decreased the 28-day case-fatality rate from 26.9% to 23.4% in men, and from 31.0% to 24.1% in women. In the acute phase, patients diagnosed only by increased troponins were significantly less treated with thrombolysis (34.4% vs. 2.0%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (71.7% vs. 65.0%) and percutaneous coronary intervention (41.1% vs. 31.7%). Case-fatality at 28 days was significantly better in cases diagnosed only by troponin increase (0.2 % vs. 9.7%), but two-year cardiovascular mortality was higher (7.5% vs. 3.7%). Inclusion of cardiac troponins in myocardial infarction diagnosis increased annual incidence and decreased case-fatality. Diagnosis based only on increased troponins was associated with worse outcome. This group of patients at high risk of death should receive aggressive secondary prevention therapy. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  17. Large nuclear vacuoles in spermatozoa negatively affect pregnancy rate in IVF cycles.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Shahin; Talebi, Ali Reza; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Esfandiari, Navid

    2015-07-01

    Recently, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) criteria as a new real time tool for evaluation of spermatozoa in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles has been considered. The aim was to investigate the predictive value of MSOME in in vitro fertilization (IVF) in comparison to ICSI cycles and evaluation of the association between MSOME parameters and traditional sperm parameters in both groups. This is a cross sectional prospective analysis of MSOME parameters in IVF (n=31) and ICSI cycles (n=35). MSOME parameters were also evaluated as the presence of vacuole (none, small, medium, large or mix); head size (normal, small or large); cytoplasmic droplet; head shape and acrosome normality. In sub-analysis, MSOME parameters were compared between two groups with successful or failed clinical pregnancy in each group. In IVF group, the rate of large nuclear vacuole showed significant increase in failed as compared to successful pregnancies (13.81±9.7vs7.38±4.4, respectively, p=0.045) while MSOME parameters were the same between successful and failed pregnancies in ICSI group. Moreover, a negative correlation was noticed between LNV and sperm shape normalcy. In ICSI group, a negative correlation was established between cytoplasmic droplet and sperm shape normalcy. In addition, there was a positive correlation between sperm shape normalcy and non-vacuolated spermatozoa. The high rate of large nuclear vacuoles in sperm used in IVF cycles with failed pregnancies confirms that MSOME, is a helpful tool for fine sperm morphology assessment, and its application may enhance the assisted reproduction technology success rates.

  18. Large nuclear vacuoles in spermatozoa negatively affect pregnancy rate in IVF cycles

    PubMed Central

    Ghazali, Shahin; Talebi, Ali Reza; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Esfandiari, Navid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recently, motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) criteria as a new real time tool for evaluation of spermatozoa in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles has been considered. Objective: The aim was to investigate the predictive value of MSOME in in vitro fertilization (IVF) in comparison to ICSI cycles and evaluation of the association between MSOME parameters and traditional sperm parameters in both groups. Materials and Methods: This is a cross sectional prospective analysis of MSOME parameters in IVF (n=31) and ICSI cycles (n=35). MSOME parameters were also evaluated as the presence of vacuole (none, small, medium, large or mix); head size (normal, small or large); cytoplasmic droplet; head shape and acrosome normality. In sub-analysis, MSOME parameters were compared between two groups with successful or failed clinical pregnancy in each group. Results: In IVF group, the rate of large nuclear vacuole showed significant increase in failed as compared to successful pregnancies (13.81±9.7vs7.38±4.4, respectively, p=0.045) while MSOME parameters were the same between successful and failed pregnancies in ICSI group. Moreover, a negative correlation was noticed between LNV and sperm shape normalcy. In ICSI group, a negative correlation was established between cytoplasmic droplet and sperm shape normalcy. In addition, there was a positive correlation between sperm shape normalcy and non-vacuolated spermatozoa. Conclusion: The high rate of large nuclear vacuoles in sperm used in IVF cycles with failed pregnancies confirms that MSOME, is a helpful tool for fine sperm morphology assessment, and its application may enhance the assisted reproduction technology success rates. PMID:26494990

  19. Length of Hospitalization After Joint Arthroplasty: Does Early Discharge Affect Complications and Readmission Rates?

    PubMed

    Otero, Jesse E; Gholson, J Joseph; Pugely, Andrew J; Gao, Yubo; Bedard, Nicholas A; Callaghan, John J

