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Sample records for affects detection rate

  1. Analysis of variables affecting unemployment rate and detecting for cluster in West Java, Central Java, and East Java in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Putra A.; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Lestari, Dian

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is modeling the Unemployment Rate (UR) in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, with rate of disease, infant mortality rate, educational level, population size, proportion of married people, and GDRP as the explanatory variables. Spatial factors are also considered in the modeling since the closer the distance, the higher the correlation. This study uses the secondary data from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). The data will be analyzed using Moran I test, to obtain the information about spatial dependence, and using Spatial Autoregressive modeling to obtain the information, which variables are significant affecting UR and how great the influence of the spatial factors. The result is, variables proportion of married people, rate of disease, and population size are related significantly to UR. In all three regions, the Hotspot of unemployed will also be detected districts/cities using Spatial Scan Statistics Method. The results are 22 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed (Most likely cluster) in the study area; 2 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in West Java; 1 district/city as a regional groups with the highest unemployed in Central Java; 15 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in East Java.

  2. Do organic ligands affect calcite dissolution rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oelkers, Eric H.; Golubev, Sergey V.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Bénézeth, Pascale

    2011-04-01

    Steady state Iceland-spar calcite dissolution rates were measured at 25 °C in aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M NaCl and up to 0.05 M dissolved bicarbonate at pH from 7.9 to 9.1 in the presence of 13 distinct dissolved organic ligands in mixed-flow reactors. The organic ligands considered in this study include those most likely to be present in either (1) aquifers at the conditions pertinent to CO 2 sequestration or (2) soil/early diagenetic environments: acetate, phthalate, citrate, EDTA 4-, succinate, D-glucosaminate, L-glutamate, D-gluconate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate, fumarate, malonate, and gallate. Results show that the presence of <0.05 mol/kg of these organic anions changes calcite dissolution rates by less than a factor of 2.5 with the exception of citrate and EDTA 4-. The presence of 0.05 mol/kg citrate and EDTA 4- increases calcite dissolution rates by as much as a factor of 35 and 500, respectively, compared to rates in organic anion-free solutions. Further calcite dissolution experiments were performed in the presence of organic polymers similar to bacterial exudates, cell exopolysaccharides, and analogs of microbial cell envelopes: alginate, lichen extract, humic acid, pectin, and gum xanthan. In no case did the presence of <100 ppm of these organics change calcite dissolution rates by more than a factor of 2.5. Results obtained in this study suggest that the presence of aqueous organic anions negligibly affects calcite forward dissolution rates in most natural environments. Some effect on calcite reactivity may be observed, however, by the presence of organic anions if they change substantially the chemical affinity of the fluid with respect to calcite.

  3. Bacillus Spore Inactivation Methods Affect Detection Assays

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Jessica L.; Heroux, Karen; Kearney, John; Arasteh, Ameneh; Gostomski, Mark; Emanuel, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    Detection of biological weapons is a primary concern in force protection, treaty verification, and safeguarding civilian populations against domestic terrorism. One great concern is the detection of Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Assays for detection in the laboratory often employ inactivated preparations of spores or nonpathogenic simulants. This study uses several common biodetection platforms to detect B. anthracis spores that have been inactivated by two methods and compares those data to detection of spores that have not been inactivated. The data demonstrate that inactivation methods can affect the sensitivity of nucleic acid- and antibody-based assays for the detection of B. anthracis spores. These effects should be taken into consideration when comparing laboratory results to data collected and assayed during field deployment. PMID:11472945

  4. Environmental factors affecting rates of nitrogen cycling

    SciTech Connect

    Lipschultz, F.

    1984-01-01

    The nitrogen cycle in the eutrophic Delaware river was studied in late summer, 1983 using /sup 15/N tracer additions of NHG/sub 4//sup +/, NO/sub 2//sup -/, and NO/sub 3//sup -/. Rates for nine different transformations were calculated simultaneously with a least-squares minimization analysis. Light was found to stimulate ammonium uptake and to inhibit ammonium oxidation. Rates for nitrification, ammonium uptake by phytoplankton, and photosynthesis were integrated over 24 hours and river depth. High turbidity lifted the effect of light inhibition on nitrification and restricted phytoplankton uptake. Uptake of ammonium contributed over 95% of the inorganic nitrogen ration for phytoplankton, with dark uptake accounting for more than 50%. A mass-conservation, box model of river was used to calculate rate constants required to reproduce observed nutrient concentration changes. The calculated constants correlated well with the measured /sup 15/N and oxygen integrated rates. Water-column nitrification was the major loss term for NH/sub 4//sup +/, while water column regeneration was the primary source. Loss of oxidized nitrogen was insignificant. Oxygen consumption and air-water exchange far exceeded net photosynthetic oxygen production. Nitrification contributed less than 1% to the oxygen demand near Philadelphia but up to 25% further downstream. Production of NO and N/sub 2/O was measured under varying oxygen concentrations in batch cultures of the nitrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosococcus oceanus. Production of both gases increased relative to nitrite production as oxygen levels decreased.

  5. Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Research conducted since 1980 in relation to inheritance patterns and DNA testing of major genes for prolificacy has shown that major genes have the potential to significantly increase the reproductive performance of sheep flocks throughout the world. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. A commercial DNA testing service enables some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection. PMID:15601592

  6. Major genes affecting ovulation rate in sheep.

    PubMed

    Davis, George Henry

    2005-01-01

    Research conducted since 1980 in relation to inheritance patterns and DNA testing of major genes for prolificacy has shown that major genes have the potential to significantly increase the reproductive performance of sheep flocks throughout the world. Mutations that increase ovulation rate have been discovered in the BMPR-1B, BMP15 and GDF9 genes, and others are known to exist from the expressed inheritance patterns although the mutations have not yet been located. In the case of BMP15, four different mutations have been discovered but each produces the same phenotype. The modes of inheritance of the different prolificacy genes include autosomal dominant genes with additive effects on ovulation rate (BMPR-1B; Lacaune), autosomal over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (GDF9), X-linked over-dominant genes with infertility in homozygous females (BMP15), and X-linked maternally imprinted genes (FecX2). The size of the effect of one copy of a mutation on ovulation rate ranges from an extra 0.4 ovulations per oestrus for the FecX2 mutation to an extra 1.5 ovulations per oestrus for the BMPR-1B mutation. A commercial DNA testing service enables some of these mutations to be used in genetic improvement programmes based on marker assisted selection.

  7. Towards Sensor-Free Affect Detection in Cognitive Tutor Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ryan S. J. d.; Gowda, Sujith M.; Wixon, Michael; Kalka, Jessica; Wagner, Angela Z.; Salvi, Aatish; Aleven, Vincent; Kusbit, Gail W.; Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Rossi, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the usefulness of affect detection for educational software has become clear. Accurate detection of student affect can support a wide range of interventions with the potential to improve student affect, increase engagement, and improve learning. In addition, accurate detection of student affect could play an essential role in…

  8. Wearable sensor for heart rate detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Cong; Liu, Xiaohua; Kong, Lingqin; Wu, Jizhe; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Hui, Mei; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    In recent years heart and blood vessel diseases kill more people than everything else combined. The daily test of heart rate for the prevention and treatment of the heart head blood-vessel disease has the vital significance. In order to adapt the transformation of medical model and solve the low accuracy problem of the traditional method of heart rate measuring, we present a new method to monitor heart rate in this paper. The heart rate detection is designed for daily heart rate detection .The heart rate signal is collected by the heart rate sensor. The signal through signal processing circuits converts into sine wave and square wave in turn. And then the signal is transmitted to the computer by data collection card. Finally, we use LABVIEW and MATLAB to show the heart rate wave and calculate the heart rate. By doing contrast experiment with medical heart rate product, experimental results show that the system can realize rapidly and accurately measure the heart rate value. A measurement can be completed within 10 seconds and the error is less than 3beat/min. And the result shows that the method in this paper has a strong anti-interference ability. It can effectively suppress the movement interference. Beyond that the result is insensitive to light.

  9. Video-Based Affect Detection in Noninteractive Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yuxuan; Bosch, Nigel; D'Mello, Sidney

    2015-01-01

    The current paper explores possible solutions to the problem of detecting affective states from facial expressions during text/diagram comprehension, a context devoid of interactive events that can be used to infer affect. These data present an interesting challenge for face-based affect detection because likely locations of affective facial…

  10. Crank inertial load affects freely chosen pedal rate during cycling.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Jørgensen, Lars Vincents; Jensen, Kurt; Fregly, Benjamin Jon; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2002-02-01

    Cyclists seek to maximize performance during competition, and gross efficiency is an important factor affecting performance. Gross efficiency is itself affected by pedal rate. Thus, it is important to understand factors that affect freely chosen pedal rate. Crank inertial load varies greatly during road cycling based on the selected gear ratio. Nevertheless, the possible influence of crank inertial load on freely chosen pedal rate and gross efficiency has never been investigated. This study tested the hypotheses that during cycling with sub-maximal work rates, a considerable increase in crank inertial load would cause (1) freely chosen pedal rate to increase, and as a consequence, (2) gross efficiency to decrease. Furthermore, that it would cause (3) peak crank torque to increase if a constant pedal rate was maintained. Subjects cycled on a treadmill at 150 and 250W, with low and high crank inertial load, and with preset and freely chosen pedal rate. Freely chosen pedal rate was higher at high compared with low crank inertial load. Notably, the change in crank inertial load affected the freely chosen pedal rate as much as did the 100W increase in work rate. Along with freely chosen pedal rate being higher, gross efficiency at 250W was lower during cycling with high compared with low crank inertial load. Peak crank torque was higher during cycling at 90rpm with high compared with low crank inertial load. Possibly, the subjects increased the pedal rate to compensate for the higher peak crank torque accompanying cycling with high compared with low crank inertial load.

  11. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in legumes.

    PubMed

    Wong, S; Traianedes, K; O'Dea, K

    1985-07-01

    In an attempt to understand the mechanism for the extremely slow rate of digestion and absorption of carbohydrate from legumes, we have examined a number of factors which could potentially affect the process in vitro. The rate of hydrolysis of legume starch in vitro was not affected by the presence of fat (as either butter or an emulsion). However, it was significantly increased in commercially available canned bean preparations, suggesting that the high temperatures used in the canning process may alter the availability of starch in legumes. In vitro starch hydrolysis rate was also significantly increased by grinding legumes finely prior to cooking. Finally, the slow rate of digestion and absorption of legume carbohydrate does not appear to be due to viscosity since a) increasing the shaking rate of viscous mixture of either red kidney beans or lentils from 0 to 120 oscillations per minute did not affect the hydrolysis rate, and b) a thick viscous mixture of either of these legumes did not retard the diffusion of free glucose from a dialysis sac into the dialysate.

  12. DOUBLE COMPACT OBJECTS. III. GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE DETECTION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Dominik, Michal; Belczynski, Krzysztof; Bulik, Tomasz; Berti, Emanuele; O’Shaughnessy, Richard; Mandel, Ilya; Fryer, Christopher; Holz, Daniel E.; Pannarale, Francesco

    2015-06-20

    The unprecedented range of second-generation gravitational-wave (GW) observatories calls for refining the predictions of potential sources and detection rates. The coalescence of double compact objects (DCOs)—i.e., neutron star–neutron star (NS–NS), black hole–neutron star (BH–NS), and black hole–black hole (BH–BH) binary systems—is the most promising source of GWs for these detectors. We compute detection rates of coalescing DCOs in second-generation GW detectors using the latest models for their cosmological evolution, and implementing inspiral-merger-ringdown gravitational waveform models in our signal-to-noise ratio calculations. We find that (1) the inclusion of the merger/ringdown portion of the signal does not significantly affect rates for NS–NS and BH–NS systems, but it boosts rates by a factor of ∼1.5 for BH–BH systems; (2) in almost all of our models BH–BH systems yield by far the largest rates, followed by NS–NS and BH–NS systems, respectively; and (3) a majority of the detectable BH–BH systems were formed in the early universe in low-metallicity environments. We make predictions for the distributions of detected binaries and discuss what the first GW detections will teach us about the astrophysics underlying binary formation and evolution.

  13. Ice cream structural elements that affect melting rate and hardness.

    PubMed

    Muse, M R; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    Statistical models were developed to reveal which structural elements of ice cream affect melting rate and hardness. Ice creams were frozen in a batch freezer with three types of sweetener, three levels of the emulsifier polysorbate 80, and two different draw temperatures to produce ice creams with a range of microstructures. Ice cream mixes were analyzed for viscosity, and finished ice creams were analyzed for air cell and ice crystal size, overrun, and fat destabilization. The ice phase volume of each ice cream were calculated based on the freezing point of the mix. Melting rate and hardness of each hardened ice cream was measured and correlated with the structural attributes by using analysis of variance and multiple linear regression. Fat destabilization, ice crystal size, and the consistency coefficient of the mix were found to affect the melting rate of ice cream, whereas hardness was influenced by ice phase volume, ice crystal size, overrun, fat destabilization, and the rheological properties of the mix.

  14. Recovery rate affects the effective epidemic threshold with synchronous updating.

    PubMed

    Shu, Panpan; Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Zhao, Pengcheng; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Accurate identification of effective epidemic threshold is essential for understanding epidemic dynamics on complex networks. In this paper, we systematically study how the recovery rate affects the susceptible-infected-removed spreading dynamics on complex networks, where synchronous and asynchronous updating processes are taken into account. We derive the theoretical effective epidemic threshold and final outbreak size based on the edge-based compartmental theory. To validate the proposed theoretical predictions, extensive numerical experiments are implemented by using asynchronous and synchronous updating methods. When asynchronous updating method is used in simulations, recovery rate does not affect the final state of spreading dynamics. But with synchronous updating, we find that the effective epidemic threshold decreases with recovery rate, and final outbreak size increases with recovery rate. A good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the numerical results are observed on both synthetic and real-world networks. Our results extend the existing theoretical studies and help us to understand the phase transition with arbitrary recovery rate.

  15. Rate of language evolution is affected by population size.

    PubMed

    Bromham, Lindell; Hua, Xia; Fitzpatrick, Thomas G; Greenhill, Simon J

    2015-02-17

    The effect of population size on patterns and rates of language evolution is controversial. Do languages with larger speaker populations change faster due to a greater capacity for innovation, or do smaller populations change faster due to more efficient diffusion of innovations? Do smaller populations suffer greater loss of language elements through founder effects or drift, or do languages with more speakers lose features due to a process of simplification? Revealing the influence of population size on the tempo and mode of language evolution not only will clarify underlying mechanisms of language change but also has practical implications for the way that language data are used to reconstruct the history of human cultures. Here, we provide, to our knowledge, the first empirical, statistically robust test of the influence of population size on rates of language evolution, controlling for the evolutionary history of the populations and formally comparing the fit of different models of language evolution. We compare rates of gain and loss of cognate words for basic vocabulary in Polynesian languages, an ideal test case with a well-defined history. We demonstrate that larger populations have higher rates of gain of new words whereas smaller populations have higher rates of word loss. These results show that demographic factors can influence rates of language evolution and that rates of gain and loss are affected differently. These findings are strikingly consistent with general predictions of evolutionary models.

  16. Drowsiness detection using heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Vicente, José; Laguna, Pablo; Bartra, Ariadna; Bailón, Raquel

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that 10-30 % of road fatalities are related to drowsy driving. Driver's drowsiness detection based on biological and vehicle signals is being studied in preventive car safety. Autonomous nervous system activity, which can be measured noninvasively from the heart rate variability (HRV) signal obtained from surface electrocardiogram, presents alterations during stress, extreme fatigue and drowsiness episodes. We hypothesized that these alterations manifest on HRV and thus could be used to detect driver's drowsiness. We analyzed three driving databases in which drivers presented different sleep-deprivation levels, and in which each driving minute was annotated as drowsy or awake. We developed two different drowsiness detectors based on HRV. While the drowsiness episodes detector assessed each minute of driving as "awake" or "drowsy" with seven HRV derived features (positive predictive value 0.96, sensitivity 0.59, specificity 0.98 on 3475 min of driving), the sleep-deprivation detector discerned if a driver was suitable for driving or not, at driving onset, as function of his sleep-deprivation state. Sleep-deprivation state was estimated from the first three minutes of driving using only one HRV feature (positive predictive value 0.80, sensitivity 0.62, specificity 0.88 on 30 drivers). Incorporating drowsiness assessment based on HRV signal may add significant improvements to existing car safety systems.

  17. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  18. High Heating Rates Affect Greatly the Inactivation Rate of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Aznar, Arantxa; Esnoz, Arturo; Fernández, Pablo S.; Iguaz, Asunción; Periago, Paula M.; Palop, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Heat resistance of microorganisms can be affected by different influencing factors. Although, the effect of heating rates has been scarcely explored by the scientific community, recent researches have unraveled its important effect on the thermal resistance of different species of vegetative bacteria. Typically heating rates described in the literature ranged from 1 to 20°C/min but the impact of much higher heating rates is unclear. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of different heating rates, such as those currently achieved in the heat exchangers used in the food industry, on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli. A pilot plant tubular heat exchanger and a thermoresistometer Mastia were used for this purpose. Results showed that fast heating rates had a deep impact on the thermal resistance of E. coli. Heating rates between 20 and 50°C/min were achieved in the heat exchanger, which were much slower than those around 20°C/s achieved in the thermoresistometer. In all cases, these high heating rates led to higher inactivation than expected: in the heat exchanger, for all the experiments performed, when the observed inactivation had reached about seven log cycles, the predictions estimated about 1 log cycle of inactivation; in the thermoresistometer these differences between observed and predicted values were even more than 10 times higher, from 4.07 log cycles observed to 0.34 predicted at a flow rate of 70 mL/min and a maximum heating rate of 14.7°C/s. A quantification of the impact of the heating rates on the level of inactivation achieved was established. These results point out the important effect that the heating rate has on the thermal resistance of E. coli, with high heating rates resulting in an additional sensitization to heat and therefore an effective food safety strategy in terms of food processing. PMID:27563300

  19. High Heating Rates Affect Greatly the Inactivation Rate of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Aznar, Arantxa; Esnoz, Arturo; Fernández, Pablo S; Iguaz, Asunción; Periago, Paula M; Palop, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Heat resistance of microorganisms can be affected by different influencing factors. Although, the effect of heating rates has been scarcely explored by the scientific community, recent researches have unraveled its important effect on the thermal resistance of different species of vegetative bacteria. Typically heating rates described in the literature ranged from 1 to 20°C/min but the impact of much higher heating rates is unclear. The aim of this research was to explore the effect of different heating rates, such as those currently achieved in the heat exchangers used in the food industry, on the heat resistance of Escherichia coli. A pilot plant tubular heat exchanger and a thermoresistometer Mastia were used for this purpose. Results showed that fast heating rates had a deep impact on the thermal resistance of E. coli. Heating rates between 20 and 50°C/min were achieved in the heat exchanger, which were much slower than those around 20°C/s achieved in the thermoresistometer. In all cases, these high heating rates led to higher inactivation than expected: in the heat exchanger, for all the experiments performed, when the observed inactivation had reached about seven log cycles, the predictions estimated about 1 log cycle of inactivation; in the thermoresistometer these differences between observed and predicted values were even more than 10 times higher, from 4.07 log cycles observed to 0.34 predicted at a flow rate of 70 mL/min and a maximum heating rate of 14.7°C/s. A quantification of the impact of the heating rates on the level of inactivation achieved was established. These results point out the important effect that the heating rate has on the thermal resistance of E. coli, with high heating rates resulting in an additional sensitization to heat and therefore an effective food safety strategy in terms of food processing.

  20. Experimental evaluation of shark detection rates by aerial observers.

    PubMed

    Robbins, William D; Peddemors, Victor M; Kennelly, Steven J; Ives, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Aerial surveys are a recognised technique to identify the presence and abundance of marine animals. However, the capability of aerial observers to reliably sight coastal sharks has not been previously assessed, nor have differences in sighting rates between aircraft types been examined. In this study we investigated the ability of observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft to sight 2.5 m artificial shark analogues placed at known depths and positions. Initial tests revealed that the shark analogues could only be detected at shallow depths, averaging only 2.5 m and 2.7 m below the water surface for observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, respectively. We then deployed analogues at shallower depths along a 5 km-long grid, and assessed their sightability to aircraft observers through a series of transects flown within 500 m. Analogues were seen infrequently from all distances, with overall sighting rates of only 12.5% and 17.1% for fixed-wing and helicopter observers, respectively. Although helicopter observers had consistently higher success rates of sighting analogues within 250 m of their flight path, neither aircraft observers sighted more than 9% of analogues deployed over 300 m from their flight paths. Modelling of sighting rates against environmental and experimental variables indicated that observations were affected by distance, aircraft type, sun glare and sea conditions, while the range of water turbidities observed had no effect. We conclude that aerial observers have limited ability to detect the presence of submerged animals such as sharks, particularly when the sharks are deeper than ∼ 2.6 m, or over 300 m distant from the aircraft's flight path, especially during sunny or windy days. The low rates of detections found in this study cast serious doubts on the use of aerial beach patrols as an effective early-warning system to prevent shark attacks.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Shark Detection Rates by Aerial Observers

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, William D.; Peddemors, Victor M.; Kennelly, Steven J.; Ives, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Aerial surveys are a recognised technique to identify the presence and abundance of marine animals. However, the capability of aerial observers to reliably sight coastal sharks has not been previously assessed, nor have differences in sighting rates between aircraft types been examined. In this study we investigated the ability of observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft to sight 2.5 m artificial shark analogues placed at known depths and positions. Initial tests revealed that the shark analogues could only be detected at shallow depths, averaging only 2.5 m and 2.7 m below the water surface for observers in fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft, respectively. We then deployed analogues at shallower depths along a 5 km-long grid, and assessed their sightability to aircraft observers through a series of transects flown within 500 m. Analogues were seen infrequently from all distances, with overall sighting rates of only 12.5% and 17.1% for fixed-wing and helicopter observers, respectively. Although helicopter observers had consistently higher success rates of sighting analogues within 250 m of their flight path, neither aircraft observers sighted more than 9% of analogues deployed over 300 m from their flight paths. Modelling of sighting rates against environmental and experimental variables indicated that observations were affected by distance, aircraft type, sun glare and sea conditions, while the range of water turbidities observed had no effect. We conclude that aerial observers have limited ability to detect the presence of submerged animals such as sharks, particularly when the sharks are deeper than ∼2.6 m, or over 300 m distant from the aircraft's flight path, especially during sunny or windy days. The low rates of detections found in this study cast serious doubts on the use of aerial beach patrols as an effective early-warning system to prevent shark attacks. PMID:24498258

  2. Choice of Flap Affects Fistula Rate after Salvage Laryngopharyngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Chang, Kai-Ping; Wu, Chao-Min; Hung, Shao-Yu; Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with pharyngocutaneous fistula in pharyngoesophageal reconstruction following cancer resection, the purpose of this retrospective study is to examine the selection of tubed skin flaps that impact anastomotic integrity. The flaps evaluated included radial forearm flap versus anterolateral thigh flap, and fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap versus chimeric anterolateral thigh flap. The outcome of interest is the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula. The radial forearm group had a significantly higher rate of fistula than the anterolateral thigh group (56.6% vs. 30.2%, p = 0.03). No significant difference in the incidence of fistula was demonstrated between fasciocutaneous and chimeric anterolateral thigh flap (36.8% vs. 25%, p = 0.51). The anastomotic integrity in pharyngoesopharyngeal reconstruction is affected by choice of skin flaps. Anterolateral thigh flap appears to be a viable option for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction. The more technical demand of the anterolateral thigh flap must be weighed against an easily harvested radial forearm flap. PMID:25776941

  3. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems.

  4. Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  5. Factors affecting visibility rate of aerial waterfowl surveys in the Mississippi alluvial valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Reinecke, K.J.; Conroy, M.J.; Brown, M.W.; Nassar, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Because visibility bias can confound attempts to detect changes in abundance, we evaluated factors that affect visibility rate in aerial surveys of wintering waterfowl. We placed waterfowl decoys in 32 2- x 0.25-kin strip transects in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV) during February 1990 and 1991 and observed the decoys under different experimental conditions. Visibility rate was influenced (P 0.10) by habitat, transect width, and decoy group size. We simulated variation in use of habitat and found that changes in use between open and wooded wetlands would cause changes in visibility rate and affect the power to detect a change in abundance. The effect of changes in visibility rate on likelihood of detecting population change depended on the magnitude and direction of population change and precision of the population index. For transect surveys of wintering ducks in the MAV we recommend reducing transect width from 250 to 150 m on each side of the aircraft and restricting comparisons between years when 70% of the population is likely to be distributed in open wetlands. Improved techniques for estimating abundance of wintering waterfowl are also needed so use of questionable population indices can be avoided.

  6. Experimental and environmental factors affect spurious detection of ecological thresholds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daily, Jonathan P.; Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David; Snyder, Craig D.

    2012-01-01

    Threshold detection methods are increasingly popular for assessing nonlinear responses to environmental change, but their statistical performance remains poorly understood. We simulated linear change in stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities and evaluated the performance of commonly used threshold detection methods based on model fitting (piecewise quantile regression [PQR]), data partitioning (nonparametric change point analysis [NCPA]), and a hybrid approach (significant zero crossings [SiZer]). We demonstrated that false detection of ecological thresholds (type I errors) and inferences on threshold locations are influenced by sample size, rate of linear change, and frequency of observations across the environmental gradient (i.e., sample-environment distribution, SED). However, the relative importance of these factors varied among statistical methods and between inference types. False detection rates were influenced primarily by user-selected parameters for PQR (τ) and SiZer (bandwidth) and secondarily by sample size (for PQR) and SED (for SiZer). In contrast, the location of reported thresholds was influenced primarily by SED. Bootstrapped confidence intervals for NCPA threshold locations revealed strong correspondence to SED. We conclude that the choice of statistical methods for threshold detection should be matched to experimental and environmental constraints to minimize false detection rates and avoid spurious inferences regarding threshold location.

  7. Dial a feeling: Detecting moderation of affect decline during ostracism.

    PubMed

    Wesselmann, Eric D; Wirth, James H; Mroczek, Daniel K; Williams, Kipling D

    2012-10-01

    Ostracism, being excluded and ignored, is a common and painful experience. Previous research has found ostracism's immediate effects robust to moderation by individual differences. However, this could be the result of using retrospective measures taken after the ostracism occurs, rather than assessing the effects of ostracism throughout the episode. Participants completed measures of loneliness and social avoidance and distress before either being ostracized or included in a virtual ball-toss game, Cyberball. During Cyberball, participants recorded second-by-second phenomenological affect using a dial device. Individual differences in loneliness and social avoidance and distress moderated affective reactions throughout ostracism and inclusion. Lonely individuals, compared to less-lonely individuals, had slower affect decrease when ostracized but quicker affective increase when included. Additionally, socially-avoidant individuals recovered more slowly from ostracism than less-avoidant individuals. Replicating previous research, moderation by individual differences was not detected with measures taken only at end of the interaction or with retrospective measures.

  8. Load and Rate of Change of Load Detection System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The present invention relates to a system for detecting and recording the level and rate of change of landing loads in the struts of aircraft landing...to a minimum pressure to record the level and rate of change of pressure detected by the sensor.

  9. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  10. Factors affecting the detection of cytomegalovirus in urine by sandwich enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    el-Mekki, A; Al-Nakib, W; Bibi, R

    1987-01-01

    Some factors influencing the detection of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in urine were investigated employing 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs); one utilised anti-CMV DNA polymerase while the other anti-CMV mouse monoclonals as the detecting antibodies. The use of anti-CMV DNA polymerase was found to be superior in detecting HCMV in both urine and tissue culture fluids than anti-CMV monoclonals. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase conjugates produced much lower background than did peroxidase conjugates. In reconstruction experiments, the extremes of pH in the urine clearly had an adverse effect on the detection rate of extracellular virus. pH correction of urines to neutrality improved the detection rate considerably. On the other hand, pH correction had little effect on the detection rate of intracellular HCMV in urine, although it was improved when specimens were subjected to repeated cycles of freeze-thawing, ultrasonication, and storage at 4 degrees C. It was concluded that, in addition to the factors investigated which all appear to affect virus detection rate, there may well be additional factors that interfere with CMV detection in the urine by ELISA particularly with intracellular virus.

  11. Do Graduate Student Teacher Training Courses Affect Placement Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishiyama, John; Balarezo, Christine; Miles, Tom

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the existence of a required graduate course on "Teaching in Political Science" is related to overall job placement rates reported by graduate political science programs. We examine this in light of evidence from 73 public PhD-granting political science departments across the country. We find that the existence of…

  12. Task difficulty in mental arithmetic affects microsaccadic rates and magnitudes.

    PubMed

    Siegenthaler, Eva; Costela, Francisco M; McCamy, Michael B; Di Stasi, Leandro L; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Sonderegger, Andreas; Groner, Rudolf; Macknik, Stephen; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Microsaccades are involuntary, small-magnitude saccadic eye movements that occur during attempted visual fixation. Recent research has found that attention can modulate microsaccade dynamics, but few studies have addressed the effects of task difficulty on microsaccade parameters, and those have obtained contradictory results. Further, no study to date has investigated the influence of task difficulty on microsaccade production during the performance of non-visual tasks. Thus, the effects of task difficulty on microsaccades, isolated from sensory modality, remain unclear. Here we investigated the effects of task difficulty on microsaccades during the performance of a non-visual, mental arithmetic task with two levels of complexity. We found that microsaccade rates decreased and microsaccade magnitudes increased with increased task difficulty. We propose that changes in microsaccade rates and magnitudes with task difficulty are mediated by the effects of varying attentional inputs on the rostral superior colliculus activity map.

  13. Parental Age Affects Somatic Mutation Rates in the Progeny of Flowering Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2015-01-01

    In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093

  14. Arduino-based noise robust online heart-rate detection.

    PubMed

    Das, Sangita; Pal, Saurabh; Mitra, Madhuchhanda

    2017-04-01

    This paper introduces a noise robust real time heart rate detection system from electrocardiogram (ECG) data. An online data acquisition system is developed to collect ECG signals from human subjects. Heart rate is detected using window-based autocorrelation peak localisation technique. A low-cost Arduino UNO board is used to implement the complete automated process. The performance of the system is compared with PC-based heart rate detection technique. Accuracy of the system is validated through simulated noisy ECG data with various levels of signal to noise ratio (SNR). The mean percentage error of detected heart rate is found to be 0.72% for the noisy database with five different noise levels.

  15. Does mineral surface area affect chemical weathering rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salome Eiriksdottir, Eydis; Reynir Gislason, Sigurdur; Oelkers, Eric H.

    2010-05-01

    Iceland is a basaltic volcanic island representative of the high relief, volcanic and tectonic active islands that contribute over 45% of river suspended material to the oceans worldwide (Milliman and Syvitski, 1992). These islands have enormous mechanical and chemical weathering rates due to the combined effects of high relief, high runoff, the presence of glaciers and easily weathered volcanic rocks, and a lack of sedimentary traps. In total, Iceland delivers 0.7% of the worldwide river suspended matter flux to the ocean, which is approximately one fourth that of Africa (Tómasson, 1990). River suspended matter from volcanic islands is highly reactive in seawater and might play an important role in the global carbon cycle (Gislason et al., 2006). Thus it is important to define and understand the mechanical and chemical weathering rates of these islands. Experimental dissolution experiments performed in the laboratory suggest that chemical weathering rates should be proportional to rock-water interfacial surface area. This hypothesis is tested in the present study through a study of the chemical composition of suspended material collected from rivers located in Northeast Iceland. These rivers were selected for this study because their catchments essentially monolithic, consisting of uniform compositioned and aged basalts. Gaillardet (1999) described weathering intensities of the worlds river systems to be from 1 (low weathering intensity) to 25 (high weathering intensity). These indexes were calculated to be from 1.8 to 3.2 in rivers in NE-Iceland (Eiriksdottir et al., 2008). The surface area of sediments is inversely proportional to particle size; smaller particles have larger specific surface areas. As a result, smaller particles should weather faster. This trend is confirmed by the measured compositions of analyzed suspended material. The concentration of insoluble elements (Zr, Fe, Cu, Ni, Y) is found to increase in the suspended material, whereas the

  16. PEPA-1* genotype affects return rate for hatchery steelhead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisenbichler, R.R.; Hayes, M.C.; Rubin, S.P.; Wetzel, L.A.; Baker, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Allozymes continue to be useful as genetic markers in a variety of studies; however, their utility often hinges on the selective neutrality of the allelic variation. Our study tested for neutrality between the two most common alleles (*100 and *110) at the cytosol nonspecific dipeptidase locus (PEPA-1*) in steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery in Idaho. We tested for differential growth and survival among fish with the * 100/100, *100/ 110, and *110/110 genotypes rearing in a hatchery or a natural stream. We repeated the study for two year-classes, using heterozygous (*100/110) adults to make the experimental crosses. This design avoided differences in family contribution among genotypes because each cross produced all three genotypes. We divided the progeny from each family into two groups. One group was reared in a hatchery for 1 year and then released for migration to the sea and subsequent return to the hatchery as adults. The other group was released into a natural stream and monitored for 3 years. We found no significant differences in size or survival among PEPA-1* genotypes for either the naturally reared fish or the hatchery-reared fish immediately prior to release as smolts. For females, survival to returning adult also was similar among genotypes; however, hatchery-reared males with the *110/110 genotype returned at a higher rate than did males with the *100/ 100 genotype; heterozygous males were intermediate. These results indicate that selection occurs at the PEPA-1* locus or at one or more loci tightly linked to it. The finding of nearly equal frequencies for these two alleles in the source population suggests that selection differentials among genotypes reverse or vary from year to year; otherwise, steady directional selection would drive the *100 allele to low frequencies or extinction. Locus PEPA-1* seems inappropriate for genetic marks in studies of steelhead that span the full life cycle and probably should be avoided

  17. Rate of Conditioned Reinforcement Affects Observing Rate but Not Resistance to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the resistance to change of operant behavior have not been examined. In addition, the effects of rate of conditioned reinforcement on the rate of observing have not been adequately examined. In two experiments, a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures was used to examine the effects…

  18. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  19. Biases affecting radar detection of binary near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Naidu, Shantanu P.

    2016-10-01

    Radar observations at Arecibo and Goldstone provide a powerful tool for the discovery, characterization, and orbit estimation of binary near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). To date, 73% of binary and triple NEA systems have been discovered by radar and 87% have been detected by radar. Here we describe biases not discussed in detail in the peer-reviewed literature that can adversely affect radar detection of NEA satellites. In a Doppler-only echo power spectrum, most NEA binaries have a rapidly-spinning primary that appears as a broad echo, and a slowly orbiting, tidally-locked companion that appears as a narrow spike superimposed on the primary echo. The most important factor for detection of a companion is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which is proportional to (r -4)(D 3/2)(P 1/2), where r is the distance, D is the diameter, and P is the rotation period. Low SNRs occur primarily due to the distance, a small diameter, and rapid rotation and necessitate coarse frequency resolution that limits detection of narrow spikes. Spikes in echo power spectra also occur due to glints, self noise, and radar albedo features, so confirmation of a binary requires delay-Doppler images that show two separate echoes whose positions change with time. Most companions appear tidally locked, but ~25% rotate more rapidly than their orbital periods. For example, in October 2001 the companion of 1998 ST27 was not obvious in echo power spectra or in single delay-Doppler images but was seen only when all the images from each day were summed, revealing a trail of faint pixels. The satellite SNRs were weak because its rotation is much more rapid than its orbital period. Other important factors include differences between the bandwidth of the companion and the Doppler resolution; weak SNRs due to a small diameter; self noise due to a small number of Fourier transforms; rapid orbital motion that decreases the SNR of the satellite into the noise; failure to inspect the data at sufficiently high Doppler

  20. Probabilistic pipe fracture evaluations for leak-rate-detection applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, S.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D.; Wilkowski, G.

    1995-04-01

    Regulatory Guide 1.45, {open_quotes}Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary Leakage Detection Systems,{close_quotes} was published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1973, and provides guidance on leak detection methods and system requirements for Light Water Reactors. Additionally, leak detection limits are specified in plant Technical Specifications and are different for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). These leak detection limits are also used in leak-before-break evaluations performed in accordance with Draft Standard Review Plan, Section 3.6.3, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break Evaluation Procedures{close_quotes} where a margin of 10 on the leak detection limit is used in determining the crack size considered in subsequent fracture analyses. This study was requested by the NRC to: (1) evaluate the conditional failure probability for BWR and PWR piping for pipes that were leaking at the allowable leak detection limit, and (2) evaluate the margin of 10 to determine if it was unnecessarily large. A probabilistic approach was undertaken to conduct fracture evaluations of circumferentially cracked pipes for leak-rate-detection applications. Sixteen nuclear piping systems in BWR and PWR plants were analyzed to evaluate conditional failure probability and effects of crack-morphology variability on the current margins used in leak rate detection for leak-before-break.

  1. Temperature lapse rate as an adjunct to wind shear detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweifil, Terry

    1991-01-01

    Several meteorological parameters were examined to determine if measurable atmospheric conditions can improve windshear detection devices. Lapse rate, the temperature change with altitude, shows promise as being an important parameter in the prediction of severe wind shears. It is easily measured from existing aircraft instrumentation, and it can be important indicator of convective activity including thunderstorms and microbursts. The meteorological theory behind lapse rate measurement is briefly reviewed, and and FAA certified system is described that is currently implemented in the Honeywell Wind Shear Detection and Guidance System.

  2. Defective Pricing: An Analysis of Factors Affecting Sustention Rates and Disposition Times

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-01

    AFIT/GCM/LAS/94S-5 0 .TIC Accespori For NTIS CRA&j DEFECTIVE PRICING: AN ANALYSIS OF OTIC TAB 0 FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTENTION U.:announced 0J1:;ti...the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. AFIT/GCM/LAS/94S-5 DEFECTIVE PRICING: AN ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUSTENTION RATES AND...2 Sustention Rates

  3. Towards a Semantic-Based Approach for Affect and Metaphor Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li; Barnden, John

    2013-01-01

    Affect detection from open-ended virtual improvisational contexts is a challenging task. To achieve this research goal, the authors developed an intelligent agent which was able to engage in virtual improvisation and perform sentence-level affect detection from user inputs. This affect detection development was efficient for the improvisational…

  4. Near-Earth Asteroids Detection Rate with LISA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tricarico, P.

    2009-01-01

    The LISA space mission, designed to monitor low frequency gravitational waves, is also sensitive to passages of asteroids nearby one of its three spacecrafts. We report the expected rate of detections of asteroid passages, using the known catalog of asteroids and a modeled population. The method adopted consists of determining for each known asteroid the critical encounter distance capable of producing a detectable event, and then computing the rate of encounters within this distance. Results are then scaled to the modeled population using its differential distribution in absolute magnitude, correcting for selection effects. We find that an average of 2.0 +/- 0.1 events per year at a signal-to-noise ratio of 1 will be detected by LISA, including all the asteroids in the modeled population with absolute magnitude H < 22, roughly equivalent to all asteroids with a diameter larger than 100 m.

  5. Elevated CO2 affects shell dissolution rate but not calcification rate in a marine snail

    PubMed Central

    Nienhuis, Sarah; Palmer, A. Richard; Harley, Christopher D. G.

    2010-01-01

    As CO2 levels increase in the atmosphere, so too do they in the sea. Although direct effects of moderately elevated CO2 in sea water may be of little consequence, indirect effects may be profound. For example, lowered pH and calcium carbonate saturation states may influence both deposition and dissolution rates of mineralized skeletons in many marine organisms. The relative impact of elevated CO2 on deposition and dissolution rates are not known for many large-bodied organisms. We therefore tested the effects of increased CO2 levels—those forecast to occur in roughly 100 and 200 years—on both shell deposition rate and shell dissolution rate in a rocky intertidal snail, Nucella lamellosa. Shell weight gain per day in live snails decreased linearly with increasing CO2 levels. However, this trend was paralleled by shell weight loss per day in empty shells, suggesting that these declines in shell weight gain observed in live snails were due to increased dissolution of existing shell material, rather than reduced production of new shell material. Ocean acidification may therefore have a greater effect on shell dissolution than on shell deposition, at least in temperate marine molluscs. PMID:20392726

  6. Elevated CO2 affects shell dissolution rate but not calcification rate in a marine snail.

    PubMed

    Nienhuis, Sarah; Palmer, A Richard; Harley, Christopher D G

    2010-08-22

    As CO(2) levels increase in the atmosphere, so too do they in the sea. Although direct effects of moderately elevated CO(2) in sea water may be of little consequence, indirect effects may be profound. For example, lowered pH and calcium carbonate saturation states may influence both deposition and dissolution rates of mineralized skeletons in many marine organisms. The relative impact of elevated CO(2) on deposition and dissolution rates are not known for many large-bodied organisms. We therefore tested the effects of increased CO(2) levels--those forecast to occur in roughly 100 and 200 years--on both shell deposition rate and shell dissolution rate in a rocky intertidal snail, Nucella lamellosa. Shell weight gain per day in live snails decreased linearly with increasing CO(2) levels. However, this trend was paralleled by shell weight loss per day in empty shells, suggesting that these declines in shell weight gain observed in live snails were due to increased dissolution of existing shell material, rather than reduced production of new shell material. Ocean acidification may therefore have a greater effect on shell dissolution than on shell deposition, at least in temperate marine molluscs.

  7. Affective resonance in response to others' emotional faces varies with affective ratings and psychopathic traits in amygdala and anterior insula

    PubMed Central

    Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Sebastian, Catherine L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite extensive research on the neural basis of empathic responses for pain and disgust, there is limited data about the brain regions that underpin affective response to other people’s emotional facial expressions. Here, we addressed this question using event-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to assess neural responses to emotional faces, combined with online ratings of subjective state. When instructed to rate their own affective response to others’ faces, participants recruited anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus, and amygdala; regions consistently implicated in studies investigating empathy for disgust and pain, as well as emotional saliency. Importantly, responses in anterior insula and amygdala were modulated by trial-by-trial variations in subjective affective responses to the emotional facial stimuli. Furthermore, overall task-elicited activations in these regions were negatively associated with psychopathic personality traits, which are characterized by low affective empathy. Our findings suggest that anterior insula and amygdala play important roles in the generation of affective internal states in response to others’ emotional cues, and that attenuated function in these regions may underlie reduced empathy in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits. PMID:25978492

  8. Affective resonance in response to others' emotional faces varies with affective ratings and psychopathic traits in amygdala and anterior insula.

    PubMed

    Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Sebastian, Catherine L; Viding, Essi; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research on the neural basis of empathic responses for pain and disgust, there is limited data about the brain regions that underpin affective response to other people's emotional facial expressions. Here, we addressed this question using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses to emotional faces, combined with online ratings of subjective state. When instructed to rate their own affective response to others' faces, participants recruited anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus, and amygdala, regions consistently implicated in studies investigating empathy for disgust and pain, as well as emotional saliency. Importantly, responses in anterior insula and amygdala were modulated by trial-by-trial variations in subjective affective responses to the emotional facial stimuli. Furthermore, overall task-elicited activations in these regions were negatively associated with psychopathic personality traits, which are characterized by low affective empathy. Our findings suggest that anterior insula and amygdala play important roles in the generation of affective internal states in response to others' emotional cues and that attenuated function in these regions may underlie reduced empathy in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits.

  9. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness.

    PubMed

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d') and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object's stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain.

  10. Colour Terms Affect Detection of Colour and Colour-Associated Objects Suppressed from Visual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Forder, Lewis; Taylor, Olivia; Mankin, Helen; Scott, Ryan B.; Franklin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The idea that language can affect how we see the world continues to create controversy. A potentially important study in this field has shown that when an object is suppressed from visual awareness using continuous flash suppression (a form of binocular rivalry), detection of the object is differently affected by a preceding word prime depending on whether the prime matches or does not match the object. This may suggest that language can affect early stages of vision. We replicated this paradigm and further investigated whether colour terms likewise influence the detection of colours or colour-associated object images suppressed from visual awareness by continuous flash suppression. This method presents rapidly changing visual noise to one eye while the target stimulus is presented to the other. It has been shown to delay conscious perception of a target for up to several minutes. In Experiment 1 we presented greyscale photos of objects. They were either preceded by a congruent object label, an incongruent label, or white noise. Detection sensitivity (d’) and hit rates were significantly poorer for suppressed objects preceded by an incongruent label compared to a congruent label or noise. In Experiment 2, targets were coloured discs preceded by a colour term. Detection sensitivity was significantly worse for suppressed colour patches preceded by an incongruent colour term as compared to a congruent term or white noise. In Experiment 3 targets were suppressed greyscale object images preceded by an auditory presentation of a colour term. On congruent trials the colour term matched the object’s stereotypical colour and on incongruent trials the colour term mismatched. Detection sensitivity was significantly poorer on incongruent trials than congruent trials. Overall, these findings suggest that colour terms affect awareness of coloured stimuli and colour- associated objects, and provide new evidence for language-perception interaction in the brain. PMID:27023274

  11. Extinction rate estimates for plant populations in revisitation studies: Importance of detectability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.

    2004-01-01

    Many researchers have obtained extinction-rate estimates for plant populations by comparing historical and current records of occurrence. A population that is no longer found is assumed to have gone extinct. Extinction can then be related to characteristics of these populations, such as habitat type, size, or species, to test ideas about what factors may affect extinction. Such studies neglect the fact that a population may be overlooked, however, which may bias estimates of extinction rates upward. In addition, if populations are unequally detectable across groups to be compared, such as habitat type or population size, comparisons become distorted to an unknown degree. To illustrate the problem, I simulated two data sets, assuming a constant extinction rate, in which populations occurred in different habitats or habitats of different size and these factors affected their detectability The conventional analysis implicitly assumed that detectability equalled 1 and used logistic regression to estimate extinction rates. It wrongly identified habitat and population size as factors affecting extinction risk. In contrast, with capture-recapture methods, unbiased estimates of extinction rates were recovered. I argue that capture-recapture methods should be considered more often in estimations of demographic parameters in plant populations and communities.

  12. Detecting Seismicity Rate Transients in the Hokkaido Corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, A. L.; McGuire, J. J.; Ogata, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Transient aseismic processes alter the stress state of a region and can cause seismicity rate anomalies in space and time detectable by models such as the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model (Ogata, 1988). The presence of such anomalies in subduction zones can therefore indicate stress changes are occurring due to processes such as afterslip or slow slip events. The Hokkaido corner in northeastern Japan is a good region to investigate these anomalies and their relationship to frictional conditions on the plate interface. This area consists of several asperities that rupture in great earthquakes such as the 2003 M8.3 Tokachi-oki earthquake. The abundance of high quality seismic and geodetic data for that event have led to the development of detailed coseismic and postseismic slip models (e.g., Yamanaka and Kikuchi, 2003; Miyazaki et al., 2004), from which stress changes can be inferred and compared to spatial and temporal variations in seismicity rate behavior. For example, an analysis of central Japan seismicity suggests that high aftershock productivities tend to cluster on the updip boundaries of major asperities (Ogata, 2005). Elevated stressing rates due to afterslip can also cause increased levels of background seismicity on the fault patches where afterslip is occurring. Therefore, mapping where these anomalies occur can lead to a better understanding of where and how stress is accumulating on the megathrust. We have developed a method that can directly map seismicity rate anomalies to the stressing rate changes due to aseismic processes. Because aftershocks often obscure changes in the background seismicity caused by these processes, we combine two models commonly used to estimate the time dependence of underlying driving mechanisms, the stochastic ETAS model and the physically based rate- and state-dependent friction model (Dieterich, 1994), into a single seismicity rate model that can explain both aftershock activity as well as changes in

  13. Relationship between obesity, negative affect and basal heart rate in predicting heart rate reactivity to psychological stress among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Andres E; Huynh, Pauline; Schell, Anne M; Baker, Laura A

    2015-08-01

    Reduced cardiovascular responses to psychological stressors have been found to be associated with both obesity and negative affect in adults, but have been less well studied in children and adolescent populations. These findings have most often been interpreted as reflecting reduced sympathetic nervous system response, perhaps associated with heightened baseline sympathetic activation among the obese and those manifesting negative affect. However, obesity and negative affect may themselves be correlated, raising the question of whether they both independently affect cardiovascular reactivity. The present study thus examined the separate effects of obesity and negative affect on both cardiovascular and skin conductance responses to stress (e.g., during a serial subtraction math task) in adolescents, while controlling for baseline levels of autonomic activity during rest. Both obesity and negative affect had independent and negative associations with cardiovascular reactivity, such that reduced stress responses were apparent for obese adolescents and those with high levels of negative affect. In contrast, neither obesity nor negative affect was related to skin conductance responses to stress, implicating specifically noradrenergic mechanisms rather than sympathetic mechanisms generally as being deficient. Moreover, baseline heart rate was unrelated to obesity in this sample, which suggests that heightened baseline of sympathetic activity is not necessary for the reduced cardiovascular reactivity to stress.

  14. Stress Detection Using Low Cost Heart Rate Sensors.

    PubMed

    Salai, Mario; Vassányi, István; Kósa, István

    2016-01-01

    The automated detection of stress is a central problem for ambient assisted living solutions. The paper presents the concepts and results of two studies targeted at stress detection with a low cost heart rate sensor, a chest belt. In the device validation study ( n = 5), we compared heart rate data and other features from the belt to those measured by a gold standard device to assess the reliability of the sensor. With simple synchronization and data cleaning algorithm, we were able to select highly (>97%) correlated, low average error (2.2%) data segments of considerable length from the chest data for further processing. The protocol for the clinical study ( n = 46) included a relax phase followed by a phase with provoked mental stress, 10 minutes each. We developed a simple method for the detection of the stress using only three time-domain features of the heart rate signal. The method produced accuracy of 74.6%, sensitivity of 75.0%, and specificity of 74.2%, which is impressive compared to the performance of two state-of-the-art methods run on the same data. Since the proposed method uses only time-domain features, it can be efficiently implemented on mobile devices.

  15. Stress Detection Using Low Cost Heart Rate Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Salai, Mario; Kósa, István

    2016-01-01

    The automated detection of stress is a central problem for ambient assisted living solutions. The paper presents the concepts and results of two studies targeted at stress detection with a low cost heart rate sensor, a chest belt. In the device validation study (n = 5), we compared heart rate data and other features from the belt to those measured by a gold standard device to assess the reliability of the sensor. With simple synchronization and data cleaning algorithm, we were able to select highly (>97%) correlated, low average error (2.2%) data segments of considerable length from the chest data for further processing. The protocol for the clinical study (n = 46) included a relax phase followed by a phase with provoked mental stress, 10 minutes each. We developed a simple method for the detection of the stress using only three time-domain features of the heart rate signal. The method produced accuracy of 74.6%, sensitivity of 75.0%, and specificity of 74.2%, which is impressive compared to the performance of two state-of-the-art methods run on the same data. Since the proposed method uses only time-domain features, it can be efficiently implemented on mobile devices. PMID:27372071

  16. Coherent Detection of High-Rate Optical PPM Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilnrotter, Victor; Fernandez, Michela Munoz

    2006-01-01

    A method of coherent detection of high-rate pulse-position modulation (PPM) on a received laser beam has been conceived as a means of reducing the deleterious effects of noise and atmospheric turbulence in free-space optical communication using focal-plane detector array technologies. In comparison with a receiver based on direct detection of the intensity modulation of a PPM signal, a receiver based on the present method of coherent detection performs well at much higher background levels. In principle, the coherent-detection receiver can exhibit quantum-limited performance despite atmospheric turbulence. The key components of such a receiver include standard receiver optics, a laser that serves as a local oscillator, a focal-plane array of photodetectors, and a signal-processing and data-acquisition assembly needed to sample the focal-plane fields and reconstruct the pulsed signal prior to detection. The received PPM-modulated laser beam and the local-oscillator beam are focused onto the photodetector array, where they are mixed in the detection process. The two lasers are of the same or nearly the same frequency. If the two lasers are of different frequencies, then the coherent detection process is characterized as heterodyne and, using traditional heterodyne-detection terminology, the difference between the two laser frequencies is denoted the intermediate frequency (IF). If the two laser beams are of the same frequency and remain aligned in phase, then the coherent detection process is characterized as homodyne (essentially, heterodyne detection at zero IF). As a result of the inherent squaring operation of each photodetector, the output current includes an IF component that contains the signal modulation. The amplitude of the IF component is proportional to the product of the local-oscillator signal amplitude and the PPM signal amplitude. Hence, by using a sufficiently strong local-oscillator signal, one can make the PPM-modulated IF signal strong enough to

  17. Factors affecting the surface shape and removal rate of workpiece in CMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Quantang; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhang, Baoan; Shen, Weixing

    2006-02-01

    The factors affecting the removal rate and surface shape in CMP is introduced. The edge effect is a critical problem in CMP process, which behaves on the global planarization of workpiece-pad interface and change on local planarization and results in collapse or rise in workpiece edges. One of the main factors of edge effect is Von Mises stress, which is a composition stress. The main affecting factor of Von Mises is the axial stress component. The factors affecting the material removal rate (MRR) of workpiece surface and surface nonuniformity include shape, material properties and thickness of pad and polishing media. Factors of load and relative velocity in CMP are also discussed.

  18. Factors affecting detectability of river otters during sign surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffress, Mackenzie R.; Paukert, Craig P.; Sandercock, Brett K.; Gipson, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Sign surveys are commonly used to study and monitor wildlife species but may be flawed when surveys are conducted only once and cover short distances, which can lead to a lack of accountability for false absences. Multiple observers surveyed for river otter (Lontra canadensis) scat and tracks along stream and reservoir shorelines at 110 randomly selected sites in eastern Kansas from January to April 2008 and 2009 to determine if detection probability differed among substrates, sign types, observers, survey lengths, and near access points. We estimated detection probabilities (p) of river otters using occupancy models in Program PRESENCE. Mean detection probability for a 400-m survey was highest in mud substrates (p = 0.60) and lowest in snow (p = 0.18) and leaf litter substrates (p = 0.27). Scat had a higher detection probability (p = 0.53) than tracks (p = 0.18), and experienced observers had higher detection probabilities (p < 0.71) than novice observers (p < 0.55). Detection probabilities increased almost 3-fold as survey length increased from 200 m to 1,000 m, and otter sign was not concentrated near access points. After accounting for imperfect detection, our estimates of otter site occupancy based on a 400-m survey increased >3-fold, providing further evidence of the potential negative bias that can occur in estimates from sign surveys when imperfect detection is not addressed. Our study identifies areas for improvement in sign survey methodologies and results are applicable for sign surveys commonly used for many species across a range of habitats.

  19. Clinicians’ Tendencies to Under-Rate Parkinsonian Tremors in the Less Affected Hand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong Ji; Kim, Sang Kyong; Park, Hyeyoung; Kim, Han Byul; Jeon, Hyo Seon; Jung, Yu Jin; Oh, Eungseok; Kim, Hee Jin; Yun, Ji Young; Jeon, Beom S.; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-01-01

    The standard assessment method for tremor severity in Parkinson’s disease is visual observation by neurologists using clinical rating scales. This is, therefore, a subjective rating that is dependent on clinical expertise. The objective of this study was to report clinicians’ tendencies to under-rate Parkinsonian tremors in the less affected hand. This was observed through objective tremor measurement with accelerometers. Tremor amplitudes were measured objectively using tri-axis-accelerometers for both hands simultaneously in 53 patients with Parkinson’s disease during resting and postural tremors. The videotaped tremor was rated by neurologists using clinical rating scales. The tremor measured by accelerometer was compared with clinical ratings. Neurologists tended to under-rate the less affected hand in resting tremor when the contralateral hand had severe tremor in Session I. The participating neurologists corrected this tendency in Session II after being informed of it. The under-rating tendency was then repeated by other uninformed neurologists in Session III. Kappa statistics showed high inter-rater agreements and high agreements between estimated scores derived from the accelerometer signals and the mean Clinical Tremor Rating Scale evaluated in every session. Therefore, clinicians need to be aware of this under-rating tendency in visual inspection of the less affected hand in order to make accurate tremor severity assessments. PMID:26110768

  20. Clinicians' Tendencies to Under-Rate Parkinsonian Tremors in the Less Affected Hand.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Ji; Kim, Sang Kyong; Park, Hyeyoung; Kim, Han Byul; Jeon, Hyo Seon; Jung, Yu Jin; Oh, Eungseok; Kim, Hee Jin; Yun, Ji Young; Jeon, Beom S; Park, Kwang Suk

    2015-01-01

    The standard assessment method for tremor severity in Parkinson's disease is visual observation by neurologists using clinical rating scales. This is, therefore, a subjective rating that is dependent on clinical expertise. The objective of this study was to report clinicians' tendencies to under-rate Parkinsonian tremors in the less affected hand. This was observed through objective tremor measurement with accelerometers. Tremor amplitudes were measured objectively using tri-axis-accelerometers for both hands simultaneously in 53 patients with Parkinson's disease during resting and postural tremors. The videotaped tremor was rated by neurologists using clinical rating scales. The tremor measured by accelerometer was compared with clinical ratings. Neurologists tended to under-rate the less affected hand in resting tremor when the contralateral hand had severe tremor in Session I. The participating neurologists corrected this tendency in Session II after being informed of it. The under-rating tendency was then repeated by other uninformed neurologists in Session III. Kappa statistics showed high inter-rater agreements and high agreements between estimated scores derived from the accelerometer signals and the mean Clinical Tremor Rating Scale evaluated in every session. Therefore, clinicians need to be aware of this under-rating tendency in visual inspection of the less affected hand in order to make accurate tremor severity assessments.

  1. Motion-compensated non-contact detection of heart rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Xiaohua

    2015-12-01

    A new non-contact heart rate detection method based on the dual-wavelength technique is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. It is a well-known fact that the differences in the circuits of two detection modules result in different responses of two modules for motion artifacts. This poses a great challenge to compensate the motion artifacts during measurements. In order to circumvent this problem, we have proposed the amplitude spectrum and phase spectrum adaptive filter. Comparing with the time-domain adaptive filter and independent component analysis, the amplitude spectrum and phase spectrum adaptive filter can suppress the interference caused by the two circuit differences and effectively compensate the motion artifacts. To make the device is much compact and portable, a photoelectric probe is designed. The measurement distance is from several centimeters up to several meters. Moreover, the data obtained by using this non-contact detection system is compared with those of the conventional finger blood volume pulse (BVP) sensor by simultaneously measuring the heart rate of the subject. The data obtained from the proposed non-contact system are consistent and comparable with that of the BVP sensor.

  2. Detection of Burst Suppression Patterns in EEG Using Recurrence Rate

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yongshao; Sleigh, Jamie; Li, Xiaoli

    2014-01-01

    Burst suppression is a unique electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern commonly seen in cases of severely reduced brain activity such as overdose of general anesthesia. It is important to detect burst suppression reliably during the administration of anesthetic or sedative agents, especially for cerebral-protective treatments in various neurosurgical diseases. This study investigates recurrent plot (RP) analysis for the detection of the burst suppression pattern (BSP) in EEG. The RP analysis is applied to EEG data containing BSPs collected from 14 patients. Firstly we obtain the best selection of parameters for RP analysis. Then, the recurrence rate (RR), determinism (DET), and entropy (ENTR) are calculated. Then RR was selected as the best BSP index one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison tests. Finally, the performance of RR analysis is compared with spectral analysis, bispectral analysis, approximate entropy, and the nonlinear energy operator (NLEO). ANOVA and multiple comparison tests showed that the RR could detect BSP and that it was superior to other measures with the highest sensitivity of suppression detection (96.49%, P = 0.03). Tracking BSP patterns is essential for clinical monitoring in critically ill and anesthetized patients. The purposed RR may provide an effective burst suppression detector for developing new patient monitoring systems. PMID:24883378

  3. Does nitrogen fertilizer application rate to corn affect nitrous oxide emissions from the rotated soybean crop?

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Mitchell, David C; Barker, Daniel W; Miguez, Fernando; Sawyer, John E; Pantoja, Jose; Castellano, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    Little information exists on the potential for N fertilizer application to corn ( L.) to affect NO emissions during subsequent unfertilized crops in a rotation. To determine if N fertilizer application to corn affects NO emissions during subsequent crops in rotation, we measured NO emissions for 3 yr (2011-2013) in an Iowa, corn-soybean [ (L.) Merr.] rotation with three N fertilizer rates applied to corn (0 kg N ha, the recommended rate of 135 kg N ha, and a high rate of 225 kg N ha); soybean received no N fertilizer. We further investigated the potential for a winter cereal rye ( L.) cover crop to interact with N fertilizer rate to affect NO emissions from both crops. The cover crop did not consistently affect NO emissions. Across all years and irrespective of cover crop, N fertilizer application above the recommended rate resulted in a 16% increase in mean NO flux rate during the corn phase of the rotation. In 2 of the 3 yr, N fertilizer application to corn (0-225 kg N ha) did not affect mean NO flux rates from the subsequent unfertilized soybean crop. However, in 1 yr after a drought, mean NO flux rates from the soybean crops that received 135 and 225 kg N ha N application in the corn year were 35 and 70% higher than those from the soybean crop that received no N application in the corn year. Our results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that cover crop effects on NO emissions are not easily generalizable. When N fertilizer affects NO emissions during a subsequent unfertilized crop, it will be important to determine if total fertilizer-induced NO emissions are altered or only spread across a greater period of time.

  4. Socioeconomic factors affecting marriage, divorce and birth rates in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Uchida, E; Araki, S; Murata, K

    1993-10-01

    The effects of low income, urbanisation and young age population on age-adjusted rates of first marriage, divorce and live birth among the Japanese population in 46 prefectures were analysed by stepwise regression for 1970 and for 1975. During this period, Japanese society experienced a drastic change from long-lasting economic growth to serious recession in 1973. In both 1970 and 1975, the first marriage rate for females was inversely related to low income and the divorce rates for both males and females were positively related to low income. The live birth rate was significantly related to low income, urbanisation and young age population only in 1975. The first marriage rate for females and the divorce rates for both sexes increased significantly but the first marriage rate for males and live birth rate significantly decreased between 1970 and 1975. These findings suggest that low income was the essential factor affecting first marriage for females and divorce for males and females.

  5. Factors Affecting the Ability to Detect Spreadsheet Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harry; Simkin, Mark G.

    2006-01-01

    The extensive computational and formatting capabilities of today's spreadsheets enable users to create sophisticated analytical models with professionally formatted outputs. But good-looking reports can mask a host of input errors, formula mistakes, and computational problems. This article examines the subject of spreadsheet error detection in…

  6. A change detection approach to moving object detection in low frame-rate video

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, Reid B; Harvey, Neal R; Theiler, James P

    2009-01-01

    Moving object detection is of significant interest in temporal image analysis since it is a first step in many object identification and tracking applications. A key component in almost all moving object detection algorithms is a pixel-level classifier, where each pixel is predicted to be either part of a moving object or part of the background. In this paper we investigate a change detection approach to the pixel-level classification problem and evaluate its impact on moving object detection. The change detection approach that we investigate was previously applied to multi-and hyper-spectral datasets, where images were typically taken several days, or months apart. In this paper, we apply the approach to low-frame rate (1-2 frames per second) video datasets.

  7. The affect of a clearcut environment on woody debris respiration rate dynamics, Harvard Forest, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderhoof, M. K.; Williams, C. L.

