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Sample records for affects economic growth

  1. Slower Economic Growth Affects the 1995 Labor Market.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Jennifer M.; Hayghe, Howard V.

    1996-01-01

    Shows how job growth slowed dramatically in 1995, but the unemployment rate remained little changed. Discusses trends in nonfarm payroll employment by industry and changes in employment status of people in various demographic and occupational groups. (Author)

  2. Population growth and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  3. Sociological explanations of economic growth.

    PubMed

    Marsh, R M

    1988-01-01

    Even if questions of how resources are distributed within and between societies are the main concern, it is necessary to continue to grapple with the issue of the causes of economic growth since economic growth and level of development continue to be among the most important causes of inequality, poverty, unemployment, and the quality of life. This paper's dependent variable is the economic growth rate of 55 less developed countries (LDCs) over 2 time periods. 1970-78 and 1965-84. The causal model consists of control variables--level of development and domestic investment in 1965--and a variety of independent variables drawn from major sociological theories of economic growth published during the last 3 decades. Multiple regression analysis shows that, net of the effects of the 2 control variables, the variables which have the strongest effect on economic growth are: 1) direct foreign investment, which has a negative effect, 2) the proportion of the population in military service, and 3) the primary school enrollment ratio, both of which have positive effects on economic growth. On the other hand, variables drawn from some theories receive no empirical support. The mass media of communications, ethnolinguistic heterogeneity, democracy and human rights, income inequality, and state-centric theory's key variable, state strength, all fail to show any significant impact on economic growth rates when the control variables and the significant independent variables are held constant. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:12282217

  4. [Economic Growth and Development].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Recent efforts of the World Bank to improve global economic problems are described, issues which will influence the role of the World Bank in the decade to come are discussed, and the Bank's future role is examined. Recent World Bank efforts to help developing nations include a lending program, project investments, analytical and advisory work,…

  5. Economic Growth and Landscape Change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prato, Tony; Fagre, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Sustaining Rocky Mountain Landscapes provides a scientific basis for communities to develop policies for managing the growth and economic transformation of the CCE without sacrificing the quality of life and environment for which the land is renowned. This forthcoming edited volume focuses on five aspects of sustaining mountain landscapes in the CCE and similar regions in the Rocky Mountains. The five aspects are: 1) how social, economic, demographic and environmental forces are transforming ecosystem structure and function, 2) trends in use and conditions for human and environmental resources, 3) activating science, policy and education to enhance sustainable landscape management, 4) challenges to sustainable management of public and private lands, and 5) future prospects for achieving sustainable landscapes.

  6. Economic Choices. Political Decisions that Affect You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsche, Joellen M.; And Others

    The purpose of this book is to help students understand why the U.S. Government is involved in the economy, the underlying social values that government tries to promote, and how U.S. economic decisions affect the global economy. It was designed to give them the background they need to form their own opinions about the role of government in the…

  7. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  8. Linking Investment in Education to Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Brian H.

    The relationship between investment in education and economic growth in Alberta, Canada, is explored in this paper, which examines the value of education to the individual in terms of rate of employment and salary. Assuming earning differentials to be a measure of the contribution of education to economic growth, the lifetime earnings of high…

  9. Natural Hazards, Poverty Traps versus Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netti, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    Governments, even in developed countries, devote too scarce resources to coping (ex-ante) with natural hazards; as a consequence of this short-sightedness, (ex-post) direct and indirect effects of catastrophic events deeply compromise the economic growth. Protective measures against natural hazards mean complex choices involving the opinions of multidisciplinary groups of experts in the fields of ecology, civic and geotechnical engineering, geology, meteorology, law and economics. Moreover, tools and choices affect different stakeholders: politicians, producers, consumers, taxpayers and voters. Complementarity between informed rationality and democracy need to be recognized and guaranteed as too often the perceptions of the majority of the stakeholders involved about natural hazards are not consistent with any objective information about the catastrophic event. The interaction between strict budget constraints, extremely high degrees of uncertainty, risk-aversion and credit rationing, trade-off between democracy and rationality, are the main causes of potential 'poverty traps'. First of all we believe that the 'reconstruction output' to be included in GDP as an ex-post effect of a natural hazard is a forced investment much more effective in crowding-out other consumption and investment and less effective for growth than investments aiming at increasing, ex-ante, the resiliency of the economy. Keynes' 'Animal Spirits' are embedded in positive expectation for future gains especially if not concentrated in reconstruction procurement sectors but spread across different sectors of the economy. The increased demand for reconstruction goods and services may act in both directions depending on the phase of the business cycles in which the economy is. Risk premiums for risk-averter investors increase in consequence of a natural hazard event; this restrict budget constraints and strengthen credit rationing. A mere replacement effect of the destroyed capital by a more

  10. Traffic fatalities and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Kopits, Elizabeth; Cropper, Maureen

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between traffic fatality risk and per capita income and uses it to forecast traffic fatalities by geographic region. Equations for the road death rate (fatalities/population) and its components--the rate of motorization (vehicles/population) and fatalities per vehicle (F/V)--are estimated using panel data from 1963 to 1999 for 88 countries. The natural logarithm of F/P, V/P, and F/V are expressed as spline (piecewise linear) functions of the logarithm of real per capita GDP (measured in 1985 international prices). Region-specific time trends during the period 1963-1999 are modeled in linear and log-linear form. These models are used to project traffic fatalities and the stock of motor vehicles to 2020. The per capita income at which traffic fatality risk (fatalities/population) begins to decline is 8600 US dollars (1985 international dollars) when separate time trends are used for each geographic region. This turning point is driven by the rate of decline in fatalities/vehicles as income rises since vehicles/population, while increasing with income at a decreasing rate, never declines with economic growth. Projections of future traffic fatalities suggest that the global road death toll will grow by approximately 66% over the next twenty years. This number, however, reflects divergent rates of change in different parts of the world: a decline in fatalities in high-income countries of approximately 28% versus an increase in fatalities of almost 92% in China and 147% in India. The road death rate is projected to rise to approximately 2 per 10,000 persons in developing countries by 2020, while it will fall to less than 1 per 10,000 in high-income countries. PMID:15607288

  11. EDUCATIONAL PLANNING FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KOULOURIANOS, DIMITRI TH.

    THE PARTICULAR CHARACTERISTICS OF EDUCATION AS AN ECONOMIC GOOD ARE EXAMINED. THE LITERATURE ON THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF EDUCATION, THE DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO EDUCATIONAL PLANNING, AND THE MATHEMATICAL MODELS PROPOSED FOR THIS PURPOSE ARE ANALYZED. THESE APPROACHES ARE SYNTHESIZED TO OBTAIN A COMPREHENSIVE ESTIMATE OF THE DEMAND FOR EDUCATION. THE…

  12. Technology, enterprise, and American economic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.D.

    1982-03-05

    America may have once led the world in economic development based on technology, but US firms are no longer matching foreign competitors in either the domestic or world markets. Mr. Lewis feels that much of the US supremacy was a post-war phenomenon due to European refugee scientists. Economic and technological strength are more fundamental than deregulation, low expenditures for research and development, lack of capital and long-range planning, and other arguments that, if reversed, would revitalize American industry. The author reviews the relationship of technology and economic growth, pointing out that Japanese industry has faced many of the same problems with different behavior patterns. The variations in behavior due to differences in social values, priorities, and attitudes affect individual performance and response to innovation. Inflation increases the pressure for short-term gains and encourages analytical management. Mr. Lewis thinks that, for international competition to move Americans to develop a sense of common interest between labor and management and producer and consumer, industry must lead the effort to unmask the adversarial barriers to mutual trust. 52 references, 1 figure, 3 tables. (DCK)

  13. [Debt, regulations and economic growth in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Vélez-Fernández Varela, F

    1989-01-01

    In the Mexican economy four policies forced the State to redefine its strategy of development. They were: 1) the considerable purchase by the government of firms that were not strategic or of national priority; 2) the preservation of a structure of high industrial protection; 3) an excessive reliance of the economy on oil, and 4) the perception of the increase in the price of oil as a permanent and not a temporary phenomenon. By the seventies the first two phenomena restricted the possibilities of economic growth which translated into inflation. In the eighties the high dependency on oil and the weakness of its monetary value deepened those trends. The external debt became the single most significant constraint of development. The government was forced to reduce drastically substantive public expenditure. Health was one of the areas more severely affected. PMID:2662429

  14. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  15. Variables Affecting Economic Development of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Tegen, S.

    2008-07-01

    NREL's JEDI Wind model performed an analysis of wind-power-related economic development drivers. Economic development benefits for wind and coal were estimated using NREL's JEDI Wind and JEDI Coal models.

  16. Does Introductory Economic Course Venue Affect Economic Understanding?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baehler, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the level of a student's performance based on incoming knowledge in an intermediate macroeconomic and microeconomic course at a major mid-western university. Analysis of student understanding of specific economic concepts was accessed through the Test of Understanding College Economics, 4th Edition (TUCE) (Walstad,Watts &…

  17. Role of vaccination in economic growth

    PubMed Central

    Quilici, Sibilia; Smith, Richard; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The health of a population is important from a public health and economic perspective as healthy individuals contribute to economic growth. Vaccination has the potential to contribute substantially to improving population health and thereby economic growth. Childhood vaccination programmes in Europe can offer protection against 15 important infectious diseases, thus preventing child fatalities and any serious temporary and permanent sequelae that can occur. Healthy children are more able to participate in education, thus preparing them to become healthy and productive adults. Vaccination programmes can also prevent infectious diseases in adolescents, thus allowing them to continue their development towards a healthy adulthood. Protecting adults against infectious diseases ensures that they can fully contribute to productivity and economic development by avoiding sick leave and lower productivity. Vaccination in older adults will contribute to the promotion of healthy ageing, enabling them to assist their familiy with, for instance, childcare, and also help them avoid functional decline and the related impacts on health and welfare expenditure. Effective vaccination programmes for all ages in Europe will thus contribute to the European Union's 2020 health and economic strategies. Indeed, beyond their impact on healthcare resources and productivity, reductions in mortality and morbidity also contribute to increased consumption and gross domestic product. Therefore, assessment of the value of vaccines and vaccination needs to consider not just the direct impact on health and healthcare but also the wider impact on economic growth, which requires a macroeconomic analysis of vaccination programmes. PMID:27123174

  18. Human Capital Composition and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Chun-Li; Hung, Ming-Cheng; Harriott, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of various compositions of human capital on economic growth. We construct alternative measures of human capital composition using five fields of study. In each instance, the measure represents the number of graduates in the respective field as a percentage of all graduates. The measures are as…

  19. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  20. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, a prototype Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) modeling system. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (...

  1. EDUCATION AS A FACTOR IN ECONOMIC GROWTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MACKERTICH, ALEX

    THE VALUE OF AN EDUCATION IN THE ECONOMIC GROWTH OF AN UNDERDEVELOPED COUNTRY (INDIA) WAS INVESTIGATED USING THE CASE STUDY APPROACH. DATA WERE GATHERED AT BOTH THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT AND VILLAGE LEVELS THROUGH INTERVIEWS WITH INDIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS AND FROM OFFICIAL GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS CONCERNING THE NATION'S EDUCATIONAL EFFORTS, AS…

  2. Student Achievement and National Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Francisco O.; Luo, Xiaowei; Schofer, Evan; Meyer, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Educational policy around the world has increasingly focused on improving aggregate student achievement as a means to increase economic growth. In the last two decades, attention has focused especially on the importance of achievement in science and mathematics. Yet, the policy commitments involved have not been based on research evidence. The…

  3. Three essays on energy and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peach, Nathanael David

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation explores the relationship between energy and economic growth. Chapter Two, Three, and Four examine the interaction of energy-related measures and economic outcomes by applying different methodologies across various spatial dimensions. Chapter Two shows that increases in energy consumption are necessary for increases in state level economic growth to occur. Chapter Three estimates a simultaneous supply and demand energy market at the state level. This system allows for estimates of structural elasticities to be obtained. Findings indicate that energy supply is considerably more elastic than energy demand. Energy demand is found to be determined by responses to short run shocks rather than long run processes. Chapter Four estimates the impact of changes in various elements of governance and institutional quality impact genuine investment within an economy. Increases in democracy are predicted to decrease genuine investment in energy-rich nations. The dissertation concludes with Chapter Five.

  4. Global warming, energy use, and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanna, Neha

    The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by

  5. How Economic Segregation Affects Childrens' Educational Attainment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan

    Economic segregation increased in the United States between 1970 and 1990. Three hypotheses suggest that this would affect low-income children's educational attainment. The political economy of school funding predicts that economically segregated school districts reduce the educational attainment of low-income children. Two other hypotheses…

  6. Sustainable energy, economic growth and public health.

    PubMed

    Haines, A

    2001-01-01

    Dramatic economic growth over the last 50 years has been accompanied by widening inequalities world-wide in wealth and energy consumption, diminished life expectancy in some countries, and deteriorating indices of environmental sustainability including loss of bio-diversity. Raised output of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases due to increased economic and industrial activity is causing progressive climate change, leading in turn to direct and indirect adverse effects on health. Emissions of greenhouse gases can be lowered by increased use of renewable energy sources, for example, wind power in the United Kingdom (UK), greater energy efficiency and other measures to promote sustainability. The experience of some developing countries shows that favourable indicators of health and development can accompany a low output of greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether contemporary political and social systems can deliver improved human development without increased use of fossil fuels and other resources. PMID:11339344

  7. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  8. Adoption of multivariate copulae in prognostication of economic growth by means of interest rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saputra, Dewi Tanasia; Indratno, Sapto Wahyu, Dr.

    2015-12-01

    Inflation, at a healthy rate, is a sign of growing economy. Nonetheless, when inflation rate grows uncontrollably, it will negatively influence economic growth. Many tackle this problem by increasing interest rate to help protecting the value of money which is detained by inflation. There are few, however, who study the effects of interest rate in economic growth. The main purposes of this paper are to find how the change of interest rate affects economic growth and to use the relationship in prognostication of economic growth. By using expenditure model, a linear relationship between economic growth and interest rate is developed. The result is then used for prediction by normal copula and Vine Archimedean copula. It is shown that increasing interest rate to tackle inflation is a poor solution. Whereas implementation of copula in predicting economic growth yields an accurate result, with not more than 0.5% difference.

  9. The Analysis of the Relation between Education and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteils, Marielle

    2004-01-01

    The debate concerning the various determinants of economic growth has attracted considerable attention. The argument according to which endogenous growth models explain long-term economic growth is often put forward. Particularly, it is held that the production of knowledge by education induces self-sustained growth. In spite of numerous…

  10. Trends in mortality decrease and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Niu, Geng; Melenberg, Bertrand

    2014-10-01

    The vast literature on extrapolative stochastic mortality models focuses mainly on the extrapolation of past mortality trends and summarizes the trends by one or more latent factors. However, the interpretation of these trends is typically not very clear. On the other hand, explanation methods are trying to link mortality dynamics with observable factors. This serves as an intermediate step between the two methods. We perform a comprehensive analysis on the relationship between the latent trend in mortality dynamics and the trend in economic growth represented by gross domestic product (GDP). Subsequently, the Lee-Carter framework is extended through the introduction of GDP as an additional factor next to the latent factor, which provides a better fit and better interpretable forecasts. PMID:25277750

  11. Oil Prices, Exhaustible Resources, and Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    This talk explores details behind the phenomenal increase in global crude oil production over the last century and a half and the implications if that trend should be reversed. I document that a key feature of the growth in production has been exploitation of new geographic areas rather than application of better technology to existing sources, and suggest that the end of that era could come soon. The economic dislocations that historically followed temporary oil supply disruptions are reviewed, and the possible implications of that experience for what the transition era could look like are explored.nnual crude oil production (in thousands of barrels per year) from the states of Pennsylvania and New York combined, 1860-2010. ashed line: actual value for real GDP, 2007-2009. Red line: dynamic conditional forecast as of 2007:Q3 (1- to 5-quarters ahead) based on oil prices using equation (3.8) in Hamilton (2003)

  12. Justifying the Ivory Tower: Higher Education and State Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, J. Norman; McCracken, William A., III

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. continues to embrace a comprehensive plan for economic recovery, this article investigates the validity of the claim that investing in higher education will help restore state economic growth and prosperity. It presents the findings from a study that indicates that the most consistent predictors of state economic growth related to…

  13. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  14. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    PubMed

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution. PMID:27164892

  15. Network effect of knowledge spillover: Scale-free networks stimulate R&D activities and accelerate economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Tomohiko

    2016-09-01

    We study how knowledge spillover networks affect research and development (R&D) activities and economic growth. For this purpose, we extend a Schumpeterian growth model to the one on networks that depict the knowledge spillover relationships of R&D. We show that scale-free networks stimulate R&D activities and accelerate economic growth.

  16. Using Wmatrix to Explore Discourse of Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu

    2015-01-01

    Growth is a concept of particular interest for economic discourse. This paper sets out to explore a small corpus of economic growth, which consists of articles from "The Economist". The corpus software used in this study is a web-based tool Wmatrix, an automatic tagging software able to assign semantic field (domain) tags, and to permit…

  17. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  18. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  19. Economic consequences of population size, structure and growth.

    PubMed

    Lee, R

    1983-01-01

    There seems to be 4 major approaches to conceptualizing and modeling demographic influences on economic and social welfare. These approaches are combined in various ways to construct richer and more comprehensive models. The basic approaches are: demographic influences on household or family behavior; population growth and reproducible capital; population size and fixed factors; and population and advantages of scale. These 4 models emphasize the supply side effects of population. A few of the ways in which these theories have been combined are sketched. Neoclassical growth models often have been combined with age distributed populations of individuals (or households), assumed to pursue optimal life cycle consumption and saving. In some well known development models, neoclassical growth models for the modern sector are linked by labor markets and migration to fixed factor (land) models of the traditional (agricultural) sector. A whole series of macro simulation models for developed and developing countries was based on single sector neoclassical growth models with age distributed populations. Yet, typically the household level foundations of assumed age distribution effects were not worked out. Simon's (1977) simulation models are in a class by themselves, for they are the only models that attempt to incorporate all the kinds of effects discussed. The economic demography of the individual and family cycle, as it is affected by regimes of fertility, mortality, and nuptiality, taken as given, are considered. The examination touches on many of the purported consequences of aggregate population growth and age composition, since so many of these are based implicitly or explicitly on assertions about micro level behavior. Demographic influences on saving and consumption, on general labor supply and female labor supply, and on problems of youth and old age dependency frequently fall in this category. Finally, attention is focused specifically on macro economic issues in

  20. Fractal scaling of microbial colonies affects growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Károlyi, György

    2005-03-01

    The growth dynamics of filamentary microbial colonies is investigated. Fractality of the fungal or actinomycetes colonies is shown both theoretically and in numerical experiments to play an important role. The growth observed in real colonies is described by the assumption of time-dependent fractality related to the different ages of various parts of the colony. The theoretical results are compared to a simulation based on branching random walks.

  1. Mineral Resources, Economic Growth, and World Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, David B.; Andrews, P. W.

    1974-01-01

    World mineral supply and demand is discussed. The economics of future mineral availability in terms of effects on pollution, land use, energy consumption, human settlements, and the international distribution of income are emphasized. (DT)

  2. MEASURING ECONOMIC GROWTH FROM OUTER SPACE

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Storeygard, Adam; Weil, David N.

    2013-01-01

    GDP growth is often measured poorly for countries and rarely measured at all for cities or subnational regions. We propose a readily available proxy: satellite data on lights at night. We develop a statistical framework that uses lights growth to augment existing income growth measures, under the assumption that measurement error in using observed light as an indicator of income is uncorrelated with measurement error in national income accounts. For countries with good national income accounts data, information on growth of lights is of marginal value in estimating the true growth rate of income, while for countries with the worst national income accounts, the optimal estimate of true income growth is a composite with roughly equal weights. Among poor-data countries, our new estimate of average annual growth differs by as much as 3 percentage points from official data. Lights data also allow for measurement of income growth in sub- and supranational regions. As an application, we examine growth in Sub Saharan African regions over the last 17 years. We find that real incomes in non-coastal areas have grown faster by 1/3 of an annual percentage point than coastal areas; non-malarial areas have grown faster than malarial ones by 1/3 to 2/3 annual percent points; and primate city regions have grown no faster than hinterland areas. Such applications point toward a research program in which “empirical growth” need no longer be synonymous with “national income accounts.” PMID:25067841

  3. Teaching Economic Growth Theory with Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmslie, Bruce T.; Tebaldi, Edinaldo

    2010-01-01

    Many instructors in subjects such as economics are frequently concerned with how to teach technical material to undergraduate students with limited mathematical backgrounds. One method that has proven successful for the authors is to connect theoretically sophisticated material with actual data. This enables students to see how the theory relates…

  4. Education and Economic Growth in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goel, S. C.

    1974-01-01

    Article focused on the relationship between the levels of educational development at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels, on the one hand, and economic development, as measured by the per capita income at current prices on the other, in India during the period 1950-51 to 1970-71. (Author/RK)

  5. Building Regional Economic Growth and Innovation Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafn, H. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Like many states at the turn of the century, Wisconsin was faced with a multibillion-dollar deficit due to a sagging economy brought on by the dotcom bubble burst and the economic impact of the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. As the state legislature grappled with the budget crisis, blame was freely assigned. The state was at…

  6. Cognitive skills affect economic preferences, strategic behavior, and job attachment

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Stephen V.; Carpenter, Jeffrey P.; Goette, Lorenz; Rustichini, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    Economic analysis has so far said little about how an individual's cognitive skills (CS) are related to the individual's economic preferences in different choice domains, such as risk taking or saving, and how preferences in different domains are related to each other. Using a sample of 1,000 trainee truckers we report three findings. First, there is a strong and significant relationship between an individual's CS and preferences. Individuals with better CS are more patient, in both short- and long-run. Better CS are also associated with a greater willingness to take calculated risks. Second, CS predict social awareness and choices in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. Subjects with better CS more accurately forecast others' behavior and differentiate their behavior as a second mover more strongly depending on the first-mover's choice. Third, CS, and in particular, the ability to plan, strongly predict perseverance on the job in a setting with a substantial financial penalty for early exit. Consistent with CS being a common factor in all of these preferences and behaviors, we find a strong pattern of correlation among them. These results, taken together with the theoretical explanation we offer for the relationships we find, suggest that higher CS systematically affect preferences and choices in ways that favor economic success. PMID:19416865

  7. State Investment in Universities: Rethinking the Impact on Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalin, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Does investing taxpayer money in higher education lead to major payoffs in economic growth? State legislators and policy makers say yes. They routinely advocate massive appropriations for university education and research, even in poor economic times, on the grounds that taxpayers will be rewarded many times over. The investment of federal funds…

  8. Information and Communication Technology Use and Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Maryam; Ismail, Rahmah; Fooladi, Masood

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT) has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants). We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use. PMID:23152817

  9. Information and communication technology use and economic growth.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Maryam; Ismail, Rahmah; Fooladi, Masood

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT) has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants). We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use. PMID:23152817

  10. How Population Growth Affects Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    The “LD curve” relates the linkage disequilibrium (LD) between pairs of nucleotide sites to the distance that separates them along the chromosome. The shape of this curve reflects natural selection, admixture between populations, and the history of population size. This article derives new results about the last of these effects. When a population expands in size, the LD curve grows steeper, and this effect is especially pronounced following a bottleneck in population size. When a population shrinks, the LD curve rises but remains relatively flat. As LD converges toward a new equilibrium, its time path may not be monotonic. Following an episode of growth, for example, it declines to a low value before rising toward the new equilibrium. These changes happen at different rates for different LD statistics. They are especially slow for estimates of σd2, which therefore allow inferences about ancient population history. For the human population of Europe, these results suggest a history of population growth. PMID:24907258

  11. Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  12. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  13. Economic analysis of crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, D. R.; Chung, A. M.; Yan, C. S.; Mccreight, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Many advanced electronic technologies and devices for the 1980's are based on sophisticated compound single crystals, i.e. ceramic oxides and compound semiconductors. Space processing of these electronic crystals with maximum perfection, purity, and size is suggested. No ecomonic or technical justification was found for the growth of silicon single crystals for solid state electronic devices in space.

  14. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, Paul A.; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade's record of growth in the photovoltaics manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  15. Growth Versus Government Management Improvement During Economic Downturn

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Boris; Baaquie, Belal E.; Bishop, Steven; Njavro, Djuro; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    In estimating how economic growth depends on various inputs, economists commonly use long periods of data encompassing both main extremes to fluctuations in the economy: recession and expansion. Here we focus on recession years because during expansion even countries with bad economic policies may experience large growth. Specifically, we study how growth depends on the proportion of public-sector workforce, p and competitiveness, quantified by the Global Competitiveness Index, GCI. For the 2008–2011 economic downturn and for 57 countries, we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with ΔGCI. Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries, where I ∝ GCIα. We propose a production function, divided into the private and public sectors, where GDP depends on market capitalization, the public (private)-sector workforce, and competitiveness level, used to quantify the public sector efficiency. PMID:23563321

  16. Growth Versus Government Management Improvement During Economic Downturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Boris; Baaquie, Belal E.; Bishop, Steven; Njavro, Djuro; Li, Baowen

    2013-04-01

    In estimating how economic growth depends on various inputs, economists commonly use long periods of data encompassing both main extremes to fluctuations in the economy: recession and expansion. Here we focus on recession years because during expansion even countries with bad economic policies may experience large growth. Specifically, we study how growth depends on the proportion of public-sector workforce, p and competitiveness, quantified by the Global Competitiveness Index, GCI. For the 2008-2011 economic downturn and for 57 countries, we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with ΔGCI. Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries, where I ~ GCIα. We propose a production function, divided into the private and public sectors, where GDP depends on market capitalization, the public (private)-sector workforce, and competitiveness level, used to quantify the public sector efficiency.

  17. Growth versus government management improvement during economic downturn.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Baaquie, Belal E; Bishop, Steven; Njavro, Djuro; Li, Baowen

    2013-01-01

    In estimating how economic growth depends on various inputs, economists commonly use long periods of data encompassing both main extremes to fluctuations in the economy: recession and expansion. Here we focus on recession years because during expansion even countries with bad economic policies may experience large growth. Specifically, we study how growth depends on the proportion of public-sector workforce, p and competitiveness, quantified by the Global Competitiveness Index, GCI. For the 2008-2011 economic downturn and for 57 countries, we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with ΔGCI. Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries, where I is proportional to GCI(α). We propose a production function, divided into the private and public sectors, where GDP depends on market capitalization, the public (private)-sector workforce, and competitiveness level, used to quantify the public sector efficiency. PMID:23563321

  18. Technology for America's Economic Growth, a New Direction To Build Economic Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, William J.; Gore, Albert, Jr.

    Investing in technology is investing in America's future. U.S. technology must move in a new direction to build economic strength and spur economic growth. The traditional roles of support of basic science and mission-oriented technological research must be expanded, so that the federal government plays a key role in helping private firms develop…

  19. Effects of Female Education on Economic Growth: A Cross Country Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…

  20. Putting Some Mustard into Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    On September 27, 2012, the University of Toronto launched the Fraser Mustard Institute for Human Development – an appropriate recognition of an extraordinary individual. Fraser was a keen student of the science of human development and, most particularly, of early child development (ECD). He was also a powerful and tireless advocate for translating science into action. His institute must do both. Action is needed also because 25% of Canadians lack the competencies to function effectively in a modern economy. Other countries do much better. Facing a low-growth future, we cannot afford to waste this untapped potential. Although Prime Minister Harper's personal ideology has no place for ECD, the Mustard Institute can help keep the flame alive. PMID:23968611

  1. Stokes integral of economic growth. Calculus and the Solow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimkes, Jürgen

    2010-04-01

    Economic growth depends on capital and labor and two-dimensional calculus has been applied to economic theory. This leads to Riemann and Stokes integrals and to the first and second laws of production and growth. The mathematical structure is the same as in thermodynamics, economic properties may be related to physical terms: capital to energy, production to physical work, GDP per capita to temperature, production function to entropy. This is called econophysics. Production, trade and banking may be compared to motors, heat pumps or refrigerators. The Carnot process of the first law creates two levels in each system: cold and hot in physics; buyer and seller, investor and saver, rich and poor in economics. The efficiency rises with the income difference of rich and poor. The results of econophysics are compared to neoclassical theory.

  2. Infectious Diseases Affect Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  3. Infectious diseases affect marine fisheries and aquaculture economics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Harvell, C. Drew; Conrad, Jon M.; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Kent, Michael L.; Kuris, Armand M.; Powell, Eric N.; Rondeau, Daniel; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is a growing part of the economy, but its economic value is diminished by marine diseases. Infectious diseases are common in the ocean, and here we tabulate 67 examples that can reduce commercial species' growth and survivorship or decrease seafood quality. These impacts seem most problematic in the stressful and crowded conditions of aquaculture, which increasingly dominates seafood production as wild fishery production plateaus. For instance, marine diseases of farmed oysters, shrimp, abalone, and various fishes, particularly Atlantic salmon, cost billions of dollars each year. In comparison, it is often difficult to accurately estimate disease impacts on wild populations, especially those of pelagic and subtidal species. Farmed species often receive infectious diseases from wild species and can, in turn, export infectious agents to wild species. However, the impact of disease export on wild fisheries is controversial because there are few quantitative data demonstrating that wild species near farms suffer more from infectious diseases than those in other areas. The movement of exotic infectious agents to new areas continues to be the greatest concern.

  4. World Economic Growth and Oil: a Producers' Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shihab-Eldin, Adnan

    2014-07-01

    This paper examines the following assertions: * A high share of oil price in GDP limits economic growth, * Oil Price shocks trigger recession, * These effects will be escalated by peaked oil supply and rising developing world demand and together with increasing contributions to climate change will result in a global emergency. The role of energy in societal development and economic growth, from primitive man through the industrial revolution and the oil age to the present and the evolution of energy intensity are described. The principle role of oil as a transport fuel and the possibilities of alternatives are examined. It is concluded that oil dependence will continue for the foreseeable future. The history of the industry, market behavior and its economic effects are presented to establish precedent and the assertions are then examined. It is shown that rising oil prices are an unavoidable consequence of economic growth, that they have stimulated efficient minimum functional use and made more difficult conventional and unconventional sources economic. It is then argued that potentially these additional resources eliminate the possibility of supply shortage and that diversification of supply lessens the possibility of shock, together rendering a global emergency less likely than could have been previously envisaged.

  5. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  6. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE - VERSION 3.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of, and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 3.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds, oxides of nitrogen, and carbon mon...

  7. Support for Economic Growth and Environmental Protection 1973-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, C. Paul; Christenson, James A.

    This study investigates preferences of public support for allocation of expenditures toward environmental controls or toward economic growth from 1973-1975. The author considered four previously noted correlates of environmental support--education, family income, place of residence, and political orientation. Two state-wide surveys were conducted…

  8. Educational Expansion, Economic Growth and Antisocial Behaviour: Evidence from England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabates, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the increase in post-compulsory schooling and economic growth on conviction rates for antisocial behaviour in England. I hypothesise that both educational and employment opportunities should lead to greater reductions in antisocial behaviour when they are combined than when they exist in isolation. I test this…

  9. Economic Growth Challenge/Innovation Incentive: Implementing the Incentive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Economic Growth Challenge / Innovation Incentive, as proposed by the Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy, is a new line item involving reallocation of current higher education funding plus matching levels of performance funding to achieve a major restructuring and refocusing of Ohio's portfolio of doctoral research programs.…

  10. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: USER'S GUIDE VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  11. ECONOMIC GROWTH ANALYSIS SYSTEM: REFERENCE MANUAL VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The two-volume report describes the development of and provides information needed to operate, the Economic Growth Analysis System (E-GAS) Version 2.0 model. The model will be used to project emissions inventories of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), a...