    2016-12-01

    Length of hospital stay is a quality metric in joint arthroplasty. Rapid recovery protocols have safely reduced the average length of hospitalization, but it is unclear whether there is a difference in complication and readmission rates between patients discharged the day of surgery or on postoperative day 1 (POD 1). We calculated 30-day complication and readmission after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), total hip arthroplasty (THA), and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) based on day of discharge. We then analyzed the rapid recovery group by comparing those discharged the day of surgery and those discharged on POD 1. Patients undergoing joint arthroplasty between 2011 and 2013 were selected from the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Demographics, comorbidities, and 30-day complication and readmission were determined based on discharge date. Propensity-matched comparisons were performed between patients discharged POD 0 vs POD 1. We used multivariate logistic regression to determine independent risk factors for 30-day complication and readmission. There was no difference in complication or readmission after TKA or UKA between POD 0 or POD 1 discharge. In the propensity-matched cohort in THA, however, there was an increased rate of any complication in the POD 0 compared with the POD 1 discharge cohort. Risk factors for complication and readmission among THA, TKA, and UKA include age >80 years and smoking, and discharge after day 3. Increased length of stay is associated with increased complication and readmission after joint arthroplasty for patients with a hospital stay of 3 or more days. However, in THA, there was an increased complication rate in patients discharged POD 0 as compared to POD 1. Efforts to improve patient selection are expected to reduce short-term complications after outpatient joint arthroplasty. Further research is needed to determine which patients can be discharged POD 0 without increased

  20. Swine effluent application timing and rate affect nitrogen use efficiency in common bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Read, J J; Brink, G E; Adeli, A; McGowen, S L

    2008-01-01

    Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay production is integral to manure management on southeastern swine farms. But swine effluent timing must be synchronized with crop nitrogen (N) demands to decrease the potential for soil N accumulation and nitrate (NO(3)) leaching. Field studies were conducted on a Prentiss sandy loam (coarse-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, thermic Glossic Fragiudult) to determine N-use efficiency (NUE) and residual soil NO(3)-N. Two rates of 10 and 20 cm yr(- 1) ( approximately 260 and 480 kg ha(-1) N, respectively) were applied in four timing treatments: April to September (full season), April to May, June to July, and August to September. Plots were harvested every 7 to 9 wk beginning in June, and soil was sampled in fall after a killing frost and the following spring. Annual uptake of N and P were least in the August to September timing treatment. Doubling the effluent rate increased N uptake 112% in 2000 (from 130 to 276 kg ha(-1)) and 53% in 2001 (from 190 to 290 kg ha(-1)), suggesting 10-cm did not meet crop N demands. Due to low rainfall and decreased forage yield in 2000, doubling the effluent rate led to increased soil NO(3)-N to 30-cm depth in fall 2000 and spring 2001. Averaged across timing treatments, soil NO(3)-N at 5-cm depth ranged from 8.5 mg kg(-1) in non-irrigated controls to 39.6 mg kg(-1) with 20-cm effluent. Results indicate low NUE in the order of 30 to 38% for applications in August to September increase the risk to surface and ground water quality from excess N remaining in soil.

  1. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  2. How have alternative bearings and modularity affected revision rates in total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Mihalko, William M; Wimmer, Markus A; Pacione, Carol A; Laurent, Michel P; Murphy, Robert F; Rider, Carson

    2014-12-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) continues to be one of the most successful surgical procedures in the medical field. However, over the last two decades, the use of modularity and alternative bearings in THA has become routine. Given the known problems associated with hard-on-hard bearing couples, including taper failures with more modular stem designs, local and systemic effects from metal-on-metal bearings, and fractures with ceramic-on-ceramic bearings, it is not known whether in aggregate the survivorship of these implants is better or worse than the metal-on-polyethylene bearings that they sought to replace. Have alternative bearings (metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic) and implant modularity decreased revision rates of primary THAs? In this systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE, we used several Boolean search strings for each topic and surveyed national registry data from English-speaking countries. Clinical research (Level IV or higher) with ≥ 5 years of followup was included; retrieval studies and case reports were excluded. We included registry data at ≥ 7 years followup. A total of 32 studies (and five registry reports) on metal-on-metal, 19 studies (and five registry reports) on ceramic-on-ceramic, and 20 studies (and one registry report) on modular stem designs met inclusion criteria and were evaluated in detail. Insufficient data were available on metal-on-ceramic and ceramic-on-metal implants, and monoblock acetabular designs were evaluated in another recent systematic review so these were not evaluated here. There was no evidence in the literature that alternative bearings (either metal-on-metal or ceramic-on-ceramic) in THA have decreased revision rates. Registry data, however, showed that large head metal-on-metal implants have lower 7- to 10-year survivorship than do standard bearings. In THA, modular exchangeable femoral neck implants had a lower 10-year survival rate in both literature reviews and in registry data compared with combined

  3. Fluorescence detection of plant extracts that affect neuronal voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Rogers, K L; Fong, W F; Redburn, J; Griffiths, L R