    2011-12-01

    At an ecosystem scale, the distribution of carbon is largely a function of stand development and disturbance processes. Clearcut logging remains a common practice both in the United States and globally and typically results in elevated storage of carbon in onsite woody debris and detritus. The residence time and decomposition rate of this woody debris and detritus will affect the rate of CO2 efflux to the atmosphere and thus affect the long term consequences of such disturbances on carbon flux and storage. The removal of a forest canopy also affects a site's microclimate including the albedo, air temperature, air humidity, as well as soil temperature and moisture, many of the same factors that affect the rate of woody debris decomposition. Thus it could be expected that differences in woody debris characteristics (e.g. size, abundance, state of decay), as well as differences in microclimate, between mature and recently clearcut forest sites, would result in differences in piece and site-level woody debris decomposition rates. Although woody debris stocks post-harvest have been well characterized, few studies have explored post-disturbance woody debris respiration rates, which directly measures carbon emissions from woody debris, distinguishing decomposition from mass loss due to fragmentation or leaching. This study addressed the question: does a clearcut environment in a temperate forest affect the rate of decomposition of coarse woody debris? The rate of respiration of downed spruce logs were repeatedly measured in-situ using an LI-6250 gas analyzer in Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts. Treatments included clear-cut, shaded clear-cut, mature spruce stand, and transfer (from clearcut to spruce stand). Gas analyzer measurements were accompanied by measurements of log temperature and percent water, soil temperature, moisture and pH, as well as light levels, air temperature and humidity to determine dominant drivers of respiration rates.

  8. Temporal Structure and Complexity Affect Audio-Visual Correspondence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Denison, Rachel N.; Driver, Jon; Ruff, Christian C.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrony between events in different senses has long been considered the critical temporal cue for multisensory integration. Here, using rapid streams of auditory and visual events, we demonstrate how humans can use temporal structure (rather than mere temporal coincidence) to detect multisensory relatedness. We find psychophysically that participants can detect matching auditory and visual streams via shared temporal structure for crossmodal lags of up to 200 ms. Performance on this task reproduced features of past findings based on explicit timing judgments but did not show any special advantage for perfectly synchronous streams. Importantly, the complexity of temporal patterns influences sensitivity to correspondence. Stochastic, irregular streams – with richer temporal pattern information – led to higher audio-visual matching sensitivity than predictable, rhythmic streams. Our results reveal that temporal structure and its complexity are key determinants for human detection of audio-visual correspondence. The distinctive emphasis of our new paradigms on temporal patterning could be useful for studying special populations with suspected abnormalities in audio-visual temporal perception and multisensory integration. PMID:23346067

  9. The Dynamical Response of Dark Matter to Galaxy Evolution Affects Direct-Detection Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Michael; Katz, Neal; Weinberg, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Over a handful of rotation periods, dynamical processes in barred galaxies induce non-axisymmetric structure in dark matter halos. Using n-body simulations of a Milky Way-like barred galaxy, we identify both a trapped dark-matter component, a shadow bar, and a strong response wake in the dark-matter distribution that affects the predicted dark-matter detection rates for current and future experiments. We find that the magnitude of the combined stellar and shadow bar evolution makes a 30% increase in disk-plane density. This is significantly larger that of previously claimed deviations from the standard halo model. The dark-matter density and kinematic wakes driven by the Milky Way bar increase the detectability of dark matter overall, especially for the experiments with higher minimum velocities. These astrophysical features increase the detection rate by more than a factor of two when compared to the standard halo model and by a factor of ten for experiments with high minimum recoil energy thresholds. These same features increase (decrease) the annual modulation for low (high) minimum recoil energy experiments. We present physical arguments for why these dynamics are generic for barred galaxies such as the Milky Way rather than contingent on a specific galaxy model.

  10. Ionospheric Modulation of Venus Express Lightning Detection Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Richard A.; Russell, Christopher T.; Zhang, Tielong

    2015-11-01

    Venus Express completed its nearly 9 year campaign at Earth’s sister planet in late 2014. During this period the onboard fluxgate magnetometer collected data up to 64 Hz in frequency while near periapsis. This is the expected frequency range for lightning-generated whistler-mode waves at Venus, between the local electron and ion gyrofrequencies. These waves are right-hand circularly polarized and are guided by the local magnetic field. When the Venusian ionopause is low enough in altitude to reside in the collisional region, the interplanetary magnetic field can get carried down with the ions and magnetize the lower ionosphere. As the field travels towards the terminator it gains a radial component, enabling whistlers to reach higher altitudes and be detected by the spacecraft. The mission covered almost an entire solar cycle and frequently observed a magnetized ionosphere during the solar minimum phase when the ionosphere was weak due to reduced incident EUV. Detection was most common at 250 km altitude where the waves travel more slowly due to reduced ionospheric density. In response they increase in amplitude in order to conserve magnetic energy flux. Here, we examine the changes in the ionospheric properties associated with the evolution of the solar cycle and the rate of detection of these lightning-generated signals.

  11. Endoscopic innovations to increase the adenoma detection rate during colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dik, Vincent K; Moons, Leon MG; Siersema, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    Up to a quarter of polyps and adenomas are missed during colonoscopy due to poor visualization behind folds and the inner curves of flexures, and the presence of flat lesions that are difficult to detect. These numbers may however be conservative because they mainly come from back-to-back studies performed with standard colonoscopes, which are unable to visualize the entire mucosal surface. In the past several years, new endoscopic techniques have been introduced to improve the detection of polyps and adenomas. The introduction of high definition colonoscopes and visual image enhancement technologies have been suggested to lead to better recognition of flat and small lesions, but the absolute increase in diagnostic yield seems limited. Cap assisted colonoscopy and water-exchange colonoscopy are methods to facilitate cecal intubation and increase patients comfort, but show only a marginal or no benefit on polyp and adenoma detection. Retroflexion is routinely used in the rectum for the inspection of the dentate line, but withdrawal in retroflexion in the colon is in general not recommended due to the risk of perforation. In contrast, colonoscopy with the Third-Eye Retroscope® may result in considerable lower miss rates compared to standard colonoscopy, but this technique is not practical in case of polypectomy and is more time consuming. The recently introduced Full Spectrum Endoscopy™ colonoscopes maintains the technical capabilities of standard colonoscopes and provides a much wider view of 330 degrees compared to the 170 degrees with standard colonoscopes. Remarkable lower adenoma miss rates with this new technique were recently demonstrated in the first randomized study. Nonetheless, more studies are required to determine the exact additional diagnostic yield in clinical practice. Optimizing the efficacy of colorectal cancer screening and surveillance requires high definition colonoscopes with improved virtual chromoendoscopy technology that visualize the

  12. Affective Instability in Daily Life Is Predicted by Resting Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Kuppens, Peter; Van den Bergh, Omer; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Sütterlin, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that being affectively unstable is an indicator of several forms of psychological maladjustment. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying affective instability. Our research aims to examine the possibility that being prone to extreme fluctuations in one’s feelings is related to maladaptive emotion regulation. We investigated this hypothesis by relating affective instability, assessed in daily life using the experience sampling method, to self-reported emotion regulation strategies and to parasympathetically mediated heart rate variability (HRV), a physiological indicator of emotion regulation capacity. Results showed that HRV was negatively related to instability of positive affect (as measured by mean square successive differences), indicating that individuals with lower parasympathetic tone are emotionally less stable, particularly for positive affect. PMID:24312315

  13. Factors affecting the corrosion rates of ceramics in coal combustion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    The concentrations of approximately a dozen elements in the products of coal combustion affect the corrosion rates of ceramics used to construct the combustion system. The elements, including H, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe, affect corrosion rates in three ways: as primary corrodants of the materials, as secondary corrodants that affect the activities of the primary corrodants, and by affecting the mass transport rate of the primary corrodants. A full factorial study of corrosion rates performed by varying the concentrations of these elements would involve X{sup n} tests, where X is the number of variations of each element and n is the number of different elements. For three variations (low, medium, and high concentrations) of each of 12 elements, the number of tests is 531,441 for a single temperature and pressure condition. The numbers can be reduced with the use of a fractional factorial test matrix, but the most effective way to perform corrosion tests is to base them on realistic system conditions. In this paper, the effects of the composition and physical state of the products of coal combustion on ceramic corrosion rates are given along with suggestions of appropriate test conditions for specific system components.

  14. Does acquired resistance of rodent hosts affect metabolic rate of fleas?

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Irina S; Ghazaryan, Lusine; Krasnov, Boris R; Degen, A Allan

    2009-07-01

    We studied whether (a) previous infestation of a rodent host with fleas and (b) the reproductive effort of fleas affect the rate of CO(2) emission in two flea species, host-specific Parapulex chephrenis and host-opportunistic Xenopsylla ramesis when feeding on their typical and atypical rodent hosts. We measured the rate of CO(2) emission in preovipositing and ovipositing female fleas fed on either pristine or previously infested Acomys cahirinus (typical host of P. chephrenis) and Dipodillus dasyurus (typical host of X. ramesis). When P. chephrenis fed on a typical host, its mass-specific rate of CO(2) emission was not affected by previous infestation of a host, whereas when this flea fed on the atypical host, its rate of CO(2) emission was higher when a host was previously infested. This was manifested, however, mainly during the oviposition period. The rate of CO(2) emission by X. ramesis feeding on pristine hosts was significantly lower than in conspecifics feeding on previously infested hosts, independent of host species. Both flea species feeding on their typical hosts emitted CO(2) at similar mass-specific rates during preoviposition and oviposition, except for P. chephrenis feeding on D. dasyurus, which increased its rate during oviposition. There was no effect of the number of eggs produced per female on the rate of CO(2) emission during oviposition.

  15. Detection and assessment of wood decay in glulam beams using a decay rate approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senalik, Adam; Beall, Frank C.; Reis, Henrique

    2010-04-01

    A glulam beam retired from the field and without visible indications of wood decay was used. Towards detection and assessing wood decay, X-ray computer tomography and ultrasonic measurements were carried out. It was observed that decrease in mass density with increasing levels of wood decay affects x-rays attenuation and allows radioscopy to detect and assess wood decay. To detect and assess decay when only one lateral side of the beam is available, a modified impulse-echo is presented. The modified impulse-echo approach is based on observing the dynamic response of each lamina in the glulam beam to the drop of a steel sphere onto a steel plate coupled to the glulam beam lamina and upon a decay rate analysis of the corresponding time domain signal in a frequency band of interest. The selection of the frequency band of interest only requires knowledge of the nominal transverse dimensions of each lamina in the beam and of the corresponding wood species. It was observed that decay rate analysis allows detection and assessment of wood decay. The decay rate approach leads to an overall rate of false calls of 7.2%. Considering the variability that exists in wood including the presence of splits, orientation and thickness of growth rings, etc., this relative low rate of false calls makes this approach very attractive. Results show that results from both X-ray computer tomography and impulse-echo decay-rated based measurements are consistent with each other and can be used to detect and assess wood decay in structural lumber.

  16. Self-Reported ADHD Symptoms among College Students: Item Positioning Affects Symptom Endorsement Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John T.; Knouse, Laura E.; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O.; Kwapil, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The effect of manipulating item positioning on self-reported ADHD symptoms was examined. We assessed whether listing DSM-IV ADHD symptoms serially or interspersed affected (a) the correlation between ADHD symptoms and (b) the rate of symptom endorsement. Method: In Study 1, an undergraduate sample (n = 102) completed a measure that…

  17. Heart Rate Variability – a Tool to Differentiate Positive and Negative Affective States in Pigs?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The causal neurophysiological processes, such as autonomic nervous system activity, that mediate behavioral and physiological reactivity to an environment have largely been ignored. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a clinical diagnostic tool used to assess affective states (stressful and ple...

  18. Does a Rater's Familiarity with a Candidate's Pronunciation Affect the Rating in Oral Proficiency Interviews?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Michael D.; Mannell, Robert H.; Dunn, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated factors that could affect inter-examiner reliability in the pronunciation assessment component of speaking tests. We hypothesized that the rating of pronunciation is susceptible to variation in assessment due to the amount of exposure examiners have to nonnative English accents. An inter-rater variability analysis was…

  19. Peer Rated Therapeutic Talent and Affective Sensitivity: A Multiple Regression Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Eugene

    1985-01-01

    Used peer rated measures of Warmth, Understanding and Openness to predict scores on the Kagan Affective Sensitivity Scale-E80 among 66 undergraduates who had participated in interpersonal skills training groups. Results indicated that, as an additively composite index of Therapeutic Talent, they were positively correlated with affective…

  20. Detection and rate discrimination of amplitude modulation in electrical hearing.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Monita; Oberzut, Cherish

    2011-09-01

    Three experiments were designed to examine temporal envelope processing by cochlear implant (CI) listeners. In experiment 1, the hypothesis that listeners' modulation sensitivity would in part determine their ability to discriminate between temporal modulation rates was examined. Temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) obtained in an amplitude modulation detection (AMD) task were compared to threshold functions obtained in an amplitude modulation rate discrimination (AMRD) task. Statistically significant nonlinear correlations were observed between the two measures. In experiment 2, results of loudness-balancing showed small increases in the loudness of modulated over unmodulated stimuli beyond a modulation depth of 16%. Results of experiment 3 indicated small but statistically significant effects of level-roving on the overall gain of the TMTF, but no impact of level-roving on the average shape of the TMTF across subjects. This suggested that level-roving simply increased the task difficulty for most listeners, but did not indicate increased use of intensity cues under more challenging conditions. Data obtained with one subject, however, suggested that the most sensitive listeners may derive some benefit from intensity cues in these tasks. Overall, results indicated that intensity cues did not play an important role in temporal envelope processing by the average CI listener.

  1. Negative affect predicts adults' ratings of the current, but not childhood, impact of adverse childhood events.

    PubMed

    LaNoue, Marianna; Graeber, David A; Helitzer, Deborah L; Fawcett, Jan

    2013-10-01

    Adverse childhood events (ACE's) have been empirically related to a wide range of negative health and mental health outcomes. However, not all individuals who experience ACE's follow a trajectory of poor outcomes, and not all individuals perceive the impact of ACE's as necessarily negative. The purpose of this study was to investigate positive and negative affect as predictors of adults' ratings of both the childhood and adult impact of their childhood adversity. Self-report data on ACE experiences, including number, severity, and 'impact' were collected from 158 community members recruited on the basis of having adverse childhood experiences. Results indicated that, regardless of event severity and number of different types of adverse events experienced, high levels of negative affect were the strongest predictor of whether the adult impact of the adverse childhood events was rated as negative. All individuals rated the childhood impact of events the same. Implications are discussed.

  2. Loss of Sugar Detection by GLUT2 Affects Glucose Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Stolarczyk, Emilie; Le Gall, Maude; Even, Patrick; Houllier, Anne; Serradas, Patricia; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Leturque, Armelle

    2007-01-01

    Background Mammals must sense the amount of sugar available to them and respond appropriately. For many years attention has focused on intracellular glucose sensing derived from glucose metabolism. Here, we studied the detection of extracellular glucose concentrations in vivo by invalidating the transduction pathway downstream from the transporter-detector GLUT2 and measured the physiological impact of this pathway. Methodology/Principal Findings We produced mice that ubiquitously express the largest cytoplasmic loop of GLUT2, blocking glucose-mediated gene expression in vitro without affecting glucose metabolism. Impairment of GLUT2-mediated sugar detection transiently protected transgenic mice against starvation and streptozotocin-induced diabetes, suggesting that both low- and high-glucose concentrations were not detected. Transgenic mice favored lipid oxidation, and oral glucose was slowly cleared from blood due to low insulin production, despite massive urinary glucose excretion. Kidney adaptation was characterized by a lower rate of glucose reabsorption, whereas pancreatic adaptation was associated with a larger number of small islets. Conclusions/Significance Molecular invalidation of sugar sensing in GLUT2-loop transgenic mice changed multiple aspects of glucose homeostasis, highlighting by a top-down approach, the role of membrane glucose receptors as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:18074013

  3. Does overall reinforcer rate affect discrimination of time-based contingencies?

    PubMed

    Cowie, Sarah; Davison, Michael; Blumhardt, Luca; Elliffe, Douglas

    2016-05-01

    Overall reinforcer rate appears to affect choice. The mechanism for such an effect is uncertain, but may relate to reinforcer rate changing the discrimination of the relation between stimuli and reinforcers. We assessed whether a quantitative model based on a stimulus-control approach could be used to account for the effects of overall reinforcer rate on choice under changing time-based contingencies. On a two-key concurrent schedule, the likely availability of a reinforcer reversed when a fixed time had elapsed since the last reinforcer, and the overall reinforcer rate was varied across conditions. Changes in the overall reinforcer rate produced a change in response bias, and some indication of a change in discrimination. These changes in bias and discrimination always occurred quickly, usually within the first session of a condition. The stimulus-control approach provided an excellent account of the data, suggesting that changes in overall reinforcer rate affect choice because they alter the frequency of reinforcers obtained at different times, or in different stimulus contexts, and thus change the discriminated relation between stimuli and reinforcers. These findings support the notion that temporal and spatial discriminations can be understood in terms of discrimination of reinforcers across time and space.

  4. Does non-ionizing radiant energy affect determination of the evaporation rate by the gradient method?

    PubMed

    Kjartansson, S; Hammarlund, K; Oberg, P A; Sedin, G

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed to investigate whether measurements of the evaporation rate from the skin of newborn infants by the gradient method are affected by the presence of non-ionizing radiation from phototherapy equipment or a radiant heater. The evaporation rate was measured experimentally with the measuring sensors either exposed to or protected from non-ionizing radiation. Either blue light (phototherapy) or infrared light (radiant heater) was used; in the former case the evaporation rate was measured from a beaker of water covered with a semipermeable membrane, and in the latter case from the hand of an adult subject, aluminium foil or with the measuring probe in the air. No adverse effect on the determinations of the evaporation rate was found in the presence of blue light. Infrared radiation caused an error of 0.8 g/m2h when the radiant heater was set at its highest effect level or when the ambient humidity was high. At low and moderate levels the observed evaporation rate was not affected. It is concluded that when clinical measurements are made from the skin of newborn infants nursed under a radiant heater, the evaporation rate can appropriately be determined by the gradient method.

  5. Affect and Self-Rated Health: A Dynamic Approach with Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-rated health (SRH) predicts mortality above and beyond objective health risks and as such comprises an important aspect of health. Established contributors to self-rated health include affect, age, and disease, but neither their dynamic nor their synergistic contributions to SRH have been comprehensively tested. Methods The present study employed older adults (N = 150; M age = 75 years) and a longitudinal design with 6-month waves over up to 5 years. Positive and negative affect (PA, NA), chronic disease, and SRH were assessed at each wave. Results In multilevel models with single predictors, older age, more chronic disease, and higher NA predicted worse SRH, whereas higher PA predicted better SRH. Affect predicted SRH both between and within people. In multilevel models with interactions between affect and age or disease, individual differences in NA predicted worse SRH primarily in older people. Within people, changes in NA were associated with changes in SRH, but more so in younger than in older people. Within people, changes in PA were associated with changes in SRH, but only when health was better than usual. Conclusions There were both dynamic and synergistic relationships between affect and SRH that could only emerge in a multilevel, multivariable design. In the case of NA, between-person, trait NA had the opposite relationship to SRH and age compared with within-person, state NA. Which component of this relationship predicts mortality is an important question for future research. PMID:23914813

  6. Strain rate does not affect cortical microtubule orientation in the isolated epidermis of sunflower hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Burian, A; Hejnowicz, Z

    2010-05-01

    A hypothesis exists that external and internal factors affect the orientation of cortical microtubules in as much as these lead to changes in cell elongation rate. Factors that stimulate elongation are proposed to lead to transverse microtubule orientation, whereas factors that inhibit elongation lead to longitudinal orientation. The elongation rate is equal to the rate of longitudinal irreversible strain in cell walls. Incubated epidermis peeled from sunflower hypocotyls does not extend unless it is stretched by loading and the pH of the incubation medium is appropriately low. Thus, peels provide a convenient model to investigate the relationship between longitudinal strain rate and cortical microtubule orientation. In the present study, it was found that peeling affects microtubule orientation. Peels were incubated for several hours in Murashige & Skoog medium (both unbuffered and buffered) to attain a steady state of microtubule orientation before loading. The effects of loading and pH on strain rate and orientation of microtubules under the outer epidermal walls were examined in three portions of peels positioned with respect to the cotyledonary node. Appropriate loading caused longitudinal strain of peels at pH 4.5 but not at pH 6.5. However, no clear effect of strain rate on microtubule orientation in the peels was observed. Independent of applied load and pH of the incubation medium, the microtubule orientation remained unchanged, i.e. orientation was mainly oblique. Our results show that strain rate does not affect cortical microtubule orientation in isolated epidermis of the sunflower hypocotyl model system, although orientation could be changed by white light.

  7. Sensitivity Analysis of Corrosion Rate Prediction Models Utilized for Reinforced Concrete Affected by Chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siamphukdee, Kanjana; Collins, Frank; Zou, Roger

    2013-06-01

    Chloride-induced reinforcement corrosion is one of the major causes of premature deterioration in reinforced concrete (RC) structures. Given the high maintenance and replacement costs, accurate modeling of RC deterioration is indispensable for ensuring the optimal allocation of limited economic resources. Since corrosion rate is one of the major factors influencing the rate of deterioration, many predictive models exist. However, because the existing models use very different sets of input parameters, the choice of model for RC deterioration is made difficult. Although the factors affecting corrosion rate are frequently reported in the literature, there is no published quantitative study on the sensitivity of predicted corrosion rate to the various input parameters. This paper presents the results of the sensitivity analysis of the input parameters for nine selected corrosion rate prediction models. Three different methods of analysis are used to determine and compare the sensitivity of corrosion rate to various input parameters: (i) univariate regression analysis, (ii) multivariate regression analysis, and (iii) sensitivity index. The results from the analysis have quantitatively verified that the corrosion rate of steel reinforcement bars in RC structures is highly sensitive to corrosion duration time, concrete resistivity, and concrete chloride content. These important findings establish that future empirical models for predicting corrosion rate of RC should carefully consider and incorporate these input parameters.

  8. Ejaculate and type of freezing extender affect rates of fertilization of horse oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roasa, L M; Choi, Y H; Love, C C; Romo, S; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2007-09-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed on in vitro-matured equine oocytes in three experiments. Frozen-thawed sperm were prepared using swim-up separation and heparin treatment. In Experiment 1, fertilization was achieved with sperm from only one frozen ejaculate of four obtained from the same stallion. Within this ejaculate, fertilization rates were higher with fresh media, as compared to media held for 6-8 days before use (39.6% versus 7.3%, respectively; P<0.001). The type of bovine serum albumin used affected fertilization rates (4% versus 39.6%; P<0.001). To determine if IVF rates were influenced by factors associated with the freezing process (Experiment 2), a single ejaculate from a second stallion was frozen using eight variations in timing of steps in the freezing protocol. There were no differences among treatments in fertilization rates (range, 0-3%). In Experiment 3, fertilization rates of semen frozen in an extender containing 21.5% egg yolk were lower than fertilization rates of semen from the same ejaculate but frozen with a 3% egg-yolk extender (0% versus 15%, respectively; P<0.01). We inferred that rates of equine IVF with frozen-thawed sperm were influenced by ejaculate, the composition and age of the media used, and freezing extender. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ejaculate or extender differences affecting in vitro fertilization in this species. These factors may help to explain the great variability in fertilization rates reported with equine IVF, both among and within laboratories.

  9. Keeping Pace with Your Eating: Visual Feedback Affects Eating Rate in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Bosworth, Matthew L.; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Rogers, Peter J.; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Deliberately eating at a slower pace promotes satiation and eating quickly has been associated with a higher body mass index. Therefore, understanding factors that affect eating rate should be given high priority. Eating rate is affected by the physical/textural properties of a food, by motivational state, and by portion size and palatability. This study explored the prospect that eating rate is also influenced by a hitherto unexplored cognitive process that uses ongoing perceptual estimates of the volume of food remaining in a container to adjust intake during a meal. A 2 (amount seen; 300ml or 500ml) x 2 (amount eaten; 300ml or 500ml) between-subjects design was employed (10 participants in each condition). In two ‘congruent’ conditions, the same amount was seen at the outset and then subsequently consumed (300ml or 500ml). To dissociate visual feedback of portion size and actual amount consumed, food was covertly added or removed from a bowl using a peristaltic pump. This created two additional ‘incongruent’ conditions, in which 300ml was seen but 500ml was eaten or vice versa. We repeated these conditions using a savoury soup and a sweet dessert. Eating rate (ml per second) was assessed during lunch. After lunch we assessed fullness over a 60-minute period. In the congruent conditions, eating rate was unaffected by the actual volume of food that was consumed (300ml or 500ml). By contrast, we observed a marked difference across the incongruent conditions. Specifically, participants who saw 300ml but actually consumed 500ml ate at a faster rate than participants who saw 500ml but actually consumed 300ml. Participants were unaware that their portion size had been manipulated. Nevertheless, when it disappeared faster or slower than anticipated they adjusted their rate of eating accordingly. This suggests that the control of eating rate involves visual feedback and is not a simple reflexive response to orosensory stimulation. PMID:26828922

  10. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people's perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects' personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs' emotional facial expressions.

  11. Human Empathy, Personality and Experience Affect the Emotion Ratings of Dog and Human Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V.; Somppi, Sanni; Jokela, Markus; Vainio, Outi; Parkkonen, Lauri

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions are important for humans in communicating emotions to the conspecifics and enhancing interpersonal understanding. Many muscles producing facial expressions in humans are also found in domestic dogs, but little is known about how humans perceive dog facial expressions, and which psychological factors influence people’s perceptions. Here, we asked 34 observers to rate the valence, arousal, and the six basic emotions (happiness, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear, and anger/aggressiveness) from images of human and dog faces with Pleasant, Neutral and Threatening expressions. We investigated how the subjects’ personality (the Big Five Inventory), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and experience of dog behavior affect the ratings of dog and human faces. Ratings of both species followed similar general patterns: human subjects classified dog facial expressions from pleasant to threatening very similarly to human facial expressions. Subjects with higher emotional empathy evaluated Threatening faces of both species as more negative in valence and higher in anger/aggressiveness. More empathetic subjects also rated the happiness of Pleasant humans but not dogs higher, and they were quicker in their valence judgments of Pleasant human, Threatening human and Threatening dog faces. Experience with dogs correlated positively with ratings of Pleasant and Neutral dog faces. Personality also had a minor effect on the ratings of Pleasant and Neutral faces in both species. The results imply that humans perceive human and dog facial expression in a similar manner, and the perception of both species is influenced by psychological factors of the evaluators. Especially empathy affects both the speed and intensity of rating dogs’ emotional facial expressions. PMID:28114335

  12. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  13. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  14. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  15. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  16. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... They Count? § 261.36 Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? A welfare reform waiver could affect the calculation of a State's participation rate, pursuant...

  17. Factors affecting the intramolecular decomposition of hexamethylene triperoxide diamine and implications for detection.

    PubMed

    Steinkamp, Frank Lucus; DeGreeff, Lauryn E; Collins, Greg E; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L

    2016-06-17

    Hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) is an easily synthesized and highly sensitive organic peroxide frequently used as a primary explosive. The vapor pressure of HMTD is very low, impeding vapor detection, especially when compared to other peroxide explosives, such as triacetone triperoxide (TATP) or diacetone diperoxide (DADP). Despite this fact, HMTD has a perceptible odor that could be utilized in the indirect detection of HMTD vapor. Headspace measurements above solid HMTD samples confirm that HMTD readily decomposes under ambient conditions to form highly volatile products that include formic acid, ammonia, trimethylamine and formamides. The presence and quantity of these compounds are affected by storage condition, time, and synthetic method, with synthetic method having the most significant effect on the content of the headspace. A kinetic study of HMTD decomposition in solution indicated a correlation between degradation rate and the presence of decomposition species identified in the headspace, and provided further insight into the mechanism of decomposition. The study provided evidence for a proton assisted decomposition reaction with water, as well as an intramolecular decomposition process facilitated by the presence of water.

  18. Recent developments in statistical methods for detecting genetic loci affecting phenotypic variability.

    PubMed

    Rönnegård, Lars; Valdar, William

    2012-07-24

    A number of recent works have introduced statistical methods for detecting genetic loci that affect phenotypic variability, which we refer to as variability-controlling quantitative trait loci (vQTL). These are genetic variants whose allelic state predicts how much phenotype values will vary about their expected means. Such loci are of great potential interest in both human and non-human genetic studies, one reason being that a detected vQTL could represent a previously undetected interaction with other genes or environmental factors. The simultaneous publication of these new methods in different journals has in many cases precluded opportunity for comparison. We survey some of these methods, the respective trade-offs they imply, and the connections between them. The methods fall into three main groups: classical non-parametric, fully parametric, and semi-parametric two-stage approximations. Choosing between alternatives involves balancing the need for robustness, flexibility, and speed. For each method, we identify important assumptions and limitations, including those of practical importance, such as their scope for including covariates and random effects. We show in simulations that both parametric methods and their semi-parametric approximations can give elevated false positive rates when they ignore mean-variance relationships intrinsic to the data generation process. We conclude that choice of method depends on the trait distribution, the need to include non-genetic covariates, and the population size and structure, coupled with a critical evaluation of how these fit with the assumptions of the statistical model.

  19. Does Favorable Selection Among Medicare Advantage Enrollees Affect Measurement of Hospital Readmission Rates?

    PubMed

    Wong, Edwin S; Hebert, Paul L; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Perkins, Mark; Bryson, Chris L; Au, David H; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2014-08-01

    Literature indicates favorable selection among Medicare Advantage (MA) enrollees compared with fee-for-service (FFS) enrollees. This study examined whether favorable selection into MA affected readmission rates among Medicare-eligible veterans following hospitalization for congestive heart failure in the Veterans Affairs Health System (VA). We measured total (VA + Medicare FFS) 30-day all-cause readmission rates across hospitals and all of VA. We used Heckman's correction to adjust readmission rates to be representative of all Medicare-eligible veterans, not just FFS-enrolled veterans. The adjusted all-cause readmission rate among FFS veterans was 27.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 26.5% to 27.7%), while the adjusted readmission rate among Medicare-eligible veterans was 25.3% (95% CI = 23.6% to 27.1%) after correcting for favorable selection. Readmission rate estimates among FFS veterans generalize to all Medicare-eligible veterans only after accounting for favorable selection into MA. Estimation of quality metrics should carefully consider sample selection to produce valid policy inferences.

  20. Clinical pearls: factors affecting reported contraceptive efficacy rates in clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Burkman, Ronald T

    2002-01-01

    Current combination oral contraceptives (OCs) are among the most popular, safe, and effective methods of reversible contraception. There are, however, many factors that can affect contraceptive failure rates as reported in clinical trials, including subject characteristics, factors related to study methodology and data analysis, and publication biases. The variability of these factors among clinical trials makes meaningful comparisons of contraceptive efficacy data across studies difficult, if not misleading or erroneous. It is even more difficult to reconcile the differences between clinical trial efficacy rates and everyday use rates; for instance, the National Survey of Family Growth reported that the rate of OC failure is close to 8% in the United States, which is higher than rates reported in clinical trials. Thus, it is important for the clinician to consider the many factors that can influence reporting of contraceptive failure rates in clinical trials and be aware of the limitations in differentiating OCs on the basis of contraceptive efficacy derived from clinical trial data. Furthermore, clinical trial data may not accurately predict contraceptive efficacy in everyday use.

  1. Does childhood cancer affect parental divorce rates? A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Syse, Astri; Loge, Jon H; Lyngstad, Torkild H

    2010-02-10

    PURPOSE Cancer in children may profoundly affect parents' personal relationships in terms of psychological stress and an increased care burden. This could hypothetically elevate divorce rates. Few studies on divorce occurrence exist, so the effect of childhood cancers on parental divorce rates was explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on the entire Norwegian married population, age 17 to 69 years, with children age 0 to 20 years in 1974 to 2001 (N = 977,928 couples) were retrieved from the Cancer Registry, the Central Population Register, the Directorate of Taxes, and population censuses. Divorce rates for 4,590 couples who were parenting a child with cancer were compared with those of otherwise similar couples by discrete-time hazard regression models. Results Cancer in a child was not associated with an increased risk of parental divorce overall. An increased divorce rate was observed with Wilms tumor (odds ratio [OR], 1.52) but not with any of the other common childhood cancers. The child's age at diagnosis, time elapsed from diagnosis, and death from cancer did not influence divorce rates significantly. Increased divorce rates were observed for couples in whom the mothers had an education greater than high school level (OR, 1.16); the risk was particularly high shortly after diagnosis, for CNS cancers and Wilms tumors, for couples with children 0 to 9 years of age at diagnosis, and after a child's death. CONCLUSION This large, registry-based study shows that cancer in children is not associated with an increased parental divorce rate, except with Wilms tumors. Couples in whom the wife is highly educated appear to face increased divorce rates after a child's cancer, and this may warrant additional study.

  2. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates for a multispecies sample of neotropical birds from Panama have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses by Kart et al. (1990. Am. Nat. 136:277-91) contradicted that view, suggesting tropical birds may not have systematically high survival rates. A persistent criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses using these models indicate that, despite some variation among species, overall estimates of survival rates for understory birds in Panama are not strongly affected by adjustments for transients. We also compare estimates of survival rates based on mark-recapture models with observations of colour-marked birds. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to combinations of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding sources of this variation is the challenge for future work.

  3. Affective norms for 720 French words rated by children and adolescents (FANchild).

    PubMed

    Monnier, Catherine; Syssau, Arielle

    2016-12-07

    FANchild (French Affective Norms for Children) provides norms of valence and arousal for a large corpus of French words (N = 720) rated by 908 French children and adolescents (ages 7, 9, 11, and 13). The ratings were made using the Self-Assessment Manikin (Lang, 1980). Because it combines evaluations of arousal and valence and includes ratings provided by 7-, 9-, 11-, and 13-year-olds, this database complements and extends existing French-language databases. Good response reliability was observed in each of the four age groups. Despite a significant level of consensus, we found age differences in both the valence and arousal ratings: Seven- and 9-year-old children gave higher mean valence and arousal ratings than did the other age groups. Moreover, the tendency to judge words positively (i.e., positive bias) decreased with age. This age- and sex-related database will enable French-speaking researchers to study how the emotional character of words influences their cognitive processing, and how this influence evolves with age. FANchild is available at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Catherine_Monnier/contributions .

  4. Technologies that affect the weaning rate in beef cattle production systems.

    PubMed

    Dill, Matheus Dhein; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Costa, João Batista Gonçalves; Canellas, Leonardo Canali; Peripolli, Vanessa; Neto, José Braccini; Sant'Anna, Danilo Menezes; McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the differences between weaning rates and technologies adopted by farmers in cow-calf production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Interviews were carried out with 73 farmers about 48 technologies that could affect reproductive performance. Data were analyzed by multivariate analysis using a non-hierarchical cluster method. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Three distinct clusters of farmers were created (R (2) = 0.90), named as low (LWR), intermediate (IWR), and high (HWR) weaning rate, with 100, 91, and 96 % of the farmers identified within their respective groups and average weaning rates of 59, 72, and 83 %, respectively. IWR and HWR farmers used more improved natural pasture, fixed-time artificial insemination, selection for birth weight, and proteinated salt compared to LWR. HWR farmers used more stocking rate control, and IWR farmers used more ultrasound to evaluate reproductive performance compared to the LWR group. IWR and HWR adopted more technologies related to nutrition and reproductive aspects of the herd in comparison to LWR. We concluded that farmers with higher technology use on farm had higher weaning rates which could be used to benefit less efficient farmers.

  5. Identifying Critical Road Geometry Parameters Affecting Crash Rate and Crash Type

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Sarbaz; Thomson, Robert; Lannér, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this traffic safety investigation was to find critical road parameters affecting crash rate (CR). The study was based on crash and road maintenance data from Western Sweden. More than 3000 crashes, reported from 2000 to 2005 on median-separated roads, were collected and combined with road geometric and surface data. The statistical analysis showed variations in CR when road elements changed confirming that road characteristics affect CR. The findings indicated that large radii right-turn curves were more dangerous than left curves, in particular, during lane changing manoeuvres. However sharper curves are more dangerous in both left and right curves. Moreover, motorway carriageways with no or limited shoulders have the highest CR when compared to other carriageway widths, while one lane carriageway sections on 2+1 roads were the safest. Road surface results showed that both wheel rut depth and road roughness have negative impacts on traffic safety. PMID:20184841

  6. Physiological Arousal and Juvenile Psychopathy: Is Low Resting Heart Rate Associated with Affective Dimensions?

    PubMed

    Kavish, Nicholas; Vaughn, Michael G; Cho, Eunsoo; Barth, Amy; Boutwell, Brian; Vaughn, Sharon; Capin, Philip; Stillman, Stephanie; Martinez, Leticia

    2017-03-01

    A wealth of past research has examined the relationship between low physiological arousal and violence or antisocial behavior. Relatively little research; however, has examined the relationship between low physiological arousal and psychopathic traits, with even less having been conducted with juveniles. The current study attempts to fill this gap by evaluating juveniles' physiological arousal using resting heart rate and their levels of psychopathic traits. Results suggest that there is indeed an inverse relationship between resting heart rate and the affective traits of psychopathy (Uncaring, Callousness, and Unemotionality) as well as Thrill or Sensation Seeking in males. No significant relationship was found in females. Implications of the findings as well as study limitations and future directions are discussed.

  7. Gait event detection during stair walking using a rate gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Formento, Paola Catalfamo; Acevedo, Ruben; Ghoussayni, Salim; Ewins, David

    2014-03-19

    Gyroscopes have been proposed as sensors for ambulatory gait analysis and functional electrical stimulation systems. These applications often require detection of the initial contact (IC) of the foot with the floor and/or final contact or foot off (FO) from the floor during outdoor walking. Previous investigations have reported the use of a single gyroscope placed on the shank for detection of IC and FO on level ground and incline walking. This paper describes the evaluation of a gyroscope placed on the shank for determination of IC and FO in subjects ascending and descending a set of stairs. Performance was compared with a reference pressure measurement system. The absolute mean difference between the gyroscope and the reference was less than 45 ms for IC and better than 135 ms for FO for both activities. Detection success was over 93%. These results provide preliminary evidence supporting the use of a gyroscope for gait event detection when walking up and down stairs.

  8. Cholinesterase affects dynamic transduction properties from vagal stimulation to heart rate.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, T; Kawada, T; Sugimachi, M; Miyano, H; Sato, T; Shishido, T; Yoshimura, R; Miyashita, H; Sunagawa, K

    1998-08-01

    Recent investigations in our laboratory using a Gaussian white noise technique showed that the transfer function representing the dynamic properties of transduction from vagus nerve activity to heart rate had characteristics of a first-order low-pass filter. However, the physiological determinants of those characteristics remain to be elucidated. In this study, we stimulated the vagus nerve according to a Gaussian white noise pattern to estimate the transfer function from vagal stimulation to the heart rate response in anesthetized rabbits and examined how changes in acetylcholine kinetics affected the transfer function. We found that although increases in the mean frequency of vagal stimulation from 5 to 10 Hz did not change the characteristics of the transfer function, administration of neostigmine (30 microg . kg-1 . h-1 iv), a cholinesterase inhibitor, increased the dynamic gain from 8.19 +/- 3.66 to 11.7 +/- 4.88 beats . min-1 . Hz-1 (P < 0.05), decreased the corner frequency from 0.12 +/- 0.05 to 0.04 +/- 0.01 Hz (P < 0.01), and increased the lag time from 0.17 +/- 0.12 to 0.27 +/- 0.08 s (P < 0.05). These results suggest that the rate of acetylcholine degradation at the neuroeffector junction, rather than the amount of available acetylcholine, plays a key role in determining the dynamic properties of transduction from vagus nerve activity to heart rate.

  9. Individual variation affects departure rate from the natal pond in an ephemeral pond-breeding anuran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chelgren, N.D.; Rosenberg, D.K.; Heppell, S.S.; Gitelman, A.I.

    2008-01-01

    Frogs exhibit extreme plasticity and individual variation in growth and behavior during metamorphosis, driven by interactions of intrinsic state factors and extrinsic environmental factors. In northern red-legged frogs (Rana aurora Baird and Girard, 1852), we studied the timing of departure from the natal pond as it relates to date and size of individuals at metamorphosis in the context of environmental uncertainty. To affect body size at metamorphosis, we manipulated food availability during the larval stage for a sample (317) of 1045 uniquely marked individuals and released them at their natal ponds as newly metamorphosed frogs. We recaptured 34% of marked frogs in pitfall traps as they departed and related the timing of their initial terrestrial movements to individual properties using a time-to-event model. Median age at first capture was 4 and 9 days postmetamorphosis at two sites. The rate of departure was positively related to body size and to date of metamorphosis. Departure rate was strongly negatively related to time elapsed since rainfall, and this effect was diminished for smaller and later metamorphosing frogs. Individual variation in metamorphic traits thus affects individuals' responses to environmental variability, supporting a behavioral link with variation in survival associated with these same metamorphic traits. ?? 2008 NRC.

  10. Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.

  11. Dynamic N-occupancy models: estimating demographic rates and local abundance from detection-nondetection data.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Sam; Yackulic, Charles B; Saunders, Sarah P; Reid, Janice; Davis, Ray; Zipkin, Elise F

    2016-12-01

    Occupancy modeling is a widely used analytical technique for assessing species distributions and range dynamics. However, occupancy analyses frequently ignore variation in abundance of occupied sites, even though site abundances affect many of the parameters being estimated (e.g., extinction, colonization, detection probability). We introduce a new model ("dynamic N-occupancy") capable of providing accurate estimates of local abundance, population gains (reproduction/immigration), and apparent survival probabilities while accounting for imperfect detection using only detection/nondetection data. Our model utilizes heterogeneity in detection based on variations in site abundances to estimate latent demographic rates via a dynamic N-mixture modeling framework. We validate our model using simulations across a wide range of values and examine the data requirements, including the number of years and survey sites needed, for unbiased and precise estimation of parameters. We apply our model to estimate spatiotemporal heterogeneity in abundances of barred owls (Strix varia) within a recently invaded region in Oregon (USA). Estimates of apparent survival and population gains are consistent with those from a nearby radio-tracking study and elucidate how barred owl abundances have increased dramatically over time. The dynamic N-occupancy model greatly improves inferences on individual-level population processes from occupancy data by explicitly modeling the latent population structure.

  12. Respiratory rate detection using a wearable electromagnetic generator.

    PubMed

    Padasdao, Bryson; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Wearable health and fitness monitoring systems are a promising new way of collecting physiological data without inconveniencing patients. Human energy harvesting may be used to power wearable sensors. In this paper, we explore this zero-net energy biosensor concept through sensing and harvesting of respiratory effort. An off the shelf servo motor operation in reverse was used to successfully obtain respiratory rate, while also demonstrating significant harvested power. These are the first reported respiratory rate sensing results using electromagnetic generators.

  13. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ) over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics and assessed postoperative complications including seroma, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, and need for reintervention. We reviewed ADM thickness and time to Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain removal. Results. Fifty-five patients underwent 77 ADM-associated tissue expander based breast reconstructions, with average age of 48.1 years and average BMI of 25.9. Average ADM thickness was 1.21 mm. We found higher complication rates in the thick ADM group. Significant associations were found between smokers and skin necrosis (p < 0.0001) and seroma and prolonged JP drainage (p = 0.0004); radiated reconstructed breasts were more likely to suffer infections (p = 0.0085), and elevated BMI is a significant predictor for increased infection rate (p = 0.0037). Conclusion. We found a trend toward increased complication rates with thicker ADMs. In the future, larger prospective studies evaluating thickness may provide more information. PMID:27190645

  14. The Rate of Change of Vergence-Accommodation Conflict Affects Visual Discomfort

    PubMed Central

    Kane, David; Banks, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort. PMID:25448713

  15. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression

    PubMed Central

    De Rubeis, Jannika; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lange, Diane; Pawelzik, Markus; van Randenborgh, Annette; Victor, Daniela; Vögele, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing). We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate) to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball) in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52) and disorganized attachment status (n = 45). Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051). These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship. PMID:26943924

  16. Attachment Status Affects Heart Rate Responses to Experimental Ostracism in Inpatients with Depression.

    PubMed

    De Rubeis, Jannika; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lange, Diane; Pawelzik, Markus; van Randenborgh, Annette; Victor, Daniela; Vögele, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Depression is assumed to be both a risk factor for rejection and a result of it, and as such constitutes an important factor in rejection research. Attachment theory has been applied to understand psychological disorders, such as depression, and can explain individual differences in responses to rejection. Research on autonomic nervous system activity to rejection experiences has been contradictory, with opposing strings of argumentation (activating vs. numbing). We investigated autonomic nervous system-mediated peripheral physiological responses (heart rate) to experimentally manipulated ostracism (Cyberball) in 97 depressed patients with organized (n = 52) and disorganized attachment status (n = 45). Controlling for baseline mean heart rate levels, depressed patients with disorganized attachment status responded to ostracism with significantly higher increases in heart rate than depressed patients with organized attachment status (p = .029; ηp2 = .051). These results suggest that attachment status may be a useful indicator of autonomic responses to perceived social threat, which in turn may affect the therapeutic process and the patient-therapist relationship.

  17. The rate of change of vergence-accommodation conflict affects visual discomfort.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joohwan; Kane, David; Banks, Martin S

    2014-12-01

    Stereoscopic (S3D) displays create conflicts between the distance to which the eyes must converge and the distance to which the eyes must accommodate. Such conflicts require the viewer to overcome the normal coupling between vergence and accommodation, and this effort appears to cause viewer discomfort. Vergence-accommodation coupling is driven by the phasic components of the underlying control systems, and those components respond to relatively fast changes in vergence and accommodative stimuli. Given the relationship between phasic changes and vergence-accommodation coupling, we examined how the rate of change in the vergence-accommodation conflict affects viewer discomfort. We used a stereoscopic display that allows independent manipulation of the stimuli to vergence and accommodation. We presented stimuli that simulate natural viewing (i.e., vergence and accommodative stimuli changed together) and stimuli that simulate S3D viewing (i.e., vergence stimulus changes but accommodative stimulus remains fixed). The changes occurred at 0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 Hz. The lowest rate is too slow to stimulate the phasic components while the highest rate is well within the phasic range. The results were consistent with our expectation: somewhat greater discomfort was experienced when stimulus distance changed rapidly, particularly in S3D viewing when the vergence stimulus changed but the accommodative stimulus did not. These results may help in the generation of guidelines for the creation and viewing of stereo content with acceptable viewer comfort.

  18. A study of factors affecting highway accident rates using the random-parameters tobit model.

    PubMed

    Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis Ch; Mannering, Fred L; Shankar, Venky N; Haddock, John E

    2012-03-01

    A large body of previous literature has used a variety of count-data modeling techniques to study factors that affect the frequency of highway accidents over some time period on roadway segments of a specified length. An alternative approach to this problem views vehicle accident rates (accidents per mile driven) directly instead of their frequencies. Viewing the problem as continuous data instead of count data creates a problem in that roadway segments that do not have any observed accidents over the identified time period create continuous data that are left-censored at zero. Past research has appropriately applied a tobit regression model to address this censoring problem, but this research has been limited in accounting for unobserved heterogeneity because it has been assumed that the parameter estimates are fixed over roadway-segment observations. Using 9-year data from urban interstates in Indiana, this paper employs a random-parameters tobit regression to account for unobserved heterogeneity in the study of motor-vehicle accident rates. The empirical results show that the random-parameters tobit model outperforms its fixed-parameters counterpart and has the potential to provide a fuller understanding of the factors determining accident rates on specific roadway segments.

  19. Ambulatory respiratory rate detection using ECG and a triaxial accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Chan, Alexander M; Ferdosi, Nima; Narasimhan, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of respiratory rate in ambulatory conditions has widespread applications for screening of respiratory diseases and remote patient monitoring. Unfortunately, minimally obtrusive techniques often suffer from low accuracy. In this paper, we describe an algorithm with low computational complexity for combining multiple respiratory measurements to estimate breathing rate from an unobtrusive chest patch sensor. Respiratory rates derived from the respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and modulation of the QRS amplitude of electrocardiography (ECG) are combined with a respiratory rate derived from tri-axial accelerometer data. The three respiration rates are combined by a weighted average using weights based on quality metrics for each signal. The algorithm was evaluated on 15 elderly subjects who performed spontaneous and metronome breathing as well as a variety of activities of daily living (ADLs). When compared to a reference device, the mean absolute error was 1.02 breaths per minute (BrPM) during metronome breathing, 1.67 BrPM during spontaneous breathing, and 2.03 BrPM during ADLs.

  20. Honeybees enhance reproduction without affecting the outcrossing rate in endemic Pedicularis densispica (Orobanchaceae).

    PubMed

    Xia, J; Sun, S G; Guo, Y H

    2007-11-01

    There has been substantial debate in recent years surrounding the impact of introduced honeybees on native biota. This study reports on an investigation of Pedicularis densispica, a subalpine annual herb endemic to Southwest China, in an attempt to determine the impact of introduced domestic honeybees on pollen dispersal and thus on their reproductive success and mating system. Honeybees were introduced into the study site in 2004, and a sudden seasonal pollinator shift from bumblebees to honeybees was observed. Intra- and inter-plant visits by different pollinators were recorded in the field in 2003 and 2004. Fruit and seed sets prior to and after the pollinator shift were measured. Experimental pollinations were performed to characterize the breeding system. Outcrossing rates at the seed stage were estimated for both years using RAPD markers. Our results indicated that honeybees foraged between plants more frequently than bumblebees did. Our results also revealed that the introduction of honeybees significantly enhanced reproductive success. However, no significant difference was detected between the outcrossing rates due to bumblebee and honeybee pollination. P. densispica was almost completely outcrossing ( T(m) = 0.956 and 0.967, respectively in 2003 and 2004) but partially self-compatible. This study presents the first report of the outcrossing rate in the genus pedicularis and reveals a limited influence of pollination on the mating system in P. densispica. The pollinator shift did not reduce reproductive success of the plants and honeybees may be used to augment pollinator services for nectariferous P. densispica.

  1. Muscular contraction mode differently affects autonomic control during heart rate matched exercise.

    PubMed

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Martin; Gonschorek, Ray; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. The aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN) and isometric contractions (ISO) at a similar, low heart rate (HR) level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs) performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively), rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV) indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a non-linear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  2. Myasthenia gravis in patients with thymoma affects survival rate following extended thymectomy

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, ZHEFENG; CUI, YOUBIN; JIA, RUI; XUE, LEI; LIANG, HUAGANG

    2016-01-01

    Thymomas are the most common adult tumors in the anterior mediastinal compartment, and a significant amount of thymomas are complicated by myasthenia gravis (MG). Extended thymectomy (ET) is the primary treatment method for thymomas and is used to completely resect possible ectopic thymus to avoid recurrence. Studies on the effect of MG in thymoma patients following ET are limited. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the presence of MG affects the prognosis of patients with thymoma. The present study consisted of 104 patients with thymoma that underwent ET; 61 men (58.7%) and 43 women (41.3%) (mean age, 54.6 years). In total, 38 patients had MG (36.5%). MG was most frequently observed in World Health Organization (WHO) classification type B2 thymoma compared with other types of thymoma. During the 5-year follow-up period, 11 patients succumbed to a recurrence of thymoma or respiratory failure due to MG. The overall 5-year survival rate in patients without MG or with MG was 89.1 and 76.0%, respectively. The overall survival (OS) rate in patients with Masaoka stages I + II and III + IV was 90.0 and 68.0%, respectively. The OS rate in patients with WHO type A + AB + B1 and type B2 + B3 was 96.9 and 76.8%, respectively. The patients with MG (P=0.026), Masaoka stages III + IV (P=0.008) and WHO type B2 + B3 (P=0.032) had a poorer prognosis compared with patients without these characteristics. Furthermore, multivariate analysis by Cox regression revealed that age [P=0.032; relative risk (RR)=1.097; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.097–1.192] and MG (P=0.042; RR=0.167; 95% CI=0.037–0.940) significantly affected OS rate. In summary, ET is a reliable method for the treatment of thymoma. Long-term survival is expected for patients at early Masaoka stages, and for patients without MG. The prognosis of patients with thymomas with MG is poorer compared with patients without MG. The present findings provide useful information for the future management of

  3. Does epidural analgesia affect the rate of spontaneous obstetric lacerations in normal births?

    PubMed

    Albers, Leah L; Migliaccio, Laura; Bedrick, Edward J; Teaf, Dusty; Peralta, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The precise relationship between epidural use and genital tract lacerations in normal childbirth is unclear. Data from a clinical trial on measures to lower genital tract trauma in vaginal birth were used for a secondary analysis. The goal was to assess whether epidurals affect the rate of spontaneous obstetric lacerations in normal vaginal births. Maternal characteristics and intrapartum variables were compared in women who did and did not use an epidural in labor, and also in those with and without any sutured lacerations following vaginal birth. Variables that were statistically different in both cases were entered into regression equations for simultaneous adjustment. Epidural use was not an independent predictor of sutured lacerations. Predictors of sutured lacerations included nulliparity, a prolonged second stage, being non-Hispanic white, and an infant birthweight greater than 4000 grams. Elements of midwifery management need further research.

  4. Dehydration rate and time of desiccation affect recovery of the lichen alga [corrected] Trebouxia erici: alternative and classical protective mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gasulla, Francisco; de Nova, Pedro Gómez; Esteban-Carrasco, Alberto; Zapata, José M; Barreno, Eva; Guéra, Alfredo

    2009-12-01

    The mechanisms involved in desiccation tolerance of lichens and their photobionts are still poorly understood. To better understand these mechanisms we have studied dehydration rate and desiccation time in Trebouxia, the most abundant chlorophytic photobiont in lichen. Our findings indicate that the drying rate has a profound effect on the recovery of photosynthetic activity of algae after rehydration, greater than the effects of desiccation duration. The basal fluorescence (F'(o)) values in desiccated algae were significantly higher after rapid dehydration, than after slow dehydration, suggesting higher levels of light energy dissipation in slow-dried algae. Higher values of PSII electron transport were recovered after rehydration of slow-dried Trebouxia erici compared to rapid-dried algae. The main component of non-photochemical quenching after slow dehydration was energy dependent (q (E)), whereas after fast dehydration it was photoinhibition (q (I)). Although q (E) seems to play a role during desiccation recovery, no significant variations were detected in the xanthophyll cycle components. Desiccation did not affect PSI functionality. Classical antioxidant activities like superoxide dismutase or peroxidase decreased during desiccation and early recovery. Dehydrins were detected in the lichen-forming algae T. erici and were constitutively expressed. There is probably a minimal period required to develop strategies which will facilitate transition to the desiccated state in this algae. In this process, the xanthophyll cycle and classical antioxidant mechanisms play a very limited role, if any. However, our results indicate that there is an alternative mechanism of light energy dissipation during desiccation, where activation is dependent on a sufficiently slow dehydration rate.

  5. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata

    2011-12-01

    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy.

  6. Spectral photoplethysmographic imaging sensor fusion for enhanced heart rate detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelard, Robert; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Continuous heart rate monitoring can provide important context for quantitative clinical assessment in scenarios such as long-term health monitoring and disability prevention. Photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) systems are particularly useful for such monitoring scenarios as contact-based devices pose problems related to comfort and mobility. Each pixel can be regarded as a virtual PPG sensor, thus enabling simultaneous measurements of multiple skin sites. Existing PPGI systems analyze temporal PPGI sensor uctuations related to hemodynamic pulsations across a region of interest to extract the blood pulse signal. However, due to spatially varying optical properties of the skin, the blood pulse signal may not be consistent across all PPGI sensors, leading to inaccurate heart rate monitoring. To increase the hemodynamic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we propose a novel spectral PPGI sensor fusion method for enhanced estimation of the true blood pulse signal. Motivated by the observation that PPGI sensors with high hemodynamic SNR exhibit a spectral energy peak at the heart rate frequency, an entropy-based fusion model was formulated to combine PPGI sensors based on the sensors' spectral energy distribution. The optical PPGI device comprised a near infrared (NIR) sensitive camera and an 850 nm LED. Spatially uniform irradiance was achieved by placing optical elements along the LED beam, providing consistent illumination across the skin area. Dual-mode temporally coded illumination was used to negate the temporal effect of ambient illumination. Experimental results show that the spectrally weighted PPGI method can accurately and consistently extract heart rate information where traditional region-based averaging fails.

  7. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Brown, Nathanael L.; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥65/ha (or ≥1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

  8. Neuronal uptake affects dynamic characteristics of heart rate response to sympathetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, T; Kawada, T; Sugimachi, M; Miyano, H; Sato, T; Shishido, T; Yoshimura, R; Miyashita, H; Inagaki, M; Alexander, J; Sunagawa, K

    1999-07-01

    Recently, studies in our laboratory involving the use of a Gaussian white noise technique demonstrated that the transfer function from sympathetic stimulation frequency to heart rate (HR) response showed dynamic characteristics of a second-order low-pass filter. However, determinants for the characteristics remain to be established. We examined the effect of an increase in mean sympathetic stimulation frequency and that of a blockade of the neuronal uptake mechanism on the transfer function in anesthetized rabbits. We found that increasing mean sympathetic stimulation frequency from 1 to 4 Hz significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the dynamic gain of the transfer function without affecting other parameters, such as the natural frequency, lag time, or damping coefficient. In contrast, the administration of desipramine (0.3 mg/kg iv), a neuronal uptake blocking agent, significantly (P < 0.01) decreased both the dynamic gain and the natural frequency and prolonged the lag time. These results suggest that the removal rate of norepinephrine at the neuroeffector junction, rather than the amount of available norepinephrine, plays an important role in determining the low-pass filter characteristics of the HR response to sympathetic stimulation.

  9. Investigation of factors affecting terrestrial passive sampling device performance and uptake rates in laboratory chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.; Weisskopf, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    A rapid sampling method using passive sampling devices (PSDS) for soil contaminant characterization shows extreme promise. The use of PSDs increases ease and speed of analysis, decreases solvent usage and cost, and minimizes the transport of contaminated soils. Time and cost savings allow a high sampling frequency, providing a more thorough site characterization than traditional methods. The authors have conducted both laboratory and field studies with terrestrial PSDS. Laboratory studies demonstrated the concentration and moisture dependence of sampler uptake and provided an estimate of the optimal field sampling time for soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). These PSDs were also used to accurately estimate PCB concentrations at hazardous waste site where concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 200 ug PCB/g soil. However, PSDs in the field had sampling rates approximately three times greater than in the laboratory. As a result several factors affecting PSD sampling rates and/or performance in laboratory chambers were evaluated. The parameters investigated were soil bulk density or compactness, chamber size and air flow. The chemicals used in these studies included two PCB congeners (52 and 153), three organochlorine pesticides (DDT, dieldrin and methoxychlor), three organophosphate pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon and terbufos) and three herbicides (alachlor, atrazine and metolachlor).

  10. Co-cultivation of human aortic smooth muscle cells with epicardial adipocytes affects their proliferation rate.

    PubMed

    Ždychová, J; Čejková, S; Králová Lesná, I; Králová, A; Malušková, J; Janoušek, L; Kazdová, L

    2014-01-01

    The abnormal proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Adipocytes produce several bioactive paracrine substances that can affect the growth and migration of VSMCs. Our study focuses on the direct effect of the bioactive substances in conditioned media (CM) that was obtained by incubation with primary adipocyte-derived cell lines, including cell lines derived from both preadipocytes and from more mature cells, on the proliferation rate of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). We used a Luminex assay to measure the adipokine content of the CM and showed that there was a higher concentration of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in renal preadipocyte-CM compared with the HAoSMC control (p<0.5). The addition of both renal preadipocyte- and epicardial adipocyte- CM resulted in the elevated production of vascular endothelial growth factor compared with the control HASoSMC CM (p<0.001). The adiponectin content in renal adipocyte-CM was increased compared to all the remaining adipocyte-CM (p<0.01). Moreover, the results showed a higher proliferation rate of HAoSMCs after co-culture with epicardial adipocyte-CM compared to the HAoSMC control (p<0.05). These results suggest that bioactive substances produced by adipocytes have a stimulatory effect on the proliferation of VSMCs.

  11. Recent heart rate history affects QT interval duration in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Riad, Fady S.; Razak, Eathar; Saba, Samir; Shalaby, Alaa; Nemec, Jan

    2017-01-01

    QT interval prolongation is associated with a risk of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. QT interval shortens with increasing heart rate and correction for this effect is necessary for meaningful QT interval assessment. We aim to improve current methods of correcting the QT interval during atrial fibrillation (AF). Digitized Holter recordings were analyzed from patients with AF. Models of QT interval dependence on RR intervals were tested by sorting the beats into 20 bins based on corrected RR interval and assessing ST-T variability within the bins. Signal-averaging within bins was performed to determine QT/RR dependence. Data from 30 patients (29 men, 69.3±7.3 years) were evaluated. QT behavior in AF is well described by a linear function (slope ~0.19) of steady-state corrected RR interval. Corrected RR is calculated as a combination of an exponential weight function with time-constant of 2 minutes and a smaller “immediate response” component (weight ~ 0.18). This model performs significantly (p<0.0001) better than models based on instantaneous RR interval only including Bazett and Fridericia. It also outperforms models based on shorter time-constants and other previously proposed models. This model may improve detection of repolarization delay in AF. QT response to heart rate changes in AF is similar to previously published QT dynamics during atrial pacing and in sinus rhythm. PMID:28273109

  12. Using a Calculated Pulse Rate with an Artificial Neural Network to Detect Irregular Interbeats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Bih-Chyun; Lin, Wen-Piao

    2016-03-01

    Heart rate is an important clinical measure that is often used in pathological diagnosis and prognosis. Valid detection of irregular heartbeats is crucial in the clinical practice. We propose an artificial neural network using the calculated pulse rate to detect irregular interbeats. The proposed system measures the calculated pulse rate to determine an "irregular interbeat on" or "irregular interbeat off" event. If an irregular interbeat is detected, the proposed system produces a danger warning, which is helpful for clinicians. If a non-irregular interbeat is detected, the proposed system displays the calculated pulse rate. We include a flow chart of the proposed software. In an experiment, we measure the calculated pulse rates and achieve an error percentage of < 3% in 20 participants with a wide age range. When we use the calculated pulse rates to detect irregular interbeats, we find such irregular interbeats in eight participants.

