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Sample records for affects developing countries

  1. Community factors affecting rising caesarean section rates in developing countries: an analysis of six countries.

    PubMed

    Leone, Tiziana; Padmadas, Sabu S; Matthews, Zoë

    2008-10-01

    Caesarean section rates have risen dramatically in several developing countries, especially in Latin America and South Asia. This raises a range of concerns about the use of caesarean section for non-emergency cases, not least the progressive shift of resources to non-essential medical interventions in resource-poor settings and additional health risks to mothers and newborns following a caesarean section. There are only a few studies that have systematically examined the factors influencing the recent increase in caesarean rates. In particular, it is not clear whether high elective caesarean rates are driven by medical, institutional or individual and family decisions. Where a woman's decisions predominate her interaction with peers and significant others have an impact on her caesarean section choices. Using random intercept logistic regression analyses, this paper analyses the institutional, socio-economic and community factors that influence caesarean section in six countries: Bangladesh, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Morocco and Vietnam. The analyses, based on data from over 20,000 births, show that women of higher socio-economic background, who had better access to antenatal services are the most likely to undergo a caesarean section. Women who exchange reproductive health information with friends and family are less likely to experience a caesarean section than their counterparts. The study concludes that there is a need to pursue community-based approaches for curbing rising caesarean section rates in resource-poor settings.

  2. Hemovigilance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ayob, Yasmin

    2010-01-01

    Hemovigilance like quality systems and audits has become an integral part of the Blood Transfusion Service (BTS) in the developed world and has contributed greatly to the development of the blood service. However developing countries are still grappling with donor recruitment and efforts towards sufficiency and safety of the blood supply. In these countries the BTS is generally fragmented and a national hemovigilance program would be difficult to implement. However a few developing countries have an effective and sustainable blood program that can deliver equitable, safe and sufficient blood supply to the nation. Different models of hemovigilance program have been introduced with variable success. There are deficiencies but the data collected provided important information that can be presented to the health authorities for effective interventions. Hemovigilance program modeled from developed countries require expertise and resources that are not available in many developing countries. Whatever resources that are available should be utilized to correct deficiencies that are already apparent and obvious. Besides there are other tools that can be used to monitor the blood program in the developing countries depending on the need and the resources available. More importantly the data collected should be accurate and are used and taken into consideration in formulating guidelines, standards and policies and to affect appropriate interventions. Any surveillance program should be introduced in a stepwise manner as the blood transfusion service develops.

  3. Diagnostics for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  4. Diagnostics for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed. PMID:26854149

  5. How the Dollar's Value Affects U.S. Farm Exports to Developing Countries. Foreign Agricultural Economic Report Number 237.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burfisher, Mary E.

    United States exports may not necessarily increase when the dollar falls on the world market. Conventional thinking is that a weaker dollar means more demand for U.S. products because they become less expensive than goods from countries with stronger currencies. However, developing countries whose export revenues are denominated in the weakening…

  6. Prevention in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Black, R E

    1990-01-01

    Developing countries have implemented primary health care programs directed primarily at prevention and management of important infectious and nutritional problems of children. Successful programs have emphasized the need for individual and community involvement and have been characterized by responsible government policies for equitable implementation of efficacious and cost-effective health interventions. Unfortunately, developing countries must also face increases in the chronic disease and social problems commonly associated with industrialized countries. Prevention efforts, for example, to reduce tobacco smoking, to modify the diet, to reduce injuries, or to avert environmental contamination, are needed to contain future morbidity and rapidly increasing medical care costs. Developing countries can build on their successful approaches to program implementation and add other measures directed at preservation of health and prevention of disease in adult as well as child populations.

  7. Telemedicine and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wright, D; Androuchko, L

    1996-01-01

    A committee was established by the International Telecommunication Union in 1994 to study telemedicine, with particular reference to developing countries. A questionnaire was used to gather data. Fifty-eight responses were received, two-thirds from developing countries. In most developing countries the user did not pay for the telemedicine service, at least not directly. There were few instances of a commercial telemedicine service, and in most countries the telemedicine service was subsidized by the government or another party. The telemedicine 'value chain' describes how equipment suppliers, telecommunications operators and health-care professionals deliver their products or services to the client, who is eventually the ultimate user. Quite different configurations are conceivable, and an analysis of what could be a sustainable, cost-effective value chain in developing countries is required. It is clear that the rapidly growing interest in telemedicine challenges the leaders of the medical establishment to rethink the ways they provide their services and to address the medical needs of areas where such services are absent or in short supply.

  8. Hypertension in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M Mohsen; Damasceno, Albertino

    2012-08-11

    Data from different national and regional surveys show that hypertension is common in developing countries, particularly in urban areas, and that rates of awareness, treatment, and control are low. Several hypertension risk factors seem to be more common in developing countries than in developed regions. Findings from serial surveys show an increasing prevalence of hypertension in developing countries, possibly caused by urbanisation, ageing of population, changes to dietary habits, and social stress. High illiteracy rates, poor access to health facilities, bad dietary habits, poverty, and high costs of drugs contribute to poor blood pressure control. The health system in many developing countries is inadequate because of low funds, poor infrastructure, and inexperience. Priority is given to acute disorders, child and maternal health care, and control of communicable diseases. Governments, together with medical societies and non-governmental organisations, should support and promote preventive programmes aiming to increase public awareness, educate physicians, and reduce salt intake. Regulations for the food industry and the production and availability of generic drugs should be reinforced. PMID:22883510

  9. Developed-developing country partnerships: Benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today’s global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed—this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  10. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-06-18

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  11. Developed-developing country partnerships: benefits to developed countries?

    PubMed

    Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Dadwal, Viva; Rutter, Paul; Storr, Julie; Hightower, Joyce D; Gooden, Rachel; Carlet, Jean; Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Kelley, Edward T; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Developing countries can generate effective solutions for today's global health challenges. This paper reviews relevant literature to construct the case for international cooperation, and in particular, developed-developing country partnerships. Standard database and web-based searches were conducted for publications in English between 1990 and 2010. Studies containing full or partial data relating to international cooperation between developed and developing countries were retained for further analysis. Of 227 articles retained through initial screening, 65 were included in the final analysis. The results were two-fold: some articles pointed to intangible benefits accrued by developed country partners, but the majority of information pointed to developing country innovations that can potentially inform health systems in developed countries. This information spanned all six WHO health system components. Ten key health areas where developed countries have the most to learn from the developing world were identified and include, rural health service delivery; skills substitution; decentralisation of management; creative problem-solving; education in communicable disease control; innovation in mobile phone use; low technology simulation training; local product manufacture; health financing; and social entrepreneurship. While there are no guarantees that innovations from developing country experiences can effectively transfer to developed countries, combined developed-developing country learning processes can potentially generate effective solutions for global health systems. However, the global pool of knowledge in this area is virgin and further work needs to be undertaken to advance understanding of health innovation diffusion. Even more urgently, a standardized method for reporting partnership benefits is needed--this is perhaps the single most immediate need in planning for, and realizing, the full potential of international cooperation between developed and

  12. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits. PMID:26247291

  13. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  14. Sarcoidosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jindal, S K; Gupta, D; Aggarwal, A N

    2000-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is seen in different parts of India and other developing countries with almost similar frequency as in the West. It was largely due to lack of awareness and non-availability of investigations for diagnosis that the disease was reported to be rare in the past. A combination of clinical, radiologic, and histologic criteria are used to diagnose sarcoidosis. A confident exclusion of other causes of granuloma formation, especially tuberculosis, is required. Absence of mycobacteria and of caseation in the histologic specimens and presence of skin anergy to tuberculin help make a diagnosis. Transbronchial lung biopsy obtained with the help of fiberoptic bronchoscopy is positive in about 80% of patients. Corticosteroids are used to treat patients with symptoms and those showing active organ involvement. Aggressive treatment is required for patients with acute and severe pulmonary, cardiac, ocular, or neurologic involvements.

  15. "Electric Power for Rural Growth: How Electricity Affects Rural Life in Developing Countries," by Douglas F. Barnes. [Book Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lodwick, Dora G.; McIntosh, William A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a book assessing the effects of central grid rural electrification on the social and economic development of 192 communities in India and Colombia. The study examines the impact on agricultural productivity (through increased irrigation), the quality of life of women and children, business activities, and regional inequities. (SV)

  16. Curbing pollution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Eskeland, G S; Jimenez, E

    1991-03-01

    Existing policies to control pollution are inadequate especially those in developing countries. National economic policies do not consider environmental effects. For example, some governments subsidize fossil fuels, water, pesticides, and fertilizers. Those governments in the process of restructuring pollution control policies must seek ways to reduce their conceivable side effects on economic growth, revenue raising, and equity. They need to consider key administrative, technological, and institutional drawbacks and depend on numerous fiscal means to complement more traditional pollution control mechanism. They must intervene to prevent or reduce pollution since markets do not consider the interests of those affected by pollution. They can do so by imposing regulations on polluters, taxing emissions, limiting the amount of pollution, subsidizing cleaner options, and/or assigning and enforcing property rights. Pollution and environmental quality standards im most developing countries parallel those in the US and in Europe, but these standards are not effective because monitoring, enforcement, and regulatory capacities are inclined to be weak. In the early phases of pollution control, governments should tax fixed inputs (e.g., fuels) based on the level of expected emissions. These taxes would advance public budgets. For transnational pollution problems, affected nations should negotiate together and consider international transfers to support environmental solutions. When developing policy, governments must consider the competitive behavior of the marketplace and how people and companies will react to policy tools. These prudent considerations will define the likelihood of reducing costs and strengthen the efficiency of intervention thus determining the ability to afford environmental protection.

  17. Reaching Out to Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Stirling

    1984-01-01

    Some Canadian teachers play a special role in developing the teaching profession internationally. They participate in helping teachers in developing countries and promoting understanding worldwide. (MD)

  18. Reproductive technologies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Macklin, Ruth B

    1995-07-01

    Are there any ethical concerns about reproductive technologies that are specific or unique to developing countries? Three ethical concerns often mentioned specifically in regard to developing countries are (1), the "overpopulation argument"; (2) the limited resources argument; and (3) the ethical problem of poorly trained practitioners offering their services to unsuspecting and uninformed infertile individuals or couples. Each argument is explored in some detail, with the conclusion that ethical problems do, in fact, exist but are not unique to developing countries. Nevertheless, the difficulties relating to reproductive technologies are likely to be greater in developing countries than in developed ones because of limited resources and a larger number of poor people residing there.

  19. Who Is Worst Off? Developing a Severity-scoring Model of Complex Emergency Affected Countries in Order to Ensure Needs Based Funding

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Anneli; Ohlsén, Ylva Kristina; Garfield, Richard; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Disasters affect close to 400 million people each year. Complex Emergencies (CE) are a category of disaster that affects nearly half of the 400 million and often last for several years. To support the people affected by CE, humanitarian assistance is provided with the aim of saving lives and alleviating suffering. It is widely agreed that funding for this assistance should be needs-based. However, to date, there is no model or set of indicators that quantify and compare needs from one CE to another. In an effort to support needs-based and transparent funding of humanitarian assistance, the aim of this study is to develop a model that distinguishes between levels of severity among countries affected by CE. Methods: In this study, severity serves as a predictor for level of need. The study focuses on two components of severity: vulnerability and exposure. In a literature and Internet search we identified indicators that characterize vulnerability and exposure to CE. Among the more than 100 indicators identified, a core set of six was selected in an expert ratings exercise. Selection was made based on indicator availability and their ability to characterize preexisting or underlying vulnerabilities (four indicators) or to quantify exposure to a CE (two indicators). CE from 50 countries were then scored using a 3-tiered score (Low-Moderate, High, Critical).  Results: The developed model builds on the logic of the Utstein template. It scores severity based on the readily available value of four vulnerability and four exposure indicators. These are 1) GNI per capita, PPP, 2) Under-five mortality rate, per 1 000 live births, 3) Adult literacy rate, % of people ages 15 and above, 4) Underweight, % of population under 5 years, and 5) number of persons and proportion of population affected, and 6) number of uprooted persons and proportion of population uprooted. Conclusion: The model can be used to derive support for transparent, needs-based funding of

  20. Agricultural biotechnology in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dookun, A

    2001-01-01

    After a slow start many developing countries are now investing in agricultural biotechnology. Although these countries face several constraints, efforts are being made to promote biotechnology that requires high investment with long term returns. A number of donor agencies are providing incentives to stimulate biotechnology in the developing countries. There is however a major debate towards the development of biotechnology, especially genetically modified organisms, in the developing countries and there is a need for them to address biosafety issues and proper monitoring systems. The concern of intellectual property rights is a major issue in the developing countries in order to have access to the technologies that are often owned by multinational corporations in the industrialized countries.

  1. Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159500.html Abortion Rates Rising in Zika-Affected Countries, Study Shows ... from mosquito-borne Zika may be driving up abortion rates in Latin American countries affected by the ...

  2. Exporting hazards to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Menkes, D B

    1998-01-01

    The health of people in developing countries is threatened by the importation of hazardous products, wastes and industrial processes from the developed world. Combating this menace is a facet of environmental protection and management of the planet's resources. PMID:10050169

  3. Environmental toxicants in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E

    1996-05-01

    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations. PMID:8781389

  4. Community Development in Developed Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Richard; And Others

    Part of a report of seminar proceedings, six papers on community development in developed nations review the conceptual dimensions, issues, and directions of community development in the United States; pilot programs of social research, training, and consultation in rural Saskatchewan; the community development efforts of the University of New…

  5. Breast health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Taib, N A

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources.

  6. Mortality patterns in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Manton, K G

    1984-01-01

    The implications of recent demographic trends in developed countries are considered. The emphasis is on the increase in life expectancy, and particularly in the rate of growth of the numbers of the very old (those aged 85 and over). "To evaluate the impact of recent mortality reductions on the social security and health service systems of developed countries [the author analyzes] the mortality conditions of 11 developed countries over the period 1950 to 1978." The countries concerned are the United States, Canada, Japan, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, and France. "The results of [the] analyses show that major increases in life expectancy have occurred at advanced ages for females and that the cross-country differences in the cause of death structure indicate that advances were achieved through a variety of mechanisms. Thus, it appears that no single uniform model of biological aging will currently explain cause specific mortality trends in countries with historically high life expectancies. This implies that further mortality reductions are possible in these countries by achieving cause specific mortality reductions observed to have occurred in another country." This is a revised version of a paper originally presented at the 1983 Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America (see Population Index, Vol. 49, No. 3, Fall 1983, p. 413). PMID:12340261

  7. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  8. Environmental problems and developing countries.

    PubMed

    1992-06-01

    The status of environmental conditions for forests, soils, water, air, and atmospheric changes is presented for developing countries. Loss and degradation of forests continue. The rate of cutting of moist tropical forests is 17-20 million hectares/year. The consequences would be eventual total destruction within several generations, lost soil and watershed protection, local climate change, and habitat destruction. The human toll can also be great as seen by the flooding deaths of 5000 Philippine villagers. Soil erosion is a greater danger than desertification. In sub-Saharan Africa, total harvest and yields of important food crops have declined compared to increases elsewhere in the world. In countries such as Costa Rica, Malawi, Mali, and Mexico the soil losses approximate .5-1.5% of gross domestic product annually. Progress has been made in water purification, but there are still nearly 1 million people in the developing world without access to clean water for drinking and bathing. 1.7 billion have inadequate sanitation. Access to sanitation in urban areas is on the rise. Waterborne diseases are a result of poor sanitation: 900 million cases of diarrheal disease/year, 500 million with trachoma, 200 million with schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, and 900 million from hookworm. Other diseases resulting from improper sanitation are cholera, typhoid, and paratyphoid. Water scarcity is another problem. Air quality is threatened by dust and smoke pollution which contribute to respiratory illnesses, by indoor burning of wood and charcoal particularly in rural Africa and south Asia, and high levels of lead from automobile emissions. Hundreds of thousands of people are affected through increased illness and even loss of mental functioning as in the case of lead poisoning. Atmospheric changes such as ozone depletion or global warming may not show their impact until decades later. The consequences are high levels of ultraviolet radiation which cause cancers, cataracts, and

  9. Physics Teaching in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Islam, A K M A

    1977-01-01

    Outlines the first South-East Asian conference on university physics education held in Penang, Malaysia, May 16-21, 1977, to identify, analyze, and compare physics curricula and to improve physics education in developing countries. (SL)

  10. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  11. Physics teaching in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talisayon, V. M.

    1984-05-01

    The need for endogeneous learning materials that will relate physics to the student's culture and environment spurred countries like India, Thailand, The Philippines and Indonesia to develop their own physics curriculum materials and laboratory equipment. Meagre resources and widespread poverty necessitated the development of laboratory materials from everyday items, recycled materials and other low-cost or no-cost local materials. The process of developing learning materials for one's teaching-learning needs in physics and the search from within for solutions to one's problems contribute in no small measure to the development of self-reliance in physics teaching of a developing country. Major concerns of developing countries are food supply, livelihood, health, nutrition and growth of economy. At the level of the student and his family, food, health, and livelihood are also primary concerns. Many physics teaching problems can be overcome on a large scale, given political support and national will. In countries where national leadership recognises that science and technology developed is essential to national development and that science education in turn is crucial to science and technology development, scarce resources can be allocated to science education. In developing countries where science education receives little or no political support, the most important resource in the physics classroom is the physics teacher. A highly motivated and adequately trained teacher can rise above the constraining circumstances of paucity of material resources and government apathy. In developing countries the need is great for self-reliance in physics teaching at the country level, and more importantly at the teacher level.

  12. Breast health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Yip, C H; Taib, N A

    2014-12-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancers world-wide. While the incidence in developing countries is lower than in developed countries, the mortality is much higher. Of the estimated 1 600 000 new cases of breast cancer globally in 2012, 794 000 were in the more developed world compared to 883 000 in the less developed world; however, there were 198 000 deaths in the more developed world compared to 324 000 in the less developed world (data from Globocan 2012, IARC). Survival from breast cancer depends on two main factors--early detection and optimal treatment. In developing countries, women present with late stages of disease. The barriers to early detection are physical, such as geographical isolation, financial as well as psychosocial, including lack of education, belief in traditional medicine and lack of autonomous decision-making in the male-dominated societies that prevail in the developing world. There are virtually no population-based breast cancer screening programs in developing countries. However, before any screening program can be implemented, there must be facilities to treat the cancers that are detected. Inadequate access to optimal treatment of breast cancer remains a problem. Lack of specialist manpower, facilities and anticancer drugs contribute to the suboptimal care that a woman with breast cancer in a low-income country receives. International groups such as the Breast Health Global Initiative were set up to develop economically feasible, clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer management to improve breast health outcomes in countries with limited resources. PMID:25131779

  13. Maintenance dialysis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Aditi; Bagga, Arvind

    2015-02-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease require renal replacement therapy with maintenance hemodialysis or chronic peritoneal dialysis while awaiting transplantation. In addition to economic issues and limited state funding for advanced health care, the lack of trained medical personnel contributes to scarce dialysis facilities for children in developing countries. The establishment and operation of a hemodialysis unit with multidisciplinary facilities is both cost- and labor-intensive. Hemodialysis is usually carried out three times a week in a hospital setting and affects the curricular and extracurricular activities of the patient. Chronic ambulatory or cyclic peritoneal dialysis is technically simpler and allows better nutrition and growth, but is expensive for the majority of patients who must pay out of their own pocket. Multiple initiatives to enhance the training of pediatricians and nurses in skills related to initiating and managing patients on maintenance dialysis have resulted in the improved survival of children with end-stage renal disease. Support from state governments and philanthropic institutions have helped in establishing pediatric nephrology units that are equipped to provide renal replacement therapy for children. PMID:24469439

  14. Clean development mechanism: Perspectives from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sari, Agus P.; Meyers, Stephen

    1999-06-01

    This paper addresses the political acceptability and workability of CDM by and in developing countries. At COP-3 in Kyoto in 1997, the general position among developing countries changed from strong rejection of joint implementation to acceptance of CDM. The outgrowth of CDM from a proposal from Brazil to establish a Clean Development Fund gave developing countries a sense of ownership of the idea. More importantly, establishing support for sustainable development as a main goal for CDM overcame the resistance of many developing countries to accept a carbon trading mechanism. The official acceptance of CDM is not a guarantee of continued acceptance, however. Many developing countries expect CDM to facilitate a substantial transfer of technology and other resources to support economic growth. There is concern that Annex I countries may shift official development assistance into CDM in order to gain carbon credits, and that development priorities could suffer as a result. Some fear that private investments could be skewed toward projects that yield carbon credits. Developing country governments are wary regarding the strong role of the private sector envisioned for CDM. Increasing the awareness and capacity of the private sector in developing countries to initiate and implement CDM projects needs to be a high priority. While private sector partnerships will be the main vehicle for resource transfer in CDM, developing country governments want to play a strong role in overseeing and guiding the process so that it best serves their development goals. Most countries feel that establishment of criteria for sustainable development should be left to individual countries. A key issue is how CDM can best support the strengthening of local capacity to sustain and replicate projects that serve both climate change mitigation and sustainable development objectives.There is support among developing countries for commencing CDM as soon as possible. Since official commencement must

  15. Soalr cooking in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, L.

    1994-11-01

    Solar cooking must overcome a number of obstacles to realize its potential to improve the lives of women in developing countries. Unlike historical interest in solar cooking, current interest derives from vital environmental and human needs. Deforestation and reliance on wood for cooking lead to many hardships, especially for women, and women in developing countries need access to technology and funding. If the woman builds the oven herself, it notonly makes her more willing to use it but the process empower her with new knowledge and kills. The physical design of the oven must be adapted to local conditions and materials for the oven should be inexpensive and locally available.

  16. Energy planning in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides discussion of analytical methods for energy-sector planning in developing countries. The author addresses such topics as energy balances, the Reference Energy System (RES), approaches to demand forecasting, project evaluation (including capital budgeting), techniques for dealing with uncertainty, financial accounting as applied to the typical parastatal electric utility of a developing country, techniques for pricing studies, scenario analysis, and approaches to the evaluation of macroeconomic impacts of energy-sector decisions. Extensive use is made of case-study material, including examples from Haiti, Tunisia, the Sudan, Jordan, Mauritius, Thailand, Sri Lanka, and Liberia.

  17. Peritoneal dialysis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nayak, K S; Prabhu, M V; Sinoj, K A; Subhramanyam, S V; Sridhar, G

    2009-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is acknowledged worldwide as a well-accepted form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ideally, PD should be the preferred modality of RRT for ESRD in developing countries due to its many inherent advantages. Some of these are cost savings (especially if PD fluids are manufactured locally or in a neighboring country), superior rehabilitation and quality of life (QOL), home-based therapy even in rural settings, avoidance of hospital based treatment and the need for expensive machinery, and freedom from serious infections (hepatitis B and C). However, this is not the ground reality, due to certain preconceived notions of the health care givers and governmental agencies in these countries. With an inexplicable stagnation or decline of PD numbers in the developed world, the future of PD will depend on its popularization in Latin America and in Asia especially countries such as China and India, with a combined population of 2.5 billion and the two fastest growing economies worldwide. A holistic approach to tackle the issues in the developing countries, which may vary from region to region, is critical in popularizing PD and establishing PD as the first-choice RRT for ESRD. At our center, we have been pursuing a 'PD first' policy and promoting PD as the therapy of choice for various situations in the management of renal failure. We use certain novel strategies, which we hope can help PD centers in other developing countries working under similar constraints. The success of a PD program depends on a multitude of factors that are interlinked and inseparable. Each program needs to identify its strengths, special circumstances, and deficiencies, and then to strategize accordingly. Ultimately, teamwork is the 'mantra' for a successful outcome, the patient being central to all endeavors. A belief and a passion for PD are the fountainhead and cornerstone on which to build a quality PD program.

  18. Peritoneal dialysis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nayak, K S; Prabhu, M V; Sinoj, K A; Subhramanyam, S V; Sridhar, G

    2009-01-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is acknowledged worldwide as a well-accepted form of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Ideally, PD should be the preferred modality of RRT for ESRD in developing countries due to its many inherent advantages. Some of these are cost savings (especially if PD fluids are manufactured locally or in a neighboring country), superior rehabilitation and quality of life (QOL), home-based therapy even in rural settings, avoidance of hospital based treatment and the need for expensive machinery, and freedom from serious infections (hepatitis B and C). However, this is not the ground reality, due to certain preconceived notions of the health care givers and governmental agencies in these countries. With an inexplicable stagnation or decline of PD numbers in the developed world, the future of PD will depend on its popularization in Latin America and in Asia especially countries such as China and India, with a combined population of 2.5 billion and the two fastest growing economies worldwide. A holistic approach to tackle the issues in the developing countries, which may vary from region to region, is critical in popularizing PD and establishing PD as the first-choice RRT for ESRD. At our center, we have been pursuing a 'PD first' policy and promoting PD as the therapy of choice for various situations in the management of renal failure. We use certain novel strategies, which we hope can help PD centers in other developing countries working under similar constraints. The success of a PD program depends on a multitude of factors that are interlinked and inseparable. Each program needs to identify its strengths, special circumstances, and deficiencies, and then to strategize accordingly. Ultimately, teamwork is the 'mantra' for a successful outcome, the patient being central to all endeavors. A belief and a passion for PD are the fountainhead and cornerstone on which to build a quality PD program. PMID:19494625

  19. Immunisation practice in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Hinman, A R; Orenstein, W A

    1990-03-24

    Immunization practice in 32 countries in Europe, North America, Japan, and Australia is reviewed. in most countries, immunization practices are set by the federal government which sometimes works with the private sector. Almost all countries routinely immunize against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, and measles. About half try to prevent rubella, several try to prevent mumps, usually in combination with measles and rubella (MMR). More than half use bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BGG) vaccine to prevent tuberculosis, and a few give Hemophilus Influenza type B polysaccharide. Poliomyelitis vaccine comes in 2 forms: 1) oral live attenuated (OPV) or injectable inactivated (IPV). OPV is more used, but there is a new "enhanced potency IPV." All countries except Japan give DPT in 3 doses during the 1st year of life. OPV is usually given at the same time that DPT is. Measles vaccine or MMR is usually given between 12 and 18 months of age. Primary vaccine failure occurs in 2-5% of people who get measles vaccine, but this may be enough to "sustain transmission." In most countries, the government provides for immunizing children. An exception in the US. In the UK, low coverage has taken place because of concern for adverse reactions (whooping cough) or lack of appreciation of the disease's impact (measles). Coverage against both measles and pertussis has improved in the UK lately. In each developed country, vaccines have had "spectacular" effects. However, there are too many contraindications and there is "undue fear of adverse events." Also, there are surveillance deficiencies, a lack of coordination, and countries vary in their commitment to "reduction/elimination targets." Varicella vaccine, respiratory syncytial virus vaccine, and rotavirus vaccine are being considered for universal use. Attempts are being made to improve the safety of some vaccine.

  20. Occupational cancer in developed countries.

    PubMed

    Blair, Aaron; Marrett, Loraine; Beane Freeman, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Studies of occupational exposures have made major contributions to our understanding of human carcinogenesis. About one third of the factors identified as definite or probable human carcinogens were first investigated in the workplace and these exposures exact a considerable toll on working populations. There are many additional workplace exposures that are suspect carcinogens that require further evaluation to ensure a safe work environment. Information from occupational investigations is also relevant to the general population because many occupational exposures can be found outside the workplace. Much of our understanding about occupational cancer has been obtained from studies largely composed of white men in developed countries. The movement of industry from developed to developing countries underscores the need for future investigations to include more diverse populations. PMID:21489219

  1. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  2. Invasive aspergillosis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Chatterjee, Shiv Sekhar; Das, Ashim; Shivaprakash, M R

    2011-04-01

    To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA

  3. Geothermal development opportunities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1989-11-16

    This report is the proceedings of the Seminar on geothermal development opportunities in developing countries, sponsored by the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy and presented by the National Geothermal Association. The overall objectives of the seminar are: (1) Provide sufficient information to the attendees to encourage their interest in undertaking more geothermal projects within selected developing countries, and (2) Demonstrate the technological leadership of US technology and the depth of US industry experience and capabilities to best perform on these projects.

  4. Pesticide use in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ecobichon, D J

    2001-03-01

    Chemical pesticides have been a boon to equatorial, developing nations in their efforts to eradicate insect-borne, endemic diseases, to produce adequate food and to protect forests, plantations and fibre (wood, cotton, clothing, etc.). Controversy exists over the global dependence on such agents, given their excessive use/misuse, their volatility, long-distance transport and eventual environmental contamination in colder climates. Many developing countries are in transitional phases with migration of the agricultural workforce to urban centres in search of better-paying jobs, leaving fewer people responsible for raising traditional foods for themselves and for the new, industrialized workforce. Capable of growing two or three crops per year, these same countries are becoming "breadbaskets" for the world, exporting nontraditional agricultural produce to regions having colder climates and shorter growing seasons, thereby earning much needed international trade credits. To attain these goals, there has been increased reliance on chemical pesticides. Many older, nonpatented, more toxic, environmentally persistent and inexpensive chemicals are used extensively in developing nations, creating serious acute health problems and local and global environmental contamination. There is growing public concern in these countries that no one is aware of the extent of pesticide residue contamination on local, fresh produce purchased daily or of potential, long-term, adverse health effects on consumers. Few developing nations have a clearly expressed "philosophy" concerning pesticides. There is a lack of rigorous legislation and regulations to control pesticides as well as training programs for personnel to inspect and monitor use and to initiate training programs for pesticide consumers.

  5. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization. PMID:15770290

  6. Health, globalization and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cilingiroglu, Nesrin

    2005-02-01

    In health care today, scientific and technological frontiers are expanding at unprecedented rates, even as economic and financial pressures shrink profit margins, intensify competition, and constrain the funds available for investment. Therefore, the world today has more economic, and social opportunities for people than 10 or 100 years since globalization has created a new ground somewhat characterized by rapid economic transformation, deregulation of national markets by new trade regimes, amazing transport, electronic communication possibilities and high turnover of foreign investment and capital flow as well as skilled labor. These trends can easily mask great inequalities in developing countries such as importation and spreading of infectious and non-communicable diseases; miniaturization of movement of medical technology; health sector trades management driven by economics without consideration to the social and health aspects and its effects, increasing health inequalities and their economic and social burden creation; multinational companies' cheap labor employment promotion in widening income differentials; and others. As a matter of fact, all these factors are major determinants of ill health. Health authorities of developing countries have to strengthen their regulatory framework in order to ensure that national health systems derive maximum benefit in terms of equity, quality and efficiency, while reducing potential social cost to a minimum generated risky side of globalization.

  7. [The drug trade between European countries and developing countries].

    PubMed

    Bruneton, C; Naboulet, P; van der Heide, B; Rey, J L

    1997-01-01

    The quality of medicinal products marketed in developing countries has recently become the focus of lively debate and new interest. This report describes a survey conducted among officials from exporting and importing countries designed to evaluate the content and enforcement of current regulations. Resulting data indicated that, despite the high volume of trading in medicinal products between European and developing countries, regulations are poorly applied and many infractions occur. The most obvious abnormalities involve definition of market status. A list of banned is issued by the WHO but not by the European Economic Community. Regulations regarding generic products differ from one country to another and, since determination of the exact origin of a product may be difficult, compliance with good manufacturing practices is often unverifiable. A more cooperative attitude on the part of exporting countries and standardization of formalities on the part of importing countries will be necessary to stem the growing tendency to consider medicinal products as ordinary goods. PMID:9612781

  8. Essays on Child Development in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humpage, Sarah Davidson

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents the results of three field experiments implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies to improve the health or education of children in developing countries. In Guatemala, community health workers at randomly selected clinics were given patient tracking lists to improve their ability to remind parents when their…

  9. Child nutrition in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Charlotte G; Gewa, Constance; Bwibo, Nimrod O

    2004-10-01

    Malnutrition permeates all aspects of health, growth, cognition, motor and social development of young children in developing countries. More than 50% of deaths in these children can be attributed to malnutrition, most often in conjunction with serious infection. Irreversible and lifelong sequelae prevent children from reaching their full potential. Child survival initiatives and programs have accomplished much to save the lives of children from common and preventable illnesses, but the quality of the survivors' health needs to be improved, with much more attention paid to nutrition of the preschool and school child. Promotion of nutritional health must become an integral part of primary health services, especially for infants, preschoolers, schoolchildren, and women. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and appropriate complementary feeding and weaning are essential inputs. A daunting challenge is to improve diet quality through the raising and consumption of small animals by rural subsistence households to enhance maternal and child nutrition. School feeding from preschool onward must be an integral part of education so children are in a condition to learn. An excellent example of such programs is the WHO initiated Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, which integrates nutrition into the care of both sick and well children. The Early Child Development Program initiated by the World Bank and UNICEF has taken hold in many countries. Nutrition outcomes are closely linked with health and education activities starting in the preconception period through pregnancy, lactation, and childhood. Investment in human capital early in life will optimize the growth and social and economic development of children, families, and communities.

  10. Infectious diarrhea in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; McDonald, Jay R; Thielman, Nathan M

    2005-10-01

    Diarrhea from gastrointestinal infection remains a common problem. In industrialized countries, management is aimed at reducing morbidity and defining groups that may benefit from further investigation. Most infectious diarrhea is self-limiting and only requires supportive management. Viral agents are increasingly recognized as causative agents of epidemic and sporadic diarrhea. In developing countries, diarrhea is a major cause of mortality in children. Oral rehydration therapy, guided by a clinical assessment of the degree of dehydration, is cheap, simple, and effective and remains the mainstay of management of infant diarrhea. Controversies focus on the optimal formulation of oral rehydration solution. A vaccine against rotavirus has the potential to save millions of lives worldwide.

  11. Consequences of infertility in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rouchou, Brittany

    2013-05-01

    Infertility affects more than 10% of the world's population. In developing countries, there are severe social, psychological and economic consequences for infertile men and women. All of the cited references are compiled from primary peer-reviewed research articles that were conducted through one-to-one interviews or focus groups in countries of developing regions, such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The following paper seeks to raise awareness of the consequences of infertility in developing nations and identify infertility as an under-observed, but significant public health issue. It is proposed that education programmes tailored to each society's specific religious beliefs and grounded traditions must be implemented in order to reverse the social stigma, detrimental psychological effects, and loss of economic security that results from infertility.

  12. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental laws define the scarcity of environmental resources as they affect the factor endowment of a country and therefore its position in the international division of labour. There is now also a general agreement that applying the "polluter pays" principle should solve environmental problems. As the burden of abatement increases, as measured by the ratio of abatement expenditure to sales, there is definitely an incentive for firms to either invest in cleaner technology or more efficient abatement technology. There is also evidence that taxes and charges, designed to internalise externalities, can actually affect trade. It is interesting to know if the developing countries face particular market access problems in the face of stringent environmental standards and regulations. While it is true that stringent measures impose market access restrictions and cause limitations on competitiveness, this is much more widely felt by the developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and monitoring facilities, limited technology choices, inadequate access to environment-friendly raw materials, lack of complete information, presence of small-scale exporters and emergence of environmental standards in sectors of export interest to developing countries. The small and medium enterprises often divert sales either to the domestic market or to external markets where environmental requirements are less stringent, in order to save on their costs. In developing countries, 80% of the tanning industry is comprised of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) processing raw to semi-finished leather, usually less than 2 tons per day. In Europe and other developed countries the SMEs in the leather sector have vanished due to strict environmental legislation and this will likely occur in developing countries also. The environmental legislation has not always been practical, either because the laws are too ambitious or unrealistic in certain parameters, or because they have lacked

  13. Issues of environmental compliance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Rajamani, S

    2003-01-01

    Environmental laws define the scarcity of environmental resources as they affect the factor endowment of a country and therefore its position in the international division of labour. There is now also a general agreement that applying the "polluter pays" principle should solve environmental problems. As the burden of abatement increases, as measured by the ratio of abatement expenditure to sales, there is definitely an incentive for firms to either invest in cleaner technology or more efficient abatement technology. There is also evidence that taxes and charges, designed to internalise externalities, can actually affect trade. It is interesting to know if the developing countries face particular market access problems in the face of stringent environmental standards and regulations. While it is true that stringent measures impose market access restrictions and cause limitations on competitiveness, this is much more widely felt by the developing countries because of lack of infrastructure and monitoring facilities, limited technology choices, inadequate access to environment-friendly raw materials, lack of complete information, presence of small-scale exporters and emergence of environmental standards in sectors of export interest to developing countries. The small and medium enterprises often divert sales either to the domestic market or to external markets where environmental requirements are less stringent, in order to save on their costs. In developing countries, 80% of the tanning industry is comprised of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) processing raw to semi-finished leather, usually less than 2 tons per day. In Europe and other developed countries the SMEs in the leather sector have vanished due to strict environmental legislation and this will likely occur in developing countries also. The environmental legislation has not always been practical, either because the laws are too ambitious or unrealistic in certain parameters, or because they have lacked

  14. Food science in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brown, N L; Pariser, E R

    1975-05-01

    suck salt-rich earth to avoid salt depletion symptoms after arduous exertion in tropical heat long before "modern science" learned why (20). The enumeration of examples could go on, but this was not meant to be an essay in folklore. The point is that all so-called primitive societies developed technologies, techniques, and a store of practical knowledge of a wide range of sophistication, by what must be admitted to be the scientific method, and neither their accomplishments and skills nor those of societies "en voie de développement" should be ignored or discounted. We are confident that modern food science and technology has much to contribute to helping the food-deficit nations eat adequately. First, we must find a way of using the best of Western technology without losing sight of the reality of the situation in the third world and without failing to take into account, better than we have done so far, the secondary and tertiary implications of the changes suggested. Second, we must encourage the examination of local problems in terms of the use and improvement of local technologies which are often quite sophisticated and the result of centuries of development. And third, we must inject a greater component of cultural awareness in the education of students to make them more creative in their application of scientific knowledge to local problems and more adaptable to the conditions that exist in developing countries. We should not lose sight of the fact that because of the precarious nature of their food supply, very often developing countries have much more rigid rules governing the production, preparation, and consumption of food than usually is the case in food-surplus societies, and disturbing these rules is a very serious matter. The time is past when "West is best" can be taken for granted; "adapt and adopt" is surely less offensively arrogant and much more to the point.

  15. Neurocysticercosis and epilepsy in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Pal, D.; Carpio, A.; Sander, J.

    2000-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a disease of poverty and underdevelopment. Little is known about the natural history of the infection in humans, but some of the mechanisms whereby the parasite remains silent and evades the host immune response are understood. Symptomatic neurocysticercosis usually results from host inflammatory response after parasite death, and the clinical manifestations can be diverse. There is no evidence that cysticidal treatment does more good than harm in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment. Population control measures involving immunisation or mass treatment have not shown long term effectiveness.
Epilepsy, similarly to neurocysticercosis, is a largely unrecognised but increasing burden on the welfare and economies of developing countries. The technology of drug treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation is well known but requires widespread and effective dissemination at low cost. There is little epidemiological data on risk factors for epilepsy in developing countries on which to base prevention strategies. The public health prioritisation of chronic disorders such as epilepsy remains a challenge for policy and practice in developing countries.
For both neurocysticercosis and epilepsy, there is a dilemma about whether limited public resources would better be spent on general economic development, which would be expected to have a broad impact on the health and welfare of communities, or on specific programmes to help individual affected people with neurocysticercosis and epilepsy. Either approach requires detailed economic evaluation.

 PMID:10644776

  16. Con: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Walker, Isabeau A

    2009-01-01

    Medical migration is damaging health systems in developing countries and anesthesia delivery is critically affected, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. 'Within country' postgraduate anesthesia training needs to be supported to encourage more doctors into the specialty. Open-ended training programs to countries that do not share the same spectrum of disease should be discouraged. Donor agencies have an important role to play in supporting sustainable postgraduate training programs.

  17. Screening, Deschooling and Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Keith

    1975-01-01

    Examines the present debate surrounding deschooling (abolition or non-setting up of schools) particularly hypotheses regarding the use of schooling as a screening device for occupational selection. Analyzes its relevance for low-income, low-schooling countries in light of recent data from Northern Nigeria on education and labor productivity. (JT)

  18. Gas in developing countries: Volume 2, Country studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This volume contains detailed case-studies of the history and prospects for natural gas utilization in eight developing countries: Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Thailand and Tunisia. All of these countries have been visited by members of the research team, with the exception of Pakistan. Running through all the case-histories is the importance of defining a clear market for the gas. In some cases this can prove remarkably difficult, especially when the oil price is relatively low. In other cases a market does exist, but is very limited in relation to the size of available reserves. The other theme which recurs over and over again is the importance of the relationship between the government and its agencies, and the foreign oil companies which are involved in exploration and development of gas reserves. These two issues are addressed in detail in each case study. But it is also the case that each country highlights specific aspects of the gas story.

  19. Psychosocial rehabilitation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rangaswamy, Thara; Sujit, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) is an essential component in the management of schizophrenia. It is especially relevant in the improvement of functioning and the quality of life of these individuals. The scarcity of mental health personnel and lack of training in many low and middle income countries (LAMIC) has led to low priority being accorded to PSR. This paper describes some of the PSR initiatives in LAMIC, especially those undertaken after disasters, home-based interventions and community-based rehabilitation programmes.

  20. Neuroinfections in developed versus developing countries.

    PubMed

    Krcméry, Vladimír; Fedor-Freybergh, P G

    2007-06-01

    etiology, risk factors, therapy and outcome of neuroinfections (which is a burning public health and social problem in tropics) in other third world countries versus developed high-tech medical settings of US, EU and other high income countries, as presented by Benca et al. [12].

  1. Neuroinfections in developed versus developing countries.

    PubMed

    Krcméry, Vladimír; Fedor-Freybergh, P G

    2007-06-01

    etiology, risk factors, therapy and outcome of neuroinfections (which is a burning public health and social problem in tropics) in other third world countries versus developed high-tech medical settings of US, EU and other high income countries, as presented by Benca et al. [12]. PMID:17558364

  2. Professionalism in Broadcasting in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Rita Cruise

    1977-01-01

    Examines the modes of professionalism and organizational structure in broadcasting and investigates how these modes transfer from industrialized nations to developing countries such as Algeria and Senegal. (MH)

  3. Malnutrition and health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Müller, Olaf; Krawinkel, Michael

    2005-08-01

    Malnutrition, with its 2 constituents of protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, continues to be a major health burden in developing countries. It is globally the most important risk factor for illness and death, with hundreds of millions of pregnant women and young children particularly affected. Apart from marasmus and kwashiorkor (the 2 forms of protein- energy malnutrition), deficiencies in iron, iodine, vitamin A and zinc are the main manifestations of malnutrition in developing countries. In these communities, a high prevalence of poor diet and infectious disease regularly unites into a vicious circle. Although treatment protocols for severe malnutrition have in recent years become more efficient, most patients (especially in rural areas) have little or no access to formal health services and are never seen in such settings. Interventions to prevent protein- energy malnutrition range from promoting breast-feeding to food supplementation schemes, whereas micronutrient deficiencies would best be addressed through food-based strategies such as dietary diversification through home gardens and small livestock. The fortification of salt with iodine has been a global success story, but other micronutrient supplementation schemes have yet to reach vulnerable populations sufficiently. To be effective, all such interventions require accompanying nutrition-education campaigns and health interventions. To achieve the hunger- and malnutrition-related Millennium Development Goals, we need to address poverty, which is clearly associated with the insecure supply of food and nutrition.

  4. Designing Training Materials for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenweig, Fred

    1984-01-01

    Describes four training guides developed by the Water and Sanitation for Health Project for use in rural water supply and sanitation projects in developing countries, explains the development process, offers insights gained from the process, and presents five considerations for designing training in third world countries. (MBR)

  5. Screening for Developmental Disabilities in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene

    2012-01-01

    Despite waxing international interest in child disability, little information exists about the situation of children with disabilities in developing countries. Using a culture-free screen for child disability from the 2005–2007 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, this study reports percentages of children in 16 developing countries who screened positive for cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities, covariation among disabilities, deviation contrasts that compare each country to the overall effect of country (including effects of age and gender and their interactions), and associations of disabilities with the Human Development Index. Developmental disabilities vary by child age and country, and younger children in developing countries with lower standards of living are more likely to screen positive for disabilities. The discussion of these findings revolves around research and policy implications. PMID:23294875

  6. Screening for developmental disabilities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hendricks, Charlene

    2013-11-01

    Despite waxing international interest in child disability, little information exists about the situation of children with disabilities in developing countries. Using a culture-free screen for child disability from the 2005-2007 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, this study reports percentages of children in 16 developing countries who screened positive for cognitive, language, sensory, and motor disabilities, covariation among disabilities, deviation contrasts that compare each country to the overall effect of country (including effects of age and gender and their interactions), and associations of disabilities with the Human Development Index. Developmental disabilities vary by child age and country, and younger children in developing countries with lower standards of living are more likely to screen positive for disabilities. The discussion of these findings revolves around research and policy implications. PMID:23294875

  7. Factors affecting the process of obtaining informed consent to surgery among patients and relatives in a developing country: results from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Jahan, F; Roshan, R; Nanji, K; Sajwani, U; Warsani, S; Jaffer, S

    2014-10-12

    Efforts have been made in Pakistan to create ethical guidelines for research and medical practice. This study explored the perceptions of and factors affecting the process of obtaining informed consent to surgery among inpatients and families at a tertiary-care hospital in Karachi. A random sample of 400 post-surgery adult patients answered a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Overall, 233 patients (58.3%) had signed the surgery consent form themselves, while 167 relatives (41.7%) had signed on behalf of the patient. Perceived factors significantly associated with patients not signing the consent form themselves were: language used (adjusted OR = 4.6), medical terminology used (aOR = 2.7), insufficient time allocation (aOR = 3.8), cultural/traditional reasons (aOR = 1.5) and low education (aOR = 2.4). Inappropriate timing for taking consent and not being informed/asked about consent were not statistically significant factors. Health-care practitioners should encourage patients to sign the consent form themselves.

  8. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in developing countries*

    PubMed Central

    De Armas Rodríguez, Y.; Wissmann, G.; Müller, A.L.; Pederiva, M.A.; Brum, M.C.; Brackmann, R.L.; Capó De Paz, V.; Calderón, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) is a serious fungal infection among immunocompromised patients. In developed countries, the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of PcP have been clearly defined and well documented. However, in most developing countries, relatively little is known about the prevalence of pneumocystosis. Several articles covering African, Asian and American countries were reviewed in the present study. PcP was identified as a frequent opportunistic infection in AIDS patients from different geographic regions. A trend to an increasing rate of PcP was apparent in developing countries from 2002 to 2010. PMID:21894262

  9. Community Development in Emergent Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgdon, Linwood L.; And Others

    Part of a report of seminar proceedings, these papers on community development in developing nations deal largely with conditions, requirements, and effective principles of rural extension; the government system of community development village workers in outlying regions of Thailand; the methods, organization, accomplishments, and prospects of…

  10. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N.