  12. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    PubMed Central

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Background Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. Methods The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. Results A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001), wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001) and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001) from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade. Conclusion Economic growth

  13. Korea: balancing economic growth and social protection for older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-06-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system. As these factors evolve in coming years, social spending in Korea is likely to rise toward the OECD average. Sustaining economic growth requires policies to mitigate the impact of rapid population aging by providing social protection for the elderly population. Korea confronts difficult challenges in balancing economic growth and social protection for the elderly population, whereas also ensuring efficiency in social spending. PMID:23528291

  14. U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-01

    Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

  15. Environmental Disaster and Economic Change: Do tropical cyclones have permanent effects on economic growth and structure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jina, A.; von der Goltz, J.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters have important, often devastating, effects upon economic growth and well-being. Due to this, disasters have become an active area of recent research and policy attention. However, much of this research has been narrowly focused, relying on anecdotal evidence and aggregated data to support conclusions about disaster impacts in the short-term. Employing a new global data set of tropical cyclone exposure from 1960 to 2008, we investigate in greater detail whether permanent changes in economic performance and structure can result from these extreme events in some cases. Our macro-economic analyses use the World Development Indicator dataset and have shown promising results: there are dramatic long-term economic transformations associated with tropical cyclones across a number of countries and industries. This effect is most clearly seen in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and some countries in Latin America, where negative changes in long-term growth trends are observed in the years following a large tropical cyclone. In many economies with a high exposure to tropical cyclone damage, there are noticeable structural changes within the economy. The impacts of disasters might be expressed through various economic and social channels, through direct loss of lives and infrastructure damage; for instance, the destruction of infrastructure such as ports may damage export opportunities where replacement capital is not readily available. These structural changes may have far-reaching implications for economic growth and welfare. Larger nations subjected to the impacts of tropical cyclones are thought to be able to relocate economically important activities that are damaged by cyclones, and so long-term trend changes are not observed, even for events that cause a large immediate decrease in national productivity. By investigating in a more rigorous fashion the hypothesis that the environment triggers these permanent economic changes, our work has

  16. Driving Economic Growth: Higher Education--A Core Strategic Asset to the UK. Higher Education in Focus: Driving Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This publication highlights the critical role UK universities will continue to play in reviving and sustaining economic growth across the country. Using a range of visual data and statistics, it highlights that the UK's future success depends on developing innovation and the knowledge economy in what is an increasingly competitive global…

  17. Does the Financial Crisis Affect How Economic Theory Should Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafka, Alexander C., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Professors of economics, business, and related fields were asked to answer the following question: Does the financial crisis affect how economic theory should be thought? This article presents some excerpts from their answers.

  18. Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grames, J.; Prskawetz, A.; Grass, D.; Blöschl, G.

    2015-06-01

    Socio-hydrology describes the interaction between the socio-economy and water. Recent models analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth (Di Baldassarre et al., 2013; Viglione et al., 2014). These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters like floods. Contrary to these descriptive models, our approach develops an optimization model, where the intertemporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. In order to build this first economic growth model describing the interaction between the consumption and investment decisions of an economic agent and the occurrence of flooding events, we transform an existing descriptive stochastic model into an optimal deterministic model. The intermediate step is to formulate and simulate a descriptive deterministic model. We develop a periodic water function to approximate the former discrete stochastic time series of rainfall events. Due to the non-autonomous exogenous periodic rainfall function the long-term path of consumption and investment will be periodic.

  19. Network effects in a human capital based economic growth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz Martins, Teresa; Araújo, Tanya; Augusta Santos, Maria; St Aubyn, Miguel

    2009-06-01

    We revisit a recently introduced agent model [ACS, 11, 99 (2008)], where economic growth is a consequence of education (human capital formation) and innovation, and investigate the influence of the agents’ social network, both on an agent’s decision to pursue education and on the output of new ideas. Regular and random networks are considered. The results are compared with the predictions of a mean field (representative agent) model.

  20. Socio-Economic Affects of Floods on Female Teachers in Jampur (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzdar, Muhammad Ayub; Ali, Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Women are major affected segment of society in any disaster in under developed countries. Floods of 2010, in Pakistan, affected more than 17 million people. Ultimately, it created several social, psychological and financial problems for affected females. The current paper aimed to study the socio-economic affects of floods on female teachers of…

  1. Somatic growth following congenital heart surgery in economically underprivileged children

    PubMed Central

    Kasar, Pankajkumar A; Suresh Kumar, Raghavan Nair; Raman Kutty, Vellappillil

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of congenital heart surgery on anthropometric scores of growth in economically disadvantaged children. Methods A cohort of 100 economically disadvantaged children was followed up after cardiac surgery for their nutritional recovery. Weight, height and body mass index for age were measured just before surgery and at a median period of 48.1 months (range 9–59.9 months) after surgery. Z scores of the age-adjusted variables were computed and McNemar OR was calculated for odds of improvement. Results The mean weight for age of the cohort increased from 14.74±5.76 to 23.83±7.83 kg. In malnourished children (weight for age Z score ≤−2) the mean weight changed from −3.01 to −1.6 (p<0.05), the median improvement being 0.85. The paired OR for improvement was highest for weight (14.5; 95% CI 5 to 27), modest for BMI (1.57; 95% CI 0.56 to 6.34) and least for height (0.25; 95% CI 0.04 to 0.87). The proportion of malnourished children decreased from 61% to 27% after surgery. Subgroup analysis of the children with initial malnutrition showed significant improvement in weight for age Z scores (p=0.002) compared with non-malnourished children (paired OR 17.54; 95% CI 6.13 to 32.26), those with worse malnutrition faring better. Children with residual malnutrition tended to have extreme economic backwardness, surgery for cyanotic congenital heart disease or associated syndromes. Conclusion Congenital heart surgery resulted in a salutary improvement in the growth of children from economically underprivileged backgrounds. Residual malnutrition was likely to be associated with extreme economic backwardness, surgery for cyanotic congenital heart disease or coincidental syndromes.

  2. Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grames, Johanna; Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, Alexia; Grass, Dieter; Viglione, Alberto; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Recently socio-hydrology models have been proposed to analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth. These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters such as floods. Complementary to these descriptive models, we develop a dynamic optimization model, where the inter-temporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. This interdisciplinary approach matches with the goals of Panta Rhei i.e. to understand feedbacks between hydrology and society. It enables new perspectives but also shows limitations of each discipline. Young scientists need mentors from various scientific backgrounds to learn their different research approaches and how to best combine them such that interdisciplinary scientific work is also accepted by different science communities. In our socio-hydrology model we apply a macro-economic decision framework to a long-term flood-scenario. We assume a standard macro-economic growth model where agents derive utility from consumption and output depends on physical capital that can be accumulated through investment. To this framework we add the occurrence of flooding events which will destroy part of the capital. We identify two specific periodic long term solutions and denote them rich and poor economies. Whereas rich economies can afford to invest in flood defense and therefore avoid flood damage and develop high living standards, poor economies prefer consumption instead of investing in flood defense capital and end up facing flood damages every time the water level rises. Nevertheless, they manage to sustain at least a low level of physical capital. We identify optimal investment strategies and compare simulations with more frequent and more intense high water level events.

  3. Spaceflight and age affect tibial epiphyseal growth plate histomorphometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montufar-Solis, Dina; Duke, Pauline J.; Durnova, G.

    1992-01-01

    Growth plate histomorphometry of rats flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044, a 14-day spaceflight, was compared with that of control groups. In growth plates of flight animals, there was a significant increase in cell number per column and height of the proliferative zone and a reduction in height and cell number in the hypertrophy/calcification zone. No significant differences were found in matrix organization at the ultrastructural level of flight animals, indicating that although spacefligfht continues to affect bone growth of 15-wk-old rats, extracellular matrix is not altered in the same manner as seen previously in younger animals. All groups showed growth plate characteristics attributed to aging: lack of calcification zone, reduced hypertrophy zone, and unraveling of collagen fibrils. Tail-suspended controls did not differ from other controls in any of the parameters measured. The results suggest that growth plates of older rats are less responsive to unloading by spaceflight or suspension than those of younger rats and provide new evidence about the modifying effect of spaceflight on the growth plate.

  4. The Impact of Services on Economic Complexity: Service Sophistication as Route for Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Utkovski, Zoran; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country’s productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country’s productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries. PMID:27560133

  5. The Impact of Services on Economic Complexity: Service Sophistication as Route for Economic Growth.

    PubMed

    Stojkoski, Viktor; Utkovski, Zoran; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country's productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country's productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries. PMID:27560133

  6. Temperature impacts on economic growth warrant stringent mitigation policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Frances C.; Diaz, Delavane B.

    2015-02-01

    Integrated assessment models compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained gross domestic product (GDP) growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth rates in the DICE model through two pathways, total factor productivity growth and capital depreciation. This damage specification, even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, substantially slows GDP growth in poor regions but has more modest effects in rich countries. Optimal climate policy in this model stabilizes global temperature change below 2 °C by eliminating emissions in the near future and implies a social cost of carbon several times larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of climate change impacts on economic growth, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages and GDP are three critical uncertainties requiring further research. In particular, optimal mitigation rates are much lower if countries become less sensitive to climate change impacts as they develop, making this a major source of uncertainty and an important subject for future research.

  7. Fertility, Human Capital, and Economic Growth over the Demographic Transition

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Do low fertility and population aging lead to economic decline if couples have fewer children, but invest more in each child? By addressing this question, this article extends previous work in which the authors show that population aging leads to an increased demand for wealth that can, under some conditions, lead to increased capital per worker and higher per capita consumption. This article is based on an overlapping generations (OLG) model which highlights the quantity–quality tradeoff and the links between human capital investment and economic growth. It incorporates new national level estimates of human capital investment produced by the National Transfer Accounts project. Simulation analysis is employed to show that, even in the absence of the capital dilution effect, low fertility leads to higher per capita consumption through human capital accumulation, given plausible model parameters. PMID:20495605

  8. Economic impacts of policies affecting crop biotechnology and trade.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kym

    2010-11-30

    Agricultural biotechnologies, and especially transgenic crops, have the potential to boost food security in developing countries by offering higher incomes for farmers and lower priced and better quality food for consumers. That potential is being heavily compromised, however, because the European Union and some other countries have implemented strict regulatory systems to govern their production and consumption of genetically modified (GM) food and feed crops, and to prevent imports of foods and feedstuffs that do not meet these strict standards. This paper analyses empirically the potential economic effects of adopting transgenic crops in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. It does so using a multi-country, multi-product model of the global economy. The results suggest the economic welfare gains from crop biotechnology adoption are potentially very large, and that those benefits are diminished only very slightly by the presence of the European Union's restriction on imports of GM foods. That is, if developing countries retain bans on GM crop production in an attempt to maintain access to EU markets for non-GM products, the loss to their food consumers as well as to farmers in those developing countries is huge relative to the slight loss that could be incurred from not retaining EU market access. PMID:20478422

  9. Modelling the interaction between flooding events and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grames, Johanna; Grass, Dieter; Prskawetz, Alexia; Blöschl, Günther

    2015-04-01

    Socio-hydrology describes the interaction between the socio-economy, water and population dynamics. Recent models analyze the interplay of community risk-coping culture, flooding damage and economic growth (Di Baldassarre, 2013, Viglione, 2014). These models descriptively explain the feedbacks between socio-economic development and natural disasters like floods. Contrary to these descriptive models, our approach develops an optimization model, where the intertemporal decision of an economic agent interacts with the hydrological system. This is the first economic growth model describing the interaction between the consumption and investment decisions of an economic agent and the occurrence of flooding events: Investments in defense capital can avoid floods even when the water level is high, but on the other hand such investment competes with investment in productive capital and hence may reduce the level of consumption. When floods occur, the flood damage therefore depends on the existing defense capital. The aim is to find an optimal tradeoff between investments in productive versus defense capital such as to optimize the stream of consumption in the long-term. We assume a non-autonomous exogenous periodic rainfall function (Yevjevich et.al. 1990, Zakaria 2001) which implies that the long-term equilibrium will be periodic . With our model we aim to derive mechanisms that allow consumption smoothing in the long term, and at the same time allow for optimal investment in flood defense to maximize economic output. We choose an aggregate welfare function that depends on the consumption level of the society as the objective function. I.e. we assume a social planer with perfect foresight that maximizes the aggregate welfare function. Within our model framework we can also study whether the path and level of defense capital (that protects people from floods) is related to the time preference rate of the social planner. Our model also allows to investigate how the frequency

  10. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  11. [The decline in population growth, income distribution, and economic recession].

    PubMed

    Banguero, H

    1983-05-01

    This work uses Keynesian principles and an analysis of the Colombian population in the 1970s to argue that the Colombian policy of slowing population growth, which was adopted with the aim of improving the general welfare of the population, has had shortterm negative effects on effective demand and thus on the level of employment and welfare. These negative effects were caused by the inflexibility of income distribution, which prevented expansion of the internal market, complicated by the stagnant condition of the external sector and the budget deficit. The results of the Colombian case study demonstrate how the deceleration of population growth beginning in the 1960s had a significant impact on the levels of consumption and savings and on the patterns of consumption, leading to low levels of investment and little dynamism. Although the current Colombian economic recession is aggravated by contextual factors such as the world economic recession, the high cost of capital, the industrial recession, and declining food production among others, at the core of the crisis are longer term structural determinants such as the decline in the rate of population growth and the highly unequal distribution of income and wealth, which have contributed to a shrinking of the internal market for some types of goods. Given the unlikelihood of renewed rapid population growth, the Keynesian model suggests that the only alternative for increasing aggregate demand is state intervention through public spending and investment and reorientation of the financial system to achieve a dynamic redistribution of income. Based on these findings and on proposals of other analysts, a stragegy for revitalization is proposed which would imply a gradual income redistribution to allow increased consumption of mass produced goods by the low income groups. Direct consumption subsidies would be avoided because of their inflationary and import-expanding tendencies; rather, incentives and support would be

  12. How energy conversion drives economic growth far from the equilibrium of neoclassical economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Lindenberger, Dietmar

    2014-12-01

    Energy conversion in the machines and information processors of the capital stock drives the growth of modern economies. This is exemplified for Germany, Japan, and the USA during the second half of the 20th century: econometric analyses reveal that the output elasticity, i.e. the economic weight, of energy is much larger than energy's share in total factor cost, while for labor just the opposite is true. This is at variance with mainstream economic theory according to which an economy should operate in the neoclassical equilibrium, where output elasticities equal factor cost shares. The standard derivation of the neoclassical equilibrium from the maximization of profit or of time-integrated utility disregards technological constraints. We show that the inclusion of these constraints in our nonlinear-optimization calculus results in equilibrium conditions, where generalized shadow prices destroy the equality of output elasticities and cost shares. Consequently, at the prices of capital, labor, and energy we have known so far, industrial economies have evolved far from the neoclassical equilibrium. This is illustrated by the example of the German industrial sector evolving on the mountain of factor costs before and during the first and the second oil price explosion. It indicates the influence of the ‘virtually binding’ technological constraints on entrepreneurial decisions, and the existence of ‘soft constraints’ as well. Implications for employment and future economic growth are discussed.

  13. How will the economic downturn affect academic bioethics?

    PubMed

    Epstein, Miran

    2010-06-01

    An educated guess about the future of academic bioethics can only be made on the basis of the historical conditions of its success. According to its official history, which attributes its success primarily to the service it has done for the patient, it should be safe at least as long as the patient still needs its service. Like many other academic disciplines, it might suffer under the present economic downturn. However, in the plausible assumption that its social role has not been exhausted yet, it should recover as soon as the economy does. But if, as this paper tries to argue, the success of academic bioethics should be attributed first and foremost to the service it has done for the neoliberal agenda, then its future would have to depend on the fate of the latter. The exact implications of the downturn for the neoliberal agenda are obviously impossible to predict. Among the various options, however, the one of going back to 'normal' seems to be the least likely. The other options suggest that the future of academic bioethics, as we have known it, is bleak. PMID:20500760

  14. Water security, risk and economic growth: lessons from a dynamical systems model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadson, Simon; Hall, Jim; Garrick, Dustin; Sadoff, Claudia; Grey, David; Whittington, Dale

    2016-04-01

    Investments in the physical infrastructure, human capital, and institutions needed for water resources management have been a noteworthy feature in the development of most civilisations. These investments affect the economy in two distinct ways: (i) by improving the factor productivity of water in multiple sectors of the economy, especially those that are water intensive such as agriculture and energy; and (ii) by reducing the acute and chronic harmful effects of water-related hazards like floods, droughts, and water-related diseases. The need for capital investment to mitigate these risks in order to promote economic growth is widely acknowledged, but prior work to conceptualise the relationship between water-related risks and economic growth has focused on the productive and harmful roles of water in the economy independently. Here the two influences are combined using a simple, dynamical model of water-related investment, risk, and growth at the national level. The model suggests the existence of a context-specific threshold above which growth proceeds along an 'S'-curve. In many cases there is a requirement for initial investment in water-related assets to enable growth. Below the threshold it is possible for a poverty trap to arise. The presence and location of the poverty trap is context-specific and depends on the relative exposure of productive water-related assets to risk, compared with risks faced by assets in the wider economy. Exogenous changes in the level of water-related risk (through, for example, climate and land cover change) can potentially push an economy away from a growth path towards a poverty trap. These results illustrate the value of accounting for environmental risk in models of economic growth and may offer guidance in the design of robust policies for investment in water-related productive assets to manage risk, particularly in the face of global and regional environmental change.

  15. Oil in the economic development of Nigeria (optimum utilization of oil revenues in economic growth)

    SciTech Connect

    Nnaji, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    Nigeria's economy experienced stunted growth in 1973-84 period in spite of the huge inflow of oil revenues. This dissertation addresses the issue of optimal utilization of oil revenues to promote Nigeria's economic growth. The study begins by reviewing the behavior of the oil market and the experiences of some industrialized oil-exporting countries (Netherlands, Britain and Norway), focusing on the general problems of managing oil income. Drawing from above experiences, it examines the general performance of Nigeria's economy in 1973-84 period. Evidences of retarded economic growth, rising inflation, unemployment, and massive imports, all suggest Nigeria's inability to expand its productive capacity, and inefficient utilization of oil income. To address the above problem, a dynamic optimization model is developed showing the optimal conditions for allocating oil revenues to different uses. Most of the findings are consistent with stylized facts about the economony, but specifically raise issues about the tight structure of production and its consequences, rising unemployment, low marginal propensity to save from non-oil income and dependence on oil revenues.

  16. The impact of CO2 emissions on economic growth: evidence from selected higher CO2 emissions economies.

    PubMed

    Azam, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Bin Abdullah, Hussin; Qureshi, Muhammad Ejaz

    2016-04-01

    The main purpose of this work is to analyze the impact of environmental degradation proxied by CO2 emissions per capita along with some other explanatory variables namely energy use, trade, and human capital on economic growth in selected higher CO2 emissions economies namely China, the USA, India, and Japan. For empirical analysis, annual data over the period spanning between 1971 and 2013 are used. After using relevant and suitable tests for checking data properties, the panel fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) method is employed as an analytical technique for parameter estimation. The panel group FMOLS results reveal that almost all variables are statistically significant, whereby test rejects the null hypotheses of non cointegration, demonstrating that all variables play an important role in affecting the economic growth role across countries. Where two regressors namely CO2 emissions and energy use show significantly negative impacts on economic growth, for trade and human capital, they tend to show the significantly positive impact on economic growth. However, for the individual analysis across countries, the panel estimate suggests that CO2 emissions have a significant positive relationship with economic growth for China, Japan, and the USA, while it is found significantly negative in case of India. The empirical findings of the study suggest that appropriate and prudent policies are required in order to control pollution emerging from areas other than liquefied fuel consumption. The ultimate impact of shrinking pollution will help in supporting sustainable economic growth and maturation as well as largely improve society welfare. PMID:26620862

  17. Racial Segregation, Economic Growth, and Resilience to Natural Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, S.; Li, H.; Ganguly, A.

    2008-05-01

    Resilience to natural disasters is often defined as the ability of a community to recover from disaster disruption. Thus, resilience depends on various socioeconomic factors which influence the short- and long-term impacts of natural disasters as well as the resources that a community can bring to bear on the recovery process. One objective of this research is to tease out the determinants of resilience from a variety of possible indicators and data sources. A second objective is to test hypotheses which in turn are based on prior reports in the literature: Racial segregation has a negative impact, while economic growth has a positive impact, on resilience. We choose the Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, MS Metropolitan Area, and New Orleans Metropolitan Area, for our case studies. The study areas included nine counties and parishes that are located in the Hurricane Katrina impact area. The nine counties and parishes were Hancock County, Harrison County, and Jackson County in Mississippi, and Jefferson Parish, Orleans Parish, Plaquemines Parish, St. Bernard Parish, St. Charles Parish, and St. Tammany Parish in Louisiana. The three counties make up the Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, MS Metropolitan Area, and the six parishes are components of New Orleans Metropolitan Area. The determinants of resilience for this study were based on two considerations. First, we followed the political, military or security, economic, social, informational and infrastructural (PMESII) framework, which succinctly describes the resources available to a community. Second, we were pragmatically constrained by data availability. Five variables were selected as plausible determinants of resilience: (i) return of the original population, (ii) employment recovery, (iii) tax collected, (iv) building permit restoration, and (v) school re-opening information. The five variables were found to be highly correlated. We created three resilience indices, one by simple addition, another by addition of the

  18. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation. PMID:27620113

  19. How Does the Economic Crisis Affect the Psychological Well-Being? Comparing College Students and Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Kathrin; Mertens, Anne; Röbken, Heinke

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about differences in the impact of economic stress on students as compared to persons holding secure job positions. Besides the macroeconomic effects, an economic downturn can also affect individual's physical health and psychological well-being (Aytaç & Rankin, 2009). Prior research showed that socio-demographic…

  20. Fertility, income distribution, and economic growth: theory and cross-country evidence.

    PubMed

    Galor, O; Zang, H

    1997-05-01

    The authors perform discriminatory, empirical tests of a theoretical model that predicts that family size adversely affects output per capita and nonsteady state growth rates. Neoclassical models posit that adverse output and nonsteady growth rates are affected by labor force growth (LFG) or population growth (PG). This study tests whether family size (FS) will be more significant than LFG or PG in explaining differences in economic growth (EG) rates across countries during 1960-88. A proxy variable for the public education system was used to separate government interventions on human capital formation from market forces. Data were obtained for 73 countries, which exclude centrally planned economies, oil-producing countries, and those with less than 1 million population. The empirical test is run with 58-country, 45-country, and 96-country samples to test for robustness and reliability. The empirical test supports the theoretical model. It demonstrates that equal distribution of income and smaller FS enhance EG. With income inequality, the effect of FS was significant, and the effect of the LFG rate or PG rate was insignificant. With a given FS, LFG was positively correlated with EG. A reduction of the net fertility rate by one point would increase the worker output growth rate by 0.25%, and the differences in growth rates between high- and low-fertility countries would be 1%. An increase in the income share of the bottom 60% would increase the growth rate of worker output by about 1%. Higher investments in public or private education would be conducive to growth. PMID:12321036

  1. Combined impact of global river-floods and tropical cyclones on long-term economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, Tobias; Piontek, Franziska; Frieler, Katja

    2016-04-01

    Worldwide direct economic losses associated with the impact of river-floods and tropical cyclones have seen a rapid increase over time. Their nominal impact is projected to rise even further as the exposed population grows, per capita income increases, and anthropogenic climate change manifests. Beyond the immediate damage of each event, indirect economic impacts can affect growth trajectories of countries as a whole for many years after the disaster. Whether the cumulated indirect effects stimulate or hinder economic growth in the long-run is so far undecided as previous studies find contradicting results depending on the analysed hazard and the underlying methodology. We here combine two types of the costliest meteorological disasters worldwide in order to gain certainty on their joint impact in a comprehensive way. Relative affected population by country and year is determined based on historical tropical cyclone tracks (IBTrACS) and historical simulations of river-flood return periods forced by observed weather and used as a predictor for the disaster's impact on national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) time series. Controlling for various non-disaster related effects, we find a cumulated GDP deficit that remains robust for more than a decade after the event.

  2. Strength of Rocks Affected by Deformation Enhanced Grain Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann Slotemaker, A.; de Bresser, H.; Spiers, C.

    2005-12-01

    One way of looking into the possibility of long-term strength changes in the lithosphere is to study transient effects resulting from modifications of the microstructure of rocks. It is generally accepted that mechanical weakening may occur due to progressive grain size refinement resulting from dynamic recrystallization. A decrease in grain size may induce a switch from creep controlled by grain size insensitive dislocation mechanisms to creep governed by grain size sensitive (GSS) mechanisms involving diffusion and grain boundary sliding processes. This switch forms a well-known scenario to explain localization in the lithosphere. However, fine-grained rocks in localized deformation zones are prone to grain coarsening due to surface energy driven grain boundary migration (SED-GBM). This might harden the rock, affecting its role in localizing strain in the long term. The question has arisen if grain growth by SED-GBM in a rock deforming in the GSS creep field can be significantly affected by strain. The broad aim of this study is to shed more light onto this. We have experimentally investigated the microstructural and strength evolution of fine-grained (~0.6 μm) synthetic forsterite and Fe-bearing olivine aggregates that coarsen in grain size while deforming by GSS creep at elevated pressure (600 MPa) and temperature (850-1000 °C). The materials were prepared by `sol-gel' method and contained 0.3-0.5 wt% water and 5-10 vol% enstatite. We performed i) static heat treatment tests of various time durations involving hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and ii) heat treatment tests starting with HIP and continuing with deformation up to 45% axial strain at strain rates in the range 4x10-7 - 1x10-4 s-1. Microstructures were characterized by analyzing full grain size distributions and textures using SEM/EBSD. In addition to the experiments, we studied microstructural evolution in simple two-dimensional numerical models, combining deformation and SED-GBM by means of the

  3. Exports and Economic Growth in Saudi Arabia: A VAR Model Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhajhoj, Hassan

    Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR), Impulse Response Function (IFR) and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.

  4. The Growth Illusion: How Economic Growth Has Enriched the Few, Impoverished the Many, and Endangered the Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthwaite, Richard

    The premise of this book is that economic growth has made life considerably worse for people in Britain since 1955 and that, even if growth were beneficial at one stage in human history, it is now damaging. The book presents evidence of social and environmental damage caused by growth and several reasons for a persistence of growth in the face of…

  5. Scaling behavior in economics: The problem of quantifying company growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes Amaral, Luís A.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Maass, Philipp; Salinger, Michael A.; Eugene Stanley, H.; Stanley, Michael H. R.

    1997-02-01

    Inspired by work of both Widom and Mandelbrot, we analyze the Computstat database comprising all publicly traded United States manufacturing companies in the years 1974-1993. We find that the distribution of company size remains stable for the 20 years we study, i.e., the mean value and standard deviation remain approximately constant. We study the distribution of sizes of the “new” companies in each year and find it to be well approximated by a log- normal. We find (i) the distribution of the logarithm of the growth rates, for a fixed growth period of T years, and for companies with approximately the same size S displays an exponential “tent-shaped” form rather than the bell-shaped Gaussian, one would expect for a log-normal distribution, and (ii) the fluctuations in the growth rates - measured by the width of this distribution σT - decrease with company size and increase with time T. We find that for annual growth rates ( T = 1), σT ∼ S- β, and that the exponent β takes the same value, within the error bars, for several measures of the size of a company. In particular, we obtain β = 0.20 ± 0.03 for sales, β = 0.18 ± 0.03 for number of employees, β = 0.18±0.03 for assets, β = 0.18 ± 0.03 for cost of goods sold, and β = 0.20 ± 0.03 for propert, plant, and equipment. We propose models that may lead to some insight into these phenomena. First, we study a model in which the growth rate of a company is affected by a tendency to retain an “optimal” size. That model leads to an exponential distribution of the logarithm of growth rate in agreement with the empirical results. Then, we study a hierarchical tree-like model of a company that enables us to relate β to parameters of a company structure. We find that β = -1n Π/1n z, where z defines the mean branching ratio of the hierarchical tree and Π is the probability that the lower levels follow the policy of higher levels in the hierarchy. We also study the output distribution of growth

  6. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  7. Rethinking of Economic Growth and Life Satisfaction in Post-WWII Japan--A Fresh Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusago, Takayoshi

    2007-01-01

    Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been utilized by academics and policy makers to indicate the economic well-being of the people. However, economic growth measures cannot capture fully the overall well-being of the people. This paper has tested quality of economic growth in Japan after World War II as to whether it has brought about positive…

  8. Wealth and well-being, economic growth, and integral development.

    PubMed

    Bunge, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This essay tackles a bimillenary problem in psychology, ethics, economics, and political philosophy: that of the relations between wealth and well-being. What are they, and should we live for pleasure, or rather seek to live a full and useful life? This is the ancient dilemma between hedonism, the cult of pleasure, and eudemonism, the search for a good life. Economists, almost without exception, have opted for hedonism, but they have not found out what percentage of the goods that ordinary people want are not merchandises. This gap is currently being filled by psychologists, sociologists, socioeconomists, and other workers in the new "science of happiness". Their main finding, that happiness is not for sale, might surprise the orthodox economists. On the social level, the former problem, concerning individuals, gets translated into the question of national development: what kind of development should we seek, and for whom? In particular, should economic growth be prioritized, or should we promote the simultaneous development of all sectors of society, including the political and cultural? In either case, should development benefit the chosen few or everybody? And should it enhance the well-being of the individual and make that of her offspring possible? This problem, of course, lies at the intersection of three sciences--psychology, economics, and political science--and two chapters of philosophy--ethics and political philosophy. Consequently, anyone daring to propose original solutions to the problem in question will risk being criticized by experts distributed among these five fields, who are not used to talking to one another. PMID:22403910

  9. Economic Growth in the Face of Weather and Climate Extremes: A Call for Better Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Linwood; Karl, Thomas R.; Mills, Evan

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. economy has grown to be the world's largest, even in the face of the most varied and costly weather and climate extremes on the planet (see http://www.munichreamerica.com/webinars/2013_01_natcatreview/MunichRe_III_NatCat01032013.pdf). Nevertheless, these extremes continue to take a toll on the nation, diverting public and private funds while limiting economic growth and jobs and threatening the well-being of Americans. Extreme weather events affect every state and manifest differently by region (see Figure 1 in Supporting Information in the online version of this Forum and http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions/summary-stats).

  10. U. S. Energy and Economic Growth, 1975--2010

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Allen, E. L.; Cooper, C. L.; Edmonds, F. C.; Edmonds, J. A.; Reister, D. B.; Weinberg, A. M.; Whittle, C. E.; Zelby, L. W.

    1976-09-01

    This study projects economic growth (GNP) and energy demand for the U.S. to the year 2010. The main finding is that both GNP and total energy demand are likely to grow significantly more slowly than has been assumed in most analyses of energy policy. Projections of energy, GNP, and electricity (total and per capita) are summarized, with electricity demand expected to grow more rapidly than total energy demand. Two scenarios designated ''high'' and ''low'' were developed in this study. However, even the ''high'' scenario, 126 quads (q; 1 q equals 10/sup 15/ Btu) in 2000, is much lower than most previous estimates. It is felt that this raises serious questions about fundamental energy and energy R and D policies which, generally, have been based on perceptions of more lavish energy futures. Although the aggregate demands and GNP are projected to increase rather modestly, the energy demands per capita and GNP per capita increase at rates comparable to or even higher than historic rates. The authors believe that the projections developed in this study represent a logical culmination of many trends toward lower growth. These trends have not yet been factored into the older energy projections upon which so much energy policy is based.