    2002-05-01

    Structurally novel compounds able to block voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are currently being sought for the development of new drugs directed at neurological disorders. Fluorescence techniques have recently been developed to facilitate the analysis of VGCC blockers in a multi-well format. By utilising the small cell lung carcinoma cell line, NCI-H146, we were able to detect changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+](i)) using a fluorescence microplate reader. NCI-H146 cells have characteristics resembling those of neuronal cells and express multiple VGCC subtypes, including those of the L-, N- and P-type. We found that K+-depolarisation of fluo-3 loaded NCI-H146 cells causes a rapid and transient increase in fluorescence, which was readily detected in a 96-well plate. Extracts of Australian plants, including those used traditionally as headache or pain treatments, were tested in this study to identify those affecting Ca2+ influx following membrane depolarisation of NCI-H146 cells. We found that E. bignoniiflora, A. symphyocarpa and E. vespertilio caused dose-dependent inhibition of K+-depolarised Ca2+ influx, with IC(50) values calculated to be 234, 548 and 209 microg/ml, respectively. This data suggests an effect of these extracts on the function of VGCCs in these cells. Furthermore, we found similar effects using a fluorescence laser imaging plate reader (FLIPR) that allows simultaneous measurement of real-time fluorescence in a multi-well plate. Our results indicate that the dichloromethane extract of E. bignoniiflora and the methanolic extract of E. vespertilio show considerable promise as antagonists of neuronal VGCCs. Further analysis is required to characterise the function of the bioactive constituents in these extracts and determine their selectivity on VGCC subtypes.

  4. Prey dispersal rate affects prey species composition and trait diversity in response to multiple predators in metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Howeth, Jennifer G; Leibold, Mathew A

    2010-09-01

    1. Recent studies indicate that large-scale spatial processes can alter local community structuring mechanisms to determine local and regional assemblages of predators and their prey. In metacommunities, this may occur when the functional diversity represented in the regional predator species pool interacts with the rate of prey dispersal among local communities to affect prey species diversity and trait composition at multiple scales. 2. Here, we test for effects of prey dispersal rate and spatially and temporally heterogeneous predation from functionally dissimilar predators on prey structure in pond mesocosm metacommunities. An experimental metacommunity consisted of three pond mesocosm communities supporting two differentially size-selective invertebrate predators and their zooplankton prey. In each metacommunity, two communities maintained constant predation and supported either Gyrinus sp. (Coleoptera) or Notonecta ungulata (Hemiptera) predators generating a spatial prey refuge while the third community supported alternating predation from Gyrinus sp. and N. ungulata generating a temporal prey refuge. Mesocosm metacommunities were connected at either low (0.7% day(-1)) or high (10% day(-1)) planktonic prey dispersal. The diversity, composition and body size of zooplankton prey were measured at local and regional (metacommunity) scales. 3. Metacommunities experiencing the low prey dispersal rate supported the greatest regional prey species diversity (H') and evenness (J'). Neither dispersal rate nor predation regime affected local prey diversity or evenness. The spatial prey refuge at low dispersal maintained the largest difference in species composition and body size diversity between communities under Gyrinus and Notonecta predation, suggesting that species sorting was operating at the low dispersal rate. There was no effect of dispersal rate on species diversity or body size distribution in the temporal prey refuge. 4. The frequency distribution, but not

  5. Alcohol lowers the vasoconstriction threshold in humans without affecting core cooling rate during mild cold exposure.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C E; Bristow, G K; Elias, D A; Giesbrecht, G G

    1996-01-01

    Elevated blood alcohol levels are often seen in hypothermia and hyperthermia related deaths, leading to the belief that alcohol renders humans poikilothermic. We examined the core temperature (Tco) thresholds for sweating, vasoconstriction and shivering as well as core cooling rates of seven subjects immersed in 28 degrees C water. On two separate days, subjects exercised on an underwater cycle ergometer to elevate Tco above the sweating threshold. They then rested and cooled until they shivered vigorously. Subjects drank orange juice (7 ml.kg-1) prior to immersion during the control trial and 1 ml.kg-1 absolute ethanol, added to orange juice in a 1:6 ratio, during the alcohol trial. Mean blood alcohol concentration (breath analysis) was 0.097 +/- 0.010 g% at the start of cooling and 0.077 +/- 0.008 g% at the end of the cooling period. Alcohol lowered the vasoconstriction threshold by 0.32 +/- 0.2 degrees C and elevated finger tip blood flow, but had no effect on thresholds for sweating and shivering or core cooling rate. Considering these minor effects it is unlikely that moderate alcohol consumption predisposes individuals to hypothermia or hyperthermia via impaired thermoregulation, but rather likely due to behavioral factors.