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease. PMID:11436480

  11. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, N

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease.

  12. Teacher Labor Markets in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S.…

  13. Entrepreneurial University Conceptualization: Case of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsi, Jahangir Yadollahi; Imanipour, Narges; Salamzadeh, Aidin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of the present paper is to elaborate an entrepreneurial university conceptualization which could be appropriate for developing countries. A conceptualization which distinguishes between different elements of entrepreneurial universities in developing countries, and identifies the common ones. This conceptualization…

  14. Promoting maternal health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Seipel, M M

    1992-08-01

    Most maternal deaths are preventable, yet more than 500,000 women die annually worldwide. However, the risk of maternal mortality is unevenly distributed; 99 percent of all maternal deaths occur in developing countries. This article examines the causes of this disparity and suggests several recommendations for social workers to promote maternal health in developing countries. PMID:1526599

  15. Wind Energy Developments: Incentives In Selected Countries

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses developments in wind energy for the countries with significant wind capacity. After a brief overview of world capacity, it examines development trends, beginning with the United States - the number one country in wind electric generation capacity until 1997.

  16. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia" refers to…

  17. Modernity, postmodernity and disability in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lysack, C

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines the implications of two theoretical perspectives, modernity and postmodernity, for provision of community-based disability services in developing countries. The author argues that modernity's embrace of the 'wonders' of science and technology have significantly affected our understanding of what community is. Modernity, in fact, leads us to view communities in one of two major ways: as inferior, or as ideal. Both views are deeply flawed. Postmodernity's profound scepticism of truth claims and authority provides a useful critique of community conceived in modern terms. The critique is helpful to the extent that it reveals the power of language in constructing our ideas of community. It also highlights a new way of thinking about participation, individualism and choice in community disability initiatives. PMID:9226495

  18. Modernity, postmodernity and disability in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lysack, C

    1997-06-01

    This paper examines the implications of two theoretical perspectives, modernity and postmodernity, for provision of community-based disability services in developing countries. The author argues that modernity's embrace of the 'wonders' of science and technology have significantly affected our understanding of what community is. Modernity, in fact, leads us to view communities in one of two major ways: as inferior, or as ideal. Both views are deeply flawed. Postmodernity's profound scepticism of truth claims and authority provides a useful critique of community conceived in modern terms. The critique is helpful to the extent that it reveals the power of language in constructing our ideas of community. It also highlights a new way of thinking about participation, individualism and choice in community disability initiatives.

  19. Promoting Reading in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Vincent, Ed.

    With the intention of illuminating the many obstacles involved with literacy promotion in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and South America, the authors of the 10 articles in this collection share their knowledge and experience of literacy promotion in the developing world--including the unique challenges faced by those who publish, print,…

  20. Occupational exposures to carcinogens in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pearce, N; Matos, E; Boffetta, P; Kogevinas, M; Vainio, H

    1994-09-01

    There have been very few studies of exposure to occupational carcinogens in developing countries, and even fewer studies of the health consequences of such exposures. However, all industrial chemicals, occupations and industrial processes classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1 or Group 2A (carcinogenic or possibly carcinogenic to humans) have been described in developing countries, and there is growing concern that the health impact of many chemicals used in the developing world has been underestimated. In all regions a very large workforce is employed in the construction industry, in which substantial exposure to asbestos may occur, and there has been a rapid increase in production in countries such as Brazil and India. There is, for instance, a similar pattern for tyre production with a large increase in production in developing countries in the 1980s. Thus, the number of workers in industries entailing a carcinogenic risk is increasing in developing countries, partly as a result of the transfer of hazardous industry from industrialized countries. There is much that could be achieved in the prevention of occupational cancer in developing countries, and there have been a number of successful initiatives. However, the greatest progress in the prevention of occupational cancer in developing countries is most likely to come from political and economic changes. PMID:7847748

  1. Health educaton in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kanaaneh, H A

    1977-01-01

    Health education is of great relevance in developing communities as it is a means of improving the health level which is an integral part of the overall socioeconomic development. It must be undertaken in conjunction with health services which should involve consumer participation at an early stage. Its focus is on changing behavior in respect to healthful living both at the individual and community levels. Health education subjects in developing communities include maternal and child health (MCH), nutrition, family planning and infectious diseases. Every member in the health team must be a health educator. Personal methods, especially when used by indigenous community health workers, are best suited to induce health behavior change in developing communities. Mass media as a rule is less suited for this, although radio can inform large segments of the population.

  2. Recent growth trends in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1978-03-01

    The unprecedented economic conditions of the mid-1970s have created problems with economic development for all countries of the world. Recent economic growth trends in the following main groups of developing countries are reviewed: 1) low-income countries; 2) lower middle-income countries; 3) intermediate middle-income countries; 4) upper middle-come countries; and 5) balance of payments deficit oil exporting countries. Economic indicators for each group of countries are tabulated. The tables show that the developing countries have continued domestic economic growth at only moderately slower rates during the years since 1973. They have been helped by foreign aid or private-source borrowing. As a group, they have, in fact, helped to keep the world economy from plunging deeper into recession and to prevent world trade from contracting more than it actually did already in 1974 and 1975. The performance of these developing economies during these difficult years contributes to continued optimism regarding their future prospects. PMID:12335967

  3. Eradication of poliomyelitis in countries affected by conflict.

    PubMed Central

    Tangermann, R. H.; Hull, H. F.; Jafari, H.; Nkowane, B.; Everts, H.; Aylward, R. B.

    2000-01-01

    The global initiative to eradicate poliomyelitis is focusing on a small number of countries in Africa (Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan) and Asia (Afghanistan, Tajikistan), where progress has been hindered by armed conflict. In these countries the disintegration of health systems and difficulties of access are major obstacles to the immunization and surveillance strategies necessary for polio eradication. In such circumstances, eradication requires special endeavours, such as the negotiation of ceasefires and truces and the winning of increased direct involvement by communities. Transmission of poliovirus was interrupted during conflicts in Cambodia, Colombia, El Salvador, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Efforts to achieve eradication in areas of conflict have led to extra health benefits: equity in access to immunization, brought about because every child has to be reached; the revitalization and strengthening of routine immunization services through additional externally provided resources; and the establishment of disease surveillance systems. The goal of polio eradication by the end of 2000 remains attainable if supplementary immunization and surveillance can be accelerated in countries affected by conflict. PMID:10812729

  4. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-02-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  5. Regulatory pathways for vaccines for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Milstien, Julie; Belgharbi, Lahouari

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines that are designed for use only in developing countries face regulatory hurdles that may restrict their use. There are two primary reasons for this: most regulatory authorities are set up to address regulation of products for use only within their jurisdictions and regulatory authorities in developing countries traditionally have been considered weak. Some options for regulatory pathways for such products have been identified: licensing in the country of manufacture, file review by the European Medicines Evaluation Agency on behalf of WHO, export to a country with a competent national regulatory authority (NRA) that could handle all regulatory functions for the developing country market, shared manufacturing and licensing in a developing country with competent manufacturing and regulatory capacity, and use of a contracted independent entity for global regulatory approval. These options have been evaluated on the basis of five criteria: assurance of all regulatory functions for the life of the product, appropriateness of epidemiological assessment, applicability to products no longer used in the domestic market of the manufacturing country, reduction of regulatory risk for the manufacturer, and existing rules and regulations for implementation. No one option satisfies all criteria. For all options, national infrastructures (including the underlying regulatory legislative framework, particularly to formulate and implement local evidence-based vaccine policy) must be developed. WHO has led work to develop this capacity with some success. The paper outlines additional areas of action required by the international community to assure development and use of vaccines needed for the developing world. PMID:15042235

  6. Microbiological risk assessment in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Sarah M; Jouve, Jean-Louis R

    2004-09-01

    Microbiological risk assessment (MRA) has been evolving at the national and international levels as a systematic and objective approach for evaluating information pertaining to microbiological hazards in foods and the risks they pose. This process has been catalyzed by international food trade requirements to base sanitary measures on sound scientific evidence and appropriate risk assessments. All countries, including developing countries, need to understand and use MRA. MRA is resource intensive, as has been demonstrated by some of the the assessments undertaken in industrialized countries. However, when used in the appropriate circumstances MRA offers many benefits. The process of undertaking MRA improves the understanding of key issues, enables an objective evaluation of risk management options, and provides a scientific justification for actions. Although the gap between developing countries and some industrialized countries is quite extensive with regard to MRA, many developing countries recognize the need to at least understand and move toward using MRA. This process requires development of infrastructure and enhancement of scientific and technical expertise while making optimal use of limited resources. International organizations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, are in a position to provide countries with guidance, training, information resources, and technical assistance to develop and/or strengthen food safety infrastructure. Enhanced cooperation and collaboration at all levels are needed for such efforts to be successful and to ensure that MRA, as a food safety tool, is available to all countries. PMID:15453597

  7. Health economics in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Abel-Smith, B

    1989-08-01

    The interpretation of health economics chosen for this paper is broad. It includes the relation between economic and other factors in health development. This interpretation has been chosen lest the acceptance of a disciplinary approach in the commissioning of papers should have the unintended effect of excluding some key areas of research which require the consideration of crucial interrelationships between disciplines. The only justification for covering this area in a paper on economics rather than, for example, epidemiology is that increasingly there is and indeed has to be a heavy focus on costs in considering alternative paths to health development. The word 'research' is loosely interpreted and not restricted to the type of activity which could lead to the award of a PhD. The compilation of experience in many areas is, in the view of the author, a priority need, to plan where further research and experiment is needed.

  8. The birth rate decline in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1993-01-01

    Family planning programs historically have played an important role in providing information and counseling and supplying modern methods. Most programs are effective due to socioeconomic development and strong political support. Potential demand for services will be growing. This means that donor agencies must commit additional funding, and users must begin paying or paying more for contraceptives. Services and method choices need to be expanded, and quality of care needs to be improved. Three primary factors will impact on fertility decline: 1) the rate of social development, 2) the speed with which small family norms spread and contraception is adopted, and 3) the facility of private and public suppliers to meet contraceptive demand. Other factors influence reproductive decisions (women's roles and status, economic hardships or opportunities, religion, ethnicity, culture, and tradition). Contraceptive prevalence has increased from under 10% in the 1960s to 38% of all married, reproductive age women in the developing world, excluding China, which has contraceptive prevalence of 72%. Regional differences are wide. In Latin America, contraceptive use averages nearly 60% and ranges from over 50% in 10 countries and below 38% in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Haiti. Contraceptive prevalence is above average in Indonesia (50%), Sri Lanka (62%), and Thailand (68%) and just below average in Bangladesh (40%), India (45%), Philippines (34%), and Vietnam (53%). Sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest prevalence, except for Zimbabwe (45%), Botswana (35%), and Kenya (27%). 80% of current users rely on modern methods. In most surveyed countries, 20-30% of married women have unmet demand. Fertility decline, unmet demand, and contraceptive use have all been affected by the diffusion of ideas about the use of family planning and the small family norm. Innovators are usually high status, educated women, who spread their views to other social groups or geographic areas. The spread can be rapid

  9. Rabies Diagnosis for Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Dürr, Salome; Naïssengar, Service; Mindekem, Rolande; Diguimbye, Colette; Niezgoda, Michael; Kuzmin, Ivan; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    Background Canine rabies is a neglected disease causing 55,000 human deaths worldwide per year, and 99% of all cases are transmitted by dog bites. In N'Djaména, the capital of Chad, rabies is endemic with an incidence of 1.71/1,000 dogs (95% C.I. 1.45–1.98). The gold standard of rabies diagnosis is the direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA) test, requiring a fluorescent microscope. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, Atlanta, United States of America) developed a histochemical test using low-cost light microscopy, the direct rapid immunohistochemical test (dRIT). Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the dRIT in the Chadian National Veterinary Laboratory in N'Djaména by testing 35 fresh samples parallel with both the DFA and dRIT. Additional retests (n = 68 in Chad, n = 74 at CDC) by DFA and dRIT of stored samples enhanced the power of the evaluation. All samples were from dogs, cats, and in one case from a bat. The dRIT performed very well compared to DFA. We found a 100% agreement of the dRIT and DFA in fresh samples (n = 35). Results of retesting at CDC and in Chad depended on the condition of samples. When the sample was in good condition (fresh brain tissue), we found simple Cohen's kappa coefficient related to the DFA diagnostic results in fresh tissue of 0.87 (95% C.I. 0.63–1) up to 1. For poor quality samples, the kappa values were between 0.13 (95% C.I. −0.15–0.40) and 0.48 (95% C.I. 0.14–0.82). For samples stored in glycerol, dRIT results were more likely to agree with DFA testing in fresh samples than the DFA retesting. Conclusion/Significance The dRIT is as reliable a diagnostic method as the gold standard (DFA) for fresh samples. It has an advantage of requiring only light microscopy, which is 10 times less expensive than a fluorescence microscope. Reduced cost suggests high potential for making rabies diagnosis available in other cities and rural areas of Africa for large populations for which a capacity

  10. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms. PMID:20575152

  11. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms.

  12. Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159549.html Drones Could Deliver Vaccines in Developing Countries Machines might ... Right now, people often associate the use of drones with warfare. But in the future they could ...

  13. Feasible mitigation actions in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Michael; Steckel, Jan Christoph; Klasen, Stephan; Lay, Jann; Grunewald, Nicole; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Renner, Sebastian; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-11-01

    Energy use is not only crucial for economic development, but is also the main driver of greenhouse-gas emissions. Developing countries can reduce emissions and thrive only if economic growth is disentangled from energy-related emissions. Although possible in theory, the required energy-system transformation would impose considerable costs on developing nations. Developed countries could bear those costs fully, but policy design should avoid a possible 'climate rent curse', that is, a negative impact of financial inflows on recipients' economies. Mitigation measures could meet further resistance because of adverse distributional impacts as well as political economy reasons. Hence, drastically re-orienting development paths towards low-carbon growth in developing countries is not very realistic. Efforts should rather focus on 'feasible mitigation actions' such as fossil-fuel subsidy reform, decentralized modern energy and fuel switching in the power sector.

  14. Understanding the LANDSAT market in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    The constraints on the growth of the market which stem from the development process itself and from a country's technical, political, and institutional attributes were examined. Four competing factors guide the development of policy regarding an operational land remote sensing system and are summarized. The factors are: there is a need to boost U.S. experts in areas where the U.S. holds a technological lead; the need to develop user applications in developing countries on their terms coincides with foreign policy; developing countries desire to take control of their own development; and the U.S. government wants to enlist the participation of major companies in the management, operation, and ownership of the operational system.

  15. Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances

    PubMed Central

    Mandeville, Kate L; Krabshuis, Justus; Ladep, Nimzing Gwamzhi; Mulder, Chris JJ; Quigley, Eamonn MM; Khan, Shahid A

    2009-01-01

    Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of “cascades” are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries. PMID:19533805

  16. Managing international migration in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Farrag, M

    1997-01-01

    This article summarizes the findings of 180 participants from 57 governments attending the UN's International Office of Migration's (IOM) Migration Seminar in April 1997 in Geneva. The teams of researchers represented the four developing world regions: sub-Saharan Africa; South Asia; the Arab Region; and Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. The seminar was part of IOM's research project on emigration dynamics in developing countries, which was begun in 1993. Researchers shared a common conceptual framework, which recognized the changing socioeconomic, sociopolitical, demographic, and ecological conditions in each country and subregion, the role of networks between people in sending and receiving countries, and the nature of entry restrictions. The research and workshop aimed to help policymakers in developed and developing countries. Conference delegates found the research framework acceptable despite the differences between regions and countries. Conference delegates agreed that the IOM research project was a unique forum for exchange of information and experience between sending and receiving countries. Many participants wanted IOM to provide technical assistance that would help countries manage migration. Delegates strongly desired international commitments to human rights for migrants. Delegates wanted better information exchanges, particularly interchanges of experience on policy measures among Governments, and the stronger inclusion of migrants in management. Returning migrants needed assistance with reintegration. The delegates made 12 recommendations about establishment of an effective system of information exchange, research on emigration dynamics and return migration, development of measures for managing flows that respect existing employment structures, new agreements, and reliable information for migrants on living conditions in host countries. PMID:12348081

  17. Sources of Deforestation in Tropical Developing Countries

    PubMed

    Tole

    1998-01-01

    / Key causes of tropical deforestation are investigated using cross-sectional data for 90 developing countries for the period 1981-1990. Regression results reveal that deforestation is associated with both development and scarcity. Deforestation accelerates with expanding infrastructure, trade, debt, investment in the human capital base, and resource-based economic expansion. On the other hand, absolute and relative scarcities-manifested by growing population pressures, food and land shortages, fuelwood dependency, and inequalities in access to land-are also key factors explaining forest loss. Thus, results point to a fundamental environmental conundrum: Development is required if countries are to alleviate scarcity-driven forms of forest exploitation but is itself a major cause of deforestation. Can countries balance development goals with forest protection? Setting aside the issue of its practical realization, the paper concludes that forest sustainable development cannot be achieved by implementing simple technical improvements in land-use practices alone. Securing the foundations for the sustainability of the forest base will require that countries address the underlying social processes driving tropical forest loss as well.KEY WORDS: Tropical deforestation; Developing countries; Rural land-use practices; Development; Scarcity.

  18. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  19. Transfer of radiation technology to developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Vitomir; Ridwan, Mohammad

    1993-10-01

    Transfer of technology is a complex process with many facets, options and constraints. While the concept is an important step in bringing industrialization process to agricultural based countries, it is clear, however, that a country will only benefit from a new technology if it addresses a real need, and if it can be absorbed and adapted to suit the existing cultural and technological base. International Atomic Energy Agency, as UN body, has a mandate to promote nuclear applicationsand assist Member States in transfer of technology for peaceful applications. This mandate has been pursued by many different mechanisms developed in the past years: technical assistance, coordinated research programmes, scientific and technical meetings, publications, etc. In all these activities the Agency is the organizer and initiator, but main contributions come from expert services from developed countries and, increasingly, from developing countries themselves. The technical cooperation among developing coutries more and more becomes part of different programmes. In particular, regional cooperation has been demonstrated as an effective instrument for transfer of technology from developed and among developing countries. Some examples of actual programmes are given.

  20. Adaptation to climate change in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Ole; Halsnaes, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2009-05-01

    Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature on impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are reviewed, including the emerging focus on mainstreaming of climate change and adaptation in development plans and programs. The article also serves as an introduction to the seven research articles of this special issue on climate change adaptation in developing countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general development policies.

  1. Experiences of School Principals with Newcomers from War-Affected Countries in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoko, Janet Mola

    2011-01-01

    This article is based on the results of an exploratory study of experiences of 2 urban school principals about leading schools with immigrants from war-affected countries in Africa. It examines how they perceived their preparation for multicultural leadership, and explores lessons that leadership development institutions can learn from their…

  2. Surgical audit in the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bankole, J O; Lawal, O O; Adejuyigbe, O

    2003-01-01

    Audit assures provision of good quality health service at affordable cost. To be complete therefore, surgical practice in the young developing countries, as elsewhere, must incorporate auditing. Peculiarities of the developing countries and insufficient understanding of auditing may be, however, responsible for its been little practised. This article, therefore, reviews the objectives, the commonly evaluated aspects, and the method of audit, and includes a simple model of audit cycle. It is hoped that it will kindle the idea of regular practice of quality assurance by surgeons working in the young developing nations and engender a sustainable interest. PMID:12769314

  3. Urbanization and health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Harpham, T; Stephens, C

    1991-01-01

    In developing countries the level of urbanization is expected to increase to 39.5% by the end of this century and to 56.9% by 2025. The number of people living in slums and shanty towns represent about one-third of the people living in cities in developing countries. This article focuses upon these poor urban populations and comments upon their lifestyle and their exposure to hazardous environmental conditions which are associated with particular patterns of morbidity and mortality. The concept of marginality has been used to describe the lifestyle of the urban poor in developing countries. This concept is critically examined and it is argued that any concept of the urban poor in developing countries being socially, economically or politically marginal is a myth. However, it can certainly be claimed that in health terms the urban poor are marginal as demonstrated by some of the studies reviewed in this article. Most studies of the health of the urban poor in developing countries concentrate on the environmental conditions in which they live. The environmental conditions of the urban poor are one of the main hazards of the lifestyle of poor urban residents. However, other aspects of their way of life, or lifestyle, have implications for their health. Issues such as smoking, diet, alcohol and drug abuse, and exposure to occupational hazards, have received much less attention in the literature and there is an urgent need for more research in these areas.

  4. Cancer in developing countries: opportunity and challenge.

    PubMed

    Magrath, I; Litvak, J

    1993-06-01

    Epidemiologic observations indicate that environment and lifestyle are the major determinants of the geographical patterns of cancer. The developing countries, which account for 75% of the world's population, have lower incidence rates of cancer compared with the industrialized nations but bear more than half the global cancer burden. Demographic trends resulting from economic progress (decreasing incidence of infectious diseases, population growth, aging, and urbanization), coupled with increased tobacco consumption and dietary changes, indicate that developing countries will bear a continually increasing proportion of the world's cancer burden and its accompanying demand for the provision of costly treatment programs. Yet the developing countries command only 5% of the world's economic resources, and health care programs are already fully extended and frequently inadequate. Thus, cancer control in the developing countries, including preemptive prevention of the anticipated increases in cancers presently more common in the industrialized nations (e.g., lung, breast, and colon), should include much greater emphasis on cancer prevention than is presently the case. But there is another perspective. The developing countries, with their dramatic contrasts in lifestyles and environments and equally diverse patterns of cancer, provide an unparalleled, and often neglected, opportunity for studies directed toward understanding the mechanisms of environmental carcinogenesis. Such an understanding should eventually lead to the development of novel intervention approaches. Unfortunately, cancer research is much more difficult to conduct in the developing countries because of the lack of population-based registries, poor communication and transportation systems, and deficiencies in infrastructure, financial support, and the training of health professionals. These difficulties could be overcome, to the benefit of all, if the extent of collaboration in cancer research between

  5. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. This study examined 2 developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving--cognitive and socioemotional--in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving…

  6. Educating Civil Engineers for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, D.

    1974-01-01

    Based on engineering teaching experience in Africa and Asia, ideas are presented on educating civil engineers for developing countries, especially those in Africa. Some of the problems facing educational planners, teachers, and students are addressed, including responsibilities of a newly graduated civil engineer, curriculum development, and…

  7. Education for Copeability: Perspective on Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atta-Safoh, Alex

    Stressing the application of progressive thought as a possible innovation toward development in developing countries, the paper discusses three major educational philosophies: romanticism, cultural transmission, and progressivisim (emphasizing the cognitive-developmental theory). Educational innovation and strategies for reform in the Soviet Union…

  8. Establishing Ergonomics in Industrially Developing Countries

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, K; Silverstein, B; Kiefer, M

    2005-08-29

    The introduction of ergonomics is an ongoing effort in industrially developing countries and will ultimately require an organized, programmatic approach spanning several countries and organizations. Our preliminary efforts with our partner countries of Viet Nam, Thailand, and Nicaragua have demonstrated that a one-time course is just the first step in a series of necessary events to provide skills and create an infrastructure that will have lasting impact for the host country. To facilitate that any sort of training has a lasting impact, it is recommended that host countries establish a 'contract' with class participants and the guest instructors for at least one follow-up visit so instructors can see the progress and support the participants in current and future efforts. With repeated exchanges, the class participants can become the 'in country experts' and the next generation of ergonomic trainers. Additionally, providing participants with an easy to use hazard assessment tool and methods for evaluating the financial impact of the project (cost/benefit analysis) will assist increase the likelihood of success and establish a foundation for future projects. In the future, developing trade and regionally/culturally specific 'ergonomics toolkits' can help promote broader implementation, especially where training resources may be limited.

  9. Disaster Risk Transfer for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linneroothbayer, J.; Mechler, R.; Pflug, G.; Hochrainer, S.

    2005-12-01

    Financing disaster recovery often diverts resources from development, which can have long-term effects on economic growth and the poor in developing countries. Moreover, post-disaster assistance, while important for humanitarian reasons, has failed to meet the needs of developing countries in reducing their exposure to disaster risks and assuring sufficient funds to governments and individuals for financing the recovery process. The authors argue that part of disaster aid should be refocused from post-disaster to pre-disaster assistance including financial disaster risk management. Such assistance is now possible with new modeling techniques for estimating and pricing risks of natural disasters coupled with the advent of novel insurance instruments for transferring catastrophe risk to the global financial markets. The authors illustrate the potential for risk transfer in developing countries using the IIASA CATSIM model, which shows the potential impacts of disasters on economic growth in selected developing countries and the pros and cons of financial risk management to reduce those adverse impacts. The authors conclude by summarizing the advantages of investing in risk-transfer instruments (coupled with preventive measures) as an alternative to traditional post-disaster donor assistance. Donor-supported risk-transfer programs would not only leverage limited disaster aid budgets, but would also free recipient countries from depending on the vagaries of post-disaster assistance. Both the donors and the recipients stand to gain, especially since the instruments can be designed to encourage preventive measures. Precedents already exist for imaginative risk-transfer programs in highly exposed developing countries, including national insurance systems, micro-insurance schemes like weather derivatives and novel instruments (e.g., catastrophe bonds) to provide insurance cover for public sector risks.

  10. [Development of the affect system].

    PubMed

    Moser, U; Von Zeppelin, I

    1996-01-01

    The authors show that the development of the affect system commences with affects of an exclusively communicative nature. These regulate the relationship between subject and object. On a different plane they also provide information on the feeling of self deriving from the interaction. Affect is seen throughout as a special kind of information. One section of the article is given over to intensity regulation and early affect defenses. The development of cognitive processes leads to the integration of affect systems and cognitive structures. In the pre-conceptual concretistic phase, fantasies change the object relation in such a way as to make unpleasant affects disappear. Only at a later stage do fantasies acquire the capacity to deal with affects. Ultimately, the affect system is grounded on an invariant relationship feeling. On a variety of different levels it displays the features typical of situation theory and the theory of the representational world, thus making it possible to entertain complex object relations. In this process the various planes of the affect system are retained and practised. Finally, the authors discuss the consequences of their remarks for the understanding of psychic disturbances and the therapies brought to bear on them. PMID:8584745

  11. Evidence-based healthcare in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Alan; Jordan, Zoe

    2010-06-01

    Developing countries have limited resources, so it is particularly important to invest in healthcare that works. The case for evidence-based practice has long been made in the West. However, poor access to information makes this endeavour near impossible for health professionals working with vulnerable communities in low-income economies. This paper provides a call to action to create an evidence base for health professionals in developing countries and identify appropriate strategies for the dissemination of this information in realistic and meaningful ways.

  12. Climate volatility deepens poverty vulnerability in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Syud A.; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Hertel, Thomas W.

    2009-07-01

    Extreme climate events could influence poverty by affecting agricultural productivity and raising prices of staple foods that are important to poor households in developing countries. With the frequency and intensity of extreme climate events predicted to change in the future, informed policy design and analysis requires an understanding of which countries and groups are going to be most vulnerable to increasing poverty. Using a novel economic-climate analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of climate volatility for seven socio-economic groups in 16 developing countries. We find that extremes under present climate volatility increase poverty across our developing country sample—particularly in Bangladesh, Mexico, Indonesia, and Africa—with urban wage earners the most vulnerable group. We also find that global warming exacerbates poverty vulnerability in many nations.

  13. [Epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes infections in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Minodier, Ph; Laporte, R; Miramont, S

    2014-11-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections are frequent in developing countries but the epidemiology is incompletely known. In 2005, 90 % of symptomatic pharyngitis, 96 % of invasive diseases and 97 % of deaths due to GAS were observed in these countries. Clinical features of GAS invasive infections are identical to those reported in developed countries, but frequency and mortality are higher, as is the number of the different emm types involved. In the world, from 15.6 to 19.6 millions of persons are affected by rheumatic heart disease (282,000 new cases and 233,000-468,000 deaths per year). Incidence of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis varies with time and location: in 2005, 472,000 new cases have been reported in the world (83 % in a developing country). World Heart Federation recently aimed at reducing the burden of rheumatic heart diseases by 25 % among < 25 years persons in 2025.

  14. Marriage and fertility in the developed countries.

    PubMed

    Westoff, C F

    1978-12-01

    Most developed countries have reached zero population growth or less and, while population projections have often proved badly off-target, it seems that currently low fertility levels are the result of a long-term trend, which was interrupted in the last 100 years only by the still-unexplained postwar baby boom, and which will probably continue. The declining trend has accompanied economic development and modernization, which have transformed the economic value of children, making them a drain on resources rather than a source of income. The concomitant social changes seem largely irreversible: urban economy, the decline in traditional authority, universal, prolonged education, equality of women, low infant mortality, high consumer demands and sophisticated birth control technology are all here to stay. The theory that fertility exhibits a cyclical pattern based on people's perception of their degree of economic and social opportunity ignores the other elements affecting fertility behavior, especially the radical change in the status and expectations of women. Several trends in marriage and reproductive behavior in the U.S., Denmark and Sweden reinforce the presumption that fertility will remain low: declining number of marriages; postponement of marriage; increased tendency for unmarried couples to live together; instability of marriage shown by high divorce rates and declining remarriage rates; and increasing economic activity by women. The traditional institution of marriage is losing its economic, sexual, sociological and parenting rationales. Thus, declining fertility is both cause and consequence of changes in marriage. In Europe, where the decline is more advanced than in the U.S., governments are concerned that population growth will be too low and have instituted social welfare measures to induce and facilitate childbearing and childrearing. As women become more career-oriented, greater incentives will have to be provided. Manipulating immigration quotas

  15. Is astronomical research appropriate for developing countries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, Michael S.

    An unproductive 45-cm astronomical telescope, given by JICA (Japan) to Sri Lanka, raises general questions as to the reasons for unproductive pure science in developing countries. Before installation, site, maintenance, and scientific objectives were discussed. The facility was launched with a conference organised by the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs. Unfortunately, no research or significant education has resulted after four years. The annual operating cost is U.S. $5000 per year, including salary for a trainee, maintenance, and a modest promotional programme. Comparison with a similar installation in Auckland suggests lack of funding or technical competence do not explain the failure in Sri Lanka. The facility in New Zealand, on the roof of Auckland University's Physics Department, has a slightly smaller budget but has led to modest but useful research and teaching. Lack of financial backing and expertise are often blamed for weak science in developing countries, but examination shows most of these countries have adequately skilled people, and plenty of resources for religion and military. General lack of motivation for science appears to be the principal reason. This lack of interest and highly inefficient bureaucracies are common to scientifically unproductive countries. They mostly lack the cultural and philosophical base of the European Renaissance that motivate the pursuit of modern science, an activity that violates human preferences. There are excellent facilities (ESO, SAAO, Cerro Tololo, and GONG) in some of these same countries, when administered from the West.

  16. Globalization, democracy, and child health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Welander, Anna; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus; Nilsson, Therese

    2015-07-01

    Good health is crucial for human and economic development. In particular poor health in childhood is of utmost concern since it causes irreversible damage and has implications later in life. Recent research suggests globalization is a strong force affecting adult and child health outcomes. Yet, there is much unexplained variation with respect to the globalization effect on child health, in particular in low- and middle-income countries. One factor that could explain such variation across countries is the quality of democracy. Using panel data for 70 developing countries between 1970 and 2009 this paper disentangles the relationship between globalization, democracy, and child health. Specifically the paper examines how globalization and a country's democratic status and historical experience with democracy, respectively, affect infant mortality. In line with previous research, results suggest that globalization reduces infant mortality and that the level of democracy in a country generally improves child health outcomes. Additionally, democracy matters for the size of the globalization effect on child health. If for example Côte d'Ivoire had been a democracy in the 2000-2009 period, this effect would translate into 1200 fewer infant deaths in an average year compared to the situation without democracy. We also find that nutrition is the most important mediator in the relationship. To conclude, globalization and democracy together associate with better child health in developing countries.

  17. Household Water Treatments in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smieja, Joanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Household water treatments (HWT) can help provide clean water to millions of people worldwide who do not have access to safe water. This article describes four common HWT used in developing countries and the pertinent chemistry involved. The intent of this article is to inform both high school and college chemical educators and chemistry students…

  18. Information Communication Technology Planning in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malapile, Sandy; Keengwe, Jared

    2014-01-01

    This article explores major issues related to Information Communication Technology (ICT) in education and technology planning. Using the diffusion of innovation theory, the authors examine technology planning opportunities and challenges in Developing countries (DCs), technology planning trends in schools, and existing technology planning models…

  19. Poverty in the Developing Countries--1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Although the number of people in developing nations who are too poor to provide themselves with an adequate diet is rising, this is not reason to assume that such poverty is inevitable. Strategies that foster economic growth and include poor people in the growth process can be found in countries with such diverse political and economic systems as…

  20. Training of Health Workers for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S.

    1985-01-01

    The author argues that the achievement of health in developing countries requires that health workers be trained to prevent disease in addition to any training they receive in the identification and management of disease. This preventive role includes communication of health promotion concepts to people and gaining the confidence of communities.…

  1. Accounting for health spending in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Raciborska, Dorota A; Hernández, Patricia; Glassman, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Data on health system financing and spending, together with information on the disease prevalence and cost-effectiveness of interventions, constitute essential input into health policy. It is particularly critical in developing countries, where resources are scarce and the marginal dollar has a major impact. Yet regular monitoring of health spending tends to be absent from those countries, and the results of international efforts to stimulate estimation activities have been mixed. This paper offers a history of health spending measurement, describes alternative sources of data, and recommends improving international collaboration and advocacy with the private sector for the way forward.

  2. [Measles outbreaks in developed countries: A lesson for Chile].

    PubMed

    Cerda, Jaime; Abarca, Katia; Jiménez, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    The measles vaccine has been used for over 50 years and has proven to be safe, effective and inexpensive, Nevertheless, in 2013 145,700 measles deaths occurred, mostly in countries with low per capita income and weak health infrastructure. The occurrence of measles cases is not restricted to developing countries, but also affects developed countries (Europe and USA), where is associated with a reduction in vaccination coverage, explained by a loss of confidence of some parents in the vaccine. This perspective article addresses the loss of confidence in the vaccine, and the individual and collective consequences of the decision to not vaccinate a child. Various strategies to reverse this phenomenon are presented, most notably the continuing education of health professionals, parents and patients using scientific arguments, given in an understandable and interesting language. Finally, the current situation of Chile (a country with current certification of measles elimination) is presented, emphasizing the importance of maintaining this condition. PMID:26230440

  3. Health Care System Reforms in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i) background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii) although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii) the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms. PMID:25170464

  4. Is asthma treatment affordable in developing countries?

    PubMed Central

    Watson, J. P.; Lewis, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to assess whether the therapeutic aspects of published international asthma management guidelines are practically applicable in developing countries. METHODS: Questionnaires were sent to expatriate doctors working in developing countries. RESULTS: Forty one replies were received from 24 countries in Africa and Asia. Oral salbutamol was prescribed "usually" or "often" by 35 of the 41 respondents, theophyllines by 30, inhaled bronchodilators by 12, inhaled steroids by two, and cromoglycate by two. Theophyllines were locally available in all 41 cases, oral salbutamol in 40, inhaled bronchodilators in 34, and inhaled steroids (usually beclomethasone 50 micrograms) in only 15. Where they were available, the median (range) coat of a beclomethasone 50 micrograms inhaler was 20% (6.8-100%) of average local monthly income, salbutamol inhaler 13% (3.3-250%), 90 salbutamol 4 mg tablets 3.8% (0.8-75%), and 90 aminophylline 100 mg tablets 4.5% (0.5-70%). If they were available locally at a cheaper price, 34 (83%) respondents would prescribe more inhaled steroids and 37 (90%) would prescribe more inhaled bronchodilators. CONCLUSIONS: Many asthma patients in developing countries are not receiving adequate treatment because the required drugs are not available in their area or are prohibitively expensive. 


 PMID:9246130

  5. Aeromonas-associated infections in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Ahmed, Salwa F; El-Khalek, Rania Abdel; Al-Gendy, Atef; Klena, John

    2008-01-01

    Although their role in gastroenteritis is controversial, Aeromonas species are recognized as etiological agents of a wide spectrum of diseases in man and animals. In developing countries, potentially pathogenic Aeromonas sp. are very common in drinking water and in different types of foods, particularly seafood. Several food-borne and water-borne outbreaks as well nosocomial outbreaks associated with aeromonads have been reported. Significant association of Aeromonas sp. with diarrhoea in children has been reported from several countries. These organisms are important causes of skin and soft-tissue infections and aspiration pneumonia following contact with water and after floods. High incidence of antimicrobial resistance, including to third-generation cephalosporins and the fluoroquinolones, is found among Aeromonas sp. isolated from clinical sources in some developing countries in Asia. Isolating and identifying Aeromonas sp. to genus level is simple and requires resources that are available in most microbiology laboratories for processing common enteric bacteria. The present review will cover the epidemiology, clinical syndromes, low-cost diagnostic methods, and antimicrobial resistance and treatment of Aeromonas infections in developing countries.

  6. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-01-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  7. Solid waste management for climate change policy in industrial countries, newly industrialized countries, and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Horng, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    Although the First FCCC COP did not reach agreement on controlling greenhouse gases, the intention of international society on limiting climate change problems is obvious. Among the important greenhouse gases of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2}O, the control of CO{sub 2} emission is more important for industrial countries than for the others due to their large emission. The CO{sub 2} reduction for export-oriented NICs (Newly Industrialized Countries) is a growth-limited or -killing policy that will severely hurt the national economics and will be carefully evaluated before taking any action. On the other hand, the reduction of methane emission by proper managing solid wastes, especially landfills, stands for good short- and long-term investments for NICs and developing countries. A 50 to 90% CH{sub 4} recovery from landfill is feasible and profitable, but the methane recovery technology or capital cost needs to come from industrial countries. Taking the example in Taiwan, more than 60% of methane emission is from landfills. A medium 50% reduction can contribute to more than 5% reduction of CO{sub 2} equivalent basis on global warming potentials (GWPs). However, the landfill gas recovery program is still under demonstration without actual applications.

  8. Hazards in cottage industries in developing countries.

    PubMed

    McCann, M

    1996-08-01

    Occupational health and safety research and prevention programs in developing countries have focused almost exclusively on large-scale industries. The informal sector--especially home-based arts and crafts industries such as pottery, jewelry, weaving, and woodworking, as well as other cottage industries--are a major and neglected part of the economies of developing countries. These industries have many hazards, including lead, silica, toxic woods, cadmium, dyes, and ergonomic problems. Since the work is often done in the home and can involve whole families, the entire family, including children, can be at risk. Prevention programs involving training and education about the hazards, suitable precautions, and development of safer substitutes are needed. This will also require training of local health care providers in the diagnosis and treatment of occupational diseases related to hazards in these cottage industries. PMID:8844041

  9. Apheresis in developing countries around the World.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Smid, W Martin; Crookes, Robert; Naim, Norris; Mendrone, Alfredo; Marques, José Francisco Comenalli; Marques, Marisa B

    2015-08-01

    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available.

  10. Apheresis in developing countries around the World.

    PubMed

    Eichbaum, Quentin; Smid, W Martin; Crookes, Robert; Naim, Norris; Mendrone, Alfredo; Marques, José Francisco Comenalli; Marques, Marisa B

    2015-08-01

    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available. PMID:25346394

  11. Mortality and income inequality among economically developed countries.

    PubMed

    Duleep, H O

    1995-01-01

    The absence of a correlation between age-adjusted death rates and the average income levels of economically developed countries has led researchers to conclude that income does not affect the mortality levels of economically developed countries. The mortality experiences of the former Soviet Union and some of the eastern European countries have further brought into question the importance of income's distribution in determining mortality among economically developed countries; prior to its breakup, the income distribution of the Soviet Union was as equal as that of Sweden, yet the life expectancy of the Soviets has been dramatically shorter than that of the Swedes. Using insights from a longitudinal microanalysis of U.S. mortality, this study presents evidence that, even for economically developed countries, the income distribution of a nation is an important determinant of its mortality. The results of this study also suggest that the relatively unequal income distribution of the United States is an important contributing factor to its low life expectancy relative to other high-income countries.

  12. Surgical services for children in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Bickler, S. W.; Rode, H.

    2002-01-01

    There is growing evidence that childhood surgical conditions, especially injuries, are common in developing countries and that poor care results in significant numbers of deaths and cases of disability. Unfortunately, however, surgical care is not considered an essential component of most child health programmes. Strategies for improving paediatric surgical care should be evidence-based and cost-effective and should aim to benefit the largest possible number of children. The most likely way of achieving policy change is to demonstrate that childhood surgical conditions are a significant public health problem. For paediatric purposes, special attention should also be given to defining a cost-effective package of surgical services, improving surgical care at the community level, and strengthening surgical education. Surgical care should be an essential component of child health programmes in developing countries. PMID:12471405

  13. Anaemia in pregnancy in developing countries.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, N

    1998-04-01

    Anemia in pregnancy continues to be a serious problem in many developing countries, with significant adverse effects for both mother and infant. This article summarizes the available literature on anemia in pregnancy in developing countries, with emphasis on prevalence, etiology, and consequences. Prevalence data, especially from rural populations, are inadequate and little effort has been made to establish local etiologic patterns. Although emphasis has been placed on the role of nutritional deficiencies (especially iron) in anemia, the etiology is likely multifactorial. The relative contribution of etiologic factors such as iron and folate deficiencies, hemoglobinopathies, and malaria and hookworm infestation vary by geographic region and season. Anemia in pregnancy has been associated with increased risks of premature labor and low birth weight. There is an immediate need to assess more carefully the local etiologic factors and then design new strategies for prevention and treatment.

  14. Cognitive and Socioemotional Caregiving in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Enriching caregiving practices foster the course and outcome of child development. We studied two developmentally significant domains of positive caregiving -- cognitive and socioemotional -- in more than 127,000 families with under-5 year children from 28 developing countries. Mothers varied widely in cognitive and socioemotional caregiving and engaged in more socioemotional than cognitive activities. More than half of mothers played with their children and took them outside, but only a third or fewer read books and told stories to their children. The GDP of countries related to caregiving after controlling for life expectancy and education. The majority of mothers report that they do not leave their under-5s alone. Policy and intervention recommendations are elaborated. PMID:22277006

  15. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salman S; Alp, Emine; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries.

  16. MEDLINE services to the developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Weitzel, R

    1976-01-01

    Supplying MEDLINE services to a widely dispersed user population in the developing countries creates numerous problems not encountered by other MEDLINE centres. The inability to interact with the user complicates system promotion and makes search formulation sometimes a gamble. Nevertheless, an evaluation survey has shown high user satisfaction. Of great concern is the still inadequate solution of document delivery. Near-term objectives are the broadening of geographic coverage and the integration of search processing with supporting hard copy supply. PMID:1247707

  17. Digital processing system for developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanayakkara, C.; Wagner, H.

    1977-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to perform simple digital processing tasks using pre-existing general purpose digital computers. An experimental software package, LIGMALS, was obtained and modified for this purpose. The resulting software permits basic processing tasks to be performed including level slicing, gray mapping and ratio processing. The experience gained in this project indicates a possible direction which may be used by other developing countries to obtain digital processing capabilities.

  18. The Global Impact of the Financial Crisis: Main Trends in Developed and Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggins, Heather; West, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The impact of the financial crisis on higher education has been considerable, and its effects are continuing. These effects can be discerned in a number of ways; but whereas both developed and developing countries are affected, they can be affected differently. A modifying factor is the shape and structure of the higher education system within…

  19. New strategies for providing hormonal contraception in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Townsend, John W; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Williams, Katherine; Askew, Ian; Brill, Klaus

    2011-05-01

    Even with progress in increasing access to effective contraception over the past decades, and the growing range of contraceptive methods available on the market, women in developing countries continue to report an unmet need for family planning. This constraint continues to challenge reproductive health policies and programs, while the momentum of population growth and the young age structure in developing countries leads to larger numbers of potential contraceptive users and increasing global demand in contraceptive markets. Of late, there is a renewed focus on increasing access to long-acting hormonal methods to effectively meet this need, establishing and effectively implementing new service delivery strategies. A number of processes have profoundly affected the procurement and use of hormonal contraceptive methods in developing countries: a supportive policy environment, evidence-based practices and an increasing diversity of delivery strategies play a significant part in increasing number of contraceptive users and the demand for hormonal contraception.

  20. Telemedicine and neurosciences in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, K

    2002-12-01

    It is a universally accepted fact that the number of neurosurgeons in developing countries is woefully inadequate. It is also unrealistic to expect this limited number to work in professional isolation, in suburban and rural areas, without adequate infrastructure. Therefore, this has resulted in concentration of neurosurgeons in developing countries, in metropolitan areas, even at the risk of being underemployed. The phenomenal advances in communications and information technology in India are resulting in a new look at how secondary and tertiary health care can be provided to the underprivileged masses. Following a proof of concept validation ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) in conjunction with the Apollo Hospitals, is ready to use satellite technology to provide specialist care not only to suburban and rural India but to other countries as well, by using the large number of highly qualified and trained specialists in urban India. The implications of these developments for the delivery of neurosurgical care to suburban and rural India is briefly reviewed. PMID:12517618

  1. Grid and Cloud for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdidier, Monique

    2014-05-01

    The European Grid e-infrastructure has shown the capacity to connect geographically distributed heterogeneous compute resources in a secure way taking advantages of a robust and fast REN (Research and Education Network). In many countries like in Africa the first step has been to implement a REN and regional organizations like Ubuntunet, WACREN or ASREN to coordinate the development, improvement of the network and its interconnection. The Internet connections are still exploding in those countries. The second step has been to fill up compute needs of the scientists. Even if many of them have their own multi-core or not laptops for more and more applications it is not enough because they have to face intensive computing due to the large amount of data to be processed and/or complex codes. So far one solution has been to go abroad in Europe or in America to run large applications or not to participate to international communities. The Grid is very attractive to connect geographically-distributed heterogeneous resources, aggregate new ones and create new sites on the REN with a secure access. All the users have the same servicers even if they have no resources in their institute. With faster and more robust internet they will be able to take advantage of the European Grid. There are different initiatives to provide resources and training like UNESCO/HP Brain Gain initiative, EUMEDGrid, ..Nowadays Cloud becomes very attractive and they start to be developed in some countries. In this talk challenges for those countries to implement such e-infrastructures, to develop in parallel scientific and technical research and education in the new technologies will be presented illustrated by examples.

  2. National energy planning for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is a summary of what has been learned from the experience with national energy planning in developing countries. It considers lessons learned about the roles of data, analysis, and modeling in this enterprise, because of the connections between these components and our common interest in research to advance the state of the art; but it concludes that the most important needs at this time are institutional rather than analytical, which suggests a somewhat different set of priorities for scholarship related to national energy planning in the developing world.