  13. Multiple, zonal and multi-zone adenoma detection rates according to quality of cleansing during colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Cesare; Maselli, Roberta; Pontone, Paolo; Angelini, Rita; Brighi, Manuela; Patrizi, Gregorio; Pironi, Daniele; Magliocca, Fabio Massimo; Filippini, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Background The safety and diagnostic accuracy of colonoscopy depend on the quality of colon cleansing. The adenoma detection rate is usually used as a quality measurement score. Objective We aimed to introduce and evaluate three new parameters to determine polyps and adenomas segmental localization and their distribution in association with different bowel preparation levels during colonoscopy. We introduce the multiple adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy), the zonal adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy in different colon areas (rectum, sigmoid, descending, transverse, ascending and cecum colon)), and multi-zone adenoma detection rate (the percentage of patients with >2 adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy in different colon areas with at least a segment between them with or without lesions (i.e. rectum and descending colon with or without lesions in the sigmoid)). Methods We prospectively enrolled outpatients who underwent colonoscopy from January 2013 to October 2014. The bowel preparation quality, according to the Aronchick modified scale, number and location of lesions, Paris classification and histology, were recorded. The multiple adenoma/polyp detection rate, zonal adenoma/polyp detection rate, and multi-zone adenoma/polyp detection rate were determined. Results In total, 519 consecutive patients (266/253 M/F; mean age 55.3 ± 12.8 years) were enrolled. The adenoma and polyp detection rates were 21% and 35%, respectively. Multiple adenomas were detected in 28 patients. Adenoma and polyp detection rate and new parameters were statistically significantly higher in the optimal as compared with the adequate bowel preparation. Conclusions An optimal level of bowel preparation was strongly associated not only with a higher adenoma detection rate, but also with a higher chance of detecting multiple clinically relevant lesions in adjacent or

  14. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release.

  15. Cybersickness provoked by head-mounted display affects cutaneous vascular tone, heart rate and reaction time.

    PubMed

    Nalivaiko, Eugene; Davis, Simon L; Blackmore, Karen L; Vakulin, Andrew; Nesbitt, Keith V

    2015-11-01

    Evidence from studies of provocative motion indicates that motion sickness is tightly linked to the disturbances of thermoregulation. The major aim of the current study was to determine whether provocative visual stimuli (immersion into the virtual reality simulating rides on a rollercoaster) affect skin temperature that reflects thermoregulatory cutaneous responses, and to test whether such stimuli alter cognitive functions. In 26 healthy young volunteers wearing head-mounted display (Oculus Rift), simulated rides consistently provoked vection and nausea, with a significant difference between the two versions of simulation software (Parrot Coaster and Helix). Basal finger temperature had bimodal distribution, with low-temperature group (n=8) having values of 23-29 °C, and high-temperature group (n=18) having values of 32-36 °C. Effects of cybersickness on finger temperature depended on the basal level of this variable: in subjects from former group it raised by 3-4 °C, while in most subjects from the latter group it either did not change or transiently reduced by 1.5-2 °C. There was no correlation between the magnitude of changes in the finger temperature and nausea score at the end of simulated ride. Provocative visual stimulation caused prolongation of simple reaction time by 20-50 ms; this increase closely correlated with the subjective rating of nausea. Lastly, in subjects who experienced pronounced nausea, heart rate was elevated. We conclude that cybersickness is associated with changes in cutaneous thermoregulatory vascular tone; this further supports the idea of a tight link between motion sickness and thermoregulation. Cybersickness-induced prolongation of reaction time raises obvious concerns regarding the safety of this technology.

  16. Does Mutual Interference Affect the Feeding Rate of Aphidophagous Coccinellids? A Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Nikos E.; Demiris, Nikos; Milonas, Panagiotis G.; Preston, Simon; Kypraios, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Mutual interference involves direct interactions between individuals of the same species that may alter their foraging success. Larvae of aphidophagous coccinellids typically stay within a patch during their lifetime, displaying remarkable aggregation to their prey. Thus, as larvae are exposed to each other, frequent encounters may affect their foraging success. A study was initiated in order to determine the effect of mutual interference in the coccinellids’ feeding rate. One to four 4th larval instars of the fourteen-spotted ladybird beetle Propylea quatuordecimpunctata were exposed for 6 hours into plastic containers with different densities of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, on potted Vicia faba plants. The data were used to fit a purely prey-dependent Holling type II model and its alternatives which account for interference competition and have thus far been underutilized, i.e. the Beddington-DeAngelis, the Crowley-Martin and a modified Hassell-Varley model. The Crowley-Martin mechanistic model appeared to be slightly better among the competing models. The results showed that although the feeding rate became approximately independent of predator density at high prey density, some predator dependence in the coccinellid’s functional response was observed at the low prey—high predator density combination. It appears that at low prey densities, digestion breaks are negligible so that the predators do waste time interfering with each other, whereas at high prey densities time loss during digestion breaks may fully accommodate the cost of interference, so that the time cost may be negligible. PMID:26756980

  17. Linear and nonlinear analysis of normal and CAD-affected heart rate signals.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Faust, Oliver; Sree, Vinitha; Swapna, G; Martis, Roshan Joy; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Suri, Jasjit S

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the dangerous cardiac disease, often may lead to sudden cardiac death. It is difficult to diagnose CAD by manual inspection of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. To automate this detection task, in this study, we extracted the heart rate (HR) from the ECG signals and used them as base signal for further analysis. We then analyzed the HR signals of both normal and CAD subjects using (i) time domain, (ii) frequency domain and (iii) nonlinear techniques. The following are the nonlinear methods that were used in this work: Poincare plots, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) parameters, Shannon entropy, Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Sample Entropy (SampEn), Higher Order Spectra (HOS) methods, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Cumulants, and Correlation Dimension. As a result of the analysis, we present unique recurrence, Poincare and HOS plots for normal and CAD subjects. We have also observed significant variations in the range of these features with respect to normal and CAD classes, and have presented the same in this paper. We found that the RQA parameters were higher for CAD subjects indicating more rhythm. Since the activity of CAD subjects is less, similar signal patterns repeat more frequently compared to the normal subjects. The entropy based parameters, ApEn and SampEn, are lower for CAD subjects indicating lower entropy (less activity due to impairment) for CAD. Almost all HOS parameters showed higher values for the CAD group, indicating the presence of higher frequency content in the CAD signals. Thus, our study provides a deep insight into how such nonlinear features could be exploited to effectively and reliably detect the presence of CAD.

  18. Initial phylogenetic relatedness of saprotrophic fungal communities affects subsequent litter decomposition rates.

    PubMed

    Kivlin, Stephanie N; Treseder, Kathleen K

    2015-05-01

    Ecosystem-level consequences of biodiversity loss of macroorganisms are well understood, while the repercussions of species extirpation in microbial systems are not. We manipulated species richness and phylogenetic relatedness of saprotrophic fungi in situ in a boreal forest to address this issue. Litter decomposition rates (as total mass loss) after 2 months were significantly higher in the least phylogenetically related fungal assemblages. Likewise, cellulose loss was also highest in the most distantly related treatments after 1 year. There were marginal effects of species richness on mass loss that only affected decomposition after 2 months. At the end of 1 year of decomposition, most fungal communities had collapsed from their original diversity to two species, mainly in the Penicillium or Hypocrea clades. Two concurrent processes may explain these results: competition between closely related fungal taxa and phylogenetic conservation in cellulose decomposition. Our results suggest that phylogenetic relatedness of fungal communities may be a more appropriate metric than species richness or community composition to predict functional responses of fungal communities to global change.

  19. Affective Norms for Italian Words in Older Adults: Age Differences in Ratings of Valence, Arousal and Dominance

    PubMed Central

    Fairfield, Beth; Ambrosini, Ettore; Mammarella, Nicola; Montefinese, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In line with the dimensional theory of emotional space, we developed affective norms for words rated in terms of valence, arousal and dominance in a group of older adults to complete the adaptation of the Affective Norms for English Words (ANEW) for Italian and to aid research on aging. Here, as in the original Italian ANEW database, participants evaluated valence, arousal, and dominance by means of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) in a paper-and-pencil procedure. We observed high split-half reliabilities within the older sample and high correlations with the affective ratings of previous research, especially for valence, suggesting that there is large agreement among older adults within and across-languages. More importantly, we found high correlations between younger and older adults, showing that our data are generalizable across different ages. However, despite this across-ages accord, we obtained age-related differences on three affective dimensions for a great number of words. In particular, older adults rated as more arousing and more unpleasant a number of words that younger adults rated as moderately unpleasant and arousing in our previous affective norms. Moreover, older participants rated negative stimuli as more arousing and positive stimuli as less arousing than younger participants, thus leading to a less-curved distribution of ratings in the valence by arousal space. We also found more extreme ratings for older adults for the relationship between dominance and arousal: older adults gave lower dominance and higher arousal ratings for words rated by younger adults with middle dominance and arousal values. Together, these results suggest that our affective norms are reliable and can be confidently used to select words matched for the affective dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance across younger and older participants for future research in aging. PMID:28046070

  20. Sensor-Free or Sensor-Full: A Comparison of Data Modalities in Multi-Channel Affect Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Luc; Rowe, Jonathan; Baker, Ryan; Mott, Bradford; Lester, James; DeFalco, Jeanine; Brawner, Keith; Sottilare, Robert; Georgoulas, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    Computational models that automatically detect learners' affective states are powerful tools for investigating the interplay of affect and learning. Over the past decade, affect detectors--which recognize learners' affective states at run-time using behavior logs and sensor data--have advanced substantially across a range of K-12 and postsecondary…

  1. Feed and feeding regime affect growth rate and gonadosomatic index of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, John M; Law, Sheran Hiu Wan

    2013-12-01

    A 5-week study was conducted to evaluate commercially available Artemia, Ziegler zebrafish diet, and Calamac diet fed in five different feeding regimes on the growth and reproductive development of 7-month-old zebrafish. Zebrafish were fed to satiation three times daily during the normal work week and twice daily during the weekend and holidays. Zebrafish in dietary groups CCC (Calamac three times daily) and CCA (Calamac twice daily, Artemia once daily) had a significantly (p<0.05) greater weight gain and specific growth rate as compared to all other dietary groups. Male zebrafish in dietary group 5 had significantly larger gonadosomatic index (GSI) values than all other groups, while female zebrafish in dietary group CCC had significantly larger GSI values than all other groups. No differences in the fatty acid content of female gonads were detected. Zebrafish fed solely Artemia had the greatest weight loss and lowest GSI values. Preliminary evidence of protein sparing in zebrafish is reported. Collectively, this study sheds more light into the effects of the use of commercially available feeds and feeding regime on the rearing of zebrafish.

  2. LATE CENOZOIC INCREASE IN ACCUMULATION RATES OF TERRESTRIAL SEDIMENT: How Might Climate Change Have Affected Erosion Rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Accumulation rates of terrestrial sediment have increased in the past few million years both on and adjacent to continents, although not everywhere. Apparently, erosion has increased in elevated terrain regardless of when last tectonically active or what the present-day climate. In many regions, sediment coarsened abruptly in late Pliocene time. Sparser data suggest increased sedimentation rates at 15 Ma, approximately when oxygen isotopes in benthic foraminifera imply high-latitude cooling. If climate change effected accelerated erosion, understanding how it did so remains the challenge. Some obvious candidates, such as lowered sea level leading to erosion of continental shelves or increased glaciation, account for increased sedimentation in some, but not all, areas. Perhaps stable climates that varied slowly allowed geomorphic processes to maintain a state of equilibrium with little erosion until 34 Ma, when large oscillations in climate with periods of 20,00040,000 years developed and denied the landscape the chance to reach equilibrium.

  3. Topographic changes detection through Structure-from-Motion in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Pradetto Sordo, Nicoletta; Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Terol Esparza, Enric; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the world, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as land-use changes on large scales and unsustainable farming practices (Boardman et al., 1990; Cerdà 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Tillage operations, combined with weather conditions, are recognized to primarily influence soil erosion rates. If, on one hand, tillage operations cause uniform changes based on the tool used, on the other, weather conditions, such as rainfalls, produce more random changes, less easily traceable (Snapir et al., 2014). Within this context, remote-sensing technologies can facilitate the detection and quantification of these topographic changes. In particular, a real opportunity and challenge is offered by the low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique, called 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM), combined with the use of smartphones (Micheletti et al., 2014; Prosdocimi et al., 2015). This represents a significant advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner - TLS) (Tarolli, 2014). This work wants to test the Structure from Motion to obtain high-resolution topography for the detection of topographic changes in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes. Two case studies were selected: i) a tilled plot characterized by bare soil and affected by rill erosion located in the hilly countryside of Marche region (central Italy), and ii) a Mediterranean vineyard located within the province of Valencia (south eastern Spain) where rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Extensive photosets were obtained by using one standalone reflex digital camera and one smartphone built-in digital camera. Digital

  4. How does habitat filtering affect the detection of conspecific and phylogenetic density dependence?

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjie; Swenson, Nathan G; Brown, Calum; Zhang, Caicai; Yang, Jie; Ci, Xiuqin; Li, Jie; Sha, Liqing; Cao, Min; Lin, Luxiang

    2016-05-01

    Conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD) has been recognized as a key mechanism underlying species coexistence, especially in tropical forests. Recently, some studies have reported that seedling survival is also negatively correlated with the phylogenetic relatedness between neighbors and focal individuals, termed phylogenetic negative density dependence (PNDD). In contrast to CNDD or PNDD, shared habitat requirements between closely related individuals are thought to be a cause of observed positive effects of closely related neighbors, which may affect the strength and detectability of CNDD or PNDD. In order to investigate the relative importance of these mechanisms for tropical tree seedling survival, we used generalized linear mixed models to analyze how the survival of more than 10 000 seedlings of woody plant species related to neighborhood and habitat variables in a tropical rainforest in southwest China. By comparing models with and without habitat variables, we tested how habitat filtering affected the detection of CNDD and PNDD. The best-fitting model suggested that CNDD and habitat filtering played key roles in seedling survival; but that, contrary to our expectations, phylogenetic positive density dependence (PPDD) had a distinct and important effect. While habitat filtering affected the detection of CNDD by decreasing its apparent strength, it did not explain the positive effects of closely related neighbors. Our results demonstrate that a failure to control for habitat variables and phylogenetic relationships may obscure the importance of conspecific and heterospecific neighbor densities for seedling survival.

  5. Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  6. Optimization of scat detection methods for a social ungulate, the wild pig, and experimental evaluation of factors affecting detection of scat

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, David A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Rhodes, Jr., Olin E.; Irwin, Brian J.; Beasley, James C.

    2016-05-25

    Collection of scat samples is common in wildlife research, particularly for genetic capture-mark-recapture applications. Due to high degradation rates of genetic material in scat, large numbers of samples must be collected to generate robust estimates. Optimization of sampling approaches to account for taxa-specific patterns of scat deposition is, therefore, necessary to ensure sufficient sample collection. While scat collection methods have been widely studied in carnivores, research to maximize scat collection and noninvasive sampling efficiency for social ungulates is lacking. Further, environmental factors or scat morphology may influence detection of scat by observers. We contrasted performance of novel radial search protocols with existing adaptive cluster sampling protocols to quantify differences in observed amounts of wild pig (Sus scrofa) scat. We also evaluated the effects of environmental (percentage of vegetative ground cover and occurrence of rain immediately prior to sampling) and scat characteristics (fecal pellet size and number) on the detectability of scat by observers. We found that 15- and 20-m radial search protocols resulted in greater numbers of scats encountered than the previously used adaptive cluster sampling approach across habitat types, and that fecal pellet size, number of fecal pellets, percent vegetative ground cover, and recent rain events were significant predictors of scat detection. Our results suggest that use of a fixed-width radial search protocol may increase the number of scats detected for wild pigs, or other social ungulates, allowing more robust estimation of population metrics using noninvasive genetic sampling methods. Further, as fecal pellet size affected scat detection, juvenile or smaller-sized animals may be less detectable than adult or large animals, which could introduce bias into abundance estimates. In conclusion, knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and scat detection may allow

  7. Optimization of scat detection methods for a social ungulate, the wild pig, and experimental evaluation of factors affecting detection of scat

    DOE PAGES

    Keiter, David A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Rhodes, Jr., Olin E.; ...

    2016-05-25

    Collection of scat samples is common in wildlife research, particularly for genetic capture-mark-recapture applications. Due to high degradation rates of genetic material in scat, large numbers of samples must be collected to generate robust estimates. Optimization of sampling approaches to account for taxa-specific patterns of scat deposition is, therefore, necessary to ensure sufficient sample collection. While scat collection methods have been widely studied in carnivores, research to maximize scat collection and noninvasive sampling efficiency for social ungulates is lacking. Further, environmental factors or scat morphology may influence detection of scat by observers. We contrasted performance of novel radial search protocolsmore » with existing adaptive cluster sampling protocols to quantify differences in observed amounts of wild pig (Sus scrofa) scat. We also evaluated the effects of environmental (percentage of vegetative ground cover and occurrence of rain immediately prior to sampling) and scat characteristics (fecal pellet size and number) on the detectability of scat by observers. We found that 15- and 20-m radial search protocols resulted in greater numbers of scats encountered than the previously used adaptive cluster sampling approach across habitat types, and that fecal pellet size, number of fecal pellets, percent vegetative ground cover, and recent rain events were significant predictors of scat detection. Our results suggest that use of a fixed-width radial search protocol may increase the number of scats detected for wild pigs, or other social ungulates, allowing more robust estimation of population metrics using noninvasive genetic sampling methods. Further, as fecal pellet size affected scat detection, juvenile or smaller-sized animals may be less detectable than adult or large animals, which could introduce bias into abundance estimates. In conclusion, knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and scat detection may allow

  8. Optimization of Scat Detection Methods for a Social Ungulate, the Wild Pig, and Experimental Evaluation of Factors Affecting Detection of Scat

    PubMed Central

    Keiter, David A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Rhodes, Olin E.; Irwin, Brian J.; Beasley, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Collection of scat samples is common in wildlife research, particularly for genetic capture-mark-recapture applications. Due to high degradation rates of genetic material in scat, large numbers of samples must be collected to generate robust estimates. Optimization of sampling approaches to account for taxa-specific patterns of scat deposition is, therefore, necessary to ensure sufficient sample collection. While scat collection methods have been widely studied in carnivores, research to maximize scat collection and noninvasive sampling efficiency for social ungulates is lacking. Further, environmental factors or scat morphology may influence detection of scat by observers. We contrasted performance of novel radial search protocols with existing adaptive cluster sampling protocols to quantify differences in observed amounts of wild pig (Sus scrofa) scat. We also evaluated the effects of environmental (percentage of vegetative ground cover and occurrence of rain immediately prior to sampling) and scat characteristics (fecal pellet size and number) on the detectability of scat by observers. We found that 15- and 20-m radial search protocols resulted in greater numbers of scats encountered than the previously used adaptive cluster sampling approach across habitat types, and that fecal pellet size, number of fecal pellets, percent vegetative ground cover, and recent rain events were significant predictors of scat detection. Our results suggest that use of a fixed-width radial search protocol may increase the number of scats detected for wild pigs, or other social ungulates, allowing more robust estimation of population metrics using noninvasive genetic sampling methods. Further, as fecal pellet size affected scat detection, juvenile or smaller-sized animals may be less detectable than adult or large animals, which could introduce bias into abundance estimates. Knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and scat detection may allow researchers to

  9. Optimization of scat detection methods for a social ungulate, the wild pig, and experimental evaluation of factors affecting detection of scat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keiter, David A.; Cunningham, Fred L.; Rhodes, Olin E.; Irwin, Brian J.; Beasley, James

    2016-01-01

    Collection of scat samples is common in wildlife research, particularly for genetic capture-mark-recapture applications. Due to high degradation rates of genetic material in scat, large numbers of samples must be collected to generate robust estimates. Optimization of sampling approaches to account for taxa-specific patterns of scat deposition is, therefore, necessary to ensure sufficient sample collection. While scat collection methods have been widely studied in carnivores, research to maximize scat collection and noninvasive sampling efficiency for social ungulates is lacking. Further, environmental factors or scat morphology may influence detection of scat by observers. We contrasted performance of novel radial search protocols with existing adaptive cluster sampling protocols to quantify differences in observed amounts of wild pig (Sus scrofa) scat. We also evaluated the effects of environmental (percentage of vegetative ground cover and occurrence of rain immediately prior to sampling) and scat characteristics (fecal pellet size and number) on the detectability of scat by observers. We found that 15- and 20-m radial search protocols resulted in greater numbers of scats encountered than the previously used adaptive cluster sampling approach across habitat types, and that fecal pellet size, number of fecal pellets, percent vegetative ground cover, and recent rain events were significant predictors of scat detection. Our results suggest that use of a fixed-width radial search protocol may increase the number of scats detected for wild pigs, or other social ungulates, allowing more robust estimation of population metrics using noninvasive genetic sampling methods. Further, as fecal pellet size affected scat detection, juvenile or smaller-sized animals may be less detectable than adult or large animals, which could introduce bias into abundance estimates. Knowledge of relationships between environmental variables and scat detection may allow researchers to

  10. Integrating affective and cognitive correlates of heart rate variability: A structural equation modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Mann, Sarah L; Selby, Edward A; Bates, Marsha E; Contrada, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    High frequency heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of neurocardiac communication thought to reflect predominantly parasympathetic cardiac regulation. Low HRV has been associated empirically with clinical and subclinical levels of anxiety and depression and, more recently, high levels of HRV have been associated with better performance on some measures of executive functioning (EF). These findings have offered support for theories proposing HRV as an index measure of a broad, self-regulatory capacity underlying aspects of emotion regulation and executive control. This study sought to test that proposition by using a structural equation modeling approach to examine the relationships of HRV to negative affect (NA) and EF in a large sample of U.S. adults ages 30s-80s. HRV was modeled as a predictor of an NA factor (self-reported trait anxiety and depression symptoms) and an EF factor (performance on three neuropsychological tests tapping facets of executive abilities). Alternative models also were tested to determine the utility of HRV for predicting NA and EF, with and without statistical control of demographic and health-related covariates. In the initial structural model, HRV showed a significant positive relationship to EF and a nonsignificant relationship to NA. In a covariate-adjusted model, HRV's associations with both constructs were nonsignificant. Age emerged as the only significant predictor of NA and EF in the final model, showing inverse relationships to both. Findings may reflect population and methodological differences from prior research; they also suggest refinements to the interpretations of earlier findings and theoretical claims regarding HRV.

  11. Quadriceps Rate of Force Development affects Gait and Function in People with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Joshua D.; Rudolph, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Quadriceps weakness exists in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA) but other muscle factors like rate of force development (RFD) may also be affected by knee OA. The purpose of this study was to determine if people with knee OA have deficits in quadriceps RFD, determine if quadriceps RFD would improve predicting knee joint power absorption and generation during free and fast walking, and determine if RFD would improve predicting functional outcomes. Methods 26 subjects with knee OA and 23 healthy control subjects performed maximal voluntary isometric strength (MVIC) and RFD measures of the quadriceps. Subjects also underwent a 3-D motion analysis of both self-selected free and self-selected fast walking speeds. Joint kinetics were calculated from inverse dynamics. Results RFD was not different by group (p=0.763), however the OA subjects generated the highest peak RFD at a lower %MVIC (p=0.008). Controls walked significantly faster at both free and fast walking speeds (p=0.001, p=0.029). Knee angles at heel strike and peak knee extension were lower (p=0.004, p=0.027) in the OA group. During fast walking knee power generation was higher in Controls (p=0.028). MVIC and force of highest peak RFD predicted KOOS ADL score in the OA subjects, but only MVIC predicted stair climbing time. Conclusions The submaximal force at which peak RFD occurs plays a significant role in knee joint power as well as functional measures in the OA subjects, providing further evidence that factors other than maximal strength are also important in people with knee OA. PMID:24240535

  12. Temperature-induced elevation of basal metabolic rate does not affect testis growth in great tits.

    PubMed

    Caro, Samuel P; Visser, Marcel E

    2009-07-01

    The timing of reproduction varies from year to year in many bird species. To adjust their timing to the prevailing conditions of that year, birds use cues from their environment. However, the relative importance of these cues, such as the initial predictive (e.g. photoperiod) and the supplemental factors (e.g. temperature), on the seasonal sexual development are difficult to distinguish. In particular, the fine-tuning effect of temperature on gonadal growth is not well known. One way temperature may affect timing is via its strong effect on energy expenditure as gonadal growth is an energy-demanding process. To study the interaction of photoperiod and temperature on gonadal development, we first exposed 35 individually housed male great tits (Parus major) to mid-long days (after 6 weeks of 8 h L:16 h D at 15 degrees C, photoperiod was set to 13 h L:11 h D at 15 degrees C). Two weeks later, for half of the males the temperature was set to 8 degrees C, and for the other half to 22 degrees C. Unilateral laparotomies were performed at weeks 5 (i.e one week before the birds were transferred to mid-long days), 8 and 11 to measure testis size. Two measures of basal metabolic rate (BMR) were performed at the end of the experiment (weeks 11 and 12). Testis size increased significantly during the course of the experiment, but independently of the temperature treatment. BMR was significantly higher in birds exposed to the cold treatment. These results show that temperature-related elevation of BMR did not impair the long-day-induced testis growth in great tits. As a consequence, temperature may not be a crucial cue and/or constraint factor in the fine-tuning of the gonadal recrudescence in male great tits, and testis growth is not a high energy-demanding seasonal process.

  13. Biases in grant proposal success rates, funding rates and award sizes affect the geographical distribution of funding for biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Wahls, Wayne P

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the United States to most efficiently make breakthroughs on the biology, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases requires that physicians and scientists in each state have equal access to federal research grants and grant dollars. However, despite legislative and administrative efforts to ensure equal access, the majority of funding for biomedical research is concentrated in a minority of states. To gain insight into the causes of such disparity, funding metrics were examined for all NIH research project grants (RPGs) from 2004 to 2013. State-by-state differences in per application success rates, per investigator funding rates, and average award size each contributed significantly to vast disparities (greater than 100-fold range) in per capita RPG funding to individual states. To the extent tested, there was no significant association overall between scientific productivity and per capita funding, suggesting that the unbalanced allocation of funding is unrelated to the quality of scientists in each state. These findings reveal key sources of bias in, and new insight into the accuracy of, the funding process. They also support evidence-based recommendations for how the NIH could better utilize the scientific talent and capacity that is present throughout the United States.

  14. Biases in grant proposal success rates, funding rates and award sizes affect the geographical distribution of funding for biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the United States to most efficiently make breakthroughs on the biology, diagnosis and treatment of human diseases requires that physicians and scientists in each state have equal access to federal research grants and grant dollars. However, despite legislative and administrative efforts to ensure equal access, the majority of funding for biomedical research is concentrated in a minority of states. To gain insight into the causes of such disparity, funding metrics were examined for all NIH research project grants (RPGs) from 2004 to 2013. State-by-state differences in per application success rates, per investigator funding rates, and average award size each contributed significantly to vast disparities (greater than 100-fold range) in per capita RPG funding to individual states. To the extent tested, there was no significant association overall between scientific productivity and per capita funding, suggesting that the unbalanced allocation of funding is unrelated to the quality of scientists in each state. These findings reveal key sources of bias in, and new insight into the accuracy of, the funding process. They also support evidence-based recommendations for how the NIH could better utilize the scientific talent and capacity that is present throughout the United States. PMID:27077009

  15. Evaluating some factors that affect feasility of using ground penetrating radar for landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metwaly, Mohamed; Ismail, Ahmed; Matsushima, Jun

    2007-09-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is one of the promising technologies that can be used to detect landmines. Many factors may affect the ability of GPR to detect landmines. Among those factors are: 1) the type of landmine material (metallic or plastic), 2) conditions of the host soil (soil texture and soil moisture), and 3) the radar frequency utilized. The impact of these factors on the ability of GPR to detect landmines is investigated by studying their effect on the dielectric permittivity contrast between the landmine and the host soil, as well as on the attenuation of the radar waves. The impact of each factor was theoretically reviewed and modeled using the Matlab and Mathcad software packages. Results of the computer modeling were correlated with GPR data acquired for metallic and plastic landmine types. It was found that the ability of GPR to detect landmines depends to a great extent on the landmine type, water content of the host soil, utilized radar frequency, and soil texture. The landmines are much easier to detect than plastic landmines for any soil conditions and any radar frequency. Increasing the soil’s moisture content, regardless of soil texture, eases the detection of the plastic landmine and worsens the detection of the metallic mines. Increasing the percentage of clay in the soil causes the same effect as the moisture content. However, higher radar frequency delivers better results for landmine detection as long as the percentage of clay and the moisture content in the soil remains low. The results of this study are expected to help in selecting optimum radar antennae and data acquisition parameters depending on the landmine type and environmental conditions.

  16. How Travel Demand Affects Detection of Non-Recurrent Traffic Congestion on Urban Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbaroglu, B.; Heydecker, B.; Cheng, T.

    2016-06-01

    Occurrence of non-recurrent traffic congestion hinders the economic activity of a city, as travellers could miss appointments or be late for work or important meetings. Similarly, for shippers, unexpected delays may disrupt just-in-time delivery and manufacturing processes, which could lose them payment. Consequently, research on non-recurrent congestion detection on urban road networks has recently gained attention. By analysing large amounts of traffic data collected on a daily basis, traffic operation centres can improve their methods to detect non-recurrent congestion rapidly and then revise their existing plans to mitigate its effects. Space-time clusters of high link journey time estimates correspond to non-recurrent congestion events. Existing research, however, has not considered the effect of travel demand on the effectiveness of non-recurrent congestion detection methods. Therefore, this paper investigates how travel demand affects detection of non-recurrent traffic congestion detection on urban road networks. Travel demand has been classified into three categories as low, normal and high. The experiments are carried out on London's urban road network, and the results demonstrate the necessity to adjust the relative importance of the component evaluation criteria depending on the travel demand level.

  17. QTL detection in maize testcross progenies as affected by related and unrelated testers.

    PubMed

    Frascaroli, Elisabetta; Canè, Maria Angela; Pè, Mario Enrico; Pea, Giorgio; Morgante, Michele; Landi, Pierangelo

    2009-03-01

    The evaluation of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) per se can be biased by inbreeding depression in case of allogamous species. To overcome this drawback, RILs can be evaluated in combination with testers; however, testers can carry dominant alleles at the quantitative trait loci (QTL), thus hampering their detection. This study was conducted on the maize (Zea mays L.) population of 142 RILs derived from the single cross B73 x H99 to evaluate the role of different testers in affecting: (1) QTL detection, (2) the estimates of their effects, and (3) the consistency of such estimates across testers. Testcrosses (TCs) were produced by crossing RILs with inbred testers B73 [TC(B)], H99 [TC(H)], and Mo17 [TC(M)]. TCs were field tested in three environments. TC(B) mean was higher than TC(H) mean for all traits, while TC(M) mean was the highest for plant vigor traits and grain yield. As to the number of detected QTL, tester Mo17 was superior to H99 and B73 for traits with prevailing additive effects. Several overlaps among the QTL were detected in two or all the three TC populations with QTL effects being almost always consistent (same sign). For traits with prevailing dominance-overdominance effects, as grain yield, the poor performing tester H99 was clearly the most effective; fewer overlaps were found and some of them were inconsistent (different sign). Epistatic interactions were of minor importance. In conclusion, the three testers proved to affect QTL detection and estimation of their effects, especially for traits showing high dominance levels.

  18. Persistence rates and detection probabilities of oiled king eider carcasses on St Paul Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, A.C.; Flint, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Following an oil spill off St Paul Island, Alaska in February 1996, persistence rates and detection probabilities of oiled king eider (Somateria spectabilis) carcasses were estimated using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. Carcass persistence rates varied by day, beach type and sex, while detection probabilities varied by day and beach type. Scavenging, wave action and weather influenced carcass persistence. The patterns of persistence differed on rock and sand beaches and female carcasses had a different persistence function than males. Weather, primarily snow storms, and degree of carcass scavenging, diminished carcass detectability. Detection probabilities on rock beaches were lower and more variable than on sand beaches. The combination of persistence rates and detection probabilities can be used to improve techniques of estimating total mortality.

  19. Highly accurate moving object detection in variable bit rate video-based traffic monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chia; Chen, Bo-Hao

    2013-12-01

    Automated motion detection, which segments moving objects from video streams, is the key technology of intelligent transportation systems for traffic management. Traffic surveillance systems use video communication over real-world networks with limited bandwidth, which frequently suffers because of either network congestion or unstable bandwidth. Evidence supporting these problems abounds in publications about wireless video communication. Thus, to effectively perform the arduous task of motion detection over a network with unstable bandwidth, a process by which bit-rate is allocated to match the available network bandwidth is necessitated. This process is accomplished by the rate control scheme. This paper presents a new motion detection approach that is based on the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) through artificial neural networks to completely and accurately detect moving objects in both high and low bit-rate video streams. The proposed approach is consisted of a probabilistic background generation (PBG) module and a moving object detection (MOD) module. To ensure that the properties of variable bit-rate video streams are accommodated, the proposed PBG module effectively produces a probabilistic background model through an unsupervised learning process over variable bit-rate video streams. Next, the MOD module, which is based on the CMAC network, completely and accurately detects moving objects in both low and high bit-rate video streams by implementing two procedures: 1) a block selection procedure and 2) an object detection procedure. The detection results show that our proposed approach is capable of performing with higher efficacy when compared with the results produced by other state-of-the-art approaches in variable bit-rate video streams over real-world limited bandwidth networks. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations support this claim; for instance, the proposed approach achieves Similarity and F1 accuracy rates that are 76

  20. Does unemployment affect child abuse rates? Evidence from New York State.

    PubMed

    Raissian, Kerri M

    2015-10-01

    This article used child maltreatment reports from New York State from 2000 to 2010 to investigate the relationship between county level unemployment and county level child maltreatment rates. Models showed that a 1 percentage point increase in unemployment rates reduced the child report rate by approximately 4.25%. Report rates for young children (children under the age of 6) and older children (children ages 6 and over) responded similarly to changes in local unemployment, but the relationship between unemployment rates and child maltreatment reports did vary by a county's metropolitan designation. The negative relationship between unemployment and child maltreatment reports was largely contained to metropolitan counties. The relationship between unemployment and child maltreatment reports in non-metropolitan counties was often positive but not statistically significant. These findings were robust to a number of specifications. In alternate models, the county's mandated reporter employment rate was added as a control; the inclusion of this variable did not alter the results.

  1. Cost and detection rate of glaucoma screening with imaging devices in a primary care center

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Alfonso; Fallon, Monica; Cots, Francesc; Sebastian, María A; Morilla-Grasa, Antonio; Mojal, Sergi; Castells, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the cost and detection rate of a screening program for detecting glaucoma with imaging devices. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional study, a glaucoma screening program was applied in a population-based sample randomly selected from a population of 23,527. Screening targeted the population at risk of glaucoma. Examinations included optic disk tomography (Heidelberg retina tomograph [HRT]), nerve fiber analysis, and tonometry. Subjects who met at least 2 of 3 endpoints (HRT outside normal limits, nerve fiber index ≥30, or tonometry ≥21 mmHg) were referred for glaucoma consultation. The currently established (“conventional”) detection method was evaluated by recording data from primary care and ophthalmic consultations in the same population. The direct costs of screening and conventional detection were calculated by adding the unit costs generated during the diagnostic process. The detection rate of new glaucoma cases was assessed. Results The screening program evaluated 414 subjects; 32 cases were referred for glaucoma consultation, 7 had glaucoma, and 10 had probable glaucoma. The current detection method assessed 677 glaucoma suspects in the population, of whom 29 were diagnosed with glaucoma or probable glaucoma. Glaucoma screening and the conventional detection method had detection rates of 4.1% and 3.1%, respectively, and the cost per case detected was 1,410 and 1,435€, respectively. The cost of screening 1 million inhabitants would be 5.1 million euros and would allow the detection of 4,715 new cases. Conclusion The proposed screening method directed at population at risk allows a detection rate of 4.1% and a cost of 1,410 per case detected. PMID:28243057

  2. Feeding rate may affect dispersal in the orb-web spider Nephila clavata.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Tadashi

    1992-12-01

    Population parameters of the orb-web spider Nephila clavata were estimated at two sites with different spider densities (for 2 successive years at the high density site and 1 year at the low density site), and the relationship between survival rate and feeding conditions was examined. The rate of decrease of population density was almost constant over time and nearly the same at the two sites. Daily survival rate (sum of the effects of mortality and emigration) was low during August to early September and increased markedly thereafter. Daily immigration rate (number of immigrants/number of residents) was high during August to early September. Since there were strong negative correlations between survival and immigration rates, low survival rate seems to be caused by a high rate of emigration. Strong positive correlations were found between survival rate and feeding frequency (mean percent observed feeding). Analysis of covariance revealed that the parameters of the regression between survival rate and feeding frequency did not differ significantly among three occasions. These results suggest that feeding condition has a significant influence on dispersal activity of populations in this spider.

  3. Variables Affecting Probability of Detection in Bolt Hole Eddy Current Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemire, H.; Krause, T. W.; Bunn, M.; Butcher, D. J.

    2009-03-01

    Physical variables affecting probability of detection (POD) in a bolt-hole eddy current inspection were examined. The POD study involved simulated bolt holes in 7075-T6 aluminum coupons representative of wing areas on CC-130 and CP-140 aircraft. The data were obtained from 24 inspectors who inspected 468 coupons, containing a subset of coupons with 45 electric discharge machined notches and 72 laboratory grown fatigue cracks located at the inner surface corner of the bi-layer structures. A comparison of physical features of cracks and notches in light of skin depth effects and probe geometry was used to identify length rather than depth as the significant variable producing signal variation. Probability of detection based on length produced similar results for the two discontinuity types, except at lengths less than 0.4 mm, where POD for cracks was found to be higher than that of notches.

  4. Interactions between rates of temperature change and acclimation affect latitudinal patterns of warming tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jessica L.; Chown, Steven L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Clusella-Trullas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Critical thermal limits form an increasing component of the estimation of impacts of global change on ectotherms. Whether any consistent patterns exist in the interactive effects of rates of temperature change (or experimental ramping rates) and acclimation on critical thermal limits and warming tolerance (one way of assessing sensitivity to climate change) is, however, far from clear. Here, we examine the interacting effects of ramping rate and acclimation on the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and minima (CTmin) and warming tolerance of six species of springtails from sub-tropical, temperate and polar regions. We also provide microhabitat temperatures from 26 sites spanning 5 years in order to benchmark environmentally relevant rates of temperature change. Ramping rate has larger effects than acclimation on CTmax, but the converse is true for CTmin. Responses to rate and acclimation effects are more consistent among species for CTmax than for CTmin. In the latter case, interactions among ramping rate and acclimation are typical of polar species, less marked for temperate ones, and reduced in species from the sub-tropics. Ramping rate and acclimation have substantial effects on estimates of warming tolerance, with the former being more marked. At the fastest ramping rates (>1.0°C/min), tropical species have estimated warming tolerances similar to their temperate counterparts, whereas at slow ramping rates (<0.4°C/min) the warming tolerance is much reduced in tropical species. Rates of temperate change in microhabitats relevant to the springtails are typically <0.05°C/min, with rare maxima of 0.3–0.5°C/min depending on the site. These findings emphasize the need to consider the environmental setting and experimental conditions when assessing species’ vulnerability to climate change using a warming tolerance approach. PMID:27933165

  5. Interactions between rates of temperature change and acclimation affect latitudinal patterns of warming tolerance.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jessica L; Chown, Steven L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Clusella-Trullas, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Critical thermal limits form an increasing component of the estimation of impacts of global change on ectotherms. Whether any consistent patterns exist in the interactive effects of rates of temperature change (or experimental ramping rates) and acclimation on critical thermal limits and warming tolerance (one way of assessing sensitivity to climate change) is, however, far from clear. Here, we examine the interacting effects of ramping rate and acclimation on the critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and minima (CTmin) and warming tolerance of six species of springtails from sub-tropical, temperate and polar regions. We also provide microhabitat temperatures from 26 sites spanning 5 years in order to benchmark environmentally relevant rates of temperature change. Ramping rate has larger effects than acclimation on CTmax, but the converse is true for CTmin. Responses to rate and acclimation effects are more consistent among species for CTmax than for CTmin. In the latter case, interactions among ramping rate and acclimation are typical of polar species, less marked for temperate ones, and reduced in species from the sub-tropics. Ramping rate and acclimation have substantial effects on estimates of warming tolerance, with the former being more marked. At the fastest ramping rates (>1.0°C/min), tropical species have estimated warming tolerances similar to their temperate counterparts, whereas at slow ramping rates (<0.4°C/min) the warming tolerance is much reduced in tropical species. Rates of temperate change in microhabitats relevant to the springtails are typically <0.05°C/min, with rare maxima of 0.3-0.5°C/min depending on the site. These findings emphasize the need to consider the environmental setting and experimental conditions when assessing species' vulnerability to climate change using a warming tolerance approach.

  6. An Experiment To Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copper, Christine L.; Koubeck, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Describes a chemistry experiment that allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reaction, and activation energies. The activity demonstrates that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having lower activation energy. (WRM)

  7. Which molecular features affect the intrinsic hepatic clearance rate of ionizable organic chemicals in fish?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Greater knowledge of biotransformation rates for ionizable organic compounds (IOCs) in fish is required to properly assess the bioaccumulation potential of many environmentally relevant contaminants. In this study we measured in vitro hepatic clearance rates for 50 IOCs using a p...

  8. Factors Affecting Student Loan Default Rates: Nevada System of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypuros, Christopher Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Nevada's rate of default on college loans is among the highest in the nation. At the time of this study, there were no research studies on defaulters in the state of Nevada. The present study was designed for initial exploration regarding the relationship between various kinds of student factors and default rates from institutions at the Nevada…

  9. Does State Funding Affect Graduation Rates at Public Four-Year Colleges and Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liang

    2009-01-01

    This study uses panel data to examine the direct link between state funding and graduation rates at 4-year public institutions. We find some evidence for a positive association between state funding and college graduation rates. When other factors are held constant, a 10% increase in state appropriations per full-time equivalent (FTE) student at…

  10. Individual surgeon mortality rates: can outliers be detected? A national utility analysis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Thomas M; Shaw, Catherine A; Garden, O James; Wigmore, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is controversy on the proposed benefits of publishing mortality rates for individual surgeons. In some procedures, analysis at the level of an individual surgeon may lack statistical power. The aim was to determine the likelihood that variation in surgeon performance will be detected using published outcome data. Design A national analysis surgeon-level mortality rates to calculate the level of power for the reported mortality rate across multiple surgical procedures. Setting The UK from 2010 to 2014. Participants Surgeons who performed colon cancer resection, oesophagectomy or gastrectomy, elective aortic aneurysm repair, hip replacement, bariatric surgery or thyroidectomy. Outcomes The likelihood of detecting an individual with a 30-day, 90-day or in-patient mortality rate of up to 5 times the national mean or median (as available). This was represented using a novel heat-map approach. Results Overall mortality rates for the procedures ranged from 0.07% to 4.5% and mean/median surgeon volume was between 23 and 75 cases. The national median case volume for colorectal (n=55) and upper gastrointestinal (n=23) cancer resections provides around 20% power to detect a mortality rate of 3 times the national median, while, for hip replacement, this is a rate 5 times the national average. At the mortality rates reported for thyroid (0.08%) and bariatric (0.07%) procedures, it is unlikely a surgeon would perform a sufficient number of procedures in his/her entire career to stand a good chance of detecting a mortality rate 5 times the national average. Conclusions At present, surgeons with increased mortality rates are unlikely to be detected. Performance within an expected mortality rate range cannot be considered reliable evidence of acceptable performance. Alternative approaches should focus on commonly occurring meaningful outcome measures, with infrequent events analysed predominately at the hospital level. PMID:27799243

  11. Can Sample-Specific Simulations Help Detect Low Base-Rate Taxonicity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Amir, Nader; Bau, Jinn Jonp

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the role of the sample-specific simulations (SSS; A. M. Ruscio & J. Ruscio, 2002; J. Ruscio & A. M. Ruscio, 2004) procedure in detecting low base-rate taxa that might otherwise prove elusive. The procedure preserved key distributional characteristics for moderate to high base-rate taxa, but it performed inadequately for low…

  12. Rating competitors before tournament starts: How it's affecting team progression in a soccer tournament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Muhammad Mat; Sulaiman, Tajularipin; Khalid, Ruzelan; Hamid, Mohamad Shukri Abdul; Mansor, Rosnalini

    2014-12-01

    In professional sporting events, rating competitors before tournament start is a well-known approach to distinguish the favorite team and the weaker teams. Various methodologies are used to rate competitors. In this paper, we explore four ways to rate competitors; least squares rating, maximum likelihood strength ratio, standing points in large round robin simulation and previous league rank position. The tournament metric we used to evaluate different types of rating approach is tournament outcome characteristics measure. The tournament outcome characteristics measure is defined by the probability that a particular team in the top 100q pre-tournament rank percentile progress beyond round R, for all q and R. Based on simulation result, we found that different rating approach produces different effect to the team. Our simulation result shows that from eight teams participate in knockout standard seeding, Perak has highest probability to win for tournament that use the least squares rating approach, PKNS has highest probability to win using the maximum likelihood strength ratio and the large round robin simulation approach, while Perak has the highest probability to win a tournament using previous league season approach.

  13. Affective video retrieval: violence detection in Hollywood movies by large-scale segmental feature extraction.

    PubMed

    Eyben, Florian; Weninger, Felix; Lehment, Nicolas; Schuller, Björn; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology "out of the lab" to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding "disturbing" scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP) on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis.

  14. Affective Video Retrieval: Violence Detection in Hollywood Movies by Large-Scale Segmental Feature Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Eyben, Florian; Weninger, Felix; Lehment, Nicolas; Schuller, Björn; Rigoll, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Without doubt general video and sound, as found in large multimedia archives, carry emotional information. Thus, audio and video retrieval by certain emotional categories or dimensions could play a central role for tomorrow's intelligent systems, enabling search for movies with a particular mood, computer aided scene and sound design in order to elicit certain emotions in the audience, etc. Yet, the lion's share of research in affective computing is exclusively focusing on signals conveyed by humans, such as affective speech. Uniting the fields of multimedia retrieval and affective computing is believed to lend to a multiplicity of interesting retrieval applications, and at the same time to benefit affective computing research, by moving its methodology “out of the lab” to real-world, diverse data. In this contribution, we address the problem of finding “disturbing” scenes in movies, a scenario that is highly relevant for computer-aided parental guidance. We apply large-scale segmental feature extraction combined with audio-visual classification to the particular task of detecting violence. Our system performs fully data-driven analysis including automatic segmentation. We evaluate the system in terms of mean average precision (MAP) on the official data set of the MediaEval 2012 evaluation campaign's Affect Task, which consists of 18 original Hollywood movies, achieving up to .398 MAP on unseen test data in full realism. An in-depth analysis of the worth of individual features with respect to the target class and the system errors is carried out and reveals the importance of peak-related audio feature extraction and low-level histogram-based video analysis. PMID:24391704

  15. Detection Rates for Surveys for Fast Transients with Next Generation Radio Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre

    2011-06-01

    We relate the underlying properties of a population of fast radio-emitting transient events to its expected detection rate in a survey of finite sensitivity. The distribution of the distances of the detected events is determined in terms of the population luminosity distribution and survey parameters, for both extragalactic and Galactic populations. The detection rate as a function of Galactic position is examined to identify regions that optimize survey efficiency in a survey whose field of view is limited. The impact of temporal smearing caused by scattering in the interstellar medium has a large and direction-dependent bearing on the detection of impulsive signals, and we present a model for the effects of scattering on the detection rate. We show that the detection rate scales as ΩS -3/2 + δ 0, where Ω is the field of view, S 0 is the minimum detectable flux density, and 0 < δ <= 3/2 for a survey of Galactic transients in which interstellar scattering or the finite volume of the Galaxy is important. We derive formal conditions on the optimal survey strategy to adopt under different circumstances for fast transient surveys on next generation large-element, wide-field arrays, such as ASKAP, LOFAR, the MWA, and the SKA, and show how interstellar scattering and the finite spatial extent of a Galactic population modify the choice of optimal strategy.

  16. A Novel Microfluidic Flow Rate Detection Method Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance Temperature Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shijie; Wang, Peng; Liu, Shengnan; Zhao, Tianze; Xu, Shanzhi; Guo, Mingjiang; Yu, Xinglong

    2016-01-01

    A novel microfluidic flow rate detection method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) temperature imaging is proposed. The measurement is performed by space-resolved SPR imaging of the flow induced temperature variations. Theoretical simulations and analysis were performed to demonstrate a proof of concept using this approach. Experiments were implemented and results showed that water flow rates within a wide range of tens to hundreds of μL/min could be detected. The flow rate sensor is resistant to disturbances and can be easily integrated into microfluidic lab-on-chip systems. PMID:27347960

  17. Existence detection and embedding rate estimation of blended speech in covert speech communications.

    PubMed

    Li, Lijuan; Gao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Covert speech communications may be used by terrorists to commit crimes through Internet. Steganalysis aims to detect secret information in covert communications to prevent crimes. Herein, based on the average zero crossing rate of the odd-even difference (AZCR-OED), a steganalysis algorithm for blended speech is proposed; it can detect the existence and estimate the embedding rate of blended speech. First, the odd-even difference (OED) of the speech signal is calculated and divided into frames. The average zero crossing rate (ZCR) is calculated for each OED frame, and the minimum average ZCR and AZCR-OED of the entire speech signal are extracted as features. Then, a support vector machine classifier is used to determine whether the speech signal is blended. Finally, a voice activity detection algorithm is applied to determine the hidden location of the secret speech and estimate the embedding rate. The results demonstrate that without attack, the detection accuracy can reach 80 % or more when the embedding rate is greater than 10 %, and the estimated embedding rate is similar to the real value. And when some attacks occur, it can also reach relatively high detection accuracy. The algorithm has high performance in terms of accuracy, effectiveness and robustness.

  18. How do kV and mAs affect CT lesion detection performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huda, W.; Ogden, K. M.; Shah, K.; Jadoo, C.; Scalzetti, E. M.; Lavallee, R. L.; Roskopf, M. L.

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how output (mAs) and x-ray tube voltage (kV) affect lesion detection in CT imaging. An adult Rando phantom was scanned on a GE LightSpeed CT scanner at x-ray tube voltages from 80 to 140 kV, and outputs from 90 to 360 mAs. Axial images of the abdomen were reconstructed and viewed on a high quality monitor at a soft tissue display setting. We measured detection of 2.5 to 12.5 mm sized lesions using a 2 Alternate Forced Choice (2-AFC) experimental paradigm that determined lesion contrast (I) corresponding to a 92% accuracy (I 92%) of lesion detection. Plots of log(I 92%) versus log(lesion size) were all approximately linear. The slope of the contrast detail curve was ~ -1.0 at 90 mAs, close to the value predicted by the Rose model, but monotonically decreased with increasing mAs to a value of ~ -0.7 at 360 mAs. Increasing the x-ray tube output by a factor of four improved lesion detection by a factor of 1.9 for the smallest lesion (2.5 mm), close to the value predicted by the Rose model, but only by a factor of 1.2 for largest lesion (12.5 mm). Increasing the kV monotonically decreased the contrast detail slopes from -1.02 at 80 kV to -0.71 at 140 kV. Increasing the x-ray tube voltage from 80 to 140 kV improved lesion detection by a factor of 2.8 for the smallest lesion (2.5 mm), but only by a factor of 1.7 for largest lesion (12.5 mm). We conclude that: (i) quantum mottle is an important factor for low contrast lesion detection in images of anthropomorphic phantoms; (ii) x-ray tube voltage has a much greater influence on lesion detection performance than x-ray tube output; (iii) the Rose model only predicts CT lesion detection performance at low x-ray tube outputs (90 mAs) and for small lesions (2.5 mm).

  19. A Comparison of Affect Ratings Obtained with Ecological Momentary Assessment and the Day Reconstruction Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockray, Samantha; Grant, Nina; Stone, Arthur A.; Kahneman, Daniel; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of affective states in everyday life is of fundamental importance in many types of quality of life, health, and psychological research. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) is the recognized method of choice, but the respondent burden can be high. The day reconstruction method (DRM) was developed by Kahneman and colleagues ("Science,"…

  20. Mechanical properties of Rene-41 affected by rate of cooling after solution annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, M.

    1970-01-01

    Investigation of Rene-41 cooling rate from 1975 to 1400 degrees F reveals that slow cooling improves high-temperature ductility and provides more uniform properties throughout a manifold. Ambient elongation and impact resistance are not significantly changed.

  1. Transient and residual stresses in dental porcelains as affected by cooling rates.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, K; Tesk, J A

    1989-06-01

    The development of either transient or residual stress in a slab of dental porcelain during cooling was simulated by use of a super-computer. The temperature dependences of the elastic modulus, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the shear viscosity, and the cooling rate dependence of the glass transition temperature, Tg, were considered in this calculation. Internal stress and viscoelastic creep were computed for several cooling rates. Calculated results display stress profiles which agree reasonably well with reported measured profiles in quenched, tempered glasses. The calculated residual surface stress, sigma, could be fit by the following empirical formula, sigma = kl2(q/q0)n, q is the cooling rate, q0 is a reference cooling rate and l is the half-thickness of the porcelain. The method by which residual stress develops is also discussed. This discussion suggests a method for strengthening of the porcelain by the development of high-compressive residual stress on the surface.

  2. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ) as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant. PMID:25187878

  3. Does malalignment affect revision rate in total knee replacements: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Mohammed; Barlow, Tim; Ahmed, Imran; Dunbar, Mark; McCulloch, Peter; Griffin, Damian

    2015-01-01

    To ensure implant durability following Modern total knee replacement (TKR) surgery, one long held principle in condylar total knee arthroplasty is positioning the components in alignment with the mechanical axis and restoring the overall limb alignment to 180° ± 3°. However, this view has been challenged recently. Given the high number of TKR performed, clarity on this integral aspect of the procedure is necessary. To investigate the association between malalignment following primary TKR and revision rates. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using a computerised literature search of Medline, CINHAL, and EMBASE to identify English-language studies published from 2000 through to 2014. Studies with adequate information on the correlation between malalignment and revision rate with a minimum follow-up of 6 months were considered for inclusion. A study protocol, including the detailed search strategy was published on the PROSPERO database for systematic reviews. From an initial 2107 citations, eight studies, with variable methodological qualities, were eligible for inclusion. Collectively, nine parameters of alignment were studied, and 20 assessments were made between an alignment parameter and revision rate. Four out of eight studies demonstrated an association between a malalignment parameter and increased revision rates. In the coronal plane, only three studies assessed the mechanical axis. None of these studies found an association with revision rates, whereas four of the five studies investigating the anatomical axis found an association between malalignment and increased revision rate. This study demonstrates the effect of malalignment on revision rates is likely to be modest. Interestingly, studies that used mechanical alignment in the coronal plane demonstrated no association with revision rates. This questions the premise of patient specific instrumentation devices based on the mechanically aligned knee when considering revision as the

  4. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates of neotropical birds have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses of a multispecies assemblage from Panama by Karr et al. (1990) provided a counterexample to that view. One criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses indicate that these models are indeed useful in modelling the data from Panama. Nonetheless, there is considerable interspecific variation and overall estimates of annual survival rates for understorey birds in Panama remain lower than those from other studies in the Neotropics and well below the rates long assumed for tropical birds (i.e. > 0.80). Therefore, tropical birds may not have systematically higher survival rates than temperate-zone species. Variation in survival rates among tropical species suggests that theory based on a simple tradeoff between clutch size and longevity is inadequate. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to some combination of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding these processes is the challenge for future work.

  5. How Does Relaxing the Algorithm for Autism Affect DSM-V Prevalence Rates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Hattier, Megan A.; Williams, Lindsey W.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is still unclear what causes autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), over time researchers and clinicians have become more precise with detecting and diagnosing ASD. Many diagnoses, however, are based on the criteria established within the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM"); thus, any change in these diagnostic…

  6. Summary of intrinsic and extrinsic factors affecting detection probability of marsh birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Gibbs, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Many species of marsh birds (rails, bitterns, grebes, etc.) rely exclusively on emergent marsh vegetation for all phases of their life cycle, and many organizations have become concerned about the status and persistence of this group of birds. Yet, marsh birds are notoriously difficult to monitor due to their secretive habits. We synthesized the published and unpublished literature and summarized the factors that influence detection probability of secretive marsh birds in North America. Marsh birds are more likely to respond to conspecific than heterospecific calls, and seasonal peak in vocalization probability varies among co-existing species. The effectiveness of morning versus evening surveys varies among species and locations. Vocalization probability appears to be positively correlated with density in breeding Virginia Rails (Rallus limicola), Soras (Porzana carolina), and Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris). Movement of birds toward the broadcast source creates biases when using count data from callbroadcast surveys to estimate population density. Ambient temperature, wind speed, cloud cover, and moon phase affected detection probability in some, but not all, studies. Better estimates of detection probability are needed. We provide recommendations that would help improve future marsh bird survey efforts and a list of 14 priority information and research needs that represent gaps in our current knowledge where future resources are best directed. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2011.

  7. Detection of enteric pathogens in Turkey flocks affected with severe enteritis, in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura-Alvarez, Joelma; Nuñez, Luis F N; Astolfi-Ferreira, Claudete S; Knöbl, Terezinha; Chacón, Jorge L; Moreno, Andrea M; Jones, Richard C; Ferreira, Antonio J Piantino

    2014-08-01

    Twenty-two flocks of turkeys affected by enteric problems, with ages between 10 and 104 days and located in the Southern region of Brazil, were surveyed for turkey by PCR for turkey astrovirus type 2 (TAstV-2), turkey coronavirus (TCoV), hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), rotavirus, reovirus, Salmonella spp., and Lawsonia intracellularis (Li) infections. Eleven profiles of pathogen combination were observed. The most frequently encountered pathogen combinations were TCoV-Li, followed by TCoV-TAstV-2-Li, TCoV-TastV-2. Only TCoV was detected as the sole pathogen in three flocks. Eight and 19 flocks of the 22 were positive for TAstV-2 and TCoV, respectively. Six were positive for Salmonella spp. and L. intracellularis was detected in 12 turkey flocks. Reovirus and HEV were not detected in this survey. These results throw new light on the multiple etiology of enteritis in turkeys. The implications of these findings and their correlation with the clinical signs are comprehensively discussed, illustrating the complexity of the enteric diseases.

  8. Reproductive rate, not dominance status, affects fecal glucocorticoid levels in breeding female meerkats.

    PubMed

    Barrette, Marie-France; Monfort, Steven L; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Clutton-Brock, Tim H; Russell, Andrew F

    2012-04-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) have been studied intensively to understand the associations between physiological stress and reproductive skew in animal societies. However, we have little appreciation of the range of either natural levels within and among individuals, or the associations among dominance status, reproductive rate and GCs levels during breeding. To address these shortcomings, we examined variation in fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGC) during breeding periods in free-ranging female meerkats (Suricata suricatta) over 11 years. The vast majority of variation in fGC levels was found within breeding events by the same female (~87%), with the remaining variation arising among breeding events and among females. Concentrations of fGC generally tripled as pregnancy progressed. However, females with a high reproductive rate, defined as those conceiving within a month following parturition (mean = 9 days postpartum), showed significant reductions in fGC in the final 2 weeks before parturition. Despite these reductions, females with a high reproductive rate had higher fGC levels at conception of the following litter than those breeding at a low rate. After controlling for the higher reproductive rate of dominants, we found no association between levels of fGC and either age or dominance status. Our results suggest that one should be cautious about interpreting associations between dominance status, reproductive skew and GCs levels, without knowledge of the natural variation in GCs levels within and among females.

  9. Does amiodarone affect heart rate by inhibiting the intracellular generation of triiodothyronine from thyroxine?

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmeyer, M.; Spörri, S.; Stäubli, M.; Studer, A.; Studer, H.

    1984-01-01

    The hypothesis that the antiarrhythmic drug amiodarone slows down the heart rate by its inhibitory action on the intracellular conversion of thyroxine (T4) to 3,5,3' triiodothyronine (T3) was investigated. For this purpose we compared the effect of amiodarone with that of another potent inhibitor of the T4----T3 conversion, i.e. the radiographic contrast medium iopanoic acid, on the heart rate of unanaesthetized guinea-pigs. Both amiodarone and, to an even greater extent, iopanoic acid induced an increase in serum 3.5',3' triiodothyronine (reverse T3), indicating effective inhibition of T4----T3 conversion. Both amiodarone and iopanoic acid were accumulated in the liver and in the heart (measured as iodine). While amiodarone induced bradycardia, iopanoic acid did not change the heart rate. Supraphysiological amounts of exogenous T3 reverted the amiodarone induced bradycardia to near normal values. A comparable effect was observed with isoprenaline. The intracellular inhibition of the T4----T3 conversion is not the ultimate mode of the action of the amiodarone effect on heart rate. It is thought that amiodarone interacts with T3 at its receptor or somewhere later along the pathway from the T3-receptor interaction to the final effect of T3 on heart rate. PMID:6733357

  10. Rate of novel host invasion affects adaptability of evolving RNA virus lineages

    PubMed Central

    Morley, Valerie J.; Mendiola, Sandra Y.; Turner, Paul E.

    2015-01-01

    Although differing rates of environmental turnover should be consequential for the dynamics of adaptive change, this idea has been rarely examined outside of theory. In particular, the importance of RNA viruses in disease emergence warrants experiments testing how differing rates of novel host invasion may impact the ability of viruses to adaptively shift onto a novel host. To test whether the rate of environmental turnover influences adaptation, we experimentally evolved 144 Sindbis virus lineages in replicated tissue-culture environments, which transitioned from being dominated by a permissive host cell type to a novel host cell type. The rate at which the novel host ‘invaded’ the environment varied by treatment. The fitness (growth rate) of evolved virus populations was measured on each host type, and molecular substitutions were mapped via whole genome consensus sequencing. Results showed that virus populations more consistently reached high fitness levels on the novel host when the novel host ‘invaded’ the environment more gradually, and gradual invasion resulted in less variable genomic outcomes. Moreover, virus populations that experienced a rapid shift onto the novel host converged upon different genotypes than populations that experienced a gradual shift onto the novel host, suggesting a strong effect of historical contingency. PMID:26246544

  11. Simultaneous estimation of b-values and detection rates of earthquakes for the application to aftershock probability forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsura, K.; Ogata, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Reasenberg and Jones [Science, 1989, 1994] proposed the aftershock probability forecasting based on the joint distribution [Utsu, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ., 1970] of the modified Omori formula of aftershock decay and Gutenberg-Richter law of magnitude frequency, where the respective parameters are estimated by the maximum likelihood method [Ogata, J. Phys. Earth, 1983; Utsu, Geophys Bull. Hokkaido Univ., 1965, Aki, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst., 1965]. The public forecast has been implemented by the responsible agencies in California and Japan. However, a considerable difficulty in the above procedure is that, due to the contamination of arriving seismic waves, detection rate of aftershocks is extremely low during a period immediately after the main shock, say, during the first day, when the forecasting is most critical for public in the affected area. Therefore, for the forecasting of a probability during such a period, they adopt a generic model with a set of the standard parameter values in California or Japan. For an effective and realistic estimation, I propose to utilize the statistical model introduced by Ogata and Katsura [Geophys. J. Int., 1993] for the simultaneous estimation of the b-values of Gutenberg-Richter law together with detection-rate (probability) of earthquakes of each magnitude-band from the provided data of all detected events, where the both parameters are allowed for changing in time. Thus, by using all detected aftershocks from the beginning of the period, we can estimate the underlying modified Omori rate of both detected and undetected events and their b-value changes, taking the time-varying missing rates of events into account. The similar computation is applied to the ETAS model for complex aftershock activity or regional seismicity where substantial missing events are expected immediately after a large aftershock or another strong earthquake in the vicinity. Demonstrations of the present procedure will be shown for the recent examples

  12. An Experiment to Demonstrate How a Catalyst Affects the Rate of a Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copper, Christine L.; Koubek, Edward

    1999-12-01

    By performing this experiment, students in general and introductory physical chemistry can learn more about the effect of a catalyst on a chemical reaction. This experiment, which is a modified version of the traditional iodine clock reaction, allows students to calculate rates of reaction, orders of reactants, and activation energies. It also lets students discover that to increase a reaction's rate, a catalyst need only provide any additional pathway for the reaction, not necessarily a pathway having a lower activation energy. This experiment is designed so that students will notice that the amount of catalyst used is important. Furthermore, the slight amount (~10-5 M MoO42-) of catalyst needed to increase the overall reaction rate and the abrupt color change that occurs seem to pique the interest of our students.