  11. Economic Well-Being in Salvadoran Transnational Families: How Gender Affects Remittance Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrego, Leisy

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how migrant parents' gender affects transnational families' economic well-being. Drawing on 130 in-depth interviews with Salvadoran immigrants in the United States and adolescent and young adult children of migrants in El Salvador, I demonstrate that the gender of migrant parents centrally affects how well their families are…

  12. Do plastic particles affect microalgal photosynthesis and growth?

    PubMed

    Sjollema, Sascha B; Redondo-Hasselerharm, Paula; Leslie, Heather A; Kraak, Michiel H S; Vethaak, A Dick

    2016-01-01

    The unbridled increase in plastic pollution of the world's oceans raises concerns about potential effects these materials may have on microalgae, which are primary producers at the basis of the food chain and a major global source of oxygen. Our current understanding about the potential modes and mechanisms of toxic action that plastic particles exert on microalgae is extremely limited. How effects might vary with particle size and the physico-chemical properties of the specific plastic material in question are equally unelucidated, but may hold clues to how toxicity, if observed, is exerted. In this study we selected polystyrene particles, both negatively charged and uncharged, and three different sizes (0.05, 0.5 and 6μm) for testing the effects of size and material properties. Microalgae were exposed to different polystyrene particle sizes and surface charges for 72h. Effects on microalgal photosynthesis and growth were determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry and flow cytometry, respectively. None of the treatments tested in these experiments had an effect on microalgal photosynthesis. Microalgal growth was negatively affected (up to 45%) by uncharged polystyrene particles, but only at high concentrations (250mg/L). Additionally, these adverse effects were demonstrated to increase with decreasing particle size. PMID:26675372

  13. Artificial Polychromatic Light Affects Growth and Physiology in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming use of artificial light on captive animals, its effect on those animals has rarely been studied experimentally. Housing animals in controlled light conditions is useful for assessing the effects of light. The chicken is one of the best-studied animals in artificial light experiments, and here, we evaluate the effect of polychromatic light with various green and blue components on the growth and physiology in chicks. The results indicate that green-blue dual light has two side-effects on chick body mass, depending on the various green to blue ratios. Green-blue dual light with depleted and medium blue component decreased body mass, whereas enriched blue component promoted body mass in chicks compared with monochromatic green- or blue spectra-treated chicks. Moreover, progressive changes in the green to blue ratios of green-blue dual light could give rise to consistent progressive changes in body mass, as suggested by polychromatic light with higher blue component resulting in higher body mass. Correlation analysis confirmed that food intake was positively correlated with final body mass in chicks (R2 = 0.7664, P = 0.0001), suggesting that increased food intake contributed to the increased body mass in chicks exposed to higher blue component. We also found that chicks exposed to higher blue component exhibited higher blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the glucose level was positively related to the final body mass (R2 = 0.6406, P = 0.0001) and food intake (R2 = 0.784, P = 0.0001). These results demonstrate that spectral composition plays a crucial role in affecting growth and physiology in chicks. Moreover, consistent changes in spectral components might cause the synchronous response of growth and physiology. PMID:25469877

  14. Employer-Sponsored Insurance, Health Care Cost Growth, and the Economic Performance of U.S. Industries

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neeraj; Ghosh, Arkadipta; Escarce, José J

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of growth in health care costs that outpaces gross domestic product (GDP) growth (“excess” growth in health care costs) on employment, gross output, and value added to GDP of U.S. industries. Study Setting We analyzed data from 38 U.S. industries for the period 1987–2005. All data are publicly available from various government agencies. Study Design We estimated bivariate and multivariate regressions. To develop the regression models, we assumed that rapid growth in health care costs has a larger effect on economic performance for industries where large percentages of workers receive employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI). We used the estimated regression coefficients to simulate economic outcomes under alternative scenarios of health care cost inflation. Results Faster growth in health care costs had greater adverse effects on economic outcomes for industries with larger percentages of workers who had ESI. We found that a 10 percent increase in excess growth in health care costs would have resulted in 120,803 fewer jobs, US$28,022 million in lost gross output, and US$14,082 million in lost value added in 2005. These declines represent 0.17 to 0.18 percent of employment, gross output, and value added in 2005. Conclusion Excess growth in health care costs is adversely affecting the economic performance of U.S. industries. PMID:19500165

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ACCOUNTING: BALANCING ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern industrial economies depend on the environment to support economic production and a high standard of living. Economic production, in turn, impacts the productivity of ecosystems through waste production and resource use or diversion. Human activities control many energy an...

  16. Does Training Affect Growth? Answers to Common Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Robin M.; Bass, Shona; Caine, Dennis; Howe, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Adolescent athletes may be at risk of restricted growth and delayed maturation when combining intense training with insufficient energy intake. Because catch-up growth commonly occurs with reduced training, final adult stature is generally not compromised. However, in athletes with long-term, clinically delayed maturation, catch-up growth may be…

  17. Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

  18. Can Education Equality Trickle-Down to Economic Growth? The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilon, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Education equality is generally neglected in the literature that investigates education's contribution to economic growth. This paper examines the case of Korea where economic growth, education equality (as measured by years of schooling), and educational quality have all been on the rise for many decades. Using time series data on schooling for…

  19. Can Higher Education Foster Economic Growth? Chicago Fed Letter. Number 229

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    Not all observers agree that higher education and economic growth are obvious or necessary complements to each other. The controversy may be exacerbated because of the difficulty of measuring the exact contribution of colleges and universities to economic growth. Recognizing that a model based on local conditions and higher education's response…

  20. Governmental Disability Welfare Expenditure and National Economic Growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to describe the welfare expenditure for people with disabilities and examine its relation to national economic growth from 1991 to 2006 in Taiwan. We analyzed data mainly from the information of population with disabilities, disability welfare expenditure and national economic growth and gross national…

  1. An Empirical Analysis of Social Capital and Economic Growth in Europe (1980-2000)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neira, Isabel; Vazquez, Emilia; Portela, Marta

    2009-01-01

    It is of paramount concern for economists to uncover the factors that determine economic growth and social development. In recent years a new field of investigation has come to the fore in which social capital is analysed in order to determine its effect on economic growth. Along these lines the work presented here examines the relationships that…

  2. The Effect of Education on Economic Growth in Greece over the 1960-2000 Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsamadias, Constantinos; Prontzas, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of education on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000 by applying the model introduced by Mankiw, Romer, and Weil. The findings of the empirical analysis reveal that education had a positive and statistically significant effect on economic growth in Greece over the period 1960-2000. The econometric…

  3. Effect of Heifer Frame Score on Growth, Fertility, and Economics

    PubMed Central

    Şentürklü, S.; Landblom, D. G.; Perry, G. A.; Petry, T.

    2015-01-01

    A non-traditional forage-based protocol was employed to evaluate replacement heifer growth, fertility, and economics between small frame (SF, 3.50; n = 50) and large frame (LF, 5.56; n = 50) heifers using three increasing gain growth phases. Preceding an 85 d growing-breeding period (Phase 3; P3) the heifers were managed as a common group for Phases 1 and 2 (P1 and P2). During P1, heifers grazed common fields of unharvested corn and corn residue (total digestible nutrients [TDN] 56%) with supplemental hay. For P2, heifers grazed early spring crested wheatgrass pasture (CWG; TDN 62%) that was followed by the final P3 drylot growing and breeding period (TDN 68%). Small frame heifers were lighter at the end of P1 in May and at the start of P3 breeding in August (p = 0.0002). Percent of mature body weight (BW) at the end of P1 (209 d) was 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, for the SF and LF heifers and the percent pubertal was lower for SF than for LF heifers (18.0% vs 40.0%; p = 0.02). At breeding initiation (P3), the percentage of mature BW was 57.8 and 57.2 and the percentage pubertal was 90.0 and 96.0 (p = 0.07) for the SF and LF heifers, respectively; a 5-fold increase for SF heifers. Breeding cycle pregnancy on days 21, 42, and 63, and total percent pregnant did not differ (p>0.10). In drylot, SF heifer dry matter intake (DMI) was 20.1% less (p = 0.001) and feed cost/d was 20.3% lower (p = 0.001), but feed cost/kg of gain did not differ between SF and LF heifers (p = 0.41). Economically important live animal measurements for muscling were measured in May and at the end of the study in October. SF heifers had greater L. dorsi muscle area per unit of BW than LF heifers (p = 0.03). Small frame heifer value was lower at weaning (p = 0.005) and the non-pregnant ending heifer value was lower for SF heifers than for the LF heifers (p = 0.005). However, the total development cost was lower for SF heifers (p = 0.001) and the net cost per pregnant heifer, after accounting for

  4. Effect of heifer frame score on growth, fertility, and economics.

    PubMed

    Şentürklü, S; Landblom, D G; Perry, G A; Petry, T

    2015-01-01

    A non-traditional forage-based protocol was employed to evaluate replacement heifer growth, fertility, and economics between small frame (SF, 3.50; n = 50) and large frame (LF, 5.56; n = 50) heifers using three increasing gain growth phases. Preceding an 85 d growing-breeding period (Phase 3; P3) the heifers were managed as a common group for Phases 1 and 2 (P1 and P2). During P1, heifers grazed common fields of unharvested corn and corn residue (total digestible nutrients [TDN] 56%) with supplemental hay. For P2, heifers grazed early spring crested wheatgrass pasture (CWG; TDN 62%) that was followed by the final P3 drylot growing and breeding period (TDN 68%). Small frame heifers were lighter at the end of P1 in May and at the start of P3 breeding in August (p = 0.0002). Percent of mature body weight (BW) at the end of P1 (209 d) was 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, for the SF and LF heifers and the percent pubertal was lower for SF than for LF heifers (18.0% vs 40.0%; p = 0.02). At breeding initiation (P3), the percentage of mature BW was 57.8 and 57.2 and the percentage pubertal was 90.0 and 96.0 (p = 0.07) for the SF and LF heifers, respectively; a 5-fold increase for SF heifers. Breeding cycle pregnancy on days 21, 42, and 63, and total percent pregnant did not differ (p>0.10). In drylot, SF heifer dry matter intake (DMI) was 20.1% less (p = 0.001) and feed cost/d was 20.3% lower (p = 0.001), but feed cost/kg of gain did not differ between SF and LF heifers (p = 0.41). Economically important live animal measurements for muscling were measured in May and at the end of the study in October. SF heifers had greater L. dorsi muscle area per unit of BW than LF heifers (p = 0.03). Small frame heifer value was lower at weaning (p = 0.005) and the non-pregnant ending heifer value was lower for SF heifers than for the LF heifers (p = 0.005). However, the total development cost was lower for SF heifers (p = 0.001) and the net cost per pregnant heifer, after accounting for

  5. Economic "Growth" vs. "Development" of Rural Communities: It Means the Difference between Local and Outside Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Maria

    1994-01-01

    Economic growth increases the amount of money in a community but does not increase the community's capacity to steer its own direction as economic development can. The accomplishments of Rio Arriba County (New Mexico) offer a rare example of successful economic development. Sustainable environmentalism, instead of conservation, considers people as…

  6. Statistical Analysis of Different Socio Economic Factors Affecting Education of N-W.F.P (Pakistan)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Atta Ur; Uddin, Salah

    2009-01-01

    A data of students in the urban and rural area institutions of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group was collected to examine the different socio-economic factor which affects our education system. The logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate)…

  7. Socio-Economic Status Affects Sentence Repetition, but Not Non-Word Repetition, in Chilean Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balladares, Jaime; Marshall, Chloë; Griffiths, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Sentence repetition and non-word repetition tests are widely used measures of language processing which are sensitive to language ability. Surprisingly little previous work has investigated whether children's socio-economic status (SES) affects their sentence and non-word repetition accuracy. This study investigates sentence and non-word…

  8. High-Growth Firms and the Future of the American Economy. Kauffman Foundation Research Series: Firm Formation and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stangler, Dane

    2010-01-01

    Into early 2010, more than two years after the recession began, the American economy continues to send out mixed signals with respect to economic recovery: GDP (gross domestic product) growth looks set to recover, while unemployment is projected to remain high for many more years. The most important economic matter facing the country is job…

  9. ICT in Education: Catalyst for Economic Growth in the Congo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngoma, Sylvester

    2010-01-01

    The correlation between ICT-supported education system and economic development of a developing country has been documented by several studies (Anderson, 2009; Selwood et al, 2003; and Unwin, 2009). Today's Information and Communication Technology can significantly and positively impact the educational and economic landscape of the Democratic…

  10. Organizational Career Growth, Affective Occupational Commitment and Turnover Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Survey data, collected from the People's Republic of China, were used to test Weng's (2010) four facet model of career growth and to examine its effect on occupational commitment and turnover intentions. Weng conceptualized career growth as consisting of four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed, and…

  11. How do economic crises affect migrants’ risk of infectious disease? A systematic-narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Karanikolos, Marina; Williams, Gemma; Mladovsky, Philipa; King, Lawrence; Pharris, Anastasia; Suk, Jonathan E.; Hatzakis, Angelos; McKee, Martin; Noori, Teymur; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is not well understood how economic crises affect infectious disease incidence and prevalence, particularly among vulnerable groups. Using a susceptible-infected-recovered framework, we systematically reviewed literature on the impact of the economic crises on infectious disease risks in migrants in Europe, focusing principally on HIV, TB, hepatitis and other STIs. Methods: We conducted two searches in PubMed/Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, websites of key organizations and grey literature to identify how economic changes affect migrant populations and infectious disease. We perform a narrative synthesis in order to map critical pathways and identify hypotheses for subsequent research. Results: The systematic review on links between economic crises and migrant health identified 653 studies through database searching; only seven met the inclusion criteria. Fourteen items were identified through further searches. The systematic review on links between economic crises and infectious disease identified 480 studies through database searching; 19 met the inclusion criteria. Eight items were identified through further searches. The reviews show that migrant populations in Europe appear disproportionately at risk of specific infectious diseases, and that economic crises and subsequent responses have tended to exacerbate such risks. Recessions lead to unemployment, impoverishment and other risk factors that can be linked to the transmissibility of disease among migrants. Austerity measures that lead to cuts in prevention and treatment programmes further exacerbate infectious disease risks among migrants. Non-governmental health service providers occasionally stepped in to cater to specific populations that include migrants. Conclusions: There is evidence that migrants are especially vulnerable to infectious disease during economic crises. Ring-fenced funding of prevention programs, including screening and treatment, is important for

  12. Landscape Urbanization and Economic Growth in China: Positive Feedbacks and Sustainability Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China’s policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization. PMID:22103244

  13. Landscape urbanization and economic growth in China: positive feedbacks and sustainability dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuemei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Peijun

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China's policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization. PMID:22103244

  14. Does Human Capital Contribute to Economic Growth in Mauritius?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeliah, Harris; Seetanah, Boopen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Real gross domestic product (GDP) growth for Mauritius has averaged more than 5 per cent since 1970 and GDP per capita has increased more than tenfold between 1970 and 2012, from less than $500 to more than $9,000. It has often been reported that human capital, along with other growth enablers, has played an important role in this…

  15. Modeling the effects of health on economic growth.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, A; Jamison, D T; Lau, L J; Murray, C J

    2001-05-01

    This paper investigates the effects of health indicators such as adult survival rates (ASR) on GDP growth rates at 5-year intervals in several countries. Panel data were analyzed on GDP series based on purchasing power adjustments and on exchange rates. First, we developed a framework for modeling the inter-relationships between GDP growth rates and explanatory variables by re-examining the life expectancy-income relationship. Second, models for growth rates were estimated taking into account the interaction between ASR and lagged GDP level; issues of endogeneity and reverse causality were addressed. Lastly, we computed confidence intervals for the effect of ASR on growth rate and applied a test for parameter stability. The results showed positive effects of ASR on GDP growth rates in low-income countries. PMID:11373839

  16. How do socio-economic status, perceived economic barriers and nutritional benefits affect quality of dietary intake among US adults?

    PubMed Central

    Beydoun, May A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Socio-economic factors may affect diet quality, perhaps differentially across gender and ethnicity. The mechanism of this association is still largely unknown. Objectives We examined the independent effects of socio-economic status (SES), perceived barrier of food price (PBFP), and perceived benefit of diet quality (PBDQ) on diet quality indicators and indices (DQIj,k), across gender and ethnicity. Additionally, we estimated the mediation proportion of the effect of SES on DQIj,k through PBFP and PBDQ. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) and Diet and Health Knowledge Survey (DHKS) 1994–96 were used. Our sample consisted of 4,356 US adults aged 20–65 years. With principal components analysis, SES (an index) was measured using household income per capita and education, and PBDQ was measured using an 11-item scale. PBFP was defined as the ratio of importance of food price score relative to nutrition. DQIj,k were assessed by a set of indicators and two indices including the Healthy Eating Index. Results The associations between SES, PBFP, PBDQ, and DQIj,k varied significantly across gender and ethnic groups. PBFP acted as a mediator in the association between SES and selected DQIj indicators, namely energy, fat intake, sodium, and simple sugar consumption (mediation proportion>10%), but not PBDQ. Conclusions SES, PBFP and PBDQ all affect dietary intake, and vary by ethnicity and gender. Positive effect of SES on DQIj,k may be mediated by PBFP but not PBDQ which is an independent protective factor. Nutrition education is important to promote healthy eating. PMID:17342164

  17. Factors affecting plant growth in membrane nutrient delivery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Wheeler, R. M.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of the tubular membrane plant growth unit for the delivery of water and nutrients to roots in microgravity has recently focused on measuring the effects of changes in physical variables controlling solution availability to the plants. Significant effects of membrane pore size and the negative pressure used to contain the solution were demonstrated. Generally, wheat grew better in units with a larger pore size but equal negative pressure and in units with the same pore size but less negative pressure. Lettuce also exhibited better plant growth at less negative pressure.

  18. Effects of drought-affected corn and nonstarch polysaccharide enzyme inclusion on nursery pig growth performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, C K; Frantz, E L; Bingham, A C; Bergstrom, J R; DeRouchey, J M; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The effectiveness of carbohydrase enzymes has been inconsistent in corn-based swine diets; however, the increased substrate of nonstarch polysaccharides in drought-affected corn may provide an economic model for enzyme inclusion, but this has not been evaluated. A total of 360 barrows (PIC 1050 × 337, initially 5.85 kg BW) were used to determine the effects of drought-affected corn inclusion with or without supplementation of commercial carbohydrases on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of nursery pigs. Initially, 34 corn samples were collected to find representatives of normal and drought-affected corn. The lot selected to represent the normal corn had a test weight of 719.4 kg/m3, 15.0% moisture, and 4.2% xylan. The lot selected to represent drought-affected corn had a test weight of 698.8 kg/m3, 14.3% moisture, and 4.7% xylan. After a 10-d acclimation period postweaning, nursery pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 4 factorial with main effects of corn (normal vs. drought affected) and enzyme inclusion (none vs. 100 mg/kg Enzyme A vs. 250 mg/kg Enzyme B vs. 100 mg/kg Enzyme A + 250 mg/kg Enzyme B). Both enzymes were included blends of β-glucanase, cellulose, and xylanase (Enzyme A) or hemicellulase and pectinases (Enzyme B). Pigs were fed treatment diets from d 10 to 35 postweaning in 2 phases. Feed and fecal samples were collected on d 30 postweaning to determine apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. The nutrient concentrations of normal and drought-affected corn were similar, which resulted in few treatment or main effects differences of corn type or enzyme inclusion. No interactions were observed (P > 0.10) between corn source and enzyme inclusion. Overall (d 10 to 35), treatments had no effect on ADG or ADFI, but enzyme A inclusion tended to improve (P < 0.10; 0.74 vs. 0.69) G:F, which was primarily driven by the improved feed efficiency (0

  19. Limits to Economic Growth: Why Direct Investments Are Needed to Address Child Undernutrition in India

    PubMed Central

    Subramanyam, Malavika A

    2015-01-01

    About two of every five undernourished young children of the world live in India. These high levels of child undernutrition have persisted in India for several years, even in its relatively well-developed states. Moreover, this pattern was observed during a period of rapid economic growth. Evidence from India and other developing countries suggests that economic growth has little to no impact on reducing child undernutrition. We argue that a growth-mediated strategy is unlikely to be effective in tackling child undernutrition unless growth is pro-poor and leads to investment in programs addressing the root causes of this persistent challenge. PMID:26617445

  20. Limits to Economic Growth: Why Direct Investments Are Needed to Address Child Undernutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, S V; Subramanyam, Malavika A

    2015-11-01

    About two of every five undernourished young children of the world live in India. These high levels of child undernutrition have persisted in India for several years, even in its relatively well-developed states. Moreover, this pattern was observed during a period of rapid economic growth. Evidence from India and other developing countries suggests that economic growth has little to no impact on reducing child undernutrition. We argue that a growth-mediated strategy is unlikely to be effective in tackling child undernutrition unless growth is pro-poor and leads to investment in programs addressing the root causes of this persistent challenge. PMID:26617445

  1. Dissolved oxygen concentration affects hybrid striped bass growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in ponds at night during the growing season is important because fish growth and yield are greater in ponds with higher nightly DO concentrations. Three studies were conducted to quantify performance traits and metabolic responses of hybrid striped b...

  2. Seed Production Affects Maternal Growth and Senescence in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wuest, Samuel Elias; Philipp, Matthias Anton; Guthörl, Daniela; Schmid, Bernhard; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-05-01

    Correlative control (influence of one organ over another organ) of seeds over maternal growth is one of the most obvious phenotypic expressions of the trade-off between growth and reproduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the physiological and molecular effects of correlative inhibition by seeds on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescences, i.e. global proliferative arrest (GPA) during which all maternal growth ceases upon the production of a given number of seeds. We observed transcriptional responses to growth- and branching-inhibitory hormones, and low mitotic activity in meristems upon GPA, but found that meristems retain their identity and proliferative potential. In shoot tissues, we detected the induction of stress- and senescence-related gene expression upon fruit production and GPA, and a drop in chlorophyll levels, suggestive of altered source-sink relationships between vegetative shoot and reproductive tissues. Levels of shoot reactive oxygen species, however, strongly decreased upon GPA, a phenomenon that is associated with bud dormancy in some perennials. Indeed, gene expression changes in arrested apical inflorescences after fruit removal resembled changes observed in axillary buds following release from apical dominance. This suggests that GPA represents a form of bud dormancy, and that dominance is gradually transferred from growing inflorescences to maturing seeds, allowing offspring control over maternal resources, simultaneously restricting offspring number. This would provide a mechanistic explanation for the constraint between offspring quality and quantity. PMID:27009281

  3. Entrepreneurship Education as a Strategic Approach to Economic Growth in Kenya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert E.; Johnson, Scott D.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of technical education and training in supporting economic growth in Kenya, including entrepreneurship education, teacher training, and stimulation of small enterprises through training and consultancy. The importance of creating an entrepreneurial culture through education is stressed. (SK)

  4. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  5. Economic Growth and the Ehrenfest Fleas:. the Convergence among Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Gennaro, Luca; Garibaldi, Ubaldo

    The aim of this work is to predict the economic convergence among countries by using a generalization of Ehrenfest's urn. In particular this work shows that the Ehrenfest model captures the convergence among countries. A empirical analysis is presented on the European Union countries, the G7 countries and the emerging countries.

  6. Spurring Economic Growth through Education: The Malaysian Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, R. Ramesh; Jani, Rohana

    2009-01-01

    The economic progress made by many countries is attributed to many factors. Education is often quoted as a major contributing factor. There are many researches done in evaluating and determining the role of education in nations. In this paper, factors of education which have helped in the case of Malaysia are dwelled upon. Education has helped…

  7. Higher Education and Economic Growth in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapingkae, Amnuay, Ed.

    This research project, which was originally mounted in five countries--Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam--is concerned with four key questions. They are: (1) What are the social and economic forces that contribute to the rapid expansion of universities in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Singapore? (2) What are the monetary…

  8. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions: Empirical evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaojian; Li, Qiuying; Fang, Chuanglin; Zhou, Chunshan

    2016-01-15

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions in China, using data for the period 1990-2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO2 emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO2 emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long-term energy and economic policies in

  9. Phasic temperature change patterns affect growth and tuberization in potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T.W. . Dept. of Horticulture)

    1994-07-01

    This study determined the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Norland) plants to various patterns of air temperature changes over different growth periods. In each of two experiments under controlled environments, eight treatments of temperature changes were carried out in two growth rooms maintained at 17 and 22 C and a constant vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa and 14-hour photoperiod. Plants were grown for 63 days after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets in 20-liter pots containing peat-vermiculite mix. Temperature changes were imposed on days 21 and 42, which were essentially at the beginning of tuber initiation and tuber enlargement, respectively, for this cultivar. Plants were moved between two temperature rooms to obtain eight temperature change patterns: 17-17-17, 17-17-22, 17-22-17, 22-17-17, 17-22-22, 22-17-22, 22-22-17, and 22-22-22C over three 21-day growth periods. At harvest on day 63, total plant dry weight was higher for the treatments beginning with 22 C than for those beginning with 17C, with highest biomass obtained at 22-22-17 and 22-17-17C. Shoot dry weight increased with temperature increased from 17-17-17 to 22-22-22C during the three growth periods. Tuber dry weight was highest with 22-17-17C, and lowest with 17-17-22 and 17-22-22C. With 22-17-17C, both dry weights of stolons and roots were lowest. Total tuber number and number of small tubers were highest with 17-17-17 and 17-17-22C, and lowest with 17-22-22 and 22-22-22C, whereas number of medium tubers was highest with 22-17-22C, and number of large tubers was highest with 22-17-17C. This study indicates that tuber development of potatoes is optimized with a phasic pattern of high temperature during early growth and low temperature during later growth.

  10. Economic growth, inequality, and the economic position of the poor in 1985-1995: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Olli

    2002-01-01

    The "trickle-down" theory argues that wider income differences are good for economic growth, that growth is good for the poor, and therefore that widening income disparities benefit the poor. The theory thus fulfills Rawlsian principles of justice. The purpose of this article is to present a preliminary evaluation of the correctness of this theory. Income data for 21 countries were obtained from the Luxembourg Income Study, for the period 1985-95. The results of the analysis show no clear connections between inequality and economic prosperity. The wider the inequality, the worse is the absolute income of the poor. In this respect the theory is falsified. However, the trickle-down theory is partly correct in arguing for the beneficial effects of economic growth for the poor: the absolute income level of the poor is dependent on what is happening in the national economy, while the incidence and depth of poverty in advanced countries are not so much associated with economic factors as a result of national social policy programs. PMID:12067029

  11. Taking Action for America: A CEO Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Roundtable, 2012

    2012-01-01

    America faces many challenges in working together to restore the promise of economic growth and security for the country, U.S. families and the American worker. The challenges are both real and serious. Despite hopeful signs of economic recovery, America remains mired in the deepest jobs crisis since the 1930s. One out of every 12 Americans who…

  12. Promoting Local Economic Growth: The Role of Entrepreneurship and Human Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Michael; Plummer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A question that currently confronts economic policy practitioners is how to promote local economic growth in regions, cities and places, in a neo-liberal political climate under conditions of intensifying global competition. This paper argues that we need to understand the workings of our local economies--the processes that shape, mould and drive…

  13. Resource Limitations, the Demand for Education and Economic Growth--A Macroeconomic View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stam, Jerome M.

    To develop a theoretical framework for explaining the observed change in demand for human skill and knowledge that occurs with economic growth, a macroeconomic analysis was made of economic variables which are influenced by political, social, and cultural factors. In the three-dimensional framework, total output (Y) of all final goods and services…

  14. Determinants of Human Capital Formation and Economic Growth of African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses O.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid economic growth and improving living standards have benefited almost all regions of the world since the industrial revolution. Africa stands out as one regional exception. While several factors such as civil wars and rampant corruption have been associated with poor economic performance of the African region in the international community,…

  15. The New Economy: Beyond the Hype. The OECD Growth Project. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Rory; Durand, Martine; Pilat, Dirk; Torres, Raymond

    Shifts that have taken place in growth patterns of the economies of Organisation of Economic Co-Operation and Development countries in recent years are examined. The key factor to examine is productivity, since its increase allows the achievement of faster rates of noninflationary economic expansion. By the end of the 1990s, evidence of…

  16. Organic Matter Loading Affects Lodgepole Pine Seedling Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaohua; Li, Qinglin; Waterhouse, M. J.; Armleder, H. M.

    2012-06-01

    Organic matter plays important roles in returning nutrients to the soil, maintaining forest productivity and creating habitats in forest ecosystems. Forest biomass is in increasing demand for energy production, and organic matter has been considered as a potential supply. Thus, an important management question is how much organic matter should be retained after forest harvesting to maintain forest productivity. To address this question, an experimental trial was established in 1996 to evaluate the responses of lodgepole pine seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments. Four organic matter loading treatments were randomly assigned to each of four homogeneous pine sites: removal of all organic matter on the forest floor, organic matter loading quantity similar to whole-tree-harvesting residuals left on site, organic matter loading quantity similar to stem-only-harvesting residuals, and organic matter loading quantity more similar to what would be found in disease- or insect-killed stands. Our 10-year data showed that height and diameter had 29 and 35 % increase, respectively, comparing the treatment with the most organic matter loading to the treatment with the least organic matter loading. The positive response of seedling growth to organic matter loading may be associated with nutrients and/or microclimate change caused by organic matter, and requires further study. The dynamic response of seedling growth to organic matter loading treatments highlights the importance of long-term studies. Implications of those results on organic matter management are discussed in the context of forest productivity sustainability.

  17. Growth in body size affects rotational performance in women's gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Ackland, Timothy; Elliott, Bruce; Richards, Joanne

    2003-07-01

    National and state representative female gymnasts (n = 37), aged initially between 10 and 12 years, completed a mixed longitudinal study over 3.3 years, to investigate the effect of body size on gymnastic performance. Subjects were tested at four-monthly intervals on a battery of measures including structural growth, strength and gymnastic performance. The group were divided into 'high growers' and 'low growers' based on height (> 18 cm or < 14 cm/37 months, respectively) and body mass (> 15 kg or < 12 kg/37 months, respectively) for comparative purposes. Development of gymnastic performance was assessed through generic skills (front and back rotations, a twisting jump and a V-sit action) and a vertical jump for maximum height. The results show that the smaller gymnast, with a high strength to mass ratio, has greater potential for performing skills involving whole-body rotations. Larger gymnasts, while able to produce more power and greater angular momentum, could not match the performance of the smaller ones. The magnitude of growth experienced by the gymnast over this period has a varying effect on performance. While some activities were greatly influenced by rapid increases in whole-body moment of inertia (e.g. back rotation), performance on others like the front rotation and vertical jump, appeared partly immune to the physical and mechanical changes associated with growth. PMID:14737925

  18. Growth and aggressiveness factors affecting Monilinia spp. survival peaches.

    PubMed

    Villarino, M; Melgarejo, P; De Cal, A

    2016-06-16

    Brown rot of stone fruit is caused by three species of Monilinia, Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola. Eleven components of 20 different isolates of each of the three Monilinia species were analyzed to determine distinct aggressiveness and growth characteristics among the three fungi. M. fructicola showed the greatest lesion diameter, and the lowest incubation and latency period on fruit postharvest, however isolates of M. fructigena exhibited less aggressiveness components. Five growth characteristics of M. fructicola could be used to distinguish M. fructicola from the other two species. The dendrogram generated from only the presence of sclerotia and lesion length on infected fruit separated the 60 isolates into two clusters (r=0.93). One cluster was composed of the M. laxa and M. fructigena isolates and the other cluster comprised the M. fructicola isolates. However, the dendrogram generated based on the presence of stromata and sclerotia in the same colony of the three species when they were grown on potato dextrose agar, and the lesion diameter on fruit infected with each species separated the 60 isolates into three clusters (r=0.81). Each cluster comprised the isolates of each of three Monilinia spp. We discussed the effect of M. fructicola growth and aggressiveness differences on the displacement of M. laxa and M. fructigena by M. fructicola recorded in Spanish peach orchards and their effect on brown rot at postharvest. PMID:27043383

  19. Growth and aggressiveness factors affecting Monilinia spp. survival peaches.

    PubMed

    Villarino, M; Melgarejo, P; De Cal, A

    2016-05-01

    Brown rot of stone fruit is caused by three species of Monilinia, Monilinia laxa, M. fructigena, and M. fructicola. Eleven components of 20 different isolates of each of the three Monilinia species were analysed to determine distinct aggressiveness and growth characteristics among the three fungi. M. fructicola showed the greatest lesion diameter, and the lowest incubation and latency period on fruit postharvest, however isolates of M. fructigena exhibited less aggressiveness components. Five growth characteristics of M. fructicola could be used to distinguish M. fructicola from the other two species. The dendrogram generated from only the presence of sclerotia and lesion length on infected fruit separated the 60 isolates into two clusters (r=0.93). One cluster was composed of the M. laxa and M. fructigena isolates and the other cluster comprised the M. fructicola isolates. However, the dendrogram generated based on the presence of stromata and sclerotia in the same colony of the three species when they were grown on potato dextrose agar, and the lesion diameter on fruit infected with each species separated the 60 isolates into three clusters (r=0.81). Each cluster comprised the isolates of each of three Monilinia spp. We discussed the effect of M. fructicola growth and aggressiveness differences on the displacement of M. laxa and M. fructigena by M. fructicola recorded in Spanish peach orchards and their effect on brown rot at postharvest. PMID:26918325

  20. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  1. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  2. Influence of corruption on economic growth rate and foreign investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobnik, Boris; Shao, Jia; Njavro, Djuro; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-06-01

    We analyze the dependence of the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP) per capita growth rates on changes in the Corruption Perceptions Index ( CPI). For the period 1999 2004 for all countries in the world, we find on average that an increase of CPI by one unit leads to an increase of the annual GDP per capita growth rate by 1.7%. By regressing only the European countries with transition economies, we find that an increase of CPI by one unit generates an increase of the annual GDP per capita growth rate by 2.4%. We also analyze the relation between foreign direct investments received by different countries and CPI, and we find a statistically significant power-law functional dependence between foreign direct investment per capita and the country corruption level measured by the CPI. We introduce a new measure to quantify the relative corruption between countries based on their respective wealth as measured by GDP per capita.