  3. Three-dimensional Printing in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Jose, Rod R.; Rabie, Amr N.; Gerstle, Theodore L.; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: The advent of 3-dimensional (3D) printing technology has facilitated the creation of customized objects. The lack of regulation in developing countries renders conventional means of addressing various healthcare issues challenging. 3D printing may provide a venue for addressing many of these concerns in an inexpensive and easily accessible fashion. These may potentially include the production of basic medical supplies, vaccination beads, laboratory equipment, and prosthetic limbs. As this technology continues to improve and prices are reduced, 3D printing has the potential ability to promote initiatives across the entire developing world, resulting in improved surgical care and providing a higher quality of healthcare to its residents. PMID:26301132

  4. Introducing new vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, Sonali; Rath, Barbara; Seeber, Lea D; Rundblad, Gabriella; Khamesipour, Ali; Ali, Mohammad

    2013-12-01

    Vaccines offer the most cost-effective approach to controlling infectious diseases. Access to vaccines remains unequal and suboptimal, particularly in poorer developing countries. Introduction of new vaccines and long-term sustainability of immunization programs will require proactive planning from conception to implementation. International and national coordination efforts as well as local and cultural factors need to be known and accounted for. Adequate infrastructure should be in place for the monitoring of disease burden, vaccine effectiveness and vaccine safety, based on the common terminology and international consensus. This overview paper aims to raise awareness of the importance of introduction efforts for vaccines of special relevance to resource-poor countries. The target audiences are those involved in immunization programs, from planning or oversight roles to frontline providers, as well as health care professionals.

  5. OpportunitiesandPerceptionofSpaceProgramsintheDevelopingCountries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Although the space program as a whole is a true reflection of the level of achievement in human history in the field of Science and Technology, but it is also important to note that there are numbers of communities and societies on this earth that are ignorant about this great achievement, hence leading to the continuous diverting of Potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologist to other disciplines, thereby undermining the development of the space program over time. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed Suggestions/Recommendations:- (1) The European Space Agency (ESA), National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Space Agency, should be organising and sponsoring public enlightenment conferences, seminars and workshops towards creating awareness and attracting Potential Astronomers and other Space Scientist mostly in the developing countries into the space program. (2) Esteemed organisations in space programs like NASA, ESA and others should be awarding scholarships to potential space scientist that lacks the financial capability to pursue studies in the field of space science from the developing countries. (3) The European Space Agency, National Aeronautic Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency, should open their offices for the development of the space program in the third world countries. I believe that if the above suggestions/recommendations are adopted and implemented it will lead to the development of the space program in general, otherwise the rate at which potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologists will be diverting into other disciplines will ever remain on the increase. Thanks for listening.

  6. Oral health care systems in developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Kandelman, Daniel; Arpin, Sophie; Baez, Ramon J; Baehni, Pierre C; Petersen, Poul E

    2012-10-01

    Health care systems are essential for promoting, improving and maintaining health of the population. Through an efficient health service, patients can be advised of disease that may be present and so facilitate treatment; risks factors whose modification could reduce the incidence of disease and illness in the future can be identified, and further, how controlling such factors can contribute to maintain a good quality of life. In developed countries, clinics or hospitals may be supported by health professionals from various specialties that allow their cooperation to benefit the patient; these institutions or clinics may be equipped with the latest technical facilities. In developing countries, health services are mostly directed to provide emergency care only or interventions towards certain age group population. The most common diseases are dental caries and periodontal disease and frequently intervention procedures aim, at treating existing problems and restore teeth and related structure to normal function. It is unfortunate that the low priority given to oral health hinders acquisition of data and establishment of effective periodontal care programmes in developing countries but also in some developed countries where the periodontal profile is also less than satisfactory. Despite the fact that in several developed countries there are advanced programmes oriented to periodontal disease treatments, the concern is related to the lack of preventive oriented treatments. According to data available on periodontal status of populations from developed countries, despite the number of dentists and trained specialists, dental health professionals do not presently meet adequately the need for prevention, focusing mainly on curative care. The need for strengthening disease prevention and health promotion programmes in order to improve oral health conditions and particularly periodontal status in the majority of countries around the world is evident. Unfortunately, in many

  7. Mutual benefits from epilepsy surgery in developed and developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nayel, M H

    2000-01-01

    The last three decades have seen tremendous progress in the surgical management of patients with intractable epilepsy involving all facets of diagnosis, localization, operative technique, and research. Unfortunately, such progress has taken place and is in operation only in the developed countries of North America, Europe, and Japan. Epilepsy surgery programs in the developing countries of South America, Asia, and particularly Africa, if they exist at all, are the result of the individual efforts of physicians who were fortunate enough to receive their training abroad. These physicians face difficulties in financing their programs and in obtaining the necessary equipment, and they work without the assistance of trained personnel or technicians. The exchange of experience between physicians in developed and developing countries may be mutually beneficial. In the face of the high cost of health care in developed countries, it is unrealistic to expect patients with intractable epilepsy to continue to undergo elaborate investigative procedures indefinitely. On the other hand, physicians in developing countries need to keep updated on the latest technology and research and have to receive the necessary support from developed countries to slowly build up their programs. The global perspective of physicians dealing with epilepsy patients may be broadened by exposure to the experience from the "other side of the fence" and will ultimately lead to better patient education and more focused patient care. PMID:10963474

  8. Cancer Pain Management in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Shalini; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimated that more than 60% of the 14 million new cancer cases worldwide in 2012 were reported in the developing part of the world, including Asia, Africa, Central and South America. Cancer survival rate is poorer in developing countries due to diagnosis at late stage and limited access to timely treatment. Since the disease per se cannot be treated even with the best available treatment modalities, what remains important is symptom management and providing comfort care to these patients. The incidence of pain in advanced stages of cancer approaches 70–80%. Lack of preventive strategies, poverty, illiteracy, and social stigma are the biggest cause of pain suffering and patient presenting in advance stage of their disease. The need for palliative care is expanding due to aging of world's population and increase in the rate of cancer in developed and developing countries. A huge gap remains between demand and current palliative care services. Overcoming barriers to palliative care is a major global health agenda that need immediate attention. Main causes of inadequate pain relief remain lack of knowledge among physician and patients, lack of adequate supply of opioids and other drugs for pain relief, strong bureaucracy involved in terms of procurement, and dispensing of opioids. Beside this, poverty and illiteracy remain the most important factors of increased suffering. PMID:27803557

  9. ACTS for distance education in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalu, A; Ventre, G.

    1995-01-01

    The need for electrical energy supply in the rural communities of developing countries has been well documented. Equally well known is the potential for photovoltaic in cost effectively meeting this need. A major impediment to fulfilling the need is the lack of indigenous personnel with a knowledgeof photovoltaic systems, and the associated infrastructure required to implement project. Various delivery schemes for providing the needed training to developing countries personnel have been investigated. Various train methods and programs that have been employed to remedy the problem have had significant drawbacks in terms of cost, consistency, impact, reach, and sustainability. The hypothesis to be tested in this project posits that satellite-based distance education using ACTS technologies can overcome these impediments. The purpose of the project is to investigate the applicability of the ACTS satellite in providing distance education in photovoltaic systems to developing countries and rural communities. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using ACTS unique technologies to overcome identified problems shall be done. The limitations of ACTS in surmounting distance education problems in developing countries shall be investigated. This project will, furthermore, provide training to Savannah State College faculty in photovoltaic (PV) systems and in distance education configurations and models. It will also produce training materials adequate for use in PV training programs via distance education. Savannah State College will, as a consequence become well equipped to play a leading role in the training of minority populations in photovoltaic systems and other renewables through its Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems. This communication provides the project outline including the specific issues that will be investigated during the project. Also presented i the project design which covers the participations of the various components of a network

  10. ACTS for distance education in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalu, A.; Ventre, G.

    1995-08-01

    The need for electrical energy supply in the rural communities of developing countries has been well documented. Equally well known is the potential for photovoltaic in cost effectively meeting this need. A major impediment to fulfilling the need is the lack of indigenous personnel with a knowledgeof photovoltaic systems, and the associated infrastructure required to implement project. Various delivery schemes for providing the needed training to developing countries personnel have been investigated. Various train methods and programs that have been employed to remedy the problem have had significant drawbacks in terms of cost, consistency, impact, reach, and sustainability. The hypothesis to be tested in this project posits that satellite-based distance education using ACTS technologies can overcome these impediments. The purpose of the project is to investigate the applicability of the ACTS satellite in providing distance education in photovoltaic systems to developing countries and rural communities. An evaluation of the cost effectiveness of using ACTS unique technologies to overcome identified problems shall be done. The limitations of ACTS in surmounting distance education problems in developing countries shall be investigated. This project will, furthermore, provide training to Savannah State College faculty in photovoltaic (PV) systems and in distance education configurations and models. It will also produce training materials adequate for use in PV training programs via distance education. Savannah State College will, as a consequence become well equipped to play a leading role in the training of minority populations in photovoltaic systems and other renewables through its Center for Advanced Water Technology and Energy Systems. This communication provides the project outline including the specific issues that will be investigated during the project. Also presented i the project design which covers the participations of the various components of a network

  11. Obstetric infection control in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Cronin, W A; Quansah, M G; Larson, E

    1993-01-01

    In Ghana, infection has been identified as a major cause of birth-related mortality. Results of a 2-month observation of infection control practices among Ghanaian obstetric nurses and midwives indicated that most personnel did not practice basic rules of asepsis. Problems included frequent breaks in technique, inadequate sterilization and disinfection, and repeated exposure to large amounts of blood and vaginal secretions. Supplies were limited and, even when available, not always used appropriately. The situation in developing countries is different from that in the United States. Therefore, an observational needs assessment is essential to plan relevant and practical measures for change.

  12. Climate change and agriculture in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Antle, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    Most analysts agree that the poorest countries` agricultures are likely to be the most vulnerable to-and least capable of adapting to-climate change or other environmental disruptions. Research has only recently begun to assess what the likely impacts of climate change on developing countries` agricultures may be, how these agricultures might adapt to climate change, and how policies might be designed to facilitate adaptation. This paper begins with a discussion of what researchers currently believe the impacts of climate change could be on developing country agriculture, principally tropical agriculture. Climate changes are expected to occur from thirty to more than one hundred years in the future. These time horizons mean that predictions of the key factors determining impacts and adaptation-population, income, institutions, and technology-are probably as uncertain as predictions of climate change itself. Rates of productivity growth and technological adaptation will be critical to future food supplies, with or without climate change. Continuation of the trend of the past forty years could make so abundant that climate change effects would be inconsequential, but lower rates of growth could result in population growth outstripping food supplies. The second section of this paper addresses the critical issue of predicting the long-term trend in productivity by building on the substantial knowledge we have about the economic factors determining agricultural innovation and adaptation. Considering the time horizons and uncertainties involved in climate change, the wise policy strategy is to pursue investments that are economically justified, whether or not climate change occurs. A better understanding of managed ecosystems would improve our understanding of agricultural sustainability as well as climate change impacts and adaptation. The third section of this paper outlines an economic approach to modeling managed ecosystems. 21 refs.

  13. International Migration and Human Development in Destination Countries: A Cross-National Analysis of Less-Developed Countries, 1970-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary levels of international migration in less-developed countries are raising new and important questions regarding the consequences of immigration for human welfare and well-being. However, there is little systematic cross-national evidence of how international migration affects human development levels in migrant-receiving countries in…

  14. A Primer for Using Transgenic Insecticidal Cotton in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Showalter, Ann M.; Heuberger, Shannon; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Carrière, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Many developing countries face the decision of whether to approve the testing and commercial use of insecticidal transgenic cotton and the task of developing adequate regulations for its use. In this review, we outline concepts and provide information to assist farmers, regulators and scientists in making decisions concerning this technology. We address seven critical topics: 1) molecular and breeding techniques used for the development of transgenic cotton cultivars, 2) properties of transgenic cotton cultivars and their efficacy against major insect pests, 3) agronomic performance of transgenic cotton in developing countries, 4) factors affecting transgene expression, 5) impact of gene flow between transgenic and non-transgenic cotton, 6) non-target effects of transgenic cotton, and 7) management of pest resistance to transgenic cotton. PMID:19613464

  15. Pro: pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by selective out of country scholarships.

    PubMed

    Gathuya, Zipporah N

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric anesthesia training in developing countries is best achieved by out of country scholarships rather than structured outreach visits by teams of specialists from the developed world. Although this may seem an expensive option with slow return, it is the only sustainable way to train future generations of specialized pediatric anesthetists in developing countries.

  16. Climate Change and Food Security: Health Impacts in Developed Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Bentham, Graham; Boxall, Alistair B.A.; Draper, Alizon; Fairweather-Tait, Susan; Hulme, Mike; Hunter, Paul R.; Nichols, Gordon; Waldron, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anthropogenic climate change will affect global food production, with uncertain consequences for human health in developed countries. Objectives: We investigated the potential impact of climate change on food security (nutrition and food safety) and the implications for human health in developed countries. Methods: Expert input and structured literature searches were conducted and synthesized to produce overall assessments of the likely impacts of climate change on global food production and recommendations for future research and policy changes. Results: Increasing food prices may lower the nutritional quality of dietary intakes, exacerbate obesity, and amplify health inequalities. Altered conditions for food production may result in emerging pathogens, new crop and livestock species, and altered use of pesticides and veterinary medicines, and affect the main transfer mechanisms through which contaminants move from the environment into food. All these have implications for food safety and the nutritional content of food. Climate change mitigation may increase consumption of foods whose production reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Impacts may include reduced red meat consumption (with positive effects on saturated fat, but negative impacts on zinc and iron intake) and reduced winter fruit and vegetable consumption. Developed countries have complex structures in place that may be used to adapt to the food safety consequences of climate change, although their effectiveness will vary between countries, and the ability to respond to nutritional challenges is less certain. Conclusions: Climate change will have notable impacts upon nutrition and food safety in developed countries, but further research is necessary to accurately quantify these impacts. Uncertainty about future impacts, coupled with evidence that climate change may lead to more variable food quality, emphasizes the need to maintain and strengthen existing structures and policies to regulate

  17. Population and growth causality in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kapuria-foreman, V

    1995-07-01

    This study empirically tests the null hypotheses of no causality between population growth and economic growth and of no causality between economic growth and population growth in 15 developing countries. The model follows the Cheng Hsiao form with lag lengths to minimize Akaike's Final Prediction Error (FPE). Equations are run separately for each country. Lag lengths and Granger causality test were chosen according to three steps. 1) Each of the variables was regressed on its own lagged values with a maximum lag of five years. A lag length was chosen that minimized FPE, which was calculated for each regression. 2) Bivariate regressions were run with a fixed lag length for population growth and mixed lag lengths for the other variable, until the lag length which minimized FPE was determined. 3) The last step involved checking the lag length of population growth by keeping the lag fixed for economic growth. The economic growth measure was gross domestic product per capita. Findings indicate that in seven countries the null hypothesis of no causality between population growth and economic growth, either positive or negative, cannot be rejected (Ghana, Sri Lanka, Bolivia, Philippines, Syria, Thailand, and Argentina). In Nepal, India, China, Guatemala, Peru, Turkey, Chile, and Mexico lagged values of population growth improve predictions of economic growth. Higher economic growth has no significant effect on population growth rates in Nepal, Bolivia, Philippines, Guatemala, Peru, Thailand, Argentina, and Mexico. Interaction between economic growth and population growth was found in India, China, Turkey, and Chile. The direction of causation tests indicate that population growth has a significant positive impact on income growth in China, Guatemala, Turkey, Chile, and Mexico. India shows a negative impact of population growth on income. A significant negative impact of economic growth on population growth is evident only in Sri Lanka. There is weak evidence of a

  18. Economic Aspects of Sanitation in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen-Viet, Hung

    2011-01-01

    Background: Improved sanitation has been shown to have great impacts on people’s health and economy. However, the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on halving the proportion of people without access to clean water and basic sanitation by 2015 has thus far been delayed. One of the reasons for the slow progress is that policy makers, as well as the general public, have not fully understood the importance of the improved sanitation solutions. This paper, by gathering relevant research findings, aims to report and discuss currently available evidence on the economic aspects of sanitation, including the economic impacts of unimproved sanitation and the costs and economic benefits of some common improved sanitation options in developing countries. Methods: Data used in this paper were obtained from different information sources: international and national journal articles and reports, web-based statistics, and fact sheets. We used both online search and hand search methods to gather the information. Results: Scientific evidence has demonstrated that the economic cost associated with poor sanitation is substantial. At the global level, failure to meet the MDG water and sanitation target would have ramifications in the area of US$38 billion, and sanitation accounts for 92% of this amount. In developing countries, the spending required to provide new coverage to meet the MDG sanitation target (not including program costs) is US$142 billion (US$ year 2005). This translates to a per capita spending of US$28 for sanitation. Annually, this translates to roughly US$14 million. The evidence complied in this paper demonstrates that investing in sanitation is socially and economically worthwhile. For every US$1 invested, achieving the sanitation MDG target and universal sanitation access in the non-OECD countries would result in a global return of US$9.1 and US$11.2, respectively. Conclusion: Given the current state of knowledge, sanitation is

  19. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  20. Malnutrition and vaccination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Andrew J

    2015-06-19

    Malnutrition contributes to an estimated 45% of deaths among children under 5 years of age in developing countries, predominantly due to infections. Malnourished children therefore stand to benefit hugely from vaccination, but malnutrition has been described as the most common immunodeficiency globally, suggesting that they may not be able to respond effectively to vaccines. The immunology of malnutrition remains poorly characterized, but is associated with impairments in mucosal barrier integrity, and innate and adaptive immune dysfunction. Despite this, the majority of malnourished children can mount a protective immune response following vaccination, although the timing, quality and duration of responses may be impaired. This paper reviews the evidence for vaccine immunogenicity in malnourished children, discusses the importance of vaccination in prevention of malnutrition and highlights evidence gaps in our current knowledge.

  1. Acute diarrhoeal disease in less developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, John E.; Guzmán, Miguel A.; Ascoli, Werner; Scrimshaw, Nevin S.

    1964-01-01

    A number of primary epidemiological characteristics are recognized as common to members of a syndrome designated “acute undifferentiated diarrhoeal disease”. This syndrome includes both specific and non-specific diarrhoeal disorders. Within the existing knowledge and with the facilities available in less developed countries, an epidemiological basis for control, directed against the syndrome as a whole, is presented as the practical approach to community management. Clinical and microbiological distinctions do not extend to the main bulk of the problem. Individual epidemiological patterns exist according to age and varying social and ecological conditions. Field study by periodic home visits over four years has defined these patterns in highland rural villages in Guatemala. The chief problem was weanling diarrhoea. PMID:14230899

  2. Sustainable sludge management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, B; Barrios, J A; Mendez, J M; Diaz, J

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide, unsanitary conditions are responsible for more than three million deaths annually. One of the reasons is the low level of sanitation in developing countries. Particularly, sludge from these regions has a high parasite concentration and low heavy metal content even though the available information is limited. Different issues needed to achieve a sustainable sludge management in developing nations are analysed. Based on this analysis some conclusions arise: sludge management plays an important role in sanitation programs by helping reduce health problems and associated risks; investments in sanitation should consider sludge management within the overall projects; the main restriction for reusing sludge is the high microbial concentration, which requires a science-based decision on the treatment process, while heavy metals are generally low; adequate sludge management needs the commitment of those sectors involved in the development and enforcement of the regulations as well as those that are directly related to its generation, treatment, reuse or disposal; current regulations have followed different approaches, based mainly on local conditions, but they favour sludge reuse to fight problems like soil degradation, reduced crop production, and the increased use of inorganic fertilizers. This paper summarises an overview of these issues.

  3. Teacher labor markets in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Vegas, Emiliana

    2007-01-01

    Emiliana Vegas surveys strategies used by the world's developing countries to fill their classrooms with qualified teachers. With their low quality of education and wide gaps in student outcomes, schools in developing countries strongly resemble hard-to-staff urban U.S. schools. Their experience with reform may thus provide insights for U.S. policymakers. Severe budget constraints and a lack of teacher training capacity have pushed developing nations to try a wide variety of reforms, including using part-time or assistant teachers, experimenting with pay incentives, and using school-based management. The strategy of hiring teachers with less than full credentials has had mixed results. One successful program in India hired young women who lacked teaching certificates to teach basic literacy and numeracy skills to children whose skills were seriously lagging. After two years, student learning increased, with the highest gains among the least able students. As in the United States, says Vegas, teaching quality and student achievement in the developing world are sensitive to teacher compensation. As average teacher salaries in Chile more than doubled over the past decade, higher-quality students entered teacher education programs. And when Brazil increased educational funding and distributed resources more equitably, school enrollment increased and the gap in student test scores narrowed. Experiments with performance-based pay have had mixed results. In Bolivia a bonus for teaching in rural areas failed to produce higher-quality teachers. And in Mexico a system to reward teachers for improved student outcomes failed to change teacher performance. But Vegas explains that the design of teacher incentives is critical. Effective incentive schemes must be tightly coupled with desired behaviors and generous enough to give teachers a reason to make the extra effort. School-based management reforms give decisionmaking authority to the schools. Such reforms in Central America

  4. Childrearing discipline and violence in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated in UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. The prevalence of each response varied widely across countries, as did the amount of variance accounted for by country in relation to each response. Country-level indicators of life expectancy, educational attainment, and economic well-being were related to several responses to children's behavior. Country-level factors are widely related to parents' methods of teaching children good behavior and responding to misbehavior.

  5. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This Introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles in this Special Section. The articles that follow describe the situations of children with successive foci on nutrition, parenting, discipline and violence, and the home environment addressing two common questions: How do developing and underresearched countries in the world vary with respect to these central indicators of children's development? and How do key indicators of national development relate to child development in each of these substantive areas? The Special Section concludes with policy implications from the international findings. PMID:22277004

  6. Demand for oil and energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, C. Jr.; Relles, D.A.; Navarro, J.

    1980-05-01

    How much of the world's oil and energy supply will the non-OPEC less-developed countries (NOLDCs) demand in the next decade. Will their requirements be small and thus fairly insignificant compared with world demand, or large and relatively important. How will world demand be affected by the economic growth of the NOLDCs. In this report, we try to develop some reasonable forecasts of NOLDC energy demands in the next 10 years. Our focus is mainly on the demand for oil, but we also give some attention to the total commercial energy requirements of these countries. We have tried to be explicit about the uncertainties associated with our forecasts, and with the income and price elasticities on which they are based. Finally, we consider the forecasts in terms of their implications for US policies concerning the NOLDCs and suggest areas of future research on NOLDC energy issues.

  7. Perspectives on International Aid in Conflict Affected Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Lore

    2011-01-01

    For many, 1 March 2011 is a significant date. On the one hand, it was the day that David Mitchell, the international development secretary, presented the key outcomes of two major reviews on international aid to the Houses of Parliament; and on the other, 1 March was the date chosen for the simultaneous launch of the 2011 Global Monitoring Report…

  8. Childrearing Discipline and Violence in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence and country-level correlates of 11 responses to children's behavior, including nonviolent discipline, psychological aggression, and physical violence, as well as endorsement of the use of physical punishment, in 24 countries using data from 30,470 families with 2- to 4-year-old children that participated…

  9. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  10. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world. PMID:21415899

  11. Animal welfare and developing countries: opportunities for trade in high-welfare products from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Bowles, D; Paskin, R; Gutiérrez, M; Kasterine, A

    2005-08-01

    Discussion on the potential for developing countries to develop trade in niche markets such as higher welfare standards has been highlighted with moves by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to set internationally agreed standards for animal welfare. This paper examines the existing and potential trade in value-added higher welfare products using case studies in the beef and poultry sectors from three countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. It shows that at present there is only a small trade in these products but that this can have a major effect at a national level. In the beef export trade from Namibia, the existence of the only assurance scheme in Africa setting standards in hygiene, veterinary care and animal welfare has created a trusted, safe and healthy product and ensured that Namibia has grown into Africa's largest exporter of beef to the European Union. In Thailand, the broiler industry, which has enjoyed annual growth in the past 15 years, is developing value-added products to develop markets to counter competition from other countries. The development and implementation of standards for organic products in both Thailand and Argentina over the past decade have also resulted in growth in the export markets of these products. The paper concludes that there is growth potential for the sectors in all three markets which can be assisted by the development of OIE baseline standards.

  12. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    SciTech Connect

    Wainman, B.

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses her thoughts on prospects for an energy policy from this Congress. She doesn`t believe the country will see any big sweeping energy policy acts or even utility deregulation in the next two years. Education on the issues is necessary. The author discusses the impacts for clean coal technologies and recommends continued aggressive work on deployment.

  13. Implications of Climate Change for Children in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Rema; Oliva, Paulina

    2016-01-01

    Climate change may be particularly dangerous for children in developing countries. Even today, many developing countries experience a disproportionate share of extreme weather, and they are predicted to suffer disproportionately from the effects of climate change in the future. Moreover, developing countries often have limited social safety nets,…

  14. 48 CFR 25.404 - Least developed countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Least developed countries... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.404 Least developed countries. For acquisitions covered by the WTO GPA, least developed country end products, construction material, and services must...

  15. Breast Surgery International--breast cancer in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Sandelin, K; Apffelstaedt, J P; Abdullah, H; Murray, E M; Ajuluchuku, E U

    2002-01-01

    Breast Surgery International (BSI) was formed in 1999 as an integrated society within the International Surgical Society ISS/SIC. One goal is to promote breast surgery world wide and focus on the situation in the developing countries. An edited summary of a symposium on locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) and the current situation in two African countries and in Malaysia is reported. Diagnosis, management and treatment options differ from recommendations that prevail due to lack of resources, lack of access to facilities and cultural and socioeconomic barriers. Younger age at onset, more men are affected and locally advanced breast cancer dominates the clinical panorama. A rational treatment plan for LABC should have chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy as armaments. A unique opportunity exists for international interchange within a professional organization such as BSI, for providing training opportunities, for clinical and experimental studies of the world' s most common female malignancy. PMID:12449462

  16. Hepatitis B virus burden in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Zampino, Rosa; Boemio, Adriana; Sagnelli, Caterina; Alessio, Loredana; Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Sagnelli, Evangelista; Coppola, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has shown an intermediate or high endemicity level in low-income countries over the last five decades. In recent years, however, the incidence of acute hepatitis B and the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carriers have decreased in several countries because of the HBV universal vaccination programs started in the nineties. Some countries, however, are still unable to implement these programs, particularly in their hyperendemic rural areas. The diffusion of HBV infection is still wide in several low-income countries where the prevention, management and treatment of HBV infection are a heavy burden for the governments and healthcare authorities. Of note, the information on the HBV epidemiology is scanty in numerous eastern European and Latin-American countries. The studies on molecular epidemiology performed in some countries provide an important contribution for a more comprehensive knowledge of HBV epidemiology, and phylogenetic studies provide information on the impact of recent and older migratory flows. PMID:26576083

  17. Micromanufacturing: Recent developments in this country and abroad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrington, Robert O.; Friedrich, Craig R.; Gao, Robert X.; Lin, Gang

    1993-01-01

    This paper has attempted to summarize some recent activities in this country and overseas. The effort in Louisiana is relatively new and growing. The Russian effort is not well coordinated or documented. A conference on Micro Systems Technologies is scheduled for June of 1993 in St. Petersburg, Russia. Serious consideration should be given to developing a strategy to not only participate in this meeting, but also to spend additional time in Russia assessing the technology. MEMS technologies will eventually affect virtually every aspect of our lives and, at least in the near term, mini-devices with micro-components will probably be the economic drivers for the technology.

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis in a developing country: is it different from developed countries?

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; Semaan, Toufic; El Hag, Imad

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective. Despite the extensive reporting of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) from industrialized developed countries, reports from developing countries are rare. The aim of our study was to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and endoscopic features of EoE and response to therapy in children and adults from a developing country, Saudi Arabia. Methods. We identified patients diagnosed with EoE in our center from 2004 to 2011. EoE was defined as esophageal mucosal infiltration with a peak eosinophil count ≥15 eosinophils/high-powered field. Results. Forty-five patients were diagnosed with EoE (37 children and 8 adults; 36 males; median age 10.5 years, range from 1-37 years). Feeding difficulty, vomiting/regurgitation, and failure to thrive predominated in young children, whereas dysphagia and food impactions predominated in older children and adults. Allergy testing revealed food sensitization in 12 of 15 patients (80%); 3 responded to elemental formula, while 8 failed to respond to dietary manipulation after the allergy testing. Thirty-nine patients achieved remission by swallowed inhaled fluticasone. The majority of patients experienced a recurrence of symptoms upon the discontinuation of fluticasone. Conclusion. Our data indicate that EoE is increasingly recognized in Saudi Arabia and show many similarities to data from North America and Europe.

  19. Interactions between zinc deficiency and environmental enteropathy in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, Greta W; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Prendergast, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Zinc deficiency affects one-fifth of the world's population and leads to substantial morbidity and mortality. Environmental enteropathy (EE), a subclinical pathology of altered intestinal morphology and function, is almost universal among people living in developing countries and affects long-term growth and health. This review explores the overlapping nature of these 2 conditions and presents evidence for their interaction. EE leads to impaired zinc homeostasis, predominantly due to reduced absorptive capacity arising from disturbed intestinal architecture, and zinc deficiency exacerbates several of the proposed pathways that underlie EE, including intestinal permeability, enteric infection, and chronic inflammation. Ongoing zinc deficiency likely perpetuates the adverse outcomes of EE by worsening malabsorption, reducing intestinal mucosal immune responses, and exacerbating systemic inflammation. Although the etiology of EE is predominantly environmental, zinc deficiency may also have a role in its pathogenesis. Given the impact of both EE and zinc deficiency on morbidity and mortality in developing countries, better understanding the relation between these 2 conditions may be critical for developing combined interventions to improve child health.

  20. Illustrative Statistics on Women in Selected Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorimer, Thomas; Bachu, Amara

    Data pertaining to some basic aspects of women's participation in selected developing countries are presented in 13 charts, arranged alphabetically by region and country within region. Countries in each of the three major developing regions--Africa, Asia, and Latin America--are included when possible. Each chart presents data for a single topic in…

  1. Benefits and challenges of newborn hearing screening for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Olusanya, B O; Luxon, L M; Wirz, S L

    2004-03-01

    The late detection of permanent congenital and early-onset hearing loss (PCEHL) often has severe effects on linguistic, speech, cognitive and educational development in affected children. Since newborn hearing screening (NHS) allows most PCEHL to be detected early enough for optimal intervention, the prospects of its introduction in the developing world are reviewed in this paper. It is observed that a simple generalisation on the feasibility of NHS for the developing countries seems inappropriate in view of the diversities in the health and socio-economic status of these countries and the recent favourable reports of universal newborn hearing screening from the region. NHS empowers parents to make timely choices that will allow their hearing impaired children to be given a good start in life and be fully integrated into the wider community. It also compels attention towards the development of essential hearing healthcare services, besides the specific documented benefits. Existing child-healthcare structures such as the expanded programme on immunisation (EPI), baby friendly hospital initiatives (BFHI) and integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) provide opportunities for the introduction of some form of NHS in many of these countries where routine or systematic childhood hearing screening does not exist. Limited funding, manpower shortages, inadequate support services, low public awareness and the uncertainty regarding the commitment from healthcare practitioners may present some challenges but these are not insurmountable. Pilot studies are necessary in each country to provide empirical data that will guide healthcare providers who wish to introduce such a programme at any level of healthcare delivery. PMID:15129939

  2. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S. A. Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. PMID:26798474

  3. Agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.

    1995-11-01

    Agricultural fibres are routinely used for the manufacture of paper products in developing countries. The agriculture (non-wood) pulp industry accounts more than 50% of the national pulp production in China and in India. In contrast, paper manufacturers of the developed countries have relied largely on wood pulp fibres since the 1950`s. During the past 3 decades, the global wood pulp production capacities has expanded substantially. There is a renewed interest to use agriculture-based fibres in place of wood, for the production of pulp and paper in developing countries. The alternative is driven, in part, by the growing shortage of commercial wood supply as caused by the over-cutting of the standing forest and the accelerated re-allocation of forest land for ecological and recreational uses. Although the shortage of wood supply can be alleviated partially by the adoption of higher-yield wood pulping technologies and by the increased use of waste paper. But ultimately, these remedial steps will be inadequate to meet the growing demand for paper products. There are several important factors which affect the use of agricultural fibres for pulp and paper manufacture in developed countries. For some on-purpose fibre crops, continued farm subsidy and repeal of certain sections of the Narcotics Act would be required. Agri-pulp production from agricultural cropping residues appears to be the most practical economic means to supplement the fibre needs of the paper industry. In the social context, agri-pulp implementation in North America would also provide lower taxes that would be accrued from the elimination of substantial annual subsidies to grain farmers from the government.

  4. Chronic kidney disease hotspots in developing countries in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Georgi; Varughese, Santosh; Thandavan, Thiagarajan; Iyengar, Arpana; Fernando, Edwin; Naqvi, S A Jaffar; Sheriff, Rezvi; Ur-Rashid, Harun; Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Kafle, Rishi Kumar

    2016-02-01

    In many developing countries in the South Asian region, screening for chronic diseases in the community has shown a widely varying prevalence. However, certain geographical regions have shown a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology. This predominantly affects the young and middle-aged population with a lower socioeconomic status. Here, we describe the hotspots of CKD of undiagnosed etiology in South Asian countries including the North, Central and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka and the coastal region of the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. Screening of these populations has revealed cases of CKD in various stages. Race has also been shown to be a factor, with a much lower prevalence of CKD in whites compared to Asians, which could be related to the known influence of ethnicity on CKD development as well as environmental factors. The difference between developed and developing nations is most stark in the realm of healthcare, which translates into CKD hotspots in many regions of South Asian countries. Additionally, the burden of CKD stage G5 remains unknown due to the lack of registry reports, poor access to healthcare and lack of an organized chronic disease management program. The population receiving various forms of renal replacement therapy has dramatically increased in the last decade due to better access to point of care, despite the disproportionate increase in nephrology manpower. In this article we will discuss the nephrology care provided in various countries in South Asia, including India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. PMID:26798474

  5. Some ethical issues in international collaborative research in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Robison, V A

    1998-12-01

    This report deals with some of the ethical issues involved in international, intercultural research collaboration. Externally sponsored research in developing countries merits special attention because the research should be guided both by biomedical ethics and development ethics. The report presents the context of the developing country researcher and examples of ethical problems in a donor-funded research collaboration project in a developing country dental school. Both donor and recipient countries share full responsibility for conducting research which is both ethical and which meets the health priorities of the recipient country. PMID:9881288

  6. The geostationary orbit and developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medina, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The geostationary orbit is becoming congested due to use by several countries throughout the world, and the request for use of this orbit is increasing. There are 188 geostationary stations in operation. An equitable distribution of stations on this orbit is requested.

  7. Teacher Labor Markets in Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, Helen F.

    2007-01-01

    Helen Ladd takes a comparative look at policies that the world's industrialized countries are using to assure a supply of high-quality teachers. Her survey puts U.S. educational policies and practices into international perspective. Ladd begins by examining teacher salaries--an obvious, but costly, policy tool. She finds, perhaps surprisingly,…

  8. Indoor air pollution in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chen, B H; Hong, C J; Pandey, M R; Smith, K R

    1990-01-01

    Of the four principal categories of indoor pollution (combustion products, chemicals, radon and biologicals), research in developing countries has focused on combustion-generated pollutants, and principally those from solid-fuel-fired cooking and heating stoves. Such stoves are used in more than half the world's households and have been shown in many locations to produce high indoor concentrations of particulates, carbon monoxide and other combustion-related pollutants. Although the proportion of all such household stoves that are used in poorly ventilated situations is uncertain, the total population exposed to excessive concentrations is potentially high, probably several hundred million. A number of studies were carried out in the 1980s to discover the health effects of such stove exposures. The majority of such studies were done in South Asia in homes burning biomass fuels or in China with coal-burning homes, although a sprinkling of studies examining biomass-burning have been done in Oceania, Latin America and Africa. Of the health effects that might be expected from such exposures, little, if any, work seems to have been done on low birthweight and eye problems, although there are anecdotal accounts making the connection. Decreased lung function has been noted in Nepali women reporting more time spent near the stove as it has for Chinese women using coal stoves as compared to those using gas stoves. Respiratory distress symptoms have been associated with use of smoky fuels in West India, Ladakh and in several Chinese studies among different age groups, some with large population samples. Acute respiratory infection in children, one of the chief causes of infant and childhood mortality, has been associated with Nepali household-smoke exposures. Studies of chronic disease endpoints are difficult because of the need to construct exposure histories over long periods. Nevertheless, chronic obstructive lung disease has been associated with the daily time spent near

  9. Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Abarca Guerrero, Lilliana; Maas, Ger; Hogland, William

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Factors affecting performance waste management systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Questionnaire as Annex for waste management baseline assessment. - Abstract: Solid waste management is a challenge for the cities' authorities in developing countries mainly due to the increasing generation of waste, the burden posed on the municipal budget as a result of the high costs associated to its management, the lack of understanding over a diversity of factors that affect the different stages of waste management and linkages necessary to enable the entire handling system functioning. An analysis of literature on the work done and reported mainly in publications from 2005 to 2011, related to waste management in developing countries, showed that few articles give quantitative information. The analysis was conducted in two of the major scientific journals, Waste Management Journal and Waste Management and Research. The objective of this research was to determine the stakeholders' action/behavior that have a role in the waste management process and to analyze influential factors on the system, in more than thirty urban areas in 22 developing countries in 4 continents. A combination of methods was used in this study in order to assess the stakeholders and the factors influencing the performance of waste management in the cities. Data was collected from scientific literature, existing data bases, observations made during visits to urban areas, structured interviews with relevant professionals, exercises provided to participants in workshops and a questionnaire applied to stakeholders. Descriptive and inferential statistic methods were used to draw conclusions. The outcomes of the research are a comprehensive list of stakeholders that are relevant in the waste management systems and a set of factors that reveal the most important causes for the systems' failure. The information provided is very

  10. Environmental issues affecting CCT development

    SciTech Connect

    Reidy, M.

    1997-12-31

    While no final legislative schedule has been set for the new Congress, two issues with strong environmental ramifications which are likely to affect the coal industry seem to top the list of closely watched debates in Washington -- the Environmental Protection Agency`s proposed new ozone and particulate matter standards and utility restructuring. The paper discusses the background of the proposed standards, public comment, the Congressional review of regulations, other legislative options, and utility restructuring.

  11. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Pathogens In Developed and Developing Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Stephanie M.; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Ellis, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoeal illness is a leading cause of child mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are no precise or current estimates of the types and prevalence of pathogens associated with diarrheal illnesses in developed and developing settings. This systematic review assessed data from 60 studies published in the English language from five developing regions and developed countries worldwide to provide regional estimates of enteric pathogens affecting children. The random-effect method was used to establish the weighted average prevalence of pathogens in adults and children for each region. Significantly more pathogens were reported by studies from developing regions compared with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries (P<0.016). The identification rates of pathogens from community based and hospital based studies were similar (58.5% and 58.1% respectively, P<0.619). The overall detection of enteric pathogens in developing countries was higher in adults (74.8%; 95% CI 63.1-83.8%) compared with children (56.7%; 95% CI 53.0-60.4%) (P<0.001). Rotavirus was the most frequently detected pathogen in all regions with the highest rate, 24.8% (95% CI 18.0-33.1%), detected in the developed countries. This systematic review is the first to provide an estimate of the prevalence of enteric pathogens associated with diarrhoeal illnesses in adults and children in developed and developing settings. While pathogen detection rate is greater in developing regions the consistently high prevalence of rotavirus in both developed and developing settings underscores the urgent need for access to rotavirus vaccines. Increased travel between developing and developed countries increases disease risk, and hence developed countries have a vested interest in supporting vaccine accessibility in developing settings. PMID:25170480

  12. Destigmatizing day-to-day practices: what developed countries can learn from developing countries

    PubMed Central

    ROSEN, ALAN

    2006-01-01

    The nature of and threshold for stigma associated with mental disorders appears to be different between developed and developing countries. Decreasing stigma can be achieved through a combination of the best Western educational and media strategies and the systematization of some important lessons from developing countries. At the macro-level, this involves: societal changes leading to being more inclusive and re-integrating people with mental illness into our communities; finding socially useful and culturally valued work roles for such marginalized people; re-extending our kinship networks, and re-valuing contact with people with mental illness and learning from their experiences. At the micro-level, this involves developing more destigmatizing day-to-day clinical practices, including: more holistic appraisal of disorder, abilities and needs; therapeutic optimism; a strengths orientation; engaging family and redeveloping an extended support network; celebration of age appropriate rites of passage; invoking the language of recovery; valuing veterans of mental illness as "spirit guides"; promoting consumers' community living as full citizens; engaging and involving the local community in taking responsibility for their own mental health. PMID:16757986

  13. Newborn screening progress in developing countries--overcoming internal barriers.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita D; Krotoski, Danuta; Therrell, Bradford L

    2010-04-01

    Newborn screening is an important public health measure aimed at early identification and management of affected newborns thereby lowering infant morbidity and mortality. It is a comprehensive system of education, screening, follow-up, diagnosis, treatment/management, and evaluation that must be institutionalized and sustained within public health systems often challenged by economic, political, and cultural considerations. As a result, developing countries face unique challenges in implementing and expanding newborn screening that can be grouped into the following categories: (1) planning, (2) leadership, (3) medical support, (4) technical support, (5) logistical support, (6) education, (7) protocol and policy development, (8) administration, (9) evaluation, and (10) sustainability. We review some of the experiences in overcoming implementation challenges in developing newborn screening programs, and discuss recent efforts to encourage increased newborn screening through support networking and information exchange activities in 2 regions-the Asia Pacific and the Middle East/North Africa. PMID:20207264

  14. Inclusion Education and the Developing Countries: The Case of Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibria, Gholam

    2005-01-01

    Following the trends of "Inclusion" movement in the USA and some Western countries, a number of Developing countries have been imbued with the philosophy of inclusion education. Some of these countries have enacted laws to safeguard the educational rights and welfare of children with disabilities, and others have been trying to initiate inclusion…

  15. Creating World-Class Universities: Implications for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeongwoo

    2013-01-01

    Many countries are now creating world-class universities (WCUs) as essential parts of their higher education reform agendas, and as national goals. It is legitimate to ask whether every country that aspires to build a WCU can do so--especially developing countries. To answer this question, this paper provides a three-step framework. The first step…

  16. The emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2006-02-01

    Thirty years ago international nutritionists were focussing on childhood malnutrition, the 'protein gap' and how to feed the world's burgeoning population, and medical services in the developing world were concentrated on the fight against infectious diseases. Today the World Health Organization (WHO) finds itself needing to deal with the new pandemic of obesity and its accompanying non-communicable diseases (NCDs) while the challenge of childhood malnutrition has far from disappeared, TB and malaria rates are escalating, and the scourge of AIDS has emerged. This has created a 'double burden' of disease that threatens to overwhelm the health services of many resource-poor countries. WHO warns that the greater future burden of obesity and diabetes will affect developing countries, and the projected numbers of new cases of diabetes run into the hundreds of millions within the next 2 decades. The obesity pandemic originated in the US and crossed to Europe and the world's other rich nations before, remarkably, it penetrated even the world's poorest countries especially in their urban areas. The pandemic is transmitted through the vectors of subsidized agriculture and multinational companies providing cheap, highly refined fats, oils, and carbohydrates, labour-saving mechanized devices, affordable motorized transport, and the seductions of sedentary pastimes such as television. This paper briefly reviews these macro-environmental trends as well as considering some of the socio-behavioural influences on weight gain in traditional societies. It concludes, pessimistically, that the pandemic will continue to spread for the foreseeable future, and that, apart from educational campaigns, the governments and health services of poor countries will have few effective public health levers with which they can try to arrest the trend. PMID:16326822

  17. The Case for Research in Pure Physics in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mweene, H. V.

    Science and technology are the keys to modern economic development. But, it has often been argued that poor countries cannot really afford to support research, or that they should at most devote their efforts to applied science only. The scientific knowledge necessary for development would then be partly or wholly obtained from other countries. In this paper, the case will be argued that developing countries cannot afford to leave research, both pure and applied, to the developed countries and that the only way the developing world is going to solve its problems is through development driven by their own research activities. With reference to physics, the importance of research by researchers in poor countries is explained. Lastly, it is outlined how the logistics of doing research under the difficult conditions prevailing in poor countries can be managed.

  18. Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Rachael E.; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Five drivers led developed countries to current solid waste management paradigm. ► Many unique factors challenge developing country solid waste management. ► Limited transferability of developed country approaches to developing countries. ► High uncertainties and decision stakes call for post-normal approaches. ► Systems thinking needed for multi-scale, self-organizing eco-social waste systems. - Abstract: Solid waste management (SWM) has become an issue of increasing global concern as urban populations continue to rise and consumption patterns change. The health and environmental implications associated with SWM are mounting in urgency, particularly in the context of developing countries. While systems analyses largely targeting well-defined, engineered systems have been used to help SWM agencies in industrialized countries since the 1960s, collection and removal dominate the SWM sector in developing countries. This review contrasts the history and current paradigms of SWM practices and policies in industrialized countries with the current challenges and complexities faced in developing country SWM. In industrialized countries, public health, environment, resource scarcity, climate change, and public awareness and participation have acted as SWM drivers towards the current paradigm of integrated SWM. However, urbanization, inequality, and economic growth; cultural and socio-economic aspects; policy, governance, and institutional issues; and international influences have complicated SWM in developing countries. This has limited the applicability of approaches that were successful along the SWM development trajectories of industrialized countries. This review demonstrates the importance of founding new SWM approaches for developing country contexts in post-normal science and complex, adaptive systems thinking.

  19. A Manner of Characterizing the Development of Countries

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Robert; Montroll, Elliott W.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize the socio-economic state and the temporal evolution of countries by the use of labor force distribution data on a multidimensional phase plot so that the development of a country is represented by an evolutionary track of a phase point. The evolutionary tracks of several countries are examined, and the phase points of many countries are compared. Snowflake diagrams, which make easy comparison of the socio-economic character of various countries, have also been developed. PMID:16592022

  20. Development of Global Change Research in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Yepes, Adriana P.

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems and Global Change in the Context of the Neotropics; Medellín, Colombia, 19-20 May 2010; Research in most areas of global environmental change is overwhelmingly produced outside developing countries, which are usually consumers rather than producers of the knowledge associated with their natural resources. While there have been important recent advances in understanding the causes of global-¬scale changes and their consequences to the functioning of tropical ecosystems, there is still an important gap in the understanding of these changes at regional and national levels (where important political decisions are usually made). A symposium was held with the aim of surveying the current state of research activities in a small, developing country such as Colombia. It was jointly organized by the Research Center on Ecosystems and Global Change, Carbono and Bosques; the National University of Colombia at Medellín and the Colombian Ministry of the Environment, Housing, and Regional Development. This 2-¬day symposium gathered Colombian and international scientists involved in different areas of global environmental change, tropical ecosystems, and human societies.