  13. Does administering a comprehensive examination affect pass rates on the Registered Health Information Administrator certification examination?

    PubMed

    McNeill, Marjorie H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine whether the administration of a comprehensive examination before graduation increases the percentage of students passing the Registered Health Information Administrator certification examination. A t-test for independent means yielded a statistically significant difference between the Registered Health Information Administrator certification examination pass rates of health information administration programs that administer a comprehensive examination and programs that do not administer a comprehensive examination. Programs with a high certification examination pass rate do not require a comprehensive examination when compared with those programs with a lower pass rate. It is concluded that health information administration faculty at the local level should perform program self-analysis to improve student progress toward achievement of learning outcomes and entry-level competencies.

  14. Novel Fingertip Image-Based Heart Rate Detection Methods for a Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rifat; Cho, Chae Ho; Hartmann-Vaccarezza, Konrad; Phan, Tra Nguyen; Yoon, Gwonchan; Chong, Jo Woon

    2017-02-12

    We hypothesize that our smartphone-based fingertip image-based heart rate detection methods reliably detect the heart rhythm and rate of subjects. We propose fingertip curve line movement-based and fingertip image intensity-based detection methods, which both use the movement of successive fingertip images obtained from smartphone cameras. To investigate the performance of the proposed methods, heart rhythm and rate of the proposed methods are compared to those of the conventional method, which is based on average image pixel intensity. Using a smartphone, we collected 120 s pulsatile time series from each recruited subject. The results show that the proposed fingertip curve line movement-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.0832 Hz and 0.124 Hz using time- and frequency-domain based estimation, respectively, compared to the conventional method. Moreover, another proposed fingertip image intensity-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.125 Hz and 0.03 Hz using time- and frequency-based estimation, respectively.

  15. Novel Fingertip Image-Based Heart Rate Detection Methods for a Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Rifat; Cho, Chae Ho; Hartmann-Vaccarezza, Konrad; Phan, Tra Nguyen; Yoon, Gwonchan; Chong, Jo Woon

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesize that our fingertip image-based heart rate detection methods using smartphone reliably detect the heart rhythm and rate of subjects. We propose fingertip curve line movement-based and fingertip image intensity-based detection methods, which both use the movement of successive fingertip images obtained from smartphone cameras. To investigate the performance of the proposed methods, heart rhythm and rate of the proposed methods are compared to those of the conventional method, which is based on average image pixel intensity. Using a smartphone, we collected 120 s pulsatile time series data from each recruited subject. The results show that the proposed fingertip curve line movement-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.0832 Hz and 0.124 Hz using time- and frequency-domain based estimation, respectively, compared to the conventional method. Moreover, another proposed fingertip image intensity-based method detects heart rate with a maximum deviation of 0.125 Hz and 0.03 Hz using time- and frequency-based estimation, respectively. PMID:28208678

  16. Updating the M Dwarf Planet Occurrence Rate by Injecting and Detecting Transits in Kepler Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Charbonneau, D.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the Kepler mission is to constrain the occurrence rate of planets around stars with a range of spectral types. Previously, we estimated the M dwarf planet occurrence rate by revising the stellar parameters of the Kepler M dwarfs and analyzing the first six quarters of Kepler data. We found that there are 0.90 Earth-size (0.5-1.4 Earth radius) planets with periods <50 days per small star. We also found an occurrence rate of 0.15 Earth-size planets within the habitable zone per small star, implying a most probable distance of 13 pc to the nearest transiting potentially habitable planet. Our previous estimate of the occurrence rate assumed 100% detection efficiency at SNR=7.1 sigma, but the occurrence rate would have been underestimated if the actual detection efficiency is lower. In order to more accurately model the detection efficiency, we have developed a customized transit search pipeline tailored for application to M dwarfs. We measure the detection efficiency of our pipeline by injecting known transit signals into Kepler light curves and attempting to recover the signals. We are currently conducting a search for additional transiting planets using our pipeline and will compare our list of detected candidates to the candidates found by the Kepler team. We will then combine our more sophisticated model for the detection threshold and the list of planet candidates found using an additional ten quarters of Kepler data with our revised stellar parameters to present an updated measurement of the planet occurrence rate for M dwarfs. Our revised measurement will help enable predictions of the population of planets that will be detected by ongoing and future planet surveys such as MEarth and the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite.

  17. Do method and species lifestyle affect measures of maximum metabolic rate in fishes?

    PubMed

    Killen, S S; Norin, T; Halsey, L G

    2017-03-01

    The rate at which active animals can expend energy is limited by their maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR). Two methods are commonly used to estimate MMR as oxygen uptake in fishes, namely during prolonged swimming or immediately following brief exhaustive exercise, but it is unclear whether they return different estimates of MMR or whether their effectiveness for estimating MMR varies among species with different lifestyles. A broad comparative analysis of MMR data from 121 fish species revealed little evidence of different results between the two methods, either for fishes in general or for species of benthic, benthopelagic or pelagic lifestyles.

  18. Collaborative Project: Understanding the Chemical Processes tat Affect Growth rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles

    SciTech Connect

    McMurry, Peter; Smuth, James

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate.

  19. High Rates of Detection of Respiratory Viruses in Tonsillar Tissues from Children with Chronic Adenotonsillar Disease

    PubMed Central

    Proenca-Modena, Jose Luiz; Pereira Valera, Fabiana Cardoso; Jacob, Marcos Gerhardinger; Buzatto, Guilherme Pietrucci; Saturno, Tamara Honorato; Lopes, Lucia; Souza, Jamila Mendonça; Paula, Flavia Escremim; Silva, Maria Lucia; Carenzi, Lucas Rodrigues; Tamashiro, Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Chronic tonsillar diseases are an important health problem, leading to large numbers of surgical procedures worldwide. Little is known about pathogenesis of these diseases. In order to investigate the role of respiratory viruses in chronic adenotonsillar diseases, we developed a cross-sectional study to determine the rates of viral detections of common respiratory viruses detected by TaqMan real time PCR (qPCR) in nasopharyngeal secretions, tonsillar tissues and peripheral blood from 121 children with chronic tonsillar diseases, without symptoms of acute respiratory infections. At least one respiratory virus was detected in 97.5% of patients. The viral co-infection rate was 69.5%. The most frequently detected viruses were human adenovirus in 47.1%, human enterovirus in 40.5%, human rhinovirus in 38%, human bocavirus in 29.8%, human metapneumovirus in 17.4% and human respiratory syncytial virus in 15.7%. Results of qPCR varied widely between sample sites: human adenovirus, human bocavirus and human enterovirus were predominantly detected in tissues, while human rhinovirus was more frequently detected in secretions. Rates of virus detection were remarkably high in tonsil tissues: over 85% in adenoids and close to 70% in palatine tonsils. In addition, overall virus detection rates were higher in more hypertrophic than in smaller adenoids (p = 0.05), and in the particular case of human enteroviruses, they were detected more frequently (p = 0.05) in larger palatine tonsils than in smaller ones. While persistence/latency of DNA viruses in tonsillar tissues has been documented, such is not the case of RNA viruses. Respiratory viruses are highly prevalent in adenoids and palatine tonsils of patients with chronic tonsillar diseases, and persistence of these viruses in tonsils may stimulate chronic inflammation and play a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. PMID:22870291

  20. Replication Rate, Framing, and Format Affect Attitudes and Decisions about Science Claims.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Ralph M; Tobin, Stephanie J; Johnston, Heather M; MacKenzie, Noah; Taglang, Chelsea M

    2016-01-01

    A series of five experiments examined how the evaluation of a scientific finding was influenced by information about the number of studies that had successfully replicated the initial finding. The experiments also tested the impact of frame (negative, positive) and numeric format (percentage, natural frequency) on the evaluation of scientific findings. In Experiments 1 through 4, an attitude difference score served as the dependent measure, while a measure of choice served as the dependent measure in Experiment 5. Results from a diverse sample of 188 non-institutionalized U.S. adults (Experiment 2) and 730 undergraduate college students (Experiments 1, 3, and 4) indicated that attitudes became more positive as the replication rate increased and attitudes were more positive when the replication information was framed positively. The results also indicate that the manner in which replication rate was framed had a greater impact on attitude than the replication rate itself. The large effect for frame was attenuated somewhat when information about replication was presented in the form of natural frequencies rather than percentages. A fifth study employing 662 undergraduate college students in a task in which choice served as the dependent measure confirmed the framing effect and replicated the replication rate effect in the positive frame condition, but provided no evidence that the use of natural frequencies diminished the effect.

  1. The Use of Heart Rate Variability as a Novel Method to Differentiate between Affective States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major goal of animal welfare scientists is to determine when animals are experiencing a state of good welfare or poor welfare. The goal of this research was to determine if measures of heart rate variability can be used to differentiate whether animals are experiencing ‘unpleasant’ versus ‘pleas...

  2. Runoff nutrient transport as affected by land application method, swine growth stage, and runoff rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to measure the effects of slurry application method, swine growth stage, and flow rate on runoff nutrient transport. Swine slurry was obtained from production units containing grower pigs, finisher pigs, or sows and gilts. The swine slurry was applied using broadcast, disk, ...

  3. Applying Models to National Surveys of Undergraduate Science Students: What Affects Ratings of Satisfaction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Anthony Mark; Dunleavy, Peter; Fielding, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Many countries use national-level surveys to capture student opinions about their university experiences. It is necessary to interpret survey results in an appropriate context to inform decision-making at many levels. To provide context to national survey outcomes, we describe patterns in the ratings of science and engineering subjects from the…

  4. Speaking Rate Affects the Perception of Duration as a Suprasegmental Lexical-Stress Cue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinisch, Eva; Jesse, Alexandra; McQueen, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Three categorization experiments investigated whether the speaking rate of a preceding sentence influences durational cues to the perception of suprasegmental lexical-stress patterns. Dutch two-syllable word fragments had to be judged as coming from one of two longer words that matched the fragment segmentally but differed in lexical stress…

  5. Characteristics and Activities of Teachers on Distance Learning Programs That Affect Their Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanišic Stojic, Svetlana M.; Dobrijevic, Gordana; Stanišic, Nemanja; Stanic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of teachers' ratings on distance learning undergraduate study programs: 7,156 students enrolled in traditional and 528 students enrolled in distance learning studies took part in the evaluation questionnaire, assessing 71 teachers. The data were collected from the Moodle platform and from the Singidunum University…

  6. Replication Rate, Framing, and Format Affect Attitudes and Decisions about Science Claims

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Ralph M.; Tobin, Stephanie J.; Johnston, Heather M.; MacKenzie, Noah; Taglang, Chelsea M.

    2016-01-01

    A series of five experiments examined how the evaluation of a scientific finding was influenced by information about the number of studies that had successfully replicated the initial finding. The experiments also tested the impact of frame (negative, positive) and numeric format (percentage, natural frequency) on the evaluation of scientific findings. In Experiments 1 through 4, an attitude difference score served as the dependent measure, while a measure of choice served as the dependent measure in Experiment 5. Results from a diverse sample of 188 non-institutionalized U.S. adults (Experiment 2) and 730 undergraduate college students (Experiments 1, 3, and 4) indicated that attitudes became more positive as the replication rate increased and attitudes were more positive when the replication information was framed positively. The results also indicate that the manner in which replication rate was framed had a greater impact on attitude than the replication rate itself. The large effect for frame was attenuated somewhat when information about replication was presented in the form of natural frequencies rather than percentages. A fifth study employing 662 undergraduate college students in a task in which choice served as the dependent measure confirmed the framing effect and replicated the replication rate effect in the positive frame condition, but provided no evidence that the use of natural frequencies diminished the effect. PMID:27920743

  7. Self- Versus Parent-Ratings of Industriousness, Affect, and Life Satisfaction in Relation to Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; Davies, Janet E.; MacCann, Carolyn; Roberts, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents consult with schools on how to help their children succeed, but schools rarely consult with parents, even though most parents have considerable expertise concerning their children's thoughts, feelings, and abilities. Aims: This study compares the prediction of academic achievement from self- and parent-ratings of feelings…

  8. Dynamics of Choice: Relative Rate and Amount Affect Local Preference at Three Different Time Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aparicio, Carlos F.; Baum, William M.

    2009-01-01

    To examine extended control over local choice, the present study investigated preference in transition as food-rate ratio provided by two levers changed across seven components within daily sessions, and food-amount ratio changed across phases. Phase 1 arranged a food-amount ratio of 4:1 (i.e., the left lever delivered four pellets and the right…

  9. Nitrogen fertilizer rate affects root exudation, the rhizosphere microbiome and nitrogen-use-efficiency of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition and function of microbial communities present in the rhizosphere of crops has been linked to edaphic factors and root exudate composition. In this paper, we examined the effect of N fertilizer rate on maize root exudation, the associated rhizosphere community, and nitrogen-use-effici...

  10. Do Expenditures Other than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    During the last two decades, median instructional spending per full-time equivalent (FTE) student at American 4-year colleges and universities has grown at a slower rate than median spending per FTE student in a number of other expenditure categories, including academic support, student services and research. Our paper uses institutional level…

  11. Do Expenditures Other than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of tuition increases in both private and public higher education that continually exceed inflation, coupled with the fact that the United States no longer leads the world in terms of the fraction of young adults who have college degrees, have focused attention on why costs keep increasing in higher education and what categories of higher…

  12. One (rating) from many (observations): Factors affecting the individual assessment of voice behavior in groups.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Maynes, Timothy D; Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M

    2015-07-01

    This article reports an investigation into how individuals form perceptions of overall voice behavior in group contexts. More specifically, the authors examine the effect of the proportion of group members exhibiting voice behavior in the group, the frequency of voice events in the group, and the measurement item referent (group vs. individual) on an individual's ratings of group voice behavior. In addition, the authors examine the effect that measurement item referent has on the magnitude of the relationship observed between an individual's ratings of group voice behavior and perceptions of group performance. Consistent with hypotheses, the results from 1 field study (N = 220) and 1 laboratory experiment (N = 366) indicate that: (a) When group referents were used, raters relied on the frequency of voice events (and not the proportion of group members exhibiting voice) to inform their ratings of voice behavior, whereas the opposite was true when individual-referent items were used, and (b) the magnitude of the relationship between observers' ratings of group voice behavior and their perceptions of group performance was higher when raters used group-referent, as opposed to an individual-referent, items. The authors discuss the implications of their findings for scholars interested in studying behavioral phenomena occurring in teams, groups, and work units in organizational behavior research.

  13. A double-observer method to estimate detection rate during aerial waterfowl surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koneff, M.D.; Royle, J. Andrew; Otto, M.C.; Wortham, J.S.; Bidwell, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated double-observer methods for aerial surveys as a means to adjust counts of waterfowl for incomplete detection. We conducted our study in eastern Canada and the northeast United States utilizing 3 aerial-survey crews flying 3 different types of fixed-wing aircraft. We reconciled counts of front- and rear-seat observers immediately following an observation by the rear-seat observer (i.e., on-the-fly reconciliation). We evaluated 6 a priori models containing a combination of several factors thought to influence detection probability including observer, seat position, aircraft type, and group size. We analyzed data for American black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos), which are among the most abundant duck species in this region. The best-supported model for both black ducks and mallards included observer effects. Sample sizes of black ducks were sufficient to estimate observer-specific detection rates for each crew. Estimated detection rates for black ducks were 0.62 (SE = 0.10), 0.63 (SE = 0.06), and 0.74 (SE = 0.07) for pilot-observers, 0.61 (SE = 0.08), 0.62 (SE = 0.06), and 0.81 (SE = 0.07) for other front-seat observers, and 0.43 (SE = 0.05), 0.58 (SE = 0.06), and 0.73 (SE = 0.04) for rear-seat observers. For mallards, sample sizes were adequate to generate stable maximum-likelihood estimates of observer-specific detection rates for only one aerial crew. Estimated observer-specific detection rates for that crew were 0.84 (SE = 0.04) for the pilot-observer, 0.74 (SE = 0.05) for the other front-seat observer, and 0.47 (SE = 0.03) for the rear-seat observer. Estimated observer detection rates were confounded by the position of the seat occupied by an observer, because observers did not switch seats, and by land-cover because vegetation and landform varied among crew areas. Double-observer methods with on-the-fly reconciliation, although not without challenges, offer one viable option to account for detection bias in aerial waterfowl

  14. The Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS): Ratings of Dominance, Familiarity, Subjective Age of Acquisition and Sensory Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hinojosa, José A.; Rincón-Pérez, Irene; Romero-Ferreiro, Mª Verónica; Martínez-García, Natalia; Villalba-García, Cristina; Montoro, Pedro R.; Pozo, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents ratings by 540 Spanish native speakers for dominance, familiarity, subjective age of acquisition (AoA), and sensory experience (SER) for the 875 Spanish words included in the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS). The norms can be downloaded as supplementary materials for this manuscript from https://figshare.com/s/8e7b445b729527262c88 These ratings may be of potential relevance to researches who are interested in characterizing the interplay between language and emotion. Additionally, with the aim of investigating how the affective features interact with the lexicosemantic properties of words, we performed correlational analyses between norms for familiarity, subjective AoA and SER, and scores for those affective variables which are currently included in the MADs. A distinct pattern of significant correlations with affective features was found for different lexicosemantic variables. These results show that familiarity, subjective AoA and SERs may have independent effects on the processing of emotional words. They also suggest that these psycholinguistic variables should be fully considered when formulating theoretical approaches to the processing of affective language. PMID:27227521

  15. The Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS): Ratings of Dominance, Familiarity, Subjective Age of Acquisition and Sensory Experience.

    PubMed

    Hinojosa, José A; Rincón-Pérez, Irene; Romero-Ferreiro, M Verónica; Martínez-García, Natalia; Villalba-García, Cristina; Montoro, Pedro R; Pozo, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents ratings by 540 Spanish native speakers for dominance, familiarity, subjective age of acquisition (AoA), and sensory experience (SER) for the 875 Spanish words included in the Madrid Affective Database for Spanish (MADS). The norms can be downloaded as supplementary materials for this manuscript from https://figshare.com/s/8e7b445b729527262c88 These ratings may be of potential relevance to researches who are interested in characterizing the interplay between language and emotion. Additionally, with the aim of investigating how the affective features interact with the lexicosemantic properties of words, we performed correlational analyses between norms for familiarity, subjective AoA and SER, and scores for those affective variables which are currently included in the MADs. A distinct pattern of significant correlations with affective features was found for different lexicosemantic variables. These results show that familiarity, subjective AoA and SERs may have independent effects on the processing of emotional words. They also suggest that these psycholinguistic variables should be fully considered when formulating theoretical approaches to the processing of affective language.

  16. Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones improves rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing

    2013-08-01

    To improve the rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection, we compared different specimens from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Feces, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stones collected from 179 consecutive patients with cholecystolithiasis underwent microscopic examination, and according to the results, 30 egg-positive and 30 egg-negative fecal, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stone specimens, respectively, underwent real-time fluorescent PCR. The detection rates of eggs in feces, bile, and gallbladder stones were 30.7%, 44.7%, and 69.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The PCR results confirmed that the eggs in the specimens were C. sinensis eggs. Eggs in the feces were "fresh" and in the gallbladder stones were "old." Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones may improve the detection rates of C. sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma.

  17. Final Report: "Collaborative Project. Understanding the Chemical Processes That Affect Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James N.; McMurry, Peter H.

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate. Our measurements include a self-organized, DOE-ARM funded project at the Southern Great Plains site, the New Particle Formation Study (NPFS), which took place during spring 2013. NPFS data are available to the research community on the ARM data archive, providing a unique suite observations of trace gas and aerosols that are associated with the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles.

  18. Activity affects intraspecific body-size scaling of metabolic rate in ectothermic animals.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Douglas Stewart

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic rate is commonly thought to scale with body mass (M) to the 3/4 power. However, the metabolic scaling exponent (b) may vary with activity state, as has been shown chiefly for interspecific relationships. Here I use a meta-analysis of literature data to test whether b changes with activity level within species of ectothermic animals. Data for 19 species show that b is usually higher during active exercise (mean +/- 95% confidence limits = 0.918 +/- 0.038) than during rest (0.768 +/- 0.069). This significant upward shift in b to near 1 is consistent with the metabolic level boundaries hypothesis, which predicts that maximal metabolic rate during exercise should be chiefly influenced by volume-related muscular power production (scaling as M (1)). This dependence of b on activity level does not appear to be a simple temperature effect because body temperature in ectotherms changes very little during exercise.

  19. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

  20. Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid in lab-scale precipitate reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.J.; Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Baich, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium-137 and other alkali tetraphenylborates by acid hydrolysis will be an important step in preparing high-level radioactive waste for vitrification at the Savannah River Site`s Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Kinetic data obtained in bench-scale precipitate hydrolysis reactors suggest changes in operating parameters to improve product quality in the future plant-scale radioactive operation. The rate-determining step is the removal of the fourth phenyl group, i.e. hydrolysis of phenylboronic acid. Efforts to maximize this rate have established the importance of several factors in the system, including the ratio of copper(II) catalyst to formic acid, the presence of nitrite ion, reactions of diphenylmercury, and the purge gas employed in the system.

  1. Factors affecting quality for beta dose rate measurements using ISO 6980 series I reference sources

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.E. Jr.; O`Brien, J.M. Jr.

    1993-12-31

    Atlan-Tech, Inc. has performed several calibrations of ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources over the past two to three years. There were many problems encountered in attempting to compare the results of these calibrations with those from other laboratories, indicating the need for more standardization in the methodology employed for the measurement of the absorbed dose rate from ISO 6980 Series 1 reference beta sources. This document describes some of the problems encountered in attempting to intercompare results of beta dose-rate measurements. It proposes some solutions in an attempt to open a dialogue among facilities using reference beta standards for the purpose of promoting better measurement quality assurance through data intercomparison.

  2. Vocal performance affects metabolic rate in dolphins: implications for animals communicating in noisy environments.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Dunkin, Robin C; Williams, Terrie M

    2015-06-01

    Many animals produce louder, longer or more repetitious vocalizations to compensate for increases in environmental noise. Biological costs of increased vocal effort in response to noise, including energetic costs, remain empirically undefined in many taxa, particularly in marine mammals that rely on sound for fundamental biological functions in increasingly noisy habitats. For this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in vocal effort would result in an energetic cost to the signaler by experimentally measuring oxygen consumption during rest and a 2 min vocal period in dolphins that were trained to vary vocal loudness across trials. Vocal effort was quantified as the total acoustic energy of sounds produced. Metabolic rates during the vocal period were, on average, 1.2 and 1.5 times resting metabolic rate (RMR) in dolphin A and B, respectively. As vocal effort increased, we found that there was a significant increase in metabolic rate over RMR during the 2 min following sound production in both dolphins, and in total oxygen consumption (metabolic cost of sound production plus recovery costs) in the dolphin that showed a wider range of vocal effort across trials. Increases in vocal effort, as a consequence of increases in vocal amplitude, repetition rate and/or duration, are consistent with behavioral responses to noise in free-ranging animals. Here, we empirically demonstrate for the first time in a marine mammal, that these vocal modifications can have an energetic impact at the individual level and, importantly, these data provide a mechanistic foundation for evaluating biological consequences of vocal modification in noise-polluted habitats.

  3. In vivo loading increases mechanical properties of scaffold by affecting bone formation and bone resorption rates.

    PubMed

    Roshan-Ghias, Alireza; Lambers, Floor M; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Müller, Ralph; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2011-12-01

    A successful bone tissue engineering strategy entails producing bone-scaffold constructs with adequate mechanical properties. Apart from the mechanical properties of the scaffold itself, the forming bone inside the scaffold also adds to the strength of the construct. In this study, we investigated the role of in vivo cyclic loading on mechanical properties of a bone scaffold. We implanted PLA/β-TCP scaffolds in the distal femur of six rats, applied external cyclic loading on the right leg, and kept the left leg as a control. We monitored bone formation at 7 time points over 35 weeks using time-lapsed micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. The images were then used to construct micro-finite element models of bone-scaffold constructs, with which we estimated the stiffness for each sample at all time points. We found that loading increased the stiffness by 60% at 35 weeks. The increase of stiffness was correlated to an increase in bone volume fraction of 18% in the loaded scaffold compared to control scaffold. These changes in volume fraction and related stiffness in the bone scaffold are regulated by two independent processes, bone formation and bone resorption. Using time-lapsed micro-CT imaging and a newly-developed longitudinal image registration technique, we observed that mechanical stimulation increases the bone formation rate during 4-10 weeks, and decreases the bone resorption rate during 9-18 weeks post-operatively. For the first time, we report that in vivo cyclic loading increases mechanical properties of the scaffold by increasing the bone formation rate and decreasing the bone resorption rate.

  4. Does Nursing Home Ownership Change Affect Family Ratings on Experience with Care?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Person-centeredness may suffer in NHs with recent ownership changes. This study identifies associations between ownership change and reported care experiences, important measures of person-centered care, for long-term residents in Maryland NHs. Care experience measures and ownership change data were collected from Maryland Health Care Commission reports, which reported data on 220 Maryland NHs from 2011–2012. Facility and market covariates were obtained from 2011 NH Compare and Area Health Resource Files. Linear regression was used to examine whether ownership change in 2011 was associated with lower care experience ratings reported during April–June 2012. Dependent variables were overall care rating (scale 1–10), percent of respondents answering that they would recommend the NH, and assessments of five care and resident life domains (scale 1–4). Care experiences reported in 2012 were high; however, after controlling for covariates, ownership change was associated with significant decreases in 6 out of 7 measures, including a 0.39-point decrease in overall care rating (P=0.001). NH managers and policymakers should consider strategies to improve patient-centeredness post-ownership change. PMID:26162057

  5. Inertial properties and loading rates affect buckling modes and injury mechanisms in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, R W; Camacho, D L; Armstrong, A J; Robinette, J J; Myers, B S

    2000-02-01

    Cervical spine injuries continue to be a costly societal problem. Future advancements in injury prevention depend on improved physical and computational models which, in turn, are predicated on a better understanding of the responses of the neck during dynamic loading. Previous studies have shown that the tolerance of the neck is dependent on its initial position and its buckling behavior. This study uses a computational model to examine the mechanical factors influencing buckling behavior during impact to the neck. It was hypothesized that the inertial properties of the cervical spine influence the dynamics during compressive axial loading. The hypothesis was tested by performing parametric analyses of vertebral mass, mass moments of inertia, motion segment stiffness, and loading rate. Increases in vertebral mass resulted in increasingly complex kinematics and larger peak loads and impulses. Similar results were observed for increases in stiffness. Faster loading rates were associated with higher peak loads and higher-order buckling modes. The results demonstrate that mass has a great deal of influence on the buckling behavior of the neck, particularly with respect to the expression of higher-order modes. Injury types and mechanisms may be substantially altered by loading rate because inertial effects may influence whether the cervical spine fails in a compressive mode, or a bending mode.

  6. Oxygen Consumption by Postfermentation Wine Yeast Lees: Factors Affecting Its Rate and Extent under Oenological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jonas; Schmidt, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Summary Postfermentation wine yeast lees show antioxidant properties based on their ability to consume dissolved oxygen. The oxygen consumption capacity of suspended yeast lees obtained after fermentations with six commercial active dry yeast strains was investigated in model, white and red wines using fluorescence-based oxygen sensors operating in a nondestructive way. In model solution, the oxygen consumption rate of yeast lees was shown to depend on their amount, yeast strain, sulfur dioxide and temperature. It is slightly lower in red than in white wines. It is strongly decreased by current levels of free sulfur dioxide, thus excluding the complementary use of both as antioxidants in wine. However, in 25 randomly sampled white wines produced under commercial conditions, the rate and extent of oxygen consumption during the first six months of postfermentation had no significant correlation with any of these interacting factors, making it difficult to predict the actual antioxidant effect of yeast lees. In these wines, yeast lees consumed 0 to 47% of the dissolved oxygen. Although total oxygen consumption capacity of yeast lees is not a limiting factor under commercial winemaking conditions, their oxygen consumption proceeds at a limited rate that reduces but cannot totally prevent concomitant chemical oxidation of the wine. PMID:28115896

  7. Does Nursing Home Ownership Change Affect Family Ratings on Experience with Care?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Lauren J; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Person-centeredness may suffer in nursing homes (NHs) with recent ownership changes. This study identifies associations between ownership change and reported care experiences, important measures of person-centered care for long-term residents in Maryland NHs. Care experience measures and ownership change data were collected from Maryland Health Care Commission reports, which reported data on 220 Maryland NHs from 2011 and 2012. Facility and market covariates were obtained from 2011 NH Compare and Area Health Resource Files. Linear regression was used to examine whether ownership change in 2011 was associated with lower care experience ratings reported during April to June 2012. Dependent variables were overall care rating (scale 1-10), percentage of respondents answering that they would recommend the NH, and assessments of five care and resident life domains (scale 1-4). Care experiences reported in 2012 were high; however, after controlling for covariates, ownership change was associated with significant decreases in 6 out of 7 measures, including a 0.39-point decrease in overall care rating (p = .001). NH managers and policy makers should consider strategies to improve patient-centeredness after ownership change.

  8. Effect of the Brazilian Conditional Cash Transfer and Primary Health Care Programs on the New Case Detection Rate of Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Nery, Joilda Silva; Pereira, Susan Martins; Rasella, Davide; Penna, Maria Lúcia Fernandes; Aquino, Rosana; Rodrigues, Laura Cunha; Barreto, Mauricio Lima; Penna, Gerson Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Background Social determinants can affect the transmission of leprosy and its progression to disease. Not much is known about the effectiveness of welfare and primary health care policies on the reduction of leprosy occurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Brazilian cash transfer (Bolsa Família Program-BFP) and primary health care (Family Health Program-FHP) programs on new case detection rate of leprosy. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted the study with a mixed ecological design, a combination of an ecological multiple-group and time-trend design in the period 2004–2011 with the Brazilian municipalities as unit of analysis. The main independent variables were the BFP and FHP coverage at the municipal level and the outcome was new case detection rate of leprosy. Leprosy new cases, BFP and FHP coverage, population and other relevant socio-demographic covariates were obtained from national databases. We used fixed-effects negative binomial models for panel data adjusted for relevant socio-demographic covariates. A total of 1,358 municipalities were included in the analysis. In the studied period, while the municipal coverage of BFP and FHP increased, the new case detection rate of leprosy decreased. Leprosy new case detection rate was significantly reduced in municipalities with consolidated BFP coverage (Risk Ratio 0.79; 95% CI  = 0.74–0.83) and significantly increased in municipalities with FHP coverage in the medium (72–95%) (Risk Ratio 1.05; 95% CI  = 1.02–1.09) and higher coverage tertiles (>95%) (Risk Ratio 1.12; 95% CI  = 1.08–1.17). Conclusions At the same time the Family Health Program had been effective in increasing the new case detection rate of leprosy in Brazil, the Bolsa Família Program was associated with a reduction of the new case detection rate of leprosy that we propose reflects a reduction in leprosy incidence. PMID:25412418

  9. An improved lane detection algorithm and the definition of the error rate standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chung-Hsien; Su, Chung-Yen

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to improve the problem that the assistant lane marks caused by pulse. We also define a method to distinguish the assistant lane marks' error rate objectively. To improve the problem, we mainly use the Sobel edge detection to replace the Canny edge detection. Also, we make use of the Gaussian filter to filter noise. Finally, we improve the ellipse ROI size in tracking part and the performance of the FPS (frame per second) from 32 to 39. In the past, we distinguished the assistant lane marks' error rate very subjectively. To avoid judging subjectively, we propose an objective method to define the assistant lane marks' error rate as a standard. We use the performance and the error rate to choose the ellipse ROI parameter.

  10. Swine effluent application timing and rate affect nitrogen use efficiency in common bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Read, J J; Brink, G E; Adeli, A; McGowen, S L

    2008-01-01

    Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay production is integral to manure management on southeastern swine farms. But swine effluent timing must be synchronized with crop nitrogen (N) demands to decrease the potential for soil N accumulation and nitrate (NO(3)) leaching. Field studies were conducted on a Prentiss sandy loam (coarse-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, thermic Glossic Fragiudult) to determine N-use efficiency (NUE) and residual soil NO(3)-N. Two rates of 10 and 20 cm yr(- 1) ( approximately 260 and 480 kg ha(-1) N, respectively) were applied in four timing treatments: April to September (full season), April to May, June to July, and August to September. Plots were harvested every 7 to 9 wk beginning in June, and soil was sampled in fall after a killing frost and the following spring. Annual uptake of N and P were least in the August to September timing treatment. Doubling the effluent rate increased N uptake 112% in 2000 (from 130 to 276 kg ha(-1)) and 53% in 2001 (from 190 to 290 kg ha(-1)), suggesting 10-cm did not meet crop N demands. Due to low rainfall and decreased forage yield in 2000, doubling the effluent rate led to increased soil NO(3)-N to 30-cm depth in fall 2000 and spring 2001. Averaged across timing treatments, soil NO(3)-N at 5-cm depth ranged from 8.5 mg kg(-1) in non-irrigated controls to 39.6 mg kg(-1) with 20-cm effluent. Results indicate low NUE in the order of 30 to 38% for applications in August to September increase the risk to surface and ground water quality from excess N remaining in soil.

  11. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  12. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) detection, avoidance, and chemosensory effects of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Lari, Ebrahim; Pyle, Greg G

    2017-03-24

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) - a byproduct of the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada - is currently stored in on-site tailings ponds. The goal of the present study was to investigate the interaction of OSPW with the olfactory system and olfactory-mediated behaviours of fish upon the first encounter with OSPW. The response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to different concentrations (0.1, 1, and 10%) of OSPW was studied using a choice maze and electro-olfactography (EOG), respectively. The results of the present study showed that rainbow trout are capable of detecting and avoiding OSPW at a concentration as low as 0.1%. Exposure to 1% OSPW impaired (i.e. reduced sensitivity) the olfactory response of rainbow trout to alarm and food cues within 5 min or less. The results of the present study demonstrated that fish could detect and avoid minute concentrations of OSPW. However, if fish were exposed to OSPW-contaminated water and unable to escape, their olfaction would be impaired.

  13. Computer-Detected Attention Affects Foreign Language Listening but Not Reading Performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Ping

    2016-08-01

    No quantitative study has explored the influence of attention on learning English as a foreign language (EFL). This study investigated whether computer-detected attention is associated with EFL reading and listening and reading and listening anxiety. Traditional paper-based English tests used as entrance examinations and tests of general trait anxiety, reading, listening, reading test state anxiety, and listening test state anxiety were administered in 252 Taiwan EFL college students who were divided into High Attention (Conners' Continuous Performance Test, CPT < 50) and Low Attention (CPT ≥ 50) groups. No differences were found between the two groups for traditional paper-based English tests, trait anxieties, general English reading anxiety scales, and general English listening anxiety scales. The Low Attention group had higher test state anxiety and lower listening test scores than the High Attention group, but not in reading. State anxiety during listening tests for EFL students with computer-detected low attention tendency was elevated and their EFL listening performance was affected, but those differences were not found in reading.

  14. Detection of frequency modulation by hearing-impaired listeners: Effects of carrier frequency, modulation rate, and added amplitude modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Brian C. J.; Skrodzka, Ewa

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that the detection of frequency modulation (FM) of sinusoidal carriers can be mediated by two mechanisms: a place mechanism based on FM-induced amplitude modulation (AM) in the excitation pattern, and a temporal mechanism based on phase-locking in the auditory nerve. The temporal mechanism appears to be ``sluggish'' and does not play a role for FM rates above about 10 Hz. It also does not play a role for high carrier frequencies (above about 5 kHz). This experiment examined FM detection in three young subjects with normal hearing and four elderly subjects with cochlear hearing loss. Carrier frequencies were 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 kHz and modulation rates were 2, 5, 10, and 20 Hz. FM detection thresholds were measured both in the absence of AM, and with AM of a fixed depth (m=0.33) added in both intervals of a forced-choice trial. The added AM was intended to disrupt cues based on FM-induced AM in the excitation pattern. Generally, the hearing-impaired subjects performed markedly more poorly than the normal-hearing subjects. For the normal-hearing subjects, the disruptive effect of the AM tended to increase with increasing modulation rate, for carrier frequencies below 6 kHz, as found previously by Moore and Sek [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2320-2331 (1996)]. For the hearing-impaired subjects, the disruptive effective of the AM was generally larger than for the normal-hearing subjects, and the magnitude of the disruption did not consistently increase with increasing modulation rate. The results suggest that cochlear hearing impairment adversely affects both temporal and excitation pattern mechanisms of FM detection.

  15. Series Length Used during Trend Analysis Affects Sensitivity to Changes in Progression Rate in the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Stuart K.; Demirel, Shaban; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.; Cioffi, George A.; Ritch, Robert; Gordon, Mae O.; Kass, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Trend analysis techniques to detect glaucomatous progression typically assume a constant rate of change. This study uses data from the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study to assess whether this assumption decreases sensitivity to changes in progression rate, by including earlier periods of stability. Methods. Series of visual fields (mean 24 per eye) completed at 6-month intervals from participants randomized initially to observation were split into subseries before and after the initiation of treatment (the “split-point”). The mean deviation rate of change (MDR) was derived using these entire subseries, and using only the window length (W) tests nearest the split-point, for different window lengths of W tests. A generalized estimating equation model was used to detect changes in MDR occurring at the split-point. Results. Using shortened subseries with W = 7 tests, the MDR slowed by 0.142 dB/y upon initiation of treatment (P < 0.001), and the proportion of eyes showing “rapid deterioration” (MDR <–0.5 dB/y with P < 5%) decreased from 11.8% to 6.5% (P < 0.001). Using the entire sequence, no significant change in MDR was detected (P = 0.796), and there was no change in the proportion of eyes progressing (P = 0.084). Window lengths 6 ≤ W ≤ 9 produced similar benefits. Conclusions. Event analysis revealed a beneficial treatment effect in this dataset. This effect was not detected by linear trend analysis applied to entire series, but was detected when using shorter subseries of length between six and nine fields. Using linear trend analysis on the entire field sequence may not be optimal for detecting and monitoring progression. Nonlinear analyses may be needed for long series of fields. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000125.) PMID:23349433

  16. Prey dispersal rate affects prey species composition and trait diversity in response to multiple predators in metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Howeth, Jennifer G; Leibold, Mathew A

    2010-09-01

    1. Recent studies indicate that large-scale spatial processes can alter local community structuring mechanisms to determine local and regional assemblages of predators and their prey. In metacommunities, this may occur when the functional diversity represented in the regional predator species pool interacts with the rate of prey dispersal among local communities to affect prey species diversity and trait composition at multiple scales. 2. Here, we test for effects of prey dispersal rate and spatially and temporally heterogeneous predation from functionally dissimilar predators on prey structure in pond mesocosm metacommunities. An experimental metacommunity consisted of three pond mesocosm communities supporting two differentially size-selective invertebrate predators and their zooplankton prey. In each metacommunity, two communities maintained constant predation and supported either Gyrinus sp. (Coleoptera) or Notonecta ungulata (Hemiptera) predators generating a spatial prey refuge while the third community supported alternating predation from Gyrinus sp. and N. ungulata generating a temporal prey refuge. Mesocosm metacommunities were connected at either low (0.7% day(-1)) or high (10% day(-1)) planktonic prey dispersal. The diversity, composition and body size of zooplankton prey were measured at local and regional (metacommunity) scales. 3. Metacommunities experiencing the low prey dispersal rate supported the greatest regional prey species diversity (H') and evenness (J'). Neither dispersal rate nor predation regime affected local prey diversity or evenness. The spatial prey refuge at low dispersal maintained the largest difference in species composition and body size diversity between communities under Gyrinus and Notonecta predation, suggesting that species sorting was operating at the low dispersal rate. There was no effect of dispersal rate on species diversity or body size distribution in the temporal prey refuge. 4. The frequency distribution, but not

  17. Body size, but not cooling rate, affects supercooling points in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Daniel A; Martin, Adam R; Porter, Sanford D

    2008-10-01

    The level of an animal's stress resistance is set by multiple intrinsic physiological and extrinsic environmental parameters. Body size is a critical intrinsic parameter that affects numerous fitness-related organismal traits including fecundity, survival, mating success, and stress resistance. The rate of cooling is a critical extrinsic environmental factor that can affect thermal stress resistance. Workers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), display considerable variation in adult body size. Therefore, developing ecologically realistic models of thermotolerance in this species requires a consideration of body size. We tested the hypothesis that body size and cooling rate would interact to set the supercooling point in fire ant workers by exposing workers of a range of body sizes to three different cooling regimens: a very fast ramp of -10 degrees C/min, an intermediate ramp of -1 degrees C/min, and an ecologically relevant slow ramp of -0.1 degrees C/min. Specifically, we asked whether large workers were more susceptible to differences in cooling rate than smaller workers. We found that body size had a considerable effect on supercooling point with the largest workers freezing at a temperature approximately 3 degrees C higher than the smallest workers. Cooling rate had a very small effect on supercooling point, and there was no interaction between the two factors. Therefore, the allometry of supercooling points across the range of worker body sizes does not change with cooling rate.

  18. Imagination perspective affects ratings of the likelihood of occurrence of autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Benjamin U; Pezdek, Kathy; Lam, Shirley T

    2014-07-01

    Two experiments tested and confirmed the hypothesis that when the phenomenological characteristics of imagined events are more similar to those of related autobiographical memories, the imagined event is more likely to be considered to have occurred. At Time 1 and 2-weeks later, individuals rated the likelihood of occurrence for 20 life events. In Experiment 1, 1-week after Time 1, individuals imagined 3 childhood events from a first-person or third-person perspective. There was a no-imagination control. An increase in likelihood ratings from Time 1 to Time 2 resulted when imagination was from the third-person but not first-person perspective. In Experiment 2, childhood and recent events were imagined from a third- or first-person perspective. A significant interaction resulted. For childhood events, likelihood change scores were greater for third-person than first-person perspective; for recent adult events, likelihood change scores were greater for first-person than third-person perspective, although this latter trend was not significant.

  19. Environmental factors affecting ultraviolet photodegradation rates and estrogenicity of estrone and ethinylestradiol in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Susanna K; Marlatt, Vicki L; Kimpe, Lynda E; Lean, David R S; Trudeau, Vance L; Blais, Jules M

    2011-01-01

    The environmental fate and persistence of steroidal estrogens is influenced by their photodegradation. This can potentially occur both in the presence of the ultraviolet (UV) portion of solar radiation and in tertiary wastewater treatment plants that use UV radiation for disinfection purposes. To determine patterns of UV photodegradation for estrone (E1) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), water samples containing these compounds were exposed to levels of UVB radiation that would simulate exposure to ambient sunlight. E1 degraded with a pseudo-first-order rate law constant that was directly proportional to UVB radiation intensity (R² = 0.999, P < 0.001) and inversely proportional to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (R² = 0.812, P = 0.037). DOC acted as a competitive inhibitor to direct photolysis of E1 by UV. In contrast to E1, EE2 was more persistent under similar UVB treatment. A reporter gene assay showed that the estrogenicity of UVB-exposed estrogens did not decrease relative to non-UVB-exposed estrogens, suggesting that some of the photoproducts may also have estrogenic potency. These results show that environmental degradation rates of steroidal estrogens are predictable from the UV intensity reaching surface waters, and the DOC concentrations in these surface waters.

  20. Understanding how the aggregation structure of starch affects its gastrointestinal digestion rate and extent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Wang, Kai; Kuang, Qirong; Zhou, Sumei; Wang, Dazheng; Liu, Xingxun

    2016-06-01

    Regulating the starch gastrointestinal digestion rate by control of its aggregation structure is an effective way, but the mechanism is still not clear. Multi-scale structure of waxy and normal wheat starches were studied by confocal laser scanning and scanning electron microscopes, as well as wide-angle and small-angle X-ray techniques in this study. In vitro digestion kinetics of those two starches and structure-digestion relationship were also discussed. Both waxy and normal starches show A-type diffraction pattern, but waxy variety shows a slightly higher crystallinity. Small-angle X-ray scattering results show that waxy wheat starch has higher scattering peak intensity (Imax) and a larger crystallinity lamellar repeat distance (Lp) compared with the normal wheat starch. We suggested that the higher digestion rate of waxy starch at initial stage is mainly due to more small-size particles, but the higher crystallinity and the larger crystalline lamellar size limit the digestion extent.

  1. Telomere-interactive agents affect proliferation rates and induce chromosomal destabilization in sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Izbicka, E; Nishioka, D; Marcell, V; Raymond, E; Davidson, K K; Lawrence, R A; Wheelhouse, R T; Hurley, L H; Wu, R S; Von Hoff, D D

    1999-08-01

    Cationic porphyrins, which interact with guanine quadruplex (G4) telomeric folds, inhibit telomerase activity in human tumor cells. In this study, we have further examined effects of porphyrins and other telomere- and telomerase-interactive agents on proliferation rates and chromosome stability in a novel in vivo model, developing sea urchin embryos. We studied two porphyrins: (i) TMPyP4, a potent telomerase inhibitor; and (ii) TMPyP2, an isomer of TMPyP4 and an inefficient telomerase inhibitor, azidothymine (AZT), the reverse transcriptase inhibitor, antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide to telomerase RNA (TAG6) and a control scrambled sequence (ODN). TMPyP4, AZT and TAG6 (but not TMPyP2 or ODN) decreased the rates of cell proliferation and increased the percentage of cells trapped in mitosis. Nuclear localization of TAG6, but not of ODN, was demonstrated with 5'-fluoresceinated analogs of TAG6 and ODN. Formation of elongated chromosomes incapable of separating in anaphase, induced by TMPyP4, AZT and TAG6, closely resembled phenotypes resulting from telomerase template mutation or dominant negative TRF2 allele. Our data suggest that G4-interactive agents exert their antiproliferative effects via chromosomal destabilization and warrant their further development as valuable anticancer tools.

  2. Higher Adenoma Detection Rates with Endocuff-Assisted Colonoscopy – A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Fitzlaff, Rüdiger; Röming, Hermann; Ameis, Detlev; Heinecke, Achim; Kunsch, Steffen; Ellenrieder, Volker; Ströbel, Philipp; Schepke, Michael; Meister, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Endocuff is a device mounted on the tip of the colonoscope to help flatten the colonic folds during withdrawal. This study aimed to compare the adenoma detection rates between Endocuff-assisted (EC) colonoscopy and standard colonoscopy (SC). Methods This randomized prospective multicenter trial was conducted at four academic endoscopy units in Germany. Participants: 500 patients (235 males, median age 64[IQR 54–73]) for colon adenoma detection purposes were included in the study. All patients were either allocated to EC or SC. The primary outcome measure was the determination of the adenoma detection rates (ADR). Results The ADR significantly increased with the use of the Endocuff compared to standard colonoscopy (35.4%[95% confidence interval{CI} 29–41%] vs. 20.7%[95%CI 15–26%], p<0.0001). Significantly more sessile polyps were detected by EC. Overall procedure time and withdrawal time did not differ. Caecal and ileum intubation rates were similar. No major adverse events occurred in both groups. In multivariate analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03; 95%[CI] 1.01–1.05), male sex (OR 1.74; 95%CI 1.10–2.73), withdrawal time (OR 1.16; 95%CI 1.05–1.30), procedure time (OR 1.07; 95%CI 1.04–1.10), colon cleanliness (OR 0.60; 95%CI 0.39–0.94) and use of Endocuff (OR 2.09; 95%CI 1.34–3.27) were independent predictors of adenoma detection rates. Conclusions EC increases the adenoma detection rate by 14.7%(95%CI 6.9–22.5%). EC is safe, effective, easy to handle and might reduce colorectal interval carcinomas. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02034929. PMID:25470133

  3. Factors influencing variation in physician adenoma detection rates: a theory-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Louise; Hunkeler, Enid M.; Jensen, Christopher D.; Michie, Susan; Lee, Jeffrey K.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Zauber, Ann G.; Levin, Theodore R.; Quinn, Virginia P.; Corley, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Interventions to improve physician adenoma detection rates for colonoscopy have generally not been successful and there are little data on the factors contributing to variation that may be appropriate targets for intervention. We sought to identify factors that may influence variation in detection rates using theory-based tools for understanding behavior. Methods We separately studied gastroenterologists and endoscopy nurses at three Kaiser Permanente Northern California medical centers to identify potentially modifiable factors relevant to physician adenoma detection rate variability using structured group interviews (focus groups) and theory-based tools for understanding behavior and eliciting behavior change: the Capability, Opportunity, and Motivation behavior model; the Theoretical Domains Framework; and the Behavior Change Wheel. Results Nine factors potentially associated with detection rate variability were identified, including six related to capability (uncertainty about which types of polyps to remove; style of endoscopy team leadership; compromised ability to focus during an examination due to distractions; examination technique during withdrawal; difficulty detecting certain types of adenomas; and examiner fatigue and pain), two related to opportunity (perceived pressure due to the number of examinations expected per shift and social pressure to finish examinations before scheduled breaks or the end of a shift), and one related to motivation (valuing a meticulous examination as the top priority). Examples of potential intervention strategies are provided. Conclusions Using theory-based tools, this study identified several novel and potentially modifiable factors relating to capability, opportunity, and motivation that may contribute to adenoma detection rate variability and be appropriate targets for future intervention trials. PMID:26366787

  4. Verbal instructions targeting valence alter negative conditional stimulus evaluations (but do not affect reinstatement rates).

    PubMed

    Luck, Camilla C; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2017-01-31

    Negative conditional stimulus (CS) valence acquired during fear conditioning may enhance fear relapse and is difficult to remove as it extinguishes slowly and does not respond to the instruction that unconditional stimulus (US) presentations will cease. We examined whether instructions targeting CS valence would be more effective. In Experiment 1, an image of one person (CS+) was paired with an aversive US, while another (CS-) was presented alone. After acquisition, participants were given positive information about the CS+ poser and negative information about the CS- poser. Instructions reversed the pattern of differential CS valence present during acquisition and eliminated differential electrodermal responding. In Experiment 2, we compared positive and negative CS revaluation by providing positive/negative information about the CS+ and neutral information about CS-. After positive revaluation, differential valence was removed and differential electrodermal responding remained intact. After negative revaluation, differential valence was strengthened and differential electrodermal responding was eliminated. Unexpectedly, the instructions did not affect the reinstatement of differential electrodermal responding.

  5. Sperm dilution ratio affects post-thaw motility rate and velocity of Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes) sperm.

    PubMed

    Viveiros, Ana T M; Leal, Marcelo C

    2016-10-01

    There is a lack of standardization in sperm cryopreservation of aquatic organisms and, thus, a necessity of more accurate investigations in all steps of this process. In this study, the effects of sperm dilution ratio on post-thaw sperm quality of Prochilodus lineatus were evaluated. Sperm was diluted in a standard freezing medium (glucose and methyl glycol) at four different ratios (sperm to final volume = 1:5, 1:10, 1:50 or 1:100), frozen in a nitrogen vapour vessel at -170°C and then stored in liquid nitrogen vessel at -196°C. Post-thaw motility rate and velocities (curvilinear = VCL; average path = VAP; straight line = VSL) were determined using a Computer-Assisted Sperm Analyzer (CASA) at 10 and 40 s post-activation. The highest motility rates were observed when sperm was frozen at a ratio of 1:5 (76%) and 1:10 (75%). The highest VCL (225 μm/s) and VAP (203 μm/s) were observed at a ratio of 1:10, while VSL was similar among samples frozen at 1:5, 1:10 and 1:50 (97-124 μm/s). When those parameters were evaluated again 30 s later, motility decreased significantly in samples frozen at a ratio of 1:5 (57%) and 1:10 (61%), while velocities decreased significantly in all samples regardless of dilution ratio (75-85 μm/s of VCL, 38-53 μm/s of VAP and 25-39 μm/s of VSL). P. lineatus sperm should be frozen at a ratio of 1:10, where both the number of loaded sperm per straw and the post-thaw quality are maximized.

  6. Factors affecting ozone removal rates in a simulated aircraft cabin environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamás, Gyöngyi; Weschler, Charles J.; Bakó-Biró, Zsolt; Wyon, David P.; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter

    Ozone concentrations were measured concurrently inside a simulated aircraft cabin and in the airstream providing ventilation air to the cabin. Ozone decay rates were also measured after cessation of ozone injection into the supply airstream. By systematically varying the presence or absence of people, soiled T-shirts, aircraft seats and a used HEPA filter, we have been able in the course of 24 experiments to isolate the contributions of these and other factors to the removal of ozone from the cabin air. In the case of this simulated aircraft, people were responsible for almost 60% of the ozone removal occurring within the cabin and recirculation system; respiration can only have been responsible for about 4% of this removal. The aircraft seats removed about 25% of the ozone; the loaded HEPA filter, 7%; and the other surfaces, 10%. A T-shirt that had been slept in overnight removed roughly 70% as much ozone as a person, indicating the importance of skin oils in ozone removal. The presence of the used HEPA filter in the recirculated airstream reduced the perceived air quality. Over a 5-h period, the overall ozone removal rate by cabin surfaces decreased at ˜3% h -1. With people present, the measured ratio of ozone's concentration in the cabin versus that outside the cabin was 0.15-0.21, smaller than levels reported in the literature. The results reinforce the conclusion that the optimal way to reduce people's exposure to both ozone and ozone oxidation products is to efficiently remove ozone from the air supply system of an aircraft.

  7. Does the etiology affect the outcome and satisfaction rates of penile prosthesis implantation surgery?

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Arslan, Burak; Kozacioglu, Zafer; Yonguc, Tarik; Degirmenci, Tansu; Gunlusoy, Bulent; Minareci, Suleyman

    2014-11-01

    Our aim was to compare the outcomes and satisfaction rates of men undergoing penile prostheses implantation (PPI) secondary to radical prostatectomy (RP) and other causes of vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (ED). A total of 142 patients, of whom 60 underwent PPI due to ED following RP (Group 1) and 82 underwent PPI due to ED with other vasculogenic causes (Group 2) were included in this study. The preoperative erectile status was evaluated with the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). The satisfaction of patients and partners were evaluated by a telephone interview using Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) questionnaire and Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction Partner Survey. Preoperative mean IIEF scores were significantly lower in Group 1 (17.5 ± 6.4 vs. 24.2 ± 5.1, p = 0.01). For Groups 1 and 2, the mean EDITS scores of the patients were 58 ± 10 and 71 ± 8, respectively, and that for the partners were 46 ± 8 and 65 ± 7, respectively. Group 1 had significantly lower scores both for the EDITS and the EDITS Partner Survey (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, respectively). Patients who had undergone RP and their partners were found to have lower satisfaction rates compared to patients with other causes of vasculogenic ED who had penile implant surgery. From this point of view, it is important to know the patient's expectations about the treatment outcomes and a preoperative psychological and sexual counseling should be managed for possible treatment alternatives after RP.

  8. Oxidation of dimethylselenide by δMnO2: oxidation product and factors affecting oxidation rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Bronwen; Burau, Richard G.

    1995-01-01

    Volatile dimethylselenide (DMSe) was transformed to a nonvolatile Se compound in a ??-MnO2 suspension. The nonvolatile product was a single compound identified as dimethylselenoxide based on its mass spectra pattern. After 24 h, 100% of the DMSe added to a ??-MnO2 suspension was converted to nonpurgable Se as opposed to 20%, 18%, and 4% conversion for chromate, permanganate, and the filtrate from the suspension, respectively. Manganese was found in solution after reaction. These results imply that the reaction between manganese oxide and DMSe was a heterogeneous redox reaction involving solid phase ??-MnO2 and solution phase DMSe. Oxidation of DMSe to dimethylselenoxide [OSe(CH3)2] by a ??-MnO2 suspension appears to be first order with respect to ??-MnO2, to DMSe, and to hydrogen ion with an overall rate law of d[OSe(CH3)2 ]/dt = 95 M-2 min-1 [MnO2]1[DMSe]1[H+]1 for the MnO2 concentration range of 0.89 ?? 10-3 - 2.46 ?? 10-3 M, the DMSe concentration range of 3.9 ?? 10-7 - 15.5 ?? 10-7 M Se, and a hydrogen ion concentation range of 7.4 ?? 10-6 -9.5 ?? 10-8 M. A general surface site adsorption model is consistent with this rate equation if the uncharged |OMnOH is the surface adsorption site. DMSe acts as a Lewis base, and the manganese oxide surface acts as a Lewis acid. DMSe adsorption to |OMnOH can be viewed as a Lewis acid/ base complex between the largely p orbitals of the DMSe lone pair and the unoccupied eg orbitals on manganese oxide. For such a complex, frontier molecular orbital theory predicts electron transfer to occur via an inner-sphere complex between the DMSe and the manganese oxide. ?? 1995 American Chemical Society.

  9. How does relaxing the algorithm for autism affect DSM-V prevalence rates?

    PubMed

    Matson, Johnny L; Hattier, Megan A; Williams, Lindsey W

    2012-08-01

    Although it is still unclear what causes autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), over time researchers and clinicians have become more precise with detecting and diagnosing ASD. Many diagnoses, however, are based on the criteria established within the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM); thus, any change in these diagnostic criteria can have a great effect upon children with ASD and their families. It is predicted that the prevalence of ASD diagnoses will dramatically decrease with the adoption of the proposed DSM-5 criteria in 2013. The aim of this current study was to inspect the changes in prevalence first using a diagnostic criteria set which was modified slightly from the DSM-5 criteria (Modified-1 criteria) and again using a set of criteria which was relaxed even a bit more (Modified-2 criteria). Modified-1 resulted in 33.77 % fewer toddlers being diagnosed with ASD compared to the DSM-IV, while Modified-2 resulted in only a 17.98 % decrease in ASD diagnoses. Children diagnosed with the DSM-5 criteria exhibited the greatest levels of autism symptomatology, but the Mod-1, Mod-2, and DSM-IV groups still demonstrated significant impairments. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Low-power system-on-chip implementation for respiratory rate detection and transmission.

    PubMed

    Padasdao, Bryson; Yee, Roxanne; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Recent biosensors can measure respiratory rate non-invasively, but limits patient mobility or requires regular battery replacement. Respiratory effort, which can scavenge mW, may power the sensor, but requires minimal sensor power usage. This paper demonstrates feasibility of respiratory rate measurement by using a comparator instead of ADC. A low-power system-on-chip can implement respiratory rate detection and wireless data transmission with a total power consumption under 82 µW. This approach produces significant power savings, and transmission uses under 30% of total power consumption.

  11. High repetition rate laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using acousto-optically gated detection

    SciTech Connect

    Pořízka, Pavel; Kaiser, Jozef

    2014-07-15

    This contribution introduces a new type of setup for fast sample analysis using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The novel design combines a high repetition rate laser (up to 50 kHz) as excitation source and an acousto-optical modulator (AOM) as a fast switch for temporally gating the detection of the emitted light. The plasma radiation is led through the active medium of the AOM where it is diffracted on the transient ultrasonic Bragg grid. The diffracted radiation is detected by a compact Czerny-Turner spectrometer equipped with a CCD line detector. Utilizing the new combination of high repetition rate lasers and AOM gated detection, rapid measurements with total integration times of only 10 ms resulted in a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.13 wt.% for magnesium in aluminum alloys. This short integration time corresponds to 100 analyses/s. Temporal gating of LIP radiation results in improved LODs and consecutively higher sensitivity of the LIBS setup. Therefore, an AOM could be beneficially utilized to temporally detect plasmas induced by high repetition rate lasers. The AOM in combination with miniaturized Czerny-Turner spectrometers equipped with CCD line detectors and small footprint diode pumped solid state lasers results in temporally gateable compact LIBS setups.

  12. Detection and Modeling of Non-Tidal Oceanic Effects on the Earth's Rotation Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, S. L.; Chao, Y.; Dickey, J. O.; Gegout, P.

    1998-01-01

    Sub-decadal changes in the Earth's rotation rate, and hence in the length-of-day (LOD), are largely controlled by variations in atmospheric angular momentum. Results from two oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), forced by observed wind stress and heat flux for the years 1992-1994, show that ocean current and mass distribution changes also induce detectable LOD variations.

  13. The Tip of the Tail Needle Affects the Rate of DNA Delivery by Bacteriophage P22

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, Justin C.; Gogokhia, Lasha; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Cingolani, Gino; Casjens, Sherwood R.

    2013-01-01

    The P22-like bacteriophages have short tails. Their virions bind to their polysaccharide receptors through six trimeric tailspike proteins that surround the tail tip. These short tails also have a trimeric needle protein that extends beyond the tailspikes from the center of the tail tip, in a position that suggests that it should make first contact with the host’s outer membrane during the infection process. The base of the needle serves as a plug that keeps the DNA in the virion, but role of the needle during adsorption and DNA injection is not well understood. Among the P22-like phages are needle types with two completely different C-terminal distal tip domains. In the phage Sf6-type needle, unlike the other P22-type needle, the distal tip folds into a “knob” with a TNF-like fold, similar to the fiber knobs of bacteriophage PRD1 and Adenovirus. The phage HS1 knob is very similar to that of Sf6, and we report here its crystal structure which, like the Sf6 knob, contains three bound L-glutamate molecules. A chimeric P22 phage with a tail needle that contains the HS1 terminal knob efficiently infects the P22 host, Salmonella enterica, suggesting the knob does not confer host specificity. Likewise, mutations that should abrogate the binding of L-glutamate to the needle do not appear to affect virion function, but several different other genetic changes to the tip of the needle slow down potassium release from the host during infection. These findings suggest that the needle plays a role in phage P22 DNA delivery by controlling the kinetics of DNA ejection into the host. PMID:23951045

  14. Lipid composition affects the rate of photosensitized dissipation of cross-membrane diffusion potential on liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ytzhak, Shany; Wuskell, Joseph P.; Loew, Leslie M.; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Hydrophobic or amphiphilic tetrapyrrole sensitizers are taken up by cells and are usually located in cellular lipid membranes. Singlet oxygen is photogenerated by the sensitizer and it diffuses in the membrane and causes oxidative damage to membrane components. This damage can occur to membrane lipids and to membrane-localized proteins. Depolarization of the Nernst electric potential on cells’ membranes has been observed in cellular photosensitization, but it was not established whether lipid oxidation is a relevant factor leading to abolishing the resting potential of cells’ membranes and to their death. In this work we studied the effect of liposomes’ lipid composition on the kinetics of hematoporphyrin-photosensitized dissipation of K+-diffusion electric potential that was generated across the membranes. We employed an electrochromic voltage-sensitive spectroscopic probe that possesses a high fluorescence signal response to the potential. We found a correlation between the structure and unsaturation of lipids and the leakage of the membrane, following photosensitization. As the extent of non-conjugated unsaturation of the lipids is increased from 1 to 6 double bonds, the kinetics of depolarization become faster. We also found that the kinetics of depolarization is affected by the percentage of the unsaturated lipids in the liposome: as the fraction of the unsaturated lipids increases the leakage trough the membrane is enhanced. When liposomes are composed of a lipid mixture similar to that of natural membranes and photosensitization is being carried out under usual photodynamic therapy (PDT) conditions, photodamage to the lipids is not likely to cause enhanced permeability of ions through the membrane, which would have been a mechanism that leads to cell death. PMID:20536150

  15. Intraoperative MRI electrical noise and monitor ECG filters affect arrhythmia detection and identification.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Melissa; Kirchen, Gwynne; Bonaventura, Bridget; Rosborough, Kelly; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Dzwonczyk, Roger

    2012-06-01

    Most electrical equipment in the modern operating room (OR) radiates electrical noise (EN) that can interfere with patient monitors. We have described the EN that an intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) system emits and have shown that this high-energy EN diminishes the quality of the ECG waveform during iMRI scans in our neurosurgical OR. We have also shown that the ECG signal filters in our iMRI-compatible patient monitor reduce this interference but, in the process, disturb the true morphology of the displayed waveform. This simulation study evaluates how iMRI-generated EN affects the ability of the anesthetist to detect and identify ECG arrhythmias and whether the patient monitor's ECG signal filters can improve arrhythmia recognition. Using an ECG simulator, we generated Lead II and V5 ECG signal segments that contained either no arrhythmia or one of four common cardiac arrhythmias. We filtered the ECG segments with four filters available on our iMRI-compatible monitor (Veris MR, MEDRAD Inc., Indianola, PA USA). We then digitized the segments and mixed simulated iMRI EN into the resultant tracings. With institutional approval and written informed consent, board-certified anesthesiologists reviewed the tracings, determined if an arrhythmia was present and identified the arrhythmia. We conducted the study anonymously. We reported the data as percent correct arrhythmia detection and correct arrhythmia identification. Thirty-one anesthesiologists completed the study. Overall, the participants correctly detected 79.5% (95% CI: 77.2, 81.7%) of the arrhythmias and correctly identified 62.5% (95% CI: 59.8, 65.3%) of the arrhythmias, regardless of EN presence. Although the proportions among monitor noise filters studied were not significant, the manufacturer-designated MR5 Veris MR filter optimized arrhythmia detection and arrhythmia identification for our participants, regardless if EN was present in the ECG tracings. In the neurosurgical OR, the

  16. SETI: The transmission rate of radio communication and the signal's detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridman, P. A.