  3. Stringent Mitigation Policy Implied By Temperature Impacts on Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Turner, D.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated assessment models (IAMs) compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change in order to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained GDP growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth-rates in the Dynamic Integrated Climate and Economy (DICE) model via two pathways, total factor productivity (TFP) growth and capital depreciation. Even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, this damage specification implies that optimal climate policy involves the elimination of emissions in the near future, the stabilization of global temperature change below 2°C, and a social cost of carbon (SCC) an order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of growth effects, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages from warming and GDP are three critical uncertainties and an important focus for future research.

  4. The Economic Base of Recent Population Growth in Nonmetropolitan Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Larry; DeAre, Diana

    In the late 1970s both jobs and population were growing more rapidly outside metropolitan areas. As a group, nonmetropolitan counties not adjacent to a metropolitan area experienced a faster rate of employment growth than metropolitan areas between 1975-79. Even in rural counties (no urban place of 2,500 or more) not adjacent to a metropolitan…

  5. Academic Enterprise and Regional Economic Growth: Towards an Enterprising University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollard, David; Zhang, Michael; Jones, Oswald

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the potential and actual contributions to regional development and growth that UK higher education institutions can make through their "third mission" activities. The authors adopt a case study approach and qualitative methods to analyze the details of academic activities, especially those related to business sectors and the…

  6. Promoting Sustainable Economic Growth in Mexico (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Butheau, M.; Sandor, D.

    2013-11-01

    Mexico is the second largest economy in Latin America, with rapid growth occurring in the industrial and services sectors. A forward-thinking country on climate change, the nation recognizes that the threat of higher temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and more frequent weather-related disasters could pose a substantial risk to its expanding economy.

  7. Study on Relationship of Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang-wei, Li; Xun-gang, Zheng

    Energy is one of the most basic materials of the national economy, which plays an important role in national productin and life. The relationship between energy consumption and economic growth has been a fascinating question since energy crisis in 70s of last century. This paper analyzes the relationship between energy consumption and economic development based on the VAR model using temporal series of China from 1990 to 2009, then uses impulse response function and variance decomposition to portray the correlations between economic growth and energy consumption. The result shows that there exists a unidirectional causality from energy consumption to gross domestic product and energy consumption can observably promote the development of economy.

  8. Mexican propolis flavonoids affect photosynthesis and seedling growth.

    PubMed

    King-Díaz, Beatriz; Granados-Pineda, Jessica; Bah, Mustapha; Rivero-Cruz, J Fausto; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2015-10-01

    As a continuous effort to find new natural products with potential herbicide activity, flavonoids acacetin (1), chrysin (2) and 4',7-dimethylnarangenin (3) were isolated from a propolis sample collected in the rural area of Mexico City and their effects on the photosynthesis light reactions and on the growth of Lolium perenne, Echinochloa crus-galli and Physalis ixocarpa seedlings were investigated. Acacetin (1) acted as an uncoupler by enhancing the electron transport under basal and phosphorylating conditions and the Mg(2+)-ATPase. Chrysin (2) at low concentrations behaved as an uncoupler and at concentrations up to 100 μM its behavior was as a Hill reaction inhibitor. Finally, 4',7-dimethylnarangenin (3) in a concentration-dependent manner behaved as a Hill reaction inhibitor. Flavonoids 2 and 3 inhibited the uncoupled photosystem II reaction measured from water to 2,5-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), and they did not inhibit the uncoupled partial reactions measured from water to sodium silicomolybdate (SiMo) and from diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to diclorophenol indophenol (DCPIP). These results indicated that chrysin and 4',7-dimethylnarangenin inhibited the acceptor side of PS II. The results were corroborated with fluorescence of chlorophyll a measurements. Flavonoids also showed activity on the growth of seedlings of Lolium perenne and Echinochloa crus-galli. PMID:26318278

  9. Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction: Measurement and Policy Issues. OECD Development Centre Working Paper No. 246

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasen, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this Working Paper is to broaden the debate on "pro-poor growth". An exclusive focus on the income dimension of poverty has neglected the non-income dimensions. After an examination of prominent views on the linkages between economic growth, inequality, and poverty reduction this paper discusses the proper definition and measurement of…

  10. Globalization and Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence on the Role of Complementarities

    PubMed Central

    Samimi, Parisa; Jenatabadi, Hashem Salarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country’s level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms. PMID:24721896

  11. Globalization and economic growth: empirical evidence on the role of complementarities.

    PubMed

    Samimi, Parisa; Jenatabadi, Hashem Salarzadeh

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of economic globalization on economic growth in OIC countries. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of complementary policies on the growth effect of globalization. It also investigated whether the growth effect of globalization depends on the income level of countries. Utilizing the generalized method of moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach, we provide evidence which suggests that economic globalization has statistically significant impact on economic growth in OIC countries. The results indicate that this positive effect is increased in the countries with better-educated workers and well-developed financial systems. Our finding shows that the effect of economic globalization also depends on the country's level of income. High and middle-income countries benefit from globalization whereas low-income countries do not gain from it. In fact, the countries should receive the appropriate income level to be benefited from globalization. Economic globalization not only directly promotes growth but also indirectly does so via complementary reforms. PMID:24721896

  12. Residential Segregation,Spatial Mismatch and Economic Growth across US Metropolitan Area

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Dr Harrison; Li, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the detrimental influence of residential segregation on poor inner-city residents. This study examines the impact of residential segregation on the welfare of populations in US metropolitan areas using economic growth as the indicator. Panel data of US metropolitan areas spanning 25 years, 1980 2005, are used to analyze the effect of segregation on economic growth. The results show that both racial and skill segregation have a negative impact on short and long-term economic growth, which have increased over time. Further, the negative impact of the variables associated with spatial mismatch is also revealed. The results clearly point to the need for mobility policies that favor non-White households and comprehensive strategies that promote economic opportunities in low-resource communities in the US.

  13. Formaldehyde exposure affects growth and metabolism of common bean

    SciTech Connect

    Mutters, R.G.; Madore, M. ); Bytnerowicz, A. )

    1993-01-01

    Recent state and federal directives have slated a substantial increase in the use of methanol as an alternative to gasoline in both fleet and private vehicles in the coming decade. The incomplete combustion of methanol produces formaldehyde vapor, and catalytic converter technology that completely oxidizes formaldehyde has yet to be developed. The approach of this study was to use a range of methanol concentrations encompassing levels currently found or that may occur in the future in the ambient air of some heavily polluted areas to test the potential phytotoxicity of formaldehyde. The study had the following objectives: (1) design and build a formaldehyde vapor generator with sufficient capacity for long-term plant fumigations; (2) determine growth response of common bean to formaldehyde; (3) evaluate physiological and biochemical changes of bean plants associated with formaldehyde exposures. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Population growth and economic development in the very long run: a simulation model of three revolutions.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, G; Komlos, J

    1988-08-01

    The authors propose an economic model capable of simulating the 4 main historical stages of civilization: hunting, agricultural, industrial, and postindustrial. An output-maximizing society to respond to changes in factor endowments by switching technologies. Changes in factor proportions arise through population growth and capital accumulation. A slow rate of exogenous technical process is assumed. The model synthesizes Malthusian and Boserupian notions of the effect of population growth on per capita output. Initially the capital-diluting effect of population growth dominates. As population density increases, however, and a threshold is reached, the Boserupian effect becomes crucial, and a technological revolution occurs. The cycle is thereafter repeated. After the second economic revolution, however, the Malthusian constraint dissolves permanently, as population growth can continue without being constrained by diminishing returns to labor. By synthesizing Malthusian and Boserupian notions, the model is able to capture the salient features of economic development in the very long run. PMID:12315554

  15. Racial Geography, Economic Growth and Natural Disaster Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huiping; Fernandez, Steven J.; Ganguly, Auroop

    2014-03-01

    Recent development of National Response Plans and National Incident Management Plans has emphasized the need for interoperability of plans, systems, technology, and command structures. However, much less emphasis has been placed on equally important elements such as the at-risk populations’ response to those plans, systems, and directions. The community-wide consequences of Hurricane Katrina demonstrated that the protection of communities should no longer be considered only a function of public organizations. Private organizations, nonprofit organizations and individual households have significant roles to play in these plans (Comfort 2006, Salamon 2002). This study is a first attempt to characterize the effect on the resilience (recovery) of metropolitan areas by the presence (or absence) of separate small communities within a larger jurisdiction. These communities can be based on many different social cleavages (ethnic, racial, economic, social, geographic, linguistic, etc.).

  16. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  17. Hierarchical structure of the countries based on electricity consumption and economic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin; Aslan, Alper; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the hierarchical structures of countries based on electricity consumption and economic growth by using the real amounts of their consumption over a certain time period. We use electricity consumption data to detect the topological properties of 64 countries from 1971 to 2008. These countries are divided into three clusters: low income group, middle income group and high income group countries. Firstly, a relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth is investigated by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT)). Secondly, we perform bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MST. Finally, we use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure more clearly. The results of the structural topologies of these trees are as follows: (i) we identified different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic growth, (ii) we found a strong relation between energy consumption and economic growth for all the income groups considered in this study and (iii) the results are in good agreement with the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth.

  18. Alteration of proteoglycan sulfation affects bone growth and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gualeni, Benedetta; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Marty-Morieux, Caroline; De Leonardis, Fabio; Franchi, Marco; Monti, Luca; Forlino, Antonella; Houillier, Pascal; Rossi, Antonio; Geoffroy, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is a chondrodysplasia caused by mutations in the SLC26A2 gene, leading to reduced intracellular sulfate pool in chondrocytes, osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Hence, proteoglycans are undersulfated in the cartilage and bone of DTD patients. To characterize the bone phenotype of this skeletal dysplasia we used the Slc26a2 knock-in mouse (dtd mouse), that was previously validated as an animal model of DTD in humans. X-rays, bone densitometry, static and dynamic histomorphometry, and in vitro studies revealed a primary bone defect in the dtd mouse model. We showed in vivo that this primary bone defect in dtd mice is due to decreased bone accrual associated with a decreased trabecular and periosteal appositional rate at the cell level in one month-old mice. Although the osteoclast number evaluated by histomorphometry was not different in dtd compared to wild-type mice, urine analysis of deoxypyridinoline cross-links and serum levels of type I collagen C-terminal telopeptides showed a higher resorption rate in dtd mice compared to wild-type littermates. Electron microscopy studies showed that collagen fibrils in bone were thinner and less organized in dtd compared to wild-type mice. These data suggest that the low bone mass observed in mutant mice could possibly be linked to the different bone matrix compositions/organizations in dtd mice triggering changes in osteoblast and osteoclast activities. Overall, these results suggest that proteoglycan undersulfation not only affects the properties of hyaline cartilage, but can also lead to unbalanced bone modeling and remodeling activities, demonstrating the importance of proteoglycan sulfation in bone homeostasis. PMID:23369989

  19. How psychological framing affects economic market prices in the lab and field

    PubMed Central

    Sonnemann, Ulrich; Camerer, Colin F.; Fox, Craig R.; Langer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental debate in social sciences concerns how individual judgments and choices, resulting from psychological mechanisms, are manifested in collective economic behavior. Economists emphasize the capacity of markets to aggregate information distributed among traders into rational equilibrium prices. However, psychologists have identified pervasive and systematic biases in individual judgment that they generally assume will affect collective behavior. In particular, recent studies have found that judged likelihoods of possible events vary systematically with the way the entire event space is partitioned, with probabilities of each of N partitioned events biased toward 1/N. Thus, combining events into a common partition lowers perceived probability, and unpacking events into separate partitions increases their perceived probability. We look for evidence of such bias in various prediction markets, in which prices can be interpreted as probabilities of upcoming events. In two highly controlled experimental studies, we find clear evidence of partition dependence in a 2-h laboratory experiment and a field experiment on National Basketball Association (NBA) and Federation Internationale de Football Association (FIFA World Cup) sports events spanning several weeks. We also find evidence consistent with partition dependence in nonexperimental field data from prediction markets for economic derivatives (guessing the values of important macroeconomic statistics) and horse races. Results in any one of the studies might be explained by a specialized alternative theory, but no alternative theories can explain the results of all four studies. We conclude that psychological biases in individual judgment can affect market prices, and understanding those effects requires combining a variety of methods from psychology and economics. PMID:23818628

  20. Climate Constraints on the Carbon Intensity of Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Rozenberg, J.; Hallegatte, S.; Narloch, U.

    2015-12-01

    Development and climate goals together constrain the carbon intensity of production. Using a simple and transparent model that represents committed CO2 emissions (i.e. those embedded in installed capital), we explore the carbon intensity of production related to new capital required for different temperature targets across several thousand scenarios. Future pathways consistent with the 2oC target which allow for continued GDP growth require early action to reduce carbon intensity of new production, and either (i) a short lifetime of energy and industry capital (e.g. early retrofit of coal power plants), or (ii) large negative emissions after 2050 (i.e. rapid development and dissemination of carbon capture and sequestration). To achieve the 2oC target, half of the scenarios indicate a carbon intensity of new production between 33 and 73 g CO2/ - much lower than the carbon intensities of the best performing countries today. The average lifespan of energy capital (especially power plants), and industry capital, are critical because they commit emissions far into the future and reduce the budget for new capital emissions. Each year of lifetime added to existing, carbon intensive capital, decreases the carbon intensity of new production required to meet a 2°C carbon budget by 1 to 1.5 g CO2/, and each year of delaying the start of mitigation decreases the required CO2 intensity of new production by 20 to 50 gCO2/$. Constraints on the carbon intensity of new production under a 3°C target are considerably relaxed relative to the 2°C target, but remain daunting in comparison to the carbon intensity of the global economy today. Figure Caption: The relationship between GDP per capita growth, lifetime of energy and industry capital and the required carbon intensity of new production 2013-2050 under a 2°C target.

  1. Using Satellite Data for Environmental Impact Analysis in Economic Growth: the Case of Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tungalag, A.; Tsolmon, R.; Ochirkhuyag, L.; Oyunjargal, J.

    2016-06-01

    The Mongolian economy is based on the primary and secondary economic sectors of agriculture and industry. In addition, minerals and mining become a key sector of its economy. The main mining resources are gold, copper, coal, fluorspar and steel. However, the environment and green economy is one of the big problems among most of the countries and especially for countries like Mongolia where the mining is major part of economy; it is a number one problem. The research of the work tested how environmental elements effect to current Mongolian economic growth, which is growing economy because of mining sector. The study of economic growth but the starting point for any study of economic growth is the neoclassical growth model emphasizing the role of capital accumulation. The growth is analysed either in terms of models with exogenous saving rates (the Solow-Swan model), or models where consumption and hence savings are determined by optimizing individuals. These are the so-called optimal growth or Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans. The study extends the Solow model and the Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model, including environmental elements which are satellite data determine to degraded land and vegetation value from 1995 to 2013. In contrast, we can see the degraded land area increases from 1995 (4856 m2) to 2013 (10478 m2) and vegetation value decrease at same time. A description of the methodology of the study conducted follows together with the data collected and econometric estimations and calibration with environmental elements.

  2. Physicists and Economic Growth: Preparing the Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arion, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    For many years it has been recognized that many physicists are ``hidden'' -- deep in the industrial world or holding positions not named ``physicist.'' In parallel with this phenomenon is the recognition that many new and innovative product ideas are, in fact, generated by physicists. There are many more ideas that could be brought to market to the benefit of both society and the inventor, but physicists don't often see themselves as the innovators and inventors that they actually are. A number of education programs have arisen to try to address this issue and to engender a greater entrepreneurial spirit in the scientific community. The ScienceWorks program at Carthage College was one of the first to do so, and has for nearly twenty years prepared undergraduate science majors to understand and practice innovation and value creation. Other programs, such as professional masters degrees, also serve to bridge the technical and business universes. As it is no doubt easier to teach a scientist the world of business than it is to teach a businessperson the world of physics, providing educational experiences in innovation and commercialization to physics students can have tremendous economic impact, and will also better prepare them for whatever career direction they may ultimately pursue, even if it is the traditional tenure-track university position. This talk will discuss education programs that have been effective at preparing physics students for the professional work environment, and some of the positive outcomes that have resulted. Also discussed will be the variety of opportunities and resources that exist for faculty and students to develop the skills, knowledge and abilities to recognize and successfully commercialize innovations.

  3. Thailand's responses to transnational migration during economic growth and economic downturn.

    PubMed

    Chantavanich, S

    1999-04-01

    This paper gives an historical overview of immigration to Thailand since the 1970s and emigration since the 1960s. It describes migration policies since the 1930s. Final discussion focuses on the impact of economic contraction on migration. Immigration to Thailand dates back to the 1760s when a huge wave of Chinese emigrated to Thailand. The flow continued until about 1850 and resumed during 1905-17. The next big waves of immigrants were after 1975, when refugees fled Indochina, and in the 1990s, when migrants flocked from neighboring countries drawn to the booming economy. Thai professionals left in the 1960s for the USA. During the 1980s, many left for work in the Middle East. During the 1990s, Thai migrants moved within the East and Southeastern Asian countries and the USA or Europe, and they included many women and illegal migrants. Emigrants leave as arranged by the government, by employers, by recruitment agencies, and as trainees. The first official act was in 1950 and revised in 1979. Many work permits were approved in the 1990s, especially for unskilled labor. There are supports for Thai migrants abroad, but little is offered to foreigners at home. By 1997, the country's recession led to nonrenewal of many work permits. The 1998 economic crisis led to a new labor policy that deported illegal and unskilled migrant workers in order to create jobs for Thais. Policy encouraged Thais to seek work overseas. PMID:12295144

  4. Analysis of the effectiveness of industrial R and D. [costs and impact on economic growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, W. H.; Kleiman, H. S.; Moore, J. L.; Triplett, M. B.

    1976-01-01

    The criteria used by private industry in evaluating and selecting proposed research and development projects for implementation, and also in determining which R and D facilities are to be acquired were investigated. Conceptual and practical issues inherent in any quantitative analysis of the contribution of R and D to economic growth were identified in order to assist NASA in developing approaches for analzying the economic implication of its own R and D efforts.

  5. The relationship between carbon dioxide emission and economic growth: Hierarchical structure methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deviren, Seyma Akkaya; Deviren, Bayram

    2016-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission has an essential role in the current debate on sustainable development and environmental protection. CO2 emission is also directly linked with use of energy which plays a focal role both for production and consumption in the world economy. Therefore the relationship between the CO2 emission and economic growth has a significant implication for the environmental and economical policies. In this study, within the scope of sociophysics, the topology, taxonomy and relationships among the 33 countries, which have almost the high CO2 emission and economic growth values, are investigated by using the hierarchical structure methods, such as the minimal spanning tree (MST) and hierarchical tree (HT), over the period of 1970-2010. The average linkage cluster analysis (ALCA) is also used to examine the cluster structure more clearly in HTs. According to their proximity, economic ties and economic growth, different clusters of countries are identified from the structural topologies of these trees. We have found that the high income & OECD countries are closely connected to each other and are isolated from the upper middle and lower middle income countries from the MSTs, which are obtained both for the CO2 emission and economic growth. Moreover, the high income & OECD clusters are homogeneous with respect to the economic activities and economic ties of the countries. It is also mentioned that the Group of Seven (G7) countries (CAN, ENG, FRA, GER, ITA, JPN, USA) are connected to each other and these countries are located at the center of the MST for the results of CO2 emission. The same analysis may also successfully apply to the other environmental sources and different countries.

  6. Ecological Network Analysis for Economic Systems: Growth and Development and Implications for Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiali; Ulanowicz, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    The quantification of growth and development is an important issue in economics, because these phenomena are closely related to sustainability. We address growth and development from a network perspective in which economic systems are represented as flow networks and analyzed using ecological network analysis (ENA). The Beijing economic system is used as a case study and 11 input–output (I-O) tables for 1985–2010 are converted into currency networks. ENA is used to calculate system-level indices to quantify the growth and development of Beijing. The contributions of each direct flow toward growth and development in 2010 are calculated and their implications for sustainable development are discussed. The results show that during 1985–2010, growth was the main attribute of the Beijing economic system. Although the system grew exponentially, its development fluctuated within only a small range. The results suggest that system ascendency should be increased in order to favor more sustainable development. Ascendency can be augmented in two ways: (1) strengthen those pathways with positive contributions to increasing ascendency and (2) weaken those with negative effects. PMID:24979465

  7. [Relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge of Suzhou: how about the EKC?].

    PubMed

    Ling, Hong; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Hui-Zhong; Yin, Rong-Yao; Wang, Xiang-Hua; Zhao, Wen-Jun

    2009-04-01

    Based on the study of the relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge of Suzhou City in 1991-2005, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) of the City was estimated by several kinds of function, with the cause analyzed. The results showed that the EKC of Suzhou was not a typical one. The industrial pollution of the City increased dramatically by scale effect of economic growth and the clear environmental benefit of industrial structure adjustment was not received obviously, while generalized discharge reduction technologies showed great results. In general terms, the pollution increase was comparatively slower than the GDP growth. As a whole, the environmental policy of Suzhou was in effect. However, the relationships between economic growth and industrial pollutant discharge had not been a benign development yet. In order to achieve win-win situation of economic growth and pollution reduction, Suzhou needed to optimize its industry structure, push the energy conservation and discharge reduction policy deeply, increase environmental investment, and enforce the strictest environmental and industrial policy. In doing these, Suzhou could turn the traditional omega-shaped EKC into delta-shaped EKC. PMID:19565781

  8. Are physicians profit or rent seekers? Some evidence from state economic growth rates.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Mary; Santerre, Rexford E

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has debated whether physicians act as profit- or rent-seekers. We argue that these two models of physician behavior can be tested by observing empirically the relationship between physician density and economic growth rates. A direct (inverse) relationship provides evidence for the profit-seeking (rent-seeking) theory of physician behavior. We empirically examine the impact of physician density on the economic growth of all US states over the period from 1973 to 2009. The empirical analysis generally finds a statistically significant and direct relationship between physician density and the growth of gross state product. The results are robust with respect to state- and time-fixed effects, individual state time trends, and 2SLS (two-stage least squares) estimation. Thus, in support of the profit-seeking theory of physician behavior, the findings reveal that physicians generally have a positive impact on the growth of the US economy. PMID:24199520

  9. Does health promote economic growth? Portuguese case study: from dictatorship to full democracy.

    PubMed

    Morgado, Sónia Maria Aniceto

    2014-07-01

    This paper revisits the debate on health and economic growth (Deaton in J Econ Lit 51:113-158, 2003) focusing on the Portuguese case by testing the relationship between growth and health. We test Portuguese insights, using time series data from 1960 to 2005, taking into account different variables (life expectancy, labour, capital, infant mortality) and considering the years that included major events on the political scene, such as the dictatorship and a closed economy (1960-1974), a revolution (1974) and full democracy and an open economy (1975-2005), factors that influence major economic, cultural, social and politic indicators. Therefore the analysis is carried out adopting Lucas' (J Monet Econ 22(1):3-42, 1988) endogenous growth model that considers human capital as one factor of production, it adopts a VAR (vector autoregressive) model to test the causality between growth and health. Estimates based on the VAR seem to confirm that economic growth influences the health process, but health does not promote growth, during the period under study. PMID:23807534

  10. The socioeconomic determinants of health: economic growth and health in the OECD countries during the last three decades.

    PubMed

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries' economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980-2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis. PMID:24406664

  11. The Socioeconomic Determinants of Health: Economic Growth and Health in the OECD Countries during the Last Three Decades

    PubMed Central

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem; Soley-Bori, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In times of economic crisis, most countries face the dual challenge of fighting unemployment while restraining social expenditures and closing budget deficits. The spending cuts and lack of employment affect a large number of decisions that have a direct or indirect impact on health. This impact is likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population, and therefore not only health levels may be at risk, but also their distribution. The main purpose of this paper is to explore links between unemployment, economic growth, inequality, and health. We regress a measure of health, the Health Human Development Index (HHDI), against a set of explanatory variables accounting for the countries’ economic performance (GDP growth, unemployment, and income inequality), and some institutional factors related to welfare spending and the nature of the health systems for the past three decades. In addition, we explore the causes for different results obtained using an inequality-adjusted HHDI, vs. the unadjusted HHDI. We describe a panel data model, estimated by random effects, for 32 countries from 1980–2010, in five-year intervals. Our conclusion is that the high economic growth observed in the last decades, together with an increase in the levels of income inequality and/or poverty, explain the observed changes of our index, particularly when this indicator is weighted by health inequality. The remaining institutional variables (the share of social spending, health care expenditure, and the type of health systems) show the expected sign but are not statistically significant. A comment on the methodological pitfalls of the approach completes the analysis. PMID:24406664

  12. Calf and disease factors affecting growth in female Holstein calves in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Donovan, G A; Dohoo, I R; Montgomery, D M; Bennett, F L

    1998-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine calf-level factors that affect performance (growth) between birth and 14 months of age in a convenience sample of approximately 3300 female Holstein calves born in 1991 on two large Florida dairy farms. Data collected on each calf at birth included farm of origin, birth date, weight, height at the pelvis, and serum total protein (a measure of colostral immunoglobulin absorption). Birth season was dichotomized into summer and winter using meteorological data collected by University of Florida Agricultural Research Stations. Data collected at approximately 6 and 14 months of age included age, weight, height at the pelvis, and height at the withers. Growth in weight and stature (height) was calculated for each growth period; growth period 1 (GP1) = birth to 6 months, and growth period 2 (GP2) = 6 to 14 months. Health data collected included data of initial treatment and number of treatments for the diseases diarrhea, omphalitis, septicemia, pneumonia and keratoconjunctivitis. After adjusting for disease occurrence, passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins had no significant effect on body weight gain or pelvic height growth. Season of birth and occurrence of diarrhea, septicemia and respiratory disease were significant variables decreasing heifer growth (height and weight) in GP1. These variables plus farm, birth weight and exact age when '6 month' data were collected explained 20% and 31% of the variation in body weight gain and pelvic height growth, respectively, in GP1. The number of days treated for pneumonia before 6 months of age significantly decreased average daily weight gain in GP2 (P < 0.025), but did not affect stature growth. Treatment for pneumonia after 6 months of age did not significantly affect weight or height gain after age 6 months. Neither omphalitis nor keratoconjunctivitis explained variability in growth in either of the growth periods. PMID:9500160

  13. 41 CFR 101-27.304-2 - Factors affecting the economic retention limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... economic retention limit. 101-27.304-2 Section 101-27.304-2 Public Contracts and Property Management... economic retention limit. (a) The economic retention limit may be increased where: (1) The item is of... economic retention time limit; or (2) Costs incident to holding an additional quantity are...

  14. 41 CFR 101-27.304-2 - Factors affecting the economic retention limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... economic retention limit. 101-27.304-2 Section 101-27.304-2 Public Contracts and Property Management... economic retention limit. (a) The economic retention limit may be increased where: (1) The item is of... economic retention time limit; or (2) Costs incident to holding an additional quantity are...

  15. 41 CFR 101-27.304-2 - Factors affecting the economic retention limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... economic retention limit. 101-27.304-2 Section 101-27.304-2 Public Contracts and Property Management... economic retention limit. (a) The economic retention limit may be increased where: (1) The item is of... economic retention time limit; or (2) Costs incident to holding an additional quantity are...

  16. 41 CFR 101-27.304-2 - Factors affecting the economic retention limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... economic retention limit. 101-27.304-2 Section 101-27.304-2 Public Contracts and Property Management... economic retention limit. (a) The economic retention limit may be increased where: (1) The item is of... economic retention time limit; or (2) Costs incident to holding an additional quantity are...

  17. 41 CFR 101-27.304-2 - Factors affecting the economic retention limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... economic retention limit. 101-27.304-2 Section 101-27.304-2 Public Contracts and Property Management... economic retention limit. (a) The economic retention limit may be increased where: (1) The item is of... economic retention time limit; or (2) Costs incident to holding an additional quantity are...

  18. Promoting Economic Growth in the U.S. Grade Twelve. [Resource Unit II.] Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This is the second unit of seven resource units for a twelfth grade course on value conflicts and policy decisions. The topic for this unit is promoting economic growth in the United States. The objectives are listed as to generalizations, skills, and values. The double-page format relates objectives to pertinent content, teaching procedures, and…

  19. Funding in Higher Education and Economic Growth in France and the United Kingdom, 1921-2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    The UK 2004 Higher Education Act generated important debates about the relationships between higher education (HE), economic growth and social progress. The range of positions expressed in relation to the increase of annual tuition fees raises crucial questions about the public and private funding of higher education and its individual and social…

  20. Impacts of Hispanic Population Growth on Rural Wages. Agricultural Economic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    Although earnings generally increased in rural areas in the 1990s, Hispanic population growth led to lower wages for at least one segment of the rural population--workers with a high school degree (skilled workers), particularly men in this skill group. Using data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Current Population Survey, this report…

  1. Higher Education And Economic Growth: A Conference Report. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 222b

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    The future of higher education and its relationship to economic growth were the focus of a one-day conference at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago on November 2, 2005. Cosponsored by the bank, the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, and the Midwestern Higher Education Compact, the event brought together over 100 academic, business, and…

  2. International Organizations, the "Education-Economic Growth" Black Box, and the Development of World Education Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article has four sections. First, the author presents a theoretical discussion of the different explanations regarding the explosion of education after World War II. She explains how the actor-network theory--a theory of knowledge and of agency--enables people to understand the formation of the education-economic growth black box. The…

  3. Vocational Education and Training--An Engine for Economic Growth and a Vehicle for Social Inclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Vocational education and training (VET) has in recent years enjoyed a revival for two major reasons. Firstly, it is regarded as a suitable means of promoting economic growth. Secondly, it is seen as a potentially powerful tool for fostering social inclusion. In this review, these assumed effects are critically examined on the basis of the vastly…

  4. A Study on the Rate of Contribution of Education Investment to the Economic Growth in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Bo-nai; Lai, Xiong-xiang

    2006-01-01

    There is an evident bi-directional causality relationship between education investment and economic growth based on an analysis of statistics from 1952 to 2003 released by the State Statistics Bureau. A generalized difference regression model is set up to investigate the relationship between the two. Studies show that the rate of contribution of…

  5. Education and Economic Growth in Pakistan: A Cointegration and Causality Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afzal, Muhammad; Rehman, Hafeez Ur; Farooq, Muhammad Shahid; Sarwar, Kafeel

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the cointegration and causality between education and economic growth in Pakistan by using time series data on real gross domestic product (RGDP), labour force, physical capital and education from 1970-1971 to 2008-2009 were used. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model of Cointegration and the Augmented Granger Causality…

  6. Higher Education And Economic Growth. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 222a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2006-01-01

    The future of higher education and its relationship to economic growth were the focus of a one-day conference at the Chicago Fed on November 2, 2005. Cosponsored by the bank, the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, and the Midwestern Higher Education Compact, the event brought together over 100 academic, business, and government leaders.…

  7. The Quality vs. the Quantity of Schooling: What Drives Economic Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Theodore R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper challenges Hanushek and Woessmann's (2008) contention that the quality and not the quantity of schooling determines a nation's rate of economic growth. I first show that their statistical analysis is flawed. I then show that when a nation's average test scores and average schooling attainment are included in a national income model,…

  8. Can Higher Education Foster Economic Growth? A Conference Summary. Chicago Fed Letter. Number 236a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattoon, Richard H.