  1. Rethinking HIV prevalence determination in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan A; Oyediran, Kolawole A

    2015-01-01

    The process for HIV prevalence determination using antenatal clinic (ANC) sentinel surveillance data has been plagued by criticisms of its biasness. Exploring other means of HIV prevalence determination is necessary to validate that estimates are near actual values or to replace the current system. We propose a data collection model that leverages the increasing adoption and penetration of the Internet and mobile technology to collect and archive routine data from HIV counseling and testing (HCT) client intake forms from all HCT centers and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) sites in a country. These data will then be mined to determine prevalence rates and risk factors at the community level. The need to improve the method for the generation of HIV prevalence rates has been repeatedly echoed by researchers though no one has been able to fashion out a better and more reliable way to the current ANC sentinel surveillance method at a reasonable cost. The chance of using routinely generated data during HCT and PMTCT is appealing and needs to be envisioned as the technology to achieve this is increasingly becoming available and affordable in countries worst hit by the pandemic. Triangulating data generated from routine HCT and PMTCT sites with data from sentinel surveillance and where the confidence of its quality is assured, as the sole source of HIV prevalence rate determination and behavioral risk assessment will improve the acceptance by communities and drive evidence-based interventions at the community level. PMID:25174731

  2. Inequality in Human Development: An Empirical Assessment of 32 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark; Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. In this paper, we apply a simply approach to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows a comparison of the level in human development of the poor with the level of the non-poor within countries, but also across countries. This is an application of the method presented in Grimm et al. (World Development 36(12):2527–2546, 2008) to a sample of 21 low and middle income countries and 11 industrialized countries. In particular the inclusion of the industrialized countries, which were not included in the previous work, implies to deal with a number of additional challenges, which we outline in this paper. Our results show that inequality in human development within countries is high, both in developed and industrialized countries. In fact, the HDI of the lowest quintiles in industrialized countries is often below the HDI of the richest quintile in many middle income countries. We also find, however, a strong overall negative correlation between the level of human development and inequality in human development. PMID:20461123

  3. Chemicals and environmentally caused diseases in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Jamall, I.S.; Davis, B. )

    1991-06-01

    This chapter discusses international aspects of diseases resulting from exposure to chemical pollutants in the environment, with an emphasis on developing countries. These countries share many of the same problems of air, water, and pesticide pollution that face the more industrialized countries. In developing countries, however, the problems are compounded by a number of unique situations, viz., economic priorities, high burden of infectious diseases, impoverishment, and absence of a regulatory framework for the disposal of toxic chemicals. This discussion emphasizes the importance of interactions among toxicants, malnutrition, and infectious diseases for both urban and rural populations insofar as these interactions contribute to disease. Toxicants not only produce disease directly but also exacerbate diseases with other causes. Specific examples from developing countries demonstrate how human health effects from exposures to environmental chemicals can be assessed. While they do not strictly fall under the rubric of developing countries, the public health consequences of inadequate control of environmental pollution in the East European countries should demonstrate the magnitude of the problem, except that in developing countries the public health consequence of environmental chemicals will be aggravated by the widespread malnutrition and high prevalence of infectious diseases. Much needs to be done before we can adequately quantify the contribution of environmental chemicals to morbidity and mortality in developing countries with the level of sophistication now evident in the charting of infectious diseases in these countries. 52 references.

  4. The Principalship in Developing Countries: Context, Characteristics and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar

    2004-01-01

    This article seeks to shed light on the contexts and characteristics of principalship in developing countries, as well as to examine similarities and differences between principals in developed and developing countries. Twenty-seven papers constitute the data on which external influences on principalship, patterns of leadership styles and…

  5. Value Conflicts in Computing Developments: Developed and Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kling, Rob

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the value conflicts engendered by computing developments in two different institutional settings: electronic funds transfer systems and instructional computing in primary and secondary schools. While specific values depend upon culture and upon the character of the particular institutional setting studied, these two cases serve…

  6. Innovations and Reforms in Schooling in Asia's Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maclean, Rupert

    1992-01-01

    Provides an overview of problems facing Asia's developing countries as they strive to achieve economic development. Reviews trends in universal primary education; continuing education; restructuring secondary education; communications technology, vocational education, and professional development of teachers. (CFR)

  7. [Quality of medicines in least developed countries].

    PubMed

    Videau, J Y

    2006-12-01

    Due to worsening economic conditions and poor enforcement of existing pharmaceutical and customs regulations, third world countries are faced with a growing threat from counterfeit and substandard medicines. With the expansion of illicit markets in urban areas, the sales of medicines of uncertain quality and origin are increasing. Most victims of this illicit trade are among the world's poorest populations that cannot afford to buy quality drugs through private-sector distribution channels. National pharmaceutical programs promoting universal access to essential generic medicines at reasonable cost are the key to curbing this problem. A system based on strict, rational pharmaceutical purchasing and distribution policies with quality assurance at every level of the supply chain is needed to guarantee that patients receive safe effective high quality healthcare products. PMID:17286015

  8. Potential applications of advanced aircraft in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation sponsored by NASA indicates that air transportation can play an important role in the economic progress of developing countries. By the turn of the century, the rapid economic growth now occurring in many developing countries should result in a major redistribution of the world's income. Some countries now classified as 'developing' will become 'developed' and are likely to become far more important to the world's civil aviation industry. Developing countries will be increasingly important buyers of conventional subsonic long-haul jet passenger aircraft but not to the point of significant influence on the design or technological content of future aircraft of this type. However, the technological content of more specialized aircraft may be influenced by developing country requirements and reflected in designs which fill a need concerning specialized missions, related to short-haul, low-density, rough runways, and natural resource development.

  9. "Health for all" in a least-developed country.

    PubMed Central

    Shonubi, Aderibigbe M. O.; Odusan, Olatunde; Oloruntoba, David O.; Agbahowe, Solomon A.; Siddique, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) concept of primary healthcare as the basis for comprehensive healthcare delivery for developing countries has not been effectively applied in many of these countries. The Kingdom of Lesotho, one of the world's least-developed countries, has been able to provide a fairly comprehensive healthcare system for its citizenry based on prmary healthcare principles and a strong commitment on the part of the government despite severe limitations of finance and human resource capacity as well as difficult mountainous terrains. This paper presents the highlights of this system of healthcare delivery with the hope that other developing countries would draw some lessons from the model. PMID:16080673

  10. Evidence base for children affected by HIV and AIDS in low prevalence and concentrated epidemic countries: applicability to programming guidance from high prevalence countries.

    PubMed

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Burkhalter, Bart; de Wagt, Arjan; Jennings, Larissa; Kelley, Allison Gamble; Hammink, Marie-Eve

    2009-01-01

    As global commitment grows to protect and support children affected by HIV and AIDS, questions remain about how best to meet the needs of these children in low prevalence settings and whether information from high prevalence countries can appropriately guide programming in these settings. A 2007 search for the evidence in low prevalence settings on situational challenges of HIV and AIDS-affected children and interventions to address these challenges identified 413 documents. They were reviewed and judged for quality of documentation and scientific rigor. Information was compiled across eight types of challenges (health and health care, nutrition and food security, education, protection, placement, psychosocial development, socioeconomic status, and stigma/discrimination); and also assessed was strength of evidence for situational and intervention findings. Results were compared to three programming principles drawn from research in high prevalence countries: family-centered preventive efforts, treatment, and care; family-focused support to ensure capacity to care for and protect these children; and sustaining economic livelihood of HIV and AIDS-affected households. Findings show that children affected by HIV and AIDS in low prevalence settings face increased vulnerabilities similar to those in high prevalence settings. These findings support seeking and testing programmatic directions for interventions identified in high prevalence settings. However, low prevalence settings/countries are extremely diverse, and the strength of the evidence base among them was mixed (strong, moderate, and weak in study design and documentation), geographically limited, and had insufficient evidence on interventions to draw conclusions about how best to reduce additional vulnerabilities of affected children. Information on family, economic, sociocultural, and political factors within local contexts will be vital in the development of appropriate strategies to mitigate vulnerabilities.

  11. Evidence base for children affected by HIV and AIDS in low prevalence and concentrated epidemic countries: applicability to programming guidance from high prevalence countries

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Burkhalter, Bart; de Wagt, Arjan; Jennings, Larissa; Kelley, Allison Gamble; Hammink, Marie-Eve

    2009-01-01

    As global commitment grows to protect and support children affected by HIV and AIDS, questions remain about how best to meet the needs of these children in low prevalence settings and whether information from high prevalence countries can appropriately guide programming in these settings. A 2007 search for the evidence in low prevalence settings on situational challenges of HIV and AIDS-affected children and interventions to address these challenges identified 413 documents. They were reviewed and judged for quality of documentation and scientific rigor. Information was compiled across eight types of challenges (health and health care, nutrition and food security, education, protection, placement, psychosocial development, socioeconomic status, and stigma/ discrimination); and also assessed was strength of evidence for situational and intervention findings. Results were compared to three programming principles drawn from research in high prevalence countries: family-centered preventive efforts, treatment, and care; family-focused support to ensure capacity to care for and protect these children; and sustaining economic livelihood of HIV and AIDS-affected households. Findings show that children affected by HIV and AIDS in low prevalence settings face increased vulnerabilities similar to those in high prevalence settings. These findings support seeking and testing programmatic directions for interventions identified in high prevalence settings. However, low prevalence settings/countries are extremely diverse, and the strength of the evidence base among them was mixed (strong, moderate, and weak in study design and documentation), geographically limited, and had insufficient evidence on interventions to draw conclusions about how best to reduce additional vulnerabilities of affected children. Information on family, economic, sociocultural, and political factors within local contexts will be vital in the development of appropriate strategies to mitigate vulnerabilities

  12. Radioactive waste management approaches for developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Anthony Hechanova; Catherine Riddle

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear power has demonstrated over the last 30 years its capacity to produce base-load electricity at a low, predictable and stable cost due to the very low economic dependence on the price of uranium. However the management of used nuclear fuel remains the “Achilles’ Heel” of this energy source since the storage of used nuclear fuel is increasing as evidenced by the following number with 2,000 tons of UNF produced each year by the 104 US nuclear reactor units which equates to a total of 62,000 spent fuel assemblies stored in dry cask and 88,000 stored in pools. Two options adopted by several countries will be presented. The first one adopted by Europe, Japan and Russia consists of recycling the used nuclear fuel after irradiation in a nuclear reactor. Ninety six percent of uranium and plutonium contained in the spent fuel could be reused to produce electricity and are worth recycling. The separation of uranium and plutonium from the wastes is realized through the industrial PUREX process so that they can be recycled for re-use in a nuclear reactor as a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The second option undertaken by Finland, Sweden and the United States implies the direct disposal of used nuclear fuel into a geologic formation. One has to remind that only 30% of the worldwide used nuclear fuel are currently recycled, the larger part being stored (70% in pool) waiting for scientific or political decisions. A third option is emerging with a closed fuel cycle which will improve the global sustainability of nuclear energy. This option will not only decrease the volume amount of nuclear waste but also the long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste, as well as improving the long-term safety and the heat-loading of the final repository. At the present time, numerous countries are focusing on the R&D recycling activities of the ultimate waste composed of fission products and minor actinides (americium and curium). Several new chemical extraction processes, such as TRUSPEAK

  13. Lay beliefs about developing countries in relation to helping behaviors.

    PubMed

    Pinazo, Daniel; Peris, Rosana; Gámez, María-José

    2010-01-01

    We study the beliefs in a developed country about the attribution of responsibility for the situation in developing countries, in relation to helping behaviors and level of commitment. Two samples were used: one for the synthesis of knowledge (N=527) and a second for the synthesis of beliefs (N=287). From the results, we analyze the synthesis of beliefs and obtain the structure of beliefs. The synthesis of beliefs sample was made up of 137 individuals who help developing countries and 150 who do not. ANOVAs show that developed countries activate three implicit theories as beliefs to explain poverty in developing countries. Attribution external to the actor is more significant at higher levels of commitment to help. The implications for social communication campaigns in the developed world are discussed.

  14. Control of oral cancer in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world. In Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka it is the most common and accounts for about a third of all cancers. More than 100 000 new cases occur every year in south and south-east Asia, with poor prospects of survival. The importance of oral cancer as a public health priority is underscored by the fact that the suffering, disfigurement, and death it causes need not occur. The commonest cause of oral cancer—tobacco use—is well known and can be eliminated. For the oral cancer cases that do occur, detection at an early stage is possible, allowing simple inexpensive treatment, and resulting in long-term survival. Enough is already known about the disease and its prevention for action to be taken. With firm commitment, correct priorities, and concerted efforts by governments and individuals, strategies can be designed, programmes can be implemented, and the disease can be prevented. The economic saving in health care costs to a country, by itself, justifies these steps; the prevention of suffering and death of oral cancer victims makes them mandatory. This article reviews the current knowledge about the epidemiology, etiology, pathology, prevention, and treatment of oral cancer. It describes a strategy for controlling the disease, sets priorities, and recommends actions that governments and individuals can take. Finally, it identifies targets for future research. PMID:6335843

  15. Performance-Centered Design for Developing Countries: Emphasizing Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Sonia

    2002-01-01

    Discusses performance-centered design (PCD) for developing countries and demonstrates how the process of internationalization and localization needs to go beyond the traditional functionality checklists of culture and language. Describes how the unique nature of developing country economic, human capacity, and infrastructure contexts has to be…

  16. A Perspective from Developing Countries. Background Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunsheye, F. Adetowun

    This paper describes the problems, services, and role of school libraries and media centers in the developing countries, and an experimental research project at the Abadina Media Resource Center (AMRC) in Nigeria. Six problems facing developing countries in the provision of school media services are discussed. An overview of the present state of…

  17. Outcomes of Students with Disabilities in a Developing Country: Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Sheilah M.

    2011-01-01

    In most developed countries, research studies that investigate the effects of special education on student outcomes have become conventional practice. However, in developing countries such as the twin-island Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, there are no studies about the progress and outcomes of students and youths with disabilities. This…

  18. Globalization and Industrialization in 64 Developing Countries, 1980-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of the latest wave of economic globalization on manufacturing employment in developing countries. It revisits the classic debate on the effect of internal and external influences on industrialization, and extends this debate to contemporary developing countries. In the process, it assesses the evidence for…

  19. Factors Influencing Technology Planning in Developing Countries: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keengwe, Jared; Malapile, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    This article is a literature review concerning the factors that play an important role in the development of educational technology plans in the educational system of developing countries (DCs). Largely, the technology plans are influenced by factors that emanates from within the country (internal) and those outside of their borders (external).…

  20. Women as Food Producers in Developing Countries: Impact on Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Retia Scott

    1988-01-01

    Women are the primary producers of food in developing countries and can be empowered to become catalysts in the struggle to combat world hunger. It is important to understand the problem and the barriers women face and to appreciate the progress made by women in developing countries. (JOW)

  1. Integrated Microbial Technology for Developing Countries: Springboard for Economic Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DaSilva, Edgar J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the current use of microbial technology in industrialized countries to develop substitute sources of fuel, food, and fertilizer and why it is important for developing countries to adopt the techniques described to gain economically. A list of references is also presented. (HM)

  2. The (political) economics of antiretroviral treatment in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nattrass, Nicoli J

    2008-12-01

    Despite unprecedented international mobilisation to support universal provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), national governments continue to play the key role in determining access to treatment. Whereas some AIDS-affected countries have performed as well as or better than expected given their level of development, institutional characteristics and demographic challenges (e.g. Thailand and Brazil), others (notably South Africa) have not. This article argues that the 'economics' of antiretroviral drug delivery is at heart a political-economy of access to treatment. It depends on commitment on the part of national governments to negotiate with pharmaceutical companies over patented antiretroviral drug prices, on their policy towards compulsory licensing, and on the approach they adopt to delivering HAART. Civil society has an important role to play in encouraging governments to become, and remain, committed to taking action to ensure sustainable and widespread access to HAART.

  3. Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services. PMID:18797803

  4. Global environmental change research: empowering developing countries.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Carlos A; Lahsen, Myanna; Ometto, Jean P H B

    2008-09-01

    This paper discusses ways to reconcile the United Nations Millennium Development Goals with environmental sustainability at the national and international levels. The authors argue that development and better use of sustainability relevant knowledge is key, and that this requires capacity building globally, and especially in the less developed regions of the world. Also essential is stronger integration of high-quality knowledge creation and technology--and policy--development, including, importantly, the creation of centers of excellence in developing regions which effectively use and produce applications-directed high quality research and bring it to bear on decision making and practices related to environmental change and sustainable management of natural resources. The authors argue that Southern centers of excellence are a necessary first step for bottom-up societal transformation towards sustainability, and that such centers must help design innovative ways to assess and place value on ecosystem services.

  5. Environmental engineering education for developing countries: framework for the future.

    PubMed

    Ujang, Z; Henze, M; Curtis, T; Schertenleib, R; Beal, L L

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the existing philosophy, approach, criteria and delivery of environmental engineering education (E3) for developing countries. In general, environmental engineering is being taught in almost all major universities in developing countries, mostly under civil engineering degree programmes. There is an urgent need to address specific inputs that are particularly important for developing countries with respect to the reality of urbanisation and industrialisation. The main component of E3 in the near future will remain on basic sanitation in most developing countries, with special emphasis on the consumer-demand approach. In order to substantially overcome environmental problems in developing countries, E3 should include integrated urban water management, sustainable sanitation, appropriate technology, cleaner production, wastewater minimisation and financial framework.

  6. Promoting energy efficiency in developing countries: The role of NGOs

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtaszek, E.I.

    1993-06-01

    Developing countries need energy growth to spur economic growth. Yet energy activities contribute significantly to local water pollution and global greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency offers the means to achieve the twin goals of sustainable economic/social development and environmental protection. Energy efficiency increases industrial competitiveness and frees up capital so it can be applied to other uses, such as health and education. The key to improving energy efficiency in developing countries will be acquiring and applying Western technologies, practices, and policies and building national institutions for promoting energy efficiency. Relevant energy-efficient technologies include the use of better electric motors, adjustable speed controls, combined cycle power cogeneration, improved lighting, better refrigeration technologies, and improved electric power transmission and distribution systems. Western countries can best help developing countries by providing guidance and resources to support nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) staffed by local experts; these institutions can capture the energy efficiency potential and ensure environmental protection in developing countries.

  7. Simplified training for hazardous materials management in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, J.

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of dangerous situations happening daily in developing countries around the world involving untrained workers and hazardous materials. There are very few if any agencies in developing countries that are charged with ensuring safe and healthful working conditions. In addition to the problem of regulation and enforcement, there are potential training problems due to the level of literacy and degree of scientific background of these workers. Many of these workers are refugees from poorly developed countries who are willing to work no matter what the conditions. Training methods (standards) accepted as state of the art in the United States and other developed countries may not work well under the conditions found in developing countries. Because these methods may not be appropriate, new and novel ways to train workers quickly, precisely and economically in hazardous materials management should be developed. One approach is to develop training programs that use easily recognizable graphics with minimal verbal instruction, programs similar to the type used to teach universal international driving regulations and safety. The program as outlined in this paper could be tailored to any sized plant and any hazardous material handling or exposure situation. The situation in many developing countries is critical, development of simplified training methods for workers exposed to hazardous materials hold valuable market potential and are an opportunity for many underdeveloped countries to develop indigenous expertise in hazardous materials management.

  8. Strengthening blood programs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Terri Konstenius; McCullough, Jeffrey

    2013-12-01

    The lack of an adequate and safe blood supply is a major limitation to health care in the developing world. It is estimated that about 80% of the worlds' population has access to only 20% of the world's blood supply. When experts from the developed world attempt to provide assistance to blood programs in the developing world, this must be done with respect for the situation and the people who often work under difficult conditions. Important factors in the potential to strengthen blood availability and safety are government support, a national blood policy, the nature and leadership of the blood organization, transfusion medicine expertise, and hospital relations. A key first step is to carry out a needs assessment of the policies, governmental support, organizations, public attitudes about blood donation, and personnel and operations involved in providing the current blood supply. The important facets of the assessment are: the tool itself, the manner in which the assessment is conducted, and the presentation of the results. The assessment should provide recommendations for infrastructure, operations, standard procedures, testing strategies, training programs, types of donors and donor recruitment, budgeting, quality systems, and hospital relations. A sound assessment provides the groundwork and strategy for moving forward. Technical assistance from developed world experts to colleagues in the developing world can be extremely valuable in improving blood availability, safety, and the quality of blood services in the developing world.

  9. Bioethics in developing countries: ethics of scarcity and sacrifice.

    PubMed Central

    Olweny, C

    1994-01-01

    Contemporary issues such as euthanasia, surrogate motherhood, organ transplantation and gene therapy, which occupy the minds of ethicists in the industrialized countries are, for the moment, irrelevant in most developing countries. There, the ethics of scarcity, sacrifice, cross-cultural research, as well as the activities of multinational companies, are germane. In this article, only the ethics of scarcity and sacrifice will be discussed. Structural adjustment programmes, designed to solve the economic problems of the developing countries, muddied the waters. The dilemma confronting practitioners in developing countries is how to adhere to the basic principles of medical ethics in an atmosphere of hunger, poverty, war and ever-shrinking and often non-existent resources. Nowhere else in the world is the true meaning of scarcity portrayed as vividly as in the developing countries. Consequently, the doctor's clinical freedom may have to be sacrificed by the introduction of an essential drugs list and practice guidelines. The principle of greater good, while appealing, must be carefully interpreted and applied in the developing countries. Thus, while health promotion and disease prevention must be the primary focus, health planners should avoid pushing prevention at the expense of those currently sick. Health care reform in developing countries must not merely re-echo what is being done in the industrialized countries, but must respond to societal needs and be relevant to the community in question. PMID:7996563

  10. The stunting syndrome in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Humphrey, Jean H

    2014-01-01

    Linear growth failure is the most common form of undernutrition globally. With an estimated 165 million children below 5 years of age affected, stunting has been identified as a major public health priority, and there are ambitious targets to reduce the prevalence of stunting by 40% between 2010 and 2025. We view this condition as a ‘stunting syndrome’ in which multiple pathological changes marked by linear growth retardation in early life are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, reduced physical, neurodevelopmental and economic capacity and an elevated risk of metabolic disease into adulthood. Stunting is a cyclical process because women who were themselves stunted in childhood tend to have stunted offspring, creating an intergenerational cycle of poverty and reduced human capital that is difficult to break. In this review, the mechanisms underlying linear growth failure at different ages are described, the short-, medium- and long-term consequences of stunting are discussed, and the evidence for windows of opportunity during the life cycle to target interventions at the stunting syndrome are evaluated. PMID:25310000

  11. The stunting syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Humphrey, Jean H

    2014-11-01

    Linear growth failure is the most common form of undernutrition globally. With an estimated 165 million children below 5 years of age affected, stunting has been identified as a major public health priority, and there are ambitious targets to reduce the prevalence of stunting by 40% between 2010 and 2025. We view this condition as a 'stunting syndrome' in which multiple pathological changes marked by linear growth retardation in early life are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, reduced physical, neurodevelopmental and economic capacity and an elevated risk of metabolic disease into adulthood. Stunting is a cyclical process because women who were themselves stunted in childhood tend to have stunted offspring, creating an intergenerational cycle of poverty and reduced human capital that is difficult to break. In this review, the mechanisms underlying linear growth failure at different ages are described, the short-, medium- and long-term consequences of stunting are discussed, and the evidence for windows of opportunity during the life cycle to target interventions at the stunting syndrome are evaluated. PMID:25310000

  12. Public trust in the healthcare system in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Peters, Dexnell; Youssef, Farid F

    2016-04-01

    Broadly defined, trust in the healthcare system is concerned with how the public perceives the system and the actors therein as it pertains to their ability to both deliver services and seek the best interests of their clientele. Trust is important because it impacts upon a range of health behaviors including compliance and ultimately affects the ability of the healthcare system to meet its goals. While several studies exist on public trust within the developed world, few studies have explored this issue in developing countries. This paper therefore assesses public trust in the healthcare system of a developing small island nation, Trinidad and Tobago. A cross-sectional survey of adults was conducted using a questionnaire that has been successfully used across Europe. We report that trust levels in the healthcare system in Trinidad and Tobago are relatively low with less than 50% of persons indicating fair trust in the healthcare system. In addition, individual health professionals also did not score highly with lowest scores found for nurses and complementary therapists. Results on four out of five dimensions of trust also demonstrated scores significantly lower than those reported in more developed nations. Open-ended comments supported these findings with the majority of persons indicating a lack of confidence in the healthcare system. These results may reflect the reality in the wider developing world, and we suggest that bolstering trust is a needed area of focus in the delivery of healthcare services throughout the nation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. OPEC Aid to the Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Observer, 1978

    1978-01-01

    For the third consecutive year, OPEC aid amounted to more than $5.5 billion, representing more than two percent of the gross national product. This is compared to 0.31 percent for members of OECD's Development Assistance Committee. (Author/BB)

  14. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  15. Health Service Delivery in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benyoussef, Amor

    1977-01-01

    Reviews recent work dealing with methodological and technical issues in health and development; presents examples of the application of social sciences, including health demography and economics, in questions of health services delivery; and analyzes delivery of health services to rural and nomadic populations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.…

  16. Health innovation networks to help developing countries address neglected diseases.

    PubMed

    Morel, Carlos M; Acharya, Tara; Broun, Denis; Dangi, Ajit; Elias, Christopher; Ganguly, N K; Gardner, Charles A; Gupta, R K; Haycock, Jane; Heher, Anthony D; Hotez, Peter J; Kettler, Hannah E; Keusch, Gerald T; Krattiger, Anatole F; Kreutz, Fernando T; Lall, Sanjaya; Lee, Keun; Mahoney, Richard; Martinez-Palomo, Adolfo; Mashelkar, R A; Matlin, Stephen A; Mzimba, Mandi; Oehler, Joachim; Ridley, Robert G; Senanayake, Pramilla; Singer, Peter; Yun, Mikyung

    2005-07-15

    Gross inequities in disease burden between developed and developing countries are now the subject of intense global attention. Public and private donors have marshaled resources and created organizational structures to accelerate the development of new health products and to procure and distribute drugs and vaccines for the poor. Despite these encouraging efforts directed primarily from and funded by industrialized countries, sufficiency and sustainability remain enormous challenges because of the sheer magnitude of the problem. Here we highlight a complementary and increasingly important means to improve health equity: the growing ability of some developing countries to undertake health innovation.

  17. Academic Patents and Access to Medicines in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    There is a widespread and growing concern that patents hinder access to life-saving drugs in developing countries. Recent student movements and legislative initiatives emphasize the potential role that research universities in developed countries could have in ameliorating this “access gap.” These efforts are based on the assumption that universities own patents on a substantial number of drugs and that patents on these drugs are currently filed in developing countries. I provide empirical evidence regarding these issues and explore the feasibility and desirability of proposals to change university patenting and licensing practices to promote access to medicines in the developing world. PMID:19008514

  18. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-03-11

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  19. Food from developing countries: steps to improve compliance.

    PubMed

    Horton, L R

    1998-01-01

    Developing countries seeking to expand their exports often turn to food exports and seek to market these products in developed countries such as the United States. To be successful, developing countries must overcome an array of obstacles, including the need to comply with the food safety and other requirements of the importing country. This article discusses how compliance with international food norms and national food laws benefits exporting and importing countries, what trends in food trade influence measures to deal with food problems, and what categories of controls are available to deal with good products offered for importation. The article concludes by outlining several suggested steps that can be taken to improve the likelihood of acceptability of food offered for importation. These steps include assessing the needs of the importing country and improving the physical, legal, and technical infrastructure in various ways. Technical assistance from developed countries and international organizations can assist developing countries, but such assistance needs to be carefully designed and coordinated. PMID:11795330

  20. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C. B.; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L. A.; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N.; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G.; Vanek, Steven J.; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A.; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was “insufficient training and technical support to farmers.” Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated “IPM requires collective action within a farming community” as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the “shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists.” Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  1. Appropriate Technology and Information Services in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Examines reasons for the failure to bring about massive and direct transfers of advanced technology to developing countries. Certain necessary conditions for success require that the project be seen as (1) relevant to the client country (2) consistent with local attitudes, practices and traditions (3) capable of producting some visible and useful…

  2. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  3. Radio and Television for Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Dean T.

    The potential role of radio and television in improving equity and efficiency in the delivery of education in developing countries is discussed. The following four sections discuss major educational issues and reforms involving the use of instructional television and radio in countries such as American Samoa, El Salvador, and the Ivory Coast: (1)…

  4. Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jenny Perlman; Winthrop, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    "Millions Learning: Scaling up Quality Education in Developing Countries" tells the story of where and how quality education has scaled in low- and middle-income countries. The story emerges from wide-ranging research on scaling and learning, including 14 in-depth case studies from around the globe. Ultimately, "Millions…

  5. Optics education in a developing country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonathan, Enock

    2005-10-01

    An optics laboratory plays a critical role in optics education. A major challenge for optics educators in Africa is the shortage or non-availability of laboratory teaching equipment. Optics teaching equipment is beyond the budget of most universities in the developing world such as the new National University of Science and Technology in Zimbabwe. The paper details a successful strategy - local fabrication/assembling of optics laboratory teaching aids - adopted by the Applied Physics Department at Zimbabwe's National University of Science and Technology. Students and technical staff under the guidance of an academic member of staff do equipment fabrication and assembling. The paper describes some of the project-type set-ups for performing experiments on (1) laser light scattering and impurity determination; (2) industrial imaging inspection (3) light transmission and reflection and (4) refractive index measurement.

  6. Appropriate waste management for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Curi, K.

    1985-01-01

    This First International symposium presents information on the following topics: environmental technology, environmental management, appropriate sanitation technology, development of low-waste and waste-free technologies, reliability engineering, recycling of wastes of production and consumption, biological treatment of urban and industrial effluents, surface characteristics of biological solids, sludge methods, treatment of piggery wastes, sewage derived methane as a vehicle fuel, anaerobic treatment of olive oil wastewater, and treatment of wastewater from the Egyptian canning industry. Other topics of discussion include: purification of refinery wastes by means of flocculation with ferric chloride, current issues in hazardous chemical waste disposal, the use of plastic outfalls as a low-cost waste disposal alternative, and retentivity of copper from waste effluents.

  7. The impact of oil on a developing country

    SciTech Connect

    Ikein, A.

    1990-01-01

    This book provides an analysis of the impact of the oil industry on a particular developing country, Nigeria over a period of 32 years. Arguing that previous studies on the oil industry in developing countries have tended to focus only on the economic significance of oil, ignoring its societal costs, the author uses a multidimensional approach that enables him to identify the linkage between the performance of the oil industry and the pattern of Nigeria's national and regional development.

  8. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Cosivi, O.; Grange, J. M.; Daborn, C. J.; Raviglione, M. C.; Fujikura, T.; Cousins, D.; Robinson, R. A.; Huchzermeyer, H. F.; de Kantor, I.; Meslin, F. X.

    1998-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that human tuberculosis (TB) incidence and deaths for 1990 to 1999 will be 88 million and 30 million, respectively, with most cases in developing countries. Zoonotic TB (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) is present in animals in most developing countries where surveillance and control activities are often inadequate or unavailable; therefore, many epidemiologic and public health aspects of infection remain largely unknown. We review available information on zoonotic TB in developing countries, analyze risk factors that may play a role in the disease, review recent WHO activities, and recommend actions to assess the magnitude of the problem and control the disease in humans and animals. PMID:9452399

  9. Does Land Degradation Increase Poverty in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Land degradation is a global problem that particularly impacts the poor rural inhabitants of low and middle-income countries. We improve upon existing literature by estimating the extent of rural populations in 2000 and 2010 globally on degrading and improving agricultural land, taking into account the role of market access, and analyzing the resulting impacts on poverty. Using a variety of spatially referenced datasets, we estimate that 1.33 billion people worldwide in 2000 were located on degrading agricultural land (DAL), of which 1.26 billion were in developing countries. Almost all the world’s 200 million people on remote DAL were in developing countries, which is about 6% of their rural population. There were also 1.54 billion rural people on improving agricultural land (IAL), with 1.34 billion in developing countries. We find that a lower share of people in 2000 on DAL, or a higher share on IAL, lowers significantly how much overall economic growth reduces poverty from 2000 to 2012 across 83 developing countries. As the population on DAL and IAL in developing countries grew by 13% and 15% respectively from 2000 to 2010, these changing spatial distributions of rural populations could impact significantly future poverty in developing countries. PMID:27167738

  10. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  11. Geoscience in Developing Countries of South Asia and International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, K.

    2007-12-01

    Earth Science community in developing countries of South Asia is actively engaged in interdisciplinary investigations of the Earth and its envelopes through geological, geophysical and geochemical processes, for these processes are interconnected. Interdisciplinary interaction will continue to grow since problems pertaining to the solid earth, with its core-mantle-crust, and fluid envelops can be solved only with contributions from different Science disciplines. The expanding population and revolution in data handling-and-computing have now become a necessity to tackle the geoscientific problems with modern techniques and methodologies to meet these new challenges. As a future strategy, geo-data generation and handling need to be speedier and easier and hence demands a well- knit coordiantion and understanding amongst Governments, Industries and Academic organizations. Such coordination will prove valuable for better understanding of the Earth's processes, especially mitigating natural hazards with more accurate and speedy prdictions, besides sustaining Earth's resources. South Asian geoscience must, therefore, seek new directions by way of strategies, policies, and actions to move forward in this century. Environmental and resource problems affecting the world population have become international issues, since global environmental changes demand international cooperation and planning. The Earth is continually modified by the interplay of internal and external processes. Hence we need to apply modern geophysical techniques and interpret the results with the help of available geological, geochronological and gechemical informations It is through such integrated approach that we could greatly refine our understanding of the deep structure and evolution of the Indian shield. However, the inputs into multi-disciplinary studies necessary to know the crustal structure and tectonics in the adjoining regions (Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka etc.) still remain

  12. Life-Span Development of Affective Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Keiko

    This paper presents a model of affective relationships and a review of a number of empirical studies based on the model. The fundamental aim of the model is to describe the life-span development of affective relationships, which are measured in terms of an individual's representation of a variety of significant interpersonal relationships. These…

  13. Space-based Communications Infrastructure for Developing Countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-01-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infractructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  14. GUIDANCE FOR LANDFILLING WASTE IN ECONOMICALLY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report offers guidance on all aspects of the planning, design, and implementation of landfills in economically developing countries. The intended audience includes municipal officials, solid waste managers, engineers, and planners. The report's 18 chapters include critical ...

  15. Space-based communications infrastructure for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Keith; Barnes, Carl; Price, K. M.

    1995-08-01

    This study examines the potential use of satellites to augment the telecommunications infrastructure of developing countries with advanced satellites. The study investigated the potential market for using satellites in developing countries, the role of satellites in national information infrastructures (NII), the technical feasibility of augmenting NIIs with satellites, and a nation's financial conditions necessary for procuring satellite systems. In addition, the study examined several technical areas including onboard processing, intersatellite links, frequency of operation, multibeam and active antennas, and advanced satellite technologies. The marketing portion of this study focused on three case studies: China, Brazil, and Mexico. These cases represent countries in various stages of telecommunication infrastructure development. The study concludes by defining the needs of developing countries for satellites, and recommends steps that both industry and NASA can take to improve the competitiveness of U.S. satellite manufacturing.

  16. Attitudes on Conducting Thesis Research in a Developing Country.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, S. C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a survey conducted to study attitudes toward agronomy graduate students conducting thesis research in developing countries. Compares perceptions of executive officers of international program offices and departments of agronomy, and major professors. (TW)

  17. Research in congenital heart disease: a comparative bibliometric analysis between developing and developed countries.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Theresa; Abdul-Sater, Zahi; Obeid, Mounir; Arabi, Mariam; Diab, Karim; Masri, Samer; Al Haless, Zohair; Nemer, Georges; Bitar, Fadi

    2013-02-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common congenital anomaly, affecting 1 % of live births. The field of pediatric cardiology has witnessed major advances over the past 25 years triggered by research initiatives focusing on CHD. However, large disparities exist in research capabilities between Arab developing nations and the developed nations. This study used bibliometric analysis to assess the contribution of the Arab countries to CHD research. To identify articles on CHD published in the Arab countries, the United States, and Europe, a systematic search was run on MEDLINE, PubMed, and Scopus. The Arab countries, with an estimated population of 362 million, published 530 research articles addressing CHD in the last 25 years (average, 1.5 articles/10(6) population). This compares with 12,936 research articles published in the United States (average, 41 articles/10(6) population) and 12,260 published in Europe (average, 24.3 articles/10(6) population). Basic research relating to genetics and animal models of CHD is emerging sparsely in the Arab world, with few articles published in high-impact-factor journals. The Arab world research output in the field of CHD per capita is substantially low, estimated to be 29 times less than in developed countries. Despite the minimal increase in published research articles in global periodicals, most of the research relating to CHD continues to be far from innovative. Regional collaborations with international linkage are starting to evolve. The research facilities in the Arab countries need to increase substantially in research and infrastructure funding to keep up with the pace of research in developing countries. PMID:22878810

  18. Does debt affect health? Cross country evidence on the debt-health nexus.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Maya; Liñares-Zegarra, José; Wilson, John O S

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the relationship between aggregate household debt and aggregate health outcomes across 17 European countries over the period 1995 to 2012. Using a dataset of country-level standardized and objective measures of household debt, health outcomes and a rich set of control variables, we estimate an instrumental variable (GMM) model to address possible reverse causality concerns. We find that aggregate household debt affects health outcomes, and that this varies by the maturity of debt. Both short and medium-term debt has a positive effect on health outcomes. Long-term unsecured debt and mortgage debt are associated with poorer health outcomes. These findings are robust after controlling for alternative measures of health and debt. Overall, the results suggest that aggregate household debt is an important determinant of aggregate health outcomes across countries.

  19. Issues in natural resources management in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Thapa, G B; Weber, K E

    1994-05-01

    The use and management of public and private natural resources is greatly affected by institutional, politicoeconomic, and socioeconomic factors. These factors operate in tandem at the household, regional, national, and international levels in affecting resource management. Any policy that focuses only on one dimension of the problem, such as population growth, and ignores such issues as poverty, environmentally unsuitable cropping systems, and the unavailability of nonfarm employment opportunities will be inadequate. National policies must consider structural factors: resource use, property rights regimes, poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, and population growth. A comprehensive strategy should account for these structural features, be tailored to regional circumstances, and have the input of local governments. Local governments and communities must be in a position to implement and monitor resource management. Hardin identified common property as a major contributor to land degradation and declining forest resources in developing countries. Only with a common agreement by the community to invest in planting trees and managing pastures can communal lands benefit multiple users in the long and short run. Social forestry projects have failed due to poor community participation, fragmented communities, poor social organization, and disputes over the distribution of profits. Traditional communal hunting and gathering activities adhered to institutional regulation; with the inception of urbanization, industrialization, and monetization of agriculture, the destruction of forests and pasture began. There was an increased need for food for the urban population; a small and powerful group of politicians, social leaders, and administrators retained access to public or "crown" lands and disenfranchised small and marginal farmers and the landless poor from previously accessible lands. Land redistribution schemes have not effectively distributed land resources. Commercial

  20. Human third molars development: Comparison of 9 country specific populations.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    The majority of age estimation models based on third molar development are constructed on samples from populations with described and outlined origin. Due to unlike research protocols these studies can rarely be compared for the evaluation of possible geographical or ethnical influences on third molar development. The aim of this study is to evaluate country specific third molar development on standardized collected and analyzed data. On panoramic radiographs selected from subjects out of 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India) the four third molar scores were registered, according to a modified Gleiser and Hunt methodology. To obtain for each subject a (factor) score which represents the degree of third molar development, a generalized linear mixed model for multivariate ordinal data was fitted on the repeated third molar scores. Differences between countries are analyzed using gender-specific regression models for these factor scores with age and country as predictors. Comparisons between countries revealed differences in speed and onset of development. However, although reaching statistical significance, differences in actual value were small and not constant over the considered age range. In all countries, at all ages, males were ahead in third molar development compared to females.

  1. Immunization coverage and infant mortality rate in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shimouchi, A; Ozasa, K; Hayashi, K

    1994-01-01

    We examined whether immunization coverage (IMC) is one of the predictors of infant mortality rate (IMR), as a single indicator representing the availability of primary health care (PHC) services in developing countries. Multiple regression analysis showed that partial correlation coefficients for IMR with immunization coverage (-0.224), logarithm of per capita GNP (-0.294), total fertility rate (0.269), and adult literacy rate (-0.325) were all statistically significant (p < 0.001) in 97 developing countries which make up more than 97% of the population in all the developing countries of the world. Multiple correlation coefficients of IMR with these four variables in 97 countries was 0.921. Thus, more than 80% of variation of IMR in developing countries were explained by the variation of the four variables. The study also showed that IMC was well correlated (simple correlation) with the four indicators of the availability of primary health care services; access to local care (0.730), care of pregnant women (0.603), delivery care (0.666), and infant care (0.553), all of which were statistically significant (p < 0.001) in the 48 developing countries which make up 42% of the population of all developing countries. Multiple correlation coefficients of these four variables was 0.787. About 60% of the variation of IMC will be explained by the variation of the four variables. Thus we conclude that immunization coverage is one of the main predictors of the infant mortality rate. It represents one of the health intervention components which can be used as a proxy indicator of the availability of PHC service in developing countries.

  2. Surveillance for Occupational Respiratory Diseases in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Antao, Vinicius C.; Pinheiro, Germania A.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of chronic diseases, including occupational respiratory diseases (ORDs), is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, epidemiological data on these conditions are scarce in most countries. Therefore, it is important to conduct surveillance to monitor ORDs, particularly in developing countries, where the working population is especially vulnerable and the health system infrastructure is usually weak. This article provides a general framework for the implementation of ORD surveillance in developing countries. The main objectives of surveillance are to describe incidence and prevalence of ORDs, as well as to identify sentinel events and new associations between occupational exposures and health outcomes. Diseases with high morbidity and mortality and those in which early diagnosis with standardized tests are available are especially suitable for surveillance activities. Simple strategies, preferably using existing resources and technology, are the best option for surveillance in developing countries. This article offers examples of specific surveillance systems that are in place in Brazil, China, Cuba, India, and South Africa. PMID:26024351

  3. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Egboka, B C; Nwankwor, G I; Orajaka, I P; Ejiofor, A O

    1989-01-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested. PMID:2695325

  4. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Egboka, B C; Nwankwor, G I; Orajaka, I P; Ejiofor, A O

    1989-11-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested. PMID:2695325

  5. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Egboka, B.C.E.; Orajaka, I.P.; Ejiofor, A.O. ); Nwankwor, G.I. )

    1989-11-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested.

  6. Principles and problems of environmental pollution of groundwater resources with case examples from developing countries.

    PubMed

    Egboka, B C; Nwankwor, G I; Orajaka, I P; Ejiofor, A O

    1989-11-01

    The principles and problems of environmental pollution and contamination are outlined. Emphasis is given to case examples from developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with a comparative analysis to developed countries. The problems of pollution/contamination are widespread in developed countries but are gradually spreading from the urban to rural areas in the developing countries. Great efforts in research and control programs to check pollution-loading into the environment have been made in the industrialized countries, but only negligible actions have been taken in developing countries. Pollutants emanate from both point and distributed sources and have adversely affected both surface water and groundwaters. The influences of the geologic and hydrologic cycles that exacerbate the incidences of pollution/contamination have not been well understood by environmental planners and managers. Professionals in the different areas of pollution control projects, particularly in developing countries, lack the integrated multiobjective approaches and techniques in problem solving. Such countries as Nigeria, Kenya, Brazil, and India are now menaced by pollution hazards. Appropriate methods of control are hereby suggested.

  7. Building technological capability within satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the process of building technological capability in government-led satellite programs within developing countries. The key message is that these satellite programs can learn useful lessons from literature in the international development community. These lessons are relevant to emerging satellite programs that leverage international partnerships in order to establish local capability to design, build and operate satellites. Countries with such programs include Algeria, Nigeria, Turkey, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates. The paper first provides background knowledge about space activity in developing countries, and then explores the nuances of the lessons coming from the international development literature. Developing countries are concerned with satellite technology because satellites provide useful services in the areas of earth observation, communication, navigation and science. Most developing countries access satellite services through indirect means such as sharing data with foreign organizations. More countries, however, are seeking opportunities to develop satellite technology locally. There are objective, technically driven motivations for developing countries to invest in satellite technology, despite rich debate on this topic. The paper provides a framework to understand technical motivations for investment in satellite services, hardware, expertise and infrastructure in both short and long term. If a country decides to pursue such investments they face a common set of strategic decisions at the levels of their satellite program, their national context and their international relationships. Analysis of past projects shows that countries have chosen diverse strategies to address these strategic decisions and grow in technological capability. What is similar about the historical examples is that many countries choose to leverage international partnerships as part of their growth process. There are also historical examples from

  8. Providing ethical guidance for collaborative research in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Experience has shown that the application of ethical guidelines developed for research in developed countries to research in developing countries can be, and often is, impractical and raises a number of contentious issues. Various attempts have been made to provide guidelines more appropriate to the developing world context; however, to date these efforts have been dominated by the fields of bioscience, medical research and nutrition. There is very little advice available for those seeking to undertake collaborative social science or natural science research in developing countries and what is there tends to be held within disparate sources. Charting the development of a set of ethics documentation for future use by the Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) programme research community, this paper outlines past and present attitudes towards ethics procedures amongst this community and suggests ways in which ethics procedures might be made more relevant and user-friendly to researchers working in this area. PMID:26640509

  9. New Strategies for Environmental Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Examples of new environmental education strategies in developing countries are provided including, among others, programs which stress that properly-conceived development should include respect for the local environment and research projects helping villagers define what is meant by development. Provides an example of the use of television in the…

  10. University Science and Agriculture Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corlett, J. T.; Macfarlane, Ian G.