    2011-11-01

    The transmission rate of communication between radio telescopes on Earth and extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) is here calculated up to distances of 1000 light years. Both phase-shift keying (PSK) and frequency-shift keying (FSK) modulation schemes are considered. It is shown that M-ary FSK is advantageous in terms of energy. Narrow-band pulses scattered over the spectrum sharing a common drift rate can be the probable signals of ETI. Modern SETI spectrum analyzers are well suited to searching for these types of signals. Such signals can be detected using the Hough transform which is a dedicated tool for detecting patterns in an image. The time-frequency plane representing the power output of the spectrum analyzer during the search for ETI gives an image from which the Hough transform (HT) can detect signal patterns with frequency drift.

  17. Affective forecasting and self-rated symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hypomania: evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Quirk, Stuart W; Chapman, Benjamin P; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Emerging research has examined individual differences in affective forecasting; however, we are aware of no published study to date linking psychopathology symptoms to affective forecasting problems. Pitting cognitive theory against depressive realism theory, we examined whether dysphoria was associated with negatively biased affective forecasts or greater accuracy. Participants (n=325) supplied predicted and actual emotional reactions for three days surrounding an emotionally evocative relational event, Valentine's Day. Predictions were made a month prior to the holiday. Consistent with cognitive theory, we found evidence for a dysphoric forecasting bias-the tendency of individuals in dysphoric states to overpredict negative emotional reactions to future events. The dysphoric forecasting bias was robust across ratings of positive and negative affect, forecasts for pleasant and unpleasant scenarios, continuous and categorical operationalisations of dysphoria, and three time points of observation. Similar biases were not observed in analyses examining the independent effects of anxiety and hypomania. Findings provide empirical evidence for the long-assumed influence of depressive symptoms on future expectations. The present investigation has implications for affective forecasting studies examining information-processing constructs, decision making, and broader domains of psychopathology.

  18. Changes in food web structure affect rate of PCB decline in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hebert, C.E.; Hobson, K.A.; Shutt, J.L.

    2000-05-01

    Biological monitors provide important information regarding temporal trends in levels of persistent organic pollutants. Correct interpretation of these trends is critical if one is to accurately assess his progress in eliminating these contaminants from the environment. In the Laurentian Great Lakes, polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in herring gull eggs declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. By the mid-1980s, further declines were not as obvious. An exception to this trend was observed in eggs from Lake Erie. On that lake, egg PCB concentrations continued to decline rapidly during the 1980s/1990s. Evidence from stable isotope analysis indicated that temporal changes in the composition of the herring gull diet occurred on Lake Erie. In the eastern basin, declines in fish availability may have forced the gulls to incorporate a greater proportion of terrestrial food into their diets. Decreases in the proportion of fish in the gull diet would have resulted in reduced PCB exposure. This may be partially responsible for the continuing rapid rate of decline in egg PCB concentrations. This decline should be interpreted with caution. These trends may not be indicative of lake-wide declines in PCB bioavailability but only reflect changes in dietary exposure brought about by alterations in food web structure.

  19. Perceptual-center modeling is affected by including acoustic rate-of-change modulations.

    PubMed

    Harsin, C A

    1997-02-01

    This study investigated the acoustic correlates of perceptual centers (p-centers) in CV and VC syllables and developed an acoustic p-center model. In Part 1, listeners located syllables' p-centers by a method-of-adjustment procedure. The CV syllables contained the consonants /s/,/r/,/n/,/t/,/d/,/k/, and /g/; the VCs, the consonants /s/,/r/, and /n/. The vowel in all syllables was /a/. The results of this experiment replicated and extended previous findings regarding the effects of phonetic variation on p-centers. In Part 2, a digital signal processing procedure was used to acoustically model p-center perception. Each stimulus was passed through a six-band digital filter, and the outputs were processed to derive low-frequency modulation components. These components were weighted according to a perceived modulation magnitude function and recombined to create six psychoacoustic envelopes containing modulation energies from 3 to 47 Hz. In this analysis, p-centers were found to be highly correlated with the time-weighted function of the rate-of-change in the psychoacoustic envelopes, multiplied by the psychoacoustic envelope magnitude increment. The results were interpreted as suggesting (1) the probable role of low-frequency energy modulations in p-center perception, and (2) the presence of perceptual processes that integrate multiple articulatory events into a single syllabic event.

  20. Factors affecting sperm recovery rates and survival after centrifugation of equine semen.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, M S; Lyle, S K; Eilts, B E; Eljarrah, A H; Paccamonti, D L

    2012-11-01

    Conventional centrifugation protocols result in important sperm losses during removal of the supernatant. In this study, the effect of centrifugation force (400 or 900 × g), duration (5 or 10 min), and column height (20 or 40 mL; Experiment 1); sperm concentration (25, 50, and 100 × 10(6)/mL; Experiment 2), and centrifugation medium (EZ-Mixin CST [Animal Reproduction Systems, Chino, CA, USA], INRA96 [IMV Technologies, Maple Grove, MN, USA], or VMDZ [Partnar Animal Health, Port Huron, MI, USA]; Experiment 3) on sperm recovery and survival after centrifugation and cooling and storage were evaluated. Overall, sperm survival was not affected by the combination of centrifugation protocol and cooling. Total sperm yield was highest after centrifugation for 10 min at 400 × g in 20-mL columns (95.6 ± 5%, mean ± SD) or 900 × g in 20-mL (99.2 ± 0.8%) or 40-mL (91.4 ± 4.5%) columns, and at 900 × g for 5 min in 20-mL columns (93.8 ± 8.9%; P < 0.0001). Total (TMY) and progressively motile sperm yield followed a similar pattern (P < 0.0001). Sperm yields were not significantly different among samples centrifuged at various sperm concentrations. However, centrifugation at 100 × 10(6)/mL resulted in significantly lower total sperm yield (83.8 ± 10.7%) and TMY (81.7 ± 6.8%) compared with noncentrifuged semen. Centrifugation in VMDZ resulted in significantly lower TMY (69.3 ± 22.6%), progressively motile sperm yield (63.5 ± 18.2%), viable yield (60.9 ± 36.5%), and survival of progressively motile sperm after cooling (21 ± 10.8%) compared with noncentrifuged semen. In conclusion, centrifuging volumes of ≤ 20 mL minimized sperm losses with conventional protocols. With 40-mL columns, it may be recommended to increase the centrifugal force to 900 × g for 10 min and dilute the semen to a sperm concentration of 25 to 50 × 10(6)/mL in a milk- or fractionated milk-based medium. The semen extender VMDZ did not seem well suited for centrifugation of equine semen.

  1. Direct analysis of trace elements in crude oils by high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser ablation coupled to ICPMS detection.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Estelle; Pécheyran, Christophe; Sanabria Ortega, Georgia; Prinzhofer, Alain; Donard, Olivier F X

    2011-02-01

    IR-femtosecond pulses were used at high repetition rates (up to 10 kHz) to ablate viscous crude oils for the determination of trace elements by ICPMS. A special internal glass cap was fitted into the ablation cell to minimise oil splashes and remove big particles that would be otherwise spread into the cell. Laser ablation in static and dynamic conditions (i.e. the laser beam being moved rapidly at the surface of the sample) was studied together with some fundamental parameters like repetition rate and fluence. Signal sensitivity and stability were found to be strongly affected by repetition rate and fluence, though not in linear manner, and in some circumstances by the laser beam velocity. Sample transport efficiency was found to decrease with increasing repetition rate, probably due to stronger particle agglomeration when increasing the density of primary particles. ICPMS plasma atomisation/ionisation efficiency was also found to be affected to some extent at the highest repetition rates. Moderate repetition rate (1 kHz), high fluence (24 J cm(-2)) and fast scanning velocity (100 mm s(-1)) were preferred taking into account signal intensity and stability. Sample transport elemental fractionation was also evidenced, particularly as regards to carbon due to volatilisation of volatile organic species. Matrix effect occurring when comparing the ablation of transparent (base oil) and opaque (crude oil) samples could not be completely suppressed by the use of IR femtosecond pulses, requiring a matrix matching or a standard addition calibration approach. This approach provided good accuracy and very low detection limits in the crude oil, in the range of ng g(-1).

  2. Estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are less than one

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacKenzie, D.I.; Nichols, J.D.; Lachman, G.B.; Droege, S.; Royle, J. Andrew; Langtimm, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Nondetection of a species at a site does not imply that the species is absent unless the probability of detection is 1. We propose a model and likelihood-based method for estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are 0.3). We estimated site occupancy rates for two anuran species at 32 wetland sites in Maryland, USA, from data collected during 2000 as part of an amphibian monitoring program, Frogwatch USA. Site occupancy rates were estimated as 0.49 for American toads (Bufo americanus), a 44% increase over the proportion of sites at which they were actually observed, and as 0.85 for spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), slightly above the observed proportion of 0.83.

  3. Does exercise training affect resting metabolic rate in adolescents with obesity?

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Wells, George A; Doucette, Steve; Ma, Jinhui; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that resistance exercise training performed alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) relative to aerobic-only and nonexercising control groups. Postpubertal adolescents (N = 304) aged 14-18 years with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) or overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile + additional diabetes risk factor(s)) were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks: Aerobic exercise training, Resistance exercise training, Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, or Control. All participants received dietary counselling targeting a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant change in RMR in any group, in spite of significant within-group increases in fat-free mass in the Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined exercise training groups. RMR at baseline and 6 months were Aerobic: 1972 ± 38 and 1990 ± 41; Resistance: 2024 ± 37 and 1992 ± 41; Combined: 2023 ± 38 and 1995 ± 38; Control: 2075 ± 38 and 2073 ± 39 kcal/day (p > 0.05). There were no between-group differences in RMR after adjustment for total body weight or fat-free mass between groups over time. Per-protocol analyses including only participants with ≥70% adherence, and analyses stratified by sex, also showed no within- or between-group differences in RMR. In conclusion, despite an increase in fat-free mass in all exercise groups, 6 months of aerobic, resistance, or combined training with modest dietary restriction did not increase RMR compared with diet only in adolescents with obesity.

  4. Ascorbate availability affects tumor implantation-take rate and increases tumor rejection in Gulo(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Elizabeth J; Vissers, Margreet Cm; Dachs, Gabi U

    2016-01-01

    In solid tumors, HIF1 upregulates the expression of hundreds of genes involved in cell survival, tumor growth, and adaptation to the hypoxic microenvironment. HIF1 stabilization and activity are suppressed by prolyl and asparagine hydroxylases, which require oxygen as a substrate and ascorbate as a cofactor. This has led us to hypothesize that intracellular ascorbate availability could modify the hypoxic HIF1 response and influence tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of variable intracellular ascorbate levels on HIF1 induction in cancer cells in vitro, and on tumor-take rate and growth in the Gulo(-/-) mouse. These mice depend on dietary ascorbate, and were supplemented with 3,300 mg/L, 330 mg/L, or 33 mg/L ascorbate in their drinking water, resulting in saturating, medium, or low plasma and tissue ascorbate levels, respectively. In Lewis lung carcinoma cells (LL/2) in culture, optimal ascorbate supplementation reduced HIF1 accumulation under physiological but not pathological hypoxia. LL/2, B16-F10 melanoma, or CMT-93 colorectal cancer cells were implanted subcutaneously into Gulo(-/-) mice at a range of cell inocula. Establishment of B16-F10 tumors in mice supplemented with 3,300 mg/L ascorbate required an increased number of cancer cells to initiate tumor growth compared with the number of cells required in mice on suboptimal ascorbate intake. Elevated ascorbate intake was also associated with decreased tumor ascorbate levels and a reduction in HIF1α expression and transcriptional activity. Following initial growth, all CMT-93 tumors regressed spontaneously, but mice supplemented with 33 mg/L ascorbate had lower plasma ascorbate levels and grew larger tumors than optimally supplemented mice. The data from this study indicate that improved ascorbate intake is consistent with increased intracellular ascorbate levels, reduced HIF1 activity and reduced tumor initiation and growth, and this may be advantageous in the management of cancer.

  5. COX-2 inhibition affects growth rate of Chlamydia muridarum within epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Dubinett, Steven; Patterson, Simie Lavern A; Kelly, Kathleen A

    2006-02-01

    Chlamydiae alter apoptosis of host target cells, which regulates their growth. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, modulates epithelial cell survival. We addressed whether endogenous PGE2 alters chlamydial growth or apoptosis of epithelial cells infected with Chlamydia muridarum. PGE2 is secreted by infected host cells in the genital tract (GT). Using immunohistochemical techniques, we found that COX-2 enzyme was localized to epithelial cells in the GT in vivo. Pellets of the COX-2 enzyme inhibitor, NS-398, and placebo were implanted in mice subcutaneously and released a constant amount of these chemicals throughout the infection. NS-398-treated mice were found to exhibit 10-fold lower bacterial load than the placebo group on day 3 post infection, suggesting disruption of the chlamydial developmental cycle. To prove this, the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549 was then infected with different MOIs of C. muridarum in the presence of multiple concentrations of NS-398 in vitro. There was no difference in inclusion forming units (IFUs) between NS-389-treated and untreated cells. We also found no alterations in C. muridarum IFUs in A549 cells transfected with a 2.0 kb cDNA fragment of human COX-2 cloned in the sense (S) or anti-sense (AS) orientation. However, the inclusion size was reduced and the number of EB was significantly diminished during reinfection in AS-transfected cells. In addition, the absence of COX-2 did not significantly modify apoptosis in infected cells. In total, COX-2 deficiency reduces the infectious burden in vivo and may modulate transmission of the organism.

  6. When can decreasing diversification rates be detected with molecular phylogenies and the fossil record?

    PubMed

    Liow, Lee Hsiang; Quental, Tiago B; Marshall, Charles R

    2010-12-01

    Traditionally, patterns and processes of diversification could only be inferred from the fossil record. However, there are an increasing number of tools that enable diversification dynamics to be inferred from molecular phylogenies. The application of these tools to new data sets has renewed interest in the question of the prevalence of diversity-dependent diversification. However, there is growing recognition that the absence of extinct species in molecular phylogenies may prevent accurate inferences about the underlying diversification dynamics. On the other hand, even though the fossil record provides direct data on extinct species, its incompleteness can also mask true diversification processes. Here, using computer-generated diversity-dependent phylogenies, we mimicked molecular phylogenies by eliminating extinct lineages. We also simulated the fossil record by converting the temporal axis into discrete intervals and imposing a variety of preservation processes on the lineages. Given the lack of reliable phylogenies for many fossil marine taxa, we also stripped away phylogenetic information from the computer-generated phylogenies. For the simulated molecular phylogenies, we examined the efficacy of the standard metric (the γ statistic) for identifying decreasing rates of diversification. We find that the underlying decreasing rate of diversification is detected only when the rate of change in the diversification rate is high, and if the molecular phylogeny happens to capture the diversification process as the equilibrium diversity is first reached or shortly thereafter. In contrast, estimating rates of diversification from the simulated fossil record captures the expected zero rate of diversification after equilibrium is reached under a wide range of preservation scenarios. The ability to detect the initial decreasing rate of diversification is lost as the temporal resolution of the fossil record drops and with a decreased quality of preservation. When the

  7. Modelling evolution of air dose rates in river basins in Fukushima Prefecture affected by sediment-sorbed radiocesium redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malins, A.; Sakuma, K.; Nakanishi, T.; Kurikami, H.; Machida, M.; Kitamura, A.; Yamada, S.

    2015-12-01

    The radioactive 134Cs and 137Cs isotopes deposited over Fukushima Prefecture by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster are the predominant radiological concern for the years following the accident. This is because the energetic gamma radiation they emit on decay constitutes the majority of the elevated air dose rates that now afflict the region. Therefore, we developed a tool for calculating air dose rates from arbitrary radiocesium spatial distributions across the land surface and depth profiles within the ground. As cesium is strongly absorbed by clay soils, its primary redistribution mechanism within Fukushima Prefecture is by soil erosion and water-borne sediment transport. Each year between 0.1~1% of the total radiocesium inventory in the river basins neighboring Fukushima Daiichi is eroded from the land surface and enters into water courses, predominantly during typhoon storms. Although this is a small amount in relative terms, in absolute terms it corresponds to terabecquerels of 134Cs and 137Cs redistribution each year and this can affect the air dose rate at locations of high erosion and sediment deposition. This study inputs the results of sediment redistribution simulations into the dose rate evaluation tool to calculate the locations and magnitude of air dose rate changes due to radiocesium redistribution. The dose rate calculations are supported by handheld survey instrument results taken within the Prefecture.

  8. Stiff Mutant Genes of Phycomyces Affect Turgor Pressure and Wall Mechanical Properties to Regulate Elongation Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Joseph K. E.; Munoz, Cindy M.; Blakley, Scott E.; Truong, Jason T.; Ortega, Elena L.

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth is paramount to all living organisms. In plants, algae and fungi, regulation of expansive growth of cells is required for development and morphogenesis. Also, many sensory responses of stage IVb sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus are produced by regulating elongation growth rate (growth responses) and differential elongation growth rate (tropic responses). “Stiff” mutant sporangiophores exhibit diminished tropic responses and are found to be defective in at least five genes; madD, E, F, G, and J. Prior experimental research suggests that the defective genes affect growth regulation, but this was not verified. All the growth of the single-celled stalk of the stage IVb sporangiophore occurs in a short region termed the “growth zone.” Prior experimental and theoretical research indicates that elongation growth rate of the stage IVb sporangiophore can be regulated by controlling the cell wall mechanical properties within the growth zone and the magnitude of the turgor pressure. A quantitative biophysical model for elongation growth rate is required to elucidate the relationship between wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure during growth regulation. In this study, it is hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the wall within the growth zone of stiff mutant sporangiophores are different compared to wild type (WT). A biophysical equation for elongation growth rate is derived for fungal and plant cells with a growth zone. Two strains of stiff mutants are studied, C149 madD120 (−) and C216 geo- (−). Experimental results demonstrate that turgor pressure is larger but irreversible wall deformation rates within the growth zone and growth zone length are smaller for stiff mutant sporangiophores compared to WT. These findings can explain the diminished tropic responses of the stiff mutant sporangiophores. It is speculated that the defective genes affect the amount of wall-building material delivered to the inner cell

  9. Stiff mutant genes of phycomyces affect turgor pressure and wall mechanical properties to regulate elongation growth rate.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Joseph K E; Munoz, Cindy M; Blakley, Scott E; Truong, Jason T; Ortega, Elena L

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of cell growth is paramount to all living organisms. In plants, algae and fungi, regulation of expansive growth of cells is required for development and morphogenesis. Also, many sensory responses of stage IVb sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus are produced by regulating elongation growth rate (growth responses) and differential elongation growth rate (tropic responses). "Stiff" mutant sporangiophores exhibit diminished tropic responses and are found to be defective in at least five genes; madD, E, F, G, and J. Prior experimental research suggests that the defective genes affect growth regulation, but this was not verified. All the growth of the single-celled stalk of the stage IVb sporangiophore occurs in a short region termed the "growth zone." Prior experimental and theoretical research indicates that elongation growth rate of the stage IVb sporangiophore can be regulated by controlling the cell wall mechanical properties within the growth zone and the magnitude of the turgor pressure. A quantitative biophysical model for elongation growth rate is required to elucidate the relationship between wall mechanical properties and turgor pressure during growth regulation. In this study, it is hypothesized that the mechanical properties of the wall within the growth zone of stiff mutant sporangiophores are different compared to wild type (WT). A biophysical equation for elongation growth rate is derived for fungal and plant cells with a growth zone. Two strains of stiff mutants are studied, C149 madD120 (-) and C216 geo- (-). Experimental results demonstrate that turgor pressure is larger but irreversible wall deformation rates within the growth zone and growth zone length are smaller for stiff mutant sporangiophores compared to WT. These findings can explain the diminished tropic responses of the stiff mutant sporangiophores. It is speculated that the defective genes affect the amount of wall-building material delivered to the inner cell wall.

  10. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low Dose & Low Dose-Rate Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bedford, Joel

    2014-04-18

    Our laboratory has, among other things, developed and used the gamma H2AX focus assay and other chromosomal and cell killing assays to show that differences in this DNA double strand break (dsb) related response can be clearly and distinctly demonstrated for cells which are mildly hyper-radiosensitive such as those associated with A-T heterozygosity. We have found this level of mild hypersensitivity for cells from some 20 to 30 % of apparently normal individuals and from apparently normal parents of Retinoblastoma patients. We found significant differences in gene expression in somatic cells from unaffected parents of Rb patients as compared with normal controls, suggesting that these parents may harbor some as yet unidentified genetic abnormality. In other experiments we sought to determine the extent of differences in normal human cellular reaponses to radiation depending on their irradiation in 2D monolayer vs 3D organized acinar growth conditions. We exmined cell reproductive death, chromosomal aberration induction, and the levels of γ-H2AX foci in cells after single acute gamma-ray doses and immediately after 20 hours of irradiation at a dose rate of 0.0017 Gy/min. We found no significant differences in the dose-responses of these cells under the 2D or 3D growth conditions. While this does not mean such differences cannot occur in other situations, it does mean that they do not generally or necessarily occur. In another series of studies in collaboration with Dr Chuan Li, with supprt from this current grant. We reported a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. In yet another collaboration with Dr, B. Chen with funds from this grant, the relative radiosensitivity to cell killing as well as chromosomal instability of 13 DNA-PKcs site-directed mutant cell lines (defective at phosphorylation sites or kinase

  11. Heart Rate Detection During Sleep Using a Flexible RF Resonator and Injection-Locked PLL Sensor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Woo; Choi, Soo Beom; An, Yong-Jun; Kim, Byung-Hyun; Kim, Deok Won; Yook, Jong-Gwan

    2015-11-01

    Novel nonintrusive technologies for wrist pulse detection have been developed and proposed as systems for sleep monitoring using three types of radio frequency (RF) sensors. The three types of RF sensors for heart rate measurement on wrist are a flexible RF single resonator, array resonators, and an injection-locked PLL resonator sensor. To verify the performance of the new RF systems, we compared heart rates between presleep time and postsleep onset time. Heart rates of ten subjects were measured using the RF systems during sleep. All three RF devices detected heart rates at 0.2 to 1 mm distance from the skin of the wrist over clothes made of cotton fabric. The wrist pulse signals of a flexible RF single resonator were consistent with the signals obtained by a portable piezoelectric transducer as a reference. Then, we confirmed that the heart rate after sleep onset time significantly decreased compared to before sleep. In conclusion, the RF system can be utilized as a noncontact nonintrusive method for measuring heart rates during sleep.

  12. Parameters of Glucose and Lipid Metabolism Affect the Occurrence of Colorectal Adenomas Detected by Surveillance Colonoscopies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee; Suh, Jung Yul; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Kyuyong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Limited data are available regarding the associations between parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and the occurrence of metachronous adenomas. We investigated whether these parameters affect the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Materials and Methods This longitudinal study was performed on 5289 subjects who underwent follow-up colonoscopy between 2012 and 2013 among 62171 asymptomatic subjects who underwent an initial colonoscopy for a health check-up between 2010 and 2011. The risk of adenoma occurrence was assessed using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results The mean interval between the initial and follow-up colonoscopy was 2.2±0.6 years. The occurrence of adenomas detected by the follow-up colonoscopy increased linearly with the increasing quartiles of fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides measured at the initial colonoscopy. These associations persisted after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted hazard ratios for adenoma occurrence comparing the fourth with the first quartiles of fasting glucose, HbA1c, insulin, HOMA-IR, and triglycerides were 1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26–1.77; ptrend<0.001], 1.22 (95% CI, 1.04–1.43; ptrend=0.024), 1.22 (95% CI, 1.02–1.46; ptrend=0.046), 1.36 (95% CI, 1.14–1.63; ptrend=0.004), and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.99–1.42; ptrend=0.041), respectively. In addition, increasing quartiles of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were associated with an increasing occurrence of adenomas. Conclusion The levels of parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism were significantly associated with the occurrence of adenomas detected on surveillance colonoscopy. Improving the parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism through lifestyle changes or medications may be helpful in preventing metachronous adenomas. PMID:28120565

  13. Polyp detection rate and pathological features in patients undergoing a comprehensive colonoscopy screening

    PubMed Central

    Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan; Ashtari, Sara; Pourhoseingholi, Mohmad Amin; Chaleshi, Vahid; Anaraki, Fakhrosadat; Haghazali, Mehrdad; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify the prevalence, and clinical and pathologic characteristic of colonic polyps among Iranian patients undergoing a comprehensive colonoscopy, and determine the polyp detection rate (PDR) and adenoma detection rate (ADR). METHODS In this cross-sectional study, demographics and epidemiologic characteristics of 531 persons who underwent colonoscopies between 2014 and 2015 at Mehrad gastrointestinal clinic were determined. Demographics, indication for colonoscopy, colonoscopy findings, number of polyps, and histopathological characteristics of the polyps were examined for each person. RESULTS Our sample included 295 (55.6%) women and 236 (44.4%) men, with a mean age of 50.25 ± 14.89 years. Overall PDR was 23.5% (125/531). ADR and colorectal cancer detection rate in this study were 12.8% and 1.5%, respectively. Polyps were detected more significantly frequently in men than in women (52.8% vs 47.2%, P < 0.05). Polyps can be seen in most patients after the age of 50. The average age of patients with cancer was significantly higher than that of patients with polyps (61.3 years vs 56.4 years, P < 0.05). The majority of the polyps were adenomatous. More than 50% of the polyps were found in the rectosigmoid part of the colon. CONCLUSION The prevalence of polyps and adenomas in this study is less than that reported in the Western populations. In our patients, distal colon is more susceptible to developing polyps and cancer than proximal colon. PMID:28251034

  14. Immigration rates and species niche characteristics affect the relationship between species richness and habitat heterogeneity in modeled meta-communities.

    PubMed

    Bar-Massada, Avi

    2015-01-01

    The positive relationship between habitat heterogeneity and species richness is a cornerstone of ecology. Recently, it was suggested that this relationship should be unimodal rather than linear due to a tradeoff between environmental heterogeneity and population sizes. Increased environmental heterogeneity will decrease effective habitat sizes, which in turn will increase the rate of local species extinctions. The occurrence of the unimodal richness-heterogeneity relationship at the habitat scale was confirmed in both empirical and theoretical studies. However, it is unclear whether it can occur at broader spatial scales, for meta-communities in diverse and patchy landscapes. Here, I used a spatially explicit meta-community model to quantify the roles of two species-level characteristics, niche width and immigration rates, on the type of the richness-heterogeneity relationship at the landscape scale. I found that both positive and unimodal richness-heterogeneity relationships can occur in meta-communities in patchy landscapes. The type of the relationship was affected by the interactions between inter-patch immigration rates and species' niche widths. Unimodal relationships were prominent in meta-communities comprising species with wide niches but low inter-patch immigration rates. In contrast, meta-communities consisting of species with narrow niches and high immigration rates exhibited positive relationships. Meta-communities comprising generalist species are therefore likely to exhibit unimodal richness-heterogeneity relationships as long as low immigration rates prevent rescue effects and patches are small. The richness-heterogeneity relationship at the landscape scale is dictated by species' niche widths and inter-patch immigration rates. These immigration rates, in turn, depend on the interaction between species dispersal capabilities and habitat connectivity, highlighting the roles of both species traits and landscape structure in generating the richness

  15. Detection of Border disease antigen in tissues of affected sheep and in cell cultures by immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, C

    1978-11-01

    An account is presented of the distribution of fluorescence in cryostat sections of tissues from eight lambs with Border disease (BD). In young lambs fluorescence was observed in almost every organ, indicating a generalised infection with BD virus. Fluorescence was most prominent in the secretory glands of the alimentary and respiratory tracts, the basal cell layers of the epidermis and mucous membranes, and in the medullary rays of the kidneys. Abomasum, pancreas, kidneys, testicles and thyroid were most consistently affected. Although the number of fluorescing tissues decreased with age, viral antigen could still be detected in two sheep of 22 and 52 weeks old. Border disease viral antigen was demonstrated in cell cultures derived from the brain, kidney and testicle of six out of seven lambs despite the presence of neutralising antibody against bovine virus diarrhoea virus in three of them. The presence of the virus in the skin, the vascular walls and the endocrine system is discussed in relation to the aberrant development of fetal hair follicles, periarteritis and growth retardation respectively.

  16. Flexible-rate optical packet generation/detection and label swapping for optical label switching networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongying; Li, Juhao; Tian, Yu; Ge, Dawei; Zhu, Paikun; Chen, Yuanxiang; Chen, Zhangyuan; He, Yongqi

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical label switching (OLS) gains lots of attentions due to its intrinsic advantages to implement protocol, bit-rate, granularity and data format transparency packet switching. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to realize flexible-rate optical packet switching for OLS networks. At the transmitter node, flexible-rate packet is generated by parallel modulating different combinations of optical carriers generated from the optical multi-carrier generator (OMCG), among which the low-speed optical label occupies one carrier. At the switching node, label is extracted and re-generated in label processing unit (LPU). The payloads are switched based on routing information and new label is added after switching. At the receiver node, another OMCG serves as local oscillators (LOs) for optical payloads coherent detection. The proposed scheme offers good flexibility for dynamic optical packet switching by adjusting the payload bandwidth and could also effectively reduce the number of lasers, modulators and receivers for packet generation/detection. We present proof-of-concept demonstrations of flexible-rate packet generation/detection and label swapping in 12.5 GHz grid. The influence of crosstalk for cascaded label swapping is also investigated.

  17. Cross Sections, relic abundance, and detection rates for neutralino dark matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griest, Kim

    1988-01-01

    Neutralino annihilation and elastic scattering cross sections are derived which differ in important ways from previous work. These are applied to relic abundance calculations and to direct detection of neutralino dark matter from the galactic halo. Assuming the neutralino to be the lightest supersymmetric particle and that it is less massive than the Z sup 0, we find relic densities of neutralinos greater than 4 percent of critical density for almost all values of the supersymmetric parameters. We constrain the parameter space by using results from PETRA (chargino mass less than 23 GeV) and ASP, and then assuming a critical density of neutralinos, display event rates in a cryogenic detector for a variety of models. A new term implies spin independent elastic scattering even for those majorana particles and inclusion of propagator momenta increases detection rates by 10 to 300 percent for pure photinos. Z sup 0-squark interference leads to very low detection rates for some values of the parameters. The new term in the elastic cross section dominates for heavy, mostly spinless materials and mitigates the negative interference cancellations in light materials; except for the pure photino or pure higgsinos cases where it does not contribute. In general, the rates can be substantially different from the pure photino and pure higgsino special cases usually considered.

  18. Power and false-positive rate in QTL detection with near-isogenic line libraries.

    PubMed

    Falke, K C; Frisch, M

    2011-04-01

    Libraries of near-isogenic lines (NILs) were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection in model species and economically important crops. The experimental design and genetic architecture of the considered traits determine the statistical properties of QTL detection. The objectives of our simulation study were to (i) investigate the population sizes required to develop NIL libraries in barley and maize, (ii) compare NIL libraries with nonoverlapping and overlapping donor segments and (iii) study the number of QTLs and the size of their effects with respect to the power and the false-positive rate of QTL detection. In barley, the development of NIL libraries with target segment lengths of 10 c and marker distances of 5 cM was possible using a BC(3)S(2) backcrossing scheme and population sizes of 140. In maize, population sizes larger than 200 were required. Selection for the recipient parent genome at markers flanking the target segments with distances between 5 and 10 cM was required for an efficient control of the false-positive rate. NIL libraries with nonoverlapping donor chromosome segments had a greater power of QTL detection and a smaller false-positive rate than libraries with overlapping segments. Major genes explaining 30% of the genotypic difference between the donor and recipient were successfully detected even with low heritabilities of 0.5, whereas for minor genes explaining 5 !or 10%, high heritabilities of 0.8 or 0.9 were required. The presented results can assist geneticists and breeders in the efficient development of NIL libraries for QTL detection.

  19. Arginine depletion by arginine deiminase does not affect whole protein metabolism or muscle fractional protein synthesis rate in mice.

    PubMed

    Marini, Juan C; Didelija, Inka Cajo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the absolute need for arginine that certain cancer cells have, arginine depletion is a therapy in clinical trials to treat several types of cancers. Arginine is an amino acids utilized not only as a precursor for other important molecules, but also for protein synthesis. Because arginine depletion can potentially exacerbate the progressive loss of body weight, and especially lean body mass, in cancer patients we determined the effect of arginine depletion by pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG 20) on whole body protein synthesis and fractional protein synthesis rate in multiple tissues of mice. ADI-PEG 20 successfully depleted circulating arginine (<1 μmol/L), and increased citrulline concentration more than tenfold. Body weight and body composition, however, were not affected by ADI-PEG 20. Despite the depletion of arginine, whole body protein synthesis and breakdown were maintained in the ADI-PEG 20 treated mice. The fractional protein synthesis rate of muscle was also not affected by arginine depletion. Most tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lungs, stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas) were able to maintain their fractional protein synthesis rate; however, the fractional protein synthesis rate of brain, thymus and testicles was reduced due to the ADI-PEG 20 treatment. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by the incorporation of ureido [14C]citrulline, which indicate the local conversion into arginine, into protein. In conclusion, the intracellular recycling pathway of citrulline is able to provide enough arginine to maintain protein synthesis rate and prevent the loss of lean body mass and body weight.

  20. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions.

  1. Factors Affecting the Rate of Penetration of Large-Scale Electricity Technologies: The Case of Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    James R. McFarland; Howard J. Herzog

    2007-05-14

    This project falls under the Technology Innovation and Diffusion topic of the Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Research Program. The objective was to better understand the critical variables that affect the rate of penetration of large-scale electricity technologies in order to improve their representation in integrated assessment models. We conducted this research in six integrated tasks. In our first two tasks, we identified potential factors that affect penetration rates through discussions with modeling groups and through case studies of historical precedent. In the next three tasks, we investigated in detail three potential sets of critical factors: industrial conditions, resource conditions, and regulatory/environmental considerations. Research to assess the significance and relative importance of these factors involved the development of a microeconomic, system dynamics model of the US electric power sector. Finally, we implemented the penetration rate models in an integrated assessment model. While the focus of this effort is on carbon capture and sequestration technologies, much of the work will be applicable to other large-scale energy conversion technologies.

  2. Moved by words: Affective ratings for a set of 2,266 Spanish words in five discrete emotion categories.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Pilar; Guasch, Marc; Martínez-García, Natalia; Fraga, Isabel; Hinojosa, José Antonio

    2016-07-06

    The two main theoretical accounts of the human affective space are the dimensional perspective and the discrete-emotion approach. In recent years, several affective norms have been developed from a dimensional perspective, including ratings for valence and arousal. In contrast, the number of published datasets relying on the discrete-emotion approach is much lower. There is a need to fill this gap, considering that discrete emotions have an effect on word processing above and beyond those of valence and arousal. In the present study, we present ratings from 1,380 participants for a set of 2,266 Spanish words in five discrete emotion categories: happiness, anger, fear, disgust, and sadness. This will be the largest dataset published to date containing ratings for discrete emotions. We also present, for the first time, a fine-grained analysis of the distribution of words into the five emotion categories. This analysis reveals that happiness words are the most consistently related to a single, discrete emotion category. In contrast, there is a tendency for many negative words to belong to more than one discrete emotion. The only exception is disgust words, which overlap least with the other negative emotions. Normative valence and arousal data already exist for all of the words included in this corpus. Thus, the present database will allow researchers to design studies to contrast the predictions of the two most influential theoretical perspectives in this field. These studies will undoubtedly contribute to a deeper understanding of the effects of emotion on word processing.

  3. Fast and unintentional evaluation of emotional sounds: evidence from brief segment ratings and the affective Simon task.

    PubMed

    Folyi, Tímea; Wentura, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we raised the question of whether valence information of natural emotional sounds can be extracted rapidly and unintentionally. In a first experiment, we collected explicit valence ratings of brief natural sound segments. Results showed that sound segments of 400 and 600 ms duration-and with some limitation even sound segments as short as 200 ms-are evaluated reliably. In a second experiment, we introduced an auditory version of the affective Simon task to assess automatic (i.e. unintentional and fast) evaluations of sound valence. The pattern of results indicates that affective information of natural emotional sounds can be extracted rapidly (i.e. after a few hundred ms long exposure) and in an unintentional fashion.

  4. Stochastic optimization for the detection of changes in maternal heart rate kinetics during pregnancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakynthinaki, M. S.; Barakat, R. O.; Cordente Martínez, C. A.; Sampedro Molinuevo, J.

    2011-03-01

    The stochastic optimization method ALOPEX IV has been successfully applied to the problem of detecting possible changes in the maternal heart rate kinetics during pregnancy. For this reason, maternal heart rate data were recorded before, during and after gestation, during sessions of exercises of constant mild intensity; ALOPEX IV stochastic optimization was used to calculate the parameter values that optimally fit a dynamical systems model to the experimental data. The results not only demonstrate the effectiveness of ALOPEX IV stochastic optimization, but also have important implications in the area of exercise physiology, as they reveal important changes in the maternal cardiovascular dynamics, as a result of pregnancy.

  5. Detection of exudates in fundus imagery using a constant false-alarm rate (CFAR) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Manish; Kapoor, Elina

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in adults in the United States. The presence of exudates in fundus imagery is the early sign of diabetic retinopathy so detection of these lesions is essential in preventing further ocular damage. In this paper we present a novel technique to automatically detect exudates in fundus imagery that is robust against spatial and temporal variations of background noise. The detection threshold is adjusted dynamically, based on the local noise statics around the pixel under test in order to maintain a pre-determined, constant false alarm rate (CFAR). The CFAR detector is often used to detect bright targets in radar imagery where the background clutter can vary considerably from scene to scene and with angle to the scene. Similarly, the CFAR detector addresses the challenge of detecting exudate lesions in RGB and multispectral fundus imagery where the background clutter often exhibits variations in brightness and texture. These variations present a challenge to common, global thresholding detection algorithms and other methods. Performance of the CFAR algorithm is tested against a publicly available, annotated, diabetic retinopathy database and preliminary testing suggests that performance of the CFAR detector proves to be superior to techniques such as Otsu thresholding.

  6. Magnetized neutron stars as gamma-ray bursters - Detection rates at high energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, P.; Bagoly, Z.; Riffert, H.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed calculations of the escape of high-energy gamma-rays from the dipolar magnetosphere of general relativistic neutron star models are used to model the detection rate of bursters at high photon energies between 0.3 and 10 MeV. This analysis shows the SMM detection rates to be compatible with a magnetized neutron star origin, with a distribution of magnetic field strengths extending at least up to about 4 x 10 to the 12th G, as expected if the (20-60) keV features reported from Konus and Ginga measurements are interpreted as cyclotron lines. Additional implications are discussed for the emission geometry and the neutron star radius.

  7. Luminance level of a monitor: influence on detectability and detection rate of breast cancer in 2D mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemelmans, Frédéric; Rashidnasab, Alaleh; Chesterman, Frédérique; Kimpe, Tom; Bosmans, Hilde

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate lesion detectability and reading time as a function of luminance level of the monitor. Material and Methods: 3D mass models and microcalcification clusters were simulated into ROIs of for processing mammograms. Randomly selected ROIs were subdivided in three groups according to their background glandularity: high (>30%), medium (15-30%) and low (<15%). 6 non-spiculated masses (9 - 11mm), 6 spiculated masses (5 - 7mm) and 6 microcalcification clusters (2 - 4mm) were scaled in 3D to create a range of sizes. The linear attenuation coefficient (AC) of the masses was adjusted from 100% glandular tissue to 90%, 80%, 70%, to create different contrasts. Six physicists read the full database on Barco's Coronis Uniti monitor for four different luminance levels (300, 800, 1000 and 1200 Cd/m2), using a 4-AFC tool. Percentage correct (PC) and time were computed for all different conditions. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate the effect of luminance on PC and time. A multi-factorial analysis was performed using MANOVA.. Results: Paired t-test indicated a statistically significant difference for the average time per session between 300 and 1200; 800 and 1200; 1000 and 1200 Cd/m2, for all participants combined. There was no effect on PC. MANOVA denoted significantly lower reading times for high glandularity images at 1200 Cd/m2. Both types of masses were significantly faster detected at 1200 Cd/m2, for the contrast study. In the size study, microcalcification clusters and spiculated masses had a significantly higher detection rate at 1200 Cd/m2. Conclusion: These results demonstrate a significant decrease in reading time, while detectability remained constant.

  8. Estimating the rate of retinal ganglion cell loss to detect glaucoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Izumibata, Saeko; Ukegawa, Kaori; Nitta, Eri; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between glaucoma progression and estimates of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) obtained by combining structural and functional measurements in patients with glaucoma. In the present observational cohort study, we examined 116 eyes of 62 glaucoma patients. Using Cirrus optical coherence tomography (OCT), a minimum of 5 serial retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurements were performed in all eyes. There was a 3-year separation between the first and last measurements. Visual field (VF) testing was performed on the same day as the RNFL imaging using the Swedish Interactive Threshold Algorithm Standard 30–2 program of the Humphrey Field Analyzer. Estimates of the RGC counts were obtained from standard automated perimetry (SAP) and OCT, with a weighted average then used to determine a final estimate of the number of RGCs for each eye. Linear regression was used to calculate the rate of the RGC loss, and trend analysis was used to evaluate both serial RNFL thicknesses and VF progression. Use of the average RNFL thickness parameter of OCT led to detection of progression in 14 of 116 eyes examined, whereas the mean deviation slope detected progression in 31 eyes. When the rates of RGC loss were used, progression was detected in 41 of the 116 eyes, with a mean rate of RGC loss of −28,260 ± 8110 cells/year. Estimation of the rate of RGC loss by combining structural and functional measurements resulted in better detection of glaucoma progression compared to either OCT or SAP. PMID:27472691

  9. Non-contact detection of cardiac rate based on visible light imaging device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huishi; Zhao, Yuejin; Dong, Liquan

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a non-contact method to detect human cardiac rate at a distance. This detection is based on the general lighting condition. Using the video signal of human face region captured by webcam, we acquire the cardiac rate based on the PhotoPlethysmoGraphy theory. In this paper, the cardiac rate detecting method is mainly in view of the blood's different absorptivities of the lights various wavelengths. Firstly, we discompose the video signal into RGB three color signal channels and choose the face region as region of interest to take average gray value. Then, we draw three gray-mean curves on each color channel with time as variable. When the imaging device has good fidelity of color, the green channel signal shows the PhotoPlethysmoGraphy information most clearly. But the red and blue channel signals can provide more other physiological information on the account of their light absorptive characteristics of blood. We divide red channel signal by green channel signal to acquire the pulse wave. With the passband from 0.67Hz to 3Hz as a filter of the pulse wave signal and the frequency spectrum superimposed algorithm, we design frequency extracted algorithm to achieve the cardiac rate. Finally, we experiment with 30 volunteers, containing different genders and different ages. The results of the experiments are all relatively agreeable. The difference is about 2bmp. Through the experiment, we deduce that the PhotoPlethysmoGraphy theory based on visible light can also be used to detect other physiological information.

  10. A High Performance Impedance-based Platform for Evaporation Rate Detection.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Lee, Pee-Yew; Chen, Cheng-You; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Yung-Sheng

    2016-10-17

    This paper describes the method of a novel impedance-based platform for the detection of the evaporation rate. The model compound hyaluronic acid was employed here for demonstration purposes. Multiple evaporation tests on the model compound as a humectant with various concentrations in solutions were conducted for comparison purposes. A conventional weight loss approach is known as the most straightforward, but time-consuming, measurement technique for evaporation rate detection. Yet, a clear disadvantage is that a large volume of sample is required and multiple sample tests cannot be conducted at the same time. For the first time in literature, an electrical impedance sensing chip is successfully applied to a real-time evaporation investigation in a time sharing, continuous and automatic manner. Moreover, as little as 0.5 ml of test samples is required in this impedance-based apparatus, and a large impedance variation is demonstrated among various dilute solutions. The proposed high-sensitivity and fast-response impedance sensing system is found to outperform a conventional weight loss approach in terms of evaporation rate detection.

  11. Detecting differential transmissibilities that affect the size of self-limited outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Seth; Funk, Sebastian; Pulliam, Juliet R C

    2014-10-01

    Our ability to respond appropriately to infectious diseases is enhanced by identifying differences in the potential for transmitting infection between individuals. Here, we identify epidemiological traits of self-limited infections (i.e. infections with an effective reproduction number satisfying [0 < R eff < 1) that correlate with transmissibility. Our analysis is based on a branching process model that permits statistical comparison of both the strength and heterogeneity of transmission for two distinct types of cases. Our approach provides insight into a variety of scenarios, including the transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Arabian peninsula, measles in North America, pre-eradication smallpox in Europe, and human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. When applied to chain size data for MERS-CoV transmission before 2014, our method indicates that despite an apparent trend towards improved control, there is not enough statistical evidence to indicate that R eff has declined with time. Meanwhile, chain size data for measles in the United States and Canada reveal statistically significant geographic variation in R eff, suggesting that the timing and coverage of national vaccination programs, as well as contact tracing procedures, may shape the size distribution of observed infection clusters. Infection source data for smallpox suggests that primary cases transmitted more than secondary cases, and provides a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of control interventions. Human monkeypox, on the other hand, does not show evidence of differential transmission between animals in contact with humans, primary cases, or secondary cases, which assuages the concern that social mixing can amplify transmission by secondary cases. Lastly, we evaluate surveillance requirements for detecting a change in the human-to-human transmission of monkeypox since the cessation of cross-protective smallpox vaccination. Our

  12. Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting surimi as affected by nano-scaled fish bone and heating rates.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tao; Park, Jae W

    2015-08-01

    Textural and rheological properties of Pacific whiting (PW) surimi were investigated at various heating rates with the use of nano-scaled fish bone (NFB) and calcium chloride. Addition of NFB and slow heating improved gel strength significantly. Activity of endogenous transglutaminase (ETGase) from PW surimi was markedly induced by both NFB calcium and calcium chloride, showing an optimal temperature at 30°C. Initial storage modulus increased as NFB calcium concentration increased and the same trend was maintained throughout the temperature sweep. Rheograms with temperature sweep at slow heating rate (1°C/min) exhibited two peaks at ∼ 35°C and ∼ 70°C. However, no peak was observed during temperature sweep from 20 to 90°C at fast heating rate (20°C/min). Protein patterns of surimi gels were affected by both heating rate and NFB calcium concentration. Under slow heating, myosin heavy chain intensity decreased with NFB calcium concentration, indicating formation of ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine cross-links by ETGase and NFB calcium ion.

  13. Putative sex-specific human pheromones do not affect gender perception, attractiveness ratings or unfaithfulness judgements of opposite sex faces

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Robin M.; Schlatter, Sophie; Rhodes, Gillian

    2017-01-01

    Debate continues over the existence of human sex pheromones. Two substances, androstadienone (AND) and estratetraenol (EST), were recently reported to signal male and female gender, respectively, potentially qualifying them as human sex pheromones. If AND and EST truly signal gender, then they should affect reproductively relevant behaviours such as mate perception. To test this hypothesis, heterosexual, Caucasian human participants completed two computer-based tasks twice, on two consecutive days, exposed to a control scent on one day and a putative pheromone (AND or EST) on the other. In the first task, 46 participants (24 male, 22 female) indicated the gender (male or female) of five gender-neutral facial morphs. Exposure to AND or EST had no effect on gender perception. In the second task, 94 participants (43 male, 51 female) rated photographs of opposite-sex faces for attractiveness and probable sexual unfaithfulness. Exposure to the putative pheromones had no effect on either attractiveness or unfaithfulness ratings. These results are consistent with those of other experimental studies and reviews that suggest AND and EST are unlikely to be human pheromones. The double-blind nature of the current study lends increased support to this conclusion. If human sex pheromones affect our judgements of gender, attractiveness or unfaithfulness from faces, they are unlikely to be AND or EST.

  14. Factors affecting fall down rates of dead aspen (Populus tremuloides) biomass following severe drought in west-central Canada.

    PubMed

    Ted Hogg, Edward H; Michaelian, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Increases in mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) have been recorded across large areas of western North America following recent periods of exceptionally severe drought. The resultant increase in standing, dead tree biomass represents a significant potential source of carbon emissions to the atmosphere, but the timing of emissions is partially driven by dead-wood dynamics which include the fall down and breakage of dead aspen stems. The rate at which dead trees fall to the ground also strongly influences the period over which forest dieback episodes can be detected by aerial surveys or satellite remote sensing observations. Over a 12-year period (2000-2012), we monitored the annual status of 1010 aspen trees that died during and following a severe regional drought within 25 study areas across west-central Canada. Observations of stem fall down and breakage (snapping) were used to estimate woody biomass transfer from standing to downed dead wood as a function of years since tree death. For the region as a whole, we estimated that >80% of standing dead aspen biomass had fallen after 10 years. Overall, the rate of fall down was minimal during the year following stem death, but thereafter fall rates followed a negative exponential equation with k = 0.20 per year. However, there was high between-site variation in the rate of fall down (k = 0.08-0.37 per year). The analysis showed that fall down rates were positively correlated with stand age, site windiness, and the incidence of decay fungi (Phellinus tremulae (Bond.) Bond. and Boris.) and wood-boring insects. These factors are thus likely to influence the rate of carbon emissions from dead trees following periods of climate-related forest die-off episodes.

  15. Photoperiod length and the estrus synchronization protocol used before AI affect the twin pregnancy rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Vázquez, C; Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2012-10-01

    This study addresses potential management risk factors affecting the incidence of twin pregnancies in high-producing dairy cows. Special attention was paid to the estrus synchronization protocol used before the AI resulting in pregnancy. Possible factors affecting the twin pregnancy rate were analyzed through binary logistic regression procedures on 2015 pregnant cows from July 2010 to July 2011. Twin pregnancy was recorded in 361 of the 2015 pregnancy diagnoses made (17.9%). Twin pregnancy rates differed among herds (P < 0.001) and ranged from 12.4% to 23.9%. Based on the odds ratios, the risk of twin pregnancy was reduced by factors of 0.65 or 0.71 when AI was performed during the warm season or an increasing photoperiod, respectively and increased by a factor of 1.11 for each unit increase in lactation number; by factors of 4.57 or 6.33 in cows that received a progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) plus 500 or 750 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) 28 days before the pregnancy AI, respectively; by a factor of 2.39 in cows with an ovarian cyst diagnosed in the 14 days prior to AI and treated with prostaglandins (PG); by factors of 1.94 or 3.91 in cows that received two PG doses during the 14 days prior to AI or cows that following failed PRID treatment had received PG started over the 28 days prior to AI, respectively; and by a factor of 2.58 in cows that had previously delivered twins compared to cows delivering singletons. Our results indicate that cow factors, such as lactation number and previous twining, as well as environmental factors, such as photoperiod and season and management related to synchronization protocols affect significantly the incidence of twin pregnancies.

  16. Multiple rate digital command detection system with range clean-up capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.; Butman, S. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A multi-rate digital command system is disclosed which uses the composite signal of a mu-type ranging system as a subcarrier to transmit range codes and data from a station to a receiver where the range codes are sequentially phase modulated on a subcarrier of frequency by one of its own subharmonics and data is phase modulated on a selected ranging component. A range cleanup loop in a spacecraft locks the phase of a locally generated reference component to a received ranging component and retransmits the component to a ground station. When the inverse phase of a ranging component is received and detected, the cleanup loop is modified to demodulate phase modulated command symbols while continuing tracking the same ranging component. The command symbol rate is coherently related to the ranging signal component bit rate.

  17. Fuzzy entropy based motion artifact detection and pulse rate estimation for fingertip photoplethysmography.

    PubMed

    Paradkar, Neeraj; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a fingertip photoplethysmography (PPG) based technique to estimate the pulse rate of the subject. The PPG signal obtained from a pulse oximeter is used for the analysis. The input samples are corrupted with motion artifacts due to minor motion of the subjects. Entropy measure of the input samples is used to detect the motion artifacts and estimate the pulse rate. A three step methodology is adapted to identify and classify signal peaks as true systolic peaks or artifact. CapnoBase database and CSL Benchmark database are used to analyze the technique and pulse rate estimation was performed with positive predictive value and sensitivity figures of 99.84% and 99.32% respectively for CapnoBase and 98.83% and 98.84% for CSL database respectively.

  18. Satellite change detection analysis of deforestation rates and patterns along the Colombia-Ecuador border.

    PubMed

    Viña, Andrés; Echavarria, Fernando R; Rundquist, Donald C

    2004-05-01

    This study uses Landsat satellite data to document the rates and patterns of land-cover change along a portion of the Colombia-Ecuador border during a 23-yr period (1973-1996). Human colonization has resulted in extensive deforestation in both countries. Satellite change detection analysis showed that the annual rates of deforestation were considerably higher for the Colombian side of the border. In addition, loss of forest cover on the Colombian side for the study period was almost 43%, while only 22% on the Ecuadorian side. The study found that there is no single factor driving deforestation on either side of the border, but concluded that the higher rates on the Colombian side may be due to higher colonization pressures and intensification of illegal coca cultivation. On the Ecuador side of the border the satellite images documented patterns of deforestation that reflected road networks associated with oil exploration and development.

  19. Ultrasensitive anion detection by NMR spectroscopy: a supramolecular strategy based on modulation of chemical exchange rate.

    PubMed

    Perruchoud, Loïse H; Hadzovic, Alen; Zhang, Xiao-An

    2015-06-08

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for monitoring molecular interactions and is widely used to characterize supramolecular systems at the atomic level. NMR is limited for sensing purposes, however, due to low sensitivity. Dynamic processes such as conformational changes or binding events can induce drastic effects on NMR spectra in response to variations in chemical exchange (CE) rate, which can lead to new strategies in the design of supramolecular sensors through the control and monitoring of CE rate. Here, we present an indirect NMR anion sensing technique in which increased CE rate, due to anion-induced conformational flexibility of a relatively rigid structure of a novel sensor, allows ultrasensitive anion detection as low as 120 nM.

  20. Accurate derivation of heart rate variability signal for detection of sleep disordered breathing in children.

    PubMed

    Chatlapalli, S; Nazeran, H; Melarkod, V; Krishnam, R; Estrada, E; Pamula, Y; Cabrera, S

    2004-01-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is used extensively as a low cost diagnostic tool to provide information concerning the heart's state of health. Accurate determination of the QRS complex, in particular, reliable detection of the R wave peak, is essential in computer based ECG analysis. ECG data from Physionet's Sleep-Apnea database were used to develop, test, and validate a robust heart rate variability (HRV) signal derivation algorithm. The HRV signal was derived from pre-processed ECG signals by developing an enhanced Hilbert transform (EHT) algorithm with built-in missing beat detection capability for reliable QRS detection. The performance of the EHT algorithm was then compared against that of a popular Hilbert transform-based (HT) QRS detection algorithm. Autoregressive (AR) modeling of the HRV power spectrum for both EHT- and HT-derived HRV signals was achieved and different parameters from their power spectra as well as approximate entropy were derived for comparison. Poincare plots were then used as a visualization tool to highlight the detection of the missing beats in the EHT method After validation of the EHT algorithm on ECG data from the Physionet, the algorithm was further tested and validated on a dataset obtained from children undergoing polysomnography for detection of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Sensitive measures of accurate HRV signals were then derived to be used in detecting and diagnosing sleep disordered breathing in children. All signal processing algorithms were implemented in MATLAB. We present a description of the EHT algorithm and analyze pilot data for eight children undergoing nocturnal polysomnography. The pilot data demonstrated that the EHT method provides an accurate way of deriving the HRV signal and plays an important role in extraction of reliable measures to distinguish between periods of normal and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children.

  1. Atmospheric oxygen level affects growth trajectory, cardiopulmonary allometry and metabolic rate in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Owerkowicz, Tomasz; Elsey, Ruth M; Hicks, James W

    2009-05-01

    Recent palaeoatmospheric models suggest large-scale fluctuations in ambient oxygen level over the past 550 million years. To better understand how global hypoxia and hyperoxia might have affected the growth and physiology of contemporary vertebrates, we incubated eggs and raised hatchlings of the American alligator. Crocodilians are one of few vertebrate taxa that survived these global changes with distinctly conservative morphology. We maintained animals at 30 degrees C under chronic hypoxia (12% O(2)), normoxia (21% O(2)) or hyperoxia (30% O(2)). At hatching, hypoxic animals were significantly smaller than their normoxic and hyperoxic siblings. Over the course of 3 months, post-hatching growth was fastest under hyperoxia and slowest under hypoxia. Hypoxia, but not hyperoxia, caused distinct scaling of major visceral organs-reduction of liver mass, enlargement of the heart and accelerated growth of lungs. When absorptive and post-absorptive metabolic rates were measured in juvenile alligators, the increase in oxygen consumption rate due to digestion/absorption of food was greatest in hyperoxic alligators and smallest in hypoxic ones. Hyperoxic alligators exhibited the lowest breathing rate and highest oxygen consumption per breath. We suggest that, despite compensatory cardiopulmonary remodelling, growth of hypoxic alligators is constrained by low atmospheric oxygen supply, which may limit their food utilisation capacity. Conversely, the combination of elevated metabolism and low cost of breathing in hyperoxic alligators allows for a greater proportion of metabolised energy to be available for growth. This suggests that growth and metabolic patterns of extinct vertebrates would have been significantly affected by changes in the atmospheric oxygen level.

  2. Detection of change points in underlying earthquake rates, with application to global mega-earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touati, Sarah; Naylor, Mark; Main, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The recent spate of mega-earthquakes since 2004 has led to speculation of an underlying change in the global `background' rate of large events. At a regional scale, detecting changes in background rate is also an important practical problem for operational forecasting and risk calculation, for example due to volcanic processes, seismicity induced by fluid injection or withdrawal, or due to redistribution of Coulomb stress after natural large events. Here we examine the general problem of detecting changes in background rate in earthquake catalogues with and without correlated events, for the first time using the Bayes factor as a discriminant for models of varying complexity. First we use synthetic Poisson (purely random) and Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) models (which also allow for earthquake triggering) to test the effectiveness of many standard methods of addressing this question. These fall into two classes: those that evaluate the relative likelihood of different models, for example using Information Criteria or the Bayes Factor; and those that evaluate the probability of the observations (including extreme events or clusters of events) under a single null hypothesis, for example by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and `runs' tests, and a variety of Z-score tests. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness among these tests varies widely. Information Criteria worked at least as well as the more computationally expensive Bayes factor method, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and runs tests proved to be the relatively ineffective in reliably detecting a change point. We then apply the methods tested to events at different thresholds above magnitude M ≥ 7 in the global earthquake catalogue since 1918, after first declustering the catalogue. This is most effectively done by removing likely correlated events using a much lower magnitude threshold (M ≥ 5), where triggering is much more obvious. We find no strong evidence that the background rate of large

  3. Combined non-adaptive light and smell stimuli lowered blood pressure, reduced heart rate and reduced negative affect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shan; Jacob, Tim J C

    2016-03-15

    Bright light therapy has been shown to have a positive impact on seasonal affective disorder (SAD), depression and anxiety. Smell has also has been shown to have effects on mood, stress, anxiety and depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the combination of light and smell in a non-adaptive cycle. Human subjects were given smell (lemon, lavender or peppermint) and light stimuli in a triangular wave (60scycle) for 15min. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored before and after each session for 5 consecutive days and a Profile of Mood States (POMS) test was administered before and after the sensory stimulation on days 1, 3 and 5. The light-smell stimulus lowered blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic, and reduced heart rate for all odours compared to control. Of the two sensory stimuli, the odour stimulus contributed most to this effect. The different aromas in the light-smell combinations could be distinguished by their different effects on the mood factors with lemon inducing the greatest mood changes in Dejection-Depression, Anger-Hostility, Tension-Anxiety. In conclusion, combined light and smell stimulation was effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing heart rate and improving mood. The combination was more effective than either smell or light stimuli alone, suggesting that a light-smell combination would be a more robust and efficacious alternative treatment for depression, anxiety and stress.

  4. Changes in trophic position affect rates of contaminant decline at two seabird colonies in the Canadian Arctic.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Gaston, Anthony J; Hobson, Keith A; Grant Gilchrist, H; Mallory, Mark L

    2015-05-01

    Some Arctic food web structures are being affected by climate change with potential consequences for long-term trends of environmental contaminants. We examined the effects of changes in trophic position of an Arctic-breeding seabird, the thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia), on declining rates of six major organochlorines (hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor epoxide, oxychlordane, dieldrin, p,p'-DDE and Σ69PCB) at two breeding colonies in the Canadian Arctic, one in northern Hudson Bay and one in the high Arctic. As a result of a change in diet, murres breeding in Hudson Bay lowered their trophic position during 1993-2013. After adjusting for the change in trophic position using egg δ(15)N values, the rates of decline in concentrations of all six organochlorines were reduced in the Hudson Bay murre eggs. In contrast, the murres at the high Arctic colony experienced an increase in trophic position which resulted in an increase in the rates of decline for all adjusted concentrations, except for p,p'-DDE and Σ69PCB which remained relatively unchanged. This suggests that the dramatic reduction in emissions of these compounds during the 1970s/1980s had a greater influence on the time trends than changes in diet at the high Arctic colony. Linkages between climate change and food web processes are complex, and may have serious consequences for our understanding of contaminant temporal trends. Valid trends can be deduced only when these factors have been taken into account.