    2007-01-01

    On October 30, 2006, the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago and the Midwest Higher Education Compact held a conference on higher education and economic growth. Speakers included Michael Moskow, Richard Lester, Michael Luger, Sean Safford, Larry Isaak, Stefanie Lenway, Rod Shrader, Brian Fabes, Arthur Rothkopf, Randy Eberts, Gary Fethke, Victor…

  9. The Role of Education in Economic Growth: Theory, History and Current Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton, Theodore R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: This paper was prepared to address the issue of whether current levels of public expenditures on education are cost-effective in countries with widely differing average levels of education. Purpose: The paper examines the role of education in economic growth from a theoretical and historic perspective, addresses why education has been…

  10. Economic and Racial Segregation in Greater Miami's Elementary Schools: Trends Shaping Metropolitan Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orfield, Myron; Discher, Anne; Luce, Tom

    This report highlights the social changes underway in Miami-area schools, discussing their implications for metropolitan growth policies. It focuses on changes in the racial and economic composition of elementary schools between 1993-2002. Data come from the Common Core of Data of the National Center for Education Statistics. Results indicate that…

  11. State Initiatives to Promote Technological Innovation and Economic Growth. Postsecondary Education Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Janice

    Activities undertaken by 43 states including Maryland to promote technological innovation and economic growth and the impact of these activities are identified. Implications for Maryland are also noted in a brief section of recommendations. State initiatives include: sponsoring research and development at colleges and companies, improving the…

  12. School Choice and Economic Growth: A Research Synthesis on How Market Forces Can Fuel Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth typically results when businesses, workers, investors, and entrepreneurs are free to compete, innovate, and work to better serve consumers by supplying new or improved goods and services. These incentives govern the marketplace, and when built upon a sound foundation of property rights, the rule of law, open trade, minimal…

  13. Women's Formal Education and Economic Growth: The Case of the Philippines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, LouEllen; Sidener, Nancy L.

    Research indicates that the education of Philippine women pays off in the economic growth of the country. Previous research which examined women's contribution to national income in six countries indicated that levels of educational attainment and levels of per capita national income were positively or moderately associated in five of the…

  14. [Doctoral thesis: Demographic growth and economic and social development in Mali].

    PubMed

    Dabo, K

    1999-12-01

    A doctoral thesis is described analyzing the relationships between demographic growth and economic and social development in Mali. The hypothesis is stated that demographic growth impedes economic development and any improvement in populations¿ standards of living. The hypothesis was verified using data for the period from 1960 to the present. Over that period, Mali conducted two general population censuses in 1976 and 1987, as well as several demographic research studies. The thesis is comprised of 4 parts, of which the first generally describes Mali. The second part analyzes the relationship between population growth and economic and social development in Mali. Study results are presented, followed by an analysis of the effects of economic and social development upon population growth in Mali through factors such as urbanization, education level, literacy, income, employment, occupation, gross domestic or gross national product by inhabitant, infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, contraceptive practice, fertility opinions and desires, women¿s status, and migration in Mali. Analysis indicates that Mali has not completely begun its demographic transition, but that traditional pronatalist behaviors are changing. Population policies and programs are explored in the third part of the thesis, followed by the fourth part which focuses upon methodological questions. PMID:12296197

  15. U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

    2013-11-01

    Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

  16. [Dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province: a structural decomposition analysis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin

    2010-02-01

    Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants. PMID:20462016

  17. Is There an Economical Running Technique? A Review of Modifiable Biomechanical Factors Affecting Running Economy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Isabel S

    2016-06-01

    Running economy (RE) has a strong relationship with running performance, and modifiable running biomechanics are a determining factor of RE. The purposes of this review were to (1) examine the intrinsic and extrinsic modifiable biomechanical factors affecting RE; (2) assess training-induced changes in RE and running biomechanics; (3) evaluate whether an economical running technique can be recommended and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. Based on current evidence, the intrinsic factors that appeared beneficial for RE were using a preferred stride length range, which allows for stride length deviations up to 3 % shorter than preferred stride length; lower vertical oscillation; greater leg stiffness; low lower limb moment of inertia; less leg extension at toe-off; larger stride angles; alignment of the ground reaction force and leg axis during propulsion; maintaining arm swing; low thigh antagonist-agonist muscular coactivation; and low activation of lower limb muscles during propulsion. Extrinsic factors associated with a better RE were a firm, compliant shoe-surface interaction and being barefoot or wearing lightweight shoes. Several other modifiable biomechanical factors presented inconsistent relationships with RE. Running biomechanics during ground contact appeared to play an important role, specifically those during propulsion. Therefore, this phase has the strongest direct links with RE. Recurring methodological problems exist within the literature, such as cross-comparisons, assessing variables in isolation, and acute to short-term interventions. Therefore, recommending a general economical running technique should be approached with caution. Future work should focus on interdisciplinary longitudinal investigations combining RE, kinematics, kinetics, and neuromuscular and anatomical aspects, as well as applying a synergistic approach to understanding the role of kinetics. PMID:26816209

  18. Has the Spanish economic crisis affected the duration of sickness absence episodes?

    PubMed

    Murcia López, Guillermo; Delclós Clanchet, Jordi; Ubalde López, Mònica; Calvo Bonacho, Eva; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-07-01

    The global economic crisis has had particularly intense effects on the Spanish labor market. We investigated whether the duration of non-work related sickness absence (SA) episodes in salaried workers had experienced any changes before and after the crisis started. This was a repeated cross-sectional analysis conducted in a dynamic cohort in 2006 and 2010. Database was provided by eight mutual insurance companies, covering 983,108 workers and 451,801 SA episodes. Descriptive analysis and crude, bivariate and multivariate analyses using Cox proportional hazards modeling were performed, to quantify the changes in duration of SA episodes between 2006 and 2010, stratified by sex. There was a higher number of episodes in 2010 for both sexes, but especially for women. Unadjusted median duration in men was similar for both years, while for women it was shorter in 2010. Final multivariate models show a greater risk of longer episode duration for men in 2010 (HR 0.95; 95% CI, 0.95-0.95), but a shorter one for women (HR 1.07; 95% CI, 1.07-1.07). Once the economic crisis started affecting the Spanish labor market, the number of SA episodes in women equalized with those in men. There was a decrease of episodes in the youngest age groups, in the construction and in temporary contracts. The relative ranking of leading diagnoses was similar in both years with an increase in infectious, nervous system and respiratory diseases and in mental disorder episodes for both sexes, but especially for women. The risk of longer episode duration was greater in 2010 among men, but smaller in women. PMID:27209364

  19. Postnatal nutritional restriction affects growth and immune function of piglets with intra-uterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Xuan, Yue; Han, Fei; Tian, Gang; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Zhang, Keying; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De; Che, Lianqiang

    2015-07-14

    Postnatal rapid growth by excess intake of nutrients has been associated with an increased susceptibility to diseases in neonates with intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR). The aim of the present study was to determine whether postnatal nutritional restriction could improve intestinal development and immune function of neonates with IUGR using piglets as model. A total of twelve pairs of normal-birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 d old) were randomly assigned to receive adequate nutrient intake or restricted nutrient intake (RNI) by artificially liquid feeding for a period of 21 d. Blood samples and intestinal tissues were collected at necropsy and were analysed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, immune cells and expression of innate immunity-related genes. The results indicated that both IUGR and postnatal nutritional restriction delayed the growth rate during the sucking period. Irrespective of nutrient intake, piglets with IUGR had a significantly lower villous height and crypt depth in the ileum than the NBW piglets. Moreover, IUGR decreased alkaline phosphatase activity while enhanced lactase activity in the jejunum and mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the ileum of piglets. Irrespective of body weight, RNI significantly decreased the number and/or percentage of peripheral leucocytes, lymphocytes and monocytes of piglets, whereas the percentage of neutrophils and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ were increased. Furthermore, RNI markedly enhanced the mRNA expression of TLR-9 and DNMT1, but decreased the expression of NOD2 and TRAF-6 in the ileum of piglets. In summary, postnatal nutritional restriction led to abnormal cellular and innate immune response, as well as delayed the growth and intestinal development of IUGR piglets. PMID:26059215

  20. Long-term physiological and economic consequences of growth retardation in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Norgan, N G

    2000-05-01

    The application of a lifespan perspective in human biology in recent years has shown that a number of early environmental factors influencing human growth and development have long-term biological or psycho-social consequences. Human growth is characterized by prolonged infancy, an extended childhood phase and high rates of growth during the adolescent growth spurt. It is unlikely that these characteristics would have evolved without having advantages, and curtailments have the potential for disadvantage. The present paper examines the evidence for long-term physiological and economic consequences of growth retardation in children and adolescents. The emphasis is the biological and economic imperatives of survival, subsistence, reproduction and production rather than aspects of metabolic competence. Many of the consequences of growth retardation are determined by the direct effect on body size, but many other consequences arise from the conditions that cause the growth retardation. Catch up of retarded growth can occur, but does not usually do so because of the continued presence of the retarding agents. Basal metabolism and physical work capacity are usually commensurate with the size of the individual; mechanical efficiency of physical work is unchanged, but falls in activity levels may occur along with a reduction in the pace of activity. Growth retardation in childhood is associated with a higher disease and mortality risk in adulthood, with decreased productivity and employment and promotion prospects. Studies are showing that relative deprivation and the accumulation of socially patterned exposures are important in some societies. Height and growth retardation have proved invaluable in reflecting these factors, but the next generation of studies may require more discriminating indices. PMID:10946793

  1. National health expenditure projections: modest annual growth until coverage expands and economic growth accelerates.

    PubMed

    Keehan, Sean P; Cuckler, Gigi A; Sisko, Andrea M; Madison, Andrew J; Smith, Sheila D; Lizonitz, Joseph M; Poisal, John A; Wolfe, Christian J

    2012-07-01

    For 2011-13, US health spending is projected to grow at 4.0 percent, on average--slightly above the historically low growth rate of 3.8 percent in 2009. Preliminary data suggest that growth in consumers' use of health services remained slow in 2011, and this pattern is expected to continue this year and next. In 2014, health spending growth is expected to accelerate to 7.4 percent as the major coverage expansions from the Affordable Care Act begin. For 2011 through 2021, national health spending is projected to grow at an average rate of 5.7 percent annually, which would be 0.9 percentage point faster than the expected annual increase in the gross domestic product during this period. By 2021, federal, state, and local government health care spending is projected to be nearly 50 percent of national health expenditures, up from 46 percent in 2011, with federal spending accounting for about two-thirds of the total government share. Rising government spending on health care is expected to be driven by faster growth in Medicare enrollment, expanded Medicaid coverage, and the introduction of premium and cost-sharing subsidies for health insurance exchange plans. PMID:22692089

  2. The global pattern of urbanization and economic growth: evidence from the last three decades.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingxing; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Weidong; Zhang, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems (GIS) methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decades. Empirical findings from cross-sectional data and panel data support the general notion of close links between urbanization levels and GDP per capita. However, we also present significant evidence that there is no correlation between urbanization speed and economic growth rate at the global level. Hence, we conclude that a given country cannot obtain the expected economic benefits from accelerated urbanization, especially if it takes the form of government-led urbanization. In addition, only when all facets are taken into consideration can we fully assess the urbanization process. PMID:25099392

  3. The Global Pattern of Urbanization and Economic Growth: Evidence from the Last Three Decades

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingxing; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Weidong; Zhang, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems (GIS) methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decades. Empirical findings from cross-sectional data and panel data support the general notion of close links between urbanization levels and GDP per capita. However, we also present significant evidence that there is no correlation between urbanization speed and economic growth rate at the global level. Hence, we conclude that a given country cannot obtain the expected economic benefits from accelerated urbanization, especially if it takes the form of government-led urbanization. In addition, only when all facets are taken into consideration can we fully assess the urbanization process. PMID:25099392

  4. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-01

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may `eat up' parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential `psychological rebound effects.' It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough "rule of thumb", in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  5. Energy efficiency, human behavior, and economic growth: Challenges to cutting energy demand to sustainable levels

    SciTech Connect

    Santarius, Tilman

    2015-03-30

    Increasing energy efficiency in households, transportation, industries, and services is an important strategy to reduce energy service demand to levels that allow the steep reduction of greenhouse gases, and a full fledged switch of energy systems to a renewable basis. Yet, technological efficiency improvements may generate so-called rebound effects, which may ‘eat up’ parts of the technical savings potential. This article provides a comprehensive review of existing research on these effects, raises critiques, and points out open questions. It introduces micro-economic rebound effect and suggests extending consumer-side analysis to incorporate potential ‘psychological rebound effects.’ It then discusses meso-economic rebound effects, i.e. producer-side and market-level rebounds, which so far have achieved little attention in the literature. Finally, the article critically reviews evidence for macro-economic rebound effects as energy efficiency-induced economic growth impacts. For all three categories, the article summarizes assessments of their potential quantitative scope, while pointing out remaining methodological weaknesses and open questions. As a rough “rule of thumb”, in the long term and on gross average, only half the technical savings potential of across-the-board efficiency improvements may actually be achieved in the real world. Policies that aim at cutting energy service demand to sustainable levels are well advised to take due note of detrimental behavioral and economic growth impacts, and should foster policies and measures that can contain them.

  6. Phase transition in the economically modeled growth of a cellular nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Vértes, Petra E.; Schafer, William R.; Latora, Vito; Bullmore, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Spatially embedded complex networks, such as nervous systems, the Internet, and transportation networks, generally have nontrivial topological patterns of connections combined with nearly minimal wiring costs. However, the growth rules shaping these economical tradeoffs between cost and topology are not well understood. Here, we study the cellular nervous system of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, together with information on the birth times of neurons and on their spatial locations. We find that the growth of this network undergoes a transition from an accelerated to a constant increase in the number of links (synaptic connections) as a function of the number of nodes (neurons). The time of this phase transition coincides closely with the observed moment of hatching, when development switches metamorphically from oval to larval stages. We use graph analysis and generative modeling to show that the transition between different growth regimes, as well as its coincidence with the moment of hatching, may be explained by a dynamic economical model that incorporates a tradeoff between topology and cost that is continuously negotiated and renegotiated over developmental time. As the body of the animal progressively elongates, the cost of longer-distance connections is increasingly penalized. This growth process regenerates many aspects of the adult nervous system’s organization, including the neuronal membership of anatomically predefined ganglia. We expect that similar economical principles may be found in the development of other biological or manmade spatially embedded complex systems. PMID:23610428

  7. The impacts of gaming expansion on economic growth: a theoretical reconsideration.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqiang; Gu, Xinhua; Siu, Ricardo Chi Sen

    2010-06-01

    This paper employs a general equilibrium framework to analyze the effects on economic growth of global expansions in casino gaming, which exports gambling services largely to non-residents. Both domestic and foreign investments in the gaming sector bring in not only substantial revenues but also positive spillover effects on related sectors and even on the entire local economy. However, an over-expansion of commercial gambling may lead to deterioration in the terms of trade with an adverse impact on real income. If this situation persists, it would not be impossible for immiserizing growth to occur. As a highly profitable sector, casino gaming may enable its operators to diversify out of this risk if they invest retained profits in non-gaming sectors to cash in on the spillover effects it has created. The gaming-dominant economy can then be directed on a more balanced and sustainable growth path, and will become less susceptible to business cycles. Indeed, economic experiences in the world's major casino resorts are consistent basically with this argument for diversification. We believe that after the current global crisis fades away, economic growth and resulting surges in global demand for gambling services can provide further opportunities for the expansion of existing casino resorts and the development of new gaming markets. PMID:20012471

  8. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  9. An affective-cognitive processing model of post-traumatic growth.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Stephen; Murphy, David; Regel, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A topic that has begun to attract interest from clinical psychologists and psychotherapists is post-traumatic growth. First, we provide a general overview of the field, setting out the historical development, main concepts, measurement issues and research findings. Second, we review evidence showing that the relationship between post-traumatic stress and post-traumatic growth is likely curvilinear. Third, a new affective-cognitive processing model of post-traumatic growth will be introduced in which post-traumatic stress is understood to be the engine of post-traumatic growth. Fourth, points of clinical intervention are described showing the ways in which therapists can facilitate post-traumatic growth. PMID:22610981

  10. Research Issues in the Economics of Education and Growth. Occasional Papers in Educational Policy Analysis: Paper No. 409.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Robert C.; And Others

    This report discusses diverse economic issues involved in educational reforms aimed at improving economic growth. The focus is on elementary and secondary education in the southeastern United States. After a general overview of the economics of educational reform, section I discusses the issues involved in modeling and estimating the linkages…

  11. Manpower in Economic and Social Growth; Proceedings of International Manpower Seminar (6th, June 1-August 13, 1966).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Sanford, Ed.

    Summaries of 62 papers presented at the Sixth International Manpower Seminar are given. Four major topics were emphasized: (1) "Human Resources in Economic and Social Growth" dealth with basic concepts of human resources, natural resources, and economic resources, (2) "Manpower Planning and Allocation in Economic Development" covered principles,…

  12. Reconciling Post-Recession Strategies for Economic Growth with Higher Education's Current Fiscal Challenges: Part 1, New Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This week, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) is publishing the findings of new research undertaken to explore the relationship between educational spending and economic growth. The report, "The High Cost of Low Educational Performance--The Long-Run Economic Impact of Improving PISA Outcomes", employs recent economic…

  13. Disruption of the lower food web in Lake Ontario: Did it affect alewife growth or condition?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, R.; Prindle, S.E.; Lantry, J.R.; Lantry, B.F.

    2008-01-01

    From the early 1980s to the late 1990s, a succession of non-native invertebrates colonized Lake Ontario and the suite of consequences caused by their colonization became known as "food web disruption". For example, the native burrowing amphipod Diporeia spp., a key link in the profundal food web, declined to near absence, exotic predaceous cladocerans with long spines proliferated, altering the zooplankton community, and depth distributions of fishes shifted. These changes had the potential to affect growth and condition of planktivorous alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, the most abundant fish in the lake. To determine if food web disruption affected alewife, we used change-point analysis to examine alewife growth and adult alewife condition during 1976-2006 and analysis-of-variance to determine if values between change points differed significantly. There were no change points in growth during the first year of life. Of three change points in growth during the second year of life, one coincided with the shift in springtime distribution of alewife to deeper water but it was not associated with a significant change in growth. After the second year of life, no change points in growth were evident, although growth in the third year of life spiked in those years when Bythotrephes, the largest of the exotic cladocerans, was abundant suggesting that it was a profitable prey item for age-2 fish. We detected two change points in condition of adult alewife in fall, but the first occurred in 1981, well before disruption began. A second change point occurred in 2003, well after disruption began. After the springtime distribution of alewife shifted deeper during 1992-1994, growth in the first two years of life became more variable, and growth in years of life two and older became correlated (P < 0.05). In conclusion, food web disruption had no negative affect on growth and condition of alewife in Lake Ontario although it appears to have resulted in growth in the first two years of

  14. Rapid Economic Growth and Natural Gas Consumption Nexus: Looking forward from Perspective of 11th Malaysian Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekhet, H. A.; Yasmin, T.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between economic growth and energy consumption by incorporating CO2 emissions, natural gas consumption and population in Malaysia. Annual data and F-bound test and granger causality have applied to test the existence of long run relationship between the series. The results show that variables are cointegrated for long run relationship. The results also indicate that natural gas consumption is an important contributing factor to energy demand and hence economic growth in case of Malaysia. The causality analysis highlights that the feedback hypothesis exists between economic growth and energy consumption. While, conservative hypothesis is validated between natural gas consumption and economic growth which implies that economic growth will push natural gas consumption policies in future. This study opens up new direction for policy makers to formulate a comprehensive natural gas policy to sustain environment for long span of time in case to achieve 11th MP targets.

  15. CO2 enrichment at night affects the growth and yield of common beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some experiments to determine the crop yield increase expected with rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration added carbon dioxide only during the daytime, without tests of whether elevation of carbon dioxide at night affected plant growth. In this experiment, two cultivars of common bean wer...

  16. The Contribution of Population Health and Demographic Change to Economic Growth in China and India.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David E; Canning, David; Hu, Linlin; Liu, Yuanli; Mahal, Ajay; Yip, Winnie

    2010-03-01

    We find that a cross-country model of economic growth successfully tracks the growth takeoffs in China and India. The major drivers of the predicted takeoffs are improved health, increased openness to trade, and a rising labor force-to-population ratio due to fertility decline. We also explore the effect of the reallocation of labor from low-productivity agriculture to the higher-productivity industry and service sectors. Including the money value of longevity improvements in a measure of full income reduces the gap between the magnitude of China's takeoff relative to India's due to the relative stagnation in life expectancy in China since 1980. PMID:20419074

  17. The Contribution of Population Health and Demographic Change to Economic Growth in China and India

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Hu, Linlin; Liu, Yuanli; Mahal, Ajay; Yip, Winnie

    2010-01-01

    We find that a cross-country model of economic growth successfully tracks the growth takeoffs in China and India. The major drivers of the predicted takeoffs are improved health, increased openness to trade, and a rising labor force-to-population ratio due to fertility decline. We also explore the effect of the reallocation of labor from low-productivity agriculture to the higher-productivity industry and service sectors. Including the money value of longevity improvements in a measure of full income reduces the gap between the magnitude of China's takeoff relative to India's due to the relative stagnation in life expectancy in China since 1980. PMID:20419074

  18. Dental caries affects body weight, growth and quality of life in pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Sheiham, A

    2006-11-25

    The effect of a relatively common chronic disease, severe dental caries, affects young childrens' growth and well-being. Treating dental caries in pre-school children would increase growth rates and the quality of life of millions of children. Severe untreated dental caries is common in pre-school children in many countries. Children with severe caries weighed less than controls, and after treatment of decayed teeth there was more rapid weight gain and improvements in their quality of life. This may be due to dietary intake improving because pain affected the quantity and variety of food eaten, and second, chronic inflammation from caries related pulpitis and abscesses is known to suppress growth through a metabolic pathway and to reduce haemoglobin as a result of depressed erythrocyte production. PMID:17128231

  19. USSR: Measures of Economic Growth and Development, 1950-80. Studies Prepared for the Use of the Joint Economic Committee, 97th Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    Because the Soviet Union does not publish measures of economic growth and development comparable with those of Western countries, the Central Intelligence Agency has provided (by means of a large research effort carried out over many years) estimates of the value of the Soviet gross national product (GNP), its rate of growth, its size relative to…

  20. Socio-Economic and Health Status of Leprosy Affected Person: A Study in Jharkhand.

    PubMed

    Majumder, N

    2015-01-01

    The study has been conducted in the Potka Block of East Singhbhum district of the state of Jharkhand. The district is mainly dominated by indigenous tribes, such as, Santhal, Munda, Ho, Bhumiz, Kharia, and Sabar. The unit of analysis of the study was an individual. The objectives were to: a) Understand the socio-economic and health status of LAP, b) Know the health seeking behavior and problems faced by the LAP, c) Assess the utilization of the programs related to Leprosy eradication in the study area and d), Suggest various measures for improving the socio-economic and health status of LAP. Fifty Leprosy affected persons (LAP) from the Potka block; comprising of 20% of LAP of that area have been selected as the study sample by using the method of Multi-Stage Random Sampling, with equal representation of men and women. The LAPs included leprosy patients, leprosy treated people and their family members. 39/50 (78%) of the respondents are illiterates and only 3/11 (6%) among the literate population have crossed matriculation and above. This seems to have resulted in the respondent's low level of awareness about the disease, resulting in delayed treatment. 14/25 (56%) percent of female and 13/25 (52%) of male respondents are considered untouchable by their natal families, thus forced to stay in congested leprosy colonies resulting in other social and health related issues. It was observed that leprosy cured children,and also children of LAP are being denied admission iany school, due to the social stigma attached to it. 27/50 (54%)of leprosy patients and leprosy cured people (mostly with visible deformities) were found to practice begging as their sole means of livelihood. Many LAPs are also engaged in cultivation and small scale business particularly among the rural population. An amount of gender disparity was also observed in the employment pattern among the LAPs. Among the, respondents 15/25 (60%) of the females are beggars as compared to 12/25 (48%) of the male

  1. Australia is 'free to choose' economic growth and falling environmental pressures.

    PubMed

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve; Schandl, Heinz; Adams, Philip D; Baynes, Timothy M; Brinsmead, Thomas S; Bryan, Brett A; Chiew, Francis H S; Graham, Paul W; Grundy, Mike; Harwood, Tom; McCallum, Rebecca; McCrea, Rod; McKellar, Lisa E; Newth, David; Nolan, Martin; Prosser, Ian; Wonhas, Alex

    2015-11-01

    Over two centuries of economic growth have put undeniable pressure on the ecological systems that underpin human well-being. While it is agreed that these pressures are increasing, views divide on how they may be alleviated. Some suggest technological advances will automatically keep us from transgressing key environmental thresholds; others that policy reform can reconcile economic and ecological goals; while a third school argues that only a fundamental shift in societal values can keep human demands within the Earth's ecological limits. Here we use novel integrated analysis of the energy-water-food nexus, rural land use (including biodiversity), material flows and climate change to explore whether mounting ecological pressures in Australia can be reversed, while the population grows and living standards improve. We show that, in the right circumstances, economic and environmental outcomes can be decoupled. Although economic growth is strong across all scenarios, environmental performance varies widely: pressures are projected to more than double, stabilize or fall markedly by 2050. However, we find no evidence that decoupling will occur automatically. Nor do we find that a shift in societal values is required. Rather, extensions of current policies that mobilize technology and incentivize reduced pressure account for the majority of differences in environmental performance. Our results show that Australia can make great progress towards sustainable prosperity, if it chooses to do so. PMID:26536956

  2. Australia is ‘free to choose’ economic growth and falling environmental pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve; Schandl, Heinz; Adams, Philip D.; Baynes, Timothy M.; Brinsmead, Thomas S.; Bryan, Brett A.; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Graham, Paul W.; Grundy, Mike; Harwood, Tom; McCallum, Rebecca; McCrea, Rod; McKellar, Lisa E.; Newth, David; Nolan, Martin; Prosser, Ian; Wonhas, Alex

    2015-11-01

    Over two centuries of economic growth have put undeniable pressure on the ecological systems that underpin human well-being. While it is agreed that these pressures are increasing, views divide on how they may be alleviated. Some suggest technological advances will automatically keep us from transgressing key environmental thresholds; others that policy reform can reconcile economic and ecological goals; while a third school argues that only a fundamental shift in societal values can keep human demands within the Earth’s ecological limits. Here we use novel integrated analysis of the energy-water-food nexus, rural land use (including biodiversity), material flows and climate change to explore whether mounting ecological pressures in Australia can be reversed, while the population grows and living standards improve. We show that, in the right circumstances, economic and environmental outcomes can be decoupled. Although economic growth is strong across all scenarios, environmental performance varies widely: pressures are projected to more than double, stabilize or fall markedly by 2050. However, we find no evidence that decoupling will occur automatically. Nor do we find that a shift in societal values is required. Rather, extensions of current policies that mobilize technology and incentivize reduced pressure account for the majority of differences in environmental performance. Our results show that Australia can make great progress towards sustainable prosperity, if it chooses to do so.

  3. Approaches based on behavioral economics could help nudge patients and providers toward lower health spending growth.

    PubMed

    King, Dominic; Greaves, Felix; Vlaev, Ivo; Darzi, Ara

    2013-04-01

    Policies that change the environment or context in which decisions are made and "nudge" people toward particular choices have been relatively ignored in health care. This article examines the role that approaches based on behavioral economics could play in "nudging" providers and patients in ways that could slow health care spending growth. The basic insight of behavioral economics is that behavior is guided by the very fallible human brain and greatly influenced by the environment or context in which choices are made. In policy arenas such as pensions and personal savings, approaches based on behavioral economics have provided notable results. In health care, such approaches have been used successfully but in limited ways, as in the use of surgical checklists that have increased patient safety and reduced costs. With health care spending climbing at unsustainable rates, we review the role that approaches based on behavioral economics could play in offering policy makers a potential set of new tools to slow spending growth. PMID:23569045

  4. Estimating the Relationship between Economic Growth and Health Expenditures in ECO Countries Using Panel Cointegration Approach.

    PubMed

    Hatam, Nahid; Tourani, Sogand; Homaie Rad, Enayatollah; Bastani, Peivand

    2016-02-01

    Increasing knowledge of people about health leads to raising the share of health expenditures in government budget continuously; although governors do not like this rise because of budget limitations. This study aimed to find the association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. We added health capital in Solow model and used the panel cointegration approach to show the importance of health expenditures in economic growth. For estimating the model, first we used Pesaran cross-sectional dependency test, after that we used Pesaran CADF unit root test, and then we used Westerlund panel cointegration test to show if there is a long-term association between variables or not. After that, we used chaw test, Breusch-Pagan test and Hausman test to find the form of the model. Finally, we used OLS estimator for panel data. Findings showed that there is a positive, strong association between health expenditures and economic growth in ECO countries. If governments increase investing in health, the total production of the country will be increased, so health expenditures are considered as an investing good. The effects of health expenditures in developing countries must be higher than those in developed countries. Such studies can help policy makers to make long-term decisions. PMID:26997596

  5. Poverty, economic growth, deprivation, and water: the cases of Cambodia and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Varis, Olli

    2008-05-01

    Poverty reduction decorates all development agendas, but the complexity of the poverty issue is too often hidden behind simplistic indicators and development goals. Here, a closer look is taken at the concepts of "deprivation" and "vulnerability" as outcomes of poverty. Deprivation leads typically to social exclusion and marginalization; such groups are particularly weak in getting themselves out of poverty by "self-help," and economic growth does not trickle down to these people. When looking at the connections between poverty reduction and economic growth, special emphasis should be put on the differences between modern and more traditional sectors: development of the modern sector should not marginalize and exclude those dependent on more traditional livelihoods. Two case studies--The Tonle Sap area, Cambodia, and the Mekong Delta, Vietnam--reveal that investment in education, empowerment of small-scale entrepreneurship and other means of microeconomic environment, along with good governance, infrastructure, and income distribution can ensure that economic growth includes the poorer echelons of society. PMID:18595279

  6. Fusarium Oxysporum Volatiles Enhance Plant Growth Via Affecting Auxin Transport and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bitas, Vasileios; McCartney, Nathaniel; Li, Ningxiao; Demers, Jill; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Hye-Seon; Brown, Kathleen M.; Kang, Seogchan

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have well-documented roles in plant-plant communication and directing animal behavior. In this study, we examine the less understood roles of VOCs in plant-fungal relationships. Phylogenetically and ecologically diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species complex that often resides in the rhizosphere of assorted plants, produce volatile compounds that augment shoot and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco. Growth responses of A. thaliana hormone signaling mutants and expression patterns of a GUS reporter gene under the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter supported the involvement of auxin signaling in F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement. In addition, 1-naphthylthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux, negated F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement in both plants. Comparison of the profiles of volatile compounds produced by F. oxysporum strains that differentially affected plant growth suggests that the relative compositions of both growth inhibitory and stimulatory compounds may determine the degree of plant growth enhancement. Volatile-mediated signaling between fungi and plants may represent a potentially conserved, yet mostly overlooked, mechanism underpinning plant-fungus interactions and fungal niche adaption. PMID:26617587

  7. Controlled Cu nanoparticle growth on wrinkle affecting deposition of large scale graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Mohsin; Uddin, Md Jasim; Rahman, Muhammad Anisur; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-09-01

    For Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) grown graphene on Cu substrate, deviation from atomic orientation in crystals may be resulted from diffusion of abnormalities in the form of Cu nanoparticle (NP) formation or defects and affects graphene quality and properties drastically. However, for the uniform graphene deposition, mechanism of nanoparticle formation and its suppression procedure need to be better understood. We report growth of graphene, affected by Cu nanoparticles (NPs) emergence on Cu substrates. In the current study, growth of these nanoparticles has been suppressed by fine tuning of carrier gas by two-fold gas insertion mechanism and hence, quality and uniformity of graphene is significantly improved. It has been also observed that during the deposition by CVD, Cu nanoparticles cluster preferentially on wrinkles or terrace of the Cu surface. Composition of NP is extensively studied and found to be the oxide nanoparticle of Cu. Our result, controlled NP growth affecting deposition of graphene layer would provide useful insight on the growth of uniform and high quality Single layer or bilayer graphene for numerous electronics applications.

  8. Social and economic factors of the natural risk growth: estimation of the Russian regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, E.