    1989-01-01

    A study of enrollment and degree rates in science, agriculture, and non-sciences in developing and developed countries suggests patterns are similar, with science and agriculture degrees somewhat higher for some developing nations. Results suggest that emphasis on science and agriculture are less crucial than overall enrollment in producing…

  11. Reconsidering Graduate Programs for Students from Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry E.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines issues related to graduate programs in agricultural and extension education for students from developing nations who are studying in developed countries. Implications are drawn for developing graduate programs that prepare individuals for their most likely career paths. Such programs may not be congruent given the current…

  12. Ebola or Not? Evaluating the Ill Traveler From Ebola-Affected Countries in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Jessica K; Kozarsky, Phyllis E; Kraft, Colleen S; Guarner, Jeannette; Steinberg, James P; Anderson, Evan; Jacob, Jesse T; Meloy, Patrick; Gillespie, Darria; Espinoza, Tamara R; Isakov, Alexander; Vanairsdale, Sharon; Baker, Esther; Wu, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic in West Africa had global impact beyond the primarily affected countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Other countries, including the United States, encountered numerous patients who arrived from highly affected countries with fever or other signs or symptoms consistent with Ebola virus disease (EVD). Methods.  We describe our experience evaluating 25 travelers who met the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for a person under investigation (PUI) for EVD from July 20, 2014 to January 28, 2015. All patients were triaged and evaluated under the guidance of institutional protocols to the emergency department, outpatient tropical medicine clinic, or Emory's Ebola treatment unit. Strict attention to infection control and early involvement of public health authorities guided the safe evaluation of these patients. Results.  None were diagnosed with EVD. Respiratory illnesses were common, and 8 (32%) PUI were confirmed to have influenza. Four patients (16%) were diagnosed with potentially life-threatening infections or conditions, including 3 with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and 1 with diabetic ketoacidosis. Conclusions.  In addition to preparing for potential patients with EVD, Ebola assessment centers should consider other life-threatening conditions requiring urgent treatment, and travelers to affected countries should be strongly advised to seek pretravel counseling. Furthermore, attention to infection control in all aspects of PUI evaluation is paramount and has presented unique challenges. Lessons learned from our evaluation of potential patients with EVD can help inform preparations for future outbreaks of highly pathogenic communicable diseases. PMID:26925428

  13. Child Development in Developing Countries: Child Rights and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context…

  14. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  15. The last mile: earthquake risk mitigation assistance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Shah, Haresh C

    2006-08-15

    Over the past few decades, we have seen many joint programmes between developed countries and developing countries to help the latter in managing their earthquake risks. These programmes span the whole spectrum of disciplines from seismology and geology to engineering, social science and economics. Many of these programmes have been effective in raising awareness, in urging governments to work towards risk reduction and in spawning an 'industry' of disaster management in many of the developing countries. However, even as these efforts proceed, we have seen death and destruction due to earthquake after earthquake in developing countries, strongly suggesting that the problems for which those assistance programmes were developed are not so effective. Therefore, it is natural to ask why this is happening. Are the assistance programmes reaching the right people? Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right type of things in these countries, but we have not allowed enough time for our actions to take effect. Maybe we are reaching the right people and doing the right actions for most of the miles we need to cover in helping communities mitigate their earthquake risks. However, the issue could be whether we are reaching people who represent the 'last mile' on this pathway. Here, I explore whether the work that many organizations and countries have done towards earthquake risk reduction over the past few decades in developing countries is appropriate or not. Why do we keep seeing the catastrophes of Sumatra, Chi Chi, Bhuj, Turkey, Algeria and on and on? I will articulate what I think is the problem. My contribution is intended to generate discussions, self-analysis of our approaches, what we are doing right and what we are not doing right. Hopefully such discussions will result in a better connection between the last mile and programmes around the world which are working towards earthquake risk mitigation. PMID:16844655

  16. US solar energy policy for less developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    Russett, B.

    1980-10-01

    By many different standards, solar energy is considered to be, at least potentially, a good thing. The assessment of its utility, however, typically is made on technical engineering grounds, or on economic standards of cost-effectiveness, without close attention to political and sociological implications of its use. While remaining sensitive to engineering and economic considerations, this report will concentrate on some political and sociological issues which will have great affect on decisions whether and how to make use of solar energy technology in less developed countries (LDCs). Only with an understanding of these issues - and with answers to some of the questions raised - can there be any serious effort to devise a satisfactory United States government policy for the promotion of solar energy applications abroad. This report, in the form of tentative propositions outlining issues about which further information is required, is based on the results of interviews in the United States, India and the Middle East, and an analysis of various reports by private individuals, national and transnational organizations, and government agencies.

  17. Principles of adoption of the successful environmental practices used in developed countries into mining industry in developing countries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masaitis, Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    The successful implementation of the environmental practices in the mining industry is of a paramount importance, as it not only prevents both local and trans-border pollution but also guarantees clean and healthy environment for the people regardless of their place of habitation. It is especially important to encourage the progress of the environmental practices implementation in developing countries because such countries have resource-oriented economy based on exploitation of nonrenewable resources. Poor environmental practices in developing countries will lead to local environmental crises that could eventually spill into surrounding countries including the most economically advanced. This abstract is a summary of a two-year research project attempted (1) to determine deficiencies of the mining sector ecological practices in developing countries and (2) to suggest substitute practices from developed countries that could be adapted to the developing countries reality. The following research methods were used: 1. The method of the system analysis, where the system is an interaction of the sets of environmental practices with the global mining sector; 2. The comparative method of inquiry, where the comparison was made between environmental protection practices as implemented in the US (developed country) and the developing countries such as RF, Mongolia mining sectors; 3. Quantitative date analysis, where date was collected from "The collection of statistic data", Russian Geographic Society Annual reports, the US EPA open reports, and the USGS Reports; The following results were obtained: Identified the systemic crisis of the ecological environmental policies and practices in the mining sector in developing countries based on the exploitation of nonrenewable resources, absence of the ecological interest by the mining companies that lack mechanisms of environmental and public health protection, the lack of insurance policy, the lack of risk assistance, and in the

  18. The Use of Biofuel for Sustainable Growth in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, J.

    2014-12-01

    The biofuel industry is divided into four categories comprising of feedstocks used in 1st and 2nd generation bioethanol and biodiesel. In order to identify and quantify each biofuel feedstock's potential for sustainable growth, each were evaluated according to self-developed social, financial, and environmental criteria. From the investigation and analysis carried out, 1st generation biodiesel and bioethanol were determined to be feedstocks not capable of facilitating sustainable growth. Results showed low earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) of -0.5 to 1 USD per gallon for biodiesel and 0.25 to 0.5 USD per gallon for bioethanol. Results also showed a poor return on asset (ROA). The energy required to produce one MJ of 1st generation biofuel fuel was at least 0.4 MJ, showing poor energy balance. Furthermore, high land, water, pesticide, and fertilizer requirements strained surrounding ecosystems by affecting the food web, thus reducing biodiversity. Over 55% of land used by the biodiesel industry in Indonesia and Malaysia involved the deforestation of local rainforests. This not only displaced indigenous organisms from their habitat and decreased their scope of nutrition, but also contributed to soil erosion and increased the probability of flooding. If left unregulated, imbalances in the ecosystem due to unsustainable growth will result in a permanent reshaping of tropical rainforest ecosystems in Southeast Asia. Algae, an example of 2nd generation biodiesel feedstock, was concluded to be the biofuel feedstock most capable of supporting sustainable growth. This is due to its low production costs of $1-1.5/gal, high biological productivity of 5000 gallons of biodiesel per acre per year, and high ROA of 25-35%. Additionally, algae's adaptability to varying environmental conditions also makes it an appealing candidate for businesses in developing countries, where access to resource supplies is unstable. Additionally, its reduced net

  19. Obesity and socioeconomic status in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dinsa, GD; Goryakin, Y; Fumagalli, E; Suhrcke, M

    2012-01-01

    Summary We undertook a systematic review of studies assessing the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and measured obesity in low- and middle-income countries (defined by the World Bank as countries with per capita income up to US$12,275) among children, men and women. The evidence on the subject has grown significantly since an earlier influential review was published in 2004. We find that in low-income countries or in countries with low human development index (HDI), the association between SES and obesity appears to be positive for both men and women: the more affluent and/or those with higher educational attainment tend to be more likely to be obese. However, in middle-income countries or in countries with medium HDI, the association becomes largely mixed for men and mainly negative for women. This particular shift appears to occur at an even lower level of per capita income than suggested by an influential earlier review. By contrast, obesity in children appears to be predominantly a problem of the rich in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:22764734

  20. Public and private donor financing for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, L M

    1991-06-01

    Among the many variables that influence the outcome of national health status in both developed and developing countries, the availability and efficiency of financing is critical. For 148 developing countries, annual public and private expenditures from domestic sources (1983) were estimated to be approximately $100 billion. For the United States alone, annual public and private costs for medical care are almost five times larger ($478 billion, 1988). In contrast to domestic expenditures, the total flow of donor assistance for health in 1986 was estimated to be $4 billion, approximately 5% of total current domestic expenditures by developing countries. Direct donor assistance for development purposes by the United States Government approximates 0.5% of the US federal budget (1988). Approximately 10% of all United States development assistance is allocated for health, nutrition, and population planning purposes. While the total health sector contribution is on the order of $500 million annually, the US contribution represents about 13% of health contributions by all external donors. In sub-Saharan Africa, all donor health allocations only reach 3.4% of total development assistance. While available data suggest that private and voluntary organizations contribute approximately 20% of total global health assistance, data reporting methods from private agencies are not sufficiently specific to provide accurate global estimates. Clearly, developing countries as a whole are dependent on the efficient use of their own resources because external financing remains a small fraction of total domestic financing. Nevertheless, improvement in health sector performance often depends on the sharing of western experience and technology, services available through external donor cooperation. In this effort, the available supply of donor financing for health is not restricted entirely by donor policy, but also by the official demand for external financing as submitted by developing

  1. Haemophilia in the developing countries: the Iranian experience

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Karimi, Mehran; Aghighi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Management of haemophilia and inherited bleeding disorders is a major challenge especially in developing countries, because of a shortage or absence of products, the cost and the infrastructural health problems. Development of local expertise which results in an improved outlook and reduction in mortality and morbidity in these countries can be helpful for advocators in other developing countries. However, very little information on demography and organizational models for haemophilia care in developing countries are available in the literature. Our aim is a comprehensive report of haemophilia status and its management in Iran. Material and methods The Management Center of Transplantation and Special Diseases (MCTSD) of the Ministry of Health of Iran decided to carry out a complete review and compilation of all of the published or available data about patients with haemophilia (PWH) in Iran: their health status, their management planning, organizations, treatment products, facilities and care problems during 2007. Results 6496 patients with congenital bleeding disorders were registered. Most of them had haemophilia A and B and von Willebrand disease (vWD). However, rare bleeding disorders are seen more than expected. Inhibitor development is 14–28%. There are different data about virological status of PWH. Factor products and facilities are fairly available with more than 1.5 units per capita of inhabitant factor consumption. Conclusions A national formulary based on facilities of the country should be considered and followed by collaboration among the Ministry Of Health, universities and non-governmental organizations. PMID:22371725

  2. Road traffic injuries: hidden epidemic in less developed countries.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Alyson; Ehiri, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity, disability and mortality in less developed countries. Globally in 2002, 1.2 million deaths resulted from RTIs, and about 10 times that were injured. RTIs are often preventable, and the technology and knowledge to achieve success in this area exist. In spite of this, it is projected that given the current trend and without adequate intervention, RTIs will rank third of all major causes of morbidity and mortality globally by 2020. Although > 85% of the global deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes occur in less developed countries, traffic safety attracts little public health attention in these nations, due in part to a plethora of other equally important problems, including infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the public health and economic impact of traffic-related injuries and disabilities can be incalculable in these countries, owing to their poorly developed trauma care systems and nonexistent social welfare infrastructures to accommodate the needs of the injured and the disabled. In this paper, we highlight the problem posed to public health in less developed countries by RTIs and examine contributing factors. To engender debate and action to address the problem, we reviewed interventions that have proven effective in industrialized nations and discussed potential barriers to their replication in less developed countries. PMID:16532982

  3. Women, Work and Early Childhood: The Nexus in Developed and Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Early Childhood and Family Education Unit.

    Most female workers in developing countries do not have wage jobs. However, the preponderance of female workers in non-wage jobs is not consistent across all developing countries. It is highly likely that the proportion of non-wage female workers in developing countries is greater than is suggested by the statistics. Consequently, mothers in the…

  4. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth. PMID:12292278

  5. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth.

  6. The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In the present paper, we consider the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries, showing that, beyond health issues, this disease should and must be seen as a global development concern, affecting all components of human development. Consequently, we stress the necessity of multidisciplinary approaches that model, estimate and predict the real impact of HIV/AIDS on human development of African countries in order to optimise the strategies proposed by national countries, international institutions and their partners. Methods In our search strategy, we relied on secondary information, mainly through National Human Development Reports of some African countries and regular publications released by the United Nations (UN), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank. We restricted ourselves to reports dealing explicitly with the impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries. Results and discussion HIV/AIDS is affecting the global human development of African countries through its devastating impact on health and demographic indicators such as life expectancy at birth, healthcare assistance, age and sex distribution, economic indicators like income, work force, and economic growth, education and knowledge acquisition and other indicators like governance, gender inequality and human rights. Conclusion On the basis of the national reports reviewed, it appears clearly that HIV/AIDS is no longer a crisis only for the healthcare sector, but presents a challenge to all sectors. Consequently, HIV/AIDS is a development question and should be viewed as such. The disease is impeding development by imposing a steady decline in the key indicators of human development and hence reversing the social and economic gains that African countries are striving to attain. Being at the same time a cause and consequence of poverty and underdevelopment, it constitutes a challenge to human security

  7. Cultural differences and economic development of 31 countries.

    PubMed

    Nadler, Scott; Zemanek, James E

    2006-08-01

    To update and extend the empirical research of Hofstede, the influence of culture on 31 nations' economic development was examined and support for modernization theory provided. Per capita gross domestic product, literacy rates, the negative of the population growth rate, and life expectancy development data were collected from 31 countries. The pattern of correlations among measures provided partial support for Hofstede's 1980 findings.

  8. Funding Problems of Technical Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordia, Surek

    During the past decade, funding mechanisms for universities and technical education institutions and colleges have undergone massive restructuring in developed and developing countries alike. Governmental support has generally decreased, resulting in greater reliance on fee-based education or creation of privately sponsored engineering/technical…

  9. Remote sensing utilization of developing countries: An appropriate technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conitz, M. W.; Lowe, D. S.

    1977-01-01

    The activities of the Agency for international development were discussed. Regional and national training centers were established to create an understanding of the role and impact of remote sensing on the developing process. Workshops, training seminars, and demonstration projects were conducted. Research on application was carried out and financial and technical assistance to build or strengthen a country's capability were granted.

  10. Strategies to Promote Lesson Study in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the developmental stages of lesson study for learning community (LSLC) and to clarify the measures necessary for promoting the progress of LSLC, targeting consultants working on educational development projects for developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is organised as a…

  11. Tailoring Information Strategies for Developing Countries: Some Latin American Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowther, Warren

    This article addresses the conditions of developing countries which must be taken into account in developing information strategies for their public and educational institutions or projects. Its central argument is that newer information science concepts, although they demand technological and conceptual sophistication, can be useful in the…

  12. Building Education Research Capacity in Developing Countries: Some Fundamental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puryear, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses how to develop education research capacity in developing countries, using Chile's experience as a case study. Education research capacity is defined as a productive, modern, diverse, and self-reproducing professional community conducting research at internationally acceptable levels of quality. I argue that 3 general…

  13. Education's Role in National Development Plans: Ten Country Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray, Ed.

    The place education has been assigned in the national development programs of 10 nations is discussed, the problems that these countries have encountered in managing education are examined, and the measures adopted to solve educational problems are assessed. Included are the following papers: (1) "The Nature of National Development Planning" (R.…

  14. Improving Higher Education in Developing Countries. EDI Seminar Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransom, Angela; And Others

    This volume is the result of a policy seminar on Improvement and Innovation in Higher Education in Developing Countries, organized by the Economic Development Institute and the Population and Human Resources Department of the World Bank in collaboration with the Institute of Strategic and International Studies of Malaysia. The seminar was held in…

  15. Educational Technology and the Developing Countries, A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Inc., New York, NY.

    A survey, presented in looseleaf handbook format, reviews a number of ideas about educational development, technology, change, and the improvement of learning. Its primary focus is on the situation in developing countries. The materials presented are largely descriptive--going from theory to planning, and then on to case studies of educational…

  16. Engineering Education Projects for Improving Agriculture in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peikert, F. W.

    Agricultural engineers have been working for a number of years with colleges and universities in many developing countries to improve their agriculture. Much of the activity in university development assistance has been taken over the last 20 years. The greatest portion of the support has come from USAID. Among the common problems facing the…

  17. The Place of Calculators in Mathematics Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissane, Barry; Kemp, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Technology has become a major force in developing curricula and educational practice in mathematics education internationally. While many technologies are important in affluent developed countries, the hand-held calculator continues to be the technology most likely to be available to students when and where they need it. Modern calculators have…

  18. Corporate Environmentalism in Developing Countries: A Tale of Three Multinationals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Allen L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Multinational corporations bring both economic opportunities and technological hazards to developing countries. Discusses the trade-offs between the profit and development objectives and the environmental, health, and safety objectives as seen in three case studies involving Occidental Chemical and Du Pont corporations in Thailand, and Xerox…

  19. Architectures of small satellite programs in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle; Weigel, Annalisa

    2014-04-01

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. This paper analyzes implementation approaches in small satellite programs within developing countries. The study addresses diverse examples of approaches used to master, adapt, diffuse and apply satellite technology in emerging countries. The work focuses on government programs that represent the nation and deliver services that provide public goods such as environmental monitoring. An original framework developed by the authors examines implementation approaches and contextual factors using the concept of Systems Architecture. The Systems Architecture analysis defines the satellite programs as systems within a context which execute functions via forms in order to achieve stakeholder objectives. These Systems Architecture definitions are applied to case studies of six satellite projects executed by countries in Africa and Asia. The architectural models used by these countries in various projects reveal patterns in the areas of training, technical specifications and partnership style. Based on these patterns, three Archetypal Project Architectures are defined which link the contextual factors to the implementation approaches. The three Archetypal Project Architectures lead to distinct opportunities for training, capability building and end user services.

  20. Socio-cultural and economic factors affecting food consumption patterns in the Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, A O

    1993-04-01

    Several factors have been found to determine the dietary habits of the people in the Arab world. Food consumption pattern has dramatically changed in some Arab countries as a result of sudden increase in income from oil revenue. It is believed that food subsidy policy has adversely affected the food habits in the Gulf states by encouraging the intake of fat, sugar, rice, wheat flour and meat. Socio-cultural factors such as religion, beliefs, food preferences, gender discrimination, education and women's employment all have a noticeable influence on food consumption patterns in this region. Mass media, especially televised food advertisements, play an important role in modifying the dietary habits. The migration movement, particularly that which was carried out during the 70s has a great impact on the food practices in many Arab countries. Comprehensive studies on social, cultural and economic factors associated with food consumption patterns in the Arab region are highly recommended.

  1. Energy efficiency initiatives in emerging markets and developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon-Cox, P.H.

    1996-12-31

    During the Presidential Missions to India, Pakistan, China, and South Africa, led by Secretary of Energy, Hazel R. O`Leary, energy efficiency and sustainable energy development have been important focus areas that relate to the issues of Global Warming and Climate Change. The missions have provided opportunities to discuss energy efficiency, sustainable energy development and economic progress with the host countries and to identify areas where there are opportunities for cooperative ventures in energy efficiency technologies and practices that will lead to both economic and environmental benefits. The format for the development of opportunities in energy efficiency technologies and practices in the above countries has been for the Department of Energy (DOE) to work with a broad cross section of industrial companies, energy efficiency organizations and other interested parties to develop country specific teams with designated team leaders for each area identified during the mission. The US teams then draft action plans which serve as a basis for discussion with their international counterparts leading to mutually acceptable implementation plans. US country specific, coordinating committees, comprising DOE personnel and team leaders hold meetings with their international counterparts to review progress and overcome any issues or barriers encountered. The paper describes the progress made to date by the US-China and US-India teams. It should be noted that this paper is not a comprehensive review of DOE`s international energy efficiency activities in the aforementioned countries.

  2. Acute kidney injury: risk factors and management challenges in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Daniela; Balbi, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major global health problem in both developed and developing nations, negatively affecting patient morbidity and responsible for an estimated 1.4 million deaths per year. Although the International Society of Nephrology set a goal of eliminating preventable deaths from AKI by 2025, implementation of this program in developing countries presents major challenges not only because of the lack of resources but also because of the scarce data addressing the epidemiology and causes of AKI in developing countries, the limited health care resources to diagnose and treat AKI, and the poor awareness of the impact of AKI on patient outcomes. PMID:27578995

  3. Acute kidney injury: risk factors and management challenges in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Daniela; Balbi, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major global health problem in both developed and developing nations, negatively affecting patient morbidity and responsible for an estimated 1.4 million deaths per year. Although the International Society of Nephrology set a goal of eliminating preventable deaths from AKI by 2025, implementation of this program in developing countries presents major challenges not only because of the lack of resources but also because of the scarce data addressing the epidemiology and causes of AKI in developing countries, the limited health care resources to diagnose and treat AKI, and the poor awareness of the impact of AKI on patient outcomes. PMID:27578995

  4. Veterinary vaccines and their use in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Lubroth, J; Rweyemamu, M M; Viljoen, G; Diallo, A; Dungu, B; Amanfu, W

    2007-04-01

    The burden of infectious diseases in livestock and other animals continues to be a major constraint to sustained agricultural development, food security, and participation of developing and in-transition countries in the economic benefits of international trade in livestock commodities. Targeted measures must be instituted in those countries to reduce the occurrence of infectious diseases. Quality veterinary vaccines used strategically can and should be part of government sanctioned-programmes. Vaccination campaigns must be part of comprehensive disease control programmes, which, in the case of transboundary animal diseases, require a regional approach if they are to be successful. This paper focuses on the salient transboundary animal diseases and examines current vaccine use, promising vaccine research, innovative technologies that can be applied in countries in some important developing regions of the world, and the role of public/private partnerships.

  5. Practising cloud-based telemedicine in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Puustjärvi, Juha; Puustjärvi, Leena

    2013-01-01

    In industrialised countries, telemedicine has proven to be a valuable tool for enabling access to knowledge and allowing information exchange, and showing that it is possible to provide good quality of healthcare to isolated communities. However, there are many barriers to the widespread implementation of telemedicine in rural areas of developing countries. These include deficient internet connectivity and sophisticated peripheral medical devices. Furthermore, developing countries have very high patients-per-doctor ratios. In this paper, we report our work on developing a cloud-based health information system, which promotes telemedicine and patient-centred healthcare by exploiting modern information and communication technologies such as OWL-ontologies and SQL-triggers. The reason for using cloud technology is twofold. First, cloud service models are easily adaptable for sharing patients health information, which is of prime importance in patient-centred healthcare as well as in telemedicine. Second, the cloud and the consulting physicians may locate anywhere in the internet. PMID:24191340

  6. Technology, Limitations and Applications of space technology in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales-Romero, J.; Stamminger, P.; Pauly, K.

    A number of developing countries are undertaking projects pertaining to design and development of space technology either using their own resources or in collaboration with foreign countries on regional or international basis. This paper reviews a cooperation in different areas of space technology applications in South America. It gives a brief overview of the overarching goals and vision and the general institutional framework of south-american space researches cooperation. A few examples of previous and current activities in space technology applications and some opportunities for expanding the usage of these technology in the region are described. The major challenges to full-blown regional cooperation in space technology are also examined. The main aims of these efforts are to give a fillip to the country's R&D efforts in space technology and develop human resources in this field through hands-on experience in building and operation of satellites, and acquisition of new skills in project definition, funding and implementation

  7. Treatment of epilepsy: with special reference to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Osuntokun, B O

    1979-01-01

    1. Epilepsy, a common chronic neurological disorder, constitutes an important medical problem especially as in the developing countries there is a great dearth and shortage of health personnel, especially trained ones, in clinical neurosciences. The prevalence of epilepsy in developing countries is probably higher than in the Caucasians although accurate epidemiological data are lacking. 2. Epilepsy is discussed with special regard to the need for accurate diagnosis, and the difficulties encountered in developing countries. 3. Pharmacotherapy should be as simple as possible and suggestions are made on the essential drugs useful in the control of epilepsy with special reference to developing countries and in the context of economics and ready availability. Grand mal and focal epilepsies could be controlled by phenobarbitone, with phenytoin, sulthiame and carbamazepine kept as reserves or adjuncts. Minor (generalised) epilepsies could be controlled by ethosuximide, with clonazepam and sodium valproate (sodium dipropylacetate) as reserve drugs and adjuncts. For status epilepticus, diazepam is effective and readily available, with clonazepam and phenytoin as alternatives. 4. The problems in the management of epilepsy in the developing countries include lack of facilities and personnel to ensure accurate diagnosis and treatment, inadequate supply or non-availability of drugs, high defaulting rate of patients, the adverse and often pernicious social stigmatisation of the epileptic. 5. Possible solutions to some of these problems include integration of management (in simple terms) of convulsive disorders into the basic health system of delivery of health care in developing countries, aggressive pursuit of health education of the public by governmental and non-governmental agencies, active, intensive and sustained promotion of training of health personnel in clinical neurosciences and research aimed at producing long-acting anticonvulsants.

  8. Developing country finance in a post-2020 global climate agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, Phillip M.; Liao, Zhenliang; Davis, Steven J.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    A central task for negotiators of the post-2020 global climate agreement is to construct a finance regime that supports low-carbon development in developing economies. As power sector investments between developing countries grow, the climate finance regime should incentivize the decarbonization of these major sources of finance by integrating them as a complement to the commitments of developed nations. The emergence of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, South-South Cooperation Fund and other nascent institutions reveal the fissures that exist in rules and norms surrounding international finance in the power sector. Structuring the climate agreement in Paris to credit qualified finance from the developing world could have several advantages, including: (1) encouraging low-carbon cooperation between developing countries; (2) incentivizing emerging investors to prefer low-carbon investments; and (3) enabling more cost-effective attainment of national and global climate objectives. Failure to coordinate on standards now could hinder low-carbon development in the decades to come.

  9. International certification in developing countries: the role of internal and external institutional pressure.

    PubMed

    Fikru, Mahelet G

    2014-11-01

    This paper examines the different internal and external institutional factors that affect the decision of businesses in developing countries to adopt international certification (IC). Past studies focus on pressure from international laws, the role of multinationals, and businesses mimicking practices of their counterparts in developed countries. This paper finds that, in addition to these external factors, internal factors may have a significant role. Even though environmental regulation is weak in developing countries, governments do not ignore industrial pollution and casualties. They respond by increasing bureaucratic regulations for businesses and this can affect the decision to adopt IC. Furthermore, internal pressure may come from workers' unions that push for a safe and healthy working environment.

  10. The engine or the caboose: health policy in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Goldsteen, R L; Pereira, J C; Goldsteen, K

    1990-12-01

    A discussion of health policy in developing countries is presented. It argues that developing countries must adopt a progressive approach to health policy which rejects the two-tiered system of public and private health care. However, it also points out that ideology is not sufficient to maintain support. A progressive health system must utilize administrative and social and behavioral sciences to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in health care delivery. It cannot ignore these goals any more than a private health care system can.

  11. A sequential economic model of fertility behavior in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ananta, A

    1983-06-01

    Easterlin (1978) attempts to synthesize the demand side of the economic model, which is mostly applicable to developed countries, and the supply side. The synthesis assumes that fertility decision is made once and for all. This discussion is a sequential version of Easterlin's synthesis. It first considers the features of economic model, especially in its application to fertility analysis, and then presents the model in brief before examining the details. A woman's observed fertility is decomposed in the model into the "number of potential endowment of live-births" minus the "number of avoided live-births demanded." The number of potential endowment of live-births, referred to as "potential endowment" is defined as the number of live-births a woman has already had plus the number she would have in the remainder of her reproductive years if she and her husband never practiced deliberate contraception; the number of avoided-live-births demanded is defined as the number of live-births from a woman's potential endowment that is treated as a function both of the price of an avoided-birth and of excess endowment. This decomposition can be used to develop a theorectical framework that provides insights into the channels through which a particular variable affects observed fertility. The resulting framework, an extension of Easterlin's "synthesis model," can enhance knowledge of the determinants of fertility. It also increases the ability to make policy recommendations concerning population size and control. The broad theoretical framework is illustrated graphically. Some interesting theoretical implications of the theoretical framework include: higher fertility is consistent with a wider practice of deliberate contraception if potential endowment (E) rises more than the practice of deliberate contraception (z); and a positive relation between such variables as wife's education and fertility is possible.

  12. Factors Affecting the Quality of Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Larry O.

    A review of the literature concerning the effectiveness and quality of staff development programs focuses on factors that affect the success of such programs. These factors include: individual concerns, training activities, applications, qualifications of consultants, scheduling, strategies, facilities, feedback, collaboration, and outcomes. It is…

  13. Abortion policy and women's health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Mueller, R

    1990-01-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost half a million women in developing countries die in pregnancy and childbirth every year. Unsafe induced abortion is responsible for perhaps one-quarter of these deaths. In this article, the author reviews the legal, medical, and social contexts in which women in developing countries resort to clandestine abortion. Despite intensified international concern with reducing high rates of maternal mortality and morbidity, national policy makers and participants at international conferences on maternal health--with a few important exceptions--have not recommended that safe, legal services for terminating unwanted pregnancies be offered as an essential element of basic reproductive health care. United States international policy on funding abortion-related activities in maternal health and family planning programs is especially restrictive. A new policy approach is clearly needed if unacceptably high rates of maternal morbidity and mortality in many countries are to be reduced.

  14. Opportunities for energy conservation in the developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Koshel, P.; Allen, E.L.; Cecelski, E.; Dougher, R.; Ring, L.

    1981-03-01

    Energy problems faced by developing countries are explored and opportunities for saving energy and for using fuels other than petroleum in the modern sector are assessed. Specific resources assessed include oil and gas, coal, hydropower, and traditional fuels. Trends in commercial energy consumption by the developing countries are assessed and the domestic fuel resources of these countries are examined. Patterns of commercial energy use in several LDCs including Sri Lanka, Haiti, India, Kenya, Egypt, the Phillippines, the Republic of Korea, and Brazil are examined. Sri Lanka and Haiti are the subjects for case studies reported in the appendixes. Opportunities for conservation in the modern sector, which include most industrial activities, transportation, and electric power generation as well as some agricultural activities and large residential and commercial buildings, are discussed. The concluding section explores policies which might be initiated by LDC governments to encourage energy conservation. (MCW)

  15. The cancer burden and cancer control in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Substantial changes in large parts of the developing world have materialised in the last three decades. These are extremely diverse countries with respect to culture, societal values and political arrangements, but sharing one feature - prevalent poverty and limited resources to protect the health of individuals. The control of emerging chronic diseases in low-resource countries is a formidable challenge. For this reason any intervention should be kept logistically simple and incorporated into a general plan aiming at building gradually the infrastructure that is necessary to bring care to the population at large. The present contribution summarizes some of the priorities in cancer prevention in developing countries and the underlying evidence base, and addresses some of the challenges. PMID:21489212

  16. Establishing a head and neck unit in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Aswani, J; Baidoo, K; Otiti, J

    2012-06-01

    Head and neck cancers pose an especially serious problem in developing countries due to late presentation requiring complex surgical intervention. These countries are faced with many challenges, ranging from insufficient health care staff to problems with peri-operative requirements, diagnostic facilities, chemoradiation services and research funding.These challenges can be addressed through the training of head and neck surgeons and support personnel, the improvement of cancer awareness in local communities, and the establishment of dedicated head and neck institutes which focus on the special needs of head and neck cancer patients.All these changes can best be achieved through collaborative efforts with external partners. The Karl Storz Fellowship in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer, enabling training at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, has served as a springboard towards establishing head and neck services in developing sub-Saharan African countries. PMID:22643201

  17. Economic impact of transgenic crops in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Raney, Terri

    2006-04-01

    Transgenic crops are being adopted rapidly at the global level, but only a few developing countries are growing them in significant quantities. Why are these crops so successful in some countries but not in others? Farm level profitability ultimately determines whether farmers adopt and retain a new technology, but this depends on much more than technical performance. Recent economic studies in developing countries find positive, but highly variable, economic returns to adopting transgenic crops. These studies confirm that institutional factors such as national agricultural research capacity, environmental and food safety regulations, intellectual property rights and agricultural input markets matter at least as much as the technology itself in determining the level and distribution of economic benefits.

  18. Supporting Access to Open Online Courses for Learners of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nti, Kwame

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how access to, and use of, open online courses may be enhanced for learners of developing countries from a learner perspective. Using analysis of the open education concept, factors that affect access to open educational resources content, and universal standards for delivering online learning, the author demonstrates that the…

  19. Achievement Motivation as a Case of Re-Socialization in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Ratna

    The question of achievement motivation in relation to developing countries is explored. A foundation for the study is achieved through discussion of the socialization processes as they are affected by education and economic growth. It is suggested that the societal system determines motivation and values which in turn cause and determine the…

  20. The Health Impact of Child Labor in Developing Countries: Evidence From Cross-Country Data

    PubMed Central

    Roggero, Paola; Mangiaterra, Viviana; Bustreo, Flavia; Rosati, Furio

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. Research on child labor and its effect on health has been limited. We sought to determine the impact of child labor on children’s health by correlating existing health indicators with the prevalence of child labor in selected developing countries. Methods. We analyzed the relationship between child labor (defined as the percentage of children aged 10 to14 years who were workers) and selected health indicators in 83 countries using multiple regression to determine the nature and strength of the relation. The regression included control variables such as the percentage of the population below the poverty line and the adult mortality rate. Results. Child labor was significantly and positively related to adolescent mortality, to a population’s nutrition level, and to the presence of infectious disease. Conclusions. Longitudinal studies are required to understand the short- and long-term health effects of child labor on the individual child. PMID:17194870

  1. Software Development Offshoring Competitiveness: A Case Study of ASEAN Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Minh Q.

    2011-01-01

    With the success of offshoring within the American software industry, corporate executives are moving their software developments overseas. The member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) have become a preferred destination. However, there is a lack of published studies on the region's software competitiveness in…

  2. Educational Digital Technologies in Developing Countries Challenge Third Party Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passey, Don; Laferrière, Thérèse; Ahmad, Manal Yazbak-Abu; Bhowmik, Miron; Gross, Diana; Price, Janet; Resta, Paul; Shonfeld, Miri

    2016-01-01

    In this conceptual paper, we consider issues and challenges of third party and governmental organisations in planning and implementing access to and uses of digital technologies for learning and teaching in developing countries. We consider failures and weaknesses in the planning and implementation processes highlighted by research in developed…

  3. Essays on the Economics of Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Uttam

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on a key challenge facing developing countries intent on enhancing their human capital base--namely, the issue of quality. One of the chapters evaluates the effectiveness of the One Laptop per Child (OLPC) initiative in Nepal's primary and lower-secondary schools. Although the OLPC program is being heavily promoted in…

  4. The Educational Implications of Introducing a NQF for Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The one-year research project on the implementation of NQFs in developing countries was launched by the ILO 2009 in collaboration with the ETF. This article reviews some of the educational issues that arose from the project. The findings of the case studies raise issues that are important for how future research and policy on NQFs is taken…

  5. Low-Cost Computers for Education in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the distribution of computer use in a comparison between two of the most dominant suppliers of low-cost computers for education in developing countries (partly because they involve diametrically opposite ways of tackling the problem). The comparison is made in the context of an analytical framework which traces the changing…

  6. Computer Education in Developing Countries: Facing Hard Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Joao Batista Araujo e

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the adoption of computer technology for use in education in developing countries. Topics discussed include criteria for technology adoption; costs; instructional effectiveness; cost effectiveness; the concept of computer literacy; meeting job market demands; educational improvement; computer education policies; hardware and software…

  7. Inequality in Human Development: An Empirical Assessment of 32 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Michael; Harttgen, Kenneth; Klasen, Stephan; Misselhorn, Mark; Munzi, Teresa; Smeeding, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    One of the most frequent critiques of the HDI is that is does not take into account inequality within countries in its three dimensions. In this paper, we apply a simply approach to compute the three components and the overall HDI for quintiles of the income distribution. This allows a comparison of the level in human development of the poor with…

  8. Locally sourced probiotics, the next opportunity for developing countries?

    PubMed

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2015-04-01

    We describe factors promoting the exploration of locally sourced probiotics, targeting local populations to balance human needs and market opportunities. This would be particularly beneficial for people in developing countries, who generally lack access to affordable probiotics and are often exposed to poor hygiene conditions, toxic compounds, malnutrition, and chronic enteric infections.

  9. Trade Policies toward Developing Countries: The Multilateral Trade Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lorenzo L., Ed.; Benedick, Gerald R., Ed.

    Proceedings are presented of a 1977 conference about aspects of international trade negotiations of importance to developing countries. Participants included staff from Washington-based international organizations, various United States departments, Congressional staff, and students of the Foreign Service Institute. Transcripts of three addresses…

  10. Real and Potential Benefits of Bilingual Programmes in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Carolyn J.

    2002-01-01

    Argues that bilingual education in developing countries represents an encouraging facet of efforts to improve primary schooling both quantitatively in terms of participation and qualitatively in terms of learning processes. Using examples from Guinea-Bissau, Niger, Mozambique, and Bolivia, demonstrates advantages of bilingual programming in…

  11. School Choice and Academic Performance: Some Evidence from Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Bao, Yong; Dixon, Pauline; Merrifield, John

    2011-01-01

    There is widespread concern about differences in the quality of state-run and private schooling. The concerns are especially severe in the numerous developing countries where much of the population has left state-provided schooling for private schooling, including many private schools not recognized by the government. The fees charged by the…

  12. Using Special Libraries to Interface with Developing Country Clientele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenck-Hamlin, Donna; George, Paulette Foss

    1986-01-01

    Describes two special collections focusing on postharvest systems of handling, transportation, storage, and marketing of food and feed grain. Highlights include information needs of developing countries (e.g., Egypt, Honduras, Pakistan), and information center activities (communication and marketing, collection building, interpreting client needs,…

  13. Learning for a Future: Refugee Education in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Jeff, Ed.; Talbot, Christopher, Ed.; Cipollone, Daiana B., Ed.

    This collection of papers is the product of research conducted by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). The papers, which were presented at a 2001 workshop, "Refugee Education in Developing Countries: Policy and Practice," are: "Education in Emergencies" (Margaret Sinclair), which reviews the rationale for education in…

  14. Financing Secondary Education in Developing Countries: Strategies for Sustainable Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith; Caillods, Francoise

    This book explores the problems and issues of secondary-school financing in developing countries. It outlines the rationale for expanding secondary education, investigates under what conditions it might be possible to do so at sustainable cost levels, presents case studies of secondary-school financing, and offers policy recommendations. The first…

  15. Financing Education in Developing Countries: An Exploration of Policy Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George; And Others

    Education is an economically and socially productive investment. Therefore, the educational systems in developing countries must continue to improve in quality, in efficiency, and in equality of opportunity if they are to continue serving as important instruments for improving the national economy. Yet, budgetary austerity tightens the public…

  16. Factors Influencing Cloud-Computing Technology Adoption in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailu, Alemayehu

    2012-01-01

    Adoption of new technology has complicating components both from the selection, as well as decision-making criteria and process. Although new technology such as cloud computing provides great benefits especially to the developing countries, it has challenges that may complicate the selection decision and subsequent adoption process. This study…

  17. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  18. Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This publication reports on 18 months of research, debate, and deliberation by the Task Force on Higher Education and Society, convened by the World Bank and UNESCO, to bring together experts from 13 countries to explore the future of higher education in developing nations. The publication's six chapters address: (1) the long-standing problems and…

  19. Small integrated solar energy systems for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreitmueller, K. R.

    1982-11-01

    Solar enegy applications in developing countries cover processing of food and other agricultural products, fresh water production, operation of cooling and freezing equipment, of water pumps and processing machinery. Evacuated tubular collectors turn out to be best suited for process heat generation; photovoltaic generators for electricity production. The Mexican fisher village of Las Barrancas gives a good example of an integrated solar energy system.

  20. Advancing Energy Development in Indian Country (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information on the Strategic Technical Assistance Response Team (START) Program, a U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (DOE-IE) initiative to provide technical expertise to support the development of next-generation energy projects in Indian Country.

  1. Higher Education Challenges in Developing Countries: The Case of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Diane E.

    2004-01-01

    This review of literature was written in preparation for conducting a research study on the U.S. community college system as a potential model for developing countries, and using Vietnam as a specific case. It is divided into four sections: (a) a discussion of the purposes of higher education (HE), (b) an examination of problems faced by the HE…

  2. Locally sourced probiotics, the next opportunity for developing countries?

    PubMed

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Kort, Remco; Lee, Yuan-Kun

    2015-04-01

    We describe factors promoting the exploration of locally sourced probiotics, targeting local populations to balance human needs and market opportunities. This would be particularly beneficial for people in developing countries, who generally lack access to affordable probiotics and are often exposed to poor hygiene conditions, toxic compounds, malnutrition, and chronic enteric infections. PMID:25812840

  3. Child Mortality in a Developing Country: A Statistical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uddin, Md. Jamal; Hossain, Md. Zakir; Ullah, Mohammad Ohid

    2009-01-01

    This study uses data from the "Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS] 1999-2000" to investigate the predictors of child (age 1-4 years) mortality in a developing country like Bangladesh. The cross-tabulation and multiple logistic regression techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of child mortality. The cross-tabulation…

  4. Financing Training in Developing Countries: The Role of Payroll Taxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalley, John; Ziderman, Adrian

    1990-01-01

    Although in most developing countries, major vocational training programs are financed from general government revenues, earmarked payroll taxes are becoming increasingly popular. This paper summarizes international experience with these payroll taxes, distinguishing between the more traditional revenue-raising schemes of the Latin American model…

  5. Food Science in Developing Countries: A Selection of Unsolved Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    Presented are summaries of 42 unsolved problems in food science which exist in various developing countries throughout the world. Problems deal with new foods, food processing, food composition, nutrition, and health. Each problem presented includes the problem description, background information, possible approaches to solutions, special…

  6. Education Aid to Developing Countries: A General or Differentiated Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas; Postlethwaite, T. Neville

    1989-01-01

    Grouping developing countries by financial and educational indicators for receiving educational aid is discussed. An example is given of the way in which existing information on such indicators can be used in secondary analysis to derive relationships that policy makers can use at the international level. (SLD)

  7. Market-based licensing for HPV vaccines in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Outterson, Kevin; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2008-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines hold great promise for preventing cervical cancer, but 93 percent of mortality worldwide occurs in low- and middle-income countries, where high vaccine costs can restrict dissemination. Current models for promoting international access to health care innovations include differential pricing, advance market commitments, and voluntary and compulsory licensing. Some of these mechanisms have been effective, but much room for improvement remains. We discuss the usefulness of a new type of license that uses market forces to lower prices through generic competition in low- and middle-income countries while ensuring that pharmaceutical companies are appropriately reimbursed for their research and development.

  8. Toward Affective Development: A Program to Stimulate Psychological and Affective Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Linda F.

    1987-01-01

    Toward Affective Development (TAD), a 191-lesson program designed to stimulate psychological and affective development for third- through sixth-graders, can be used in special education, resource rooms, and remedial settings. TAD's five sections encompass: openness to experience, effects of emotions, group dynamics, individuality, and conflict…

  9. Climate change and family planning: least-developed countries define the agenda

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Louise; Butler, Colin D; Anage, Ababu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The links between rapid population growth and concerns regarding climate change have received little attention. Some commentators have argued that slowing population growth is necessary to reduce further rises in carbon emissions. Others have objected that this would give rise to dehumanizing “population control” programmes in developing countries. Yet the perspective of the developing countries that will be worst affected by climate change has been almost completely ignored by the scientific literature. This deficit is addressed by this paper, which analyses the first 40 National Adaptation Programmes of Action reports submitted by governments of least-developed countries to the Global Environment Facility for funding. Of these documents, 93% identified at least one of three ways in which demographic trends interact with the effects of climate change: (i) faster degradation of the sources of natural resources; (ii) increased demand for scarce resources; and (iii) heightened human vulnerability to extreme weather events. These findings suggest that voluntary access to family planning services should be made more available to poor communities in least-developed countries. We stress the distinction between this approach, which prioritizes the welfare of poor communities affected by climate change, and the argument that population growth should be slowed to limit increases in global carbon emissions. The paper concludes by calling for increased support for rights-based family planning services, including those integrated with HIV/AIDS services, as an important complementary measure to climate change adaptation programmes in developing countries. PMID:20072771

  10. [Perspective of cervical cancer prevention and control in developing countries and areas].

    PubMed

    Qiao, You-Lin

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer ranks the second common cancer in women, affecting women severely in developing countries. It is a critical issue to develop simple, rapid, accurate, safe, acceptable, and inexpensive screening tests which can be used in cervical cancer prevention programs in developing countries. Due to the shortage of funding and qualified cytological professionals in most developing countries, WHO has been actively promoting visual inspection with acetic acid/iodine solution (VIA/VILI) as the alternative approach to screening cervical cancer. After the discovery of a link between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, the HPV prophylactic vaccine and CareHPV test have been successfully developed. The cervical cancer will be the first cancer eliminated by the combination of vaccination, screening, early diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Recent developments in affective recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katarya, Rahul; Verma, Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Recommender systems (RSs) are playing a significant role since 1990s as they provide relevant, personalized information to the users over the internet. Lots of work have been done in information filtering, utilization, and application related to RS. However, an important area recently draws our attention which is affective recommender system. Affective recommender system (ARS) is latest trending area of research, as publication in this domain are few and recently published. ARS is associated with human behaviour, human factors, mood, senses, emotions, facial expressions, body gesture and physiological with human-computer interaction (HCI). Due to this assortment and various interests, more explanation is required, as it is in premature phase and growing as compared to other fields. So we have done literature review (LR) in the affective recommender systems by doing classification, incorporate reputed articles published from the year 2003 to February 2016. We include articles which highlight, analyse, and perform a study on affective recommender systems. This article categorizes, synthesizes, and discusses the research and development in ARS. We have classified and managed ARS papers according to different perspectives: research gaps, nature, algorithm or method adopted, datasets, the platform on executed, types of information and evaluation techniques applied. The researchers and professionals will positively support this survey article for understanding the current position, research in affective recommender systems and will guide future trends, opportunity and research focus in ARS.

  12. Engaging Students in Water Resources Issues in Developing Countries (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J.; Lutz, A.

    2010-12-01

    When all is said and done, what does it mean to work in the developing world? The need for access to clean water and sanitation and the desire to end poverty and disease cannot be disputed. But as engineers and physical scientists, we often step into a scenario with a problem-identification-and-solving approach. However, to successfully apply engineering and science in developing countries, we should also consider questions such as: how the problems have come to be; have our approaches been appropriate; and what have the effects of projects been on local populations? A short course to help us better address critical needs begins with readings that cover the history of development, development theories, review of “players” in development, case studies, and possibilities on the road ahead. It is also important to include key guest speakers with experience in developing countries as part of an international course curriculum. Within this overall course context, discussion of case studies provides an opportunity to critically assess positive, negative, and a combination of outcomes for communities. These case studies are building blocks for solving some of the most important water and sanitation issues in developing countries.