  6. Method of administration affects adolescent post-immunization survey response rate: phone, paper, internet.

    PubMed

    Pielak, Karen L; Buxton, Jane; McIntyre, Cheryl; Tu, Andrew; Botnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The recent introduction of new vaccines into the school-based immunization program in British Columbia (BC) included monitoring of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) for these new vaccines. This commentary discusses different methods used to collect AEFIs in school immunization campaigns and the effects on response rate. The results of a study using an internet-based tool inspired this paper. The study examined adverse events following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine given to grades 6 and 9 students. The low response rate of the internet survey resulted in insufficient findings regarding adverse events. Consequent to the analysis of the study's data, a literature review was conducted to examine survey methodologies used to collect adverse event data following school-based immunization of adolescents. A PubMed search used various combinations of the following terms: vaccine, immunization, immunization programs, reactogenicity, adverse reactions, safety, adolescent, schoolchildren, and survey. Potentially relevant papers were identified based upon the titles and abstracts and subsequently reviewed. Only four studies were deemed appropriate for comparison purposes: all were done in Canada.

  7. Understanding how the aggregation structure of starch affects its gastrointestinal digestion rate and extent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Wang, Kai; Kuang, Qirong; Zhou, Sumei; Wang, Dazheng; Liu, Xingxun

    2016-06-01

    Regulating the starch gastrointestinal digestion rate by control of its aggregation structure is an effective way, but the mechanism is still not clear. Multi-scale structure of waxy and normal wheat starches were studied by confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopes, as well as wide-angle and small-angle X-ray techniques in this study. In vitro digestion kinetics of those two starches and structure-digestion relationship were also discussed. Both waxy and normal starches show A-type diffraction pattern, but waxy variety shows a slightly higher crystallinity. Small-angle X-ray scattering results show that waxy wheat starch has higher scattering peak intensity (Imax) and a larger crystallinity lamellar repeat distance (Lp) compared with the normal wheat starch. We suggested that the higher digestion rate of waxy starch at initial stage is mainly due to more small-size particles, but the higher crystallinity and the larger crystalline lamellar size limit the digestion extent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental factors affecting ultraviolet photodegradation rates and estrogenicity of estrone and ethinylestradiol in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Susanna K; Marlatt, Vicki L; Kimpe, Lynda E; Lean, David R S; Trudeau, Vance L; Blais, Jules M

    2011-01-01

    The environmental fate and persistence of steroidal estrogens is influenced by their photodegradation. This can potentially occur both in the presence of the ultraviolet (UV) portion of solar radiation and in tertiary wastewater treatment plants that use UV radiation for disinfection purposes. To determine patterns of UV photodegradation for estrone (E1) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), water samples containing these compounds were exposed to levels of UVB radiation that would simulate exposure to ambient sunlight. E1 degraded with a pseudo-first-order rate law constant that was directly proportional to UVB radiation intensity (R² = 0.999, P < 0.001) and inversely proportional to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (R² = 0.812, P = 0.037). DOC acted as a competitive inhibitor to direct photolysis of E1 by UV. In contrast to E1, EE2 was more persistent under similar UVB treatment. A reporter gene assay showed that the estrogenicity of UVB-exposed estrogens did not decrease relative to non-UVB-exposed estrogens, suggesting that some of the photoproducts may also have estrogenic potency. These results show that environmental degradation rates of steroidal estrogens are predictable from the UV intensity reaching surface waters, and the DOC concentrations in these surface waters.

  9. Obesity and Prader-Willi Syndrome Affect Heart Rate Recovery from Dynamic Resistance Exercise in Youth.

    PubMed

    Castner, Diobel M; Clark, Susan J; Judelson, Daniel A; Rubin, Daniela A

    2016-01-15

    Following exercise, heart rate decline is initially driven by parasympathetic reactivation and later by sympathetic withdrawal. Obesity delays endurance exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) in both children and adults. Young people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a congenital cause for obesity, have shown a slower 60-s endurance exercise HRR compared to lean and obese children, suggesting compromised regulation. This study further evaluated effects of obesity and PWS on resistance exercise HRR at 30 and 60 s in children. PWS (8-18 years) and lean and obese controls (8-11 years) completed a weighted step-up protocol (six sets x 10 reps per leg, separated by one-minute rest), standardized using participant stature and lean body mass. HRR was evaluated by calculated HRR value (HRRV = difference between HR at test termination and 30 (HRRV30) and 60 (HRRV60) s post-exercise). PWS and obese had a smaller HRRV30 than lean (p < 0.01 for both). Additionally, PWS had a smaller HRRV60 than lean and obese (p = 0.01 for both). Obesity appears to delay early parasympathetic reactivation, which occurs within 30 s following resistance exercise. However, the continued HRR delay at 60 s in PWS may be explained by either blunted parasympathetic nervous system reactivation, delayed sympathetic withdrawal and/or poor cardiovascular fitness.