    2003-04-01

    Òhe vulnerability of the population and economy territorial complexes (PETC) to the influence of unfavorable and dangerous natural processes and events is determined not only by the physical parameters of natural hazards in the given region, but also by economic and social peculiarities of the PETC by itself. It depends on economy type, on PETC’s age, structure and dimensions as well as on degree of its participation in the territorial division of labor. PETC would be more vulnerable to the natural hazards impact if its population density, concentration of the industrial capacities (especially of the objects that additionally create the potential danger of the man-caused catastrophes such as nuclear-power stations, chemical enterprises, oil refineries and so on), concentration of transport and other means of communication, the technological complexity, the originality of the objects included in it as well as the originality of PETC by itself would be higher. The PETC with the unfavorable socio-political and ecological situation and underdeveloped management structures are more vulnerable. The estimation of regions by PETC vulnerability degree to the natural hazards were marked out on a base of data about the actual distribution of the natural hazards in Russia and analysis of the economic indices of the Russian Federation subjects. Among the economic indexes the per capita production of Gross Regional Product (GRP), population density, road density, the degree of appraisal depreciation of the fixed assets, the land cultivation degree of the territory, forest share and so on were taken into account. As the analysis showed, the economic and social factors of the natural risk growth are active in the majority of the regions of the Russian Federation. Such a situation demands the increased attention of state and local authorities to this problem for lowering the economic and social constituents of the growth of natural hazards.

  9. Experimental icing affects growth, mortality, and flowering in a high Arctic dwarf shrub.

    PubMed

    Milner, Jos M; Varpe, Øystein; van der Wal, René; Hansen, Brage Bremset

    2016-04-01

    Effects of climate change are predicted to be greatest at high latitudes, with more pronounced warming in winter than summer. Extreme mid-winter warm spells and heavy rain-on-snow events are already increasing in frequency in the Arctic, with implications for snow-pack and ground-ice formation. These may in turn affect key components of Arctic ecosystems. However, the fitness consequences of extreme winter weather events for tundra plants are not well understood, especially in the high Arctic. We simulated an extreme mid-winter rain-on-snow event at a field site in high Arctic Svalbard (78°N) by experimentally encasing tundra vegetation in ice. After the subsequent growing season, we measured the effects of icing on growth and fitness indices in the common tundra plant, Arctic bell-heather (Cassiope tetragona). The suitability of this species for retrospective growth analysis enabled us to compare shoot growth in pre and postmanipulation years in icing treatment and control plants, as well as shoot survival and flowering. Plants from icing treatment plots had higher shoot mortality and lower flowering success than controls. At the individual sample level, heavily flowering plants invested less in shoot growth than nonflowering plants, while shoot growth was positively related to the degree of shoot mortality. Therefore, contrary to expectation, undamaged shoots showed enhanced growth in ice treatment plants. This suggests that following damage, aboveground resources were allocated to the few remaining undamaged meristems. The enhanced shoot growth measured in our icing treatment plants has implications for climate studies based on retrospective analyses of Cassiope. As shoot growth in this species responds positively to summer warming, it also highlights a potentially complex interaction between summer and winter conditions. By documenting strong effects of icing on growth and reproduction of a widespread tundra plant, our study contributes to an understanding of

  10. Take a stand on your decisions, or take a sit: posture does not affect risk preferences in an economic task

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Physiological and emotional states can affect our decision-making processes, even when these states are seemingly insignificant to the decision at hand. We examined whether posture and postural threat affect decisions in a non-related economic domain. Healthy young adults made a series of choices between economic lotteries in various conditions, including changes in body posture (sitting vs. standing) and changes in elevation (ground level vs. atop a 0.8-meter-high platform). We compared three metrics between conditions to assess changes in risk-sensitivity: frequency of risky choices, and parameter fits of both utility and probability weighting parameters using cumulative prospect theory. We also measured skin conductance level to evaluate physiological response to the postural threat. Our results demonstrate that body posture does not significantly affect decision making. Secondly, despite increased skin conductance level, economic risk-sensitivity was unaffected by increased threat. Our findings indicate that economic choices are fairly robust to the physiological and emotional changes that result from posture or postural threat. PMID:25083345

  11. Insulin-like growth factor- I and factors affecting it in thalassemia major

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; Sanctis, Vincenzo De; Elalaily, Rania; Yassin, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Despite improvement of blood transfusion regimens and iron chelation therapy growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis still occur in good number of thalassemic patients. Decreased IGF-1 secretion occurs in the majority of the thalassemic patients particularly those with growth and pubertal delay. Many factors contribute to this decreased synthesis of IGF-I including disturbed growth hormone (GH) - insulin-like growth factor - I (IGF-I) axis. The possible factors contributing to low IGF-I synthesis in thalassemia and the possible interaction between low IGF-I secretion and the occurrence of these complications is discussed in this mini-review. Improvement of IGF-I secretion in thalassemic patients should be intended to improve linear growth and bone mineral accretion in thalassemic patients. This can be attained through adequate correction of anemia and proper chelation, nutritional supplementation (increasing caloric intake), correction of vitamin D and zinc deficiencies, induction of puberty and correction of hypogonadism at the proper time and treating GH deficiency. This review paper provides a summary of the current state of knowledge regarding IGF-I and factors affecting it in patients with thalassaemia major (TM). Search on PubMed and reference lists of articles with the term ‘IGF-I, GH, growth, thalassemia, thyroxine, anemia, vitamin D, and zinc’ was carried out. A hundred and forty-eight articles were found and used in the write up and the data analyzed was included in this report. PMID:25729686

  12. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth.

    PubMed

    G T Pereira, Anirene; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B P; Carmo, Adriana S; Neves, Haroldo H R; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Garcia, José F

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  13. Pleiotropic Genes Affecting Carcass Traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) Cattle Are Modulators of Growth

    PubMed Central

    Milanesi, Marco; Torrecilha, Rafaela B. P.; Carmo, Adriana S.; Neves, Haroldo H. R.; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo; Sonstegard, Tad S.; Sölkner, Johann; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J.; Garcia, José F.

    2016-01-01

    Two complementary methods, namely Multi-Trait Meta-Analysis and Versatile Gene-Based Test for Genome-wide Association Studies (VEGAS), were used to identify putative pleiotropic genes affecting carcass traits in Bos indicus (Nellore) cattle. The genotypic data comprised over 777,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 995 bulls, and the phenotypic data included deregressed breeding values (dEBV) for weight measurements at birth, weaning and yearling, as well visual scores taken at weaning and yearling for carcass finishing precocity, conformation and muscling. Both analyses pointed to the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) as a major pleiotropic gene. VEGAS analysis revealed 224 additional candidates. From these, 57 participated, together with PLAG1, in a network involved in the modulation of the function and expression of IGF1 (insulin like growth factor 1), IGF2 (insulin like growth factor 2), GH1 (growth hormone 1), IGF1R (insulin like growth factor 1 receptor) and GHR (growth hormone receptor), suggesting that those pleiotropic genes operate as satellite regulators of the growth pathway. PMID:27410030

  14. Site-dependent factors affecting the economic feasibility of solar powered absorption cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure has been developed which can be used to determine the economic feasibility of solar powered absorption cooling systems. This procedure has been used in a study to investigate the influence of the site-dependent parameters on the economic feasibility of solar absorption cooling. The purpose of this study was to make preliminary site selections for solar powered absorption cooling systems. This paper summarizes the results of that study.

  15. State policy as a driver of innovation to support economic growth: California energy-efficiency policy (1975-2005)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementich, Eloisa Y.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to identify whether a relationship exists between state energy-efficiency policy and innovation in the State of California and to shed light on the impact that energy-efficiency policy can have on supporting statewide economic development goals. Theoretical Framework. The theoretical framework drew from foundations in neoclassical economic theory, technology change theory, and new growth theory. Together these theories formed the basis to describe the impacts caused by the innovations within the market economy. Under this framework, policy-generated innovations are viewed to be translated into efficiency and productivity that propel economic benefits. Methodological Considerations. This study examined various economic indices and efficiency attainment indices affecting four home appliances regulated under Title 20's energy-efficiency standard established by the California Energy Commission, Warren Alquist Act. The multiple regression analysis performed provided an understanding of the relationship between the products regulated, the regulation standard, and the policy as it relates to energy-efficiency regulation. Findings. There is enough evidence to show that strategies embedded in the Warren Alquist Act, Title 20 do drive innovation. Three of the four product categories tested showed statistical significance in the policy standard resulting in an industry efficiency improvement. Conclusively, the consumption of electricity per capita in California has positively diverged over a 35-year period from national trends, even though California had mirrored the nation in income and family size during the same period, the only clear case of divergence is the state's action toward a different energy policy. Conclusions and Recommendations. California's regulations propelled manufacturers to reach higher efficiency levels not otherwise pursued by market forces. The California effort included alliances all working together to make

  16. Growth of Bacillus cereus on solid media as affected by agar, sodium chloride, and potassium sorbate.

    PubMed

    Stecchini, M L; Del Torre, M; Donda, S; Maltini, E

    2000-07-01

    The effect of two independent variables: microstructure, as modified by the agar content (1.0, 4.0, 7.0%), and water activity (a(w)), as modified by the NaCl content (0.5, 2.5, 4.5%), in the absence or in the presence of potassium sorbate (0.0; 2,000 ppm) on Bacillus cereus growth on solid media was studied. The time to visible growth (TVG) and the radial growth rate (RGR) of colonies were evaluated. TVG was not affected by microstructure and K-sorbate, although when a(w) was reduced, TVG tended to increase. RGR depended on linear effects of microstructure and a(w) variables and their interaction. When K-sorbate was added to cultural media, RGR was reduced significantly. However, in the presence of K-sorbate, RGR was found to change only when a(w) vas varied. PMID:10914662

  17. Gonadotropin ratio affects the in vitro growth of rhesus ovarian preantral follicles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Young; Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Chung Gyu; Rosenwaks, Zev; Liu, Hung Ching; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Ku, Seung-Yup

    2016-04-01

    In vitro follicle growth (IVFG) strategy is critical in the fertility preservation of cancer survivors; however, its optimal protocol needs to be developed using primate models since the availability of human samples is limited. Only a few previous studies have reported the successful IVFG of rhesus monkey ovaries using low-dose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (0.3 or 3 ng/mL) and long-term culture (up to 5 weeks) and it is still uncertain in regard to the optimal culture duration and effective dose of treated gonadotropins applicable to the IVFG of rhesus preantral follicles. Recently, we have reported that the FSH to luteinizing hormone (LH) ratio affects the in vitro growth of murine ovarian follicles. We aimed to investigate whether gonadotropin ratios affect the efficiency of rhesus follicular growth in vitro Ovaries were collected from six necropsied rhesus macaques (4-9 years) and preantral follicles were retrieved and cultured for 14 days using 200 mIU/mL FSH. The characteristics of follicular growth were compared between the FSH:LH=1:1 (n=24) and FSH:LH=2:1 (n=24) groups. High concentration gonadotropin treatment shortened the duration required for in vitro maturation of rhesus preantral follicles. The FSH:LH=2:1 group showed a faster follicular growth and enabled the acquisition of mature oocytes, although the expression of growth differentiation factor (GDF)-9 and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) did not differ significantly between the two groups. Taken together, high dose gonadotropin treatment can shorten the duration of IVFG and the gonadotropin ratio is important in the IVFG of rhesus monkey ovaries. PMID:26980777

  18. Gonadotropin ratio affects the in vitro growth of rhesus ovarian preantral follicles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Young; Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, Jong Min; Park, Chung Gyu; Rosenwaks, Zev; Liu, Hung Ching; Kang, Byeong-Cheol; Ku, Seung-Yup

    2016-01-01

    In vitro follicle growth (IVFG) strategy is critical in the fertility preservation of cancer survivors; however, its optimal protocol needs to be developed using primate models since the availability of human samples is limited. Only a few previous studies have reported the successful IVFG of rhesus monkey ovaries using low-dose follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (0.3 or 3 ng/mL) and long-term culture (up to 5 weeks) and it is still uncertain in regard to the optimal culture duration and effective dose of treated gonadotropins applicable to the IVFG of rhesus preantral follicles. Recently, we have reported that the FSH to luteinizing hormone (LH) ratio affects the in vitro growth of murine ovarian follicles. We aimed to investigate whether gonadotropin ratios affect the efficiency of rhesus follicular growth in vitro. Ovaries were collected from six necropsied rhesus macaques (4–9 years) and preantral follicles were retrieved and cultured for 14 days using 200 mIU/mL FSH. The characteristics of follicular growth were compared between the FSH:LH=1:1 (n=24) and FSH:LH=2:1 (n=24) groups. High concentration gonadotropin treatment shortened the duration required for in vitro maturation of rhesus preantral follicles. The FSH:LH=2:1 group showed a faster follicular growth and enabled the acquisition of mature oocytes, although the expression of growth differentiation factor (GDF)-9 and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) did not differ significantly between the two groups. Taken together, high dose gonadotropin treatment can shorten the duration of IVFG and the gonadotropin ratio is important in the IVFG of rhesus monkey ovaries. PMID:26980777

  19. Global health and development: conceptualizing health between economic growth and environmental sustainability.

    PubMed

    Borowy, Iris

    2013-07-01

    After World War II, health was firmly integrated into the discourse about national development. Transition theories portrayed health improvements as part of an overall development pattern based on economic growth as modeled by the recent history of industrialization in high-income countries. In the 1970s, an increasing awareness of the environmental degradation caused by industrialization challenged the conventional model of development. Gradually, it became clear that health improvements depended on poverty-reduction strategies including industrialization. Industrialization, in turn, risked aggravating environmental degradation with its negative effects on public health. Thus, public health in low-income countries threatened to suffer from lack of economic development as well as from the results of global economic development. Similarly, demands of developing countries risked being trapped between calls for global wealth redistribution, a political impossibility, and calls for unrestricted material development, which, in a world of finite land, water, air, energy, and resources, increasingly looked like a physical impossibility, too. Various international bodies, including the WHO, the Brundtland Commission, and the World Bank, tried to capture the problem and solution strategies in development theories. Broadly conceived, two models have emerged: a "localist model," which analyzes national health data and advocates growth policies with a strong focus on poverty reduction, and a "globalist" model, based on global health data, which calls for growth optimization, rather than maximization. Both models have focused on different types of health burdens and have received support from different institutions. In a nutshell, the health discourse epitomized a larger controversy regarding competing visions of development. PMID:22467707

  20. Rearing Tenebrio molitor in BLSS: Dietary fiber affects larval growth, development, and respiration characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Stasiak, Michael; Li, Liang; Xie, Beizhen; Fu, Yuming; Gidzinski, Danuta; Dixon, Mike; Liu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Rearing of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) will provide good animal nutrition for astronauts in a bioregenerative life support system. In this study, growth and biomass conversion data of T. molitor larvae were tested for calculating the stoichiometric equation of its growth. Result of a respiratory quotient test proved the validity of the equation. Fiber had the most reduction in mass during T. molitor‧s consumption, and thus it is speculated that fiber is an important factor affecting larval growth of T. molitor. In order to further confirm this hypothesis and find out a proper feed fiber content, T. molitor larvae were fed on diets with 4 levels of fiber. Larval growth, development and respiration in each group were compared and analyzed. Results showed that crude-fiber content of 5% had a significant promoting effect on larvae in early instars, and is beneficial for pupa eclosion. When fed on feed of 5-10% crude-fiber, larvae in later instars reached optimal levels in growth, development and respiration. Therefore, we suggest that crude fiber content in feed can be controlled within 5-10%, and with the consideration of food palatability, a crude fiber of 5% is advisable.

  1. Root cooling strongly affects diel leaf growth dynamics, water and carbohydrate relations in Ricinus communis.

    PubMed

    Poiré, Richard; Schneider, Heike; Thorpe, Michael R; Kuhn, Arnd J; Schurr, Ulrich; Walter, Achim

    2010-03-01

    In laboratory and greenhouse experiments with potted plants, shoots and roots are exposed to temperature regimes throughout a 24 h (diel) cycle that can differ strongly from the regime under which these plants have evolved. In the field, roots are often exposed to lower temperatures than shoots. When the root-zone temperature in Ricinus communis was decreased below a threshold value, leaf growth occurred preferentially at night and was strongly inhibited during the day. Overall, leaf expansion, shoot biomass growth, root elongation and ramification decreased rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root were diminished and carbohydrate contents of both root and shoot increased. Further, transpiration rate was not affected, yet hydrostatic tensions in shoot xylem increased. When root temperature was increased again, xylem tension reduced, leaf growth recovered rapidly, carbon fluxes from shoot to root increased, and carbohydrate pools were depleted. We hypothesize that the decreased uptake of water in cool roots diminishes the growth potential of the entire plant - especially diurnally, when the growing leaf loses water via transpiration. As a consequence, leaf growth and metabolite concentrations can vary enormously, depending on root-zone temperature and its heterogeneity inside pots. PMID:19968824

  2. Shoot Turgor Does Not Limit Shoot Growth of NaCl-Affected Wheat and Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Termaat, Annie; Passioura, John B.; Munns, Rana

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test the hypothesis that the reduced growth rate of wheat and barley that results when the roots are exposed to NaCl is due to inadequate turgor in the expanding cells of the leaves. The hypothesis was tested by exposing plants to 100 millimolar NaCl (which reduced their growth rates by about 20%), growing them for 7 to 10 days with their roots in pressure chambers, and applying sufficient pneumatic pressure in the chambers to offset the osmotic pressure of the NaCl, namely, 0.48 megapascals. The results showed that applying the pressure had no sustained effect (relative to unpressurized controls) on growth rates, transpiration rates, or osmotic pressures of the cell sap, in either the fully expanded or currently expanding leaf tissue, of both wheat and barley. The results indicate that the applied pressure correspondingly increased turgor in the shoot although this was not directly measured. We conclude that shoot turgor alone was not regulating the growth of these NaCl-affected plants, and, after discussing other possible influences, argue that a message arising in the roots may be regulating the growth of the shoot. PMID:16664152

  3. Ozone affects gas exchange, growth and reproductive development in Brassica campestris (Wisconsin fast plants).

    PubMed

    Black, V J; Stewart, C A; Roberts, J A; Black, C R

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to ozone (O(3)) may affect vegetative and reproductive development, although the consequences for yield depend on the effectiveness of the compensatory processes induced. This study examined the impact on reproductive development of exposing Brassica campestris (Wisconsin Fast Plants) to ozone during vegetative growth. Plants were exposed to 70 ppb ozone for 2 d during late vegetative growth or 10 d spanning most of the vegetative phase. Effects on gas exchange, vegetative growth, reproductive development and seed yield were determined. Impacts on gas exchange and foliar injury were related to pre-exposure stomatal conductance. Exposure for 2 d had no effect on growth or reproductive characteristics, whereas 10-d exposure reduced vegetative growth and reproductive site number on the terminal raceme. Mature seed number and weight per pod and per plant were unaffected because seed abortion was reduced. The observation that mature seed yield per plant was unaffected by exposure during the vegetative phase, despite adverse effects on physiological, vegetative and reproductive processes, shows that indeterminate species such as B. campestris possess sufficient compensatory flexibility to avoid reductions in seed production. PMID:17803646

  4. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  5. Do Better Schools Lead to More Growth? Cognitive Skills, Economic Outcomes, and Causation. NBER Working Paper No. 14633

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Woessmann, Ludger

    2009-01-01

    We provide evidence that the robust association between cognitive skills and economic growth reflects a causal effect of cognitive skills and supports the economic benefits of effective school policy. We develop a new common metric that allows tracking student achievement across countries, over time, and along the within-country distribution.…

  6. Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Lea A.; Strassburg, Christian P.; Raskopf, Esther

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5) directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5) on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell) growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation. PMID:24895598

  7. Spatial heterogeneity of soil biochar content affects soil quality and wheat growth and yield.

    PubMed

    Olmo, Manuel; Lozano, Ana María; Barrón, Vidal; Villar, Rafael

    2016-08-15

    Biochar (BC) is a carbonaceous material obtained by pyrolysis of organic waste materials and has been proposed as a soil management strategy to mitigate global warming and to improve crop productivity. Once BC has been applied to the soil, its imperfect and incomplete mixing with soil during the first few years and the standard agronomic practices (i.e. tillage, sowing) may generate spatial heterogeneity of the BC content in the soil, which may have implications for soil properties and their effects on plant growth. We investigated how, after two agronomic seasons, the spatial heterogeneity of olive-tree prunings BC applied to a vertisol affected soil characteristics and wheat growth and yield. During the second agronomic season and just before wheat germination, we determined the BC content in the soil by an in-situ visual categorization based on the soil darkening, which was strongly correlated to the BC content of the soil and the soil brightness. We found a high spatial heterogeneity in the BC plots, which affected soil characteristics and wheat growth and yield. Patches with high BC content showed reduced soil compaction and increased soil moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient availability (P, Ca, K, Mn, Fe, and Zn); consequently, wheat had greater tillering and higher relative growth rate and grain yield. However, if the spatial heterogeneity of the soil BC content had not been taken into account in the data analysis, most of the effects of BC on wheat growth would not have been detected. Our study reveals the importance of taking into account the spatial heterogeneity of the BC content. PMID:27110980

  8. How Arizona's Dropout Crisis Affects Communities, Creates Economic Losses for the State of Arizona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WestEd, 2014

    2014-01-01

    One-in-five of Arizona's youth did not complete high school and a similarly large proportion of the state's youth is disconnected from either work or education. These youth face higher risks of unemployment and economic insecurity and are more reliant on government supports. This situation, which fails to ensure that the state's youth are…

  9. ENGINEERING AND ECONOMIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE INSTALLATION OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR MULTIPOLLUTANT STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report evaluates the engineering and economic factors associated with installing air pollution control technologies to meet the requirements of strategies to control sulfur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOX), and mercury under the Clear Skies Act multipollutant control s...

  10. The Notions of Science as human capital: An empirical analysis of economic growth and science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, Russell D.

    This study was designed to determine the strength of the relationship between a nation's human capital in the form of the "Notions of Science" (NOS) and the growth rate of gross domestic product per capita for 43 countries during the years 1988 through 1998. This relationship was studied from two perspectives: first, the study sought to determine if there was a significant relationship between a country's NOS and its growth rate in gross domestic per capita; second, the study sought to determine if the NOS had a greater relationship with the growth rate of gross domestic product per capita than a more commonly used measure of human capital, amount of schooling. The NOS for the participating countries were proxied by the percentage of a country's science curriculum devoted to teaching the NOS. The science curricula used in this study were obtained from the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement's (IEA) Curriculum Frameworks for Mathematics and Science. These curricular frameworks were written as one part of the Third International Math and Science Study (TIMSS). The NOS were extracted from the science curriculum frameworks through the construction of a content-by-cognitive-behavior-grid. The categories, or codes, for the NOS used in this grid were based on the work of Clarence Irving Lewis in Mind and the World Order. Holding several other explanatory variables constant, the NOS percentage for each country were regressed against each country's average growth rate of gross domestic product per capita for the period of 1988 through 1998. The results indicate that there was not a significant relationship between human capital, as proxied by the percentage of the curriculum devoted to the notions of science, and a country's economic growth rate. Because the regression coefficient for the NOS was not statistically significant, this study was not able to determine if the NOS had a stronger relationship with growth in GDP per capita than

  11. Crack growth rates of irradiated austenitic stainless steel weld heat affected zone in BWR environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Gruber, E. E.; Daum, R. S.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2006-01-31

    Austenitic stainless steels (SSs) are used extensively as structural alloys in the internal components of reactor pressure vessels because of their superior fracture toughness. However, exposure to high levels of neutron irradiation for extended periods can exacerbate the corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of these steels by affecting the material microchemistry, material microstructure, and water chemistry. Experimental data are presented on crack growth rates of the heat affected zone (HAZ) in Types 304L and 304 SS weld specimens before and after they were irradiated to a fluence of 5.0 x 10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) ({approx} 0.75 dpa) at {approx}288 C. Crack growth tests were conducted under cycling loading and long hold time trapezoidal loading in simulated boiling water reactor environments on Type 304L SS HAZ of the H5 weld from the Grand Gulf reactor core shroud and on Type 304 SS HAZ of a laboratory-prepared weld. The effects of material composition, irradiation, and water chemistry on growth rates are discussed.

  12. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    PubMed

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits. PMID:10375215

  13. Dietary blueberry supplementation affects growth but not vascularization of neural transplants

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Lauren M; Small, Brent J; Bickford, Paula C; Umphlet, Claudia D; Moore, Alfred B; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation of neural tissue has been attempted as a treatment method for neurodegenerative disorders. Grafted neurons survive to a lesser extent into middle-aged or aged hosts, and survival rates of < 10% of grafted neurons is common. Antioxidant diets, such as blueberry, can exert powerful effects on developing neurons and blood vessels in vitro, but studies are lacking that examine the effects of these diets on transplanted tissues. In this study, we examined the effects of a blueberry diet on survival, growth, and vascularization of fetal hippocampal tissue to the anterior chamber of the eye of young or middle-aged female rats. Previous work from our group showed significant increase in neuronal survival and development with blueberry diet in grafts. However, the effects of antioxidant diet on vascular development in grafts have not been explored previously. The age of the host affected individual vessel morphology in that aged hosts contained grafts with thick, undeveloped walls, and wider lumen. The blood–brain barrier also appeared to be affected by the age of the host. The blueberry diet did not affect vessel morphology or density of vessel-associated protein markers but gave rise to significantly increased growth capacity, cytoarchitecture, and the final size of hippocampal grafts. PMID:18285804

  14. Renewable Energy Consumption and Economic Growth in Nine OECD Countries: Bounds Test Approach and Causality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hung-Pin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the short-run and long-run causality between renewable energy (RE) consumption and economic growth (EG) in nine OECD countries from the period between 1982 and 2011. To examine the linkage, this paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach of cointegration test and vector error-correction models to test the causal relationship between variables. The co-integration and causal relationships are found in five countries—United States of America (USA), Japan, Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom (UK). The overall results indicate that (1) a short-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in Italy and UK; (2) long-run unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany, Italy, and UK; (3) a long-run unidirectional causality runs from EG to RE in USA, and Japan; (4) both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from RE to EG for Germany and UK; and (5) Finally, both long-run and strong unidirectional causalities run from EG to RE in only USA. Further evidence reveals that policies for renewable energy conservation may have no impact on economic growth in France, Denmark, Portugal, and Spain. PMID:24558343

  15. Response to long-term growth hormone therapy in patients affected by RASopathies and growth hormone deficiency: Patterns of growth, puberty and final height data.

    PubMed

    Tamburrino, Federica; Gibertoni, Dino; Rossi, Cesare; Scarano, Emanuela; Perri, Annamaria; Montanari, Francesca; Fantini, Maria Pia; Pession, Andrea; Tartaglia, Marco; Mazzanti, Laura

    2015-11-01

    RASopathies are developmental disorders caused by heterozygous germline mutations in genes encoding proteins in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Reduced growth is a common feature. Several studies generated data on growth, final height (FH), and height velocity (HV) after growth hormone (GH) treatment in patients with these disorders, particularly in Noonan syndrome, the most common RASopathy. These studies, however, refer to heterogeneous cohorts in terms of molecular information, GH status, age at start and length of therapy, and GH dosage. This work reports growth data in 88 patients affected by RASopathies with molecularly confirmed diagnosis, together with statistics on body proportions, pubertal pattern, and FH in 33, including 16 treated with GH therapy for proven GH deficiency. Thirty-three patients showed GH deficiency after pharmacological tests, and were GH-treated for an average period of 6.8 ± 4.8 years. Before starting therapy, HV was -2.6 ± 1.3 SDS, and mean basal IGF1 levels were -2.0 ± 1.1 SDS. Long-term GH therapy, starting early during childhood, resulted in a positive height response compared with untreated patients (1.3 SDS in terms of height-gain), normalizing FH for Ranke standards but not for general population and Target Height. Pubertal timing negatively affected pubertal growth spurt and FH, with IGF1 standardized score increased from -2.43 to -0.27 SDS. During GH treatment, no significant change in bone age velocity, body proportions, or cardiovascular function was observed. PMID:26227443

  16. Urban policy, economic policy, and the growth of large cities in China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y

    1994-01-01

    It is argued that despite a Chinese national urban policy large cities are still growing rapidly. Policy implementation is considered weak. It is suggested that a better strategy for increased urbanization in large Chinese cities would include integrating urban with economic policy, improving urban facilities, and planning and managing large cities. A short review is given of theories on city size and development in developing countries. Chinese economic reforms and their impact on urban growth are described. During 1978-90 the level of urbanization rose from 17.9% to 26.4%. Five periods during 1949 to present are identified as exhibiting distinct development profiles. Over the 40 year period, policies pertaining to cities of a particular population size changed constantly. During the early 1950s, development focused on major coastal cities and newly expanding industrial centers. After the 1950s and the Great Leap Forward (1958-60), rural areas and small urban places were the focus of Maoist development. Large cities were de-emphasized. The early 1970s emphasized the development of rural industries and small urban places in order to reduce rural-urban inequalities. A national urban policy was prepared in the early 1980s. The aim was to control the size of large cities, to develop medium sized cities, and to develop small cities. This policy was amended later and is now China's Urban Planning Law. However, the percentage of the nonagricultural population (NAP) living in cities of a million or more persons increased from 37.5% in 1978 to 41.6% in 1990. The share of NAP living in small cities increased to 21.5% in 1990. Temporary migrants were an estimated 5-15% of large city populations. Most cities were beyond their population control limit. Large cities had served important roles in development: greater efficiency in the industrial labor force and more profits; centers for culture, education, politics, and transportation; and links to foreign countries. Economic

  17. Impacts of population growth and economic development on water quality of a lake: case study of Lake Victoria Kenya water.

    PubMed

    Juma, Dauglas Wafula; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic-induced water quality pollution is a major environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems today. As a result of this, eutrophication of lakes occurs. Population and economic development are key drivers of water resource pollution. To evaluate how growth in the riparian population and in the gross domestic product (GDP) with unplanned development affects the water quality of the lake, this paper evaluates Lake Victoria Kenyan waters basin. Waters quality data between 1990 and 2012 were analyzed along with reviews of published literature, papers, and reports. The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), soluble phosphorus (PO4-P), chlorophyll a, and Secchi transparencies were evaluated as they are key water quality indicators. The NO3-N increased from 10 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 98 μg 1(-1) in 2008, while PO4-P increased from 4 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 57 μg l(-1) in 2008. The population and economic growth of Kenya are increasing with both having minimums in 1990 of 24.143 million people and 12.18 billion US dollars, to maximums in 2010 of 39.742 million people and 32.163 billion US dollars, respectively. A Secchi transparency is reducing with time, indicating an increasing pollution. This was confirmed by an increase in aquatic vegetation using an analysis of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of 2000 and 2012 of Kenyan waters. This study found that increasing population and GDP increases pollution discharge thus polluting lakes. One of major factors causing lake water pollution is the unplanned or poor waste management policy and service. PMID:24442964

  18. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…

  19. The Impact on Growth of Higher Efficiency of Public Spending on Schools. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 547

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonand, Frederic

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact on economic growth of increased efficiency of public spending in primary and lower-secondary education. Higher efficiency in public spending in schools can bolster growth through two main channels. On the one hand, it can allow a transfer of labour from the public sector to the business sector at unchanged…

  20. Impact of socio-economic growth on desalination in the US.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R; Reyes, Reuben

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, around 1336 desalination plants in the United States (US) provided purified water mainly to municipalities, the industry sector and for power generation. In 2013 alone, ∼200 million m(3) of water were desalinated; the amount that could satisfy annual municipal water consumption of more than 1.5 million people in the US. Desalination has proven to be a reliable water supply source in many countries around the world, with the total global desalination capacity of ∼60 million m(3)/day in 2013. Desalination has been used to mitigate water scarcity and lessen the pressure on water resources. Currently, data and information about desalination are still limited, while extensive socio-economic analyses are missing. This paper presents an econometric model to fill this gap. It evaluates the impact of selected socio-economic variables on desalination development in the US in the time span 1970-2013. The results show that the GDP and population growth have significantly impacted the desalination sector over the analyzed time period. The insights into the economics of desalination provided with this paper can be used to further evaluate cost-effectiveness of desalination both in the US and in other countries around the world. PMID:26610194

  1. Obesity, Chronic Disease, and Economic Growth: A Case for “Big Picture” Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Garry

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of a form of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation (“metaflammation”) linked with obesity, but also associated with several lifestyle-related behaviours not necessarily causing obesity, suggests a re-consideration of obesity as a direct cause of chronic disease and a search for the main drivers—or cause of causes. Factors contributing to this are considered here within an environmental context, leading to the conclusion that humans have an immune reaction to aspects of the modern techno-industrial environment, to which they have not fully adapted. It is suggested that economic growth—beyond a point—leads to increases in chronic diseases and climate change and that obesity is a signal of these problems. This is supported by data from Sweden over 200 years, as well as “natural” experiments in disrupted economies like Cuba and Nauru, which have shown a positive health effect with economic downturns. The effect is reflected both in human health and environmental problems such as climate change, thus pointing to the need for greater cross-disciplinary communication and a concept shift in thinking on prevention if economic growth is to continue to benefit human health and well-being. PMID:21991431

  2. Kinetics of grain growth in the weld heat-affected zone of Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, B.; Thompson, R.G.