  5. A SPITZER SURVEY OF MID-INFRARED MOLECULAR EMISSION FROM PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. I. DETECTION RATES

    SciTech Connect

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Meijerink, Rowin; Salyk, Colette; Carr, John S.; Najita, Joan

    2010-09-01

    We present a Spitzer InfraRed Spectrometer search for 10-36 {mu}m molecular emission from a large sample of protoplanetary disks, including lines from H{sub 2}O, OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and CO{sub 2}. This paper describes the sample and data processing and derives the detection rate of mid-infrared molecular emission as a function of stellar mass. The sample covers a range of spectral type from early M to A, and is supplemented by archival spectra of disks around A and B stars. It is drawn from a variety of nearby star-forming regions, including Ophiuchus, Lupus, and Chamaeleon. Spectra showing strong emission lines are used to identify which lines are the best tracers of various physical and chemical conditions within the disks. In total, we identify 22 T Tauri stars with strong mid-infrared H{sub 2}O emission. Integrated water line luminosities, where water vapor is detected, range from 5 x 10{sup -4} to 9 x 10{sup -3} L{sub sun}, likely making water the dominant line coolant of inner disk surfaces in classical T Tauri stars. None of the five transitional disks in the sample show detectable gaseous molecular emission with Spitzer upper limits at the 1% level in terms of line-to-continuum ratios (apart from H{sub 2}), but the sample is too small to conclude whether this is a general property of transitional disks. We find a strong dependence on detection rate with spectral type; no disks around our sample of 25 A and B stars were found to exhibit water emission, down to 1%-2% line-to-continuum ratios, in the mid-infrared, while more than half of disks around late-type stars (M-G) show sufficiently intense water emission to be detected by Spitzer, with a detection rate approaching 2/3 for disks around K stars. Some Herbig Ae/Be stars show tentative H{sub 2}O/OH emission features beyond 20 {mu}m at the 1%-2% level, however, and one of them shows CO{sub 2} in emission. We argue that the observed differences between T Tauri disks and Herbig Ae/Be disks are due to a

  6. Time-Frequency Analysis of Heart Rate Variability for Neonatal Seizure Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarvili, M. B.; Mesbah, Mostefa; Boashash, Boualem

    2007-12-01

    There are a number of automatic techniques available for detecting epileptic seizures using solely electroencephalogram (EEG), which has been the primary diagnosis tool in newborns. The electrocardiogram (ECG) has been much neglected in automatic seizure detection. Changes in heart rate and ECG rhythm were previously linked to seizure in case of adult humans and animals. However, little is known about heart rate variability (HRV) changes in human neonate during seizure. In this paper, we assess the suitability of HRV as a tool for seizure detection in newborns. The features of HRV in the low-frequency band (LF: 0.03-0.07 Hz), mid-frequency band (MF: 0.07-0.15 Hz), and high-frequency band (HF: 0.15-0.6 Hz) have been obtained by means of the time-frequency distribution (TFD). Results of ongoing time-frequency (TF) research are presented. Based on our preliminary results, the first conditional moment of HRV which is the mean/central frequency in the LF band and the variance in the HF band can be used as a good feature to discriminate the newborn seizure from the nonseizure.

  7. Prostate cancer detection rate in patients with obstructive voiding symptoms by sextant biopsy: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kiknavelidze, K; Tsintsadze, O; Goguadze, M; Pertia, A; Managadze, L

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a laterally directed sextant biopsy in the group of high volume prostate patients with obstructive voiding symptoms and suspected of prostate cancer. Biopsy was performed in 197 men (age: median 63 years, range 47 to 82 years) because of elevated PSA and/or abnormality in digital rectal examinations (DRE). In most cases, a markedly enlarged prostate was noted: the mean prostate volume was 79,9+/-38,5 cc, and in 73% of the cases, the volume of the prostate was >50 cc. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 56 of 197 cases (28,4%). The prostate cancer detection rate among patients with a prostate volume of 80cc (high volume) were 39,6%, 32,8% and 18,6%, respectively. Our results showed that the laterally directed sextant biopsy with the overall detection rate as high as 28,4% and very low complications is an effective method for the detection of prostate cancer among the suspected patients with obstructive voiding symptoms and markedly enlarged prostates.

  8. Improving the emergency department detection rate of domestic violence using direct questioning.

    PubMed

    Morrison, L J; Allan, R; Grunfeld, A

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the domestic violence (DV) rate identified with simple direct questioning to a historical cohort of patients receiving routine emergency department (ED) care. One thousand ED charts of female patients were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient in the prospective cohort was asked five DV specific questions. The historical cohort revealed a DV prevalence rate of 0.4%. The prospective study group of 302 patients identified 11 (3.6%) patients who admitted to acute DV on direct questioning. Ten of these patients accepted help. Twenty (6.6%) were identified as probable DV and 12 (4%) admitted to past violence. The total number of victims of DV, past, present, and probable was 43 (14.2%). This increase in detection from 0.4% (4/1000) to 14.2% (43/302) is significant at p < 0.001. Only 1.3% of patients refused to participate in the DV specific questions. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of simple, direct questioning significantly improves the detection rate of DV in the ED.

  9. Heart rate and blood pressure control in obesity - how to detect early dysregulation?

    PubMed

    Javorka, Michal; Turianikova, Zuzana; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Lazarova, Zuzana; Czippelova, Barbora; Javorka, Kamil

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is accompanied by many severe complications including various cardiovascular disorders. An impairment of cardiovascular control by autonomic nervous system could be one of the possible links between obesity and cardiovascular complications development. The aim of this study was to compare spontaneous heart rate and systolic blood pressure oscillations reflecting cardiovascular autonomic control of young obese subjects with normal control subjects by linear and nonlinear methods and to find sensitive markers of early autonomic dysregulation. Continuous recordings of beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure and RR intervals from ECG were obtained from 40 obese subjects (25 female, age 14·2 [13·1-16·1] (median [interquartile range]) years) and gender and age matched non-obese control subjects. In addition to linear measures (time and frequency domain), we performed recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and multiscale entropy analysis for both signals. While no significant differences in heart rate and systolic blood pressure dynamics were detected by linear measures and MSE, analysis of recurrence plots from RR intervals time series showed significant differences - indices trapping time and maximal length of vertical from RQA were significantly higher in obese compared to control group. We conclude that heart rate and blood pressure control by autonomic nervous system in young obese subjects is relatively well preserved. However, novel RQA-related measures are able to detect early subtle abnormalities in cardiac autonomic control in obese subjects indicating decreased signal complexity.

  10. How to Calculate Renyi Entropy from Heart Rate Variability, and Why it Matters for Detecting Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cornforth, David J; Tarvainen, Mika P; Jelinek, Herbert F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a disease that involves nerve damage leading to an abnormal control of heart rate. An open question is to what extent this condition is detectable from heart rate variability (HRV), which provides information only on successive intervals between heart beats, yet is non-invasive and easy to obtain from a three-lead ECG recording. A variety of measures may be extracted from HRV, including time domain, frequency domain, and more complex non-linear measures. Among the latter, Renyi entropy has been proposed as a suitable measure that can be used to discriminate CAN from controls. However, all entropy methods require estimation of probabilities, and there are a number of ways in which this estimation can be made. In this work, we calculate Renyi entropy using several variations of the histogram method and a density method based on sequences of RR intervals. In all, we calculate Renyi entropy using nine methods and compare their effectiveness in separating the different classes of participants. We found that the histogram method using single RR intervals yields an entropy measure that is either incapable of discriminating CAN from controls, or that it provides little information that could not be gained from the SD of the RR intervals. In contrast, probabilities calculated using a density method based on sequences of RR intervals yield an entropy measure that provides good separation between groups of participants and provides information not available from the SD. The main contribution of this work is that different approaches to calculating probability may affect the success of detecting disease. Our results bring new clarity to the methods used to calculate the Renyi entropy in general, and in particular, to the successful detection of CAN.

  11. IMPROVED THEORETICAL PREDICTIONS OF MICROLENSING RATES FOR THE DETECTION OF PRIMORDIAL BLACK HOLE DARK MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Cieplak, Agnieszka M.; Griest, Kim

    2013-04-20

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) remain a dark matter (DM) candidate of the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Previously, we proposed a new method of constraining the remaining PBH DM mass range using microlensing of stars monitored by NASA's Kepler mission. We improve this analysis using a more accurate treatment of the population of the Kepler source stars, their variability, and limb darkening. We extend the theoretically detectable PBH DM mass range down to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} M{sub Sun }, two orders of magnitude below current limits and one-third order of magnitude below our previous estimate. We address how to extract the DM properties, such as mass and spatial distribution, if PBH microlensing events were detected. We correct an error in a well-known finite-source limb-darkening microlensing formula and also examine the effects of varying the light curve cadence on PBH DM detectability. We also introduce an approximation for estimating the predicted rate of detection per star as a function of the star's properties, thus allowing for selection of source stars in future missions, and extend our analysis to planned surveys, such as the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope.

  12. Paediatric lower limb deformity correction using the Ilizarov technique: a statistical analysis of factors affecting the complication rate.

    PubMed

    Oostenbroek, Hubert J; Brand, Ronald; van Roermund, Peter M; Castelein, René M

    2014-01-01

    Limb length discrepancy (LLD) and other patient factors are thought to influence the complication rate in (paediatric) limb deformity correction. In the literature, information is conflicting. This study was performed to identify clinical factors that affect the complication rate in paediatric lower-limb lengthening. A consecutive group of 37 children was analysed. The median proportionate LLD was 15 (4-42)%. An analysis was carried out on several patient factors that may complicate the treatment or end result using logistic regression in a polytomous logistic regression model. The factors analysed were proportionate LLD, cause of deformity, location of corrected bone, and the classification of the deformity according to an overall classification that includes the LLD and all concomitant deformity factors. The median age at the start of the treatment was 11 (6-17) years. The median lengthening index was 1.5 (0.8-3.8) months per centimetre lengthening. The obstacle and complication rate was 69% per lengthened bone. Proportionate LLD was the only statistically significant predictor for the occurrence of complications. Concomitant deformities did not influence the complication rate. From these data we constructed a simple graph that shows the relationship between proportionate LLD and risk for complications. This study shows that only relative LLD is a predictor of the risk for complications. The additional value of this analysis is the production of a simple graph. Construction of this graph using data of a patient group (for example, your own) may allow a more realistic comparison with results in the literature than has been possible before.

  13. Detecting Parental Deception Using a Behavior Rating Scale during Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Floyd, Randy G.

    2016-01-01

    It is often assumed that parents completing behavior rating scales during the assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can deliberately manipulate the outcomes of the assessment. To detect these actions, items designed to detect over-reporting or under-reporting of results are sometimes embedded in such rating scales. This…

  14. Early detection of childhood autism: a review of screening instruments and rating scales.

    PubMed

    Vostanis, P; Smith, B; Chung, M C; Corbett, J

    1994-01-01

    The detection and diagnosis of autism may be delayed until middle childhood, 3-4 years after its onset. This is more likely in high-functioning autism and in cases of co-morbidity with mental retardation. Such delays have serious effects on children and their families as well as on the provision of clinical and educational resources. In addition to greater awareness among professionals and to the development of comprehensive services, early detection could be facilitated by screening for early signs and symptoms of autism. The instruments that have been developed to rate autistic behaviours, particularly in pre-school children, are reviewed in this paper. Although the majority of these observational or informant-based measures were not initially designed for screening purposes, previous research findings from their application could be useful in the future development of such a screening instrument. Relevant research findings are discussed and suggestions are made for further evaluation in appropriate populations.

  15. Vertex evoked potentials in a rating-scale detection task: Relation to signal probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, K. C.; Squires, N. K.; Hillyard, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Vertex evoked potentials were recorded from human subjects performing in an auditory detection task with rating scale responses. Three values of a priori probability of signal presentation were tested. The amplitudes of the N1 and P3 components of the vertex potential associated with correct detections of the signal were found to be systematically related to the strictness of the response criterion and independent of variations in a priori signal probability. No similar evoked potential components were found associated with signal absent judgements (misses and correct rejections) regardless of the confidence level of the judgement or signal probability. These results strongly support the contention that the form of the vertex evoked response is closely correlated with the subject's psychophysical decision regarding the presence or absence of a threshold level signal.

  16. Size of clearcut opening affects species composition, growth rate, and stand characteristics. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, M.E.; Smith, H.C.; Pearcy, J.N.

    1995-05-22

    In the late 1950`s and early 1960`s, a series of studies was installed in the central hardwood forest to determine if size of clearcut opening affects the growth rate and species composition of new stands. In 1991, about 30 years after cutting, stand data were collected in 89 openings ranging in size from 0.04 to 1.61 acres. The number of stems per acre increased with opening size; however, the number of shade-tolerant species constituted a greater proportion of the stand in small openings (<0.5 acre), while the porportion of shade-intolerant species increased in larger openings. Results of this study indicate that opening size has a major influence on stand characteristics after about 30 years.

  17. Relative Saliency in Change Signals Affects Perceptual Comparison and Decision Processes in Change Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Change detection requires perceptual comparison and decision processes on different features of multiattribute objects. How relative salience between two feature-changes influences the processes has not been addressed. This study used the systems factorial technology to investigate the processes when detecting changes in a Gabor patch with visual…

  18. Automatic optimisation of gamma dose rate sensor networks: The DETECT Optimisation Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helle, K. B.; Müller, T. O.; Astrup, P.; Dyve, J. E.

    2014-05-01

    Fast delivery of comprehensive information on the radiological situation is essential for decision-making in nuclear emergencies. Most national radiological agencies in Europe employ gamma dose rate sensor networks to monitor radioactive pollution of the atmosphere. Sensor locations were often chosen using regular grids or according to administrative constraints. Nowadays, however, the choice can be based on more realistic risk assessment, as it is possible to simulate potential radioactive plumes. To support sensor planning, we developed the DETECT Optimisation Tool (DOT) within the scope of the EU FP 7 project DETECT. It evaluates the gamma dose rates that a proposed set of sensors might measure in an emergency and uses this information to optimise the sensor locations. The gamma dose rates are taken from a comprehensive library of simulations of atmospheric radioactive plumes from 64 source locations. These simulations cover the whole European Union, so the DOT allows evaluation and optimisation of sensor networks for all EU countries, as well as evaluation of fencing sensors around possible sources. Users can choose from seven cost functions to evaluate the capability of a given monitoring network for early detection of radioactive plumes or for the creation of dose maps. The DOT is implemented as a stand-alone easy-to-use JAVA-based application with a graphical user interface and an R backend. Users can run evaluations and optimisations, and display, store and download the results. The DOT runs on a server and can be accessed via common web browsers; it can also be installed locally.

  19. Submerged conidiation and product formation by Aspergillus niger at low specific growth rates are affected in aerial developmental mutants.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Thomas R; Nielsen, Kristian F; Arentshorst, Mark; Park, Joohae; van den Hondel, Cees A; Frisvad, Jens C; Ram, Arthur F

    2011-08-01

    fungus cultured at low specific growth rates can be fundamentally affected by interfering with the genetic program for differentiation of aerial hyphae, opening new perspectives for tailoring industrial performance.

  20. ON THE ENHANCED CORONAL MASS EJECTION DETECTION RATE SINCE THE SOLAR CYCLE 23 POLAR FIELD REVERSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G. J. D.

    2015-10-10

    Compared to cycle 23, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with angular widths >30° have been observed to occur at a higher rate during solar cycle 24, per sunspot number. This result is supported by data from three independent databases constructed using Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment coronagraph images, two employing automated detection techniques and one compiled manually by human observers. According to the two databases that cover a larger field of view, the enhanced CME rate actually began shortly after the cycle 23 polar field reversal, in 2004, when the polar fields returned with a 40% reduction in strength and the interplanetary radial magnetic field became ≈30% weaker. This result is consistent with the link between anomalous CME expansion and the heliospheric total pressure decrease recently reported by Gopalswamy et al.

  1. Detection of quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture environmental stressors such as handling, overcrowding, sub-optimal water quality parameters and social interactions negatively impact growth, feed intake, feed efficiency, disease resistance, flesh quality and reproductive performance in rainbow trout. To identify QTL affecting response...

  2. Calculating inspector probability of detection using performance demonstration program pass rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumblidge, Stephen; D'Agostino, Amy

    2016-02-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has been working since the 1970's to ensure that nondestructive testing performed on nuclear power plants in the United States will provide reasonable assurance of structural integrity of the nuclear power plant components. One tool used by the NRC has been the development and implementation of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section XI Appendix VIII[1] (Appendix VIII) blind testing requirements for ultrasonic procedures, equipment, and personnel. Some concerns have been raised, over the years, by the relatively low pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification testing. The NRC staff has applied statistical tools and simulations to determine the expected probability of detection (POD) for ultrasonic examinations under ideal conditions based on the pass rates for the Appendix VIII qualification tests for the ultrasonic testing personnel. This work was primarily performed to answer three questions. First, given a test design and pass rate, what is the expected overall POD for inspectors? Second, can we calculate the probability of detection for flaws of different sizes using this information? Finally, if a previously qualified inspector fails a requalification test, does this call their earlier inspections into question? The calculations have shown that one can expect good performance from inspectors who have passed appendix VIII testing in a laboratory-like environment, and the requalification pass rates show that the inspectors have maintained their skills between tests. While these calculations showed that the PODs for the ultrasonic inspections are very good under laboratory conditions, the field inspections are conducted in a very different environment. The NRC staff has initiated a project to systematically analyze the human factors differences between qualification testing and field examinations. This work will be used to evaluate and prioritize

  3. Fast proton exchange in histidine: measurement of rate constants through indirect detection by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Akansha Ashvani; Duma, Luminita; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Pelupessy, Philippe

    2014-05-19

    Owing to its imidazole side chain, histidine participates in various processes such as enzyme catalysis, pH regulation, metal binding, and phosphorylation. The determination of exchange rates of labile protons for such a system is important for understanding its functions. However, these rates are too fast to be measured directly in an aqueous solution by using NMR spectroscopy. We have obtained the exchange rates of the NH3(+) amino protons and the labile NH(ε2) and NH(δ1) protons of the imidazole ring by indirect detection through nitrogen-15 as a function of temperature (272 Krates up to 8.5×10(4) s(-1) could be determined (i.e., lifetimes as short as 12 μs). The three chemical shifts δH(i) of the invisible exchanging protons H(i) and the three one-bond scalar coupling constants (1)J(N,H(i)) could also be determined accurately.

  4. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability to Detect Vascular Dysregulation in Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Koch, Eva Charlotte; Staab, Johanna; Fuest, Matthias; Witt, Katharina; Voss, Andreas; Plange, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate blood pressure and heart rate variability in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) to detect disturbed blood pressure regulation. Methods. Thirty-one patients with POAG (mean age 68 ± 10 years) and 48 control subjects (mean age 66 ± 10 years) were included in a prospective study. Continuous blood pressure and heart rate were simultaneously and noninvasively recorded over 30 min (Glaucoscreen, aviant GmbH, Jena, Germany). Data were analyzed calculating univariate linear (time domain and frequency domain), nonlinear (Symbolic Dynamics, SD) and bivariate (Joint Symbolic Dynamics, JSD) indices. Results. Using nonlinear methods, glaucoma patients were separated with more parameters compared to linear methods. In POAG, nonlinear univariate indices (pW113 and pW120_Sys) were increased while the indices pTH10_Sys and pTH11_Sys reflect a reduction of dominant patterns. Bivariate indices (JSDdia29, JSDdia50, and JSDdia52; coupling between heart rate and diastolic blood pressure) were increased in POAG. The optimum set consisting of six parameters (JSDdia29, JSDdia58, pTH9_Sys, pW231, pW110_Sys and pW120_Sys) revealed a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 80.6%. Conclusions. Nonlinear uni- and bivariate indices of continuous recordings of blood pressure and heart rate are altered in glaucoma. Abnormal blood pressure variability suggests disturbed autonomic regulation in patients with glaucoma.

  5. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability to Detect Vascular Dysregulation in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Eva Charlotte; Staab, Johanna; Fuest, Matthias; Witt, Katharina; Voss, Andreas; Plange, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate blood pressure and heart rate variability in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) to detect disturbed blood pressure regulation. Methods. Thirty-one patients with POAG (mean age 68 ± 10 years) and 48 control subjects (mean age 66 ± 10 years) were included in a prospective study. Continuous blood pressure and heart rate were simultaneously and noninvasively recorded over 30 min (Glaucoscreen, aviant GmbH, Jena, Germany). Data were analyzed calculating univariate linear (time domain and frequency domain), nonlinear (Symbolic Dynamics, SD) and bivariate (Joint Symbolic Dynamics, JSD) indices. Results. Using nonlinear methods, glaucoma patients were separated with more parameters compared to linear methods. In POAG, nonlinear univariate indices (pW113 and pW120_Sys) were increased while the indices pTH10_Sys and pTH11_Sys reflect a reduction of dominant patterns. Bivariate indices (JSDdia29, JSDdia50, and JSDdia52; coupling between heart rate and diastolic blood pressure) were increased in POAG. The optimum set consisting of six parameters (JSDdia29, JSDdia58, pTH9_Sys, pW231, pW110_Sys and pW120_Sys) revealed a sensitivity of 83.3% and specificity of 80.6%. Conclusions. Nonlinear uni- and bivariate indices of continuous recordings of blood pressure and heart rate are altered in glaucoma. Abnormal blood pressure variability suggests disturbed autonomic regulation in patients with glaucoma. PMID:26495136

  6. Heart rate time series characteristics for early detection of infections in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Tambuyzer, T; Guiza, F; Boonen, E; Meersseman, P; Vervenne, H; Hansen, T K; Bjerre, M; Van den Berghe, G; Berckmans, D; Aerts, J M; Meyfroidt, G

    2017-04-01

    It is difficult to make a distinction between inflammation and infection. Therefore, new strategies are required to allow accurate detection of infection. Here, we hypothesize that we can distinguish infected from non-infected ICU patients based on dynamic features of serum cytokine concentrations and heart rate time series. Serum cytokine profiles and heart rate time series of 39 patients were available for this study. The serum concentration of ten cytokines were measured using blood sampled every 10 min between 2100 and 0600 hours. Heart rate was recorded every minute. Ten metrics were used to extract features from these time series to obtain an accurate classification of infected patients. The predictive power of the metrics derived from the heart rate time series was investigated using decision tree analysis. Finally, logistic regression methods were used to examine whether classification performance improved with inclusion of features derived from the cytokine time series. The AUC of a decision tree based on two heart rate features was 0.88. The model had good calibration with 0.09 Hosmer-Lemeshow p value. There was no significant additional value of adding static cytokine levels or cytokine time series information to the generated decision tree model. The results suggest that heart rate is a better marker for infection than information captured by cytokine time series when the exact stage of infection is not known. The predictive value of (expensive) biomarkers should always be weighed against the routinely monitored data, and such biomarkers have to demonstrate added value.

  7. Grapevine Rootstocks Differentially Affect the Rate of Ripening and Modulate Auxin-Related Genes in Cabernet Sauvignon Berries

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Massimiliano; Vannozzi, Alessandro; Ziliotto, Fiorenza; Zouine, Mohamed; Maza, Elie; Nicolato, Tommaso; Vitulo, Nicola; Meggio, Franco; Valle, Giorgio; Bouzayen, Mondher; Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Lucchin, Margherita; Bonghi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In modern viticulture, grafting commercial grapevine varieties on interspecific rootstocks is a common practice required for conferring resistance to many biotic and abiotic stresses. Nevertheless, the use of rootstocks to gain these essential traits is also known to impact grape berry development and quality, although the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In grape berries, the onset of ripening (véraison) is regulated by a complex network of mobile signals including hormones such as auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid, and brassinosteroids. Recently, a new rootstock, designated M4, was selected based on its enhanced tolerance to water stress and medium vigor. This study investigates the effect of M4 on Cabernet Sauvignon (CS) berry development in comparison to the commercial 1103P rootstock. Physical and biochemical parameters showed that the ripening rate of CS berries is faster when grafted onto M4. A multifactorial analysis performed on mRNA-Seq data obtained from skin and pulp of berries grown in both graft combinations revealed that genes controlling auxin action (ARF and Aux/IAA) represent one of main categories affected by the rootstock genotype. Considering that the level of auxin tightly regulates the transcription of these genes, we investigated the behavior of the main gene families involved in auxin biosynthesis and conjugation. Molecular and biochemical analyses confirmed a link between the rate of berry development and the modulation of auxin metabolism. Moreover, the data indicate that this phenomenon appears to be particularly pronounced in skin tissue in comparison to the flesh. PMID:26904046

  8. Maternal thyroid hormone deficiency affects the fetal neocorticogenesis by reducing the proliferating pool, rate of neurogenesis and indirect neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Vishwa; Sinha, Rohit A; Pathak, Amrita; Rastogi, Leena; Kumar, Praveen; Pal, Amit; Godbole, Madan M

    2012-10-01

    Neuronal progenitor cell proliferation and their optimum number are indispensable for neurogenesis, which is determined by cell cycle length and cell cycle quitting rate of the dividing progenitors. These processes are tightly orchestrated by transcription factors like Tbr2, Pax6, and E2f-1. Radial glia and intermediate progenitor cells (IPC) through direct and indirect neurogenesis maintain surface area and neocortical thickness during development. Here we show that fetal neurogenesis is maternal thyroid hormone (MTH) dependent with differential effect on direct and indirect neurogenesis. MTH deficiency (MTHD) impairs direct neurogenesis through initial down-regulation of Pax6 and diminished progenitor pool with recovery even before the onset of fetal thyroid function (FTF). However, persistent decrease in Tbr2 positive IPCs, diminished NeuN positivity in layers I-III of neocortex, and reduced cortical thickness indicate a non-compensatory impairment in indirect neurogenesis. TH deficiency causes disrupted cell cycle kinetics and deranged neurogenesis. It specifically affects indirect neurogenesis governed by intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs). TH replacement in hypothyroid dams partially restored the rate of neurogenesis in the fetal neocortex. Taken together we describe a novel role of maternal TH in promoting IPCs derived neuronal differentiation in developing neo-cortex. We have also shown for the first time that ventricular zone progenitors are TH responsive as they express its receptor, TR alpha-1, transporters (MCT8) and deiodinases. This study highlights the importance of maternal thyroid hormone (TH) even before the start of the fetal thyroid function.

  9. Estimating site occupancy rates for aquatic plants using spatial sub-sampling designs when detection probabilities are less than one

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielson, Ryan M.; Gray, Brian R.; McDonald, Lyman L.; Heglund, Patricia J.

    2011-01-01

    Estimation of site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are <1 is well established in wildlife science. Data from multiple visits to a sample of sites are used to estimate detection probabilities and the proportion of sites occupied by focal species. In this article we describe how site occupancy methods can be applied to estimate occupancy rates of plants and other sessile organisms. We illustrate this approach and the pitfalls of ignoring incomplete detection using spatial data for 2 aquatic vascular plants collected under the Upper Mississippi River's Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP). Site occupancy models considered include: a naïve model that ignores incomplete detection, a simple site occupancy model assuming a constant occupancy rate and a constant probability of detection across sites, several models that allow site occupancy rates and probabilities of detection to vary with habitat characteristics, and mixture models that allow for unexplained variation in detection probabilities. We used information theoretic methods to rank competing models and bootstrapping to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the final models. Results of our analysis confirm that ignoring incomplete detection can result in biased estimates of occupancy rates. Estimates of site occupancy rates for 2 aquatic plant species were 19–36% higher compared to naive estimates that ignored probabilities of detection <1. Simulations indicate that final models have little bias when 50 or more sites are sampled, and little gains in precision could be expected for sample sizes >300. We recommend applying site occupancy methods for monitoring presence of aquatic species.

  10. Detection of Leptospira interrogans DNA and antigen in fixed equine eyes affected with end-stage equine recurrent uveitis.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Jacqueline W; Galle, Laurence E; Kleiboeker, Steve B; Turk, James R; Schommer, Susan K; Dubielizig, Richard R; Mitchell, William J; Moore, Cecil P; Giuliano, Elizabeth A

    2007-11-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU) is the most frequent cause of blindness in horses worldwide. Leptospira has been implicated as an etiologic agent in some cases of ERU and has been detected in fresh ocular tissues of affected horses. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of Leptospira antigen and DNA in fixed equine ocular tissues affected with end-stage ERU. Sections of eyes from 30 horses were obtained. Controls included 1) 10 normal equine eyes and 2) 10 equine eyes with a nonrecurrent form of uveitis. The experimental group consisted of 10 eyes diagnosed with ERU based on clinical signs and histologic lesions. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining with an array of rabbit anti-Leptospira polyclonal antibodies. DNA extractions were performed by using a commercial kit designed for fixed tissue. Real-time PCR analysis was completed on extracted DNA. The target sequence for PCR was designed from alignments of available Leptospira 16S rDNA partial sequences obtained from GenBank. Two of 10 test samples were positive for Leptospira antigen by immunohistochemical assay. Zero of 20 controls were positive for Leptospira antigen. All test samples and controls were negative for Leptospira DNA by real-time PCR analysis. Leptospira was detected at a lower frequency than that previously reported for fresh ERU-affected aqueous humor and vitreous samples. Leptospira is not frequently detectable in fixed ocular tissues of horses affected with ERU when using traditional immunohistochemical and real-time PCR techniques.

  11. Major factors affecting in situ biodegradation rates of jet-fuel during large-scale biosparging project in sedimentary bedrock.

    PubMed

    Machackova, Jirina; Wittlingerova, Zdena; Vlk, Kvetoslav; Zima, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), mainly jet fuel, had taken place at the former Soviet Army air base in the Czech Republic. The remediation of large-scale petroleum contamination of soil and groundwater has provided valuable information about biosparging efficiency in the sandstone sedimentary bedrock. In 1997 petroleum contamination was found to be present in soil and groundwater across an area of 28 hectares, divided for the clean-up purpose into smaller clean-up fields (several hectares). The total estimated quantity of TPH released to the environment was about 7,000 metric tons. Biosparging was applied as an innovative clean-up technology at the site and was operated over a 10-year period (1997-2008). Importance of a variety of factors that affect bacterial activity in unsaturated and saturated zones was widely studied on the site and influence of natural and technological factors on clean-up efficiency in heavily contaminates areas of clean-up fields (initial contaminant mass 111-452 metric ton/ha) was evaluated. Long-term monitoring of the groundwater temperature has shown seasonal rises and falls of temperature which have caused a fluctuation in biodegradation activity during clean-up. By contrast, an overall rise of average groundwater temperature was observed in the clean-up fields, most probably as a result of the biological activity during the clean-up process. The significant rise of biodegradation rates, observed after air sparging intensification, and strong linear correlation between the air injection rates and biodegradation activities have shown that the air injection rate is the principal factor in biodegradation efficiency in heavily contaminated areas. It has a far more important role for achieving a biodegradation activity than the contamination content which appeared to have had only a slight effect after the removal of about 75% of initial contamination.

  12. Detection of differentially expressed genes in broiler pectoralis major muscle affected by White Striping - Wooden Breast myopathies.

    PubMed

    Zambonelli, Paolo; Zappaterra, Martina; Soglia, Francesca; Petracci, Massimiliano; Sirri, Federico; Cavani, Claudio; Davoli, Roberta

    2016-12-01

    White Striping and Wooden Breast (WS/WB) are abnormalities increasingly occurring in the fillets of high breast yield and growth rate chicken hybrids. These defects lead to consistent economic losses for poultry meat industry, as affected broiler fillets present an impaired visual appearance that negatively affects consumers' acceptability. Previous studies have highlighted in affected fillets a severely damaged muscle, showing profound inflammation, fibrosis, and lipidosis. The present study investigated the differentially expressed genes and pathways linked to the compositional changes observed in WS/WB breast muscles, in order to outline a more complete framework of the gene networks related to the occurrence of this complex pathological picture. The biochemical composition was performed on 20 pectoralis major samples obtained from high breast yield and growth rate broilers (10 affected vs. 10 normal) and 12 out of the 20 samples were used for the microarray gene expression profiling (6 affected vs. 6 normal). The obtained results indicate strong changes in muscle mineral composition, coupled to an increased deposition of fat. In addition, 204 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were found: 102 up-regulated and 102 down-regulated in affected breasts. The gene expression pathways found more altered in WS/WB muscles are those related to muscle development, polysaccharide metabolic processes, proteoglycans synthesis, inflammation, and calcium signaling pathway. On the whole, the findings suggest that a multifactorial and complex etiology is associated with the occurrence of WS/WB muscle abnormalities, contributing to further defining the transcription patterns associated with these myopathies.

  13. Model-based detection of heart rate turbulence using mean shape information.

    PubMed

    Smith, Danny; Solem, Kristian; Laguna, Pablo; Martínez, Juan Pablo; Sörnmo, Leif

    2010-02-01

    A generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) statistic is proposed for detection of heart rate turbulence (HRT), where a set of Karhunen-LoEve basis functions models HRT. The detector structure is based on the extended integral pulse frequency modulation model that accounts for the presence of ectopic beats and HRT. This new test statistic takes a priori information regarding HRT shape into account, whereas our previously presented GLRT detector relied solely on the energy contained in the signal subspace. The spectral relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and HRT is investigated for the purpose of modeling HRV "noise" present during the turbulence period, the results suggesting that the white noise assumption is feasible to pursue. The performance was studied for both simulated and real data, leading to results which show that the new GLRT detector is superior to the original one as well as to the commonly used parameter turbulence slope (TS) on both types of data. Averaging ten ventricular ectopic beats, the estimated detection probability of the new detector, the previous detector, and TS were found to be 0.83, 0.35, and 0.41, respectively, when the false alarm probability was held fixed at 0.1.

  14. Nonlinear Detection for a High Rate Extended Binary Phase Shift Keying System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xian-Qing; Wu, Le-Nan

    2013-01-01

    The algorithm and the results of a nonlinear detector using a machine learning technique called support vector machine (SVM) on an efficient modulation system with high data rate and low energy consumption is presented in this paper. Simulation results showed that the performance achieved by the SVM detector is comparable to that of a conventional threshold decision (TD) detector. The two detectors detect the received signals together with the special impacting filter (SIF) that can improve the energy utilization efficiency. However, unlike the TD detector, the SVM detector concentrates not only on reducing the BER of the detector, but also on providing accurate posterior probability estimates (PPEs), which can be used as soft-inputs of the LDPC decoder. The complexity of this detector is considered in this paper by using four features and simplifying the decision function. In addition, a bandwidth efficient transmission is analyzed with both SVM and TD detector. The SVM detector is more robust to sampling rate than TD detector. We find that the SVM is suitable for extended binary phase shift keying (EBPSK) signal detection and can provide accurate posterior probability for LDPC decoding. PMID:23539034

  15. Dark matter direct detection rate in a generic model with micrOMEGAs_2.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bélanger, G.; Boudjema, F.; Pukhov, A.; Semenov, A.

    2009-05-01

    We present a new module of the micrOMEGAs package for the calculation of WIMP-nuclei elastic scattering cross sections relevant for the direct detection of dark matter through its interaction with nuclei in a large detector. With this new module, the computation of the direct detection rate is performed automatically for a generic model of new physics which contains a WIMP candidate. This model needs to be implemented within micrOMEGAs 2.2. Program summaryProgram title: micrOMEGAs2.2 Catalogue identifier: ADQR_v2_2 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADQR_v2_2.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 206 949 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 245 230 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C and Fortran Computer: PC, Alpha, Mac Operating system: UNIX (Linux, OSF1, Darwin, Cygwin) RAM: 17 MB depending on the number of processes required Classification: 1.9, 11.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADQR_v2_1 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 177 (2007) 894 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Calculation of the relic density and of direct and indirect detection rates of the lightest stable particle in a generic new model of particle physics. Solution method: In numerically solving the evolution equation for the density of darkmatter, relativistic formulae for the thermal average are used. All tree-level processes for annihilation and coannihilation of new particles in the model are included. The cross-sections for all processes are calculated exactly with CalcHEP after definition of a model file. Higher-order QCD corrections to Higgs couplings to quark pairs are included. The coefficients of the effective Lagrangian which describes the

  16. Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihota, Natasha J.; Mayer, K. Ulrich; Toso, Mark A.; Atwater, Joel F.

    2013-08-01

    The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation—related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur—even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 μmol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 μmol m- 2 s- 1. At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 μmol m- 2 s- 1, and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 μmol m- 2 s- 1. Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion or

  17. Methane emissions and contaminant degradation rates at sites affected by accidental releases of denatured fuel-grade ethanol.

    PubMed

    Sihota, Natasha J; Mayer, K Ulrich; Toso, Mark A; Atwater, Joel F

    2013-08-01

    The recent increase in the use of denatured fuel-grade ethanol (DFE) has enhanced the probability of its environmental release. Due to the highly labile nature of ethanol (EtOH), it is expected to rapidly biodegrade, increasing the potential for inducing methanogenic conditions in the subsurface. As environmental releases of DFE can be expected to occur at the ground surface or in the vadose zone (e.g., due to surficial spills from rail lines or tanker trucks and leaking underground storage tanks), the potential for methane (CH4) generation at DFE spill sites requires evaluation. An assessment is needed because high CH4 generation rates may lead to CH4 fluxes towards the ground surface, which is of particular concern if spills are located close to human habitation-related to concerns of soil vapor intrusion (SVI). This work demonstrates, for the first time, the measurement of surficial gas release rates at large volume DFE spill sites. Two study sites, near Cambria and Balaton, in MN are investigated. Total carbon emissions at the ground surface (summing carbon dioxide (CO2) and CH4 emissions) are used to quantify depth-integrated DFE degradation rates. Results from both sites demonstrate that substantial CO2 and CH4 emissions do occur-even years after a spill. However, large total carbon fluxes, and CH4 emissions in particular, were restricted to a localized area within the DFE source zone. At the Balaton site, estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 5 and 174 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 9 μmol m(-2) s(-1). At the Cambria site estimates of total DFE carbon losses in the source zone ranged between 8 and 500 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and CH4 effluxes ranged between non-detect and 393 μmol m(-2) s(-1). Substantial CH4 accumulation, coupled with oxygen (O2) depletion, measured in samples collected from custom-designed gas collection chambers at the Cambria site suggests that the development of explosion

  18. Detection rates of geckos in visual surveys: Turning confounding variables into useful knowledge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lardner, Bjorn; Rodda, Gordon H.; Yackel Adams, Amy A.; Savidge, Julie A.; Reed, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Transect surveys without some means of estimating detection probabilities generate population size indices prone to bias because survey conditions differ in time and space. Knowing what causes such bias can help guide the collection of relevant survey covariates, correct the survey data, anticipate situations where bias might be unacceptably large, and elucidate the ecology of target species. We used negative binomial regression to evaluate confounding variables for gecko (primarily Hemidactylus frenatus and Lepidodactylus lugubris) counts on 220-m-long transects surveyed at night, primarily for snakes, on 9,475 occasions. Searchers differed in gecko detection rates by up to a factor of six. The worst and best headlamps differed by a factor of at least two. Strong winds had a negative effect potentially as large as those of searchers or headlamps. More geckos were seen during wet weather conditions, but the effect size was small. Compared with a detection nadir during waxing gibbous (nearly full) moons above the horizon, we saw 28% more geckos during waning crescent moons below the horizon. A sine function suggested that we saw 24% more geckos at the end of the wet season than at the end of the dry season. Fluctuations on a longer timescale also were verified. Disturbingly, corrected data exhibited strong short-term fluctuations that covariates apparently failed to capture. Although some biases can be addressed with measured covariates, others will be difficult to eliminate as a significant source of error in longterm monitoring programs.

  19. Contactless vision-based pulse rate detection of Infants Under Neurological Examinations.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Arindam; Behera, Santosh Kumar; Dogra, Debi Prosad; Bhaskar, Harish

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a method for detecting variations in the Pulse Rate (PR) of infants undergoing the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examinations (HINE) using video data. As in every other medical examination the measurement of the PR is critical to underpin the physiological state of living beings. During HINE, measuring the infant's PR is important as its variations against physical conditions, age and other factors must be studied and correlated against developmental scores. However, this becomes highly complicated with active infants where their movements often lead to inconsistent PR estimation. We propose the use of a non-linear dimensionality reduction technique, called Laplacian Eigenmap (LE), to uncover the pulse information encapsulated within the high dimensional visual manifold characterized by normalized RGB feature vectors. Furthermore, low-level image filtering is applied to accurately detect PR within a chosen region-of-interest (ROI) from different parts of the infant's body. For validation and analysis, a set of 14 video sequences of infants undergoing five important tests of HINE have been chosen. Experimental results suggest that a bi-parametrized combination of color features from the RG and GB channels provide more valuable information in comparison to the RB and RGB channels. Results have demonstrated that this contactless method of PR detection has promising prospects for its future use in other clinical examinations of infants.

  20. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Borel, Benoit; Wilkinson-Maitland, Courtney A; Hamilton, Alan; Bourbeau, Jean; Perrault, Hélène; Jensen, Dennis; Maltais, François

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST) to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort) after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7), % predicted) performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg)/salbutamol (2.5 mg) and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results A total of 37 (92.5%), 36 (90%), 34 (85%) and 27 (67.5%) patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01) and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01); however, no statically significant differences were observed between treatments at 20 and 24 steps/min (both P>0.05). Conclusion The 3-MST, when performed at 14 and 16 steps/min, was responsive to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea after acute bronchodilation in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. PMID:27942208

  1. An exploration of the spatial scale over which orientation-dependent surround effects affect contour detection.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Jennifer F; Quinn, Christina F; Olman, Cheryl A

    2011-07-21

    Contour detection is a crucial component of visual processing; however, performance on contour detection tasks can vary depending on the context of the visual scene. S. C. Dakin and N. J. Baruch (2009) showed that detection of a contour in an array of distracting elements depends on the orientation of flanking elements. Here, using a line of five collinear Gabor elements ("target contour") in a field of distractor Gabor elements, we systematically measured the effects of eccentricity, spacing, and spatial frequency on contour detection performance in three different contexts: randomly oriented distractors (control condition), flanking distractors (on either side of the collinear Gabors) aligned approximately parallel to the target contour, and flanking distractors aligned approximately orthogonal to the target contour. In the control condition, contour detection performance was best for larger Gabors (2 cpd) spaced farther apart (1.2°). Parallel flankers reduced performance for intermediate and large spacings and sizes compared to the control condition, while orthogonal flankers increased performance for the smallest spacing and size compared to the control condition. The results are fit by a model in which collinear facilitation, which is size-dependent but can persist for several degrees of visual angle, competes with orientation-dependent suppression from the flanking context when elements are separated by less than a degree of visual angle.

  2. Do trend extraction approaches affect causality detection in climate change studies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansi; Mukherjee, Zinnia; Gupta, Rangan

    2017-03-01

    Various scientific studies have investigated the causal link between solar activity (SS) and the earth's temperature (GT). Results from literature indicate that both the detected structural breaks and existing trend have significant effects on the causality detection outcomes. In this paper, we make a contribution to this literature by evaluating and comparing seven trend extraction methods covering various aspects of trend extraction studies to date. In addition, we extend previous work by using Convergent Cross Mapping (CCM) - an advanced non-parametric causality detection technique to provide evidence on the effect of existing trend in global temperature on the causality detection outcome. This paper illustrates the use of a method to find the most reliable trend extraction approach for data preprocessing, as well as provides detailed analyses of the causality detection of each component by this approach to achieve a better understanding of the causal link between SS and GT. Furthermore, the corresponding CCM results indicate increasing significance of causal effect from SS to GT since 1880 to recent years, which provide solid evidences that may contribute on explaining the escalating global tendency of warming up recent decades.

  3. Detection of changes in the fractal scaling of heart rate and speed in a marathon race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billat, Véronique L.; Mille-Hamard, Laurence; Meyer, Yves; Wesfreid, Eva

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to detect changes in the fractal scaling behavior of heart rate and speed fluctuations when the average runner’s speed decreased with fatigue. Scaling analysis in heart rate (HR) and speed (S) dynamics of marathon runners was performed using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the wavelet based structure function. We considered both: the short-range ( α1) and the long-range ( α2) scaling exponents for the DFA method separated by a change-point, n0=64=5.3 min (box length), the same for all the races. The variability of HR and S decreased in the second part of the marathon race, while the cardiac cost time series (i.e. the number of cardiac beats per meter) increased due to the decreasing speed behavior. The scaling exponents α1 and α2 of HR and α1 of S, increased during the race ( p<0.01) as did the HR wavelet scaling exponent ( τ). These findings provide evidence of the significant effect of fatigue induced by long exercise on the heart rate and speed variability.

  4. Capacity, cutoff rate, and coding for a direct-detection optical channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that Pierce's pulse position modulation scheme with 2 to the L pulse positions used on a self-noise-limited direct detection optical communication channel results in a 2 to the L-ary erasure channel that is equivalent to the parallel combination of L completely correlated binary erasure channels. The capacity of the full channel is the sum of the capacities of the component channels, but the cutoff rate of the full channel is shown to be much smaller than the sum of the cutoff rates. An interpretation of the cutoff rate is given that suggests a complexity advantage in coding separately on the component channels. It is shown that if short-constraint-length convolutional codes with Viterbi decoders are used on the component channels, then the performance and complexity compare favorably with the Reed-Solomon coding system proposed by McEliece for the full channel. The reasons for this unexpectedly fine performance by the convolutional code system are explored in detail, as are various facets of the channel structure.

  5. Population Validity for Educational Data Mining Models: A Case Study in Affect Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; Baker, Ryan; Gowda, Sujith; Heffernan, Neil; Heffernan, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT)-enhanced research methods such as educational data mining (EDM) have allowed researchers to effectively model a broad range of constructs pertaining to the student, moving from traditional assessments of knowledge to assessment of engagement, meta-cognition, strategy and affect. The automated…

  6. Peroxide test strips detect added hydrogen peroxide in raw milk at levels affecting bacterial load.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicole H; Friedlander, Adam; Mok, Allen; Kent, David; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has a long-established history of use as a preservative in milk worldwide. The use of H2O2 to activate the inherent lactoperoxidase enzyme system has dramatically improved the quality of raw dairy products in areas in which cooling is not widely available. In the United States, however, where refrigeration is widely available, the addition of H2O2 to milk is not permitted, with the exception of certain applications prior to cheesemaking and during the preparation of modified whey. Due to the relatively quick deterioration of H2O2 in fluid milk, the detection of raw milk adulterated with the compound can be challenging. In this study we evaluated (i) total aerobic bacterial counts and (ii) ability of peroxide test strips to detect H2O2 in raw milk with various concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500, 700, and 900 ppm) of added H2O2, incubated at both 6 and 21°C for 0, 24, and 48 h. Results showed that at both 6 and 21°C the H2O2 concentration and time had a significant effect on bacterial loads in raw milk. Additionally, commercially available test strips were able to detect H2O2 in raw milk, with predicted probability of >90%, immediately after addition and after 24 and 48 h for the higher concentrations used, offering a viable method for detecting raw milk adulteration with H2O2.

  7. Red-shouldered hawk broadcast surveys: Factors affecting detection of responses and population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLeod, M.A.; Andersen, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    Forest-nesting raptors are often difficult to detect and monitor because they can be secretive, and their nests can be difficult to locate. Some species, however, respond to broadcasts of taped calls, and these responses may be useful both in monitoring population trends and in locating nests. We conducted broadcast surveys on roads and at active red-shouldered hawk (Buteo lineatus) nests in northcentral Minnesota to determine effects of type of call (conspecific or great horned owl [Bubo virginianus]), time of day, and phase of the breeding cycle on red-shouldered hawk response behavior and to evaluate usefulness of broadcasts as a population monitoring tool using area occupied-probability-of-detection techniques. During the breeding seasons of 1994 and 1995, we surveyed 4 10-station road transects 59 times and conducted 76 surveys at 24 active nests. Results of these surveys indicated conspecific calls broadcast prior to hatch and early in the day were the most effective method of detecting red-shouldered hawks. Probability of detection via conspecific calls averaged 0.25, and area occupied was 100%. Computer simulations using these field data indicated broadcast surveys have the potential to be used as a population monitoring tool.

  8. The Influence of Affective States on the Process of Lie Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Marc-Andre; Schwarz, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Lay theories about the tell tale signs of deception include numerous nonverbal cues; empirically, however, a focus on message content results in better lie detection than a focus on nonverbal elements. Feelings-as-information theory (Schwarz, 1990, 2012) predicts that systematic processing of message content is more likely under sad than happy…

  9. Investigation of image components affecting the detection of lung nodules in digital chest radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bath, Magnus; Hakansson, Markus; Borjesson, Sara; Hoeschen, Christoph; Tischenko, Oleg; Bochud, Francois O.; Verdun, Francis R.; Ullman, Gustaf; Kheddache, Susanne; Tingberg, Anders; Mansson, Lars Gunnar

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate and quantify the effects of system noise, nodule location, anatomical noise and anatomical background on the detection of lung nodules in different regions of the chest x-ray. Simulated lung nodules of diameter 10 mm but with varying detail contrast were randomly positioned in four different kinds of images: 1) clinical images collected with a 200 speed CR system, 2) images containing only system noise (including quantum noise) at the same level as the clinical images, 3) clinical images with removed anatomical noise, 4) artificial images with similar power spectrum as the clinical images but random phase spectrum. An ROC study was conducted with 5 observers. The detail contrast needed to obtain an Az of 0.80, C0.8, was used as measure of detectability. Five different regions of the chest x-ray were investigated separately. The C0.8 of the system noise images ranged from only 2% (the hilar regions) to 20% (the lateral pulmonary regions) of those of the clinical images. Compared with the original clinical images, the C0.8 was 16% lower for the de-noised clinical images and 71% higher for the random phase images, respectively, averaged over all five regions. In conclusion, regarding the detection of lung nodules with a diameter of 10 mm, the system noise is of minor importance at clinically relevant dose levels. The removal of anatomical noise and other noise sources uncorrelated from image to image leads to somewhat better detection, but the major component disturbing the detection is the overlapping of recognizable structures, which are, however, the main aspect of an x-ray image.

  10. Heart rate characteristics: physiomarkers for detection of late-onset neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, Karen D; O'Shea, T Michael

    2010-09-01

    Early detection of late-onset neonatal sepsis, before the onset of obvious and potentially catastrophic clinical signs, is an important goal in neonatal medicine. Sepsis causes a well-known series of physiologic changes including abnormalities of blood pressure, respiration, temperature, and heart rate, and less well-known changes in heart rate variability. Although vital signs are frequently or continuously monitored in patients in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), changes in these parameters are subtle in the early phase of sepsis and difficult to interpret using traditional NICU monitoring tools. A new tool, continuous monitoring of heart rate characteristics (HRC), is now available for clinical use. Recent research has established that 2 abnormalities of HRC that have long been used by obstetricians to identify fetal compromise, reduced heart rate variability and transient decelerations, occur early in the course of sepsis in patients in the NICU, often before clinical signs of illness. Through mathematical modeling of electrocardiogram data from hundreds of patients in the NICU, an HRC index that represents the fold increase in risk that a neonate will be diagnosed with clinical or culture-proven sepsis within the next 24 hours was derived. The effect of continuous HRC monitoring on outcomes in preterm very low birth weight infants is the subject of a multicenter randomized clinical trial of 3000 patients, which will be complete in 2010. Further research into mechanisms of abnormal HRC and regulation of autonomic nervous system function in sepsis and other disease processes will shed light on additional applications of this exciting new technology.

  11. Use of dew-point detection for quantitative measurement of sweating rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brengelmann, G. L.; Mckeag, M.; Rowell, L. B.

    1975-01-01

    A method of measuring sweat rate (SR) based on detection of dew point (DP) is proposed which has advantages that may be attractive to other laboratories concerned with recording SR from selected areas of skin. It is similar to other methods in that dry gas is passed through a capsule which isolates several square centimeters of skin surface. The difference is in the means of determining how much gaseous water is carried off in the effluent moist gas. The DP detector used is free of the drawbacks of previous devices. DP is obtained through the fundamental technique of determining the temperature at which condensate forms on a mirror. Variations in DP are tracked rapidly, and accurately (+ or - 0.8 C nominal, sensitivity + or - 0.05 C) over a wide range ( -40 C to +50 C) without measurable hysteresis. The detector asembly is rugged and readily opened for cleaning and inspection.

  12. Application of stochastic discrete event system framework for detection of induced low rate TCP attack.

    PubMed

    Barbhuiya, F A; Agarwal, Mayank; Purwar, Sanketh; Biswas, Santosh; Nandi, Sukumar

    2015-09-01

    TCP is the most widely accepted transport layer protocol. The major emphasis during the development of TCP was its functionality and efficiency. However, not much consideration was given on studying the possibility of attackers exploiting the protocol, which has lead to several attacks on TCP. This paper deals with the induced low rate TCP attack. Since the attack is relatively new, only a few schemes have been proposed to mitigate it. However, the main issues with these schemes are scalability, change in TCP header, lack of formal frameworks, etc. In this paper, we have adapted the stochastic DES framework for detecting the attack, which addresses most of these issues. We have successfully deployed and tested the proposed DES based IDS on a test bed.

  13. Polyp detection rates using magnification with narrow band imaging and white light

    PubMed Central

    Gilani, Nooman; Stipho, Sally; Panetta, James D; Petre, Sorin; Young, Michele A; Ramirez, Francisco C

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the yield of adenomas between narrow band imaging and white light when using high definition/magnification. METHODS: This prospective, non-randomized comparative study was performed at the endoscopy unit of veteran affairs medical center in Phoenix, Arizona. Consecutive patients undergoing first average risk colorectal cancer screening colonoscopy were selected. Two experienced gastroenterologists performed all the procedures that were blinded to each other’s findings. Demographic details were recorded. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. Proportional data were compared using the χ2 test and means were compared using the Student’s t test. Tandem colonoscopy was performed in a sequential and segmental fashion using one of 3 strategies: white light followed by narrow band imaging [Group A: white light (WL) → narrow band imaging (NBI)]; narrow band imaging followed by white light (Group B: NBI → WL) and, white light followed by white light (Group C: WL → WL). Detection rate of missed polyps and adenomas were evaluated in all three groups. RESULTS: Three hundred patients were studied (100 in each Group). Although the total time for the colonoscopy was similar in the 3 groups (23.8 ± 0.7, 22.2 ± 0.5 and 24.1 ± 0.7 min for Groups A, B and C, respectively), it reached statistical significance between Groups B and C (P < 0.05). The cecal intubation time in Groups B and C was longer than for Group A (6.5 ± 0.4 min and 6.5 ± 0.4 min vs 4.9 ± 0.3 min; P < 0.05). The withdrawal time for Groups A and C was longer than Group B (18.9 ± 0.7 min and 17.6 ± 0.6 min vs 15.7 ± 0.4 min; P < 0.05). Overall miss rate for polyps and adenomas detected in three groups during the second look was 18% and 17%, respectively (P = NS). Detection rate for polyps and adenomas after first look with white light was similar irrespective of the light used during the second look (WL → WL: 13.7% for polyps, 12.6% for adenomas; WL → NBI: 14.2% for polyps, 11.3% for

  14. Odor detection thresholds of naphthenic acids from commercial sources and oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Edge, Kristyn; Barona, Brenda; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; Wismer, Wendy V

    2010-11-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) occur naturally in various petroleums and in oil sands tailings waters and have been implicated as potential fish tainting compounds. In this study, trained sensory panels and the general population from a university were used to determine the odor detection thresholds of two commercial NAs preparations (Acros and Merichem) and of NAs extracted from an oil sands experimental reclamation pond (Pond 9). Using the three-alternative forced choice method, a concentration series of NAs were presented to the sensory panels in phosphate buffer (pH 8) and in steamed fish (Sander vitreus). In buffer, the odor detection thresholds of Acros, Merichem and Pond 9 NAs, as evaluated by the trained panelists, were 1.5, 0.04, and 1.0 mg L(-1), respectively. Only the detection threshold for the Merichem NAs was significantly different (p<0.01) than the other two sources. Based on the general population assessments, all three odor detection thresholds were significantly different from one another; 4.8, 0.2, and 2.5 mg L(-1) for Acros, Merichem, and Pond 9 NAs, respectively (p<0.01). The odor detection thresholds of Merichem and Pond 9 NAs in steamed fish were 0.6 and 12 mg kg(-1), respectively and were significantly different from each other (p<0.01). The detection threshold of Acros NAs was estimated to be >21 mg kg(-1). For the steamed fish evaluations, the odor descriptors of all three of the NAs preparations was given as chemical in nature (Acros: oil, plastic; Merichem: gasoline; Pond 9: gasoline, tar). Exposure of live rainbow trout to a non-lethal concentration of Merichem NAs (3 mg L(-1) for 10 d) imparted an odor to the fish flesh. Analyses of the three NAs preparations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that each had a unique distribution of acids. We conclude that the source of the NAs is important when interpreting odor threshold data and that the two commercial preparations of NAs that were tested do not represent oil sands waters

  15. Ethylene oxide inhalation at different exposure-rates affects binding levels in mouse germ cells and hemoglobin. Possible explanation for the effect.

    PubMed

    Sega, G A; Brimer, P A; Generoso, E E

    1991-08-01

    Male mice were exposed to [3H]EtO by inhalation at different exposure rates (300 parts per million (ppm) of EtO for 1 h: 150 ppm for 2 h: 75 ppm for 4 h). The total exposure was fixed at 300 ppm-h. The amount of EtO binding to developing spermatogenic stages, to sperm DNA, to testis DNA and to hemoglobin was then measured as a function of the EtO exposure rate. Generally, as the exposure rate increased there was an increase in the amount of EtO binding to the targets. For example, alkylation of sperm from the caudal epididymides 6 d posttreatment, of DNA from the vas sperm (averaged over 4 time points), of testis DNA (90 min posttreatment), and of hemoglobin (averaged over 4 time points), was 2.0 +/- 0.2 (SD), 1.8 +/- 0.4, 2.9 +/- 0.3, and 1.5 +/- 0.1 times greater, respectively, after an exposure to 300 ppm for 1 h than after an exposure to 75 ppm for 4 h. The testicular DNA from animals exposed to 300 ppm of [3H]EtO for 1 h was also analyzed for the presence of N7-hydroxyethylguanine (N7HEG) and O6-hydroxyethylguanine (O6HEG). The half-life (T1 2) of the N7HEG in the testis DNA was calculated to be 2.8 d. This lesion was removed relatively rapidly from the testis DNA and was probably excised by enzymatic repair. No formation of O6HEG was detected in any of the testis DNA samples analyzed. Additional experiments showed that the exposure rate effect was the result of less total EtO being taken in by the mice over long exposure times compared to that taken in during shorter exposure times at higher concentrations. This result argues against the idea that the exposure rate effect is the result of physiological/enzymological changes affecting transport or metabolism of the chemical within the animals under different exposure rate conditions.

  16. Detection of the oxygen consumption rate of migrating zebrafish by electrochemical equalization systems.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Koide, Masahiro; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Abe, Ryoko; Shiku, Hitoshi; Mizutani, Fumio; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-01-07

    A novel measurement system to determine oxygen consumption rates via respiration in migrating Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been developed. A signal equalization system was adapted to detect oxygen in a chamber with one fish, because typical electrochemical techniques cannot measure respiration activities for migrating organisms. A closed chamber was fabricated using a pipet tip attached to a Pt electrode, and a columnar Vycor glass tip was used as the salt bridge. Pt electrode, which was attached to the chamber with one zebrafish, and Ag electrode were immersed in 10 mM potassium iodide (KI), and both the electrodes were connected externally to form a galvanic cell. Pt and Ag electrodes act as the cathode and anode to reduce oxygen and oxidize silver, respectively, allowing the deposition of insoluble silver iodide (AgI). The AgI acts as the signal source accumulated on the Ag electrode by conversion of oxygen. The amount of AgI deposited on the Ag electrode was determined by cathodic stripping voltammetry. The presence of zebrafish or its embryo led to a decrease in the stripping currents generated by a 10 min conversion of oxygen to AgI. The conversion of oxygen to AgI is disturbed by the migration of the zebrafish and allows the detection of different equalized signals corresponding to respiration activity. The oxygen consumption rates of the zebrafish and its embryo were estimated and determined to be ∼4.1 and 2.4 pmol·s(-1), respectively. The deposited AgI almost completely disappeared with a single stripping process. The signal equalization system provides a method to determine the respiration activities for migrating zebrafish and could be used to estimate environmental risk and for effective drug screening.

  17. 141 BOVINE EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT RATES ARE AFFECTED WHEN OOCYTES ARE MATURED IN DIFFERENT VIALS CONTAINING HEPES/BICARBONATE BUFFERED MEDIUM.

    PubMed

    Hashem, N; Secher, J O; Pryor, J H; Long, C R; Looney, C R; Avery, B; Hyttel, P; Stroebech, L

    2016-01-01

    . 1, Day 8 blastocyst rates were evaluated as percentage of inseminated oocytes, with 4WP and glass vials significantly higher than cryovials A or B (38±8.9%, 35±7.5% v. 26±3.2%, 26±3.5%; respectively; P<0.05). In Exp. 2, pH was measured for the 3 vials immediately post-maturation. Day 8 blastocyst rates were significantly higher in the glass vials as compared with cryovials A and B (pH 7.26, 31%; pH 7.60, 20% and pH 7.72, 22%, respectively; P<0.05). In conclusion, blastocyst rates are affected by type of vial, as well as different gas permeability among other factors influencing pH. Further studies are necessary to optimize the maturation of the oocytes in HEPES-buffered media.

  18. Fiber optic sensor based on reflectivity configurations to detect heart rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunianto, M.; Marzuki, A.; Riyatun, R.; Lestari, D.

    2016-11-01

    Research of optical fiber-based heart rate detection sensor has been conducted using the reflection configurationon the thorax motion modified. Optical fiber used in this research was Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) with a diameter of 0.5. Optical fiber system is made with two pieces of fiber, the first fiber is to serve as a transmitter transmitting light from the source to the reflector membrane, the second fiber serves as a receiver. One of the endsfrom the two fibersis pressed and positioned perpendicular of reflector membrane which is placed on the surface of the chest. The sensor works on the principle of intensity changes captured by the receiver fiber when the reflector membrane gets the vibe from the heart. The light source used is in the form of Light Emitting Diode (LED) and Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) as a light sensor. Variations are performed on the reflector membrane diameter. The light intensity received by the detector increases along with the increasing width of the reflector membrane diameter. The results show that this sensor can detect the harmonic peak at a frequency of 1.5 Hz; 7.5 Hz; 10.5 Hz; and 22.5 Hz in a healthy human heart with an average value of Beat Per Minute (BPM) by 78 times, a prototype sensor that is made can work and function properly.

  19. Habitat complexity and fish size affect the detection of Indo-Pacific lionfish on invaded coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, S. J.; Tamburello, N.; Miller, S. E.; Akins, J. L.; Côté, I. M.