  10. Imagination perspective affects ratings of the likelihood of occurrence of autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Benjamin U; Pezdek, Kathy; Lam, Shirley T

    2014-07-01

    Two experiments tested and confirmed the hypothesis that when the phenomenological characteristics of imagined events are more similar to those of related autobiographical memories, the imagined event is more likely to be considered to have occurred. At Time 1 and 2-weeks later, individuals rated the likelihood of occurrence for 20 life events. In Experiment 1, 1-week after Time 1, individuals imagined 3 childhood events from a first-person or third-person perspective. There was a no-imagination control. An increase in likelihood ratings from Time 1 to Time 2 resulted when imagination was from the third-person but not first-person perspective. In Experiment 2, childhood and recent events were imagined from a third- or first-person perspective. A significant interaction resulted. For childhood events, likelihood change scores were greater for third-person than first-person perspective; for recent adult events, likelihood change scores were greater for first-person than third-person perspective, although this latter trend was not significant.

  11. Obesity and Prader-Willi Syndrome Affect Heart Rate Recovery from Dynamic Resistance Exercise in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Castner, Diobel M.; Clark, Susan J.; Judelson, Daniel A.; Rubin, Daniela A.

    2016-01-01

    Following exercise, heart rate decline is initially driven by parasympathetic reactivation and later by sympathetic withdrawal. Obesity delays endurance exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) in both children and adults. Young people with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS), a congenital cause for obesity, have shown a slower 60-s endurance exercise HRR compared to lean and obese children, suggesting compromised regulation. This study further evaluated effects of obesity and PWS on resistance exercise HRR at 30 and 60 s in children. PWS (8–18 years) and lean and obese controls (8–11 years) completed a weighted step-up protocol (six sets x 10 reps per leg, separated by one-minute rest), standardized using participant stature and lean body mass. HRR was evaluated by calculated HRR value (HRRV = difference between HR at test termination and 30 (HRRV30) and 60 (HRRV60) s post-exercise). PWS and obese had a smaller HRRV30 than lean (p < 0.01 for both). Additionally, PWS had a smaller HRRV60 than lean and obese (p = 0.01 for both). Obesity appears to delay early parasympathetic reactivation, which occurs within 30 s following resistance exercise. However, the continued HRR delay at 60 s in PWS may be explained by either blunted parasympathetic nervous system reactivation, delayed sympathetic withdrawal and/or poor cardiovascular fitness. PMID:28933384

  12. Substrate concentration and enzyme allocation can affect rates of microbial decomposition.

    PubMed

    German, Donovan P; Chacon, Stephany S; Allison, Steven D

    2011-07-01

    A large proportion of the world's carbon is stored as soil organic matter (SOM). However, the mechanisms regulating the stability of this SOM remain unclear. Recent work suggests that SOM may be stabilized by mechanisms other than chemical recalcitrance. Here, we show that the mineralization rate of starch, a plant polymer commonly found in litter and soil, is concentration dependent, such that its decomposition rate can be reduced by as much as 50% when composing less than approximately 10% of SOM. This pattern is largely driven by low activities of starch-degrading enzymes and low inducibility of enzyme production by microbial decomposers. The same pattern was not observed for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation, possibly because the enzymes targeting these substrates are expressed at constitutively high levels. Nevertheless, given the heterogeneous distribution of SOM constituents, our results suggest a novel low-concentration constraint on SOM decomposition that is independent of chemical recalcitrance. These results may help explain the stability of at least some SOM constituents, especially those that naturally exist in relatively low concentrations in the soil environment.

  13. Telomere-interactive agents affect proliferation rates and induce chromosomal destabilization in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Izbicka, E; Nishioka, D; Marcell, V; Raymond, E; Davidson, K K; Lawrence, R A; Wheelhouse, R T; Hurley, L H; Wu, R S; Von Hoff, D D

    1999-08-01

    Cationic porphyrins, which interact with guanine quadruplex (G4) telomeric folds, inhibit telomerase activity in human tumor cells. In this study, we have further examined effects of porphyrins and other telomere- and telomerase-interactive agents on proliferation rates and chromosome stability in a novel in vivo model, developing sea urchin embryos. We studied two porphyrins: (i) TMPyP4, a potent telomerase inhibitor; and (ii) TMPyP2, an isomer of TMPyP4 and an inefficient telomerase inhibitor, azidothymine (AZT), the reverse transcriptase inhibitor, antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide to telomerase RNA (TAG6) and a control scrambled sequence (ODN). TMPyP4, AZT and TAG6 (but not TMPyP2 or ODN) decreased the rates of cell proliferation and increased the percentage of cells trapped in mitosis. Nuclear localization of TAG6, but not of ODN, was demonstrated with 5'-fluoresceinated analogs of TAG6 and ODN. Formation of elongated chromosomes incapable of separating in anaphase, induced by TMPyP4, AZT and TAG6, closely resembled phenotypes resulting from telomerase template mutation or dominant negative TRF2 allele. Our data suggest that G4-interactive agents exert their antiproliferative effects via chromosomal destabilization and warrant their further development as valuable anticancer tools.