    1993-12-01

    Grain-boundary liquation occurs in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the Ni-base superalloy 718 at locations where the peak temperatures are greater than about 1,200 C. The evolution of the grain structure at the HAZ locations depends upon the interaction between the grains and the grain-boundary liquid. The evolution of grain structure in the presence of grain-boundary liquid was simulated by subjecting samples to controlled thermal cycles using resistance heating. A measurement of grain size as a function of isothermal hold at two peak temperatures of 1,200 C and 1,227 C indicated that in alloy 718, the kinetics of grain growth depended upon the prior thermal history of the alloy. In the solution-treated alloy, the presence of grain-boundary liquid did not arrest grain growth at either peak temperature. In the homogenized and aged alloy, a grain refinement was observed at the peak temperature of 1,227 C, while an arrest of grain growth was observed at a peak temperature of 1,200 C. Liquid film migration (LFM) and subgrain coalescence, either acting alone or simultaneously, are shown to explain most of the observed microstructural phenomena and the kinetics of grain growth in the alloy.

  3. Kinetics of grain growth in the weld heat-affected zone of alloy 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, B.; Thompson, R. G.

    1993-12-01

    Grain-boundary liquation occurs in the weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the Ni-base superalloy 718 at locations where the peak temperatures are greater than about 1200 ‡C. The evolution of the grain structure at these HAZ locations depends upon the interaction between the grains and the grain-boundary liquid. The evolution of grain structure in the presence of grain-boundary liquid was simulated by subjecting samples to controlled thermal cycles using resistance heating. A measurement of grain size as a function of isothermal hold at two peak temperatures of 1200 ‡C and 1227 ‡C indicated that in alloy 718, the kinetics of grain growth depended upon the prior thermal history of the alloy. In the solution-treated alloy, the presence of grain-boundary liquid did not arrest grain growth at either peak temperature. In the homogenized and aged alloy, a grain refinement was observed at the peak temperature of 1227 ‡C, while an arrest of grain growth was observed at a peak temperature of 1200‡C. Liquid film migration (LFM) and subgrain coalescence, either acting alone or simultaneously, are shown to explain most of the observed microstructural phenomena and the kinetics of grain growth in the alloy.

  4. Alkyl-methylimidazolium ionic liquids affect the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp

    SciTech Connect

    Nancharaiah, Y.V.; Francis, A.

    2011-06-01

    In this study, the effect of ionic liquids, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [EMIM][Ac], 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate [EMIM][DEP], and 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate [MMIM][DMP] on the growth and glucose fermentation of Clostridium sp. was investigated. Among the three ionic liquids tested, [MMIM][DMP] was found to be least toxic. Growth of Clostridium sp. was not inhibited up to 2.5, 4 and 4 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac], [EMIM][DEP] and [MMIM][DMP], respectively. [EMIM][Ac] at <2.5 g L{sup -1}, showed hormetic effect and stimulated the growth and fermentation by modulating medium pH. Total organic acid production increased in the presence of 2.5 and 2 g L{sup -1} of [EMIM][Ac] and [MMIM][DMP]. Ionic liquids had no significant influence on alcohol production at <2.5 g L{sup -1}. Total gas production was affected by ILs at {ge}2.5 g L{sup -1} and varied with type of methylimidazolium IL. Overall, the results show that the growth and fermentative metabolism of Clostridium sp. is not impacted by ILs at concentrations below 2.5 g L{sup -1}.

  5. Opioid and nicotine receptors affect growth regulation of human lung cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Maneckjee, R.; Minna, J.D. Uniformed Services Univ. of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD )

    1990-05-01

    Using specific radioactively-labeled ligands, the authors find that lung cancer cell lines of diverse histologic types express multiple, high-affinity membrane receptors for {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists and for nicotine and {alpha}-bungarotoxin. These receptors are biologically active because cAMP levels decreased in lung cancer cells after opioid and nicotine application. Nicotine at concentrations found in the blood of smokers had no effect on in vitro lung cancer cell growth, whereas {mu}, {delta}, and {kappa} opioid agonists at low concentrations inhibited lung cancer growth in vitro. They also found that lung cancer cells expressed various combinations of immunoreactive opioid peptides ({beta}-endorphin, enkephalin, or dynorphin), suggesting the participation of opioids in a negative autocrine loop or tumor-suppressing system. Due to the almost universal exposure of patients with lung cancer to nicotine, they tested whether nicotine affected the response of lung cancer cell growth to opioids and found that nicotine at concentrations of 100-200 nM partially or totally reversed opioid-induced growth inhibition in 9/14 lung cancer cell lines. These in vitro results for lung cancer cells suggest that opioids could function as part of a tumor suppressor system and that nicotine can function to circumvent this system in the pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  6. Flavonoid accumulation in Arabidopsis repressed in lignin synthesis affects auxin transport and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Besseau, Sébastien; Hoffmann, Laurent; Geoffroy, Pierrette; Lapierre, Catherine; Pollet, Brigitte; Legrand, Michel

    2007-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, silencing of hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT), a lignin biosynthetic gene, results in a strong reduction of plant growth. We show that, in HCT-silenced plants, lignin synthesis repression leads to the redirection of the metabolic flux into flavonoids through chalcone synthase activity. Several flavonol glycosides and acylated anthocyanin were shown to accumulate in higher amounts in silenced plants. By contrast, sinapoylmalate levels were barely affected, suggesting that the synthesis of that phenylpropanoid compound might be HCT-independent. The growth phenotype of HCT-silenced plants was shown to be controlled by light and to depend on chalcone synthase expression. Histochemical analysis of silenced stem tissues demonstrated altered tracheary elements. The level of plant growth reduction of HCT-deficient plants was correlated with the inhibition of auxin transport. Suppression of flavonoid accumulation by chalcone synthase repression in HCT-deficient plants restored normal auxin transport and wild-type plant growth. By contrast, the lignin structure of the plants simultaneously repressed for HCT and chalcone synthase remained as severely altered as in HCT-silenced plants, with a large predominance of nonmethoxylated H units. These data demonstrate that the reduced size phenotype of HCT-silenced plants is not due to the alteration of lignin synthesis but to flavonoid accumulation. PMID:17237352

  7. Urban vegetation and thermal patterns following city growth in different socio-economic contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities

  8. Does the company's economic performance affect access to occupational health services?

    PubMed Central

    Kankaanpää, Eila; Suhonen, Aki; Valtonen, Hannu

    2009-01-01

    Background In Finland like in many other countries, employers are legally obliged to organize occupational health services (OHS) for their employees. Because employers bear the costs of OHS it could be that in spite of the legal requirement OHS expenditure is more determined by economic performance of the company than by law. Therefore, we explored whether economic performance was associated with the companies' expenditure on occupational health services. Methods We used a prospective design to predict expenditure on OHS in 2001 by a company's economic performance in 1999. Data were provided by Statistics Finland and expressed by key indicators for profitability, solidity and liquidity and by the Social Insurance Institution as employers' reimbursement applications for OHS costs. The data could be linked at the company level. Regression analysis was used to study associations adjusted for various confounders. Results Nineteen percent of the companies (N = 6 155) did not apply for reimbursement of OHS costs in 2001. The profitability of the company represented by operating margin in 1999 and adjusted for type of industry was not significantly related to the company's probability to apply for reimbursement of the costs in 2001 (OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.99 to 1.01). Profitability measured as operating profit in 1999 and adjusted for type of industry was not significantly related to costs for curative medical services (Beta -0.001, 95%CI: -0.00 to 0.11) nor to OHS cost of prevention in 2001 (Beta -0.001, 95%CI: -0.00 to 0.00). Conclusion We did not find a relation between the company's economic performance and expenditure on OHS in Finland. We suppose that this is due to legislation obliging employers to provide OHS and the reimbursement system both being strong incentives for employers. PMID:19725952

  9. ZnO Nanoparticles Affect Bacillus subtilis Cell Growth and Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Ke, Wan-Ju; Hsieh, Chien-Te; Lin, Kuen-Song; Tzou, Dong-Ying; Chiang, Chao-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are an important antimicrobial additive in many industrial applications. However, mass-produced ZnO NPs are ultimately disposed of in the environment, which can threaten soil-dwelling microorganisms that play important roles in biodegradation, nutrient recycling, plant protection, and ecological balance. This study sought to understand how ZnO NPs affect Bacillus subtilis, a plant-beneficial bacterium ubiquitously found in soil. The impact of ZnO NPs on B. subtilis growth, FtsZ ring formation, cytosolic protein activity, and biofilm formation were assessed, and our results show that B. subtilis growth is inhibited by high concentrations of ZnO NPs (≥ 50 ppm), with cells exhibiting a prolonged lag phase and delayed medial FtsZ ring formation. RedoxSensor and Phag-GFP fluorescence data further show that at ZnO-NP concentrations above 50 ppm, B. subtilis reductase activity, membrane stability, and protein expression all decrease. SDS-PAGE Stains-All staining results and FT-IR data further demonstrate that ZnO NPs negatively affect exopolysaccharide production. Moreover, it was found that B. subtilis biofilm surface structures became smooth under ZnO-NP concentrations of only 5–10 ppm, with concentrations ≤ 25 ppm significantly reducing biofilm formation activity. XANES and EXAFS spectra analysis further confirmed the presence of ZnO in co-cultured B. subtilis cells, which suggests penetration of cell membranes by either ZnO NPs or toxic Zn+ ions from ionized ZnO NPs, the latter of which may be deionized to ZnO within bacterial cells. Together, these results demonstrate that ZnO NPs can affect B. subtilis viability through the inhibition of cell growth, cytosolic protein expression, and biofilm formation, and suggest that future ZnO-NP waste management strategies would do well to mitigate the potential environmental impact engendered by the disposal of these nanoparticles. PMID:26039692

  10. An interactive environmental model for economic growth: evidence from a panel of countries.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Suresh; Hishan, Sanil S; Nabi, Agha Amad; Arshad, Zeeshan; Kanjanapathy, Malini; Zaman, Khalid; Khan, Faisal

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to determine an interactive environmental model for economic growth that would be supported by the "sustainability principles" across the globe. The study examines the relationship between environmental pollutants (i.e., carbon dioxide emission, sulfur dioxide emission, mono-nitrogen oxide, and nitrous oxide emission); population growth; energy use; trade openness; per capita food production; and it's resulting impact on the real per capita GDP and sectoral growth (i.e., share of agriculture, industry, and services in GDP) in a panel of 34 high-income OECD, high-income non-OECD, and Europe and Central Asian countries, for the period of 1995-2014. The results of the panel fixed effect regression show that per capita GDP are influenced by sulfur dioxide emission, population growth, and per capita food production variability, while energy and trade openness significantly increases per capita income of the region. The results of the panel Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) show that carbon dioxide emission significantly decreases the share of agriculture and industry in GDP, while it further supports the share of services sector to GDP. Both the sulfur dioxide and mono-nitrogen oxide emission decreases the share of services in GDP; nitrous oxide decreases the share of industry in GDP; while mono-nitrogen oxide supports the industrial activities. The following key growth-specific results has been obtained from the panel SUR estimation, i.e., (i) Both the food production per capita and trade openness significantly associated with the increasing share of agriculture, (ii) food production and energy use significantly increases the service sectors' productivity; (iii) food production decreases the industrial activities; (iv) trade openness decreases the share of services to GDP while it supports the industrial share to GDP; and finally, (v) energy demand decreases along with the increase agricultural share in the region. The results emphasize the need for

  11. Power Policy 21 Century: Growth of the Population, Economics, Ecology and Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    but energy consumed by a man will be a limiting factor. Obtained values of changing in the quantity of population as well as of the consumed fuel quantity in the 21 century have been analysed. The period was defined (2005-2085) when energy hungry is possible due to a higher rate of a human reproduction comparing to the rates of energy consumption. From new position, the laws of the Earth population growth are analysed, based on the equality of the quantity of dying people to the quantity of those bornyears ago, whereis life expectancy. investigated on the base of Second law of thermodynamics. The equation of money exchange dY = (V/p)dM in going from quantity real GNP Y to consumption fuel equivalent E=pd Y takes the form: dE =VdM. General correlation between S and M is proposed: dS = (HV/T)dM, where H is enthalpy; V is velocity of money; T is temperature; p is total prices,is capacity of manufacture resources. This equation shows direction of the spontaneity development of economical processes as part of general law Universe. The original equation of removing from information to matter equation enables to control output natural resources by economic laws, and to control of activities for the restoration wrecked nature.This equation shows the direction of the spontaneity development of economical processes as part of a general Universal law. into account value of expenditure on ecology as part of price and overstated price indexes. The criterions allow to discover numerical values of a stock of money, ecology part of price, velocity of money, value of the taxes, which ensure sustainable development. These equations enable to control output natural resources by economic laws, and to control activities for the restoration of wrecked nature.

  12. Ameloblastin, an Extracellular Matrix Protein, Affects Long Bone Growth and Mineralization.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuanyu; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Evans, Carla A; Diekwisch, Thomas Gh; Luan, Xianghong

    2016-06-01

    Matrix molecules such as the enamel-related calcium-binding phosphoprotein ameloblastin (AMBN) are expressed in multiple tissues, including teeth, bones, and cartilage. Here we have asked whether AMBN is of functional importance for timely long bone development and, if so, how it exerts its function related to osteogenesis. Adolescent AMBN-deficient mice (AMBN(Δ5-6) ) suffered from a 33% to 38% reduction in femur length and an 8.4% shorter trunk spinal column when compared with WT controls, whereas there was no difference between adult animals. On a cellular level, AMBN truncation resulted in a shortened growth plate and a 41% to 49% reduction in the number of proliferating tibia chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) isolated from AMBN mutant mice displayed defects in proliferation and differentiation potential as well as cytoskeleton organization. Osteogenesis-related growth factors, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and BMP7, were also significantly (46% to 73%) reduced in AMBN-deficient BMSCs. Addition of exogenous AMBN restored cytoskeleton structures in AMBN mutant BMSCs and resulted in a dramatic 400% to 600% increase in BMP2, BMP7, and Col1A expression. Block of RhoA diminished the effect of AMBN on osteogenic growth factor and matrix protein gene expression. Addition of exogenous BMP7 and IGF1 rescued the proliferation and differentiation potential of AMBN-deficient BMSCs. Confirming the effects of AMBN on long bone growth, back-crossing of mutant mice with full-length AMBN overexpressors resulted in a complete rescue of AMBN(Δ5-6) bone defects. Together, these data indicate that AMBN affects extracellular matrix production and cell adhesion properties in the long bone growth plate, resulting in altered cytoskeletal dynamics, increased osteogenesis-related gene expression, as well as osteoblast and chondrocyte proliferation. We propose that AMBN facilitates rapid long bone growth and an important growth spurt during the

  13. Development after Disaster: Multidecadal Impacts of Tropical Cyclones upon Long-run Economic Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jina, A.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    Weather-related disasters lead to immediate costs in the billions of dollars each year, and this loss informs the strategies for disaster mitigation and recovery. However, the causal effect of natural disasters on long-run economic development remains unclear. We reconstruct every country's physical exposure to the universe of tropical cyclones (TCs) during 1950-2008 using the International Best Tracks Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) and then exploit year-to-year variation in cyclone strikes to identify the effect of disasters on GDP growth. Linking this economic data to a physical model of TC hazard, we are the first analysis to deconvolve the long-run cumulative impact of year-to-year changes in TC incidence. We reject long-standing hypotheses that disasters stimulate growth via "creative destruction" or that losses disappear following transfers of wealth. Instead, we find robust evidence that national incomes decline, relative to their pre-disaster trend, and do not recover within twenty years. This result is consistent across income sources, regions, countries' geographic size, and income level. Global patterns of climate-based adaptation, in addition to similar long-run changes in consumption, investment, trade and international aid, further corroborate this finding. Consistent with the idea that long-term loans finance the replacement of lost capital, national income loss arises from a small reduction of annual growth rates spread across the decades following disaster. The cumulative effect of this persistently suppressed growth is significant and large: a 90th percentile event reduces per capita incomes by 7.4% two decades later (fig. A). The gradual nature of these losses render them inconspicuous to a casual observer, however simulations indicate that they have dramatic influence over the long-run development of countries that face regular exposure to TCs (fig. B). Our results indicate that the true cost of a disaster may not only be the

  14. Family economic strengthening and mental health functioning of caregivers for AIDS-affected children in rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Julia Shu-Huah; Ssewamala, Fred M.; Han, Chang-Keun

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, many extended families assume the role of caregivers for children orphaned by AIDS (AIDS-affected children). The economic and psychological stress ensued from caregiving duties often predispose caregivers to poor mental health outcomes. Yet, very few studies exist on effective interventions to support these caregivers. Using data from a randomized controlled trial called Suubi-Maka (N = 346), this paper examines whether a family economic strengthening intervention among families caring for AIDS-affected children (ages 12–14) in Uganda would improve the primary caregivers’ mental health functioning. The Suubi-Maka study comprised of a control condition (n = 167) receiving usual care for AIDS-affected children, and a treatment condition (n = 179) receiving a family economic strengthening intervention, including matched savings accounts, and financial planning and management training to incentivize families to save money for education and/or family-level income generating projects. This paper uses data from baseline/pre-intervention (wave 1) interviews with caregivers and 12-month post-intervention initiation (wave 2). The caregiver’s mental health measure adapted from previous studies in sub- Saharan Africa had an internal consistency of .88 at wave 1 and .90 at wave 2. At baseline, the two study groups did not significantly differ on caregiver’s mental health functioning. However, at 12-month follow-up, multiple regression analysis located significant differences between the two study groups on mental health functioning. Specifically, following the intervention, caregivers in the treatment condition reported positive improvements on their mental health functioning, especially in the symptom areas of obsession–compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism. Findings point to a need for programs and policies aimed at supporting caregivers of AIDS-affected children to begin to consider incorporating family

  15. Remnant Trees Affect Species Composition but Not Structure of Tropical Second-Growth Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sandor, Manette E.; Chazdon, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2–3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests (“control plots”). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields. PMID:24454700

  16. Minimum Wage and Community College Attendance: How Economic Circumstances Affect Educational Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    How do changes in minimum wages affect community college enrollment and employment? In particular, among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum wage, do endowment effects of a higher minimum wage encourage school attendance? Among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum…

  17. A Rural Road: Exploring Economic Opportunity, Social Networks, Services and Supports That Affect Rural Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

    A study examined the unique conditions affecting quality of life for low-income rural children and their families in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota. Qualitative data were gathered from 11 focus groups conducted in a variety of rural communities, including tribal reservations, across the three states, and from interviews with professional…

  18. Site dependent factors affecting the economic feasibility of solar powered absorption cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A procedure was developed to evaluate the cost effectiveness of combining an absorption cycle chiller with a solar energy system. A basic assumption of the procedure is that a solar energy system exists for meeting the heating load of the building, and that the building must be cooled. The decision to be made is to either cool the building with a conventional vapor compression cycle chiller or to use the existing solar energy system to provide a heat input to the absorption chiller. Two methods of meeting the cooling load not supplied by solar energy were considered. In the first method, heat is supplied to the absorption chiller by a boiler using fossil fuel. In the second method, the load not met by solar energy is net by a conventional vapor compression chiller. In addition, the procedure can consider waste heat as another form of auxiliary energy. Commercial applications of solar cooling with an absorption chiller were found to be more cost effective than the residential applications. In general, it was found that the larger the chiller, the more economically feasible it would be. Also, it was found that a conventional vapor compression chiller is a viable alternative for the auxiliary cooling source, especially for the larger chillers. The results of the analysis gives a relative rating of the sites considered as to their economic feasibility of solar cooling.

  19. Water potential affects Coniothyrium minitans growth, germination and parasitism of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia.

    PubMed

    Jones, E Eirian; Stewart, Alison; Whipps, John M

    2011-09-01

    Water availability is an important environmental factor which has major effects on fungal activity. The effects of osmotic (KCl amended agar) and matric Polyethylene glycol ((PEG) 8000 amended agar) potentials over the range -0.1 to -5.0MPa on mycelial growth and conidial germination of eight isolates of the sclerotial parasite Coniothyrium minitans was assessed. The influence of soil water potential on the ability of three selected isolates (LU112, LU545, and T5R42i) to parasitise sclerotia of the plant pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was determined. For all eight C. minitans isolates, decreasing osmotic and matric potentials caused a reduction in mycelial growth and conidial germination. Isolates were more sensitive to decreasing matric potential than osmotic potential. Across the isolates, growth at an osmotic potential of -5.0MPa was 30-70% of the growth seen in the control, whereas less than 20% of the control growth was seen at the corresponding matric potential. Across all isolates no conidial germination was seen at matric potential of -5.0MPa. The C. minitans isolates varied in their sensitivity to decreasing water potentials. Mycelial growth and conidial germination of three isolates (LU112, Conio, and CH1) were more tolerant of low osmotic potential and matric potential with respect to mycelial growth. Isolates T5R42i and LU430 were least tolerant. In contrast, conidial germination of isolates Conio, LU545, and T5R42i were less sensitive to decreasing matric potential. Soil water potential was seen to affect infection and viability of sclerotia by the three C. minitans isolates. Isolate LU545 reduced sclerotial viability over a wider water potential range (-0.01 to -1.5MPa) compared with LU112 (-0.01 to -1.0MPa), with isolate T5R42i being intermediate. Indigenous soil fungi (Trichoderma spp. and Clonostachys rosea) were recovered from sclerotia but did not result in reduction in sclerotial viability. The relevance of these results in relation to

  20. A growth QTL on chicken chromosome 1 affects emotionality and sociality.

    PubMed

    Wirén, Anna; Jensen, Per

    2011-03-01

    Domestication of animals, regardless of species, is often accompanied by simultaneous changes in several physiological and behavioral traits (e.g. growth rate and fearfulness). In this study we compared the social behavior and emotional reactivity, as measured in a battery of behavioral tests, of two groups of chickens selected from a common genetic background, an advanced intercross line between the ancestral red junglefowl ("RJF") and the domesticated White Leghorn layer ("WL"). The birds were selected for homozygosity for alternative alleles at one locus (a microsatellite marker), centrally positioned in a previously identified pleiotropic growth QTL on chromosome 1, closely linked to one major candidate gene (AVPR1a) for certain aspects of social behavior. Birds homozygous for the WL allele ("WL genotype") had a modified pattern of social and emotional reactions than birds homozygous for the RJF allele ("RJF genotype"), shown by different scores in a principal components analysis. These results suggest that the growth QTL affects a number of domestication related behavioral traits, and may have been a primary target of selection during domestication. The QTL contains a multitude of genes, several of which have been linked to social behavior (for example the vasotocin receptor AVPR1a targeted in this experiment). Future studies aimed at making a higher resolution genotypic characterization of the QTL should give more information about which of these genes may be considered the strongest candidates for bringing about the behavioral changes associated with animal domestication. PMID:20596888

  1. Sodic Soil Properties and Sunflower Growth as Affected by Byproducts of Flue Gas Desulfurization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) is CaSO4, which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha−1) and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m3 ha−1). The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS) in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha−1 and water was supplied at 1200 m3·ha−1. Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage. PMID:23285042

  2. Review of Factors Affecting the Growth and Survival of Follicular Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Parsley, William M; Perez-Meza, David

    2010-01-01

    Great strides have been made in hair restoration over the past 20 years. A better understanding of natural balding and non-balding patterns along with more respect for ageing has helped guide proper hairline design. Additionally, the use of smaller grafts has created a significantly improved natural appearance to the transplanted grafts. Inconsistent growth and survival of follicular grafts, however, has continued to be a problem that has perplexed hair restoration surgeons. This review attempts to explore the stresses affecting grafts during transplantation and some of the complexities involved in graft growth and survival. These authors reviewed the literature to determine the primary scope of aspects influencing growth and survival of follicular grafts. This scope includes patient selection, operating techniques, graft care, storage solutions and additives. The primary focus of the hair restoration surgeons should first be attention to the fundamentals of hair care, hydration, temperature, time out of body and gentle handling. Factors such as advanced storage solutions and additives can be helpful once the fundamentals have been addressed. PMID:21031063

  3. Streptomycin affects the growth and photochemical activity of the alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; García, Roberto Velasco; Gómez-Juárez, Evelyn Alicia; Salcedo-Álvarez, Martha Ofelia; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotics are increasingly being used in human and veterinary medicine, as well as pest control in agriculture. Recently, their emergence in the aquatic environment has become a global concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of streptomycin on growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 72h exposure. We found that growth, photosynthetic activity and the content of the D1 protein of photosystem II decreased. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission shows a reduction in the energy transfer between the antenna complex and reaction center. Also the activity of the oxygen evolution complex and electron flow between QA and QB were significantly reduced; in contrast, we found an increase in the reduction rate of the acceptor side of photosystem I. The foregoing can be attributed to the inhibition of the synthesis of the D1 protein and perhaps other coded chloroplast proteins that are part of the electron transport chain which are essential for the transformation of solar energy in the photosystems. We conclude that micromolar concentrations of streptomycin can affect growth and photosynthetic activity of Chlorella vulgaris. The accumulation of antibiotics in the environment can become an ecological problem for primary producers in the aquatic environment. PMID:27344399

  4. Loss of stromal JUNB does not affect tumor growth and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Braun, Jennifer; Strittmatter, Karin; Nübel, Tobias; Komljenovic, Dorde; Sator-Schmitt, Melanie; Bäuerle, Tobias; Angel, Peter; Schorpp-Kistner, Marina

    2014-03-15

    The transcription factor AP-1 subunit JUNB has been shown to play a pivotal role in angiogenesis. It positively controls angiogenesis by regulating Vegfa as well as the transcriptional regulator Cbfb and its target Mmp13. In line with these findings, it has been demonstrated that tumor cell-derived JUNB promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis. In contrast to JUNB's function in tumor cells, the role of host-derived stromal JUNB has not been elucidated so far. Here, we show that ablation of Junb in stromal cells including endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and fibroblasts does not affect tumor growth in two different syngeneic mouse models, the B16-F1 melanoma and the Lewis lung carcinoma model. In-depth analyses of the tumors revealed that tumor angiogenesis remains unaffected as assessed by measurements of the microvascular density and relative blood volume in the tumor. Furthermore, we could show that the maturation status of the tumor vasculature, analyzed by the SMC marker expression, α-smooth muscle actin and Desmin, as well as the attachment of pericytes to the endothelium, is not changed upon ablation of Junb. Taken together, these results indicate that the pro-angiogenic functions of stromal JUNB are well compensated with regard to tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. PMID:24027048

  5. Sodic soil properties and sunflower growth as affected by byproducts of flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinman; Bai, Zhongke; Yang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    The main component of the byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) is CaSO(4), which can be used to improve sodic soils. The effects of BFGD on sodic soil properties and sunflower growth were studied in a pot experiment. The experiment consisted of eight treatments, at four BFGD rates (0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 t ha(-1)) and two leaching levels (750 and 1200 m(3) ha(-1)). The germination rate and yield of the sunflower increased, and the exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), pH and total dissolved salts (TDS) in the soils decreased after the byproducts were applied. Excessive BFGD also affected sunflower germination and growth, and leaching improved reclamation efficiency. The physical and chemical properties of the reclaimed soils were best when the byproducts were applied at 7.5 t ha(-1) and water was supplied at 1200 m(3)·ha(-1). Under these conditions, the soil pH, ESP, and TDS decreased from 9.2, 63.5 and 0.65% to 7.8, 2.8 and 0.06%, and the germination rate and yield per sunflower reached 90% and 36.4 g, respectively. Salinity should be controlled by leaching when sodic soils are reclaimed with BFGD as sunflower growth is very sensitive to salinity during its seedling stage. PMID:23285042

  6. Does forest fragmentation affect the same way all growth-forms?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Loinaz, Gloria; Amezaga, Ibone; Onaindia, Miren

    2012-02-01

    Fragmentation of natural habitats is one of the main causes of the loss of biodiversity. However, all plants do not respond to habitat fragmentation in the same way due to differences in species traits. We studied the effect of patch size and isolation on the biodiversity of vegetation in the mixed-oak forests in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. The aim was to evaluate whether all the growth-forms of vegetation are equally affected by forest fragmentation in order to improve the management strategies to restore this type of vegetation. This study has shown that the effect of the area and spatial isolation of the patches was not the same for the different growth-forms. Fragmentation had a mainly negative effect on the richness and diversity of forest specialist species, especially ferns and herbaceous growth-forms. Moreover, the presence and/or cover of woodland herbaceous species (such as Lamiastrum galeobdolon and Helleborus viridis) and of woodland ferns (namely Asplenium adiantum-nigrum, Asplenium trichomanes, Polystichum setiferum, Dryopteris affinis) were negatively affected by patch size, possibly due to the reduction of habitat quality. These species have been replaced by more generalist species (such as Cardamine pratensis, Cirsium sp., Pulmonaria longifolia or Rumex acetosella) in small patches. Patch isolation had a negative effect on the presence of forest specialist species (namely, L. galeobdolon, Frangula alnus, Hypericum androsaemum, A. adiantum-nigrum and Athyrium filix-femina) and favored colonization by more generalist species such as Cirsium sp., Calluna vulgaris, Erica arborea or Ulex sp. Thus, in this region special attention should be paid to the conservation of forest specialist species, especially ferns and herbs. In conservation policy focused on forest specialist species, the most valuable species in forest ecosystems, conservation of large forest areas should be promoted. PMID:21924813

  7. Influence of Rapeseed Meal on Growth Performance, Blood Profiles, Nutrient Digestibility and Economic Benefit of Growing-finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Choi, H B; Jeong, J H; Kim, D H; Lee, Y; Kwon, H; Kim, Y Y

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of dietary rapeseed meal (RSM) on growth performance, blood profiles, nutrient digestibility and economic benefit of growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 growing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace] ×Duroc) with an initial body weight (BW) 29.94±0.06 kg were used in this experiment. Pigs were randomly allotted into 1 of 5 treatments in a randomized complete block design and 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen. Treatments were divided by dietary RSM supplementation levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, or 12%) in growing-finishing diets. A linear decrease (p<0.05) of BW and average daily gain (ADG) were observed at 13th wk of finishing and overall periods of pigs. Additionally, gain-to-feed ratio (G/F) tended to decrease by dietary RSM supplementation in growing-finishing diets (linear, p = 0.07 and quadratic, p = 0.08). Concentrations of serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not influenced by dietary RSM treatments whereas thyroid gland and liver weight were increased at 13th wk of finishing period (linear, p<0.05; p<0.01) by increasing dietary RSM supplementation level. In blood profiles, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not differed by dietary treatments at 13th wk of finishing period whereas concentration of serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol was affected by the supplementation level of RSM, resulting in a linear RSM level responses (p<0.05). Serum blood urea nitrogen concentration tended to decrease (linear, p = 0.07; p = 0.08) at 6th wk of growing and 13th wk of finishing periods and digestibility of dry matter tended to decrease by dietary RSM (linear, p = 0.09). Crude protein, crude fat and nitrogen retention, whereas, were not affected by dietary RSM supplementation level. In the economic analysis, feed cost per weight gain was numerically decreased when RSM was provided up to 9%. Consequently, RSM could be supplemented to growing-finishing diets up to 9% (3.07

  8. Morphological Similarities between DBM and an Economic Geography Model of City Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavailhès, Jean; Frankhauser, Pierre; Caruso, Geoffrey; Peesters, Dominique; Thomas, Isabelle; Vuidel, Gilles

    An urban microeconomic model of households evolving in a 2D cellular automata allows to simulate the growth of a metropolitan area where land is devoted to housing, road network and agricultural/green areas. This system is self-organised: based on individualistic decisions of economic agents who compete on the land market, the model generates a metropolitan area with houses, roads, and agriculture. Several simulation are performed. The results show strong similarities with physical Dieletric breackdown models (DBM). In particular, phase transitions in the urban morphology occur when a control parameter reaches critical values. Population density in our model and the electric potential in DBM play similar roles, which can explain these resemblances.