  13. Reproductive rights approach to reproductive health in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Vijayan K.; Gupta, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Background Research on reproductive health in developing countries focuses mostly on the role of economic development on various components of reproductive health. Cross-sectional and empirical research studies in particular on the effects of non-economic factors such as reproductive rights remain few and far between. Objective This study investigates the influence of two components of an empowerment strategy, gender equality, and reproductive rights on women's reproductive health in developing countries. The empowerment strategy for improving reproductive health is theoretically situated on a number of background factors such as economic and social development. Design Cross-national socioeconomic and demographic data from a number of international organizations on 142 developing countries are used to test a model of reproductive rights and reproductive health. Results The findings suggest that both economic and democratic development have significant positive effects on levels of gender equality. The level of social development plays a prominent role in promoting reproductive rights. It is found that reproductive rights channel the influences of social structural factors and gender equality on reproductive health. PMID:22184501

  14. Energy and the Oil-Importing Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkerley, Joy; Ramsay, William

    1982-05-01

    Oil-importing developing countries will need more energy during the 1980's to sustain development and to support their subsistence sectors. Development plans must be revised to reflect the potentially disastrous effects of high-cost oil on foreign exchange reserves and on national indebtedness. Energy use efficiency must be increased, and wider use must be made of domestic sources of energy--of conventional fossil and hydro sources and of new and renewable options such as biomass and other solar resources. The international community can help by careful management of world financial flows and trade agreements, expansion of capital assistance, and provision of technical assistance. The importance of improving levels of scientific and technical expertise in the less-developed countries is a challege to the worldwide scientific and engineering community.

  15. Soil erosion in developing countries: a socio-economic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Ananda, Jayanath; Herath, Gamini

    2003-08-01

    Soil erosion is the single most important environmental degradation problem in the developing world. Despite the plethora of literature that exists on the incidence, causes and impacts of soil erosion, a concrete understanding of this complex problem is lacking. This paper examines the soil erosion problem in developing countries in order to understand the complex inter-relationships between population pressure, poverty and environmental-institutional dynamics. Two recent theoretical developments, namely Boserup's theory on population pressure, poverty and soil erosion and Lopez's theory on environmental and institutional dynamics have been reviewed. The analysis reveals that negative impacts of technical change, inappropriate government policies and poor institutions are largely responsible for the continued soil erosion in developing countries. On the other hand, potential for market-based approaches to mitigate the problem is also low due to the negative externalities involved. A deeper appreciation of institutional and environmental dynamics and policy reforms to strengthen weak institutions may help mitigate the problem.

  16. The introduction of space technology power systems into developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Allen F.; Ratajczak, Anthony F.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1984, NASA-Lewis was responsible for the design, fabrication, installation and operational support of 57 photovoltaic power systems in 27 countries. These systems were installed in locations not served by a central power system and ranged in size from 40 W for powering street lights to 29 kW for providing power to a complete village. Several of the system projects had socio/economic studies components that provided for an assessment of how the introduction of both electricity and a novel high technology power system affected the users and their society.

  17. The future of information technology for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ratzan, Scott C; Busquets, Maria I

    2002-01-01

    What is the future of communication technology for health in developing countries? This chapter sets out to answer this question by first considering the background and potential of information technology, identifying some of the issues and trends in communication, and finally following with some challenges and opportunities of how communication technologies can make a difference in health in developing countries. Past research has shown that communication can contribute to all aspects of population, health, and nutrition programs and is relevant in a number of contexts. Some of the trends in using information technology can be classified in the following categories: competition, cognitive-based presentations, comprehensive translation, convergence, and culture. Challenges include finding a way to include the South in the exchange of ideas and information. In addition, reaching a consensus on worldwide quality standards will not be easy. Yet, beyond these challenges, there are many opportunities being created for international development agencies to increase their capacity for impact.

  18. Geothermal development opportunities in central and east European countries

    SciTech Connect

    Cohut, I.; Bendea, C.

    1997-12-31

    Many Central and East European (CEE) countries have significant low enthalpy geothermal resources suitable for direct heat utilisation. Up to present, these resources have only been partially used, mainly for health and recreational bathing, and for greenhouse heating. The involvement of highly developed countries is both needed and desired, but it has a major disadvantage: it is expensive. Even if the first steps for a collaboration profitable for both parties have been stumbling, having to surpass many obstacles, it is now clear that a new market is developing, which first significant commercial opportunities and which will probably comply to the old rule, {open_quotes}first-come, first-served{close_quotes}. To illustrate the investment opportunities in CEE geothermal projects, the development of the geothermal heating facilities of the City of Oradea, Romania, is presented as a case study.

  19. Rating maternal and neonatal health services in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Bulatao, Rodolfo A.; Ross, John A.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess maternal and neonatal health services in 49 developing countries. METHODS: The services were rated on a scale of 0 to 100 by 10 - 25 experts in each country. The ratings covered emergency and routine services, including family planning, at health centres and district hospitals, access to these services for both rural and urban women, the likelihood that women would receive particular forms of antenatal and delivery care, and supporting elements of programmes such as policy, resources, monitoring, health promotion and training. FINDINGS: The average rating was only 56, but countries varied widely, especially in access to services in rural areas. Comparatively good ratings were reported for immunization services, aspects of antenatal care and counselling on breast feeding. Ratings were particularly weak for emergency obstetric care in rural areas, safe abortion and HIV counselling. CONCLUSION: Maternal health programme effort in developing countries is seriously deficient, particularly in rural areas. Rural women are disadvantaged in many respects, but especially regarding the treatment of emergency obstetric conditions. Both rural and urban women receive inadequate HIV counselling and testing and have quite limited access to safe abortion. Improving services requires moving beyond policy reform to strengthening implementation of services and to better staff training and health promotion. Increased financing is only part of the solution. PMID:12378290

  20. Developing countries use music videos to promote teen sexual restraint.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, M

    1991-12-15

    The Center for Communications Programs of the Johns Hopkins University has successfully produced and aired songs and music videos promoting teenage sexual restraint in developing countries. Entertaining music videos convey accurate messages to target audiences more effectively than teachers and doctors are able. In addition to successes in the Philippines and Nigeria, overwhelming success has been met with Wait, a video with Latin American pop start Tatiana and Johnny. A hit in 11 Latin American countries reaching 1 in Mexico, the video received 1 million hour s free air time. Passionate, powerful, and persuasive, these videos have prompted increased contraceptive use in countries where they have been aired. The Center's videos and songs have proved popular and profitable in a competitive market of ideas, earning 3-4 times their production costs. Accordingly, health experts from Johns Hopkins University recognize the potential role of these productions in preventing AIDS and unwanted pregnancies in other settings. Where Baltimore leads the U.S. in teen pregnancies, the Center would like to air soap opera on sexual responsibility. Production costs in the U.S. are, however, 10 times higher than in developing countries. With the collaboration of media executives, significant financial and social rewards could result from such a production.

  1. Mass Customization and Personalization Prospects in Developing Country: Indonesian Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risdiyono; Djati Widodo, Imam; Mahtarami, Affan

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of information technology (IT) has changed many modes and ways for people in doing their businesses. Mass Customization and Personalization (MCP) is one example of business modes that has been dramatically evolve, mainly due to the currently very fast IT development. MCP has enabled people to involve in adjusting some design parameters of a product to meet their personal requirements before purchased. The advancement of IT has made MCP more successful as it makes the process faster, easier, simpler and more joyful. The success stories of MCP are easily found in many developed countries, where the IT infrastructure has firmly been established. For developing countries, there are very few industries have implemented the MCP concept, including Indonesia. This paper discusses a descriptive study to depict what people think about MCP implementation in Indonesia especially in Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Kano model was used to see the perception of both producers and consumers in relation with MCP implementation. Five dummy MCP prototypes were developed for five creative products including plaques, hats, invitation card, t-shirts and leather bags. Based on the KANO questionnaire analyses, it is clear that there are big opportunities to implement MCP in Indonesia especially for creative products produced by SMEs. Identifying the correct product features is an important key for successful MCP implementation in developing countries.

  2. Country of Origin and Country of Service Delivery Effects in Transnational Higher Education: A Comparison of International Branch Campuses from Developed and Developing Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Chiu Mei; Butt, Muhammad Mohsin; Wilkins, Stephen; Ong, Fon Sim

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, international branch campuses have been established by universities from developing countries as well as developed countries. Little research has been conducted into students' perceptions of branch campuses from different countries, or how universities from different countries compete in the increasingly competitive market. A…

  3. [Deficient information in developing countries: Internet alone is no solution].

    PubMed

    Sluijs, M B; Veeken, H; Overbeke, A J P M

    2006-06-17

    Health-care personnel in developing countries have poor access to information, partly because the books are out of date and journals and Internet access are lacking, and partly because the information that is available is not appropriate for the local situation. There is too little research aimed at the problems of the Third World. This is due to a lack of interest in Western countries and because local scientists have done too little research. Internet solves the problem of access to information for health-care personnel in large hospitals and institutes, but there is still a shortage of relevant information for them as well. The editorial boards of professional journals could make a contribution by facilitating the publication of relevant research. Health-care personnel in rural areas will remain dependent upon basic books. This basic component of the provision of information should continue to receive attention. For the time being, Internet will remain inaccessible for rural health-care personnel. One of the initiatives being undertaken in order to improve the provision of information to health-care personnel in developing countries is the distribution of the 'blue trunk library' of the WHO with a selection of more than 100 basic books in every trunk. A number of journals have also taken action: the BMJ Publishing Group offers access to its journals free of charge to the 118 poorest countries and the Canadian Medical Association Journal provides free copies to libraries in developing countries. Moreover, a number ofwebsites have been started with a view to enlarging the information for health-care personnel in the Third World. PMID:16808368

  4. Teenage pregnancy in developed countries: determinants and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Jones, E F; Forrest, J D; Goldman, N; Henshaw, S K; Lincoln, R; Rosoff, J I; Westoff, C F; Wulf, D

    1985-01-01

    Because of the high adolescent fertility rates in the US, the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) conducted a 1985 study of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing in 37 developed countries. This was an effort to unveil those factors responsible for determining teenage reproductive behavior. This article presents the data from that study. Birthrates were collected and separated into 2 age groups: for those under 18 and those women 18 to 19 years of age. A 42 variable questionnaire was sent to the public affairs officer of the American embassy and family planning organization in each foreign country to provide additional socioeconomic, behavioral, and educational data. Childbearing was found to be positively correlated with agricultural work, denoting a socioeconomic influence. Adolescent birthrates showed a positive correlation with levels of maternity leaves and benefits offered in the country. The lowest birthrates were found in those countries with the most liberal attitudes toward sex as demonstrated through media representation of female nudity, extent of nudity on public beaches, sales of sexually explicit literature, and media advertising of condoms. A negative correlation was seen for equitable distribution of income and the under 18 birthrate. The older teenage birthrate was found to be lower for countries with higher minimum ages for marriage. They also suggested a responsiveness to government efforts to increase fertility. Some general patterns emerged to explain the high teenage birthrate for the US: it is less open about sexual matters than countries with lower adolescent birthrates and the income in the US is distributed to families of low economic status. A more subtle factor is that although contraception is available, it is not that accessible to young men and women because of the cost. Case studies were presented to provide a more detailed understanding of the reasons for the high adolescent birthrates. Examined are desire for pregnancy, exposure to

  5. Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Aziz, Azlina

    This thesis contributes to the literature on energy demand in three ways. Firstly, it examines the major determinants of energy demand using a panel of 23 developed countries and 16 developing countries during 1978 to 2003. Secondly, it examines the demand for energy in the industrial sector and the extent of inter-fuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, using data from 5 advanced countries and 5 energy producer's developing countries. Third, the thesis investigates empirically the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for these groups of countries over a 26-year period. The empirical results of this study confirm the majority of the findings in energy demand analysis. Income and price have shown to be important determinants for energy consumption in both developed and developing countries. Moreover, both economic structure and technical progress appear to exert significant impacts on energy consumption. Income has a positive impact on energy demand and the effect is larger in developing countries. In both developed and developing countries, price has a negative impact but these effects are larger in developed countries than in developing countries. The share of industry in GDP is positive and has a greater impact on energy demand in developing countries, whereas technological progress is found to be energy using in developed countries and energy saving in developing countries. With respect to the analysis of inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution in industrial energy demand, the results provide evidence for substitution possibilities between factor inputs and fuels. Substitutability is observed between capital and energy, capital and labour and labour and energy. These findings confirm previous evidence that production technologies in these countries allow flexibility in the capital-energy, capital-labour and labour-energy mix. In the energy sub-model, the elasticities of substitution show that large

  6. A Compendium of National Reports on Laws Affecting Sport in Countries Having Acceded to the European Cultural Convention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).

    This report presents information from national reports on laws affecting sports in various countries that have acceded to the European Cultural Convention. The reports come from the following countries: Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg,…

  7. A developing country perspective on vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

    PubMed Central

    John, T. Jacob

    2004-01-01

    When the Expanded Programme on Immunization was established and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was introduced for developing countries to use exclusively, national leaders of public health had no opportunity to make an informed choice between OPV and the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Today, as progress is made towards the goal of global eradication of poliomyelitis attributable to wild polioviruses, all developing countries where OPV is used face the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP). Until recently, awareness of VAPP has been poor and quantitative risk analysis scanty but it is now well known that the continued use of OPV perpetuates the risk of VAPP. Discontinuation or declining immunization coverage of OPV will increase the risk of emergence of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) that re-acquire wild virus-like properties and may cause outbreaks of polio. To eliminate the risk of cVDPV, either very high immunization coverage must be maintained as long as OPV is in use, or IPV should replace OPV. Stopping OPV without first achieving high immunization coverage with IPV is unwise on account of the possibility of emergence of cVDPV. Increasing numbers of developed nations prefer IPV, and manufacturing capacities have not been scaled up, so its price remains prohibitively high and unaffordable by developing countries, where, in addition, large-scale field experience with IPV is lacking. Under these circumstances, a policy shift to increase the use of IPV in national immunization programmes in developing countries is a necessary first step; once IPV coverage reaches high levels (over 85%), the withdrawal of OPV may begin. PMID:15106301

  8. Essays on energy, equity, and the environment in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Debra Kim

    1999-11-01

    The essays in this dissertation explore different environmental and public policy issues relevant to developing countries. Essay I examines household-level survey responses to the question "How willing would you be to pay somewhat higher taxes to the government if you knew the money would be spent to protect the environment and prevent land, water and air pollution?" Specifically, for twelve developing and three developed countries included in the survey, the empirical relationships among willingness to pay for environmental quality, relative household income and national income are investigated. The results indicate that when the effects of household and national income are combined, households with below-average income in low-income countries are less willing to pay for environmental protection than those with above-average income in high-income countries. Furthermore, willingness to pay for environmental protection increases more significantly with relative household income than with national income. Essay II uses data from urban Bolivia to study the determinants of household fuel choice, an important link between deforestation and indoor air pollution in developing countries. In particular, the effects of fixed fuel costs, income growth, and female earned income on household fuel choice are examined. The results imply that reduction in firewood use in developing countries is not likely to occur simply as the result of income growth. The essay discusses possible policy implications based on the results that fixed fuel costs appear to be a deterrent to switching to a cleaner fuel and households with female earned income seem less likely to use firewood than other households. Essay III analyzes the equity implications of the elimination of fuel subsidies in the 1985 Bolivian economic reforms. An analysis of the direct static burden shows that while the elimination of gasoline subsidies was progressively distributed, the elimination of LPG and kerosene subsidies

  9. Management of Haemophilia in Developing Countries: Challenges and Options.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Ghosh, Kinjalka

    2016-09-01

    There are significant challenges in managing haemophilia patients in developing countries. These challenges are (i) Lack of proper health care infrastructure and human resources suitable for haemophilia care (ii) Competing health care priorities of the government. (iii) Lack of penetrance of medical insurance in the population. (iv) Lesser visibility of the haemophilia patients in health care system (v) Low awareness across the medical profession, population and the policy makers about the condition (vi) Non availability of factor concentrates (vii) Inadequate utilization of knowledge for reducing factor concentrate use. (viii) Inadequate pain relief (ix) Challenges due to inhibitor developing (x) Viral hepatitis & (xi) Lack of research publications relevant to the country are some of the challenges faced by PWH for their management in developing country. The solutions are not easy but development of a strong patient organization with linkages with World Federation of Haemophilia is an important initial step. Following that internal and international twinning, use of internal sources, strong advocacy programme targeting government, doctors, opinion makers will solve many of the challenges in the time to come. PMID:27429529

  10. Emergency medical care in developing countries: is it worthwhile?

    PubMed Central

    Razzak, Junaid A.; Kellermann, Arthur L.

    2002-01-01

    Prevention is a core value of any health system. Nonetheless, many health problems will continue to occur despite preventive services. A significant burden of diseases in developing countries is caused by time-sensitive illnesses and injuries, such as severe infections, hypoxia caused by respiratory infections, dehydration caused by diarrhoea, intentional and unintentional injuries, postpartum bleeding, and acute myocardial infarction. The provision of timely treatment during life-threatening emergencies is not a priority for many health systems in developing countries. This paper reviews evidence indicating the need to develop and/or strengthen emergency medical care systems in these countries. An argument is made for the role of emergency medical care in improving the health of populations and meeting expectations for access to emergency care. We consider emergency medical care in the community, during transportation, and at first-contact and regional referral facilities. Obstacles to developing effective emergency medical care include a lack of structural models, inappropriate training foci, concerns about cost, and sustainability in the face of a high demand for services. A basic but effective level of emergency medical care responds to perceived and actual community needs and improves the health of populations. PMID:12481213

  11. Why Patient Centered Care Coordination Is Important in Developing Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Luna, D.; Marcelo, A.; Househ, M.; Mandirola, H.; Curioso, W.; Pazos, P.; Villalba, C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patient Centered Care Coordination (PCCC) focuses on the patient health care needs. PCCC involves the organization, the patients and their families, that must coordinate resources in order to accomplish the goals of PCCC. In developing countries, where disparities are frequent, PCCC could improve clinical outcomes, costs and patients satisfaction. Objective the IMIA working group Health Informatics for Development analyzes the benefits, identifies the barriers and proposes strategies to reach PCCC. Methods Discussions about PCCC emerged from a brief guide that posed questions about what is PCCC, why consider PCCC important, barriers to grow in this direction and ask about resources considered relevant in the topic. Results PCCC encompasses a broad definition, includes physical, mental, socio-environmental and self care. Even benefits are proved, in developing countries the lack of a comprehensive and integrated healthcare network is one of the main barriers to reach this objective. Working hard to reach strong health policies, focus on patients, and optimizing the use of resources could improve the performance in the devolvement of PCCC programs. International collaboration could bring benefits. We believe information IT, and education in this field will play an important role in PCCC. Conclusion PCCC in developing countries has the potential to improve quality of care. Education, IT, policies and cultural issues must be addressed in an international collaborative context in order to reach this goal. PMID:26123907

  12. Large Earthquakes in Developing Countries: Estimating and Reducing their Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2003-12-01

    Recent efforts to reduce the risk of earthquakes in developing countries have been diverse, earnest, and inadequate. The earthquake risk in developing countries is large and growing rapidly. It is largely ignored. Unless something is done - quickly - to reduce it, both developing and developed countries will suffer human and economic losses far greater than have been experienced in the past. GeoHazards International (GHI) is a nonprofit organization that has attempted to reduce the death and suffering caused by earthquakes in the world's most vulnerable communities, through preparedness, mitigation and prevention. Its approach has included raising awareness, strengthening local institutions and launching mitigation activities, particularly for schools. GHI and its partners around the world have achieved some success: thousands of school children are safer, hundreds of cities are aware of their risk, tens of cities have been assessed and advised, and some local organizations have been strengthened. But there is disturbing evidence that what is being done is insufficient. The problem outpaces the cure. A new program is now being considered that would attempt to improve earthquake-resistant construction of schools, internationally, by publicizing well-managed programs around the world that design, construct and maintain earthquake-resistant schools. While focused on schools, this program might have broader applications in the future.

  13. International sources of financial cooperation for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, L M

    1983-01-01

    By direct consulation and review of published sources, a study of 16 selected official sources of international financial cooperation was conducted over the August 1979 to August 1980 period in order to assess the policies, programs, and prospects for support of established international health goals. This study demonstrated that approximately 90% of the external health sector funds are provided via development oriented agencies. The major agencies providing such assistance concur that no sector, including health, should be excluded "a priori," providing that the requesting nation conveys its proposals through the appropriate national development planning authority. The agencies in the study also were found to be supporting health related programs in all the geographic regions of the World Health Organization (WHO). An associated review of 30 external funding agencies revealed that only 5 reported providing health assistance in more than half of the countries where they provided assistance for general development purposes. Interviewed sources attributed this to the limited manner in which health proposals have been identified, prepared, and forwarded (with national development authority approval) to international agencies. In 1979 concessional development financing totaled approximately US$29.9 billion, US$24.2 billion being provided by 17 major industrial nations, US$4.7 billion by Organization of Petroleum Exporting (OPEC) countries, and less than US$1 billion by the countries of Eastern Europe. Approximately 2/3 of such concessional financing is administered bilaterally, only 1/3 passing through multilateral institutions. UN agencies receive only 12% of these total concessional development financing resources. In 1979, concessional funding for health totaled approximately US$3 billion, approximately 1/10 of which was administered by WHO and its regional offices. It is anticipated that future international funding for health in developing countries will continue

  14. Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, Mohammad S.; Khuroo, Mehnaaz S.; Khuroo, Naira S.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), an RNA virus of the Hepeviridae family, has marked heterogeneity. While all five HEV genotypes can cause human infections, genotypes HEV-1 and -2 infect humans alone, genotypes HEV-3 and -4 primarily infect pigs, boars and deer, and genotype HEV-7 primarily infects dromedaries. The global distribution of HEV has distinct epidemiological patterns based on ecology and socioeconomic factors. In resource-poor countries, disease presents as large-scale waterborne epidemics, and few epidemics have spread through person-to-person contact; however, endemic diseases within these countries can potentially spread through person-to-person contact or fecally contaminated water and foods. Vertical transmission of HEV from infected mother to fetus causes high fetal and perinatal mortality. Other means of transmission, such as zoonotic transmission, can fluctuate depending upon the region and strain of the virus. For instance, zoonotic transmission can sometimes play an insignificant role in human infections, such as in India, where human and pig HEV infections are unrelated. However, recently China and Southeast Asia have experienced a zoonotic spread of HEV-4 from pigs to humans and this has become the dominant mode of transmission of hepatitis E in eastern China. Zoonotic HEV infections in humans occur by eating undercooked pig flesh, raw liver, and sausages; through vocational contact; or via pig slurry, which leads to environmental contamination of agricultural products and seafood. Lastly, blood transfusion-associated HEV infections occur in many countries and screening of donors for HEV RNA is currently under serious consideration. To summarize, HEV genotypes 1 and 2 cause epidemic and endemic diseases in resource poor countries, primarily spreading through contaminated drinking water. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 on the other hand, cause autochthonous infections in developed, and many developing countries, by means of a unique zoonotic food

  15. Efficacy of Professional Development Schools in Developing Countries: Panama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon; Shaklee, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the creation and implementation of the first Professional Development School (PDS) model of teacher education in Panama. The authors set the context within brief histories of international education and PDSs and provide operational definitions of the critical terminology. To be sure, the scope and scale of the…

  16. Energy data collection as a necessary activity for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Loebl, A. S.; Cagle, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for energy data collection by developing countries and includes an examination of the special requirements of Costa Rica for energy data collection. A primary reason for national data collection is to support the planning function, and this is particularly significant where energy planning and economic development are concerned. Energy data are necessary to support all phases of planning: short-term; mid-term; and long-range and/or strategic planning. These different planning requirements are discussed. Energy data are also necessary to support national management, as well as the economic-development functions. These latter requirements are also discussed briefly.

  17. Global risk of pharmaceutical contamination from highly populated developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Rashid, Naim; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Saif, Ameena; Ahmad, Nasir; Han, Jong-In

    2015-11-01

    Global pharmaceutical industry has relocated from the west to Asian countries to ensure competitive advantage. This industrial relocation has posed serious threats to the environment. The present study was carried out to assess the possible pharmaceutical contamination in the environment of emerging pharmaceutical manufacturing countries (Bangladesh, China, India and Pakistan). Although these countries have made tremendous progress in the pharmaceutical sector but most of their industrial units discharge wastewater into domestic sewage network without any treatment. The application of untreated wastewater (industrial and domestic) and biosolids (sewage sludge and manure) in agriculture causes the contamination of surface water, soil, groundwater, and the entire food web with pharmaceutical compounds (PCs), their metabolites and transformed products (TPs), and multidrug resistant microbes. This pharmaceutical contamination in Asian countries poses global risks via product export and international traveling. Several prospective research hypotheses including the development of new analytical methods to monitor these PCs/TPs and their metabolites, highly resistant microbial strains, and mixture toxicity as a consequence of pharmaceutical contamination in these emerging pharmaceutical exporters have also been proposed based on the available literature.

  18. Assesment of publication practices in geosciences in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazenave, A.; Barbe, V.

    2003-12-01

    We present results of a study which goal was to investigate in which journals scientists in geosciences (i.e., in the fields covered by the AGU) in developing countries publish most of their papers.We were interested in particular in looking at the percentage of publications in AGU journals. Using science indicators collected by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), we analysed publication practices for 1997-2002 in the following countries : India, China, Russia, Brazil, Argentina and Chile. We investigated the evolution of the number of publications through time, identified most used journals, determined times cited and impact factors of papers published in the top 15 most used journals. We also determined the percentage of articles published in AGU journals versus other journals. We found that for the 6 counties considered, this percentage varies from about 2 to 3 percent (Argentina, China) to about 8 percent (the other 4 countries). Investigation of authors addresses indicates that the majority of articles published in AGU journals are multi-countries publications, involving international collaboration mainly with scientists from North America and Europe. Implications on page-charge and access to AGU journals are also discussed.

  19. Global risk of pharmaceutical contamination from highly populated developing countries.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Muhammad Saif Ur; Rashid, Naim; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Saif, Ameena; Ahmad, Nasir; Han, Jong-In

    2015-11-01

    Global pharmaceutical industry has relocated from the west to Asian countries to ensure competitive advantage. This industrial relocation has posed serious threats to the environment. The present study was carried out to assess the possible pharmaceutical contamination in the environment of emerging pharmaceutical manufacturing countries (Bangladesh, China, India and Pakistan). Although these countries have made tremendous progress in the pharmaceutical sector but most of their industrial units discharge wastewater into domestic sewage network without any treatment. The application of untreated wastewater (industrial and domestic) and biosolids (sewage sludge and manure) in agriculture causes the contamination of surface water, soil, groundwater, and the entire food web with pharmaceutical compounds (PCs), their metabolites and transformed products (TPs), and multidrug resistant microbes. This pharmaceutical contamination in Asian countries poses global risks via product export and international traveling. Several prospective research hypotheses including the development of new analytical methods to monitor these PCs/TPs and their metabolites, highly resistant microbial strains, and mixture toxicity as a consequence of pharmaceutical contamination in these emerging pharmaceutical exporters have also been proposed based on the available literature. PMID:23535471

  20. The Study on Complex Project Management in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanwen, Wang

    Different factors that can influence project performance have been identified, classified based on their nature, and discussed. Due to the inherent complexity and various problems encountered in implementing infrastructure project in developing countries, the project manager must appreciate the project environment, maintain flexibility, and be competent to analyze the nature of associated problems and their adverse effects on the success of the project, and address these promptly.

  1. Producer gas engines in villages of less-developed countries.

    PubMed

    Datta, R; Dutt, G S

    1981-08-14

    Producer gas engines could have an important role in the decentralized production of mechanical energy in rural areas of less-developed countries. With this technology mechanical energy is produced from solid fuels by use of internal combustion engines. A comparison with other renewable energy options, on the common basis of energy efficiency and economics, shows that producer gas engines may have significant advantages and deserve serious attention.

  2. Factors Impeding the Production and Use of Meteorological Information in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouthamel, Richard Ira

    1996-08-01

    National meteorological services in many developing countries are now beginning to generate useful information (weather forecasts, storm warnings, etc.) which could be of great benefit to their citizens. Unfortunately, in many of these countries, weather information is neither perceived as useful nor readily applied, as in more developed nations, to affect broad ranges of decisions. This research effort identifies the factors which impede the production and/or the use of meteorological information within developing countries and offers alternatives to mitigate the effects of the most significant of these factors. Research data was collected by means of comprehensive questionnaires distributed within scientific, sociological and psychological associations as well as representative user and meteorological services communities. Utilizing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), research indicates that the primary impediments to the production and use of meteorological information are cultural, and are related to the values people ascribe to their interactions with the environment as well as lack of human and financial resources.

  3. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    Firmly incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, market mechanisms offer an innovative and cost-effective means of controlling atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, as with markets for many other goods and services, a carbon market may generate negative environmental externalities. Possible interpretations and application of Kyoto provisions under COP-6bis and COP-7 raise concerns that rules governing forestry with respect to the Kyoto carbon market may increase pressure on native forests and their biodiversity in developing countries. In this paper, we assess the following two specific concerns with Kyoto provisions for forestry measures. First, whether, under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), by restricting allowable forestry measures to afforestation and reforestation, and explicitly excluding protection of threatened native forests, the Kyoto Protocol will enhance incentives for degradation and clearing of forests in developing countries; second, whether carbon crediting for forest management in Annex I (industrialized) regions under Article 3.4 creates a dynamic that can encourage displacement of timber harvests from Annex I countries to developing nations. Given current timber extraction patterns in developing regions, additional harvest pressure would certainly entail a considerable cost in terms of biodiversity loss. In both cases, we find that the concerns about deleterious impacts to forests and biodiversity are justified, although the scale of such impacts is difficult to predict. Both to ensure reliable progress in managing carbon concentrations and to avoid unintended consequences with respect to forest biodiversity, the further development of the Kyoto carbon market must explicitly correct these perverse incentives. We recommend several steps that climate policymakers can take to ensure that conservation and restoration of biodiversity-rich natural forests in developing countries are rewarded rather than penalized. To correct

  4. Designing a carbon market that protects forests in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Niesten, Eduard; Frumhoff, Peter C; Manion, Michelle; Hardner, Jared J

    2002-08-15

    Firmly incorporated into the Kyoto Protocol, market mechanisms offer an innovative and cost-effective means of controlling atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. However, as with markets for many other goods and services, a carbon market may generate negative environmental externalities. Possible interpretations and application of Kyoto provisions under COP-6bis and COP-7 raise concerns that rules governing forestry with respect to the Kyoto carbon market may increase pressure on native forests and their biodiversity in developing countries. In this paper, we assess the following two specific concerns with Kyoto provisions for forestry measures. First, whether, under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), by restricting allowable forestry measures to afforestation and reforestation, and explicitly excluding protection of threatened native forests, the Kyoto Protocol will enhance incentives for degradation and clearing of forests in developing countries; second, whether carbon crediting for forest management in Annex I (industrialized) regions under Article 3.4 creates a dynamic that can encourage displacement of timber harvests from Annex I countries to developing nations. Given current timber extraction patterns in developing regions, additional harvest pressure would certainly entail a considerable cost in terms of biodiversity loss. In both cases, we find that the concerns about deleterious impacts to forests and biodiversity are justified, although the scale of such impacts is difficult to predict. Both to ensure reliable progress in managing carbon concentrations and to avoid unintended consequences with respect to forest biodiversity, the further development of the Kyoto carbon market must explicitly correct these perverse incentives. We recommend several steps that climate policymakers can take to ensure that conservation and restoration of biodiversity-rich natural forests in developing countries are rewarded rather than penalized. To correct

  5. Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Allan H; Smith, Meera M Hira

    2004-05-20

    The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50 microg/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10 microg/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500 microg/l of arsenic over many years may die from internal cancers attributable to arsenic, with lung cancer being the surprising main contributor. A prudent public health response is to reduce the permissible drinking water arsenic concentrations. However, the appropriate regulatory response in those developing countries with large populations with much higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, often exceeding 100 microg/l, is more complex. Malnutrition may increase risks from arsenic. There is mounting evidence that smoking and arsenic act synergistically in causing lung cancer, and smoking raises issues of public health priorities in developing countries that face massive mortality from this product. Also, setting stringent drinking water standards will impede short term solutions such as shallow dugwells. Developing countries with large populations exposed to arsenic in water might reasonably be advised to keep their arsenic drinking water standards at 50 microg/l.

  6. Electric motor systems in developing countries: Opportunities for efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, S.; Monahan, P.; Lewis, P.; Greenberg, S.; Nadel, S.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents an overview of the current status and efficiency improvement potential of industrial motor systems in developing countries. Better management of electric motor systems is of particular relevance in developing countries, where improved efficiency can lead to increased productivity and slower growth in electricity demand. Motor systems currently consume some 65--80% of the industrial electricity in developing countries. Drawing on studies from Thailand, India, Brazil, China, Pakistan, and Costa Rica, we describe potential efficiency gains in various parts of the motor system, from the electricity delivery system through the motor to the point where useful work is performed. We report evidence of a significant electricity conservation potential. Most of the efficiency improvement methods we examine are very cost-effective from a societal viewpoint, but are generally not implemented due to various barriers that deter their adoption. Drawing on experiences in North America, we discuss a range of policies to overcome these barriers, including education, training, minimum efficiency standards, motor efficiency testing protocols, technical assistance programs, and financial incentives.

  7. Waste site characterization and remediation: Problems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Kalavapudi, M.; Iyengar, V.

    1996-12-31

    Increased industrial activities in developing countries have degraded the environment, and the impact on the environment is further magnified because of an ever-increasing population, the prime receptors. Independent of the geographical location, it is possible to adopt effective strategies to solve environmental problems. In the United States, waste characterization and remediation practices are commonly used for quantifying toxic contaminants in air, water, and soil. Previously, such procedures were extraneous, ineffective, and cost-intensive. Reconciliation between the government and stakeholders, reinforced by valid data analysis and environmental exposure assessments, has allowed the {open_quotes}Brownfields{close_quotes} to be a successful approach. Certified reference materials and standard reference materials from the National Institute of Standards (NIST) are indispensable tools for solving environmental problems and help to validate data quality and the demands of legal metrology. Certified reference materials are commonly available, essential tools for developing good quality secondary and in-house reference materials that also enhance analytical quality. This paper cites examples of environmental conditions in developing countries, i.e., industrial pollution problems in India, polluted beaches in Brazil, and deteriorating air quality in countries, such as Korea, China, and Japan. The paper also highlights practical and effective approaches for remediating these problems. 23 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  9. Adolescent reproductive behavior: an international comparison of developed countries.

    PubMed

    Forrest, J D

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study of adolescent reproductive behavior in the 1980s examined difference in pregnancy, birth, and abortion levels among teenagers in developed countries especially in the US, Canada, the UK, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Only 6 of 37 countries with total fertility rates 3.5 and per capita income US$2000/year, and at least 1 million people had adolescent birth rates higher than the US (Bulgaria, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Romania, Hungary, and Chile). The US had the highest abortion rate (42/1000) followed by Hungary (27/1000). Thus the US had the highest adolescent pregnancy rate (96/1000) as well as Hungary (96/1000). The 6 country analysis showed that reducing the level of sexual activity among teenagers is not necessarily needed to achieve lower pregnancy rates. For example, Sweden had the highest levels of sexual activity but its pregnancy rate were 33% as high as those of the US. The rates of sexual activity among teenagers in the Netherlands equaled those of the US, but its pregnancy rates were 14% as high as those of the US. All countries had earlier, more extensive, and better contraceptive use among sexually active teenagers than the US which accounted for their lower pregnancy rates. The more realistic acceptance of sexual activity among teenagers and provision of contraceptives in all the countries except the US differed from the societal ambivalence in the US. Thus ambivalence about sexuality and the appropriateness of contraceptive use results in lower contraceptive use and greater adolescent pregnancy rates. US adolescents constantly receive conflicting messages that sex is romantic, thrilling, and arousing but it is also immoral to have premarital sex. Thus adults need to be more candid about sexuality so they can clearly convey to adolescents their expectations for responsible behavior and to provide the information and services needed to make effective use of contraceptives when sexually active.

  10. Rehabilitation of the hospital infrastructure in a developing country.

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, H

    2001-01-01

    Mongolia is in fact not a developing country at all but a country of transitional economy (since 1990) with a fairly comprehensive health care infrastructure. However, the health care is facing great difficulties comparable to those in a developing country. Hospital infrastructure rehabilitation was a part of a wider health sector development project with 3 remote aimags (provinces) as the target areas. The Mongolian system of health care has been built up over many years as a country-wide network of community-based feldschers and doctors, supported by a hierarchy of hospitals and mobile emergency teams. Health standards are also impacted by many factors (better housing, water supplies, better roads and rail links) outside the control of the Ministry of Health, and of health care providers. The majority of the rural hospitals lack the basic facilities. There are operating theatres without running water, hospitals with electricity only from 8 to 10 in the evening etc. The hygienic standard is unacceptable. Central heating systems do not function. Many of the facilities are underutilised and in poor condition due an ongoing lack of maintenance. The project aimed for a network that would offer services for all people, including nomadic people. The number of rural hospitals was slightly reduced and some of them were upgraded to first referral unit with basic clinical services. Approximately one third of the rural hospitals had to be rebuilt. The project recommended and started multiphased long-term master planning for those 3 aimag hospitals, all of which displayed difficulties similar to the rural hospitals.

  11. GLOBE Earth Science Education and Public Outreach in Developing Countries GLOBE Earth Science Education and Public Outreach in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparrow, E. B.; Boger, R. A.

    2005-12-01

    GLOBE is an international hands-on earth science education program that involves scientists, teachers and students in more than 16,000 primary and secondary schools. GLOBE is funded by the National Aeronautics Administration (NASA), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the U.S. Department of State. GLOBE works with schools (teachers and students) through more than 100 U.S. GLOBE partnerships with universities, state and local school systems, and non-government organizations. Internationally, GLOBE is partnered with 109 countries that include many developing nations throughout the world. In addition to the GLOBE's different areas of investigation e.g. Atmosphere/ Weather, Hydrology, Soils, Land Cover Biology and Phenology ( plant and animal), there are special projects such as the GLOBE Urban Phenology Year Project (GUPY) that engages developing and developed countries ( Finland, United States, Japan, Philippines, Thailand, Jordan, Kyrgystan, Senegal, Poland, Estonia, and the Dominican Republic) in studying the effects of urbanization on vegetation phenology, a sensitive indicator of climate change. Vegetation phenology integrates different components of the Earth system i.e. carbon and geochemical cycling, water cycling and energy cycling and is an excellent way to engage students in collaborative projects. This presentation will highlight the GUPY project and provide additional examples of local initiatives and collaborations with indigenous communities that use GLOBE and an inquiry approach to revise science education in developing countries .

  12. Public health crises of cities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Wang'ombe, J K

    1995-09-01

    During the decade and a half after Alma Ata hundreds of projects were started in developing countries to implement the principles of PHC and start community based health care programs in the rural areas of developing countries. Until the past five years urban health was not seen as a special health problem. Population pressure in the rural areas has created shortages of land, food and employment opportunities. These forces have generated major population movements to the urban centres. The population movements have encouraged unprecedented expansion of urban centres. This sudden concentration of large populations in small geographical areas has resulted in the urban health crises of the developing world. The poor who live in the slum areas have no access to adequate health services, they experience frequent epidemics of communicable diseases like cholera, they live within a heavily polluted environment, and their children have very poor health because they are not immunized and are malnourished. The paper agrees with approaches which have been championed by development agencies to address the urban health crises. These approaches propose the reorientation of urban health systems to include adoption of PHC for urban health programs, intersectoral collaboration and extra budgetary support. The paper argues for further strengthening of the reorientation approach by adjusting the development planning model. It is proposed that the urban plan be integrated into the national development plan so that emerging urban health crises can receive special attention in resource allocation.

  13. Disparities in Under-Five Child Injury Mortality between Developing and Developed Countries: 1990–2013

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yun; Wu, Yue; Schwebel, David C.; Zhou, Liang; Hu, Guoqing

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Using estimates from the 2013 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study, we update evidence on disparities in under-five child injury mortality between developing and developed countries from 1990 to 2013. Methods: Mortality rates were accessed through the online visualization tool by the GBD study 2013 group. We calculated percent change in child injury mortality rates between 1990 and 2013. Data analysis was conducted separately for <1 year and 1–4 years to specify age differences in rate changes. Results: Between 1990 and 2013, over 3-fold mortality gaps were observed between developing countries and developed countries for both age groups in the study time period. Similar decreases in injury rates were observed for developed and developing countries (<1 year: −50% vs. −50% respectively; 1–4 years: −56% vs. −58%). Differences in injury mortality changes during 1990–2013 between developing and developed nations varied with injury cause. There were greater reductions in mortality from transport injury, falls, poisoning, adverse effects of medical treatment, exposure to forces of nature, and collective violence and legal intervention in developed countries, whereas there were larger decreases in mortality from drowning, exposure to mechanical forces, and animal contact in developing countries. Country-specific analysis showed large variations across countries for both injury mortality and changes in injury mortality between 1990 and 2013. Conclusions: Sustained higher child injury mortality during 1990–2013 for developing countries merits the attention of the global injury prevention community. Countries that have high injury mortality can benefit from the success of other countries. PMID:27399740

  14. Setting priorities for waste management strategies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Paul H; Fellner, Johann

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the waste management systems, that are presently applied in affluent countries are appropriate solutions for waste management in less developed regions. For this purpose, three cities (Vienna, Damascus and Dhaka) which differ greatly in their gross domestic product and waste management were compared. The criteria for evaluation were economic parameters, and indicators as to whether the goals of waste management (protection of human health and the environment, the conservation of resources) were reached. Based on case studies, it was found that for regions spending 1-10 Euro capita(-1) year(-1) for waste management, the 'waste hierarchy' of prevention, recycling and disposal is not an appropriate strategy. In such regions, the improvement of disposal systems (complete collection, upgrading to sanitary landfilling) is the most cost-effective method to reach the objectives of solid waste management. Concepts that are widely applied in developed countries such as incineration and mechanical waste treatment are not suitable methods to reach waste management goals in countries where people cannot spend more than 10 Euro per person for the collection, treatment and disposal of their waste. It is recommended that each region first determines its economic capacity for waste management and then designs its waste management system according to this capacity and the goals of waste management. PMID:17612323

  15. Intestinal ascariasis at pediatric emergency room in a developed country.

    PubMed

    Umetsu, Shuichiro; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Iwasawa, Kentaro; Kondo, Takeo; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Oikawa-Kawamoto, Manari; Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayano; Fujisawa, Tomoo

    2014-10-14

    Ascaris lumbricoides infection is rare among children in developed countries. Although large numbers of adult Ascaris in the small intestine can cause various abdominal symptoms, this infection remains asymptomatic until the number of worms in the intestine considerably increases in most cases. Ascaris causing bilious vomiting suggesting ileus is rare, especially in developed countries. A 6-year-old boy who lived in Japan, presented with abdominal colic, bilious vomiting at the pediatric emergency room. He appeared pale, and had no abdominal distention, tenderness, palpable abdominal mass, or findings of dehydration. He experienced bilious vomiting again during a physical examination. Laboratory tests showed mild elevation of white blood cells and C-reactive protein levels. Antigens of adenovirus, rotavirus, and norovirus were not detected from his stool, and stool culture showed normal flora. Ultrasonography showed multiple, round-shaped structures within the small intestine, and a tubular structure in a longitudinal scan of the small intestine. Capsule endoscopy showed a moving worm of Ascaris in the jejunum. Intestinal ascariasis should be considered as a cause of bilious vomiting in children, even at the emergency room in industrial countries. Ultrasound examination and capsule endoscopy are useful for diagnosis of pediatric intestinal ascariasis.

  16. Development of a windmill for water pumping for developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Chandra, S.K.; Mantrawadi, S.C.

    1983-12-01

    Development of an all-metal windmill with 5 meter wheel diameter and 12 blades is described. Sound methods of mechanical and aerodynamic design are used, even though the windmill is simple enough to be fabricated in a small workshop using commonly available mild steel sections. The windmill is connected to a single acting reciprocating pump which can be inserted in a tubewell. Stroke of the pump as well as pump diameter can be varied to suit the site conditions as the water table and wind velocity vary. The designed windspeed is kept low at 14 KMPH so that the windmill is suitable for low wind regimes and the cut-in wind speed is as low as 6 KMPH. The overall efficiency of the wind pump is found to be about 12-15 percent. The cost of the wind pump together with all metallic 7 meter high tower is about US $1,200, with a life expectancy of 20 years. Few of the windmills are already working and cost of water pumping is comparable to diesel or electric pumping.

  17. Vaccine safety monitoring systems in developing countries: an example of the Vietnam model.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Rath, Barbara; Thiem, Vu Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Only few health intervention programs have been as successful as vaccination programs with respect to preventing morbidity and mortality in developing countries. However, the success of a vaccination program is threatened by rumors and misunderstanding about the risks of vaccines. It is short-sighted to plan the introduction of vaccines into developing countries unless effective vaccine safety monitoring systems are in place. Such systems that track adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is currently lacking in most developing countries. Therefore, any rumor may affect the entire vaccination program. Public health authorities should implement the safety monitoring system of vaccines, and disseminate safety issues in a proactive mode. Effective safety surveillance systems should allow for the conduct of both traditional and alternative epidemiologic studies through the use of prospective data sets. The vaccine safety data link implemented in Vietnam in mid-2002 indicates that it is feasible to establish a vaccine safety monitoring system for the communication of vaccine safety in developing countries. The data link provided the investigators an opportunity to evaluate AEFI related to measles vaccine. Implementing such vaccine safety monitoring system is useful in all developing countries. The system should be able to make objective and clear communication regarding safety issues of vaccines, and the data should be reported to the public on a regular basis for maintaining their confidence in vaccination programs. PMID:25859677

  18. Infection control as a major World Health Organization priority for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pittet, D; Allegranzi, B; Storr, J; Bagheri Nejad, S; Dziekan, G; Leotsakos, A; Donaldson, L

    2008-04-01

    Healthcare-associated infection affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is a major global issue for patient safety. It complicates between 5 and 10% of admissions in acute care hospitals in industrialised countries. In developing countries, the risk is two to twenty times higher and the proportion of infected patients frequently exceeds 25%. A growing awareness of this problem prompted the World Health Organization to promote the creation of the World Alliance for Patient Safety. Prevention of healthcare-associated infection is the target of the Alliance First Global Patient Safety Challenge, 'Clean Care is Safer Care', launched in October 2005. After 2 years, a formal statement has been signed by 72 ministries of health as a pledge of their support to implement actions to reduce healthcare-associated infection; of these, 30 are developing countries. Additional countries, mostly from the developing world, have planned to sign by the end of 2008 and will represent in total more than three-quarters of the world's population. Given the emphasis of the proposed strategy on simple and affordable solutions, the impact of the Challenge is expected to be high in developing countries. The combined efforts expected under the Challenge have the potential to save millions of lives, prevent morbidities and long-term disability for hundreds of millions of patients, and lead to major cost savings through the improvement of basic infection control measures in any healthcare setting, regardless of resources available or level of development.