  14. Body size, but not cooling rate, affects supercooling points in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniel A; Martin, Adam R; Porter, Sanford D

    2008-10-01

    The level of an animal's stress resistance is set by multiple intrinsic physiological and extrinsic environmental parameters. Body size is a critical intrinsic parameter that affects numerous fitness-related organismal traits including fecundity, survival, mating success, and stress resistance. The rate of cooling is a critical extrinsic environmental factor that can affect thermal stress resistance. Workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), display considerable variation in adult body size. Therefore, developing ecologically realistic models of thermotolerance in this species requires a consideration of body size. We tested the hypothesis that body size and cooling rate would interact to set the supercooling point in fire ant workers by exposing workers of a range of body sizes to three different cooling regimens: a very fast ramp of -10 degrees C/min, an intermediate ramp of -1 degrees C/min, and an ecologically relevant slow ramp of -0.1 degrees C/min. Specifically, we asked whether large workers were more susceptible to differences in cooling rate than smaller workers. We found that body size had a considerable effect on supercooling point with the largest workers freezing at a temperature approximately 3 degrees C higher than the smallest workers. Cooling rate had a very small effect on supercooling point, and there was no interaction between the two factors. Therefore, the allometry of supercooling points across the range of worker body sizes does not change with cooling rate.

  15. Can we improve the early detection of atrial fibrillation in a stroke unit? Detection rate of a monitor with integrated detection software.

    PubMed

    Arevalo-Manso, Juan Jose; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Fuentes, Blanca; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Sanz-Cuesta, Borja Enrique; Prefasi, Daniel; Juarez-Martin, Belén; Navarro-Parias, Azahara; Parrilla-Novo, Pilar; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2016-02-01

    It is unknown whether monitors that include atrial fibrillation recognition software (AF-RS) increase the rate of early atrial fibrillation (AF) detection in acute stroke. We aimed to evaluate the AF detection rate of an AF-RS monitor and compare it with standard monitoring. This was a retrospective, single-centre observational study conducted on consecutive patients with acute transient ischaemic attack or brain infarction attended in a stroke unit (SU) with six beds. Five beds had a standard monitor with a three-lead electrocardiogram (ECG)-tracing monitor that did not automatically detect AF, and one bed had a 12-lead ECG monitor with integrated AF-RS. All patients were monitored for at least 24 h and underwent a daily ECG during their stay in the SU. In case of unknown stroke aetiology, the patients underwent 24 h Holter monitoring. A total of 76 patients were included: 59 patients in the standard monitor group and 17 patients in the AF-RS monitor group. The mean age was 72.11 (±13.09) years, and 59.2% were men. A total of 20 new cases of AF were identified. The AF-RS monitor showed a higher rate of AF detection than the standard devices (57.1% vs 7.7%, p=0.031). The AF-RS monitor showed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive values of 57.1%, 100%, 100% and 76.9%, respectively. For the standard monitors, these values were 7.7%, 100%, 100% and 79.3%, respectively. The monitor with AF-RS demonstrated a higher detection rate for AF than standard ECG monitoring in acute stroke patients in a SU. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  16. Heart Rate Detection During Sleep Using a Flexible RF Resonator and Injection-Locked PLL Sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Woo; Choi, Soo Beom; An, Yong-Jun; Kim, Byung-Hyun; Kim, Deok Won; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2015-11-01

    Novel nonintrusive technologies for wrist pulse detection have been developed and proposed as systems for sleep monitoring using three types of radio frequency (RF) sensors. The three types of RF sensors for heart rate measurement on wrist are a flexible RF single resonator, array resonators, and an injection-locked PLL resonator sensor. To verify the performance of the new RF systems, we compared heart rates between presleep time and postsleep onset time. Heart rates of ten subjects were measured using the RF systems during sleep. All three RF devices detected heart rates at 0.2 to 1 mm distance from the skin of the wrist over clothes made of cotton fabric. The wrist pulse signals of a flexible RF single resonator were consistent with the signals obtained by a portable piezoelectric transducer as a reference. Then, we confirmed that the heart rate after sleep onset time significantly decreased compared to before sleep. In conclusion, the RF system can be utilized as a noncontact nonintrusive method for measuring heart rates during sleep.