    2013-06-01

    A standard approach to improving the accuracy of reef fish population estimates derived from underwater visual censuses (UVCs) is the application of species-specific correction factors, which assumes that a species' detectability is constant under all conditions. To test this assumption, we quantified detection rates for invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish ( Pterois volitans and P. miles), which are now a primary threat to coral reef conservation throughout the Caribbean. Estimates of lionfish population density and distribution, which are essential for managing the invasion, are currently obtained through standard UVCs. Using two conventional UVC methods, the belt transect and stationary visual census (SVC), we assessed how lionfish detection rates vary with lionfish body size and habitat complexity (measured as rugosity) on invaded continuous and patch reefs off Cape Eleuthera, the Bahamas. Belt transect and SVC surveys performed equally poorly, with both methods failing to detect the presence of lionfish in >50 % of surveys where thorough, lionfish-focussed searches yielded one or more individuals. Conventional methods underestimated lionfish biomass by ~200 %. Crucially, detection rate varied significantly with both lionfish size and reef rugosity, indicating that the application of a single correction factor across habitats and stages of invasion is unlikely to accurately characterize local populations. Applying variable correction factors that account for site-specific lionfish size and rugosity to conventional survey data increased estimates of lionfish biomass, but these remained significantly lower than actual biomass. To increase the accuracy and reliability of estimates of lionfish density and distribution, monitoring programs should use detailed area searches rather than standard visual survey methods. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for sources of spatial and temporal variation in detection to increase the accuracy of survey data from

  20. Multi-scale detection of rate changes in spike trains with weak dependencies.

    PubMed

    Messer, Michael; Costa, Kauê M; Roeper, Jochen; Schneider, Gaby

    2017-04-01

    The statistical analysis of neuronal spike trains by models of point processes often relies on the assumption of constant process parameters. However, it is a well-known problem that the parameters of empirical spike trains can be highly variable, such as for example the firing rate. In order to test the null hypothesis of a constant rate and to estimate the change points, a Multiple Filter Test (MFT) and a corresponding algorithm (MFA) have been proposed that can be applied under the assumption of independent inter spike intervals (ISIs). As empirical spike trains often show weak dependencies in the correlation structure of ISIs, we extend the MFT here to point processes associated with short range dependencies. By specifically estimating serial dependencies in the test statistic, we show that the new MFT can be applied to a variety of empirical firing patterns, including positive and negative serial correlations as well as tonic and bursty firing. The new MFT is applied to a data set of empirical spike trains with serial correlations, and simulations show improved performance against methods that assume independence. In case of positive correlations, our new MFT is necessary to reduce the number of false positives, which can be highly enhanced when falsely assuming independence. For the frequent case of negative correlations, the new MFT shows an improved detection probability of change points and thus, also a higher potential of signal extraction from noisy spike trains.

  1. An evaluation of supervised classifiers for indirectly detecting salt-affected areas at irrigation scheme level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Sybrand Jacobus; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2016-07-01

    Soil salinity often leads to reduced crop yield and quality and can render soils barren. Irrigated areas are particularly at risk due to intensive cultivation and secondary salinization caused by waterlogging. Regular monitoring of salt accumulation in irrigation schemes is needed to keep its negative effects under control. The dynamic spatial and temporal characteristics of remote sensing can provide a cost-effective solution for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This study evaluated a range of pan-fused SPOT-5 derived features (spectral bands, vegetation indices, image textures and image transformations) for classifying salt-affected areas in two distinctly different irrigation schemes in South Africa, namely Vaalharts and Breede River. The relationship between the input features and electro conductivity measurements were investigated using regression modelling (stepwise linear regression, partial least squares regression, curve fit regression modelling) and supervised classification (maximum likelihood, nearest neighbour, decision tree analysis, support vector machine and random forests). Classification and regression trees and random forest were used to select the most important features for differentiating salt-affected and unaffected areas. The results showed that the regression analyses produced weak models (<0.4 R squared). Better results were achieved using the supervised classifiers, but the algorithms tend to over-estimate salt-affected areas. A key finding was that none of the feature sets or classification algorithms stood out as being superior for monitoring salt accumulation at irrigation scheme level. This was attributed to the large variations in the spectral responses of different crops types at different growing stages, coupled with their individual tolerances to saline conditions.

  2. Genomic Imbalances in Neonates With Birth Defects: High Detection Rates by Using Chromosomal Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xin-Yan; Phung, Mai T.; Shaw, Chad A.; Pham, Kim; Neil, Sarah E.; Patel, Ankita; Sahoo, Trilochan; Bacino, Carlos A.; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Lee Kang, Sung-Hae; Lalani, Seema; Chinault, A. Craig; Lupski, James R.; Cheung, Sau W.; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Our aim was to determine the frequency of genomic imbalances in neonates with birth defects by using targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, also known as chromosomal microarray analysis. METHODS Between March 2006 and September 2007, 638 neonates with various birth defects were referred for chromosomal microarray analysis. Three consecutive chromosomal microarray analysis versions were used: bacterial artificial chromosome-based versions V5 and V6 and bacterial artificial chromosome emulated oligonucleotide-based version V6 Oligo. Each version had targeted but increasingly extensive genomic coverage and interrogated >150 disease loci with enhanced coverage in genomic rearrangement-prone pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions. RESULTS Overall, 109 (17.1%) patients were identified with clinically significant abnormalities with detection rates of 13.7%, 16.6%, and 19.9% on V5, V6, and V6 Oligo, respectively. The majority of these abnormalities would not be defined by using karyotype analysis. The clinically significant detection rates by use of chromosomal microarray analysis for various clinical indications were 66.7% for “possible chromosomal abnormality” ± “others” (other clinical indications), 33.3% for ambiguous genitalia ± others, 27.1% for dysmorphic features + multiple congenital anomalies ± others, 24.6% for dysmorphic features ± others, 21.8% for congenital heart disease ± others, 17.9% for multiple congenital anomalies ± others, and 9.5% for the patients referred for others that were different from the groups defined. In all, 16 (2.5%) patients had chromosomal aneuploidies, and 81 (12.7%) patients had segmental aneusomies including common microdeletion or microduplication syndromes and other genomic disorders. Chromosomal mosaicism was found in 12 (1.9%) neonates. CONCLUSIONS Chromosomal microarray analysis is a valuable clinical diagnostic tool that allows precise and rapid identification of genomic imbalances

  3. How social myths about childhood, motherhood and medicine affect the detection of subtle developmental problems in young children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jane

    Focus by child health professionals on the well-being of young Australian children and their families has intensified in the past decade, with particular attention drawn to the importance of the early detection and intervention of developmental problems. While many children with developmental difficulties are detected in the preschool years, those with more subtle forms of developmental problems are often only noticed by their mothers, passing unnoticed by professionals until the children begin school and fail socially or academically. This study aimed to ascertain ways in which child health professionals may utilise the experience of mothers to improve early recognition and diagnosis of subtle developmental and behavioural problems in children. French philosopher, Roland Barthes (1973) proposed that myths play an important social role in defining underlying social values that affect how people interpret what others say or do. This paper explores how the social myths of childhood, motherhood and medicine impact upon the early detection of children with subtle developmental problems. In particular, it examines how social myths affect when and how mothers become concerned about their children's development, from whom they seek advice, and the responses which mothers receive in regard to their concerns. Mythical notions of the 'blameless child', 'boys will be boys' and 'children who look OK are OK', and the constituted myth of motherhood, are all shown to affect when mothers become concerned about their children's development. What mothers do about their concerns and the responses they receive from child health professionals are also influenced by these myths. The myth of medicine is also examined to determine how it affects communication between mothers and doctors, the roles and responsibilities of doctors, and the value placed on a mother's concerns by doctors.

  4. Temporal and Spatial Predictability of an Irrelevant Event Differently Affect Detection and Memory of Items in a Visual Sequence.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Junji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    We examined how the temporal and spatial predictability of a task-irrelevant visual event affects the detection and memory of a visual item embedded in a continuously changing sequence. Participants observed 11 sequentially presented letters, during which a task-irrelevant visual event was either present or absent. Predictabilities of spatial location and temporal position of the event were controlled in 2 × 2 conditions. In the spatially predictable conditions, the event occurred at the same location within the stimulus sequence or at another location, while, in the spatially unpredictable conditions, it occurred at random locations. In the temporally predictable conditions, the event timing was fixed relative to the order of the letters, while in the temporally unpredictable condition; it could not be predicted from the letter order. Participants performed a working memory task and a target detection reaction time (RT) task. Memory accuracy was higher for a letter simultaneously presented at the same location as the event in the temporally unpredictable conditions, irrespective of the spatial predictability of the event. On the other hand, the detection RTs were only faster for a letter simultaneously presented at the same location as the event when the event was both temporally and spatially predictable. Thus, to facilitate ongoing detection processes, an event must be predictable both in space and time, while memory processes are enhanced by temporally unpredictable (i.e., surprising) events. Evidently, temporal predictability has differential effects on detection and memory of a visual item embedded in a sequence of images.

  5. Does MRI-detected cranial nerve involvement affect the prognosis of locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Zong, Jingfeng; Lin, Shaojun; Chen, Yunbin; Wang, Bingyi; Xiao, Youping; Lin, Jin; Li, Rui; Pan, Jianji

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the common cancers in South China. It can easily invade into cranial nerves, especially in patients with local advanced disease. Despite the fact that the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are not always consistent with the symptoms of CN palsy, MRI is recommended for the detection of CN involvement (CNI). However, the prognostic impact of MRI-detected CNI in NPC patients is still controversial. To investigate the prognostic value of MRI detected CNI, we performed a retrospective analysis on the clinical data of 375 patients with NPC who were initially diagnosed by MRI. All patients had T3-4 disease and received radical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as their primary treatment. The incidence of MRI-detected CNI was 60.8%. A higher incidence of MRI-detected CNI was observed in T4 disease compared with T3 disease (96.8% vs. 42.8%, P<0.001), and a higher incidence was also found in patients with Stage IV disease compared with those with Stage III disease (91.5% vs. 42.3%; P<0.001). The local relapse-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival (OS) of patients with T3 disease, with or without MRI-detected CNI, was superior to that of patients with T4 disease (P<0.05). No significant differences in LRFS, DMFS or OS were observed between T3 patients with or without MRI-detected CNI. The survival of Stage III patients with or without MRI-detected CNI was significantly superior to that of Stage IV patients (P<0.01), but there was no significant difference between Stage III patients with or without MRI-detected CNI for all endpoints. Therefore, when treated with IMRT, MRI-detected CNI in patients with NPC does not appear to affect the prognosis. In patients with clinical T3 disease, the presence of MRI-detected CNI is not sufficient evidence for defining T4 disease.

  6. The influence of affective states on the process of lie detection.

    PubMed

    Reinhard, Marc-André; Schwarz, Norbert

    2012-12-01

    Lay theories about the tell tale signs of deception include numerous nonverbal cues; empirically, however, a focus on message content results in better lie detection than a focus on nonverbal elements. Feelings-as-information theory (Schwarz, 1990, 2012) predicts that systematic processing of message content is more likely under sad than happy moods, whereas reliance on salient cues is more likely under happy than sad moods. If so, perceivers who are asked to evaluate the veracity of a message should (a) attend more to message content when they are in a negative mood, but (b) more to nonverbal cues when they are in a positive mood. This should (c) result in more accurate identification of true as well as false messages under sad mood, mediated by (d) mood-induced differences in processing style. Three experiments tested these predictions. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants in a negative mood achieved higher accuracy in classifying truthful as well as deceptive messages than participants in a positive mood. Experiment 3 crossed nonverbal cues (fidgety vs. calm movements) and message characteristics (low vs. high plausibility). Only the plausibility of the message influenced participants' credibility judgments under sad mood conditions, whereas only the nonverbal cues influenced participants' judgments of credibility under happy mood conditions. Implications for lie detection and the interplay of feeling and thinking are discussed.

  7. Caregivers' attentional bias to pain: does it affect caregiver accuracy in detecting patient pain behaviors?

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Somayyeh; Dehghani, Mohsen; Khatibi, Ali; Sanderman, Robbert; Hagedoorn, Mariët

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias to pain among family caregivers of patients with pain may enhance the detection of pain behaviors in patients. However, both relatively high and low levels of attentional bias may increase disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. This study aims to provide further evidence for the presence of attentional bias to pain among family caregivers, to examine the association between caregivers' attentional bias to pain and detecting pain behaviors, and test whether caregivers' attentional bias to pain is curvilinearly related to patient and caregiver disagreement in reporting pain behaviors. The sample consisted of 96 caregivers, 94 patients with chronic pain, and 42 control participants. Caregivers and controls completed a dot-probe task assessing attention to painful and happy stimuli. Both patients and caregivers completed a checklist assessing patients' pain behavior. Although caregivers did not respond faster to pain congruent than pain incongruent trials, caregiver responses were slower in pain incongruent trials compared with happy incongruent trials. Caregivers showed more bias toward pain faces than happy faces, whereas control participants showed more bias toward happy faces than pain faces. Importantly, caregivers' attentional bias to pain was significantly positively associated with reporting pain behaviors in patients above and beyond pain severity. It is reassuring that attentional bias to pain was not related to disagreement between patients and caregivers in reporting pain behaviors. In other words, attentional bias does not seem to cause overestimation of pain signals.

  8. Affective Norms for 718 Polish Short Texts (ANPST): Dataset with Affective Ratings for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Subjective Significance and Source Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Affective sciences are of burgeoning interest and are attracting more and more research attention. Three components of stimuli meaning have traditionally been distinguished: valence (degree of pleasantness), arousal (degree of intensity of sensations), and dominance (degree of control over sensations). Recently, another three dimensions have been introduced to measure qualities connected to the emotion-duality model: origin (the main component originating in the heart or in the mind), subjective significance (the degree of the subjective goal's relevance), and source (the location of the stimuli evoking the state). All six affective dimensions were assessed in our study of 718 Polish short texts (sentences of 5-23 words and 36-133 characters in length) describing situations or states in a way that can be referenced to an individual's experience. Assessments were carried out by 148 psychology students (all women for 108 sentences) and 2,091 students of different faculties (social science, engineering, life science, and science) from Warsaw colleges and universities (1,061 women and 1,030 men for all 718 sentences). Assessing sets of sentences for emotional response is especially useful for researchers interested in emotion elicitation through the use of a phrase such as "imagine that …" or by simply reading emotionally charged material that is more complex and that provides better context than single pictures or words.

  9. Impact of the Introduction of Digital Mammography in an Organized Screening Program on the Recall and Detection Rate.

    PubMed

    Campari, Cinzia; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Mori, Carlo Alberto; Ravaioli, Sara; Nitrosi, Andrea; Vacondio, Rita; Mancuso, Pamela; Cattani, Antonella; Pattacini, Pierpaolo

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the Reggio Emilia Breast Cancer Screening Program introduced digital mammography in all its facilities at the same time. The aim of this work is to analyze the impact of digital mammography introduction on the recall rate, detection rate, and positive predictive value. The program actively invites women aged 45-74 years. We included women screened in 2011, all of whom underwent film-screen mammography, and all women screened in 2012, all of whom underwent digital mammography. Double reading was used for all mammograms, with arbitration in the event of disagreement. A total of 42,240 women underwent screen-film mammography and 45,196 underwent digital mammography. The recall rate increased from 3.3 to 4.4% in the first year of digital mammography (relative recall adjusted by age and round 1.46, 95% CI = 1.37-1.56); the positivity rate for each individual reading, before arbitration, rose from 3 to 5.7%. The digital mammography recall rate decreased during 2012: after 12 months, it was similar to the recall rate with screen-film mammography. The detection rate was similar: 5.9/1000 and 5.2/1000 with screen-film and digital mammography, respectively (adjusted relative detection rate 0.95, 95% CI = 0.79-1.13). The relative detection rate for ductal carcinoma in situ remained the same. The introduction of digital mammography to our organized screening program had a negative impact on specificity, thereby increasing the recall rate. The effect was limited to the first 12 months after introduction and was attenuated by the double reading with arbitration. We did not observe any relevant effects on the detection rate.

  10. Tensions in collaborative cyber security and how they affect incident detection and response

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Glenn A.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Clements, Samuel L.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2009-12-01

    Security often requires collaboration, but when multiple stakeholders are involved, it is typical for their priorities to differ or even conflict with one another. In today’s increasingly networked world, cyber security collaborations may span organizations and countries. In this chapter, we address collaboration tensions, their effects on incident detection and response, and how these tensions may potentially be resolved. We present three case studies of collaborative cyber security within the U.S. government and discuss technical, social, and regulatory challenges to collaborative cyber security. We suggest possible solutions, and present lessons learned from conflicts. Finally, we compare collaborative solutions from other domains and apply them to cyber security collaboration. Although we concentrate our analysis on collaborations whose purpose is to achieve cyber security, we believe that this work applies readily to security tensions found in collaborations of a general nature as well.

  11. Adenoma detection rate in 41,010 patients from Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    CAI, BIN; LIU, ZHIXIAN; XU, YANSONG; WEI, WEIYUAN; ZHANG, SEN

    2015-01-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR) is considered as an important predictor of the risk of interval colorectal cancer following a screening colonoscopy. A retrospective review of all the patients who underwent colonoscopy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University (Nanning, China) between 2003 and 2012 was performed, with the aim of estimating the ADR in Southwest China and determine the effects of age, gender and polyp location on ADR. Demographic information and data regarding the timing of the colonoscopy, number of polyps removed, polyp location and pathological types of polyps were collected and analyzed. The patients were grouped according to colonoscopy date, polyp location, gender and age. The χ2 test was used to compare the ADR between the different age and gender groups and the Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to calculate the statistical significance of the ADR trend across age groups. A two-tailed value of P<0.05 was considered to indicate statistically significant differences. A total of 41,010 patients were included, of whom 7,219 were diagnosed with at least one adenoma on pathological examination. Therefore, the ADR value of the 41,010 patients screened in the present study was 17.6%. There was a statistically significant trend of increasing ADR with increasing age in both genders (P<0.05). In addition, the ADR of male patients was significantly higher compared with that of female patients in all age groups (all P<0.05). The ADR of patients aged >50 years was significantly higher compared with that of patients aged <50 years (28.8 vs. 11.0%, respectively; P<0.05). In addition, 20% of the cases of detected adenomas occurred in the rectum, 47% in the left colon and 33% in the right colon. PMID:26137015

  12. Retrospective analysis showing the water method increased adenoma detection rate — a hypothesis generating observation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Joseph W; Do, Lynne D; Siao-Salera, Rodelei M; Ngo, Catherine; Parikh, Dhavan A; Mann, Surinder K

    2011-01-01

    Background A water method developed to attenuate discomfort during colonoscopy enhanced cecal intubation in unsedated patients. Serendipitously a numerically increased adenoma detection rate (ADR) was noted. Objective To explore databases of sedated patients examined by the air and water methods to identify hypothesis-generating findings. Design: Retrospective analysis. Setting: VA endoscopy center. Patients: creening colonoscopy. Interventions: From 1/2000–6/2006 the air method was used - judicious air insufflation to permit visualization of the lumen to aid colonoscope insertion and water spray for washing mucosal surfaces. From 6/2006–11/2009 the water method was adopted - warm water infusion in lieu of air insufflation and suction removal of residual air to aid colonoscope insertion. During colonoscope withdrawal adequate air was insufflated to distend the colonic lumen for inspection, biopsy and polypectomy in a similar fashion in both periods. Main outcome measurements: ADR. Results The air (n=683) vs. water (n=495) method comparisons revealed significant differences in overall ADR 26.8% (183 of 683) vs. 34.9% (173 of 495) and ADR of adenomas >9 mm, 7.2% vs. 13.7%, respectively (both P<0.05, Fisher's exact test). Limitations: Non-randomized data susceptible to bias by unmeasured parameters unrelated to the methods. Conclusion Confirmation of the serendipitous observation of an impact of the water method on ADR provides impetus to call for randomized controlled trials to test hypotheses related to the water method as an approach to improving adenoma detection. Because of recent concerns over missed lesions during colonoscopy, the provocative hypothesis-generating observations warrant presentation. PMID:21686105

  13. Optimizing convergence rates of alternating minimization reconstruction algorithms for real-time explosive detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Carl; Degirmenci, Soysal; Barlow, Jason; Mesika, Assaf; Politte, David G.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray computed tomography reconstruction for medical, security and industrial applications has evolved through 40 years of experience with rotating gantry scanners using analytic reconstruction techniques such as filtered back projection (FBP). In parallel, research into statistical iterative reconstruction algorithms has evolved to apply to sparse view scanners in nuclear medicine, low data rate scanners in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) [5, 7, 10] and more recently to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation in conventional X-ray CT scanners. Multiple approaches to statistical iterative reconstruction have been developed based primarily on variations of expectation maximization (EM) algorithms. The primary benefit of EM algorithms is the guarantee of convergence that is maintained when iterative corrections are made within the limits of convergent algorithms. The primary disadvantage, however is that strict adherence to correction limits of convergent algorithms extends the number of iterations and ultimate timeline to complete a 3D volumetric reconstruction. Researchers have studied methods to accelerate convergence through more aggressive corrections [1], ordered subsets [1, 3, 4, 9] and spatially variant image updates. In this paper we describe the development of an AM reconstruction algorithm with accelerated convergence for use in a real-time explosive detection application for aviation security. By judiciously applying multiple acceleration techniques and advanced GPU processing architectures, we are able to perform 3D reconstruction of scanned passenger baggage at a rate of 75 slices per second. Analysis of the results on stream of commerce passenger bags demonstrates accelerated convergence by factors of 8 to 15, when comparing images from accelerated and strictly convergent algorithms.

  14. Temporal trends in the detection rates of hepatitis B in the Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Chaiana Esmeraldino Mendes; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Traebert, Jefferson

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a serious public health problem. The state of Santa Catarina presents areas of high endemicity. The aim of this study was to describe temporal trends in detection rates of hepatitis B in the period from 2002 to 2009 in Santa Catarina and in its regions. A time series study was carried out. Crude rates were calculated and standardized by age using the direct method. Annual variation percentages were estimated by Joinpoint regression. There were two distinct and significant trends in Santa Catarina. From 2002 to 2006 a significant increase of 5.9% per year was observed. From 2006, there was a significant decrease of 6.4% per year. In this same period the southern and far-western regions had significant increases of 15.9% and 4.6% and significant decreases of 7.5% and 4.8%, respectively. Greater Florianópolis and Northeast also showed significant increases until 2006, of 15.4% and 17.4%, respectively. In the following period, non-significant decreases of 5.8% and 9.8% respectively were observed. Foz do Rio Itajaí and Planalto Serrano showed non-significant increases up to half of the studied period of 21.1% and 12.0%, respectively and after, significant decreases of 21.5% and 18.0%, respectively. Vale do Itajaí showed a significant decrease of 9.7%; Planalto Norte showed a non-significant decrease of 0.6% and Midwest a non-significant increase of 2.7% per year, in the period from 2002 to 2009.

  15. Anti-PrP antibodies detected at terminal stage of prion-affected mouse.

    PubMed

    Sassa, Yukiko; Kataoka, Natsumi; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2010-01-01

    The causative agent of prion diseases is the pathological isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). PrPSc has an identical amino acid sequence to PrPC; thus, it has been assumed that an immune response against PrPSc could not be found in prion-affected animals. In this study, we found the anti-prion protein (PrP) antibody at the terminal stage of mouse scrapie. Several sera from mice in the terminal stage of scrapie reacted to the recombinant mouse PrP (rMPrP) molecules and brain homogenates of mouse prion diseases. These results indicate that mouse could recognize PrPC or PrPSc as antigens by the host immune system. Furthermore, immunization with rMPrP generates high titers of anti-PrP antibodies in wild-type mice. Some anti-PrP antibodies immunized with rMPrP prevent PrPSc replication in vitro. The mouse sera from terminal prion disease have several wide epitopes, although mouse sera immunized with rMPrP possess narrow epitopes.

  16. Magnetic Barkhausen noise for reliable detection of the heat affected zone in welded ship steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaow, Mohamed M.; Shaw, Brian A.

    2014-02-01

    The applicability of the Barkhausen noise technique to non-destructively determine the heat affected zone (HAZ) in welded steel plates was investigated. Magnetic Barkhausen noise measurements were conducted on welded hot-rolled low carbon ship steel plates to determine the MBN behaviour following the exposure to elevated heat in a localized region by welding. The exciting field was applied parallel to the weld bead. The results showed a variation in MBN level along a line that crosses the weld bead. The MBN intensity was higher in the near weld material compared with a lower intensity when the measurement setup was moved away from the weld bead in both sides of the weld. The increased MBN level was attributed to the induced residual tensile stresses as a result of the shrinkage of the hot zone. The variation of MBN along the measurement line was eliminated after the welded plate was shot peened. The decrease in MBN intensity after shot peening was attributed to the induced compressive stresses. The results were explained in terms of different mechanisms of interaction of domain walls with residual tensile and compressive stresses.

  17. Pharmacological criteria that can affect the detection of doping agents in hair.

    PubMed

    Kintz, P; Cirimele, V; Ludes, B

    2000-01-10

    When positive drug results are reported, a common interpretive question posed is whether or not it is possible to put a quantitative finding into context. A standard answer to this inquiry is that a positive hair testing result can be interpreted as meaning that the donor has chronically or repetitively used the drug identified in the hair, but that chronic or repetitive are not defined in the same way for all individuals. The Society of Hair Testing published on June 16, 1999, a consensus opinion on the use of hair in doping situations. However, although accepted in most courts of justice, hair analysis is not yet recognised by the International Olympic Committee. To be considered as a valid specimen for doping control, some issues still need to be addressed. The scientific community has demonstrated significant concern over the proper role that hair drug testing should serve in toxicological applications. Among the unanswered questions, five are of critical importance: (1) What is the minimal amount of drug detectable in hair after administration? (2) What is the relationship between the amount of the drug used and the concentration of the drug or its metabolites in hair? (3) What is the influence of hair color? (4) Is there any racial bias in hair testing? (5) What is the influence of cosmetic treatments? The present report documents scientific findings on these questions, with particular attention to the applications of hair in doping control.

  18. Survey and RT-PCR Based Detection of Cardamom mosaic virus Affecting Small Cardamom in India.

    PubMed

    Biju, C N; Siljo, A; Bhat, A I

    2010-10-01

    Mosaic or marble or katte disease caused by Cardamom mosaic virus (CdMV) is an important production constraint in all cardamom growing regions of the world. In the present study, 84 cardamom plantations in 44 locations of Karnataka and Kerala were surveyed. The incidence of the disease ranged from 0 to 85%. The incidence was highest in Madikeri (Karnataka) while no incidence was recorded in Peermade (Kerala). In general, incidence and severity of the disease was higher in cardamom plantations of Karnataka. A procedure for total RNA isolation from cardamom and detection of CdMV through reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using primers targeting the conserved region of coat protein was standardized and subsequently validated by testing more than 50 field cardamom samples originating from Karnataka and Kerala states. The method can be used for indexing the planting material and identifying resistant lines/cultivars before either they are further multiplied in large scale or incorporated in breeding.

  19. Seeing better - Evidence based recommendations on optimizing colonoscopy adenoma detection rate

    PubMed Central

    Aranda-Hernández, Javier; Hwang, Jason; Kandel, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the three most frequent causes of cancer deaths in men and women in Europe and North America. Diagnosis and resection of adenomas has convincingly demonstrated its utility in diminishing colorectal cancer incidence. Therefore, colonoscopy is now the gold standard for colorectal cancer screening. But it is also known that colonoscopy effectiveness varies among endoscopists. Among different quality indicators, the most used is the adenoma detection rate (ADR) which is the percentage of average-risk patients for colorectal cancer who are found to have at least one adenoma or adenocarcinoma during a screening colonoscopy. There is compelling evidence supporting an inverse correlation between ADR and interval colorectal cancer (cancer found after a screening colonoscopy). Many factors such as quality of precolonoscopy preparation, additional observers, manoeuvres with the endoscope (second view, retroflexion, water inflation rather than air), time spent during withdrawal, changes in patient position, fold-flattener devices, new imaging or endoscopic modalities and use of intravenous or through the scope sprayed drugs, have been studied and developed with the aim of increasing the ADR. This reviews discusses these factors, and the current evidence, to “see better” in the colon and optimize ADR. PMID:26855536

  20. Time-resolved microfluorimetry: an alternative method for free radical and metabolic rate detection in microalgae.

    PubMed

    Bijoux, Amadine; Ribou, Anne-Cécile

    2014-02-01

    Oxidative stress leads to an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species in cells and can be induced by environmental factors. To study free radical production in living microalgae, we use time-resolved microfluorimetry, a technology adopted from research on mammalian cells. In contrast to fluorescent probe-based measurements that rely on intensity changes, our sensor detects the presence of free radicals through collisional quenching, and is insensitive to most artifacts commonly observed with intensity-based methods. A new probe, 1-pyrenebutanol allows estimation of free radicals production in the green microalga Tetraselmis ssp., for the first time. In addition, our method monitors simultaneously metabolic rate (through bound-free NAD(P)H ratio). Our results show that free radical production in algal cells is correlated to algal aging, and that during cell growth phases both intracellular free radicals and metabolic activity increase. Concerning thermal stress, we observe that rapid and low temperature changes (<10°C) induce instantaneously an increase in ROS production. Our findings provide new insights into the production of free radicals in response to environmental stresses in unicellular green algae.

  1. Using near infrared spectroscopy and heart rate variability to detect mental overload.

    PubMed

    Durantin, G; Gagnon, J-F; Tremblay, S; Dehais, F

    2014-02-01

    Mental workload is a key factor influencing the occurrence of human error, especially during piloting and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) operations, where safety depends on the ability of pilots to act appropriately. In particular, excessively high or low mental workload can lead operators to neglect critical information. The objective of the present study is to investigate the potential of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) - a non-invasive method of measuring prefrontal cortex activity - in combination with measurements of heart rate variability (HRV), to predict mental workload during a simulated piloting task, with particular regard to task engagement and disengagement. Twelve volunteers performed a computer-based piloting task in which they were asked to follow a dynamic target with their aircraft, a task designed to replicate key cognitive demands associated with real life ROV operating tasks. In order to cover a wide range of mental workload levels, task difficulty was manipulated in terms of processing load and difficulty of control - two critical sources of workload associated with piloting and remotely operating a vehicle. Results show that both fNIRS and HRV are sensitive to different levels of mental workload; notably, lower prefrontal activation as well as a lower LF/HF ratio at the highest level of difficulty, suggest that these measures are suitable for mental overload detection. Moreover, these latter measurements point toward the existence of a quadratic model of mental workload.

  2. Detecting location-specific neuronal firing rate increases in the hippocampus of freely-moving monkeys.

    PubMed

    Ludvig, Nandor; Tang, Hai M; Gohil, Baiju C; Botero, Juan M

    2004-07-16

    The spatial properties of the firing of hippocampal neurons have mainly been studied in (a) freely moving rodents, (b) non-human primates seated in a moveable primate chair with head fixed, and (c) epileptic patients subjected to virtual navigation. Although these studies have all revealed the ability of hippocampal neurons to generate spatially selective discharges, the detected firing patterns have been found to be considerably different, even conflicting, in many respects. The present cellular electrophysiological study employed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), which moved freely on the walls and floor of a large test chamber. This permitted the examination of the spatial firing of hippocampal neurons in nearly ideal conditions, similar to those used in rodents, yet in a species that belongs to the primate Suborder Anthropoidea. The major findings were that: (1) a group of slow-firing complex-spike cells increased their basal, awake firing rate more than 20-fold, often above 30 spikes/s, when the monkey was in a particular location in the chamber, (2) these location-specific discharges occurred consistently, forming 4-25 s action potential volleys, and (3) fast-firing cells displayed no such electrical activity. Thus, during free movement in three dimensions, primate hippocampal complex-spike cells do generate high-frequency, location-specific action potential volleys. Since these cells are components of the medial temporal lobe memory system, their uncovered firing pattern may well be involved in the formation of declarative memories on places.

  3. Seeing better--Evidence based recommendations on optimizing colonoscopy adenoma detection rate.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Hernández, Javier; Hwang, Jason; Kandel, Gabor

    2016-02-07

    Colorectal cancer is one of the three most frequent causes of cancer deaths in men and women in Europe and North America. Diagnosis and resection of adenomas has convincingly demonstrated its utility in diminishing colorectal cancer incidence. Therefore, colonoscopy is now the gold standard for colorectal cancer screening. But it is also known that colonoscopy effectiveness varies among endoscopists. Among different quality indicators, the most used is the adenoma detection rate (ADR) which is the percentage of average-risk patients for colorectal cancer who are found to have at least one adenoma or adenocarcinoma during a screening colonoscopy. There is compelling evidence supporting an inverse correlation between ADR and interval colorectal cancer (cancer found after a screening colonoscopy). Many factors such as quality of precolonoscopy preparation, additional observers, manoeuvres with the endoscope (second view, retroflexion, water inflation rather than air), time spent during withdrawal, changes in patient position, fold-flattener devices, new imaging or endoscopic modalities and use of intravenous or through the scope sprayed drugs, have been studied and developed with the aim of increasing the ADR. This reviews discusses these factors, and the current evidence, to "see better" in the colon and optimize ADR.

  4. Detection of circaseptan rhythm and the "Monday effect" from long-term pulse rate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Wenxi

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes a methodology to detect circaseptan (CS) rhythm in pulse rate (PR) data and to investigate the "Monday effect" in CS rhythm. Daily PR was collected from a middle-aged healthy working woman over one year. PR, SDNN index and sample entropy (SampEn) were chosen as the indexes of PR dynamics. In order to avoid interference from other biorhythms, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method was used to decompose the original PR series into multiple components. And the single cosinor method was applied to fit the detrended component signal. An optimal 7-day period was found in all indexes (P = 0.0103, P = 0.0133, P = 0.0122 for PR, SDNN index and SampEn, separately) that demonstrated an underlying CS rhythm. In the following study, a statistical Monday decrease in PR dynamics was observed especially significant in the detrended signal. The results suggested a direct relationship between the "Monday effect" and the CS variation, and also indicated a cardiac susceptibility to the social activities. The findings in CS periodicity and the "Monday effect" may help understand the human's biorhythm, provide evidence for preventive and optimized timing treatment, and also serve to daily health management.

  5. What affects teacher ratings of student behaviors? The potential influence of teachers' perceptions of the school environment and experiences.

    PubMed

    Pas, Elise T; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2014-12-01

    Teachers serve as the natural raters of students within the school and classroom contexts. Yet teachers' ratings of their students may vary based on these contextual factors. The current study explored the extent to which teacher perceptions of the school environment predict their longitudinal ratings of student behaviors. Data for this study come from 702 teachers in 42 elementary schools. Teachers self-reported their perceptions of the school context at a single time point, and provided ratings of their students' behavior via the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaption-Checklist (TOCA-C) across three school years. Latent profile analysis identified three latent classes of teachers based on their ratings of school organizational health, burnout, and efficacy. A regression framework demonstrated an association between the baseline profiles in relation to TOCA-C ratings of student behavior across 3 years. Teachers with more favorable perceptions of the environment had lower initial ratings of concentration problems, disruptive behavior, and internalizing symptoms, and higher ratings of prosocial behaviors and family involvement. They also showed slower growth in their ratings of emotion dysregulation and greater increases of their ratings of family involvement over time. This work is particularly important for determining the extent to which teacher ratings may be biased by teacher and contextual factors, and may have implications for the identification of teachers who may rate students poorly over time.

  6. Factors affecting the gamma interferon test in the detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    de Lisle, Geoffrey W; Green, Richard S; Buddle, Bryce M

    2017-03-01

    The gamma interferon (IFN-γ) test has been used for many years as an ancillary test in the detection of bovine tuberculosis. We investigated the effect of skin testing and the length of time between blood collection and processing on the performance of the IFN-γ test. A series of blood samples were taken from groups of experimentally infected cattle ( n = 10), naturally infected ( n = 11), and uninfected animals ( n = 12) that were examined with a caudal fold skin test. Blood was taken on the day of tuberculin injection, 3 d later when the skin tests were read, and 11-19 d post-tuberculin injection, and was processed for the IFN-γ test at 8, 30, and 36 h postcollection. There were significant decreases in the IFN-γ responses with increasing time between blood collection and sample processing. Significantly greater responses were observed in both the purified protein derivative (PPD) and early secretory antigenic target protein 6/culture filtrate protein 10 IFN-γ tests for samples processed at 8 h postcollection compared with the same samples at 30 and 36 h postcollection, and greater responses for samples processed at 30 h compared with 36 h on 2 different days for the experimentally infected animals. There were no significant effects on IFN-γ responses that could be attributed to skin testing. The recommendation for IFN-γ testing in New Zealand is that samples should not be processed if in transit for >30 h, but blood samples can be collected for IFN-γ testing regardless of the timing of the skin test.

  7. Targeted carrier screening for four recessive disorders: high detection rate within a founder population.

    PubMed

    Mathijssen, Inge B; Henneman, Lidewij; van Eeten-Nijman, Janneke M C; Lakeman, Phillis; Ottenheim, Cecile P E; Redeker, Egbert J W; Ottenhof, Winnie; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; van Maarle, Merel C

    2015-03-01

    In a genetically isolated community in the Netherlands four severe recessive genetic disorders occur at relatively high frequency (pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2 (PCH2), fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS), rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 1 (RCDP1), and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type IIB/III. Over the past decades multiple patients with these disorders have been identified. This warranted the start of a preconception outpatient clinic, in 2012, aimed at couples planning a pregnancy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the offer of targeted genetic carrier screening as a method to identify high-risk couples for having affected offspring in this high-risk subpopulation. In one year, 203 individuals (92 couples and 19 individuals) were counseled. In total, 65 of 196 (33.2%) tested individuals were carriers of at least one disease, five (7.7%) of them being carriers of two diseases. Carrier frequencies of PCH2, FADS, RCDP1, and OI were 14.3%, 11.2%, 6.1%, and 4.1% respectively. In individuals with a positive family history for one of the diseases, the carrier frequency was 57.8%; for those with a negative family history this was 25.8%. Four PCH2 carrier-couples were identified. Thus, targeted (preconception) carrier screening in this genetically isolated population in which a high prevalence of specific disorders occurs detects a high number of carriers, and is likely to be more effective compared to cascade genetic testing. Our findings and set-up can be seen as a model for carrier screening in other high-risk subpopulations and contributes to the discussion about the way carrier screening can be offered and organized in the general population.

  8. Subclinical Cardiotoxicity Detected by Strain Rate Imaging up to 14 months After Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Erven, Katrien; Florian, Anca; Slagmolen, Pieter; Sweldens, Caroline; Jurcut, Ruxandra; Wildiers, Hans; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Weltens, Caroline

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Strain rate imaging (SRI) is a new echocardiographic modality that enables accurate measurement of regional myocardial function. We investigated the role of SRI and troponin I (TnI) in the detection of subclinical radiation therapy (RT)-induced cardiotoxicity in breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: This study prospectively included 75 women (51 left-sided and 24 right-sided) receiving adjuvant RT to the breast/chest wall and regional lymph nodes. Sequential echocardiographs with SRI were obtained before RT, immediately after RT, and 8 and 14 months after RT. TnI levels were measured on the first and last day of RT. Results: Mean heart and left ventricle (LV) doses were both 9 ± 4 Gy for the left-sided patients and 4 ± 4 Gy and 1 ± 0.4 Gy, respectively, for the right-sided patients. A decrease in strain was observed at all post-RT time points for left-sided patients (−17.5% ± 1.9% immediately after RT, −16.6% ± 1.4% at 8 months, and −17.7% ± 1.9% at 14 months vs −19.4% ± 2.4% before RT, P<.01) but not for right-sided patients. When we considered left-sided patients only, the highest mean dose was given to the anterior left ventricular (LV) wall (25 ± 14 Gy) and the lowest to the inferior LV wall (3 ± 3 Gy). Strain of the anterior wall was reduced after RT (−16.6% ± 2.3% immediately after RT, −16% ± 2.6% at 8 months, and −16.8% ± 3% at 14 months vs −19% ± 3.5% before RT, P<.05), whereas strain of the inferior wall showed no significant change. No changes were observed with conventional echocardiography. Furthermore, mean TnI levels for the left-sided patients were significantly elevated after RT compared with before RT, whereas TnI levels of the right-sided patients remained unaffected. Conclusions: In contrast to conventional echocardiography, SRI detected a regional, subclinical decline in cardiac function up to 14 months after breast RT. It remains to be determined whether these changes are related to clinical

  9. Driving with Central Visual Field Loss II: How Scotomas above or below the Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL) Affect Hazard Detection in a Driving Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Alex R.; Goldstein, Robert; Peli, Eli

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether binocular central scotomas above or below the preferred retinal locus affect detection of hazards (pedestrians) approaching from the side. Seven participants with central field loss (CFL), and seven age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision (NV), each completed two sessions of 5 test drives (each approximately 10 minutes long) in a driving simulator. Participants pressed the horn when detecting pedestrians that appeared at one of four eccentricities (-14°, -4°, left, 4°, or 14°, right, relative to car heading). Pedestrians walked or ran towards the travel lane on a collision course with the participant’s vehicle, thus remaining in the same area of the visual field, assuming participant's steady forward gaze down the travel lane. Detection rates were nearly 100% for all participants. CFL participant reaction times were longer (median 2.27s, 95% CI 2.13 to 2.47) than NVs (median 1.17s, 95%CI 1.10 to 2.13; difference p<0.01), and CFL participants would have been unable to stop for 21% of pedestrians, compared with 3% for NV, p<0.001. Although the scotomas were not expected to obscure pedestrian hazards, gaze tracking revealed that scotomas did sometimes interfere with detection; late reactions usually occurred when pedestrians were entirely or partially obscured by the scotoma (time obscured correlated with reaction times, r = 0.57, p<0.001). We previously showed that scotomas lateral to the preferred retinal locus delay reaction times to a greater extent; however, taken together, the results of our studies suggest that any binocular CFL might negatively impact timely hazard detection while driving and should be a consideration when evaluating vision for driving. PMID:26332315

  10. Driving with Central Visual Field Loss II: How Scotomas above or below the Preferred Retinal Locus (PRL) Affect Hazard Detection in a Driving Simulator.

    PubMed

    Bronstad, P Matthew; Albu, Amanda; Bowers, Alex R; Goldstein, Robert; Peli, Eli

    2015-01-01

    We determined whether binocular central scotomas above or below the preferred retinal locus affect detection of hazards (pedestrians) approaching from the side. Seven participants with central field loss (CFL), and seven age-and sex-matched controls with normal vision (NV), each completed two sessions of 5 test drives (each approximately 10 minutes long) in a driving simulator. Participants pressed the horn when detecting pedestrians that appeared at one of four eccentricities (-14°, -4°, left, 4°, or 14°, right, relative to car heading). Pedestrians walked or ran towards the travel lane on a collision course with the participant's vehicle, thus remaining in the same area of the visual field, assuming participant's steady forward gaze down the travel lane. Detection rates were nearly 100% for all participants. CFL participant reaction times were longer (median 2.27s, 95% CI 2.13 to 2.47) than NVs (median 1.17s, 95%CI 1.10 to 2.13; difference p<0.01), and CFL participants would have been unable to stop for 21% of pedestrians, compared with 3% for NV, p<0.001. Although the scotomas were not expected to obscure pedestrian hazards, gaze tracking revealed that scotomas did sometimes interfere with detection; late reactions usually occurred when pedestrians were entirely or partially obscured by the scotoma (time obscured correlated with reaction times, r = 0.57, p<0.001). We previously showed that scotomas lateral to the preferred retinal locus delay reaction times to a greater extent; however, taken together, the results of our studies suggest that any binocular CFL might negatively impact timely hazard detection while driving and should be a consideration when evaluating vision for driving.

  11. [The influence of the difference of caries detective methods on the bond strength for caries affected root canal dentin].

    PubMed

    Otake, Shiho

    2010-03-01

    Firm adhesion of composite resin and dentin is the basic premise for building up resin composite cores successfully. To assess the efficacy of several caries detective methods (stained with Caries Detector and probing with sharp probe) for caries affected root canal dentin, microtensile bond strengths of resin composite to caries-affected root canal dentin and failure mode distribution were analyzed in this study. Color and hardness were used for assessment of root caries as follows: Dye stain group (pale pink stained with Caries Detector), Probing group (probing with sharp probe) and Sound dentin group (Control). The bond strengths (mean +/- standard deviation) of the Probing group (64.6 +/- 11.9 MPa) and the Sound dentin group (68.7 +/- 11.1 MPa) were significantly higher than those of the Dye stain group (46.9 +/- 7.9 MPa, p<0.05). However, there is no significant difference in fracture mode between the Dye stain group and the Probing group (p<0.05). This could be attributed to that the thick smear layer caused a loss of hybrid layer strength. In conclusion, the caries removal technique of the root canal dentin affected the bond strength of the resin composite.

  12. Nitrogen rate and application timing affect the yield and risk associated with stockpiling tall fescue for winter grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide economical winter feed for grazing livestock in the mid-Atlantic of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of N rate and application timing on the yield of stockpiled tall fescue. Four N rates ranging from 0 to 120 lb N/acre wer...

  13. Detecting trends in raptor counts: power and type I error rates of various statistical tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatfield, J.S.; Gould, W.R.; Hoover, B.A.; Fuller, M.R.; Lindquist, E.L.

    1996-01-01

    We conducted simulations that estimated power and type I error rates of statistical tests for detecting trends in raptor population count data collected from a single monitoring site. Results of the simulations were used to help analyze count data of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 7 national forests in Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin during 1980-1989. Seven statistical tests were evaluated, including simple linear regression on the log scale and linear regression with a permutation test. Using 1,000 replications each, we simulated n = 10 and n = 50 years of count data and trends ranging from -5 to 5% change/year. We evaluated the tests at 3 critical levels (alpha = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.10) for both upper- and lower-tailed tests. Exponential count data were simulated by adding sampling error with a coefficient of variation of 40% from either a log-normal or autocorrelated log-normal distribution. Not surprisingly, tests performed with 50 years of data were much more powerful than tests with 10 years of data. Positive autocorrelation inflated alpha-levels upward from their nominal levels, making the tests less conservative and more likely to reject the null hypothesis of no trend. Of the tests studied, Cox and Stuart's test and Pollard's test clearly had lower power than the others. Surprisingly, the linear regression t-test, Collins' linear regression permutation test, and the nonparametric Lehmann's and Mann's tests all had similar power in our simulations. Analyses of the count data suggested that bald eagles had increasing trends on at least 2 of the 7 national forests during 1980-1989.

  14. Heart Rate Variability for Preclinical Detection of Secondary Complications after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, J. Michael; Sow, Daby; Crimmins, Michael; Albers, David; Agarwal, Sachin; Claassen, Jan; Connolly, E. Sander; Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Hripcsak, George; Mayer, Stephan A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We sought to determine if monitoring heart rate variability (HRV) would enable preclinical detection of secondary complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods We studied 236 SAH patients admitted within the first 48 hours of bleed onset, discharged after SAH day 5, and had continuous electrocardiogram records available. The diagnosis and date of onset of infections and DCI events were prospectively adjudicated and documented by the clinical team. Continuous ECG was collected at 240 Hz using a high-resolution data acquisition system. The Tompkins Hamilton algorithm was used to identify R-R intervals excluding ectopic and abnormal beats. Time, frequency, and regularity domain calculations of HRV were generated over the first 48 hours of ICU admission and 24 hours prior to the onset of each patient's first complication, or SAH day 6 for control patients. Clinical prediction rules to identify infection and DCI events were developed using bootstrap aggregation and cost sensitive meta-classifiers. Results The combined infection and DCI model predicted events 24 hours prior to clinical onset with high sensitivity (87%) and moderate specificity (66%), and was more sensitive than models that predicted either infection or DCI. Models including clinical and HRV variables together substantially improved diagnostic accuracy (AUC 0.83) compared to models with only HRV variables (AUC 0.61). Conclusions Changes in HRV after SAH reflect both delayed ischemic and infectious complications. Incorporation of concurrent disease severity measures substantially improves prediction compared to using HRV alone. Further research is needed to refine and prospectively evaluate real-time bedside HRV monitoring after SAH. PMID:24610353

  15. Nature versus Nurture: How Parent Galaxy Environments Affect the Rates and Properties of their Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Melissa Lynn

    2010-08-01

    Supernovae of Type Ia, SNe Ia, are currently the most powerful tool of modern cosmology, but their progenitor scenario is not yet well constrained. Recent studies of SN Ia rates in radio-loud early-type galaxies, and members of rich clusters, suggest a possible influence on SN Ia explosions outside of the established correlation with the age of the parent galaxy's stellar population (via the current specific star formation rate, sSFR). These rates were used to show that the characteristics of SN Ia progenitor systems may be inconsistent with theoretical expectations of the most popular scenarios. The astrophysical question of this thesis is: do parent galaxy and environment influence the rates and properties of Type Ia supernovae, and, if so, how? Towards this end, we combine the database of Type Ia supernovae from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope's Supernova Legacy Survey with publicly available catalogs including: galaxy photometric and spectroscopic redshifts, radio and infrared sources, and members of galaxy groups and clusters. This is the most comprehensive set of multi-wavelength host properties and environment parameters for intermediate redshift Type Ia supernovae yet compiled. We present the SNLS SN Ia rate per unit mass in a variety of parent galaxy and environment samples. We also statistically assess the probability of discrepancies between our rates, those of previous works at low redshift, rates in the general population of galaxies, and predictions of established empirical SN Ia rate models. In general, we do not find statistically significant evidence for SN Ia rate enhancements over the general population in galaxies which are radio-loud, infrared-bright, or associated with galaxy groups and clusters. In cases where we do find a suggestive rate enhancement, it is always with less than 2-sigma confidence. These rates agree with established empirical rate models, which in turn are consistent with theoretical expectations of the most plausible

  16. Implementation of a program to improve the quality of colonoscopy increases the neoplasia detection rate: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Luis Alberto; Cassella, Federico; Wonaga, Andrés; Arnao Dellamea, Gloria; Di Paola, Leandro; Ubeira Salim, Rodrigo; Fernández, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopists worldwide have been encouraged to report quality indicators in order to evaluate their performance. We aimed to determine whether a program to improve the quality of colonoscopy results in better rates of neoplasia detection. Patients and methods: This is a prospective study set in a private endoscopy center. From May 2009 to March 2010, we evaluated 1573 consecutive colonoscopies (group 1). After the implementation of a quality program, from February 2011 to January 2012, we prospectively evaluated 1583 colonoscopies (group 2). Our quality-enhancing intervention consisted of instructing both patients and endoscopists. We measured the cecal intubation rate and the neoplasia detection rate. Overall neoplasias, high-risk adenomas, carcinomas, right colon adenomas, and adenomas detected in screening studies were analyzed. Results: Cecal intubation was documented in 1384 cases from group 1 (88 %) and 1534 from group 2 (96.9 %) (P < 0.0001). The neoplasia detection rates in groups 1 and 2 were, respectively: neoplasias 288 (18.3 %) and 427 (27 %) (P < 0.0001), high-risk adenomas 76 (4.8 %) and 142 (9 %) (P < 0.0001), carcinomas 16 (1 %) and 21 (1.3 %) (P = 0.52), right colon adenomas 112 (7.1 %) and 154 (9.7 %) (P = 0.01), and adenomas 141 (16.5 %) and 233 (28 %) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Implementation of a quality program improves the neoplasia detection rate. Because of the small number of cancerous lesions found in both groups, we were unable to identify differences in the carcinoma detection rate. PMID:26793787

  17. [Evaluation of heart impact in the 100 m extreme intensity sport using near-infrared non-invasive muscle oxygen detecting device and sports heart rate detection technology].

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Yong; Long, Fei-Xiao; Fu, Lan-Ying; Li, Yue; Ding, Hai-Shu; Qu, An-Lian; Zhou, Xiao-Ping

    2010-02-01

    Using continuous two wavelength near-infrared technology to detect the variation in the consistency of oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle and the sports heart rate wireless real time collection technology, we devised the real time muscle tissue oxygenation and instantaneous heart rate experiment scheme and implemented it for the process of the 100 m run with two parameters given simultaneously. The experiment shows that the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle tissue continues decreasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin attains the minimum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (6.65 +/- 1.10) sec; while the heart rate continues increasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the heart rate attains the maximum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (8.00 +/- 1.57) sec. The results show that the two wavelength near-infrared tissue oxygenation detection technology and the sports heart rate real time collection equipment can accurately measure the sports tissue oxygenation and the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport, and reveal the process of muscle oxygen transportation and consumption and its dynamic character with the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport.

  18. Chronic low-dose-rate ionising radiation affects the hippocampal phosphoproteome in the ApoE−/− Alzheimer's mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kempf, Stefan J.; Janik, Dirk; Barjaktarovic, Zarko; Braga-Tanaka, Ignacia; Tanaka, Satoshi; Neff, Frauke; Saran, Anna; Larsen, Martin R.; Tapio, Soile

    2016-01-01

    Accruing data indicate that radiation-induced consequences resemble pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect on hippocampus of chronic low-dose-rate radiation exposure (1 mGy/day or 20 mGy/day) given over 300 days with cumulative doses of 0.3 Gy and 6.0 Gy, respectively. ApoE deficient mutant C57Bl/6 mouse was used as an Alzheimer's model. Using mass spectrometry, a marked alteration in the phosphoproteome was found at both dose rates. The radiation-induced changes in the phosphoproteome were associated with the control of synaptic plasticity, calcium-dependent signalling and brain metabolism. An inhibition of CREB signalling was found at both dose rates whereas Rac1-Cofilin signalling was found activated only at the lower dose rate. Similarly, the reduction in the number of activated microglia in the molecular layer of hippocampus that paralleled with reduced levels of TNFα expression and lipid peroxidation was significant only at the lower dose rate. Adult neurogenesis, investigated by Ki67, GFAP and NeuN staining, and cell death (activated caspase-3) were not influenced at any dose or dose rate. This study shows that several molecular targets induced by chronic low-dose-rate radiation overlap with those of Alzheimer's pathology. It may suggest that ionising radiation functions as a contributing risk factor to this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27708245

  19. Endocuff-Assisted Colonoscopy-A Novel Accessory in Improving Adenoma Detection Rate: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rashmee; Ona, Mel A; Ofori, Emmanuel; Reddy, Madhavi

    2016-11-01

    Endocuff (Arc Medical Design) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved device that is attached like a cap to the distal tip of the colonoscope; it is used to improve adenoma detection rates during colonoscopy. The aim of this review was to summarize and evaluate the clinical and technical efficacy of Endocuff in improving adenoma detection rate. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify studies describing this technique. In this review article, we have summarized case series and reports describing Endocuff use and results. The reported indications, results, limitations, and complications are discussed.

  20. Endocuff-Assisted Colonoscopy—A Novel Accessory in Improving Adenoma Detection Rate: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rashmee; Ona, Mel A.; Ofori, Emmanuel; Reddy, Madhavi

    2016-01-01

    Endocuff (Arc Medical Design) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved device that is attached like a cap to the distal tip of the colonoscope; it is used to improve adenoma detection rates during colonoscopy. The aim of this review was to summarize and evaluate the clinical and technical efficacy of Endocuff in improving adenoma detection rate. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify studies describing this technique. In this review article, we have summarized case series and reports describing Endocuff use and results. The reported indications, results, limitations, and complications are discussed. PMID:27133962

  1. Body size, but not cooling rate affects supercooling points in the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The level of an animal’s stress resistance is set by multiple intrinsic physiological and extrinsic environmental parameters. Body size is a critical intrinsic parameter that affects numerous fitness-related organismal traits including fecundity, survival, mating success, and stress resistance. The ...

  2. The impact of global warming on floral traits that affect the selfing rate in a high-altitude plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in the abiotic environment, as those expected under global warming, can influence plant mating systems through changes in floral traits that affect selfing. Herkogamy (spatial separation of male and female functions within a flower), dichogamy (temporal separation) and total flower number af...

  3. Effect of radiocesium transfer on ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, H.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents in throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured the ambient dose rate (ADR) at different heights in the forest using a survey meter and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 166 kBq/m2, 174 kBq/m2, and 60 kBq/m2, respectively. These values correspond to 38%, 40% and 13% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate in forest exhibited height dependency and its vertical distribution varied with forest type and stand age. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the height of dose measurement and forest type. The ambient dose rate at the canopy (approx. 10 m-height) decreased faster than that expected from physical decay of the two radiocesium isotopes, whereas those at the forest floor varied between the three forest stands. The radiocesium deposition via throughfall seemed to increase ambient dose rate during the first 200 days after the accident, however there was no clear relationship between litterfall and ambient dose rate since 400 days after the accident. These data suggested that the ambient dose rate in forest environment varied both spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. However, further monitoring investigation and analysis are required to determine the effect of litterfall on long-term trend of ambient dose rate in forest environments.

  4. Seeding rate and date and timing of termination affect hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) biomass production across the eastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) is a winter annual legume cover crop that is often grown because it can provide a substantial amount of N to the following cash crop. Nitrogen accumulation is dependent on biomass production, which in turn is affected by climate, seeding rate and date, and timing of ...

  5. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - List of Events for Which Inclusion of NAFI Service May Affect the Rate of Annuity Payable

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false List of Events for Which Inclusion of... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED... of Part 847—List of Events for Which Inclusion of NAFI Service May Affect the Rate of Annuity...

  6. Detection of PrP(Sc) in peripheral tissues of clinically affected cattle after oral challenge with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Franz, Martin; Eiden, Martin; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Greenlee, Justin; Schatzl, Hermann; Fast, Christine; Richt, Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Groschup, Martin H

    2012-12-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative prion disease that mainly affects cattle. Transmission of BSE to humans caused a variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Following infection, the protease-resistant, disease-associated isoform of prion protein (PrP(Sc)) accumulates in the central nervous system and in other tissues. Many countries have defined bovine tissues that may contain prions as specified risk materials, which must not enter the human or animal food chains and therefore must be discarded. Ultrasensitive techniques such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) have been developed to detect PrP(Sc) when present in minuscule amounts that are not readily detected by other diagnostic methods such as immunohistochemistry or Western blotting. This study was conducted to determine when and where PrP(Sc) can be found by PMCA in cattle orally challenged with BSE. A total of 48 different tissue samples from four cattle infected orally with BSE at various clinical stages of disease were examined using a standardized PMCA protocol. The protocol used brain homogenate from bovine PrP transgenic mice (Tgbov XV) as substrate and three consecutive rounds of PMCA. Using this protocol, PrP(Sc) was found in the brain, spinal cord, nerve ganglia, optic nerve and Peyer's patches. The presence of PrP(Sc) was confirmed in adrenal glands, as well as in mesenteric lymph nodes - a finding that was reported recently by another group. Interestingly, additional positive results were obtained for the first time in the oesophagus, abomasum, rumen and rectum of clinically affected cattle.

  7. In vitro detection of cardiotoxins or neurotoxins affecting ion channels or pumps using beating cardiomyocytes as alternative for animal testing.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Jonathan; Hendriksen, Peter J M; de Haan, Laura H J; Koning, Rosella; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Bovee, Toine F H

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated if and to what extent murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes within embryoid bodies can be used as a broad screening in vitro assay for neurotoxicity testing, replacing for example in vivo tests for marine neurotoxins. Effect of nine model compounds, acting on either the Na(+), K(+), or Ca(2+) channels or the Na(+)/K(+) ATP-ase pump, on the beating was assessed. Diphenhydramine, veratridine, isradipine, verapamil and ouabain induced specific beating arrests that were reversible and none of the concentrations tested induced cytotoxicity. Three K(+) channel blockers, amiodarone, clofilium and sematilide, and the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase pump inhibitor digoxin had no specific effect on the beating. In addition, two marine neurotoxins i.e. saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin elicited specific beating arrests in cardiomyocytes. Comparison of the results obtained with cardiomyocytes to those obtained with the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay revealed that the cardiomyocytes were generally somewhat more sensitive for the model compounds affecting Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels, but less sensitive for the compounds affecting K(+) channels. The stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were not as sensitive as the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay for saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin. It is concluded that the murine stem cell-derived beating cardiomyocytes provide a sensitive model for detection of specific neurotoxins and that the neuroblastoma neuro-2a assay may be a more promising cell-based assay for the screening of marine biotoxins.

  8. Carrier detection and prenatal molecular diagnosis in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy family without any affected relative available.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, M A; García-Cavazos, R; Hernández-U, E; González-del Angel, A; Carnevale, A; Orozco, L

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we report a family where the affected DMD patients were not available for study and a molecular strategy was used for female carriers detection and for prenatal diagnosis. Linkage analysis was performed with two markers within the DMD gene, in all family members screened. DMD markers used (pERT87.8/Taq1 and pERT87.15/Xmn1) seemed not to be informative because the propositas mother (II-2) was homozygous for the minor allele at each marker (T2 and X2), however, the proposita and one sister carried only the major allele, which was inherited from the father. These results suggested that a deletion involving both markers could be present, and was inherited from the mother to both daughters. Quantitative multiplex PCR confirmed the deletion in female carriers, involving at least exons 12 to 17. DNA studies of cultured amniotic fluid cells at 14 weeks gestation, by amplification of specific Y-chromosome sequences, followed by multiplex PCR, lead to the diagnosis of a male fetus affected by DMD.

  9. Transfer Rate Edited experiment for the selective detection of Chemical Exchange via Saturation Transfer (TRE-CEST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Joshua I.; Xia, Ding; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-07-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance experiments have become valuable tools in magnetic resonance for the detection of low concentration solutes with far greater sensitivity than direct detection methods. Accurate measures of rates of chemical exchange provided by CEST are of particular interest to biomedical imaging communities where variations in chemical exchange can be related to subtle variations in biomarker concentration, temperature and pH within tissues using MRI. Despite their name, however, traditional CEST methods are not truly selective for chemical exchange and instead detect all forms of magnetization transfer including through-space NOE. This ambiguity crowds CEST spectra and greatly complicates subsequent data analysis. We have developed a Transfer Rate Edited CEST experiment (TRE-CEST) that uses two different types of solute labeling in order to selectively amplify signals of rapidly exchanging proton species while simultaneously suppressing 'slower' NOE-dominated magnetization transfer processes. This approach is demonstrated in the context of both NMR and MRI, where it is used to detect the labile amide protons of proteins undergoing chemical exchange (at rates ⩾ 30 s-1) while simultaneously eliminating signals originating from slower (∼5 s-1) NOE-mediated magnetization transfer processes. TRE-CEST greatly expands the utility of CEST experiments in complex systems, and in-vivo, in particular, where it is expected to improve the quantification of chemical exchange and magnetization transfer rates while enabling new forms of imaging contrast.

  10. Quantifying Efficacy and Limits of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Technology for Weed Seedling Detection as Affected by Sensor Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Peña, José M.; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; Serrano-Pérez, Angélica; de Castro, Ana I.; López-Granados, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    In order to optimize the application of herbicides in weed-crop systems, accurate and timely weed maps of the crop-field are required. In this context, this investigation quantified the efficacy and limitations of remote images collected with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for early detection of weed seedlings. The ability to discriminate weeds was significantly affected by the imagery spectral (type of camera), spatial (flight altitude) and temporal (the date of the study) resolutions. The colour-infrared images captured at 40 m and 50 days after sowing (date 2), when plants had 5–6 true leaves, had the highest weed detection accuracy (up to 91%). At this flight altitude, the images captured before date 2 had slightly better results than the images captured later. However, this trend changed in the visible-light images captured at 60 m and higher, which had notably better results on date 3 (57 days after sowing) because of the larger size of the weed plants. Our results showed the requirements on spectral and spatial resolutions needed to generate a suitable weed map early in the growing season, as well as the best moment for the UAV image acquisition, with the ultimate objective of applying site-specific weed management operations. PMID:25756867

  11. Quantifying efficacy and limits of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology for weed seedling detection as affected by sensor resolution.