  19. Publication Rates and Trends in International Collaborations for Astronomers in Developing Countries, Eastern European Countries, and the Former Soviet Union

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, James C., II

    1992-06-01

    I surveyed two major astronomical journals for the thirty-year period 1960 to 1989 looking for papers with either principal or co-authors from developing countries, formerly communist Eastern European countries, and the former Soviet Union. The number of papers with authors from these areas has increased during the period surveyed, but the percentage of papers with such authors is less than 10% of the total number of papers over the period. The number of papers by collaborations between astronomers from developing countries and industrialized countries was found to be approximately the same as the number of papers by astronomers from developing countries only. Astronomers from Eastern European countries and the former Soviet Union, however, were found to either prefer or require collaborations with Western astronomers. (SECTION: Astronomical Sociology)

  20. Girls' Access to Education in a Developing Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissinger, Helen

    1997-09-01

    Papua New Guinea is a developing country which gained its independence from Australia in 1975. Many of its educational structures inherited from the time of the early missions and the colonial administration influence the practices of today. Women have not advanced in the new country as far as was prophesied in the early 1970s leading up to Independence. Although the current poor economic conditions have some effect on women's advancement, the difficulties they face in even obtaining a basic education form one of the major factors which hinder their progress. This paper describes a number of the barriers which prevent girls from accessing education at every level, from gaining enrolment in the first year of school to positioning themselves for university entry. Distance education provides one of the few "second chances" that young Papua New Guineans can gain, provided they can afford the fees and engage with the somewhat independent study required for success.

  1. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-09-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

  2. Modeling financial disaster risk management in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mechler, R.; Hochrainer, S.; Pflug, G.; Linnerooth-Bayer, J.

    2005-12-01

    The public sector plays a major role in reducing the long-term economic repercussions of disasters by repairing damaged infrastructure and providing financial assistance to households and businesses. If critical infrastructure is not repaired in a timely manner, there can be serious effects on the economy and the livelihoods of the population. The repair of public infrastructure, however, can be a significant drain on public budgets especially in developing and transition countries. Developing country governments frequently lack the liquidity, even including international aid and loans, to fully repair damaged critical public infrastructure or provide sufficient support to households and businesses for their recovery. The earthquake in Gujarat, and other recent cases of government post-disaster liquidity crises, have sounded an alarm, prompting financial development organizations, such as the World Bank, among others, to call for greater attention to reducing financial vulnerability and increasing the resilience of the public sector. This talk reports on a model designed to illustrate the tradeoffs and choices a developing country must make in financially managing the economic risks due to natural disasters. Budgetary resources allocated to pre-disaster risk management strategies, such as loss mitigation measures, a catastrophe reserve fund, insurance and contingent credit arrangements for public assets, reduce the probability of financing gaps - the inability of governments to meet their full obligations in providing relief to private victims and restoring public infrastructure - or prevent the deterioration of the ability to undertake additional borrowing without incurring a debt crisis. The model -which is equipped with a graphical interface - can be a helpful tool for building capacity of policy makers for developing and assessing public financing strategies for disaster risk by indicating the respective costs and consequences of financing alternatives.

  3. Opportunities and the Perception Ofspace Programs in the Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B. G.

    2006-08-01

    Although the space program as a whole is a true reflection of the level of achievement in human history in the field of Science and Technology, but it is also important to note that there are numbers of communities and societies on this earth that are ignorant about this great achievement, hence leading to the continuous diverting of Potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologist to other disciplines, thereby undermining the development of the space program over time. It was in view of the above that this research was conducted and came up with the under listed Suggestions/Recommendations:- 1. The European Space Agency (ESA), National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) and the Russian Space Agency, should be organising and sponsoring public enlightenment conferences, seminars and workshops towards creating awareness and attracting Potential Astronomers and other Space Scientist mostly in the developing countries into the space program. 2. Esteemed organisations in space programs like NASA, ESA and others should be awarding scholarships to potential space scientist that lack the financial capability to pursue studies in the field of space science from the developing countries. 3. The European Space Agency, National Aeronautic Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency, should open their offices for the development of the space program in the third world countries. I believe that if the above suggestions/recommendations are adopted and implemented it will lead to the development of the space program in general, otherwise the rate at which potential Astronomers, Aerospace Engineers and Astrologists will be diverting into other disciplines will ever remain on the increase.

  4. HIV testing in developing countries: what is required?

    PubMed

    Alemnji, George; Nkengasong, John N; Parekh, Bharat S

    2011-12-01

    HIV diagnostic and follow up testing are usually done in laboratory settings. However, in developing countries there is a need to decentralize testing as the majority of the population lives in rural settings. In developing countries stringent quality assurance (QA) practices, which include appropriate training, development of standard operating procedures, maintenance of operator proficiency, routine use of quality control (QC) specimens, standardized data management, equipment calibration and maintenance, and biohazard safety with proper disinfection/disposal procedures are not routinely followed to ensure reliability of results and a safe work environment. The introduction of point-of-care testing technologies involving the use of non-laboratorians in routine testing has further increased the complexity of QA. Therefore, a careful approach towards improvement of laboratories that encourages best practices, coupled with incentives, and review of government policies in point-of-care testing is needed to improve quality of testing as decentralization takes place. Development of a functional laboratory tiered network that facilitates communication, referral, training and problem solving could further enhance confidence in laboratory testing. There is also a need for special considerations in implementing a step-wise approach towards quality improvement, strengthening of the supply chain management, human capacity development, infrastructure upgrade, and strong public private partnerships to ensure long term sustainability of these efforts. PMID:22310813

  5. Hepatitis A: Epidemiology and prevention in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Franco, Elisabetta; Meleleo, Cristina; Serino, Laura; Sorbara, Debora; Zaratti, Laura

    2012-03-27

    Hepatitis A is the most common form of acute viral hepatitis in the world. Major geographical differences in endemicity of hepatitis A are closely related to hygienic and sanitary conditions and other indicators of the level of socioeconomic development. The anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence rate is presently decreasing in many parts of the world, but in less developed regions and in several developing countries, HAV infection is still very common in the first years of life and seroprevalence rates approach 100%. In areas of intermediate endemicity, the delay in the exposure to the virus has generated a huge number of susceptible adolescents and adults and significantly increased the average age at infection. As the severity of disease increases with age, this has led to outbreaks of hepatitis A. Several factors contribute to the decline of the infection rate, including rising socioeconomic levels, increased access to clean water and the availability of a hepatitis A vaccine that was developed in the 1990s. For populations with a high proportion of susceptible adults, implementing vaccination programs may be considered. In this report, we review available epidemiological data and implementation of vaccination strategies, particularly focusing on developing countries.

  6. HIV testing in developing countries: what is required?

    PubMed

    Alemnji, George; Nkengasong, John N; Parekh, Bharat S

    2011-12-01

    HIV diagnostic and follow up testing are usually done in laboratory settings. However, in developing countries there is a need to decentralize testing as the majority of the population lives in rural settings. In developing countries stringent quality assurance (QA) practices, which include appropriate training, development of standard operating procedures, maintenance of operator proficiency, routine use of quality control (QC) specimens, standardized data management, equipment calibration and maintenance, and biohazard safety with proper disinfection/disposal procedures are not routinely followed to ensure reliability of results and a safe work environment. The introduction of point-of-care testing technologies involving the use of non-laboratorians in routine testing has further increased the complexity of QA. Therefore, a careful approach towards improvement of laboratories that encourages best practices, coupled with incentives, and review of government policies in point-of-care testing is needed to improve quality of testing as decentralization takes place. Development of a functional laboratory tiered network that facilitates communication, referral, training and problem solving could further enhance confidence in laboratory testing. There is also a need for special considerations in implementing a step-wise approach towards quality improvement, strengthening of the supply chain management, human capacity development, infrastructure upgrade, and strong public private partnerships to ensure long term sustainability of these efforts.

  7. Developing Hierarchical Structures Integrating Cognition and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Barbara Martin

    Several categories of the affective domain are important to the schooling process. Schools are delegated the responsibility of helping students to clarify their esthetic, instrumental, and moral values. Three areas of affect are related to student achievement: subject-related affect, school-related affect, and academic self concept. In addition,…

  8. Making Education Count for Development: Data Collection and Availability in Six PISA for Development Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This report reviews the collection, availability and quality of system-level data and metadata on education from countries participating in the PISA for Development project: Cambodia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Paraguay, Senegal and Zambia. PISA for Development aims to increase low income countries' use of PISA assessments for monitoring progress towards…

  9. Building Capacity for Developing Statistical Literacy in a Developing Country: Lessons Learned from an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Delia; Gal, Iddo; Zewotir, Temesgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the emerging literature on capacity-building in statistics education by examining issues pertaining to the readiness of teachers in a developing country to teach basic statistical topics. The paper reflects on challenges and barriers to building statistics capacity at grass-roots level in a developing country,…

  10. Balancing economic development with environmental protection in developing and lesser developed countries

    SciTech Connect

    El-Ashry, M.T. )

    1993-01-01

    Recent experience suggests that poverty and environmental degradation go hand in hand. Economic development, on the other hand, provides the financial and technical resources needed for the protection of human health and natural ecosystems. Balancing economic development and environmental protection in developing countries requires a refocusing of economic activity -- not towards producing less, but producing differently. Strategies for the integration of economic development and environmental protection are outlined here, as is the proposed role that will need to be played by the World Bank. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Technology, limitations and applications of space technology in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales Romero, Juan Martín

    2004-01-01

    A number of developing countries are undertaking projects pertaining to the design and development of space technology, either using their own resources or in collaboration with foreign countries, on a regional or international basis. This paper reviews cooperation in different areas of space technology applications in South America. It gives a brief overview of the overarching goals and vision and the general institutional framework of South-American space research and cooperation. A few examples of previous and current activities in space technology applications and some opportunities for expanding the usage of this technology in the region are described. The major challenges to full-blown regional cooperation in space technology are also examined. The main aims of these efforts are to give a fillip to the region's Research and Development (R&D) efforts in space technology and development of human resources in this field, through hands-on experience in building and operation of satellites, and acquisition of new skills in project definition, funding and implementation.

  12. Greening government procurement in developing countries: building capacity in China.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yong; Doberstein, Brent

    2008-09-01

    With increasing environmental issues and depleting resources, the effective application of green government procurement (GGP) is urgently needed and potentially can have greater impacts in the developing world rather than in the developed world. Such an approach can help promote the general goal of sustainable development and address environmental issues through purchasing and facilitating the use of environmentally friendly services and products. This paper addresses this issue by employing a case study on China. We first trace the development of the GGP concept, its spread to Asian countries, and a number of approaches used to expand GGP adoption. We then review current practices in China on GGP, and analyze and identify some of the current barriers and problems in promoting green procurement in the Chinese governmental sector. We finally seek to identify possible appropriate capacity-building solutions, in order to facilitate the application of GGP in China. PMID:17573183

  13. Special problems experienced with pesticide use in developing countries.

    PubMed

    el Sebae, A H

    1993-06-01

    The developing countries comprise more than 75% of the total world population covering most of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and South Europe. Their warm climate favors cultivation of many strategic crops including cotton, rubber, rice, corn, spices, tea, coffee, cocoa beans, sugarcane, tobacco, legumes, tropical and subtropical fruits, and vegetables. They are bound to the industrialized countries for exporting their cash crops and importing all production equipment and materials including pesticides and fertilizers. They suffer from illiteracy, overpopulation, and low standards of living. Their deficient economy and infrastructure hinder their ability to regulate efficiently registration of pesticides. Their inhabitants are at high risk due to the acute and chronic adverse health effects induced by pesticide exposure under both occupational and epidemiological conditions. Their legislations, regulations, technical capabilities, and medical care need to be upgraded to a reliable standard. This is essential for the global welfare because any hazardous pesticides dumped or released in the environment in these countries will not be dissipated but can reappear as residues in imported raw foods or by destroying terrestrial and aquatic life, through their transportation within the atmosphere, or in liquid discharges to soil and water bodies. International assistance and support are badly needed by United Nations Agencies, mainly WHO, UNEP, FAO, ILO, IPCS, IRPTC, and other relevant international organizations. PMID:8337421

  14. Special problems experienced with pesticide use in developing countries.

    PubMed

    el Sebae, A H

    1993-06-01

    The developing countries comprise more than 75% of the total world population covering most of Africa, Asia, Latin America, and South Europe. Their warm climate favors cultivation of many strategic crops including cotton, rubber, rice, corn, spices, tea, coffee, cocoa beans, sugarcane, tobacco, legumes, tropical and subtropical fruits, and vegetables. They are bound to the industrialized countries for exporting their cash crops and importing all production equipment and materials including pesticides and fertilizers. They suffer from illiteracy, overpopulation, and low standards of living. Their deficient economy and infrastructure hinder their ability to regulate efficiently registration of pesticides. Their inhabitants are at high risk due to the acute and chronic adverse health effects induced by pesticide exposure under both occupational and epidemiological conditions. Their legislations, regulations, technical capabilities, and medical care need to be upgraded to a reliable standard. This is essential for the global welfare because any hazardous pesticides dumped or released in the environment in these countries will not be dissipated but can reappear as residues in imported raw foods or by destroying terrestrial and aquatic life, through their transportation within the atmosphere, or in liquid discharges to soil and water bodies. International assistance and support are badly needed by United Nations Agencies, mainly WHO, UNEP, FAO, ILO, IPCS, IRPTC, and other relevant international organizations.

  15. E-Commerce and Security Governance in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanayei, Ali.; Rajabion, Lila

    Security is very often mentioned as one of the preconditions for the faster growth of e-commerce. Without a secure and reliable internet, customer will continue to be reluctant to provide confidential information online, such as credit card number. Moreover, organizations of all types and sizes around the world rely heavily on technologies of electronic commerce (e-commerce) for conducting their day-to-day business transaction. Providing organizations with a secure e-commerce environment is a major issue and challenging one especially in Middle Eastern countries. Without secure e-commerce, it is almost impossible to take advantage of the opportunities offered by e-commerce technologies. E-commerce can create opportunities for small entrepreneurs in Middle Eastern countries. This requires removing infrastructure blockages in telecommunications and logistics alongside the governance of e-commerce with policies on consumer protection, security of transactions, privacy of records and intellectual property. In this paper, we will explore the legal implications of e-commerce security governance by establishing who is responsible for ensuring compliance with this discipline, demonstrating the value to be derived from information security governance, the methodology of applying information security governance, and liability for non-compliance with this discipline. Our main focus will be on analyzing the importance and implication of e-commerce security governance in developing countries.

  16. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A

    2004-01-01

    Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is "Sector analysis", followed by

  17. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Block, Miguel A

    2004-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. OBJECTIVE: The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. METHODS: HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. RESULTS: The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is "Sector analysis", followed

  18. Space-based societal applications—Relevance in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaranarayana, A.; Varadarajan, C.; Hegde, V. S.

    2009-11-01

    Space technology has the vast potential for addressing a variety of societal problems of the developing countries, particularly in the areas of communication, education and health sectors, land and water resources management, disaster management and weather forecasting. Both remote sensing and communication technologies can be used to achieve this goal. With its primary emphasis on application of space technology, on an end-to-end basis, towards national development, the Indian Space Programme has distinguished itself as one of the most cost-effective and development-oriented space programmes in the world. Developing nations are faced with the enormous task of carrying development-oriented education to the masses at the lower strata of their societies. One important feature of these populations is their large number and the spread over vast and remote areas of these nations, making the reaching out to them a difficult task. Satellite communication (Satcom) technology offers the unique capability of simultaneously reaching out to very large numbers, spread over vast areas, including the remote corners of the country. It is a strong tool to support development education. India has been amongst the first few nations to explore and put to use the Satcom technology for education and development-oriented services to the rural masses. Most of the developing countries have inadequate infrastructure to provide proper medical care to the rural population. Availability of specialist doctors in rural areas is a major bottleneck. Use of Satcom and information technology to connect rural clinics to urban hospitals through telemedicine systems is one of the solutions; and India has embarked upon an effective satellite-based telemedicine programme. Space technology is also useful in disaster warning and management related applications. Use of satellite systems and beacons for locating the distressed units on land, sea or air is well known to us. Indian Space Research Organisation

  19. [Primary health care: reality or utopia in a developing country?].

    PubMed

    Abiodun, P O; Wolf, H

    1988-07-01

    Though it is 20 years since the acceptance, by member nations of WHO, of the concept of primary health care (PHC) as the best and cheapest means of achieving "Health for All in the Year 2000", most developing nations have made little or no progress toward its attainment. This is due, among other things, to a misconception of the meaning of PHC, by both developing and developed nations. While many developing nations see it as a new vertical programme, and therefore fail to integrate it into already existing ones, most developed nations take it, wrongly to mean that the developing nations should return to ancient, primitive medicine, which in earlier times led to high morbidity even in the developed nations. In the developing countries, there is still a disproportionately high concentration of resources in urban areas, and much more emphasis is still being placed on curative than on preventive measures. To achieve "Health for all in the Year 2000", therefore, a reorientation of both the developed and the developing nations is urgently needed.

  20. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development: Challenges for Developing Countries in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Crowder, L.; Lindley, W. I.; Bruening, T. H.; Doron, N.

    1998-01-01

    Agricultural education institutions in developing countries must address immediate production needs as well as food security, sustainable agricultural, and rural development needs. This will mean moving to an interdisciplinary, systems approach that incorporates new topics. (Author/JOW)

  1. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG'). PMID:23334584

  2. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG').

  3. Economic burden of torture for a refugee host country: development of a model and presentation of a country case study

    PubMed Central

    Mpinga, Emmanuel Kabengele; Frey, Conrad; Chastonay, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Background Torture is an important social and political problem worldwide that affects millions of people. Many host countries give victims of torture the status of refugee and take care of them as far as basic needs; health care, professional reinsertion, and education. Little is known about the costs of torture. However, this knowledge could serve as an additional argument for the prevention and social mobilization to fight against torture and to provide a powerful basis of advocacy for rehabilitation programs and judiciary claims. Objectives Development of a model for estimating the economic costs of torture and applying the model to a specific country. Methods The estimation of the possible prevalence of victims of torture was based on a review of the literature. The identification of the socioeconomic factors to be considered was done by analogy with various health problems. The estimation of the loss of the productivity and of the economic burden of disease related to torture was done through the human capital approach and the component technique analysis. Case study The model was applied to the situation in Switzerland of estimated torture victims Switzerland is confronted with. Results When applied to the case study, the direct costs – such as housing, food, and clothing – represent roughly 130 million Swiss francs (CHF) per year; whereas, health care costs amount to 16 million CHF per year, and the costs related to education of young people to 34 million CHF per year. Indirect costs, namely those costs related to the loss of the productivity of direct survivors of torture, have been estimated to one-third of 1 billion CHF per year. This jumps to 10,073,419,200 CHF in the loss of productivity if one would consider 30 years of loss per survivor. Conclusion Our study shows that a rough estimation of the costs related to torture is possible with some prerequisites, such as access to social and economic indicators at the country level. PMID:24729721

  4. Future of photovoltaic energy conversion in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, S.

    1980-04-01

    Recent studies reveal that photovoltaic energy conversion will be economically viable for usage in developing countries. An overview of programs designed to lower the costs of such conversion systems is presented. Government goals are reviewed, as well as application projects relative to rural usage. A summary of the state-of-the-art in both advanced research and commercially available technology is presented. It is concluded that with the range of the work being done, such systems will be viable for many rural applications within 5 years.

  5. Assessing medical technology in less-developed countries.

    PubMed

    Sideman, S; BenDak, J D

    1997-01-01

    Less developed countries (LDCs) are limited in medical resources. Medical technology and the management talent required to handle it play a particularly major role in their national health care and has significant economic, political, and ethical ramifications. This study of the assessment process of medical technology in the LDCs proposes a limited framework for the analysis of the major parameters involved, i.e., stakeholders, boundaries and constraints, goals and objectives, criteria to be met, performance measures, and measurement of performance. The importance of the intangible factors is elucidated. PMID:9308274

  6. Nutritional surveillance of young children in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Morley, D

    1976-03-01

    This paper discusses simple but effective methods of surveillance of growth and nutrition of children in developing countries where resources are scarce and food shortages most likely to occur. In the youngest age group, the simplest weight-for-age chart, already used, is undoubtedly the best method. Where the age of children is not known, arm circumference provides an acceptable alternative. In older children, arm circumference alone may not be reliable and can be improved by measuring height as well and combining the two results.

  7. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Troschinetz, Alexis M; Mihelcic, James R

    2009-02-01

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  8. Sustainable recycling of municipal solid waste in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Troschinetz, Alexis M. Mihelcic, James R.

    2009-02-15

    This research focuses on recycling in developing countries as one form of sustainable municipal solid waste management (MSWM). Twenty-three case studies provided municipal solid waste (MSW) generation and recovery rates and composition for compilation and assessment. The average MSW generation rate was 0.77 kg/person/day, with recovery rates from 5-40%. The waste streams of 19 of these case studies consisted of 0-70% recyclables and 17-80% organics. Qualitative analysis of all 23 case studies identified barriers or incentives to recycling, which resulted in the development of factors influencing recycling of MSW in developing countries. The factors are government policy, government finances, waste characterization, waste collection and segregation, household education, household economics, MSWM (municipal solid waste management) administration, MSWM personnel education, MSWM plan, local recycled-material market, technological and human resources, and land availability. Necessary and beneficial relationships drawn among these factors revealed the collaborative nature of sustainable MSWM. The functionality of the factor relationships greatly influenced the success of sustainable MSWM. A correlation existed between stakeholder involvement and the three dimensions of sustainability: environment, society, and economy. The only factors driven by all three dimensions (waste collection and segregation, MSWM plan, and local recycled-material market) were those requiring the greatest collaboration with other factors.

  9. Operational indicators for measuring agricultural sustainability in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Lin; Routray, Jayant K

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews relevant literature on the sustainability indicators theoretically proposed and practically applied by scholars over the past 15 years. Although progress is being made in the development and critical analysis of sustainability indicators, in many cases existing or proposed indicators are not the most sensitive or useful measures in developing countries. Indicator selection needs to meet the following criteria: relative availability of data representing the indicators, sensitivity to stresses on the system, existence of threshold values and guidelines, predictivity, integratability and known response to disturbances, anthropogenic stresses, and changes over time. Based on these criteria, this paper proposes a set of operational indicators for measuring agricultural sustainability in developing countries. These indicators include ecological indicators involving amounts of fertilizers and pesticides used, irrigation water used, soil nutrient content, depth to the groundwater table, water use efficiency, quality of groundwater for irrigation, and nitrate content of both groundwater and crops. Economic indicators include crop productivity, net farm income, benefit-cost ratio of production, and per capita food grain production. Social indicators encompass food self-sufficiency, equality in food and income distribution among farmers, access to resources and support services, and farmers' knowledge and awareness of resource conservation. This article suggests that the selection of indicators representing each aspect of sustainability should be prioritized according to spatial and temporal characteristics under consideration.

  10. Interactions between intestinal pathogens, enteropathy and malnutrition in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Andrew J.; Kelly, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review This review focuses on recent data highlighting the interactions between intestinal pathogens, enteropathy and malnutrition in developing countries, which drive morbidity and mortality and hinder the long-term developmental potential of children. Recent findings Diarrhoea remains the second commonest cause of death in children below 5 years, and malnutrition underlies 45% of all child deaths. Even in the absence of diarrhoea, subclinical pathogen carriage and enteropathy are almost universal in developing countries. Here, we review recent studies addressing the causes and consequences of diarrhoea; emerging data on environmental influences that govern postnatal development of the gut and microbiota; current concepts of environmental enteric dysfunction; and recent intervention trials in the field. We highlight the interactions between these processes, whereby intestinal pathogens drive a cycle of gut damage, malabsorption, chronic inflammation and failed mucosal regeneration, leading to malnutrition and susceptibility to further enteric infections. Summary Efforts to improve child survival and long-term developmental potential need to address the overlapping and interacting effects of diarrhoea, enteropathy and malnutrition. Recent insights from human and animal studies suggest potential targets for intervention. PMID:26967147

  11. Natural Treatment Systems as Sustainable Ecotechnologies for the Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid; Zeb, Bibi Saima; Zaffar, Habiba; Yaqoob, Hajra; Waseem, Muhammad; Zahidullah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of natural treatment systems is the re-establishment of disturbed ecosystems and their sustainability for benefits to human and nature. The working of natural treatment systems on ecological principles and their sustainability in terms of low cost, low energy consumption, and low mechanical technology is highly desirable. The current review presents pros and cons of the natural treatment systems, their performance, and recent developments to use them in the treatment of various types of wastewaters. Fast population growth and economic pressure in some developing countries compel the implementation of principles of natural treatment to protect natural environment. The employment of these principles for waste treatment not only helps in environmental cleanup but also conserves biological communities. The systems particularly suit developing countries of the world. We reviewed information on constructed wetlands, vermicomposting, role of mangroves, land treatment systems, soil-aquifer treatment, and finally aquatic systems for waste treatment. Economic cost and energy requirements to operate various kinds of natural treatment systems were also reviewed. PMID:23878819

  12. Economic valuation of climate change adaptation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Stage, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the economics of climate change adaptation in developing countries, and identifies three key points for consideration in future studies. One key point is that all development policy should be formulated using forecasts from climate science as a baseline. When this is not done, there is risk that a false status quo without climate change is seen as an implicit baseline. Another key point is that authors must be clearer about their behavioral assumptions: Many studies either (problematically) assume profit maximization on the side of farm households, or do not specify behavioral assumptions at all. A third important point is that the allocation of rights is crucial for the results; if households have a right to maintain their current livelihoods, the costs of climate change in developing countries are considerably greater than traditional willingness-to-pay studies would indicate. Thus, costs and benefits of climate change adaptation cannot be analyzed using economic aspects only; climate science, behavioral science, and legal and moral aspects have crucial implications for the outcome of the analysis.

  13. Soil erosion in developing countries: A politicoeconomic explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Gopal B.; Weber, Karl E.

    1991-07-01

    Soil erosion is accelerating in developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It has threatened the livelihood of millions of peasants, for agriculture is their economic mainstay. A probe into the forces causing erosion reveals that the elite’s resolve to accumulate ever more wealth and to maintain, consolidate, or expand their sociopolitical power and the necessity of the poor to fulfill their requirements of food, fuelwood, and fodder are the two major factors accelerating soil erosion. Unless the vast masses of poor people are integrated into the national mainstream through the implementation of equitable and redistributive development policies, it is impossible to control the accelerating rate of soil erosion and thus to achieve the objective of sustainable development.

  14. Energy strategies for oil-importing developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Munasinghe, M.

    1984-04-01

    The author analyzes the impact of the past oil crises on the world economy in general, and on the oil importers in particular. He identifies possible adjustment strategies that the oil-importing developing countries (OIDCs) might adopt in the coming years. Energy planning will generally require the coordinated use of interrelated policy tools such as physical controls and legislation, technical methods (including research and development), direct investments or investment-inducing policies, education and propaganda, and pricing. The broad energy options available to OIDCs are efficiency improvements to both energy supply and consumption, an increased pace of developing indigenous resources, and a restructing of their economies for longer-run payoffs. 12 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

  15. A developing country perspective on implementing sustainable energy programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ul Haq, Z.; James, J.A.; Kamal, S.

    1997-12-31

    Bangladesh is a developing country faced with many challenges such as high population growth rate, low literacy levels, and poverty. One of its most difficult tasks is providing the infrastructure necessary to sustain a growing population with a finite resource base. There is a need to develop a long term energy strategy that relies on sustainable resources while reducing environmental harm. Solar energy has the potential to meet these requirements and presents a highly attractive energy source for Bangladesh. Bangladesh is fortunate enough to have a significant amount of solar irradiance. A number of projects have been started in Bangladesh to exploit renewable energy resources. This paper will highlight the current status of these projects. Major interest and activity is directed towards development of photovoltaic and wind resources. The market for renewable technologies is vast in Bangladesh where a significant portion of the population is off-grid and in need of energy. Although this is not an affluent market technology costs have come down sufficiently such that it is becoming accessible to rural populations with credit schemes. While developing sustainable energy is a worthwhile goal and much encouraged by donor agencies, Bangladesh`s perspective on attempting to develop this sector suggests that it is not an easy road to follow, due to numerous internal and external barriers. A discussion of the barriers to the commercialization of renewables will be included in this paper. The objective of this paper is to shed some light on these issues and to stimulate discussions on how to overcome the barriers and encourage the dissemination of renewables in developing countries.

  16. Bisphenol A and food safety: Lessons from developed to developing countries.

    PubMed

    Baluka, Sylvia Angubua; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2016-06-01

    Modern lifestyles and changes in the socio-economic characteristics of households have stimulated current developments in food technology, processing and packaging. Chemicals such as bisphenol A (BPA) are known to migrate from food packaging into the food, resulting in human exposure to these chemicals. Similarly, BPA can migrate from baby feeding bottles into milk. BPA has been associated with adverse effects attributed to its estrogenic properties in various animal models. This review analyzed peer-reviewed publications in the English literature on human BPA exposure and regulations in developing countries compared to developed countries. BPA has been reduced or eliminated from food packaging and contact materials such as baby bottles in developed countries either voluntarily or by legislation. The meager data from developing countries shows that human BPA exposure in developing countries is similar to that in developed countries. With minor exceptions, BPA restriction, voluntary or legal, is virtually absent in developing countries of Africa, SE Asia, and South and Central America. PMID:27041591

  17. Empiric treatment of neonatal sepsis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Obiero, Christina W; Seale, Anna C; Berkley, James A

    2015-06-01

    Infections are among the leading causes of neonatal mortality, and about 75% of the burden occurs in developing countries. Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in these countries is dependent on the recognition of a set of nonspecific clinical signs that maximize sensitivity because staff making initial assessments may not have specialist pediatric training. Accurate diagnosis is usually limited by the unavailability of reliable microbiological investigation. The World Health Organization recommends ampicillin (or penicillin; cloxacillin if staphylococcal infection is suspected) plus gentamicin for empiric treatment of neonates with suspected clinical sepsis or meningitis. However, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the causes of infection and antimicrobial susceptibility in developing countries to support these recommendations, especially in rural settings. Bacterial pathogens (predominantly Gram negative) with reduced susceptibility to empiric medication have been reported, with variations both between and within regions. Nosocomial infections with resistant organisms and high case fatality challenge the first-line use of cephalosporins. Improving local surveillance data using standardized antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and validation of diagnostic algorithms against microbial findings are essential. Standardized reporting of treatment outcomes is required to evaluate practice, provide guidance on second-line regimes and for studies of new approaches, such as simplified community-based regimens, and to determine the appropriate duration of empiric treatment for apparently low-risk neonates with early resolution of clinical signs, or where available, negative blood cultures. Thus, a multifaceted approach, with attention to microbiological quality assurance, is needed to better guide antimicrobial use and reduce mortality and long-term impairments. PMID:25806843

  18. Recent developments in abortion law in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Boland, R

    1990-01-01

    An effort to bring new insights into the US abortion debate, this article reviews recent legal developments concerning abortion in 7 other industrialized countries. In addition to the US, the author examines developments in Canada, England, Ireland, France, Belgium, Romania, and Bulgaria. In the US, the Supreme Court has become the battleground for an increasingly bitter abortion debate. The 1989 ruling in Webster v. Reproductive Health Services has setback the 1973 Roe v. Wade ruling which guaranteed a woman's right to an abortion. Although the Webster did not overturn Roe, it did significantly weaken the trimester approach to abortion regulation and open the door to further restrictions. In Canada, however, the court has overturned a previously burdensome abortion law. The abortion debate in England has centered around the standard that says that an abortion may not take place when the fetus is "capable of being born alive." Conforming to present scientific knowledge, English law now allows abortions on demand during the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy -- bringing England closer to the practice of other European countries. Belgium has also recently approved of unimpeded abortions during the 1st 12 weeks. In France, the governments has ordered the manufacturer of RU486 to make the abortifacient available to French women. Ireland, however, remains the only industrialized country in the world where abortion is still illegal. The cases of Bulgaria and Romania show what can happen when abortion becomes the pawn of social policy and ideology. Romania is the extreme case. Prior to his downfall in 1989, President Ceaucescu had instituted one of the most restrictive abortion laws as part of a pronatalist policy. This resulted in widespread misery for women and created a great number of unwanted children, which the author warns is the result of restrictive abortions laws.

  19. Developments in Assisting Countries in Implementing the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Cain, Ronald A.; Kovacic, Don N.; Apt, Kenneth E.; VanSickle, Matthew

    2010-08-11

    In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began assisting selected non-nuclear weapon states in planning and preparing for implementation of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Additional Protocol (AP). Since then, the AP international implementation program has contributed to the substantial progress made by Vietnam, Thailand, Iraq, and Malaysia in preparing for entry-into-force of the AP. An overall engagement plan has been developed with components designed to train government AP implementing agencies, inform policy makers, conduct outreach to industry and universities, make AP reporting software available and useful, and plan a detailed approach for implementing the declaration and complementary access provisions of the AP. DOE recently began collaborating with Indonesia, which has already entered the AP into force, requiring a second method of engagement somewhat different from that taken with countries that have not entered the AP into force. The AP international implementation program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program, is working more closely with DOE’s International Nonproliferation Export Control Program to ensure countries are aware of and prepared to implement the export/import provisions of the AP. As the AP implementation program matures and helps move countries closer to entry-into-force or improved AP implementation, it is identifying characteristics of a country’s “end-state” that indicate that DOE assistance is no longer required. The U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification require the Administration to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states. DOE’s AP international implementation program is a significant part of these measures. This paper describes recent developments to increase the scope and effectiveness of the program.

  20. The SLMTA programme: Transforming the laboratory landscape in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Katy; Maruta, Talkmore; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Nkengasong, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Efficient and reliable laboratory services are essential to effective and well-functioning health systems. Laboratory managers play a critical role in ensuring the quality and timeliness of these services. However, few laboratory management programmes focus on the competencies required for the daily operations of a laboratory in resource-limited settings. This report provides a detailed description of an innovative laboratory management training tool called Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) and highlights some challenges, achievements and lessons learned during the first five years of implementation (2009–2013) in developing countries. Programme SLMTA is a competency-based programme that uses a series of short courses and work-based learning projects to effect immediate and measurable laboratory improvement, while empowering laboratory managers to implement practical quality management systems to ensure better patient care. A SLMTA training programme spans from 12 to 18 months; after each workshop, participants implement improvement projects supported by regular supervisory visits or on-site mentoring. In order to assess strengths, weaknesses and progress made by the laboratory, audits are conducted using the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist, which is based on International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 requirements. These internal audits are conducted at the beginning and end of the SLMTA training programme. Conclusion Within five years, SLMTA had been implemented in 617 laboratories in 47 countries, transforming the laboratory landscape in developing countries. To our knowledge, SLMTA is the first programme that makes an explicit connection between the performance of specific management behaviours and routines and ISO 15189 requirements. Because of this close relationship, SLMTA is

  1. Regulations and Legislation Regarding Correspondence Education. A Survey of Five Countries with Recommended Guidelines for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunning, Robert

    Different types of existing regulations and legislation for correspondence education in France, West Germany, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States are reviewed for the benefit of other countries developing policies. For each country surveyed, four sections are provided in the report: a brief description of the educational system, as…

  2. Computer model for municipal solid waste treatment in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Kaur, Harsangeet; Khanna, Sunil

    2005-05-15

    Many integrated solid waste management (ISWM) models are available but are of little use to developing countries such as India since they do not take into account typical developing countries municipal solid waste characteristics such as high organic content, poor performance of formal sector control and support, high activity of scavengers and waste pickers, etc. The goal of this study is to create a computer program to determine the least cost treatment and disposal system for a given solid waste management problem. To demonstrate its applicability, the model was applied to the Indian city Amritsar. A typical Indian city like Amritsar generates about 500 ton of MSW/d with 45% moisture content, 30% volatile matter, and calorific value of 1500 kcal/kg. The computer model was run for various technologies. Results showthatfor Amritsar city incineration an expenditure of U.S. dollars (USD) 6.62 is incurred, whereas landfilling, composting, and biomethanation digester give an income of USD 0.13, USD 0.20, and USD 0.23 per ton of MSW, respectively. This empirical exercise not only reveals the model's strengths such as highlighting important interdependencies in the waste management sector but also its requirement for quality data. PMID:15952378

  3. Computer model for municipal solid waste treatment in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Kaur, Harsangeet; Khanna, Sunil

    2005-05-15

    Many integrated solid waste management (ISWM) models are available but are of little use to developing countries such as India since they do not take into account typical developing countries municipal solid waste characteristics such as high organic content, poor performance of formal sector control and support, high activity of scavengers and waste pickers, etc. The goal of this study is to create a computer program to determine the least cost treatment and disposal system for a given solid waste management problem. To demonstrate its applicability, the model was applied to the Indian city Amritsar. A typical Indian city like Amritsar generates about 500 ton of MSW/d with 45% moisture content, 30% volatile matter, and calorific value of 1500 kcal/kg. The computer model was run for various technologies. Results showthatfor Amritsar city incineration an expenditure of U.S. dollars (USD) 6.62 is incurred, whereas landfilling, composting, and biomethanation digester give an income of USD 0.13, USD 0.20, and USD 0.23 per ton of MSW, respectively. This empirical exercise not only reveals the model's strengths such as highlighting important interdependencies in the waste management sector but also its requirement for quality data.

  4. Modernity and acceptance of family limitation in four developing countries.

    PubMed

    Miller, K A; Inkeles, A

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between individual modernity and adoption of family planning was investigated in East Pakistan (Bangladesh), Israel, India, and Nigeria. The survey involved interviews with approximately 1000 males in each country, with an emphasis on industrial, nonindustrial, and agricultural workers. Results indicated that the variables of modernity, i.e., literacy and amount of education received, degree of exposure to mass media, urban residence, white-collar occupation, and a high standard of living, were only slightly significant in explaining the acceptance of family planning. Survey results indicate that modern experiences have their effect in indirect ways through general psychological modernity. Variables related to family and sex roles do not explain attitudes toward family planning. 2 variables which did relate to family planning attitudes were: belief in science, medicine, and technology, and a secular as opposed to religious life orientation. Implications of the study are that the only way to insure decreasing birthrates in developing countries is to progress with general economic development. However, mere modernization will not achieve the desired results. There must be an emphasis in communication on the value of science, medicine, and technology.

  5. Treatment, prophylaxis and research priorities for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Heymann, D L; Wirima, J J; Perriëns, J H

    1993-01-01

    An estimated two million new adult and pediatric HIV infections occurred worldwide during 1992, more than 50% of them in sub-Saharan Africa, 25% in Asia, and one-eighth in Latin America and the Caribbean. The remaining infections occurred in Europe, North America, and the industrialized countries of the Pacific Rim. Transmission by sexual intercourse and from an infected woman to her fetus/child remain major routes of transmission. The World Health Organization estimates that there will be a cumulative total of 30-40 million people infected with HIV by the year 2000. Over time, increasing numbers of people already infected with HIV and soon to be infected will develop AIDS and require higher levels of care. Obstacles to increasing access to cost-effective drugs for HIV/AIDS in developing countries, however, include weak drug distribution systems, the improper prescribing of available drugs by health workers, and the improper use of these drugs by patients who have not been appropriately educated by prescribing health workers. Currency shortages and lack of political will underlie these obstacles. This paper considers cost-effective prophylaxis and treatment of HIV-related infections including tuberculosis, candidiasis, penicilliosis, combined chemoprophylaxis, pruritus and diarrhea with wasting, and HIV infection. The prevention of HIV transmission is discussed under headings on heterosexual and perinatal transmission, followed by a discussion on increasing access to cost-effective drugs.

  6. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  7. ISODEX: An entry point for developing countries into space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Mark Andrew

    2015-08-01

    Several threads current in the community of international space actors have led to calls at UN COPUOS Scientific & Technical Sub-Committee meetings for enhancing the scientific information available on man-made space objects, whilst fostering international space object data sharing. Growing awareness of the problems of space debris proliferation and space traffic management, especially amongst developing countries and non-traditional space faring nations, have fueled their desires to become involved in the areas of space object tracking, utilizing relatively modest astronomical instrumentation. Additionally, several commercial satellite operators, members of the Satellite Data Association, have called for augmentation of the information available from existing catalogs. This confluence of factors has led to an international discussion, at the UN and elsewhere, of the possibility of creating a clearing-house for parties willing to share data on space objects, with a working title of the “International Space Object Data Exchange” (ISODEX). We discuss the ideas behind this concept, how it might be implemented, and it might enhance the public’s knowledge of space activities, as well as providing an entry point into space for developing countries.

  8. Choice of prosthetic heart valve in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Talwar, Sachin; Airan, Balram

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical prostheses and stented xenografts (bioprosthesis) are most commonly used substitutes for aortic and mitral valve replacement. The mechanical valves have the advantage of durability but are accompanied with the risk of thromboembolism, problems of long-term anticoagulation, and associated risk of bleeding. In contrast, bioprosthetic valves do not require long-term anticoagulation, but carry the risk of structural valve degeneration and re-operation. A mechanical valve is favoured in young patients (<40 years) if reliable anticoagulation is ensured. In elderly patients (>60 years), a bioprosthesis is a suitable substitute. In middle-aged patients (40–60 years), risk of re-operation in a bioprosthesis is equal to that of bleeding in a mechanical valve. Traditionally, a bioprosthesis is opted in patients with limited life expectancy. Calculation of life expectancy, based solely upon chronological age, is erroneous. In developing countries, the calculated life expectancy is much lower than that of Western population, hence age related Western cut-offs are not valid in developing countries. Besides age, cardiac condition of the patient, systemic illnesses, socio-economic status, gender and geographical location also decide the life expectancy of the patients. Selection of the prosthetic valve substitute should be based on: aspiration of the patient, life expectancy, socio-economic and educational background, occupation of the patient, availability, cost, monitoring of anti-coagulation, monitoring of valve function and other valve related complications, and possibility of re-operation. PMID:27326237

  9. [Five changes of family structure in developed countries].

    PubMed

    1987-07-01

    5 changes in family structure in developed countries are presented in light of studying trends in Chinese population and family. They are: 1) unmarried co-habitation and single households are increasing in number. Chinese tradition does not recognize single or unmarried households. The West has in recent years advocated giving household status to singles and unmarried cohabitants because these numbers are increasing. For example, in the U.S. in 1980 there were 270,000 unmarried couples living together, and 30% of the adult population were single; 21.9% of Swedish adults were single, as were 19.6% of French adults. 2) Nuclear families are taking place of the extended family. For example, 60% of Soviet families are nuclear families. 3) The occupational structure of adults is changing. Because over 40% of women in developed countries are in the work force, changes in the home include the woman's economic status, her authority, the needs of the family, and life style. 4) Broken homes are on the rise. Between 1970-1980 in the Soviet Union, on the average broken homes increased annually by 300,000-400,000. 5) There exist important breakthroughs in genetic engineering and medical research.

  10. Animal biotechnology: applications and economic implications in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Madan, M L

    2005-04-01

    In most developing countries, biotechnological applications relating to livestock need to be suitable for animal owners who are resource-poor small-scale operators who own little or no land and few animals. Livestock is becoming increasingly important to economic growth in developing countries and the application of biotechnology is largely dictated by commercial considerations and socio-economic goals. Using technology to support livestock production is an integral part of viable agriculture in multi-enterprise systems. Livestock are part of a fragile ecosystem and a rich source of animal biodiversity, as local species and breeds possess genes and traits of excellence. Molecular markers are increasingly being used to identify and select the particular genes that lead to these desirable traits and it is now possible to select superior germ plasm and disseminate it using artificial insemination, embryo transfer and other assisted reproductive technologies. These technologies have been used in the genetic improvement of livestock, particularly in cattle and buffaloes, and the economic returns are significant. However, morbidity and mortality among animals produced using assisted reproductive technologies lead to high economic losses, so the principal application of animal biotechnology at present is in the production of cheap and dependable diagnostic kits and vaccines. Several obstacles limit the application of biotechnology at present: there is a lack of infrastructure and insufficient manpower, so funding is needed if resource-poor farmers are to benefit from biotechnology. PMID:16110883

  11. Utilization and Monetization of Healthcare Data in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bram, Joshua T.; Warwick-Clark, Boyd; Obeysekare, Eric; Mehta, Khanjan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In developing countries with fledgling healthcare systems, the efficient deployment of scarce resources is paramount. Comprehensive community health data and machine learning techniques can optimize the allocation of resources to areas, epidemics, or populations most in need of medical aid or services. However, reliable data collection in low-resource settings is challenging due to a wide range of contextual, business-related, communication, and technological factors. Community health workers (CHWs) are trusted community members who deliver basic health education and services to their friends and neighbors. While an increasing number of programs leverage CHWs for last mile data collection, a fundamental challenge to such programs is the lack of tangible incentives for the CHWs. This article describes potential applications of health data in developing countries and reviews the challenges to reliable data collection. Four practical CHW-centric business models that provide incentive and accountability structures to facilitate data collection are presented. Creating and strengthening the data collection infrastructure is a prerequisite for big data scientists, machine learning experts, and public health administrators to ultimately elevate and transform healthcare systems in resource-poor settings. PMID:26487984

  12. Infectious diseases in paediatric pathology: experience from a developing country.

    PubMed

    Peres, Luiz Cesar; Saggioro, Fabiano Pinto; Dias, Leonidas Braga; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo; Luiz, Veridiana Ester Dias de Barros; Neder, Luciano; Rosman, Fernando Colonna; Fleury, Raul Negrão; Ura, Somei; Orsi, Ana Tereza; Talhari, Carolina; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos de Lima; Ramos, Simone Gusmão; Rey, Luís Carlos; Martinez-Espinosa, Flor E; Sim, Franklin; Filho, Otilde Es de Satana; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Chimelli, Leila M Cardão; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Belone, Andrea de Faria Fernandes

    2008-02-01

    Infectious and parasitic diseases have always challenged man. Although many of them are typically seen in some areas of the world and can be adequately managed by just improving socioeconomic status and sanitary conditions, they are still quite prevalent and may sometimes be seen outside their original geographical areas. Human migration due to different reasons, tourism, blood transfusion and solid organ transplantation has created new concerns for health professionals all over the world. If not for diagnostic purposes, at least these tropical and infectious diseases should be largely known because their epidemiology, pathogenesis, host/parasite interaction, inflammatory and reparative responses are quite interesting and teach us about human biology. Curiosity is inherent to pathology practice and so we are compelled to look for things other than tumours or degenerative diseases. This review focuses on infectious and parasitic diseases found in a developing country and brings up-to-date information on diseases caused by viruses (dengue, yellow fever), bacteria (typhoid fever, leprosy), parasites (Chagas' disease, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, amoebiasis, Capillaria hepatica, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis) and caused by fungi (paracoccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis) that may be useful for pathologists when facing somewhat strange cases from developing countries.