  17. Feeding rates affect growth, intestinal digestive and absorptive capabilities and endocrine functions of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Li, Xiang-Fei; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the optimal feeding rate for juvenile blunt snout bream (average initial weight 23.74 ± 0.09 g) based on the results on growth performance, intestinal digestive and absorptive capabilities and endocrine functions. A total of 840 fish were randomly distributed into 24 cages and fed a commercial feed at six feeding rates ranging from 2.0 to 7.0% body weight (BW)/day. The results indicated that weight gain rate increased significantly (P < 0.05) as feeding rates increased from 2.0 to 5.0% BW/day, but decreased with the further increasing feeding rates (P > 0.05). Protein efficiency ratio and nitrogen and energy retention all showed a similar trend. However, feed conversion ratio increased significantly (P < 0.05) with increasing feeding rates. Feeding rates have little effects (P > 0.05) on whole-body moisture, ash and protein contents, but significantly (P < 0.05) affect both lipid and energy contents with the highest values both observed in fish fed 4.0% BW/day. In addition, moderate ration sizes (2.0-4.0% BW/day) resulted in the enhanced activities of intestinal enzymes, including lipase, protease, Na(+), K(+)-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, growth hormone receptor and neuropeptide all increased significantly (P < 0.05) as feeding rates increased from 2.0 to 5.0% and 6.0% BW/day, but decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with the further increase in feeding rates, whereas both leptin and cholecystokinin expressions showed an opposite trend. Based on the broken-line regression analysis of SGR against feeding rates, the optimal feeding rate for juvenile blunt snout bream was estimated to be 4.57% BW/day.

  18. An Automatic Prolongation Detection Approach in Continuous Speech With Robustness Against Speaking Rate Variations

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili, Iman; Dabanloo, Nader Jafarnia; Vali, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, many methods have been introduced for supporting the diagnosis of stuttering for automatic detection of prolongation in the speech of people who stutter. However, less attention has been paid to treatment processes in which clients learn to speak more slowly. The aim of this study was to develop a method to help speech-language pathologists (SLPs) during diagnosis and treatment sessions. To this end, speech signals were initially parameterized to perceptual linear predictive (PLP) features. To detect the prolonged segments, the similarities between successive frames of speech signals were calculated based on correlation similarity measures. The segments were labeled as prolongation when the duration of highly similar successive frames exceeded a threshold specified by the speaking rate. The proposed method was evaluated by UCLASS and self-recorded Persian speech databases. The results were also compared with three high-performance studies in automatic prolongation detection. The best accuracies of prolongation detection were 99 and 97.1% for UCLASS and Persian databases, respectively. The proposed method also indicated promising robustness against artificial variation of speaking rate from 70 to 130% of normal speaking rate. PMID:28487827

  19. Polyp detection rate and pathological features in patients undergoing a comprehensive colonoscopy screening

    PubMed Central

    Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Ashtari, Sara; Pourhoseingholi, Mohmad Amin; Chaleshi, Vahid; Anaraki, Fakhrosadat; Haghazali, Mehrdad; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify the prevalence, and clinical and pathologic characteristic of colonic polyps among Iranian patients undergoing a comprehensive colonoscopy, and determine the polyp detection rate (PDR) and adenoma detection rate (ADR). METHODS In this cross-sectional study, demographics and epidemiologic characteristics of 531 persons who underwent colonoscopies between 2014 and 2015 at Mehrad gastrointestinal clinic were determined. Demographics, indication for colonoscopy, colonoscopy findings, number of polyps, and histopathological characteristics of the polyps were examined for each person. RESULTS Our sample included 295 (55.6%) women and 236 (44.4%) men, with a mean age of 50.25 ± 14.89 years. Overall PDR was 23.5% (125/531). ADR and colorectal cancer detection rate in this study were 12.8% and 1.5%, respectively. Polyps were detected more significantly frequently in men than in women (52.8% vs 47.2%, P < 0.05). Polyps can be seen in most patients after the age of 50. The average age of patients with cancer was significantly higher than that of patients with polyps (61.3 years vs 56.4 years, P < 0.05). The majority of the polyps were adenomatous. More than 50% of the polyps were found in the rectosigmoid part of the colon. CONCLUSION The prevalence of polyps and adenomas in this study is less than that reported in the Western populations. In our patients, distal colon is more susceptible to developing polyps and cancer than proximal colon. PMID:28251034

  20. Pyrosequencing as a tool for the detection of Phytophthora species: error rate and risk of false Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units.