    PubMed

    Peña, José M; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; Serrano-Pérez, Angélica; de Castro, Ana I; López-Granados, Francisca

    2015-03-06

    In order to optimize the application of herbicides in weed-crop systems, accurate and timely weed maps of the crop-field are required. In this context, this investigation quantified the efficacy and limitations of remote images collected with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for early detection of weed seedlings. The ability to discriminate weeds was significantly affected by the imagery spectral (type of camera), spatial (flight altitude) and temporal (the date of the study) resolutions. The colour-infrared images captured at 40 m and 50 days after sowing (date 2), when plants had 5-6 true leaves, had the highest weed detection accuracy (up to 91%). At this flight altitude, the images captured before date 2 had slightly better results than the images captured later. However, this trend changed in the visible-light images captured at 60 m and higher, which had notably better results on date 3 (57 days after sowing) because of the larger size of the weed plants. Our results showed the requirements on spectral and spatial resolutions needed to generate a suitable weed map early in the growing season, as well as the best moment for the UAV image acquisition, with the ultimate objective of applying site-specific weed management operations.

  12. Rating impacts in a multi-stressor world: a quantitative assessment of 50 stressors affecting the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sigrid D P; Mcintyre, Peter B; Halpern, Benjamin S; Cooke, Roger M; Marino, Adrienne L; Boyer, Gregory L; Buchsbaum, Andy; Burton, G A; Campbell, Linda M; Ciborowski, Jan J H; Doran, Patrick J; Infante, Dana M; Johnson, Lucinda B; Read, Jennifer G; Rose, Joan B; Rutherford, Edward S; Steinman, Alan D; Allan, J David

    2015-04-01

    Ecosystems often experience multiple environmental stressors simultaneously that can differ widely in their pathways and strengths of impact. Differences in the relative impact of environmental stressors can guide restoration and management prioritization, but few studies have empirically assessed a comprehensive suite of stressors acting on a given ecosystem. To fill this gap in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where considerable restoration investments are currently underway, we used expert elicitation via a detailed online survey to develop ratings of the relative impacts of 50 potential stressors. Highlighting the multiplicity of stressors in this system, experts assessed all 50 stressors as having some impact on ecosystem condition, but ratings differed greatly among stressors. Individual stressors related to invasive and nuisance species (e.g., dreissenid mussels and ballast invasion risk) and climate change were assessed as having the greatest potential impacts. These results mark a shift away from the longstanding emphasis on nonpoint phosphorus and persistent bioaccumulative toxic substances in the Great Lakes. Differences in impact ratings among lakes and ecosystem zones were weak, and experts exhibited surprisingly high levels of agreement on the relative impacts of most stressors. Our results provide a basin-wide, quantitative summary of expert opinion on the present-day influence of all major Great Lakes stressors. The resulting ratings can facilitate prioritizing stressors to achieve management objectives in a given location, as well as providing a baseline for future stressor impact assessments in the Great Lakes and elsewhere.

  13. Microbial Transformation of Triadimefon to Triadimenol in Soils: Selective Production Rates of Triadimenol Stereoisomers Affect Exposure and Risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial transformation of triadimefon, an agricultural fungicide of the 1,2,4-triazole class, was followed at a nominal concentration of 50 μg/mL over 4 months under aerobic conditions in three different soil types. Rates and products of transformation were measured, as wel...

  14. Using time-series intervention analysis to model cow heart rate affected by programmed audio and environmental/physiological cues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research is the first use of the Box-Jenkins time-series models to describe changes in heart rate (HR) of free-ranging crossbred cows (Bos taurus) receiving both programmed audio cues from directional virtual fencing (DVFTM) devices and non-programmed environmental/physiological cues. The DVFT...

  15. Using time-series intervention analysis to model cow heart rate affected by programmed audio and environmental/physiological

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research is the first use of the Box-Jenkins time-series models to describe changes in heart rate (HR) of free-ranging crossbred cows (Bos taurus) receiving both programmed audio cues from directional virtual fencing (DVFTM) devices and non-programmed environmental/physiological cues. The DVFT...

  16. Do Expenditures Other Than Instructional Expenditures Affect Graduation and Persistence Rates in American Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15216

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Douglas A.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2009-01-01

    During the last two decades, median instructional spending per full-time equivalent (FTE) student at American 4-year colleges and universities has grown at a slower rate than median spending per FTE student in a number of other expenditure categories including academic support, student services and research. Our paper uses institutional level…

  17. Skeletal Muscle Myofibrillar and Sarcoplasmic Protein Synthesis Rates Are Affected Differently by Altitude-Induced Hypoxia in Native Lowlanders

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Lars; Haslund, Mads Lyhne; Robach, Paul; van Hall, Gerrit; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Saltin, Bengt; Lundby, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    As a consequence to hypobaric hypoxic exposure skeletal muscle atrophy is often reported. The underlying mechanism has been suggested to involve a decrease in protein synthesis in order to conserve O2. With the aim to challenge this hypothesis, we applied a primed, constant infusion of 1-13C-leucine in nine healthy male subjects at sea level and subsequently at high-altitude (4559 m) after 7–9 days of acclimatization. Physical activity levels and food and energy intake were controlled prior to the two experimental conditions with the aim to standardize these confounding factors. Blood samples and expired breath samples were collected hourly during the 4 hour trial and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained at 1 and 4 hours after tracer priming in the overnight fasted state. Myofibrillar protein synthesis rate was doubled; 0.041±0.018 at sea-level to 0.080±0.018%⋅hr−1 (p<0.05) when acclimatized to high altitude. The sarcoplasmic protein synthesis rate was in contrast unaffected by altitude exposure; 0.052±0.019 at sea-level to 0.059±0.010%⋅hr−1 (p>0.05). Trends to increments in whole body protein kinetics were seen: Degradation rate elevated from 2.51±0.21 at sea level to 2.73±0.13 µmol⋅kg−1⋅min−1 (p = 0.05) at high altitude and synthesis rate similar; 2.24±0.20 at sea level and 2.43±0.13 µmol⋅kg−1⋅min−1 (p>0.05) at altitude. We conclude that whole body amino acid flux is increased due to an elevated protein turnover rate. Resting skeletal muscle myocontractile protein synthesis rate was concomitantly elevated by high-altitude induced hypoxia, whereas the sarcoplasmic protein synthesis rate was unaffected by hypoxia. These changed responses may lead to divergent adaptation over the course of prolonged exposure. PMID:21187972

  18. Soluble carbohydrate allocation to roots, photosynthetic rate of leaves, and nitrate assimilation as affected by nitrogen stress and irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr

    1991-01-01

    Upon resupply of exogenous nitrogen to nitrogen-stressed plants, uptake rate of nitrogen is enhanced relative to nonstressed plants. Absorption of nitrogen presumably is dependent on availability of carbohydrates in the roots. A buildup in soluble carbohydrates thus should occur in roots of nitrogen-stressed plants, and upon resupply of exogenous nitrogen the increased uptake rate should be accompanied by a rapid decline in carbohydrates to prestress levels. To evaluate this relationship, three sets of tobacco plants growing in a complete hydroponic solution containing 1.0 mM NO3- were either continued in the complete solution for 21 d, transferred to a minus-nitrogen solution for 21 d, or transferred to a minus-nitrogen solution for 8-9 d and then returned to the 1.0 mM NO3- solution. These nitrogen treatments were imposed upon plants growing at photosynthetic photon flux densities of 700 and 350 micromoles m-2 s-1. Soluble carbohydrate levels in roots increased during onset of nitrogen stress to levels that were fourfold greater than in roots of non-stressed plants. Following resupply of external nitrogen, a rapid resumption of nitrogen uptake was accompanied by a decline in soluble carbohydrates in roots to levels characteristic of nonstressed plants. This pattern of soluble carbohydrate levels in roots during onset of and recovery from nitrogen stress occurred at both irradiance levels. The response of net photosynthetic rate to nitrogen stress could be expressed as a nonlinear function of concentration of reduced nitrogen in leaves. The net photosynthetic rate at a given concentration of reduced nitrogen, however, averaged 10% less at the lower than at the higher irradiance. The decline in net photosynthetic rate per unit of reduced nitrogen in leaves at the lower irradiance was accompanied by an increase in the nitrate fraction of total nitrogen in leaves from 20% at the higher irradiance to 38% at the lower irradiance.

  19. Prostate-specific Antigen Density Variation Rate as a Potential Guideline Parameter for Second Prostate Cancer Detection Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gan-Sheng; Lyv, Jin-Xing; Li, Gang; Yan, Chun-Yin; Hou, Jian-Quan; Pu, Jin-Xian; Ding, Xiang; Huang, Yu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic value of current prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests is challenged by the poor detection rate of prostate cancer (PCa) in repeat prostate biopsy. In this study, we proposed a novel PSA-related parameter named PSA density variation rate (PSADVR) and designed a clinical trial to evaluate its potential diagnostic value for detecting PCa on a second prostate biopsy. Methods: Data from 184 males who underwent second ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy 6 months after the first biopsy were included in the study. The subjects were divided into PCa and non-PCa groups according to the second biopsy pathological results. Prostate volume, PSA density (PSAD), free-total PSA ratio, and PSADVR were calculated according to corresponding formulas at the second biopsy. These parameters were compared using t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test between PCa and non-PCa groups, and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to evaluate their predictability on PCa detection. Results: PCa was detected in 24 patients on the second biopsy. Mean values of PSA, PSAD, and PSADVR were greater in the PCa group than in the non-PCa group (8.39 μg/L vs. 7.16 μg/L, 0.20 vs. 0.16, 14.15% vs. −1.36%, respectively). PSADVR had the largest area under the curve, with 0.667 sensitivity and 0.824 specificity when the cutoff was 10%. The PCa detection rate was significantly greater in subjects with PSADVR >10% than PSADVR ≤10% (28.6% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.001). In addition, PSADVR was the only parameter in this study that showed a significant correlation with mid-to-high-risk PCa (r = 0.63, P = 0.03). Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that PSADVR improved the PCa detection rate on second biopsies, especially for mid-to-high-risk cancers requiring prompt treatment. PMID:27453228

  20. Statistical Considerations in Designing Tests of Mine Detection Systems: II - Measures Related to the False Alarm Rate

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, K.M.

    1998-08-01

    The rate at which a mine detection system falsely identifies man-made or natural clutter objects as mines is referred to as the system's false alarm rate (FAR). Generally expressed as a rate per unit area or time, the FAR is one of the primary metrics used to gauge system performance. In this report, an overview is given of statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of data relating to FAR. Techniques are presented for determining a suitable size for the clutter collection area, for summarizing the performance of a single sensor, and for comparing different sensors. For readers requiring more thorough coverage of the topics discussed, references to the statistical literature are provided. A companion report addresses statistical issues related to the estimation of mine detection probabilities.

  1. Factors affecting recall rate and false positive fraction in breast cancer screening with breast tomosynthesis - A statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Aldana; Lång, Kristina; Petersson, Ingemar F; Zackrisson, Sophia

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigate which factors affect the false positive fraction (FPF) for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) compared to digital mammography (DM) in a screening population by using classification and regression trees (C&RT) and binary marginal generalized linear models. The data was obtained from the Malmö Breast Tomosynthesis Screening Trial, which aimed to compare the performance of DBT to DM in breast cancer screening. By using data from the first half of the study population (7500 women), a tree with the recall probability for different groups was calculated. The effect of age and breast density on the FPF was estimated using a binary marginal generalized linear model. Our results show that breast density and breast cancer were the main factors influencing recall. The FPF is mainly affected by breast density and increases with breast density for DBT and DM. In conclusion, the results obtained with C&RT are easy to interpret and similar to those obtained using binary marginal generalized linear models. The FPF is approximately 40% higher for DBT compared to DM for all breast density categories.

  2. Timing and number of colonizations but not diversification rates affect diversity patterns in hemosporidian lineages on a remote oceanic archipelago.

    PubMed

    Cornuault, Josselin; Warren, Ben H; Bertrand, Joris A M; Milá, Borja; Thébaud, Christophe; Heeb, Philipp

    2013-12-01

    Parasite diversity on remote oceanic archipelagos is determined by the number and timing of colonizations and by in situ diversification rate. In this study, we compare intra-archipelago diversity of two hemosporidian parasite genera, Plasmodium and Leucocytozoon, infecting birds of the Mascarene archipelago. Despite the generally higher vagility of Plasmodium parasites, we report a diversity of Plasmodium cytochrome b haplotypes in the archipelago much lower than that of Leucocytozoon. Using phylogenetic data, we find that this difference in diversity is consistent with differences in the timing and number of colonizations, while rates of diversification do not vary significantly between the two genera. The prominence of immigration history in explaining current diversity patterns highlights the importance of historical contingencies in driving disparate biogeographic patterns in potentially harmful blood parasites infecting island birds.

  3. Deletion or overexpression of mitochondrial NAD+ carriers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae alters cellular NAD and ATP contents and affects mitochondrial metabolism and the rate of glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Agrimi, Gennaro; Brambilla, Luca; Frascotti, Gianni; Pisano, Isabella; Porro, Danilo; Vai, Marina; Palmieri, Luigi

    2011-04-01

    The modification of enzyme cofactor concentrations can be used as a method for both studying and engineering metabolism. We varied Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial NAD levels by altering expression of its specific mitochondrial carriers. Changes in mitochondrial NAD levels affected the overall cellular concentration of this coenzyme and the cellular metabolism. In batch culture, a strain with a severe NAD depletion in mitochondria succeeded in growing, albeit at a low rate, on fully respiratory media. Although the strain increased the efficiency of its oxidative phosphorylation, the ATP concentration was low. Under the same growth conditions, a strain with a mitochondrial NAD concentration higher than that of the wild type similarly displayed a low cellular ATP level, but its growth rate was not affected. In chemostat cultures, when cellular metabolism was fully respiratory, both mutants showed low biomass yields, indicative of impaired energetic efficiency. The two mutants increased their glycolytic fluxes, and as a consequence, the Crabtree effect was triggered at lower dilution rates. Strikingly, the mutants switched from a fully respiratory metabolism to a respirofermentative one at the same specific glucose flux as that of the wild type. This result seems to indicate that the specific glucose uptake rate and/or glycolytic flux should be considered one of the most important independent variables for establishing the long-term Crabtree effect. In cells growing under oxidative conditions, bioenergetic efficiency was affected by both low and high mitochondrial NAD availability, which suggests the existence of a critical mitochondrial NAD concentration in order to achieve optimal mitochondrial functionality.

  4. The presence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the BDNF gene affects the rate of locomotor adaptation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Helm, Erin E; Tyrell, Christine M; Pohlig, Ryan T; Brady, Lucas D; Reisman, Darcy S

    2016-02-01

    Induction of neural plasticity through motor learning has been demonstrated in animals and humans. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, is thought to play an integral role in modulation of central nervous system plasticity during learning and motor skill recovery. Thirty percent of humans possess a single-nucleotide polymorphism on the BDNF gene (Val66Met), which has been linked to decreased activity-dependent release of BDNF. Presence of the polymorphism has been associated with altered cortical activation, short-term plasticity and altered skill acquisition, and learning in healthy humans. The impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on motor learning post-stroke has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism in learning of a novel locomotor task in subjects with chronic stroke. It was hypothesized that subjects with the polymorphism would have an altered rate and magnitude of adaptation to a novel locomotor walking paradigm (the split-belt treadmill), compared to those without the polymorphism. The rate of adaptation was evaluated as the reduction in gait asymmetry during the first 30 (early adaptation) and last 100 (late adaptation) strides. Twenty-seven individuals with chronic stroke participated in a single session of split-belt treadmill walking and tested for the polymorphism. Step length and limb phase were measured to assess adaptation of spatial and temporal parameters of walking. The rate of adaptation of step length asymmetry differed significantly between those with and without the polymorphism, while the amount of total adaptation did not. These results suggest that chronic stroke survivors, regardless of presence or absence of the polymorphism, are able to adapt their walking pattern over a period of trial-and-error practice; however, the presence of the polymorphism influences the rate at which this is achieved.

  5. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the BDNF gene affects the rate of locomotor adaptation after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Erin E.; Tyrell, Christine M.; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Brady, Lucas D.; Reisman, Darcy S.

    2015-01-01

    Induction of neural plasticity through motor learning has been demonstrated in animals and humans. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, is thought to play an integral role in modulation of central nervous system plasticity during learning and motor skill recovery. Thirty percent of humans possess a single nucleotide polymorphism on the BDNF gene (Val66Met), which has been linked to decreased activity dependent release of BDNF. Presence of the polymorphism has been associated with altered cortical activation, short term plasticity and altered skill acquisition, and learning in healthy humans. The impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on motor learning post-stroke has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism in learning of a novel locomotor task in subjects with chronic stroke. It was hypothesized that subjects with the polymorphism would have an altered rate and magnitude of adaptation to a novel locomotor walking paradigm (the split-belt treadmill), compared to those without the polymorphism. The rate of adaptation was evaluated as the reduction in gait asymmetry during the first 30 (early adaptation) and last 100 (late adaptation) strides. Twenty-seven individuals with chronic stroke participated in a single session of split-belt treadmill walking and tested for the polymorphism. Step length and limb phase were measured to assess adaptation of spatial and temporal parameters of walking. The rate of adaptation of step length asymmetry differed significantly between those with and without the polymorphism, while the amount of total adaptation did not. These results suggest that chronic stroke survivors, regardless of presence or absence of the polymorphism, are able to adapt their walking pattern over a period of trial and error practice, however the presence of the polymorphism influences the rate at which this is achieved. PMID:26487176

  6. In chronic kidney disease staging the use of the chronicity criterion affects prognosis and the rate of progression.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, B O; Ingebretsen, O C

    2007-11-01

    The Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative definition and staging of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been adopted by most nephrologists but include a criterion of chronicity that has not been investigated. This criterion specifies that renal structural damage and/or reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) should be present for periods lasting longer than 3 months. We examined the effects of changing this criterion to 6, 9, or 12 months on the prognosis and the rate of progression in population-based cohorts with CKD stages 3 and 4. A 12-month chronicity criterion significantly reduced the number of CKD patients relative to the 3-month criterion for both stages 3 and 4. For both stages, there were statistically significant differences in 5-year mortality between the 6- and 9-month cohorts. For stage 4, the 5-year cumulative incidence of renal failure significantly increased from 6 to 9 months, and the rate of change in GFR significantly decreased between the same two cohorts. The 5-year cumulative incidence of improvement in GFR lasting 1 year or more was significantly higher for the 3-month cohort than for the 12-month cohort in the stage 3 group. Hence, we suggest that the chronicity criterion is an important determinant of the characteristics of the population of patients with CKD stages 3 and 4. This may have practical consequences in both research and clinical work.

  7. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  8. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players.

    PubMed

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-06-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (P<0.05). The similar pattern of calorie consumption during riding between amateurs and elites was shown. Horse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity.

  9. The size of the character state space affects the occurrence and detection of homoplasy: modelling the probability of incompatibility for unordered phylogenetic characters.

    PubMed

    Hoyal Cuthill, Jennifer

    2015-02-07

    This study models the probability of incompatibility versus compatibility for binary or unordered multistate phylogenetic characters, by treating the allocation of taxa to character states as a classical occupancy problem in probability. It is shown that, under this model, the number of character states has a non-linear effect on the probability of character incompatibility, which is also affected by the number of taxa. Effects on homoplasy from the number of character states are further explored using evolutionary computer simulations. The results indicate that the character state space affects both the known levels of homoplasy (recorded during simulated evolution) and those inferred from parsimony analysis of the resulting character data, with particular relevance for morphological phylogenetic analyses which generally use the parsimony method. When the evolvable state space is large (more potential states per character) there is a reduction in the known occurrence of homoplasy (as reported previously). However, this is not always reflected in the levels of homoplasy detected in a parsimony analysis, because higher numbers of states per character can lead to an increase in the probability of character incompatibility (as well as the maximum homoplasy measurable with some indices). As a result, inferred trends in homoplasy can differ markedly from the underlying trend (that recorded during evolutionary simulation). In such cases, inferred homoplasy can be entirely misleading with regard to tree quality (with higher levels of homoplasy inferred for better quality trees). When rates of evolution are low, commonly used indices such as the number of extra steps (H) and the consistency index (CI) provide relatively good measures of homoplasy. However, at higher rates, estimates may be improved by using the retention index (RI), and particularly by accounting for homoplasy measured among randomised character data using the homoplasy excess ratio (HER).

  10. Does tenofovir gel or do other microbicide products affect detection of biomarkers of semen exposure in vitro?☆, ☆☆, ★

    PubMed Central

    Snead, Margaret C.; Kourtis, Athena P.; Melendez, Johan H.; Black, Carolyn M.; Mauck, Christine K.; Penman-Aguilar, Ana; Chaney, Dorothy M.; Gallo, Maria F.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Macaluso, Maurizio; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives There is currently no information on whether products evaluated in HIV microbicide trials affect the detection of the semen biomarkers prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or Y chromosome DNA. Study Design We tested (in vitro) dilutions of tenofovir (TFV), UC781 and the hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) placebo gels using the Abacus ABAcard and the quantitative (Abbott Architect total PSA) assays for PSA and Y chromosome DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results TFV gel and the HEC placebo adversely affected PSA detection using the ABAcard but not the Abbott Architect total PSA assay. UC781 adversely affected both the ABAcard and Abbott Architect total PSA assays. While there were some quantitative changes in the magnitude of the signal, none of the products affected positivity of the Y chromosome assay. Conclusions The presence of TFV or HEC gels did not affect quantitative PSA or Y chromosome detection in vitro. Confirmation of these findings is recommended using specimens obtained following use of these gels in vivo. Implications Researchers should consider the potential for specific microbicides or any products to affect the particular assay used for semen biomarker detection. The ABAcard assay for PSA detection should not be used with TFV UC781, or HEC. PMID:24746557

  11. Doubling direct-detection data rate by polarization multiplexing of 16-QAM without active polarization control.

    PubMed

    Nazarathy, Moshe; Agmon, Amos

    2013-12-30

    We introduce and simulate a technique enabling to utilize the polarization dimension in direct-detection optical transmission, supporting polarization multiplexing (POL-MUX) over direct-detection (DD) methods previously demonstrated for a single polarization such as direct-detection OFDM. POL-MUX is currently precluded in self-coherent DD with remotely transmitted pilot, as signal x pilot components may randomly fade out. We propose POL-MUX transmission of advanced modulation formats, such as 16-QAM and higher, by means of a novel low-complexity photonic integrated optical front-end and adaptive 3x2 MIMO DSP. The principle of operation is as follows: an additional X x Y cross-polarizations signal is generated, providing three projections onto an over-complete frame of three dependent vectors. This enables to resiliently reconstruct the received state of polarization even when the remotely transmitted pilot fades along one of the received polarization axes.

  12. Tissue Doppler imaging for detection of radial and longitudinal myocardial dysfunction in a family of cats affected by dystrophin-deficient hypertrophic muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Chetboul, Valérie; Blot, Stephane; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Granger, Nicolas; Tissier, Renaud; Bruneval, Patrick; Gaschen, Frederic; Gouni, Vassiliki; Nicolle, Audrey P; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy currently is based on the presence of myocardial hypertrophy detected using conventional echocardiography. The accuracy of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) for earlier detection of the disease has never been described. The objective of this sudy was to quantify left ventricular free wall (LVFW) velocities in cats with hypertrophic muscular dystrophy (HFMD) during preclinical cardiomyopathy using TDI. The study animals included 22 healthy controls and 7 cats belonging to a family of cats with HFMD (2 affected adult males, 2 heterozygous adult females, one 2.5-month-old affected male kitten, and 2 phenotypically normal female kittens from the same litter). All cats were examined via conventional echocardiography and 2-dimensional color TDI. No LVFW hypertrophy was detected in the 2 carriers or in the affected kitten when using conventional echocardiography and histologic examination, respectively. The LVFW also was normal for 1 affected male and at the upper limit of normal for the 2nd male. Conversely, LVFW dysfunction was detected in all affected and carrier cats with HFMD when using TDI. TDI consistently detects LVFW dysfunction in cats with HFMD despite the absence of myocardial hypertrophy. Therefore, TDI appears more sensitive than conventional echocardiography in detecting regional myocardial abnormalities.

  13. Transfer Rate Edited experiment for the selective detection of Chemical Exchange via Saturation Transfer (TRE-CEST).

    PubMed

    Friedman, Joshua I; Xia, Ding; Regatte, Ravinder R; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-07-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance experiments have become valuable tools in magnetic resonance for the detection of low concentration solutes with far greater sensitivity than direct detection methods. Accurate measures of rates of chemical exchange provided by CEST are of particular interest to biomedical imaging communities where variations in chemical exchange can be related to subtle variations in biomarker concentration, temperature and pH within tissues using MRI. Despite their name, however, traditional CEST methods are not truly selective for chemical exchange and instead detect all forms of magnetization transfer including through-space NOE. This ambiguity crowds CEST spectra and greatly complicates subsequent data analysis. We have developed a Transfer Rate Edited CEST experiment (TRE-CEST) that uses two different types of solute labeling in order to selectively amplify signals of rapidly exchanging proton species while simultaneously suppressing 'slower' NOE-dominated magnetization transfer processes. This approach is demonstrated in the context of both NMR and MRI, where it is used to detect the labile amide protons of proteins undergoing chemical exchange (at rates⩾30s(-1)) while simultaneously eliminating signals originating from slower (∼5s(-1)) NOE-mediated magnetization transfer processes. TRE-CEST greatly expands the utility of CEST experiments in complex systems, and in-vivo, in particular, where it is expected to improve the quantification of chemical exchange and magnetization transfer rates while enabling new forms of imaging contrast.

  14. A scale-space method for detecting recurrent DNA copy number changes with analytical false discovery rate control.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Ewald; Reinders, Marcel J T; Wessels, Lodewyk F A

    2013-05-01

    Tumor formation is partially driven by DNA copy number changes, which are typically measured using array comparative genomic hybridization, SNP arrays and DNA sequencing platforms. Many techniques are available for detecting recurring aberrations across multiple tumor samples, including CMAR, STAC, GISTIC and KC-SMART. GISTIC is widely used and detects both broad and focal (potentially overlapping) recurring events. However, GISTIC performs false discovery rate control on probes instead of events. Here we propose Analytical Multi-scale Identification of Recurrent Events, a multi-scale Gaussian smoothing approach, for the detection of both broad and focal (potentially overlapping) recurring copy number alterations. Importantly, false discovery rate control is performed analytically (no need for permutations) on events rather than probes. The method does not require segmentation or calling on the input dataset and therefore reduces the potential loss of information due to discretization. An important characteristic of the approach is that the error rate is controlled across all scales and that the algorithm outputs a single profile of significant events selected from the appropriate scales. We perform extensive simulations and showcase its utility on a glioblastoma SNP array dataset. Importantly, ADMIRE detects focal events that are missed by GISTIC, including two events involving known glioma tumor-suppressor genes: CDKN2C and NF1.

  15. Factors affecting stone free rate of primary percutaneous nephrolithotomy on staghorn calculi: a single center experience of 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Atmoko, Widi; Birowo, Ponco; Rasyid, Nur

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy on staghorn calculi is challenging for urologists because it is difficult to remove all of the stones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associated factors of stone-free rate after primary percutaneous nephrolithotomy on staghorn calculi in a large series of patients at a single, tertiary referral, endourologic stone center. Methods: We collected data from medical record between January 2000 and December 2015. A total of 345 primary percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures were performed for patients with staghorn calculi. This study included both and made no distinction between partial and complete staghorn calculi. Stone-free is defined as the absence of residual stones after undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy for the first time. Significant factors from univariate analysis that correlated with stone-free rate after primary percutaneous nephrolithotomy of staghorn stone were further analyzed using multivariate regression analysis. Results: The mean patient age was 52.23±10.38 years. The stone-free rate of percutaneous nephrolithotomy monotherapy was 62.6%. The mean operating time was 79.55±34.46 minutes. The mean length of stay in hospital was 4.29±3.00 days. Using the chi-square test, history of ipsilateral open renal stone surgery ( p = 0.01), stone burden ( p = < 0.001), and type of anesthesia ( p = 0.04) had a significant impact on the stone-free. From multivariate analysis, the history of ipsilateral open renal stone surgery [OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.28-0.81; p 0.01] and the stone burden [OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.18-0.45; p 0.00] were significant independent risk factors for stone-free. PMID:27703669

  16. Dietary-Induced Chronic Hypothyroidism Negatively Affects Rat Follicular Development and Ovulation Rate and Is Associated with Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Meng, Li; Rijntjes, Eddy; Swarts, Hans; Bunschoten, Annelies; van der Stelt, Inge; Keijer, Jaap; Teerds, Katja

    2016-04-01

    The long-term effects of chronic hypothyroidism on ovarian follicular development in adulthood are not well known. Using a rat model of chronic diet-induced hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal period, we investigated the effects of prolonged reduced plasma thyroid hormone concentrations on the ovarian follicular reserve and ovulation rate in prepubertal (12-day-old) and adult (64-day-old and 120-day-old) rats. Besides, antioxidant gene expression, mitochondrial density and the occurrence of oxidative stress were analyzed. Our results show that continuous hypothyroidism results in lower preantral and antral follicle numbers in adulthood, accompanied by a higher percentage of atretic follicles, when compared to euthyroid age-matched controls. Not surprisingly, ovulation rate was lower in the hypothyroid rats. At the age of 120 days, the mRNA and protein content of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were significantly increased while catalase (CAT) mRNA and protein content was significantly decreased, suggesting a disturbed antioxidant defense capacity of ovarian cells in the hypothyroid animals. This was supported by a significant reduction in the expression of peroxiredoxin 3 ( ITALIC! Prdx3), thioredoxin reductase 1 ( ITALIC! Txnrd1), and uncoupling protein 2 ( ITALIC! Ucp2) and a downward trend in glutathione peroxidase 3 ( ITALIC! Gpx3) and glutathione S-transferase mu 2 ( ITALIC! Gstm2) expression. These changes in gene expression were likely responsible for the increased immunostaining of the oxidative stress marker 4-hydroxynonenal. Together these results suggest that chronic hypothyroidism initiated in the fetal/neonatal period results in a decreased ovulation rate associated with a disturbance of the antioxidant defense system in the ovary.

  17. Factors affecting stone free rate of primary percutaneous nephrolithotomy on staghorn calculi: a single center experience of 15 years.

    PubMed

    Atmoko, Widi; Birowo, Ponco; Rasyid, Nur

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy on staghorn calculi is challenging for urologists because it is difficult to remove all of the stones. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associated factors of stone-free rate after primary percutaneous nephrolithotomy on staghorn calculi in a large series of patients at a single, tertiary referral, endourologic stone center. Methods: We collected data from medical record between January 2000 and December 2015. A total of 345 primary percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedures were performed for patients with staghorn calculi. This study included both and made no distinction between partial and complete staghorn calculi. Stone-free is defined as the absence of residual stones after undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy for the first time. Significant factors from univariate analysis that correlated with stone-free rate after primary percutaneous nephrolithotomy of staghorn stone were further analyzed using multivariate regression analysis. Results: The mean patient age was 52.23±10.38 years. The stone-free rate of percutaneous nephrolithotomy monotherapy was 62.6%. The mean operating time was 79.55±34.46 minutes. The mean length of stay in hospital was 4.29±3.00 days. Using the chi-square test, history of ipsilateral open renal stone surgery ( p = 0.01), stone burden ( p = < 0.001), and type of anesthesia ( p = 0.04) had a significant impact on the stone-free. From multivariate analysis, the history of ipsilateral open renal stone surgery [OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.28-0.81; p 0.01] and the stone burden [OR 0.28; 95% CI 0.18-0.45; p 0.00] were significant independent risk factors for stone-free.

  18. Adaptation to local thermal regimes by crustose coralline algae does not affect rates of recruitment in coral larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Evenhuis, Christian; Logan, Murray; Motti, Cherie A.

    2015-12-01

    Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are well known for their ability to induce settlement in coral larvae. While their wide distribution spans reefs that differ substantially in temperature regimes, the extent of local adaptation to these regimes and the impact they have on CCA inductive ability are unknown. CCA Porolithon onkodes from Heron (southern) and Lizard (northern) islands on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (separated by 1181 km) were experimentally exposed to acute or prolonged thermal stress events and their thermal tolerance and recruitment capacity determined. A sudden onset bleaching model was developed to determine the health status of CCA based on the rate of change in the CCA live surface area (LSA). The interaction between location and temperature was significant ( F (2,119) = 6.74, p = 0.0017), indicating that thermally driven local adaptation had occurred. The southern population remained healthy after prolonged exposure to 28 °C and exhibited growth compared to the northern population ( p = 0.022), with its optimum temperature determined to be slightly below 28 °C. As expected, at the higher temperatures (30 and 32 °C) the Lizard Island population performed better that those from Heron Island, with an optimum temperature of 30 °C. Lizard Island CCA displayed the lowest bleaching rates at 30 °C, while levels consistently increased with temperature in their southern counterparts. The ability of those CCA deemed thermally tolerant (based on LSA) to induce Acropora millepora larval settlement was then assessed. While spatial differences influenced the health and bleaching levels of P. onkodes during prolonged and acute thermal exposure, thermally tolerant fragments, regardless of location, induced similar rates of coral larval settlement. This confirmed that recent thermal history does not influence the ability of CCA to induce settlement of A. millepora larvae.

  19. Reduced heart rate and cardiac output differentially affect angiogenesis, growth, and development in early chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Branum, Sylvia R; Yamada-Fisher, Miho; Burggren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    An increase in both vascular circumferential tension and shear stress in the developing vasculature of the chicken embryo has been hypothesized to stimulate angiogenesis in the developing peripheral circulation chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). To test this hypothesis, angiogenesis in the CAM, development, and growth were measured in the early chicken embryo, following acute and chronic topical application of the purely bradycardic drug ZD7288. At hour 56, ZD7288 reduced heart rate (f(H)) by ~30% but had no significant effect on stroke volume (~0.19 ± 0.2 μL), collectively resulting in a significant fall in cardiac output (CO) from ~27 ± 3 to 18 ± 2 μL min(-1). Mean f(H) at 72 h of development was similarly significantly lowered by acute ZD7288 treatment (250 μM) to 128 ± 0.3 beats min(-1), compared with 174.5 ± 0.3 and 174.7 ± 0.8 beats min(-1) in control and Pannett-Compton (P-C) saline-treated embryos, respectively. Chronic dosing with ZD7288-and the attendant decreases in f(H) and CO-did not change eye diameter or cervical flexion (key indicators of development rate) at 120 h but significantly reduced overall growth (wet and dry body mass decreased by 20%). CAM vessel density index (reflecting angiogenesis) measured 200-400 μm from the umbilical stalk was not altered, but ZD7288 reduced vessel numbers-and therefore vessel density-by 13%-16% more distally (500-600 μm from umbilical stalk) in the CAM. In the ZD7288-treated embryos, a decrease in vessel length was found within the second branch order (~300-400 μm from the umbilical stock), while a decrease in vessel diameter was found closer to the umbilical stock, beginning in the first branch order (~200-300 μm). Paradoxically, chronic application of P-C saline also reduced peripheral CAM vessel density index at 500 and 600 μm by 13% and 7%, respectively, likely from washout of local angiogenic factors. In summary, decreased f(H) with reduced CO did not slow development rate but reduced embryonic

  20. Rates of fuel discharge as affected by the design of fuel-injection systems for internal-combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Marsh, E T

    1933-01-01

    Using the method of weighing fuel collected in a receiver during a definite interval of the injection period, rates of discharge were determined, and the effects noted, when various changes were made in a fuel-injection system. The injection system consisted primarily of a by-pass controlled fuel pump and an automatic injection valve. The variables of the system studied were the pump speed, pump-throttle setting, discharge-orifice diameter, injection-valve opening and closing pressures, and injection-tube length and diameter.

  1. Green tea polyphenols added to IVM and IVC media affect transcript abundance, apoptosis, and pregnancy rates in bovine embryos.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengguang; Fu, Chunquan; Yu, Songdong

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) during IVM and IVC on apoptosis and relative transcript abundance (RA) of three genes controlling antioxidant enzymes, as well as subsequent pregnancy rates. In experiment 1, oocytes were matured in the presence of 0, 10, 15, or 25 μM GTP for 24 hours. The GTP dose applied to IVM medium was followed by the same dose supplemented to IVC medium, so oocytes and embryos of a given group were cultured in similar conditions. This resulted in a total of four groups (three experimental groups and the control). After IVF, presumptive zygotes were cultured in medium containing 0 to 25 μM GTP for 8 days. The addition of 15 μM GTP during IVM and IVC increased RA of SOD1, CAT, and GPX genes in blastocysts compared with the control (P < 0.05). Increase in GTP doses from 15 to 25 μM did not further increase the transcript level. In experiment 2, effects of GTP doses on apoptosis were investigated in bovine blastocysts. Two of the applied GTP doses (10 and 15 μM) decreased the apoptotic index (AI) in blastocysts (7.4% and 6.2% respectively) compared with the control (9.3%; P < 0.05). However, the highest GTP dose used (25 μM) caused an increase in AI compared with a dose of 15 μM (P < 0.05). Considering the results of experiment 1 and 2, the effects of 15 μM GTP treatment during IVM and IVC on pregnancy rate was evaluated after embryo transfer in experiment 3. Cows receiving embryos treated with 15 μM GTP had higher pregnancy rates on Day 30 (34.8% vs. 28.6%) and Day 60 (34.8% vs. 23.9%) than those receiving control embryos (P < 0.05). In conclusion, addition of 15 μM GTP during IVM and IVC improved pregnancy rates; this improvement seemed to be associated with the increase of RA of antioxidant enzyme genes and the decrease in AI in bovine blastocysts.

  2. DSP implementation of wavelet transform for real time ECG wave forms detection and heart rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Bahoura, M; Hassani, M; Hubin, M

    1997-01-01

    An algorithm based on wavelet transform (WTs) suitable for real time implementation has been developed in order to detect ECG characteristics. In particular, QRS complexes, P and T waves may be distinguished from noise, baseline drift or artefacts. This algorithm is implemented in a DSP (SPROC-1400) with a 50 MHz frequency clock. The performance of this algorithm is discussed, its accuracy is evaluated and a comparison is made with a similar algorithm implemented in C language. For the standard MIT/BIH arrhythmia database, this algorithm correctly detects 99.7% of the QRS complexes.

  3. Forced Migration and Mortality in the Very Long Term: Did Perestroika Affect Death Rates Also in Finland?

    PubMed Central

    SAARELA, JAN; FINNÄS, FJALAR

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we analyze mortality rates of Finns born in areas that were ceded to the Soviet Union after World War II and from which the entire population was evacuated. These internally displaced persons are observed during the period 1971–2004 and compared with people born in the same region but on the adjacent side of the new border. We find that in the 1970s and 1980s, the forced migrants had mortality rates that were on par with those of people in the comparison group. In the late 1980s, the mortality risk of internally displaced men increased by 20% in relation to the expected time trend. This deviation, which manifests particularly in cardiovascular mortality, coincides with perestroika and the demise of the Soviet Union, which were events that resulted in an intense debate in civil society about restitution of the ceded areas. Because state actors were reluctant to engage, the debate declined after some few years, and after the mid-1990s, the death risk again approached the long-term trend. Our findings indicate that when internally displaced persons must adjust to situations for which appropriate coping behaviors are unknown, psychosocial stress might arise several decades after their evacuation. PMID:19771945

  4. Study of the conditions affecting dye adsorption on titania films and of their effect on dye photodegradation rates.

    PubMed

    Strataki, Nikoleta; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Lianos, Panagiotis

    2007-07-31

    Nanocrystalline titania films have been deposited on glass slides by the sol-gel technique in the presence of surfactant, which plays the role of template of the nanostructure. Several different dyes, both anionic and cationic, have been adsorbed on these films from aqueous solutions. Some of these dyes were adsorbed at large quantities some at lower quantities. Some of them were adsorbed in monomeric form and others formed aggregates. Aggregates are easily distinguished by absorption spectrophotometry, since absorption of light is observed at a different wavelength than monomer absorption in a dilute solution. In all cases, aggregation demonstrated a hypsochromic shift, indicating repulsive interactions, which are justified in view of the fact that titania surface is charged and that adsorbed molecules are aligned in parallel. The above titania films are hydroxylated. Therefore, cationic dyes were readily adsorbed. Anionic dyes could be adsorbed only from aqueous solutions brought at low pH. Photodegradation rates of adsorbed dyes were generally fast since these films are efficient photocatalysts. Nevertheless, photodegradation of an adsorbed dye was faster when the quantity of the dye was smaller. When the adsorbed dyes formed aggregates, aggregation had adverse effect on photodegradation rates.

  5. How does the isomerization rate affect the photoisomerization-induced transport properties of a doped molecular glass-former?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accary, J.-B.; Teboul, V.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the effect of the isomerization rate f on the microscopic mechanisms at the origin of the massive mass transport found in glass-formers doped with isomerizing azobenzene molecules that result in surface relief gratings formation. To this end we simulate the isomerization of dispersed probe molecules embedded into a molecular host glass-former. The host diffusion coefficient first increases linearly with f and then saturates. The saturated value of the diffusion coefficient and of the viscosity does not depend on f but increases with temperature while the linear response for these transport coefficients depends only slightly on the temperature. We interpret this saturation as arising from the appearance of increasingly soft regions around the probes for high isomerization rates, a result in qualitative agreement with experiments. These two different physical behaviors, linear response and saturation, are reminiscent of the two different unexplained mass transport mechanisms observed for small or large light intensities (for small intensities the molecules move towards the dark regions while for large intensities they move towards the illuminated regions).

  6. Psychological affect at different ratings of perceived exertion in high- and low-active women: a study using a production protocol.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, G; Eston, R; Connolly, D

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychological affect at different ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) in 15 high- and 15 low-active women. Both groups performed three steady-state exercise bouts on a cycle ergometer at RPEs 9, 13, and 17 and reported their affect in the last 20 sec. of and 5 min. after each work rate. There were no differences between groups in percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (% VO2max) at each RPE. Low-active women reported feeling significantly more negative at RPE 17 than RPE 9 and less positive than the high-active women at RPEs 9, 13, and 17. In addition, all subjects reported more positive feelings 5 min. postexercise than in the last 20 sec. of exercising, especially at RPE 17. These results have implications for exercise prescription in groups differing in habitual activity levels.

  7. Simultaneous Use of Multiple Answer Copying Indexes to Improve Detection Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollack, James A.

    2006-01-01

    Many of the currently available statistical indexes to detect answer copying lack sufficient power at small [alpha] levels or when the amount of copying is relatively small. Furthermore, there is no one index that is uniformly best. Depending on the type or amount of copying, certain indexes are better than others. The purpose of this article was…

  8. The perception of visible speech: estimation of speech rate and detection of time reversals.

    PubMed

    Viviani, Paolo; Figliozzi, Francesca; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    Four experiments investigated the perception of visible speech. Experiment 1 addressed the perception of speech rate. Observers were shown video-clips of the lower face of actors speaking at their spontaneous rate. Then, they were shown muted versions of the video-clips, which were either accelerated or decelerated. The task (scaling) was to compare visually the speech rate of the stimulus to the spontaneous rate of the actor being shown. Rate estimates were accurate when the video-clips were shown in the normal direction (forward mode). In contrast, speech rate was underestimated when the video-clips were shown in reverse (backward mode). Experiments 2-4 (2AFC) investigated how accurately one discriminates forward and backward speech movements. Unlike in Experiment 1, observers were never exposed to the sound track of the video-clips. Performance was well above chance when playback mode was crossed with rate modulation, and the number of repetitions of the stimuli allowed some amount of speechreading to take place in forward mode (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, speechreading was made much more difficult by using a different and larger set of muted video-clips. Yet, accuracy decreased only slightly with respect to Experiment 2. Thus, kinematic rather then speechreading cues are most important for discriminating movement direction. Performance worsened, but remained above chance level when the same stimuli of Experiment 3 were rotated upside down (Experiment 4). We argue that the results are in keeping with the hypothesis that visual perception taps into implicit motor competence. Thus, lawful instances of biological movements (forward stimuli) are processed differently from backward stimuli representing movements that the observer cannot perform.

  9. Virus removal within a soil infiltration zone as affected by effluent composition, application rate, and soil type.

    PubMed

    Van Cuyk, Sheila; Siegrist, Robert L

    2007-02-01

    The column studies presented in this paper simulated the infiltrative surface of onsite wastewater systems where effluent is applied and where a biomat may form. Two bacteriophages, MS-2 and PRD-1, were used as surrogates for human pathogenic enteric viruses during two tracer tests. A vacuum manifold was used to simulate the drainage effects of an underlying unsaturated soil profile, allowing for the collection of percolate samples at 4 cm immediately below the infiltrative surface. The impact of effluent applied (septic tank effluent (STE) or a simulated ground water), soil type (medium sand or sandy loam), hydraulic loading rate (5 or 25 cm/day) and method of application (four equivalent daily doses or 24 equivalent micro-doses per day) on the removal of viruses were investigated. These unsaturated mini column experiments demonstrated that the removal of viruses within an infiltrative surface zone (of approximately 4 cm) generally improved over time under the conditions studied. An exception occurred in sand-filled columns dosed with STE where the removal of PRD-1 decreased after a period of effluent application. Statistical analysis conducted on the calculated percent removal demonstrated that the quality of the effluent applied to the infiltrative surface is important for removal of MS-2 and PRD-1. Hydraulic loading rate also proved important in the removal of viruses. At the time of tracer test 2, columns dosed at the higher HLR (25 cm/day) had higher percent removals for both MS-2 and PRD-1. Soil type altered the removal of PRD-1 at the time of the second tracer test, at which time sandy loam had higher removal rates for PRD-1. No significant differences were observed between columns dosed four times daily and those dosed 24 times daily for either bacteriophage at either of the tracer test time points. These data suggest that over a relatively short period of operation the infiltrative surface of soil based wastewater treatment systems can achieve much higher

  10. Plane of nutrition affects growth rate, organ size and skeletal muscle satellite cell activity in newborn calves.

    PubMed

    MacGhee, M E; Bradley, J S; McCoski, S R; Reeg, A M; Ealy, A D; Johnson, S E

    2016-11-18

    Plane of nutrition effects on body, tissue and cellular growth in the neonatal calf are poorly understood. The hypothesis that a low plane of nutrition (LPN) would limit skeletal muscle size by reducing fibre growth and muscle progenitor cell activity was tested. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to either a LPN (20% CP, 20% fat; GE=1.9 Mcal/days) or a high plane of nutrition (HPN; 27% CP, 10% fat, GE = 3.8 Mcal/days) in a 2 × 3 factorial design to test the impact of diet on neonatal calf growth, organ weight and skeletal muscle morphometry with time. Groups of calves (n = 4 or 5) were euthanised at 2, 4 and 8 week of age and organ and empty carcass weights were recorded. Body composition was measured by DXA. Longissimus muscle (LM) fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), fibre/mm(2) and Pax7 were measured by immunohistology. Satellite cells were isolated at each time point and proliferation rates were measured by EdU incorporation. Calves fed a HPN had greater (p < 0.05) BW, ADG and hip height than those fed a LPN for 2, 4 or 8 weeks. HPN calves contained a greater (p < 0.05) percentage of fat tissue than LPN calves. Liver, spleen and thymus weights were less (p < 0.05) in LPN calves than HPN animals. Calves fed HPN had larger (p < 0.05) LM CSA at 8 weeks than LPN fed animals with no differences between the groups in numbers of satellite cells per fibre. Proliferation rates of satellite cells isolated from HPN fed calves were greater (p < 0.05) at 2 weeks than LPN fed animals, which exhibited greater (p < 0.05) proliferation rates at 4 weeks than HPN fed calves. We conclude a LPN diet reduces body growth and organ size and metabolically reprograms satellite cell activity.

  11. Supernova relic neutrinos and the supernova rate problem: Analysis of uncertainties and detectability of ONeMg and failed supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, Grant J.; Hidaka, Jun; Kajino, Toshitaka; Suzuki, Jyutaro

    2014-08-01

    Direct measurements of the core collapse supernova rate (R{sub SN}) in the redshift range 0 ≤ z ≤ 1 appear to be about a factor of two smaller than the rate inferred from the measured cosmic massive star formation rate (SFR). This discrepancy would imply that about one-half of the massive stars that have been born in the local observed comoving volume did not explode as luminous supernovae. In this work, we explore the possibility that one could clarify the source of this 'supernova rate problem' by detecting the energy spectrum of supernova relic neutrinos with a next generation 10{sup 6} ton water Čerenkov detector like Hyper-Kamiokande. First, we re-examine the supernova rate problem. We make a conservative alternative compilation of the measured SFR data over the redshift range 0 ≤z ≤ 7. We show that by only including published SFR data for which the dust obscuration has been directly determined, the ratio of the observed massive SFR to the observed supernova rate R{sub SN} has large uncertainties ∼1.8{sub −0.6}{sup +1.6} and is statistically consistent with no supernova rate problem. If we further consider that a significant fraction of massive stars will end their lives as faint ONeMg SNe or as failed SNe leading to a black hole remnant, then the ratio reduces to ∼1.1{sub −0.4}{sup +1.0} and the rate problem is essentially solved. We next examine the prospects for detecting this solution to the supernova rate problem. We first study the sources of uncertainty involved in the theoretical estimates of the neutrino detection rate and analyze whether the spectrum of relic neutrinos can be used to independently identify the existence of a supernova rate problem and its source. We consider an ensemble of published and unpublished core collapse supernova simulation models to estimate the uncertainties in the anticipated neutrino luminosities and temperatures. We illustrate how the spectrum of detector events might be used to establish the average

  12. Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Aldad, Tamir S; Gan, Geliang; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Taylor, Hugh S

    2012-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disorders are increasingly prevalent in children, however their etiology is not well understood. An association between prenatal cellular telephone use and hyperactivity in children has been postulated, yet the direct effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on neurodevelopment remain unknown. Here we used a mouse model to demonstrate that in-utero radiofrequency exposure from cellular telephones does affect adult behavior. Mice exposed in-utero were hyperactive and had impaired memory as determined using the object recognition, light/dark box and step-down assays. Whole cell patch clamp recordings of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) revealed that these behavioral changes were due to altered neuronal developmental programming. Exposed mice had dose-responsive impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. We present the first experimental evidence of neuropathology due to in-utero cellular telephone radiation. Further experiments are needed in humans or non-human primates to determine the risk of exposure during pregnancy.

  13. Fetal Radiofrequency Radiation Exposure From 800-1900 Mhz-Rated Cellular Telephones Affects Neurodevelopment and Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Aldad, Tamir S.; Gan, Geliang; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2012-01-01

    Neurobehavioral disorders are increasingly prevalent in children, however their etiology is not well understood. An association between prenatal cellular telephone use and hyperactivity in children has been postulated, yet the direct effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on neurodevelopment remain unknown. Here we used a mouse model to demonstrate that in-utero radiofrequency exposure from cellular telephones does affect adult behavior. Mice exposed in-utero were hyperactive and had impaired memory as determined using the object recognition, light/dark box and step-down assays. Whole cell patch clamp recordings of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) revealed that these behavioral changes were due to altered neuronal developmental programming. Exposed mice had dose-responsive impaired glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto layer V pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex. We present the first experimental evidence of neuropathology due to in-utero cellular telephone radiation. Further experiments are needed in humans or non-human primates to determine the risk of exposure during pregnancy. PMID:22428084

  14. Gender, Race, and Diet Affect Platelet Function Tests in Normal Subjects Contributing to a High Rate of Abnormal Results

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Garrett, Katherine; Stein, Sidney F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary To assess sources of variability in platelet function tests in normal subjects, 64 healthy young adults were tested on 2–6 occasions at 2 week intervals using 4 methods: platelet aggregation (AGG) in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the Bio/Data PAP-4 Aggregometer (BD) and Chrono-Log Lumi-Aggregometer (CL); and AGG in whole blood (WB) in the CL and Multiplate Platelet Function Analyzer (MP), with ATP release (REL) in CL-PRP and CL-WB. Food and medication exposures were recorded prospectively for 2 weeks prior to each blood draw. At least one AGG abnormality was seen in 21% of 81 drug-free specimens with CL-PRP, 15% with CL-WB, 13% with BD-PRP, and 6% with MP-WB, increasing with inclusion of REL to 28% for CL-PRP and 30% for CL-WB. Epinephrine AGG and REL were significantly reduced in males (P<0.0001). Ristocetin AGG and collagen and thrombin REL were significantly reduced in Blacks (P<0.0001). One-third of specimens drawn following flavonoid-rich food exposures had aberrant results, compared to 8.5% of specimens without such exposures (P=0.0035). PRP tests had less intra-individual variation than WB tests. Gender, race, diet, and test system affected results of platelet function testing in healthy subjects, suggesting caution when interpreting the results of platelet function testing in patients. PMID:24617520

  15. CYP7A1 promoter polymorphism -203A>C affects bile salt synthesis rate in patients after ileal resection.

    PubMed

    Lenícek, Martin; Komárek, Viktor; Zimolová, Miluse; Kovár, Jan; Jirsa, Milan; Lukás, Milan; Vítek, Libor

    2008-12-01

    Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) plays a crucial role in cholesterol metabolism and has been implicated in genetic susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Thus, an understanding of its transcriptional regulation is of considerable importance. We evaluated the effect of a common -203A>C polymorphism in the CYP7A1 promoter region on the activity of CYP7A1, estimated as the ratios of serum 7alpha-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one (C4) to either total or non-HDL-cholesterol. The study was performed on patients after resection of the distal ileum, leading to upregulation of CYP7A1 activity (n = 65). Healthy volunteers served as the control group (n = 66). Whereas higher CYP7A1 activity was associated with the -203A allele in the patient group (C4/cholesterol ratio, 29.0 vs. 14.8 microg/mmol, P = 0.032; C4/non-HDL-cholesterol ratio, 53.3 vs. 21.3 microg/mmol in -203AA and -203CC, P = 0.017, respectively), no differences were observed in the healthy controls. We conclude that under physiological conditions, the -203A>C polymorphism in the CYP7A1 gene promoter region does not seem to have any clinically relevant effect. However, in patients with severe bile salt malabsorption, this polymorphism markedly affects CYP7A1 activity.

  16. Do 'Surgical Helmet Systems' or 'Body Exhaust Suits' Affect Contamination and Deep Infection Rates in Arthroplasty? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Zhu, Mark; Shirley, Otis C; Wu, Qing; Spangehl, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review examined whether negative-pressure Charnley-type body exhaust suits (BES) or modern positive-pressure surgical helmet systems (SHS) reduce deep infection rates and/or contamination in arthroplasty. For deep infection, four studies (3990 patients) gave adjusted relative risk for deep infection of 0.11 (P = 0.09) against SHS. Five of 7 (71%) studies found less air contamination and 2 of 4 studies (50%) less wound contamination with BES. One of 4 (25%) found less air contamination with SHS and 0 of 1 (0%) less wound contamination. In contrast to BES, modern SHS designs were not shown to reduce contamination or deep infection during arthroplasty.

  17. In vitro fermentation profiles, gas production rates, and microbiota modulation as affected by certain fructans, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose.

    PubMed

    Hernot, David C; Boileau, Thomas W; Bauer, Laura L; Middelbos, Ingmar S; Murphy, Michael R; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

    2009-02-25

    It is of interest to benefit from the positive intestinal health outcomes of prebiotic consumption but with minimal gas production. This study examined gas production potential, fermentation profile, and microbial modulation properties of several types of oligosaccharides. Substrates studied included short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain fructooligosaccharides, oligofructose-enriched inulin, galactooligosaccharide, and polydextrose. Each substrate was fermented in vitro using human fecal inoculum, and fermentation characteristics were quantified at 0, 4, 8, and 12 h. Gas and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production data showed that short-chain oligosaccharides were more rapidly fermented and produced more SCFA and gas than substrates with greater degrees of polymerization. Lactobacilli increased similarly among substrates. Short-chain oligosaccharides fermentation resulted in the greatest increase in bifidobacteria concentrations. Mixing short- and long-chain oligosaccharides attenuated short-chain oligosaccharide fermentation rate and extent. This study provides new information on the fermentation characteristics of some oligosaccharides used in human nutrition.

  18. Meta-analysis of intrinsic rates of increase and carrying capacity of populations affected by toxic and other stressors.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, A Jan; Maas-Diepeveen, Johanna L M; Heugens, Evelyn H W; Van Straalen, Nico M

    2005-09-01

    Most of the thousands of substances and species that are of concern for environmental management will not be investigated empirically at ecologically relevant levels because of financial, practical, and ethical constraints. To allow risk assessment for these less well-known categories, we have developed a mechanistic model with classical equations from toxicology and ecology. The parameters are linked to well-known properties, such as the octanol-water partition ratio K(ow), acute lethal (body) concentrations, and organism size. This allows estimation of intrinsic rates of increase r and carrying capacity K over a wide range of substances and species. The model was calibrated with parameter values (micro +/- 95% confidence interval) obtained in reviews and validated by a meta-analysis with largely independent data from 200 laboratory experiments. For single substances, the 5 to 95% interval of the observations on intrinsic rates of increase overlapped with the range predicted by the model. Model and experiments independently indicated that population growth ceased below 1% of the acute median lethal concentration in about 5% of the cases. Exceptional values and possible explanations were identified. The reduction of the carrying capacity K was nearly proportional to the inhibition of the population growth r. Population-level effects of mixtures as estimated by concentration addition were confirmed by observations in the experiments. The impact of a toxicant and another stressor could generally be described by response multiplication, with the exception of cases with extreme stress. Data sets on population laboratory experiments are biased to metals and crustaceans. This field will benefit from empirical studies on chemicals, conditions, and species, identified as risky by the model. Other implications of the model for environmental management and research are discussed.

  19. Passage number of porcine embryonic germ cells affects epigenetic status and blastocyst rate following somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Gao, Yu; Petkov, Stoyan; Purup, Stig; Hyttel, Poul; Callesen, Henrik

    2014-06-10

    Epigenetic instability of donor cells due to long-term in vitro culture may influence the success rate of subsequent somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Therefore, the present study was designed (1) to investigate the epigenetic changes after prolonged culture in vitro of porcine embryonic germ (EG) cells, including differences in expression levels of both DNA methylation and demethylation-related genes and catalyses of histone modifications, and (2) to assess the efficiency of SCNT using EG cells from different passages. Results showed that genes either associated with DNA demethylation including DNMTs and TET1 or genes related to histone acetylation including HDACs were highly expressed in EG cells at higher passages when compared to EG cells at lower passages. In addition, the expression level of H3K27me3 functional methylase EZH2 increased while no changes were observed on H3K27me3 demethylase JMJD3 in relation to passage number. Moreover, the expression levels of both the H3K4me3 methylase MLL1 and the H3K4me3 demethylase RBP2 were increased at high passages. By using lower passage (numbers 3-5) EG cells as donor cells, the SCNT efficiency was significantly lower compared with use of fetal fibroblast donor cells. However, similar blastocyst rates were achieved when using higher passage (numbers 9-12) EG cells as donor cells. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the epigenetic status of EG cells change with increasing passage numbers, and that higher passage number EG cells are better primed for SCNT.

  20. Single Molecule Microscopy Reveals an Increased Hyaluronan Diffusion Rate in Synovial Fluid from Knees Affected by Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhof, Hendrik; Gravius, Sascha; Kohl, Sandro; Ahmad, Sufian S.; Randau, Thomas; Schmolders, Jan; Rommelspacher, Yorck; Friedrich, Max; Kaminski, Tim P.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common and progressive joint disorder. Despite its widespread, in clinical practice only late phases of osteoarthritis that are characterized by severe joint damage are routinely detected. Since osteoarthritis cannot be cured but relatively well managed, an early diagnosis and thereby early onset of disease management would lower the burden of osteoarthritis. Here we evaluated if biophysical parameters of small synovial fluid samples extracted by single molecule microscopy can be linked to joint damage. In healthy synovial fluid (ICRS-score < 1) hyaluronan showed a slower diffusion (2.2 μm2/s, N = 5) than in samples from patients with joint damage (ICRS-score > 2) (4.5 μm2/s, N = 16). More strikingly, the diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan in healthy synovial fluid was on average 30% slower than expected by sample viscosity. This effect was diminished or missing in samples from patients with joint damage. Since single molecule microscopy needs only microliters of synovial fluid to extract the viscosity and the specific diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan this method could be of use as diagnostic tool for osteoarthritis. PMID:26868769

  1. Single Molecule Microscopy Reveals an Increased Hyaluronan Diffusion Rate in Synovial Fluid from Knees Affected by Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Kohlhof, Hendrik; Gravius, Sascha; Kohl, Sandro; Ahmad, Sufian S; Randau, Thomas; Schmolders, Jan; Rommelspacher, Yorck; Friedrich, Max; Kaminski, Tim P

    2016-02-12

    Osteoarthritis is a common and progressive joint disorder. Despite its widespread, in clinical practice only late phases of osteoarthritis that are characterized by severe joint damage are routinely detected. Since osteoarthritis cannot be cured but relatively well managed, an early diagnosis and thereby early onset of disease management would lower the burden of osteoarthritis. Here we evaluated if biophysical parameters of small synovial fluid samples extracted by single molecule microscopy can be linked to joint damage. In healthy synovial fluid (ICRS-score < 1) hyaluronan showed a slower diffusion (2.2 μm(2)/s, N = 5) than in samples from patients with joint damage (ICRS-score > 2) (4.5 μm(2)/s, N = 16). More strikingly, the diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan in healthy synovial fluid was on average 30% slower than expected by sample viscosity. This effect was diminished or missing in samples from patients with joint damage. Since single molecule microscopy needs only microliters of synovial fluid to extract the viscosity and the specific diffusion coefficient of hyaluronan this method could be of use as diagnostic tool for osteoarthritis.

  2. Static magnetic field influence on rat brain function detected by heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Veliks, Viktors; Ceihnere, Edīte; Svikis, Igors; Aivars, Juris

    2004-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of a static magnetic field (SMF) on rat brain structures that control autonomic functions, specifically heart rate and heart rhythmicity. The experiments were carried out on 44 male Wistar rats under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. SMF was induced using samarium-cobalt fused magnets (20 x 20 x 10 mm in size) placed bitemporally. Magnetic induction intensity was 100 mT on the surface of the head. Duration of magnetic field application was 15 min. An electrocardiogram was recorded from limb lead II, and both heart rate (average duration of cardiac cycles) and heart rhythmicity were analyzed before and after SMF application. SMF evoked changes in both heart rate and rhythm in 80% of the animals; the predominant effects were bradycardia and disappearance of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. However, the effectiveness of SMF in large measure depends on both functional peculiarities and functional activities of brain autonomic centers.

  3. Does the use of vaginal-imp