  13. Benchmarking progress in tackling the challenges of intellectual property, and access to medicines in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Musungu, Sisule F.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of intellectual property protection in the pharmaceutical sector on developing countries has been a central issue in the fierce debate during the past 10 years in a number of international fora, particularly the World Trade Organization (WTO) and WHO. The debate centres on whether the intellectual property system is: (1) providing sufficient incentives for research and development into medicines for diseases that disproportionately affect developing countries; and (2) restricting access to existing medicines for these countries. The Doha Declaration was adopted at WTO in 2001 and the Commission on Intellectual Property, Innovation and Public Health was established at WHO in 2004, but their respective contributions to tackling intellectual property-related challenges are disputed. Objective parameters are needed to measure whether a particular series of actions, events, decisions or processes contribute to progress in this area. This article proposes six possible benchmarks for intellectual property-related challenges with regard to the development of medicines and ensuring access to medicines in developing countries. PMID:16710545

  14. Entry into space: challenges for the developing country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M.

    A developing country that desires to undertake space-related activities has a host of challenges it has to overcome: low level of awareness of the importance of space; lack of or unsustained political will and commitment; limitation of resources; inability to tap resources if they exist; inadequate infrastructure and support system; and incorrect international perception of motivation. Even if it manages to overcome these hurdles, it needs to demonstrate a fast return of value for investment. Hence rapid operationalisation of technology developments is vital which in turn has to be balanced with an optimized transfer of know-how and technology. It would do well for the world space community to assist in overcoming some of these obstacles because a world that is equitably engaged in space will also be inclined to be a world that recognizes the need for the global protection of space and space assets.

  15. Building up indigenous technological capabilities in African developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Lubunga, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    For all the vast natural resources and the praiseworthy efforts of governments and peoples, the African economy still remains basically underdeveloped. Faced with this situation, there have been increased awareness and concern in recent years among political leaders, decision-makers, and socioeconomic planners of the fact that the chronic low-level productivity in almost all spheres of economic activity in that region can be attributed, to a large extent, to the low level of indigenous capability and appropriate utilization of science and technology. Few countries in Africa, however, as yet have a science and technology policy formulated toward long-term goals and objectives, and for overall economic and social development. There is, therefore, an urgent need to develop progressively the systems and methodology for identifying, selecting, and planning indigenous scientific and technological activity. International cooperation can be useful, but only within the context of a strong national capability. 14 references.

  16. Environmental Enteropathy: Elusive but Significant Subclinical Abnormalities in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koji; Petri, William A

    2016-08-01

    Environmental enteropathy/Environmental enteric dysfunction (EE/EED) is a chronic disease of small intestine characterized by gut inflammation and barrier disruption, malabsorption and systemic inflammation in the absence of diarrhea. It is predominantly diseases of children in low income countries and is hypothesized to be caused by continuous exposure to fecally contaminated food, water and fomites. It had not been recognized as a priority health issue because it does not cause overt symptoms and was seen in apparently healthy individuals. However, there is a growing concern of EE/EED because of its impact on longitudinal public health issues, such as growth faltering, oral vaccine low efficacy and poor neurocognitive development. Recent works have provided important clues to unravel its complex pathogenesis, and suggest possible strategies for controlling EE/EED. However, effective diagnostic methods and interventions remain unsettled. Here, we review the existing literature, especially about its pathogenesis, and discuss a solution for children living in the developing world.

  17. Workshop on energy and agriculture in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    A report of a workshop which was convened to review existing issues and to advise the US Agency for International Development of promising opportunities to help solve energy-related problems involving agriculture in developing countries is presented. Reports of the two working groups are included. One group considered energy in agricultural production, including: germ plasma, the mechanization of agricultural production (including and not including germ plasma), fertilizer and biological nitrogen fixation, pest control and water for crop production. The second group examined energy in the post-harvest system, covering: transportation, post-harvest food systems, energy and food consumption systems, and reforestation. Recommendations and conclusions are presented which involve most of these topics. 237 references.

  18. Access to vaccine technologies in developing countries: Brazil and India.

    PubMed

    Milstien, Julie B; Gaulé, Patrick; Kaddar, Miloud

    2007-11-01

    This study, conducted by visits, interviews, and literature search, analyzes how vaccine manufacturers in Brazil and India access technologies for innovative vaccines: through collaborations with academia and research institutions, technology transfer agreements with multinational corporations, public sector, or developing country organizations, or by importation and finishing of bulk products. Each has advantages and disadvantages in terms of speed, market, and ability to independently produce the product. Most manufacturers visited are very concerned about avoiding patent infringement, which might result in undeveloped or delayed products because of a lack of mastery of the patent landscape. Disregarding the patent picture could also threaten the market of a potential product. Although it is too soon to assess the effects of TRIPS on vaccine technology access in Brazil and India, a good understanding of intellectual property management will be useful. A case study on development of a new combination vaccine illustrates these findings.

  19. Assessment of protein adequacy in developing countries: quality matters.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shibani; Suri, Devika; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    Dietary protein and amino acid requirement recommendations for normal "healthy" children and adults have varied considerably with 2007 FAO/WHO protein requirement estimates for children lower, but dietary essential AA requirements for adults more than doubled. Requirement estimates as presented do not account for common living conditions, which are prevalent in developing countries such as energy deficit, infection burden and added functional demands for protein and AAs. This study examined the effect of adjusting total dietary protein for quality and digestibility (PDCAAS) and of correcting current protein and AA requirements for the effect of infection and a mild energy deficit to estimate utilizable protein (total protein corrected for biological value and digestibility) and the risk/prevalence of protein inadequacy. The relationship between utilizable protein/prevalence of protein inadequacy and stunting across regions and countries was examined. Data sources (n = 116 countries) included FAO FBS (food supply), UNICEF (stunting prevalence), UNDP (GDP) and UNSTATS (IMR) and USDA nutrient tables. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations, paired-sample/non-parametric t-tests and linear regression. Statistically significant differences were observed in risk/prevalence estimates of protein inadequacy using total protein and the current protein requirements versus utilizable protein and the adjusted protein requirements for all regions (p < 0·05). Total protein, utilizable protein, GDP per capita and total energy were each highly correlated with the prevalence of stunting. Energy, protein and utilizable protein availability were independently and negatively associated with stunting (p < 0·001), explaining 41 %, 34 % and 40 % of variation respectively. Controlling for energy, total protein was not a statistically significant factor but utilizable protein remained significant explaining~45 % of the variance (p = 0·017). Dietary utilizable protein provides a

  20. Family donors are critical and legitimate in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For many years, family blood donors have been considered less safe than volunteer non-remunerated blood donors and actively discouraged by international organisations and affluent countries support agencies for developing countries. In addition to safety, pressure and coercion was considered unethical. However these assumptions were not supported by evidence. Aims of the study: To assemble recently collected evidence to reopen the assessment whether or not the ban of family blood donors is justified. Methods: Review of old and recent literature through Pubmed and references from identified articles. Results and Discussion: Viral marker data comparing confirmed seroprevalence in 1st time volunteer non-remunerated donors (VNRD) and family/replacement donors (FRD) corrected for gender and age, show no significant difference between the two groups. Evidence has been provided that for both VNRD and FAD benevolence is more appropriate than altruism. The two groups merge for psychological attitude to donation for which knowing someone needing transfusion is a powerful incentive to give blood. Excluding a life or death situation found in areas where severe blood shortage justifies replacement donation, pressures are exerted on both VNRD and FRD. There is no evidence of coercion of FRD. FRDs therefore meet all criteria for VNRD and are willing to become VNRD and to repeat donation. Ostracising FRD is illegitimate and damaging to the blood supply in resource poor areas. In some countries no difference is made between the two groups of donors representing similar populations asked to give blood in different circumstances. Conclusions: FRDs remain a critical source of volunteer, non-remunerated, blood meeting all classical criteria of VNRD that should be considered legitimate and indispensable at this point in time instead of discouraged. PMID:27011664

  1. Factors affecting the use of prenatal care by non-western women in industrialized western countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the potential of prenatal care for addressing many pregnancy complications and concurrent health problems, non-western women in industrialized western countries more often make inadequate use of prenatal care than women from the majority population do. This study aimed to give a systematic review of factors affecting non-western women’s use of prenatal care (both medical care and prenatal classes) in industrialized western countries. Methods Eleven databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, Women’s Studies International, MIDIRS, CINAHL, Scopus and the NIVEL catalogue) were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles from between 1995 and July 2012. Qualitative as well as quantitative studies were included. Quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Factors identified were classified as impeding or facilitating, and categorized according to a conceptual framework, an elaborated version of Andersen’s healthcare utilization model. Results Sixteen articles provided relevant factors that were all categorized. A number of factors (migration, culture, position in host country, social network, expertise of the care provider and personal treatment and communication) were found to include both facilitating and impeding factors for non-western women’s utilization of prenatal care. The category demographic, genetic and pregnancy characteristics and the category accessibility of care only included impeding factors. Lack of knowledge of the western healthcare system and poor language proficiency were the most frequently reported impeding factors. Provision of information and care in women’s native languages was the most frequently reported facilitating factor. Conclusion The factors found in this review provide specific indications for identifying non-western women who are at risk of not using prenatal care adequately and for developing interventions and appropriate policy aimed at

  2. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The seventeen-year-and-counting history of the Palo Alto-based nonprofit organization GeoHazards International (GHI) is the story of many initiatives within a larger initiative to increase the societal impact of geophysics and civil engineering. GHI's mission is to reduce death and suffering due to earthquakes and other natural hazards in the world's most vulnerable communities through preparedness, mitigation and advocacy. GHI works by raising awareness in these communities about their risk and about affordable methods to manage it, identifying and strengthening institutions in these communities to manage their risk, and advocating improvement in natural disaster management. Some of GHI's successful initiatives include: (1) creating an earthquake scenario for Quito, Ecuador that describes in lay terms the consequences for that city of a probable earthquake; (2) improving the curricula of Pakistani university courses about seismic retrofitting; (3) training employees of the Public Works Department of Delhi, India on assessing the seismic vulnerability of critical facilities such as a school, a hospital, a police headquarters, and city hall; (4) assessing the vulnerability of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamsala, India; (5) developing a seismic hazard reduction plan for a nonprofit organization in Kathmandu, Nepal that works to manage Nepal's seismic risk; and (6) assisting in the formulation of a resolution by the Council of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to promote school earthquake safety among OECD member countries. GHI's most important resource, in addition to its staff and Board of Trustees, is its members and volunteer advisors, who include some of the world's leading earth scientists, earthquake engineers, urban planners and architects, from the academic, public, private and nonprofit sectors. GHI is planning several exciting initiatives in the near future. One would oversee the design and construction of

  3. Building Technological Capability within Satellite Programs in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Danielle Renee

    Global participation in space activity is growing as satellite technology matures and spreads. Countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America are creating or reinvigorating national satellite programs. These countries are building local capability in space through technological learning. They sometimes pursue this via collaborative satellite development projects with foreign firms that provide training. This phenomenon of collaborative satellite development projects is poorly understood by researchers of technological learning and technology transfer. The approach has potential to facilitate learning, but there are also challenges due to misaligned incentives and the tacit nature of the technology. Perspectives from literature on Technological Learning, Technology Transfer, Complex Product Systems and Product Delivery provide useful but incomplete insight for decision makers in such projects. This work seeks a deeper understanding of capability building through collaborative technology projects by conceiving of the projects as complex, socio-technical systems with architectures. The architecture of a system is the assignment of form to execute a function along a series of dimensions. The research questions explore the architecture of collaborative satellite projects, the nature of capability building during such projects, and the relationship between architecture and capability building. The research design uses inductive, exploratory case studies to investigate six collaborative satellite development projects. Data collection harnesses international field work driven by interviews, observation, and documents. The data analysis develops structured narratives, architectural comparison and capability building assessment. The architectural comparison reveals substantial variation in project implementation, especially in the areas of project initiation, technical specifications of the satellite, training approaches and the supplier selection process. The individual

  4. Cadmium affects retinogenesis during zebrafish embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Hen Chow, Elly Suk; Yu Hui, Michelle Nga; Cheng, Chi Wa; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-02-15

    Ocular malformations are commonly observed in embryos of aquatic species after exposure to toxicants. Using zebrafish embryos as the model organism, we showed that cadmium exposure from sphere stage (4 hpf) to end of segmentation stage (24 hpf) induced microphthalmia in cadmium-treated embryos. Embryos with eye defects were then assessed for visual abilities. Cadmium-exposed embryos were behaviorally blind, showing hyperpigmentation and loss of camouflage response to light. We investigated the cellular basis of the formation of the small eyes phenotype and the induction of blindness by studying retina development and retinotectal projections. Retinal progenitors were found in cadmium-treated embryos albeit in smaller numbers. The number of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), the first class of retinal cells to differentiate during retinogenesis, was reduced, while photoreceptor cells, the last batch of retinal neurons to differentiate, were absent. Cadmium also affected the propagation of neurons in neurogenic waves. The neurons remained in the ventronasal area and failed to spread across the retina. Drastically reduced RGC axons and disrupted optic stalk showed that the optic nerves did not extend from the retina beyond the chiasm into the tectum. Our data suggested that impairment in neuronal differentiation of the retina, disruption in RGC axon formation and absence of cone photoreceptors were the causes of microphthalmia and visual impairment in cadmium-treated embryos.

  5. Determinants affecting the well-being of people in the Greater Mekong Subregion countries.

    PubMed

    Ruchiwit, Manyat

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the determinants/factors affecting the well-being of the Thai and Lao people, and the factors that predict the well-being of those respective peoples. Eight hundred and sixty participants were recruited from three major regions of Thailand and Laos and were selected using multistage random sampling. A self-reported well-being questionnaire was developed using the theoretical framework of Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and a questionnaire assessing their perceptions/attitudes concerning the factors affecting their well-being was administered. The major findings were the following: (i) the factors affecting the well-being and the self-reported well-being of Thais and Laotians were significantly different; and (ii) the factors predicting the well-being of Thais included the living and working environment and the availability of medical information and technology at their hospitals. On the other hand, one of the factors predicting the well-being of Laotians was their attitudes toward their society and its cultural values. A comprehensive and system-wide review of mental-health policy planning to improve the well-being of people in Thailand and Laos in accordance with those predicted factors is recommended.

  6. Privatization of veterinary services in developing countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Sen, A; Chander, M

    2003-06-01

    Increasing fiscal constraints on the government, a lackadaisical performance by public sector animal health and breeding services and pressure from donor partners have prompted the governments of various developing countries to rethink the role of the public sector in the provision of veterinary services. Various countries have started to implement, or have already implemented, privatization of some veterinary services. The results are mixed. It is established that private provision alone is not optimal, and a blend of private and public sector veterinary services is required to utilize the virtues of both. The privatization process has also begun in India. Certain state governments in India are pursuing a cost recovery approach and are encouraging private practitioners to cope with the financial constraints and to deliver broad and effective animal health and breeding services. This paper considers the global aspects of the privatization of veterinary services as well as the scenario in India, so as to gain an insight into the very complex and debatable issue of privatization of veterinary services.

  7. [Meeting of calory and protein requirements in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Cremer, H D

    1976-03-01

    While we have definite ideas regarding the requirements for energy and proteins, we have to rely on statistical data whether these requirements are actually met. In spite of the common unreliability of these data, they serve as an useful indicator of the general situation. The supply of nutritional energy represents the average energy requirement for the populations of most developing countries. However, the insufficient supply of high grade protein remains the main nutritional problem of most of these countries. To solve these problems, the following possibilities exist: --Ensuring a sufficient calorie supply so that valuable protein is not wasted for the production of energy --Improving the supply of protein-rich staple food --Supplementing of food with local protien-rich products --Introducing lifestock only when the foodstuff available cannot be used directly for human consumption -- Improving the staple food, introducing higher grade strains of cereals --Producing protein-rich vegetable mixture from local foodstuff --Utilization of synthetic amino acids and of new protein sources. To meet the requirements for calories, and especially for hgih grade protein, is possible only by international and interdisciplinary efforts of all experts concerned with nutrition in any way.

  8. Science and technology for wealth and health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Acharya, T

    2007-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that the developing world needs to invest in science and technology or risk falling behind as the technology gap between the North and South widens. However, these investments must be balanced by continued investment in basic population-wide services, such as healthcare and water supply and sanitation. Achieving this balance is a matter of ongoing debate in policy circles, and leaders and policy-makers in developing countries often have to make difficult decisions that pit investment in new technologies and capacity-building in science and technology against basic population-wide services such as healthcare and water supply and sanitation. The tension is underscored by evidence which suggests that rapidly industrializing economies, like in China, India and Brazil, are actually experiencing a rise in economic and health disparities among their populations. The fact that poor people in an industrializing country must fall behind while the rest of the country marches ahead does not have to be an inevitable outcome of industrialization. This article shows that science and technology can make an important and vital contribution to development, using public health as an example. It suggests the need to focus investments in science and technology in such a way that they can have a positive impact on public health. For instance, the use of simple, hand-held molecular diagnostic tools can help unskilled health workers rapidly and accurately diagnose diseases, thus helping to reduce healthcare costs due to delayed or incorrect diagnoses. Recombinant vaccines can mitigate the risk of infection associated with live or attenuated vaccines, while needle-less delivery methods can help contain the spread of blood-borne infections. Critical to making technology investments work for population health are government policies and strategies that align public health goals and technology priorities. Such policies can include cross-sectoral training programs to

  9. Role of the surface electrocardiogram in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Varma, Niraj

    2010-01-01

    The surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is a basic cardiac investigation delivering information not only regarding heart rhythm but also regarding ischemic disease, effects of hypertension, congenital syndromes, and cardiomyopathies. These may determine decisions regarding follow-up investigations or treatment. The ECG fulfils several characteristics of a good screening test: it is rapid, is noninvasive, requires minimal technical expertise to perform, and is inexpensive. However, its interpretation requires highly trained physicians. In industrialized nations, the test is performed routinely in outpatient clinics and hospitals frequently in conjunction with further cardiac imaging. Developing nations confront a different situation. Urbanized segments may access ECG testing similarly to industrialized countries. However, in a country such as India, 80% of population is rural and poor. Less than 30% of physicians are rurally located, and most are primary care physicians. Access to medical care is limited by sparse and underresourced medical facilities and personnel, poorer socioeconomic status, ignorance of disease, and lack of motivation to seek health care. The ECG may be the only affordable cardiac test for this population, but poor communications (transport, telephone) hamper access. Initiatives to overcome these obstacles are being undertaken in some model situations. For example in Bangalore, India, use of mobile vans equipped with satellite terminals (aided by the Indian Space Research Organization) permits transmission of ECGs from rural points to central urban hospitals for physician interpretation. The physician community has responsibilities of improving the diagnostic yield from the ECG. Rural communities have a different spectrum of diseases with lesser coronary artery disease and greater incidence of valvular disease. The ECG has different roles in these diseases. (In contrast, urban communities in the same country experience diseases of industrialized

  10. The economic impact of infertility on women in developing countries ‑ a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, S.J.; Patel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is the responsibility of health systems to provide quality health care and to protect consumers against impoverishing health costs. In the case of infertility in developing countries, quality care is often lacking and treatment costs are usually covered by patients. Additional financial hardship may be caused by various social consequences. The economic implications of infertility and its treatment have not been systematically explored. Methods: A systematic MEDLINE search was conducted to identify English language publications providing original data from developing countries on out-of-pocket payment (OoPP) for infertility treatment and on other economic consequences of involuntary childlessness. Findings: Twenty one publications were included in this review. Information on OoPP was scant but suggests that infertility treatment is associated with a significant risk of catastrophic expenditure, even for basic or ineffective interventions. Other economic disadvantages, which may be profound, are caused by loss of access to child labour and support, divorce, as well as customary laws or negative attitudes which discriminate against infertile individuals. Women in particular are affected. Conclusion: Pertinent data on OoPP and other economic disadvantages of infertility in developing countries are limited. According to the evidence available, infertility may cause impoverishing health costs as well as economic instability or deprivation secondary to social consequences. Health systems in developing countries do not appear to meet their responsibilities vis-à-vis infertile patients. PMID:24753897

  11. Medical technologies in developing countries: issues of technology development, transfer, diffusion and use.

    PubMed

    Bonair, A; Rosenfield, P; Tengvald, K

    1989-01-01

    The difficulties experienced in transfer of medical technology to developing countries are aggravated by partial and incomplete understanding of the cultural, social, economic, and institutional factors affecting technology development, transfer, dissemination and use. In this paper, it is argued that a more dynamic and comprehensive approach is needed for the analysis of these factors. Such an approach would provide the basis for linking existing information stemming from partial analyses of problems related to individual users, the health services or systems, and the technology itself. The starting point of any comprehensive analysis must be the structure of the society in which the technology is to be used. The value of a comprehensive analytical approach is illustrated by discussion of a medical technology still under development, a vaccine against malaria. This discussion further indicates that consideration of cultural, social, economic, and institutional factors in the developmental phases of a technology can contribute to ensuring acceptability and sustainability of the technology under the multifaceted conditions in which it is to be used.

  12. Biomedical research in developing countries: the case of Morocco in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Badrane, Hassan; Alaoui-el-Azher, Mounia

    2003-06-01

    Moroccan biomedical research occupies the third place among African or Arab countries, and its outputs considerably increased during the last decade. The quality of publications from developing countries should be improved as suggested by the comparison with developed countries. The gap between developed and developing countries is very large considering the number of publications and their quality, the number of edited journals, and the number of patented inventions, thus making developing countries more as consumers then producers. Accordingly, there is a large gap between developing and developed countries when considering the human and financial resources devoted to scientific research.

  13. Measles control in developing and developed countries: the case for a two-dose policy.

    PubMed

    Tulchinsky, T H; Ginsberg, G M; Abed, Y; Angeles, M T; Akukwe, C; Bonn, J

    1993-01-01

    Despite major reductions in the incidence of measles and its complications, measles control with a single dose of the currently used. Schwarz strain vaccine has failed to eradicate the disease in the developed countries. In developing countries an enormous toll of measles deaths and disability continues, despite considerable efforts and increasing immunization coverage. Empirical evidence from a number of countries suggests that a two-dose measles vaccination programme, by improving individual protection and heard immunity can make a major contribution to measles control and elimination of local circulation of the disease. Cost-benefit analysis also supports the two-dose schedule in terms of savings in health costs, and total costs to society. A two-dose measles vaccination programme is therefore an essential component of preventive health care in developing, as well as developed countries for the 1990s.

  14. Poverty and Child Development: Relevance of Research in Developing Countries to the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, Ernesto

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that research from developing countries may help in understanding effects of poverty on child development in the United States, citing three cases: (1) the link between anemia and decreased levels of mental and motor development; (2) the positive effects of supplemental nutrition programs on child development; and (3) effects of poor…

  15. The impact of telecommunication on rural areas in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermans, P. A. M.; Kwaks, A. M. J.; Bruza, I. V.; Dijk, J.

    1987-12-01

    The economic and social impact of telecommunication in developing countries was studied. The economic impact not only depends on the direct returns of the investment, like tariffs, through the improved communication facilities, other sectors can indirectly profit from the investments too. Especially, in areas with a very low telephone density, the indirect returns of a telecommunication investment are enormous. Technical possibilities for building up transmission links in a rural network include coaxial cables, glass fibers, radio transmission, and satellite communication. In thinly populated rural areas, satellite communication with a single channel per carrier (SCPC) system is a good solution. With a SCPC system few groundstations can be used. These stations are easy to maintain, and use little power. As soon as a satellite channel and two groundstations are operational, transmission is possible, so a SCPC system can be implemented quickly.

  16. Constrained recycling: a framework to reduce landfilling in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ricardo; Otoma, Suehiro

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model that integrates three branches of research: (i) economics of solid waste that assesses consumer's willingness to recycle and to pay for disposal; (ii) economics of solid waste that compares private and social costs of final disposal and recycling; and (iii) theories on personal attitudes and social influence. The model identifies two arenas where decisions are made: upstream arena, where residents are decision-makers, and downstream arena, where municipal authorities are decision-makers, and graphically proposes interactions between disposal and recycling, as well as the concept of 'constrained recycling' (an alternative to optimal recycling) to guide policy design. It finally concludes that formative instruments, such as environmental education and benchmarks, should be combined with economic instruments, such as subsidies, to move constraints on source separation and recycling in the context of developing countries.

  17. Widening Expertise in Space Science in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmore, P.

    For some time, COSPAR has been planning a programme of capacity-building workshops to be held in developing countries with the intention of widening expertise in space science and promoting the use of data archives from space missions. The first of these was held at Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), São José dos Campos, Brazil from 4-13th December 2001. The next two will be held at the Udaipur Solar Observatory, Udaipur, India and in Beijing, China, respectively, during 2003. The workshops are innovative in character, and their objectives and their concepts will be described, as well as the experience gained from the first workshop in Brazil.

  18. Assessing the nutritional vulnerability of older people in developing countries.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The nutrition of older people in developing countries, and the effect of their nutritional status on the quality of life, have not received sufficient attention. A 1997 symposium held at the London (England) School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine addressed the assessment of nutritional vulnerability in older people in rural and urban settings. Reported were the results of a collaborative study conducted in the urban slums of Mumbai, India; a refugee camp for Rwandans in Karagwe, Tanzania; and rural communities in Malawi. Physical impairment was highest in India and increased with both age and deteriorating nutritional status in all three settings. Among the risk factors for nutritional vulnerability identified through the study to date are living alone, social isolation, reduced food intake, illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, and certain diseases. A field handbook to assess nutritional vulnerability has been prepared based on the research program and will be published in 1988. PMID:12293175

  19. Working across cultures: a model for practice in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Parfitt, B

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the influence that cultural values have on the practice of nurses working in developing countries in primary health care. This was achieved through the exploration of their common experiences of practice using an ethnographic approach with ethnosemantic analysis as the research tool. Western expatriate nurses represent a dominant Western culture and so carry with them the values and beliefs of the West into their practice, thus potentially creating greater dependence rather than supporting the primary health care principles exhorted through Alma Ata of self reliance and community participation. The study showed that the effect is determined by the values that influence practice. These values are either modified by the expatriate nurses to create an enabling environment or there is a failure to modify their values so promoting dependence through a 'helping' or 'aid giving' approach.

  20. Undergraduate and Graduate Programs in Astronomy for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.

    2006-08-01

    This presentation will discuss some aspects of the design of undergraduate and graduate astronomy curricula, broadly defined, for developing countries. A fundamental requirement is to develop students' ability and desire to learn, both in university and beyond. I will then discuss several aspects of the curriculum: (i) The program of coursework in astronomy and related topics such as physics and mathematics; (ii) The associated practical and project work to develop skills as well as knowledge; (iii) Linking the coursework, effectively, to various aspects of research; (iv) Development of general academic and professional skills such as oral and written communication, teaching, planning and management, and the ability to function as part of an interdisciplinary team; and (v) Orientation to the culture of the university and to the science and the profession of astronomy. To accomplish all of these goals may seem daunting, especially as many of them are not achieved in the most affluent universities. But much can be achieved by recognizing that there are well-established "best practices" in education, achieved through research, reflection, and experience. Simple resources, effectively used, can be superior to the highest technology, used without careful thought. It is often best to do a few things well; "less can be more". And effective partnership, both within the local university and with the outside astronomical community, can also contribute to success.

  1. Policy instruments for pollution control in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Eskeland, G S; Jimenez, E

    1992-07-01

    Economic development in developing countries must be accomplished in a manner that does not harm the environment with pollution. Pollution harms human health and productivity. Thus appropriate strategies must be developed that promote growth, reduce poverty, and protect the environment. A review of the current literature is performed with attention paid to cost-effective interventions i.e., comparisons of regulatory and fiscal instruments that can reduce pollution. Both direct instruments (like effluent charges, tradable permits, deposit refund systems, emission regulations and regulatory agency funding for purification, cleanup, waste disposal, and enforcement) and indirect instruments (like input/output taxes and subsidies, substitution subsidies, abatement inputs, regulation of equipment and processes, and development of clean technologies) are examined. Examples are used to show how indirect instruments can be successful when monitoring and enforcement is too costly. A careful examination of distributive concerns illustrate how the effect on the poor may need particular consideration and how groups with vested interests can help evaluate the probable success of such interventions. PMID:12317607

  2. Pediatric disaster response in developed countries: ten guiding principles.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Mark A; Arneson, Wendy L

    2007-01-01

    Mass casualty incidents and large-scale disasters involving children are likely to overwhelm a regional disaster response system. Children have unique vulnerabilities that require special considerations when developing pediatric response systems. Although medical and trauma strategies exist for the evaluation and treatment of children on a daily basis, the application of these strategies under conditions of resource-constrained triage and treatment have rarely been evaluated. A recent report, however, by the Institute of Medicine did conclude that on a day-to-day basis the U.S. healthcare system does not adequately provide emergency medical services for children. The variability, scale, and uncertainty of disasters call for a set of guiding principles rather than rigid protocols when developing pediatric response plans. The authors propose the following guiding principles in addressing the well-recognized, unique vulnerabilities of children: (1) terrorism prevention and preparedness, (2) all-hazards preparedness, (3) postdisaster disease and injury prevention, (4) nutrition and hydration, (5) equipment and supplies, (6) pharmacology, (7) mental health, (8) identification and reunification of displaced children, (9) day care and school, and (10) perinatology. It is hoped that the 10 guiding principles discussed in this article will serve as a basic framework for developing pediatric response plans and teams in developed countries. PMID:18274048

  3. Health care data recording system for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Brolly, E H

    1982-07-01

    Developed countries have an established pattern for recording clinical data. The unit medical record allows statistics to be extrapolated, as well as disease patterns, births, and causes of deaths. In technologically advanced countries, medical records serve the health needs of clinic and hospital patients. However, it is now becoming clear that the emphasis on hospitalization in patient care is no longer appropriate; the emphasis must be switched from curative services to preventive and basic curative services at the primary health care level. A similar alteration will be necessary in the recordkeeping system. As progress towards literacy occurs, the aim will be to expand and improve the recording of basic data. In the next highest level, the district health center, records can be very simple. Increasing sophistication can be instituted at the higher levels of district hospital and central referral hospital. Obviously there must be adequate medical records to directly support clinical care. This paper goes on to outline the structure of such a system geared to the needs of a developing country. It is basically a model for a pilot project. The various problems which might arise before the system is implemented and can be viable include: 1) precise identification of medical records, 2) the need for standardization and definition of diagnoses, and 3) lack of coordination and/or inappropriate utilization of medical records, procedures, or personnel. Concerning procedures, there could be problems with incorrect data production, erroneous channelling of information, or improper feedback. At the lowest level of the chain would be the rural or urban health unit or the mobile health visitor with the primary health worker (PHW). Forms to be used include an attendance card, an infant weight chart, temperature chart, and referral form. The PHW must be appropriately trained in the recognition of signs and symptoms of diseases most likely to be encountered, basic drug therapy

  4. Factors determining the viability of radiation processing in developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Linde, HJ; Basson, RA

    In the fifteen years since the introduction of radiation processing to South Africa, four commercial irradiation facilities have been established. These are involved in the processing of a large variety of products, from syringes and prostheses to strawberries and sugar yeast. Three of the facilities are devoted mainly to food irradiation and several thousand tonnes are now processed annually. During this period it was repeatedly experienced that the successful introduction of radiation processing in general, and food radurization in particular, on a commercial scale was critically dependent on the following factors: acceptance by the producer, industry and consumer; initial capital expenditure; running costs and overheads in general; and continous throughput. All of these factors contribute to the processing cost which is the ultimate factor in determing the value/price ratio for the potential entrepreneur and customer of this new technology. After a market survey had identified the need for a new food irradiation facility to cope with the growing interest in commercial food radurization in the Western Cape, the above-mentioned factors were of cardinal importance in the design and manufacture of a new irradiator. The resulting batch-pallet facility which was commisioned in August 1986, is rather inefficient as far as energy utilization is concerned but this shortcoming is compensated for by its low cost, versatility and low hold-up. Although the facility has limitations as far as the processing of really large volumes of produce is concerned, it is particularly suitable not only for developing countries, but for developed countries in the introductory phase of commercial food radurization.

  5. Obstetric mortality and its causes in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Barns, T

    1991-04-01

    Discusses dual concerns of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG): that a widening gap between obstetric standards in Britain and those in the developing world exists and that the RCOG is unable to meet the needs of Third World doctors who come to the RCOG for postgraduate study. A meeting sponsored by Birthright and held at the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG) in June 1989 which explored aspects of Third World obstetric care reflects these concerns. The proceedings of the meeting have been published and verbatim recordings of the discussions are available on tape from the RCOG. Reports on maternal mortality/morbidity in the Third World indicate persistence of poor obstetrical practices and of common obstetrical complications. Suggestions for improvement include the redeployment of and the replanning of services within countries and an increase in health education for women. Access to care at the first referral institution level is seen as the key to the improvement of care. Problems of transport and communication create serious obstacles to the link between community care and the first referral institution. The goal of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to cut the Third World maternal mortality in half by the year 2000. To reach this goal WHO plans to field obstetric teams in Latin America, Africa and South Asia; to train nurse-midwives to perform life saving measures on their own initiative; and to employ community resources by training indigenous midwives to function as extensions of the health team. The RCOG will sponsor training designed for doctors who will work in developing countries.

  6. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies.

  7. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  8. Developing countries and neglected diseases: challenges and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Boutayeb, Abdesslam

    2007-01-01

    It is now commonly admitted that the so-called (most) neglected tropical diseases have been given little attention. According to World Health Organization, neglected diseases are hidden diseases as they affect almost exclusively extremely poor populations living in remote areas beyond the reach of health service. The European Parliament recognised that, to our shame, Neglected Diseases have not received the attention they deserve from EU actions. In the Millennium Development Goals they were given very little attention and mentioned just as other disease. Investing in drugs for these diseases is thought to be not marketable or profitable. However, despite their low mortality, neglected diseases are causing severe and permanent disabilities and deformities affecting approximately 1 billion people in the world, yielding more than 20 millions of Disability Adjusted Life Years (56.6 million according to Lancet's revised estimates) and important socio-economic losses. Urgent pragmatic and efficient measures are needed both at international and national levels. PMID:18036265

  9. Hepatitis B vaccine in developing countries: problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Ayoola, E A

    1984-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccines are highly immunogenic. To determine the efficacy of low doses and of the intradermal route of vaccination, 197 Nigerian children were given 3 monthly doses of Hevac B. Of these, 96 had 2 micrograms subcutaneously and 101 had 2 micrograms intradermally. One month after completing the schedule, 82.3% and 74.3% of the respective groups had become anti-HBs positive without adverse side-effects. In the second part of the study, 50 chronic HBsAg carriers were vaccinated. Compared to placebo-treated carriers, no effect was demonstrated with regard to HBsAg clearance or anti-HBs production. Immune complexes were not attributable to Hevac B. No untoward effects were noted. Booster vaccination of 50 initial non-responders resulted in the development of significant levels of anti-HBs in 20 (40%) of the recipients. None of the 'non-responders' developed clinical or virological evidence of HBV infection. It is concluded that low-dose vaccination is effective and that the intradermal route may be useful in developing countries.

  10. Integrated Water Supply and Land Resource Management in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakeman, A. J.; Croke, B. F.; Croke, B. F.; Dietrich, C. R.; Letcher, R. A.; Merritt, W.; Perez, P.

    2001-05-01

    Intensification of agricultural development has led to water supply conflicts and exacerbation of environmental problems in many developing countries. In Thailand, for example, issues of water access between upstream and downstream users and on-site erosion and off-site water quality are common in the Northern Highlands. The authors report on a framework which has been developed to assist improved land use planning and water allocation. It can be used to assess the water supply, environmental and socioeconomic impacts of land use, climate and government policy. This framework utilises the integration of catchment supply models, crop, water allocation and erosion models, as well as models of household decision making. For the Mae Chaem catchment in Thailand, the authors present details of the particular method of integration of these models and results for the individual model components. The effects of changes in land use and climate variations on the distribution of water supply, crop yields and erosion illustrate the types of tradeoffs that have to be made. Crucial to the effectiveness of such integrated tools is an understanding of the reliability of the integrated model's predictions of different outcomes. The authors present a relevant framework for analysing model uncertainty in order to appreciate the degree to which one can confidently differentiate among different model outcomes resulting from different land use changes.

  11. Deforestation, soil degradation, and wood energy in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate studies address the major issues of deforestation in developing countries, namely, Does deforestation seriously impair the soil-plant system. and How can a steady supply of wood fuels be guaranteed with diminishing natural forest. In Chapter 1, twenty-six cross-sectional and time series studies of soil properties in the US and ten countries between the tropics were examined to determine the changes associated with deforestation in soil organic C, total N, exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K, cation exchange capacity, available P, bulk density, and pH. Deforestation was associated with significant changes in these soil properties. Only bulk density and avaiable P showed any tendency to return to pre-clearing levels. Differences in soil response to deforestation according to climate and age of parent material were related to temperature, rainfall, vegetation, soil acidity, and organic matter production and decomposition on each site. In Chapter 2, a multiobjective linear program (MOP) decides where plantations should be located, what the harvest rotation should be, what mix of fuelwood and charcoal should be produced, and which villages should be supplied by each plantation given a known future pattern of demand. In the MOP the costs of labor expended in plantations are balanced against the unpriced labor expended by villagers to collect fuelwood. The results indicate that transition from natural forests to plantations would be very expensive in terms of labor and land required. The greater the value imputed to labor spent transporting fuel, the higher the total costs of the policy, but the distribution of wood resources between urban and rural areas is more equitable.

  12. How Business Cycles Affect the Healthcare Sector: A Cross-country Investigation.

    PubMed

    Cleeren, Kathleen; Lamey, Lien; Meyer, Jan-Hinrich; De Ruyter, Ko

    2016-07-01

    The long-term relationship between the general economy and healthcare expenditures has been extensively researched, to explain differences in healthcare spending between countries, but the midterm (i.e., business cycle) perspective has been overlooked. This study explores business cycle sensitivity in both public and private parts of the healthcare sector across 32 countries. Responses to the business cycle vary notably, both across spending sources and across countries. Whereas in some countries, consumers and/or governments cut back, in others, private and/or public healthcare buyers tend to spend more. We also assess long-term consequences of business cycle sensitivity and show that public cost cutting during economic downturns deflates the mortality rates, whereas private cut backs increase the long-term growth in total healthcare expenditures. Finally, multiple factors help explain variability in cyclical sensitivity. Private cost cuts during economic downturns are smaller in countries with a predominantly publicly funded healthcare system and more preventive public activities. Public cut backs during contractions are smaller in countries that rely more on tax-based resources rather than social health insurances. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. The environmental implications of intensified land use in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Tinker, P. B.

    1997-01-01

    The major agricultural intensifications in the developed world over the last half century have produced a range of important environmental problems. These include pollution, damage to wildlife and landscape and other issues, both on- and off-site. These are largely being controlled by scientific investigation and Government regulation. As developing countries increase agricultural production over the next 30 years, this may also cause even more serious environmental damage.
    The paper distinguishes between production-related on-site damage, and off-site and more extensive effects. Both may involve soil and water effects, such as soil erosion, salinization, siltation, eutrophication and loss of water quality. The use of more agrochemicals can damage water quality, health, wildlife and biodiversity. Loss of habitat from the extension of farming is particularly damaging to biodiversity. A developing off-site problem is the production of greenhouse gases by farming systems, including the conversion of forests to farmland. In the future the introduction of genetically engineered species of plants, animals or microbes will need secure control.
    Work, probably on a catchment basis, is necessary to understand and control these problems. The three main requirements are much better environmental information from the developing world; the selection of environmental indicators to be monitored; and the support of local farmers in protecting the environment. There are encouraging indications of farmer concern and action over obvious on-site damage, but this may not extend to extensive off-site issues. The main danger is that developing food scarcity would cause the environmental issues to be ignored in a race for production.

  14. Iron deficiency anemia: focus on infectious diseases in lesser developed countries.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julia G; Friedman, Jennifer F

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is thought to affect the health of more than one billion people worldwide, with the greatest burden of disease experienced in lesser developed countries, particularly women of reproductive age and children. This greater disease burden is due to both nutritional and infectious etiologies. Individuals in lesser developed countries have diets that are much lower in iron, less access to multivitamins for young children and pregnant women, and increased rates of fertility which increase demands for iron through the life course. Infectious diseases, particularly parasitic diseases, also lead to both extracorporeal iron loss and anemia of inflammation, which decreases bioavailability of iron to host tissues. This paper will address the unique etiologies and consequences of both iron deficiency anemia and the alterations in iron absorption and distribution seen in the context of anemia of inflammation. Implications for diagnosis and treatment in this unique context will also be discussed.

  15. Nutrition intervention strategies to combat zinc deficiency in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R S; Ferguson, E L

    1998-06-01

    Widespread zinc deficiency is likely to exist in developing countries where staple diets are predominantly plant based and intakes of animal tissues are low. The severe negative consequences of zinc deficiency on human health in developing countries, however, have only recently been recognized. An integrated approach employing targeted supplementation, fortification and dietary strategies must be used to maximize the likelihood of eliminating zinc deficiency at a national level in developing countries. Supplementation is appropriate only for populations whose zinc status must be improved over a relatively short time period, and when requirements cannot be met from habitual dietary sources. As well, the health system must be capable of providing consistent supply, distribution, delivery and consumption of the zinc supplement to the targeted groups. Uncertainties still exist about the type, frequency, and level of supplemental zinc required for prevention and treatment of zinc deficiency. Salts that are readily absorbed and at levels that will not induce antagonistic nutrient interactions must be used. At a national level, fortification with multiple micronutrients could be a cost effective method for improving micronutrient status, including zinc, provided that a suitable food vehicle which is centrally processed is available. Alternatively, fortification could be targeted for certain high risk groups (e.g. complementary foods for infants). Efforts should be made to develop protected fortificants for zinc, so that potent inhibitors of zinc absorption (e.g. phytate) present either in the food vehicle and/or indigenous meals do not compromise zinc absorption. Fortification does not require any changes in the existing food beliefs and practices for the consumer and, unlike supplementation, does not impose a burden on the health sector. A quality assurance programme is required, however, to ensure the quality of the fortified food product from production to consumption

  16. Supplement to energy for rural development: Renewable resources and alternative technologies for developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The publication energy for rural development: renewable resources and alternative technologies for developing countries, which presented information on a variety of subjects, including direct uses of solar energy (heating, cooling, distillation, crop drying, photovoltaics), indirect uses of solar energy (wind power, hydropower, photosynthesis, biomass), geothermal energy, and energy storage is reviewed. New technologies developed and advances made in technologies are discussed.

  17. Exploring English-Language Teachers' Professional Development in Developing Countries: Cases from Syria and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayoub, Ruba; Bashiruddin, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the findings of a study carried out in Pakistan that explored English-language teachers' professional development in developing countries. The main guiding question for the study was: How do English-language teachers at secondary schools learn to teach and develop professionally in Syria and Pakistan? Two cases were…

  18. Healthy city projects in developing countries: the first evaluation.

    PubMed

    Harpham, T; Burton, S; Blue, I

    2001-06-01

    The 'healthy city' concept has only recently been adopted in developing countries. From 1995 to 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, supported healthy city projects (HCPs) in Cox's Bazar (Bangladesh), Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), Fayoum (Egypt), Managua (Nicaragua) and Quetta (Pakistan). The authors evaluated four of these projects, representing the first major evaluation of HCPs in developing countries. Methods used were stakeholder analysis, workshops, document analysis and interviews with 102 managers/implementers and 103 intended beneficiaries. Municipal health plan development (one of the main components of the healthy city strategy) in these cities was limited, which is a similar finding to evaluations of HCPs in Europe. The main activities selected by the projects were awareness raising and environmental improvements, particularly solid waste disposal. Two of the cities effectively used the 'settings' approach of the healthy city concept, whereby places such as markets and schools are targeted. The evaluation found that stakeholder involvement varied in relation to: (i) the level of knowledge of the project; (ii) the project office location; (iii) the project management structure; and (iv) type of activities (ranging from low stakeholder involvement in capital-intensive infrastructure projects, to high in some settings-type activities). There was evidence to suggest that understanding of environment-health links was increased across stakeholders. There was limited political commitment to the healthy city projects, perhaps due to the fact that most of the municipalities had not requested the projects. Consequently, the projects had little influence on written/expressed municipal policies. Some of the projects mobilized considerable resources, and most projects achieved effective intersectoral collaboration. WHO support enabled the project coordinators to network at national and international levels, and the capacity of these individuals (although

  19. [Social and cultural obstacles to AIDS prevention in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Temmerman, M; Marres, D

    1995-01-01

    In countries where the transmission of HIV is predominantly heterosexual, both men and women are equally affected, including a considerable proportion of women of reproductive age. In various African capitals HIV seroprevalence of 30% was ascertained among pregnant women. Many within Christian Churches have considered AIDS as a punishment of God for sinful behavior and promiscuity. In eastern Africa HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases have been characterized as the disease of women because they were blamed for bringing the disease into the home. Among socioeconomic and cultural factors that play a role in the spread of AIDS are underdevelopment, low level of education (especially among women and girls), and a poorly functioning health care system. Some women are forced by the need to survive into prostitution and do not use condoms because of unavailability or the partner's refusal. Also migration by men to cities in search of work, leaving behind their families, leads to promiscuity and the abandonment of social controls and traditional norms. Fertility is of major importance for Africans. A woman who does not get pregnant has to resort to traditional medicine or try another man. Sexuality in Africa is not in the center of their value system, nor is chastity highly valued. In most of Africa cohabitation is much more tolerated than in the Western world. With different partners the risk of STDs and contracting HIV is high. African women have more sexual freedom than women in the West, and extramarital sex is the best way of making money for many married women. In addition, young women frequently have sex with older men who have had many partners. Polygamy for men is accepted socially, so is wife inheritance. Commercial sex is also available, and even college students engage in it for getting money for school.

  20. Environmental Enteropathy: Elusive but Significant Subclinical Abnormalities in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koji; Petri, William A

    2016-08-01

    Environmental enteropathy/Environmental enteric dysfunction (EE/EED) is a chronic disease of small intestine characterized by gut inflammation and barrier disruption, malabsorption and systemic inflammation in the absence of diarrhea. It is predominantly diseases of children in low income countries and is hypothesized to be caused by continuous exposure to fecally contaminated food, water and fomites. It had not been recognized as a priority health issue because it does not cause overt symptoms and was seen in apparently healthy individuals. However, there is a growing concern of EE/EED because of its impact on longitudinal public health issues, such as growth faltering, oral vaccine low efficacy and poor neurocognitive development. Recent works have provided important clues to unravel its complex pathogenesis, and suggest possible strategies for controlling EE/EED. However, effective diagnostic methods and interventions remain unsettled. Here, we review the existing literature, especially about its pathogenesis, and discuss a solution for children living in the developing world. PMID:27495791