    PubMed

    Vettraino, A M; Bonants, P; Tomassini, A; Bruni, N; Vannini, A

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of pyrosequencing for the description of Phytophthora communities in terms of taxa identification and risk of assignment for false Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units (MOTUs). Pyrosequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) amplicons was used to describe the structure of a DNA mixture comprising eight Phytophthora spp. and Pythium vexans. Pyrosequencing resulted in 16 965 reads, detecting all species in the template DNA mixture. Reducing the ITS1 sequence identity threshold resulted in a decrease in numbers of unmatched reads but a concomitant increase in the numbers of false MOTUs. The total error rate was 0·63% and comprised mainly mismatches (0·25%) Pyrosequencing of ITS1 region is an efficient and accurate technique for the detection and identification of Phytophthora spp. in environmental samples. However, the risk of allocating false MOTUs, even when demonstrated to be low, may require additional validation with alternative detection methods. Phytophthora spp. are considered among the most destructive groups of invasive plant pathogens, affecting thousands of cultivated and wild plants worldwide. Simultaneous early detection of Phytophthora complexes in environmental samples offers an unique opportunity for the interception of known and unknown species along pathways of introduction, along with the identification of these organisms in invaded environments. © 2012 The Authors Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Application of the relative wavelet energy to heart rate independent detection of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    García, Manuel; Ródenas, Juan; Alcaraz, Raúl; Rieta, José J

    2016-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia and a growing healthcare burden worldwide. It is often asymptomatic and may appear as episodes of very short duration; hence, the development of methods for its automatic detection is a challenging requirement to achieve early diagnosis and treatment strategies. The present work introduces a novel method exploiting the relative wavelet energy (RWE) to automatically detect AF episodes of a wide variety in length. The proposed method analyzes the atrial activity of the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), i.e., the TQ interval, thus being independent on the ventricular activity. To improve its performance under noisy recordings, signal averaging techniques were applied. The method's performance has been tested with synthesized recordings under different AF variable conditions, such as the heart rate, its variability, the atrial activity amplitude or the presence of noise. Next, the method was tested with real ECG recordings. Results proved that the RWE provided a robust automatic detection of AF under wide ranges of heart rates, atrial activity amplitudes as well as noisy recordings. Moreover, the method's detection delay proved to be shorter than most of previous works. A trade-off between detection delay and noise robustness was reached by averaging 15 TQ intervals. Under these conditions, AF was detected in less than 7 beats, with an accuracy higher than 90%, which is comparable to previous works. Unlike most of previous works, which were mainly based on quantifying the irregular ventricular response during AF, the proposed metric presents two major advantages. First, it can perform successfully even under heart rates with no variability. Second, it consists of a single metric, thus turning its clinical interpretation and real-time implementation easier than previous methods requiring combined indices under complex classifiers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Power and false-positive rate in QTL detection with near-isogenic line libraries.

    PubMed

    Falke, K C; Frisch, M

    2011-04-01

    Libraries of near-isogenic lines (NILs) were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection in model species and economically important crops. The experimental design and genetic architecture of the considered traits determine the statistical properties of QTL detection. The objectives of our simulation study were to (i) investigate the population sizes required to develop NIL libraries in barley and maize, (ii) compare NIL libraries with nonoverlapping and overlapping donor segments and (iii) study the number of QTLs and the size of their effects with respect to the power and the false-positive rate of QTL detection. In barley, the development of NIL libraries with target segment lengths of 10 c and marker distances of 5 cM was possible using a BC(3)S(2) backcrossing scheme and population sizes of 140. In maize, population sizes larger than 200 were required. Selection for the recipient parent genome at markers flanking the target segments with distances between 5 and 10 cM was required for an efficient control of the false-positive rate. NIL libraries with nonoverlapping donor chromosome segments had a greater power of QTL detection and a smaller false-positive rate than libraries with overlapping segments. Major genes explaining 30% of the genotypic difference between the donor and recipient were successfully detected even with low heritabilities of 0.5, whereas for minor genes explaining 5 !or 10%, high heritabilities of 0.8 or 0.9 were required. The presented results can assist geneticists and breeders in the efficient development of NIL libraries for QTL detection.

  3. Parameters of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Affect the Occurrence of Colorectal Adenomas Detected by Surveillance Colonoscopies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee; Suh, Jung Yul; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Kyuyong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Limited data are available regarding the associations between parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and the occurrence of metachronous adenomas. We investigated whether these parameters affect the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was performed on 5289 subjects who underwent follow-up colonoscopy between 2012 and 2013 among 62171 asymptomatic subjects who underwent an initial colonoscopy for a health check-up between 2010 and 2011. The risk of adenoma occurrence was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results The mean interval between the initial and follow-up colonoscopy was 2.2±0.6 years. The occurrence of adenomas detected by the follow-up colonosc