  9. Integrated Dynamic Gloabal Modeling of Land Use, Energy and Economic Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Jain, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL Brian O'Neill, NCAR, Boulder, CO

    2009-10-14

    The overall objective of this collaborative project is to integrate an existing general equilibrium energy-economic growth model with a biogeochemical cycles and biophysical models in order to more fully explore the potential contribution of land use-related activities to future emissions scenarios. Land cover and land use change activities, including deforestation, afforestation, and agriculture management, are important source of not only CO2, but also non-CO2 GHGs. Therefore, contribution of land-use emissions to total emissions of GHGs is important, and consequently their future trends are relevant to the estimation of climate change and its mitigation. This final report covers the full project period of the award, beginning May 2006, which includes a sub-contract to Brown University later transferred to the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) when Co-PI Brian O'Neill changed institutional affiliations.

  10. Thermal stress and tropical cyclones affect economic production in Central America and Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, S. M.

    2009-12-01

    Surface temperatures and tropical cyclones have large impacts on economic production. Local cyclone energy dissipation reduces output in agriculture and tourism, while stimulating output in construction. High surface temperatures reduce output in several labor-intensive industries; a 1° C increase for two consecutive years results in production losses of ˜13%. The response is greatest during the hottest season and is non-linear, with high temperature days contributing the most to production losses. The structure of this response matches results from a large ergonomics literature, supporting the hypothesis that thermal stress reduces human performance, driving macroeconomic fluctuations. This large response of non-agricultural sectors suggests that current estimates underestimate the scale and scope of economic vulnerabilities to climate change. Responses of each industry to surface temperature, tropical cyclones and rainfall. Estimates represent the change of value-added in the industry in response to each atmospheric variables during the year of production (L=0) and the years prior (L≥1). The responses to surface temperature are triangles, tropical cyclones are squares and rainfall are crosses. Estimates are grey if none of the annual responses are significant at the α = 0.1 level. Whiskers indicate 95% confidence intervals. Tourism receipts displays the five years prior (L=1-5) because of the long response of that industry to cyclones. Agriculture per worker is also plotted as circles when estimated a second time excluding mainland countries from the sample. Units are: temperature- percent change in output per 0.33°C; cyclones- percent changes in output per 1 standard deviation of tropical cyclone energy; rainfall- percent change in output per 2 cm/month.

  11. Exponential growth of dental schools in Chile: effects on academic, economic and workforce issues.

    PubMed

    Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo Andrés

    2013-01-01

    In the last 30 years, Chile has undergone noteworthy economic development and an exponential growth in the access of its population to higher education. The aim of this paper was to review the changes in academic, economic and workforce issues that occurred as a consequence of the growth in supply of undergraduate dental vacancies between 1997 and 2011. Data collected from the Consejo de Educación Superior - CES, Comisión Nacional de Acreditación - CNA, and Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas de Chile - INE included these variables: number of dental schools, school type (private or traditional, see explanation below), city where the school is located, entry vacancies, total student enrollment, admission scores, percentile rank of dentistry as a university career, tuition fees, accreditation status, and number of inhabitants. There was an exponential increase in dental schools in Chile (5 to 34) that occurred in association with the rise in tuition fees (US$ 3900 to US$ 9800), a deterioration in the academic level of dental students (650 to 550 points in admission scores) and a predicted 77.5% oversupply of dentists by 2025, according to WHO criteria. The exponential increase in dental schools in Chile brought about negative consequences, such as increasing career costs, deterioration in the academic level of dental students, and an oversupply of dentists, associated with lower incomes and possibly leading to unemployment. Additional research should be conducted to determine whether an increase in the number of dentists can improve the population's access to dental care and reduce the oral disease burden. PMID:24346044

  12. Growth habit and leaf economics determine gas exchange responses to high elevation in an evergreen tree, a deciduous shrub and a herbaceous annual

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zuomin; Haworth, Matthew; Feng, Qiuhong; Cheng, Ruimei; Centritto, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth at high elevations necessitates physiological and morphological plasticity to enable photosynthesis (A) under conditions of reduced temperature, increased radiation and the lower partial pressure of atmospheric gases, in particular carbon dioxide (pCO2). Previous studies have observed a wide range of responses to elevation in plant species depending on their adaptation to temperature, elevational range and growth habit. Here, we investigated the effect of an increase in elevation from 2500 to 3500 m above sea level (a.s.l.) on three montane species with contrasting growth habits and leaf economic strategies. While all of the species showed identical increases in foliar δ13C, dark respiration and nitrogen concentration with elevation, contrasting leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic responses were observed between species with different leaf economic strategies. The deciduous shrub Salix atopantha and annual herb Rumex dentatus exhibited increased stomatal (Gs) and mesophyll (Gm) conductance and enhanced photosynthetic capacity at the higher elevation. However, evergreen Quercus spinosa displayed reduced conductance to CO2 that coincided with lower levels of photosynthetic carbon fixation at 3500 m a.s.l. The lower Gs and Gm values of evergreen species at higher elevations currently constrains their rates of A. Future rises in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) will likely predominantly affect evergreen species with lower specific leaf areas (SLAs) and levels of Gm rather than deciduous species with higher SLA and Gm values. We argue that climate change may affect plant species that compose high-elevation ecosystems differently depending on phenotypic plasticity and adaptive traits affecting leaf economics, as rising [CO2] is likely to benefit evergreen species with thick sclerophyllous leaves. PMID:26433706

  13. Growth habit and leaf economics determine gas exchange responses to high elevation in an evergreen tree, a deciduous shrub and a herbaceous annual.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zuomin; Haworth, Matthew; Feng, Qiuhong; Cheng, Ruimei; Centritto, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth at high elevations necessitates physiological and morphological plasticity to enable photosynthesis (A) under conditions of reduced temperature, increased radiation and the lower partial pressure of atmospheric gases, in particular carbon dioxide (pCO2). Previous studies have observed a wide range of responses to elevation in plant species depending on their adaptation to temperature, elevational range and growth habit. Here, we investigated the effect of an increase in elevation from 2500 to 3500 m above sea level (a.s.l.) on three montane species with contrasting growth habits and leaf economic strategies. While all of the species showed identical increases in foliar δ(13)C, dark respiration and nitrogen concentration with elevation, contrasting leaf gas exchange and photosynthetic responses were observed between species with different leaf economic strategies. The deciduous shrub Salix atopantha and annual herb Rumex dentatus exhibited increased stomatal (Gs) and mesophyll (Gm) conductance and enhanced photosynthetic capacity at the higher elevation. However, evergreen Quercus spinosa displayed reduced conductance to CO2 that coincided with lower levels of photosynthetic carbon fixation at 3500 m a.s.l. The lower Gs and Gm values of evergreen species at higher elevations currently constrains their rates of A. Future rises in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 ([CO2]) will likely predominantly affect evergreen species with lower specific leaf areas (SLAs) and levels of Gm rather than deciduous species with higher SLA and Gm values. We argue that climate change may affect plant species that compose high-elevation ecosystems differently depending on phenotypic plasticity and adaptive traits affecting leaf economics, as rising [CO2] is likely to benefit evergreen species with thick sclerophyllous leaves. PMID:26433706

  14. Reduction in DNA topoisomerase I level affects growth, phenotype and nucleoid architecture of Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wareed; Menon, Shruti; Karthik, Pullela V; Nagaraja, Valakunja

    2015-02-01

    The steady-state negative supercoiling of eubacterial genomes is maintained by the action of DNA topoisomerases. Topoisomerase distribution varies in different species of mycobacteria. While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) contains a single type I (TopoI) and a single type II (Gyrase) enzyme, Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm) and other members harbour additional relaxases. TopoI is essential for Mtb survival. However, the necessity of TopoI or other relaxases in Msm has not been investigated. To recognize the importance of TopoI for growth, physiology and gene expression of Msm, we have developed a conditional knock-down strain of TopoI in Msm. The TopoI-depleted strain exhibited extremely slow growth and drastic changes in phenotypic characteristics. The cessation of growth indicates the essential requirement of the enzyme for the organism in spite of having additional DNA relaxation enzymes in the cell. Notably, the imbalance in TopoI level led to the altered expression of topology modulatory proteins, resulting in a diffused nucleoid architecture. Proteomic and transcript analysis of the mutant indicated reduced expression of the genes involved in central metabolic pathways and core DNA transaction processes. RNA polymerase (RNAP) distribution on the transcription units was affected in the TopoI-depleted cells, suggesting global alteration in transcription. The study thus highlights the essential requirement of TopoI in the maintenance of cellular phenotype, growth characteristics and gene expression in mycobacteria. A decrease in TopoI level led to altered RNAP occupancy and impaired transcription elongation, causing severe downstream effects. PMID:25516959

  15. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:26771139

  16. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-02-01

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:26771139

  17. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions. PMID:26735689

  18. The International Environmental Institute: Leveraging the investment in Hanford for economic growth

    SciTech Connect

    Atkin, S.D.; Schwenk, R.M.

    1994-02-01

    Billions of dollars are being invested to achieve environmental compliance at the Hanford Site. The 30-yr-plan for the Site calls for remediation and restoration followed by rampdown and closure of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) mission at the Site. The investment of the Federal government during this restoration period provides a real opportunity to go beyond the cleanup mission and convert the Site`s assets to other uses that benefit the region, nation, and world. The International Environmental Institute (Institute) was created to help realize this opportunity. This is accomplished by utilizing the assets of the Site -- it`s land, equipment, facilities, technologies, and people -- to achieve economic growth and worldwide spinoff benefits from the Hanford investment. The Institute is developing new ways of getting the private sector involved with the Hanford Site. We are working with local and state governments, academia, and the private sector, to jointly develop and commercialize environmental technologies and to redeploy, loan, or lease those assets that are no longer needed by the DOE. The Institute is also interacting with other communities around the world to assess models, issues, and performance measures for successful defense conversion. Through these various worldwide partnerships, the investment in Hanford can be successfully leveraged to help create the desired economic future for the Northwest and environmental industry for the world.

  19. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our understanding of how desired increases in CHP adoption can be best achieved. These obstacles are currently understood to stem from regulatory as well as economic and technological barriers. In our research, we answer the following questions: Given the current policy and economic environment facing the CHP industry, what changes need to take place in this space in order for CHP systems to be competitive in the energy market? Methods We focus our analysis primarily on Combined Heat and Power Systems that use natural gas turbines. Our analysis takes a two-pronged approach. We first conduct a statistical analysis of the impact of state policies on increases in electricity generated from CHP system. Second, we conduct a Cost-Benefit analysis to determine in which circumstances funding incentives are necessary to make CHP technologies cost-competitive. Results Our policy analysis shows that regulatory improvements do not explain the growth in adoption of CHP technologies but hold the potential to encourage increases in electricity generated from CHP system in small-scale applications. Our Cost-Benefit analysis shows that CHP systems are only cost competitive in large-scale applications and that funding incentives would be necessary to make CHP technology cost-competitive in small-scale applications. Conclusion From the synthesis of these analyses we conclude that because large-scale applications of natural gas turbines are already cost-competitive, policy initiatives aimed at a CHP market

  20. Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Aziz, Azlina

    This thesis contributes to the literature on energy demand in three ways. Firstly, it examines the major determinants of energy demand using a panel of 23 developed countries and 16 developing countries during 1978 to 2003. Secondly, it examines the demand for energy in the industrial sector and the extent of inter-fuel substitution, as well as substitution between energy and non-energy inputs, using data from 5 advanced countries and 5 energy producer's developing countries. Third, the thesis investigates empirically the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for these groups of countries over a 26-year period. The empirical results of this study confirm the majority of the findings in energy demand analysis. Income and price have shown to be important determinants for energy consumption in both developed and developing countries. Moreover, both economic structure and technical progress appear to exert significant impacts on energy consumption. Income has a positive impact on energy demand and the effect is larger in developing countries. In both developed and developing countries, price has a negative impact but these effects are larger in developed countries than in developing countries. The share of industry in GDP is positive and has a greater impact on energy demand in developing countries, whereas technological progress is found to be energy using in developed countries and energy saving in developing countries. With respect to the analysis of inter-factor and inter-fuel substitution in industrial energy demand, the results provide evidence for substitution possibilities between factor inputs and fuels. Substitutability is observed between capital and energy, capital and labour and labour and energy. These findings confirm previous evidence that production technologies in these countries allow flexibility in the capital-energy, capital-labour and labour-energy mix. In the energy sub-model, the elasticities of substitution show that large

  1. Fibroblast growth factor 9 is a novel modulator of negative affect

    PubMed Central

    Aurbach, Elyse L.; Inui, Edny Gula; Turner, Cortney A.; Hagenauer, Megan H.; Prater, Katherine E.; Li, Jun Z.; Absher, Devin; Shah, Najmul; Blandino, Peter; Bunney, William E.; Myers, Richard M.; Barchas, Jack D.; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

    2015-01-01

    Both gene expression profiling in postmortem human brain and studies using animal models have implicated the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family in affect regulation and suggest a potential role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). FGF2, the most widely characterized family member, is down-regulated in the depressed brain and plays a protective role in rodent models of affective disorders. By contrast, using three microarray analyses followed by quantitative RT-PCR confirmation, we show that FGF9 expression is up-regulated in the hippocampus of individuals with MDD, and that FGF9 expression is inversely related to the expression of FGF2. Because little is known about FGF9’s function in emotion regulation, we used animal models to shed light on its potential role in affective function. We found that chronic social defeat stress, an animal model recapitulating some aspects of MDD, leads to a significant increase in hippocampal FGF9 expression, paralleling the elevations seen in postmortem human brain tissue. Chronic intracerebroventricular administration of FGF9 increased both anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. In contrast, knocking down FGF9 expression in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus using a lentiviral vector produced a decrease in FGF9 expression and ameliorated anxiety-like behavior. Collectively, these results suggest that high levels of hippocampal FGF9 play an important role in the development or expression of mood and anxiety disorders. We propose that the relative levels of FGF9 in relation to other members of the FGF family may prove key to understanding vulnerability or resilience in affective disorders. PMID:26351673

  2. Assessment of economic factors affecting the satellite power system. Volume 1: System cost factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The factors relevant to SPS costing and selection of preferred SPS satellite configurations were studied. The issues discussed are: (1) consideration of economic factors in the SPS system that relate to selection of SPS satellite configuration; (2) analysis of the proper rate of interest for use in SPS system definition studies; and (3) the impacts of differential inflation on SPS system definition costing procedures. A cost-risk comparison of the SPS satellite configurations showed a significant difference in the levelized cost of power from them. It is concluded, that this difference is the result more of differences in the procedures for assessing costs rather than in the satellite technologies required or of any advantages of one satellite configuration over the other. Analysis of the proper rate of interest for use in SPS system is 4 percent. The major item of differential inflation to be expected over this period of time is the real cost of labor. This cost is likely to double between today and the period of SPS construction.

  3. Is water security necessary? An empirical analysis of the effects of climate hazards on national-level economic growth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Casey; Meeks, Robyn; Ghile, Yonas; Hunu, Kenneth

    2013-11-13

    The influence of climate and the role of water security on economic growth are topics of growing interest. Few studies have investigated the potential role that climate hazards, which water security addresses, and their cumulative effects have on the growth prospects for a country. Owing to the relatively stationary spatial patterns of global climate, certain regions and countries are more prone to climate hazards and climate variability than others. For example, El Nino/Southern Oscillation patterns result in greater hydroclimatic variability in much of the tropics than that experienced at higher latitudes. In this study, we use a precipitation index that preserves the spatial and temporal variability of precipitation and differentiates between precipitation maxima (e.g. floods) and minima (e.g. droughts). The index is a more precise instrument for hydroclimate hazards than that used in any previous studies. A fixed effects, for year and country, regression model was developed to test the influence of climate variables on measures of economic growth and activity. The results indicate that precipitation extremes (i.e. floods and droughts) are the dominant climate influences on economic growth and that the effects are significant and negative. The drought index was found to be associated with a highly significant negative influence on gross domestic product (GDP) growth, while the flood index was associated with a negative influence on GDP growth and lagged effects on growth. The flood index was also found to have a negative effect on industrial value added in contemporary and lagged regressions. Temperature was found to have little significant effect. These results have important implications for economic projections of climate change impacts. Perhaps more important, the results make clear that hydroclimatic hazards have measurable negative impacts, and thus lack of water security is an impediment to growth. In addition, adaptation strategies should recognize the

  4. The impacts of lower population growth on the quality of life and economic development: China's experience.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Zhang, L

    1994-02-01

    China's population in 1993 was 1.18 billion, which makes it the most populous nation in the world. The Chinese population policy aims to control growth and improve the quality of human resources. Most Chinese recognize the need for family planning. Replacement level fertility has been achieved, because there are limited resources to support a large population. Scarce resources are limiting economic development. There has been a loss of arable land, and the dream of 2 hectares of land, a cow, a wife and children, and a comfortable bed are not attainable. Water resources are also limited, the ratio of water to arable land is unevenly balanced, and there is overdrawing of groundwater. Energy shortages, environmental pollution, and pressure on employment are other effects of population pressure. The surplus labor force is about 150-190 million farmering laborers. Labor productivity has declined due to excess labor. Projections are that 20-25% of employees are surplus, and unemployed in urban areas will total 10 million. Without a strong family planning program, there will be a rural labor surplus of 200-360 million people by the year 2000. One benefit of lower population growth is the savings in child-rearing expenses. Estimated births averted between 1971 and 1992 was about 250 million, which translates to a savings of $500 billion. About 66% of this sum would be recovered in the same period and 33% would be recovered between 1993-2007. Government and nongovernmental spending on family planning totaled an estimated $10 billion between 1971-92. The ratio of input to output for averted births is 1 to 17. Total spending would have been RMB 2500 billion yuan for child rearing of averted births between 1971-92 and RMB 1828 billion yuan between 1991-2005. The saved money could be invested in economic development. An estimated 10% of national income could be saved. Another benefit from low population growth is the increased consumption evident between 1971-90. There has not

  5. The protective function of personal growth initiative among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Blackie, Laura E R; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Forgeard, Marie J C; Jayawickreme, Nuwan

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the extent to which individual differences in personal growth initiative (PGI) were associated with lower reports of functional impairment of daily activities among a genocide-affected population in Rwanda. PGI measures an individual's motivation to develop as a person and the extent to which he or she is active in setting goals that work toward achieving self-improvement. We found that PGI was negatively associated with functional impairment when controlling for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and other demographic factors. Our results suggest that PGI may constitute an important mindset for facilitating adaptive functioning in the aftermath of adversity and in the midst of psychological distress, and as such they might have practical applications for the development of intervention programs. PMID:26147518

  6. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  7. Cronobacter sakazakii in foods and factors affecting its survival, growth, and inactivation.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Gurtler, Joshua B; Lin, Li-Chun; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Richards, Glenner M

    2009-12-31

    Cronobacter sakazakii has been isolated from a wide range of environmental sources and from several foods of animal and plant origin. While infections caused by C. sakazakii have predominantly involved neonates and infants, its presence on or in foods other than powdered infant formula raises concern about the safety risks these foods pose to immunocompromised consumers. We have done a series of studies to better understand the survival and growth characteristics of C. sakazakii in infant formula, infant cereal, fresh-cut produce, and juices made from fresh produce. Over a 12-month storage period, the pathogen survived better in dried formula and cereal at low a(w) (0.25-0.30) than at high a(w) (0.69-0.82) and at 4 degrees C compared to 30 degrees C. C. sakazakii grows in formulas and cereals reconstituted with water or milk and held at 12-30 degrees C. The composition of formulas or cereals does not markedly affect the rate of growth. C. sakazakii grows well on fresh-cut apple, cantaloupe, watermelon, cabbage, carrot, cucumber, lettuce, and tomato at 25 degrees C and in some types of produce at 12 degrees C. Treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables with sanitizers such as chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and a peroxyacetic acid-based solution causes reductions of 1.6-5.4 log CFU/apple, tomato, and lettuce. Cells of C. sakazakii in biofilms formed on stainless steel and enteral feeding tubes or dried on the surface of stainless steel have increased resistance to disinfectants. Death of cells in biofilms is affected by atmospheric relative humidity. These studies have contributed to a better understanding of the behavior of C. sakazakii in and on foods and on food-contact surfaces, thereby enabling the development of more effective strategies and interventions for its control. PMID:19346021

  8. Kinetics of Growth Retardant and Hormone Interactions in Affecting Cucumber Hypocotyl Elongation 1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Thomas C.

    1967-01-01

    The capacities of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3) to counteract the inhibitory effects of (2-chloroethyl) trimethylammonium chloride (CCC), 2-isopropyl-4-dimethylamino-5-methylphenyl-1-piperidinecarboxylate methyl chloride (Amo-1618), and N,N-dimethylaminosuccinamic acid (B-995) on hypocotyl elongation in light-grown cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were investigated. One μg of GA3 applied to the shoot tip was sufficient to completely nullify the effect of 10 μg of Amo-1618 or 25 μg of B-995 applied simultaneously to the shoot tip, and 10 μg of GA3 completely counteracted the effect of 10−3 m CCC added to the root medium. One μg of IAA counteracted the effect of 10−3 m CCC in the root medium, but IAA did not nullify the action of either Amo-1618 or B-995. Experiments were conducted using 2 growth retardants simultaneously, which indicated that Amo-1618 and CCC inhibit a common process, namely GA biosynthesis, essential to hypocotyl elongation. However, since the effect of CCC was overcome by applications of both GA and IAA, growth retardation resulting from treatment with CCC apparently is not due solely to inhibition of GA biosynthesis. B-995 did not interact additively with either Amo-1618 or CCC, which suggests that B-995 affects a process different from those affected by the other 2 retardants. Thus, while inhibition evoked by B-995 is reversible by applied GA, the action of B-995 does not appear to be inhibition of GA biosynthesis. PMID:16656555

  9. Ecosystem regime shifts have not affected growth and survivorship of eastern Beaufort Sea belugas.

    PubMed

    Luque, Sebastián P; Ferguson, Steven H

    2009-05-01

    Large-scale ocean-atmosphere physical dynamics can have profound impacts on the structure and organization of marine ecosystems. These changes have been termed "regime shifts", and five different episodes have been detected in the North Pacific Ocean, with concurrent changes also occurring in the Bering and Beaufort Seas. Belugas from the Eastern Beaufort Sea (EBS) use the Bering Sea during winter and the Beaufort Sea during summer, yet the potential effects of regime shifts on belugas have not been assessed. We investigated whether body size and survivorship of EBS belugas harvested in the Mackenzie River delta region between 1993 and 2003 have been affected by previous purported regime shifts in the North Pacific. Residuals from the relationship between body length and age were calculated and compared among belugas born between 1932 and 1989. Residual body size was not significantly related to birth year for any regime, nor to the age group individuals belonged to during any regime. The percentage deviation in number of belugas born in any given year that survived to be included in the hunt (survivorship) did not show any significant trend within or between regimes. Accounting for lags of 1-5 years did not reveal any evidence of delayed effects. Furthermore, neither population index was significantly related to changes in major climatic variables that precede regime shifts. Our results suggest that EBS beluga body size and survivorship have not been affected by the major regime shifts of the North Pacific and the adjacent Bering and Beaufort Seas. EBS belugas may have been able to modify their diet without compromising their growth and survivorship. Diet and reproductive analyses over large and small time scales can help understand the mechanisms enabling belugas to avoid significant growth and reproductive effects of past regime shifts. PMID:19229560

  10. National Economic Development Status May Affect the Association between Central Adiposity and Cognition in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Maharani, Asri; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is becoming a global problem, rather than one found only in developed countries. Although recent studies have suggested a detrimental effect of obesity on cognition, studies of the relationship between obesity and cognition among older adults have been limited to developed countries. We aimed to examine the associations between central obesity, as measured by waist circumference, and cognition level in adults aged 50 years and older in England and Indonesia. Methods We used linear regression models to analyse these associations and multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2006 English Longitudinal Study of Ageing Wave 3 is the source of data from England, while data from Indonesia is sourced from the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey Wave 4. Findings Centrally obese respondents had lower cognition levels than non-centrally obese respondents in England. In contrast, central adiposity had a statistically significant positive association with cognition in Indonesia. Higher levels of education and higher economic status were associated with higher cognitive ability, while age was associated with lower cognition in both countries. Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and smoking behaviour, both linked to higher risk of obesity, were negatively associated with cognitive ability among older adults in England, but they had no statistically significant association with cognition among Indonesians. Interpretation The contradictory findings on obesity and cognition in England and Indonesia not only create a puzzle, but they may also have different policy implications in these countries. Reducing the prevalence of obesity may be the main focus in England and other developed countries to maintain older adults’ cognition. However, Indonesia and other developing countries should place more emphasis on education, in addition to continued efforts to tackle the double burden of malnutrition, in order to prevent cognitive impairment among

  11. A Developmental Shift in Black-White Differences in Depressive Affect across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Influence of Early Adult Social Roles and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect using a longitudinal sample of middle-class, suburban U.S. subjects (n = 956) that spanned from adolescence to early adulthood. Specifically, this study examined whether Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect shift over time, and the extent to which that…

  12. Education, Key to Economic Growth. Recent Major Education Initiatives in Support of Economic Development in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This report describes new major education initiatives to enhance economic development in New York State. The 1970-1987 period has seen dramatic change in the labor profile impelled by technological and market forces transforming the economy. Apart from some fairly stable sectors, the state economy is characterized by a shift from manaufacturing to…

  13. Seminar on the Economics of Education-Investment Decisions and Contributions to Income and Economic Growth. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, W. Lee; Weisbrod, Burton A.

    A workshop on the Economics of Human Resources was initiated in 1966, at the University of Wisconsin to provide a vehicle for stimulating research by both faculty and graduate students and to provide a medium for disseminating the latest research findings of outside scholars, University of Wisconsin faculty and graduate students. This document is…

  14. The Economic Contributions of Canada's Colleges and Institutes: An Analysis of Investment Effectiveness and Economic Growth. Volume 1: Main Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, M. Henry; Christophersen, Kjell A.

    2008-01-01

    This analysis of the economic impacts generated by Canada's Colleges and Institutes is based on a sample of 61 colleges in 9 provinces, representing roughly two-fifths of the some 150 Colleges and Institutes in the country. The findings from the sample were used to generate results by inference for all colleges in Canada. Two major analyses are…

  15. Physicochemical Factors Affecting the Growth of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Soil Microcosm

    PubMed Central

    Wang-ngarm, Supunnipa; Chareonsudjai, Sorujsiri; Chareonsudjai, Pisit

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei causes melioidosis, the third most common cause of death from infectious diseases in northeast Thailand. Four physicochemical factors were set so that their values covered the range of the northeast, which is an endemic area. The soil pH was set at pH 4–10, soil salinity was 0.0–5.0% NaCl, total iron was 50–150 mg/kg soil, and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) was 10:1 to 40:1. The experiments were carried out at 37°C, and soil moisture was maintained for 7 days. The number of viable bacterial cells was counted daily. Soil pH, salinity, Fe, and C/N ratio affected the bacterial growth. The bacterial colony was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced at soil pH > 8, soil salinity > 1% NaCl, and C/N ratio > 40:1. However, the growth of B. pseudomallei was enhanced by increasing the concentrations of iron significantly (P < 0.05). We propose using these findings to control B. pseudomallei in situ. PMID:24445210

  16. Zebra pattern in rocks as a function of grain growth affected by second-phase particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelka, Ulrich; Koehn, Daniel; Beaudoin, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    In this communication we present a simple microdynamic model which can explain the beginning of the zebra pattern formation in rocks. The two dimensional model consists of two main processes, mineral replacement along a reaction front, and grain boundary migration affected by impurities. In the numerical model we assume that an initial distribution of second-phase particles is present due to sedimentary layering. The reaction front percolates the model and redistributes second-phase particles by shifting them until the front is saturated and drops the particles again. This produces and enhances initial layering. Grain growth is hindered in layers with high second-phase particle concentrations whereas layers with low concentrations coarsen. Due to the grain growth activity in layers with low second-phase particle concentrations these impurities are collected at grain boundaries and the crystals become very clean. Therefore the white layers in the pattern contain large grains with low concentration of second-phase particles, whereas the dark layers contain small grains with a large second-phase particle concentration.

  17. Transcriptional modulator ZBED6 affects cell cycle and growth of human colorectal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar Ali, Muhammad; Younis, Shady; Wallerman, Ola; Gupta, Rajesh; Andersson, Leif; Sjöblom, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor ZBED6 (zinc finger, BED-type containing 6) is a repressor of IGF2 whose action impacts development, cell proliferation, and growth in placental mammals. In human colorectal cancers, IGF2 overexpression is mutually exclusive with somatic mutations in PI3K signaling components, providing genetic evidence for a role in the PI3K pathway. To understand the role of ZBED6 in tumorigenesis, we engineered and validated somatic cell ZBED6 knock-outs in the human colorectal cancer cell lines RKO and HCT116. Ablation of ZBED6 affected the cell cycle and led to increased growth rate in RKO cells but reduced growth in HCT116 cells. This striking difference was reflected in the transcriptome analyses, which revealed enrichment of cell-cycle–related processes among differentially expressed genes in both cell lines, but the direction of change often differed between the cell lines. ChIP sequencing analyses displayed enrichment of ZBED6 binding at genes up-regulated in ZBED6-knockout clones, consistent with the view that ZBED6 modulates gene expression primarily by repressing transcription. Ten differentially expressed genes were identified as putative direct gene targets, and their down-regulation by ZBED6 was validated experimentally. Eight of these genes were linked to the Wnt, Hippo, TGF-β, EGF receptor, or PI3K pathways, all involved in colorectal cancer development. The results of this study show that the effect of ZBED6 on tumor development depends on the genetic background and the transcriptional state of its target genes. PMID:26056301

  18. How Has the Economic Downturn Affected Communities and Implementation of Science-Based Prevention in the Randomized Trial of Communities That Care?

    PubMed Central

    Kuklinski, Margaret R.; Hawkins, J. David; Plotnick, Robert D.; Abbott, Robert D.; Reid, Carolina K.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined implications of the economic downturn that began in December 2007 for the Community Youth Development Study (CYDS), a longitudinal randomized controlled trial of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system. The downturn had the potential to affect the internal validity of the CYDS research design and implementation of science-based prevention in study communities. We used archival economic indicators and community key leader reports of economic conditions to assess the extent of the economic downturn in CYDS communities and potential internal validity threats. We also examined whether stronger economic downturn effects were associated with a decline in science-based prevention implementation. Economic indicators suggested the downturn affected CYDS communities to different degrees. We found no evidence of systematic differences in downturn effects in CTC compared to control communities that would threaten internal validity of the randomized trial. The Community Economic Problems scale was a reliable measure of community economic conditions, and it showed criterion validity in relation to several objective economic indicators. CTC coalitions continued to implement science-based prevention to a significantly greater degree than control coalitions 2 years after the downturn began. However, CTC implementation levels declined to some extent as unemployment, the percentage of students qualifying for free lunch, and community economic problems worsened. Control coalition implementation levels were not related to economic conditions before or after the downturn, but mean implementation levels of science-based prevention were also relatively low in both periods. PMID:23054169

  19. Accelerating 21st Century Economic Growth by Implementation of the Lunar Solar Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criswell, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The World Energy Council (1) makes this declaration. "Given this dramatically uneven distribution and the limited evidence of improvement in economic growth in many developing countries, WEC at the 17th World Congress in Houston in September 1998 concluded that the number one priority in sustainable energy development today for all decision-makers in all countries is to extend access to commercial energy services to the people who do not now have it and to those who will come into the world in the next two decades, largely in developing countries, without such access." By ~2050 the global systems should supply 10 billion people approximately 6.7 kilowatts of thermal power per person or 61,360 kWt-h/y-person of energy. The economic equivalent is ~2 - 3 kWe of electric power per person. The energy must be environmentally clean. The energy must be sufficiently low in cost that the 2 billion poorest people, who now make 1,000 /y-person, can be provided with the new power. A survey of twenty-five options for providing adequate commercial electric power, including solar power satellites in orbit about Earth, concludes that only the Lunar Solar Power System can meet the WEC challenge (2, 3, 4, 5). Maurice Strong is the former CEO of Ontario Hydro and organizer of the 1992 Rio Environmental Summit. Quoting Strong - "I have checked it (LSP System) out with a number of experts, all of whom confirmed that the idea, which has been mooted for some time, may now be ripe to carry forward. --- The project would deliver net new energy to the Earth that is independent of the biosphere, would produce no CO2 or other polluting emissions and have minimal environmental impact compared with other energy sources." (6). Electric energy provided by the LSP System can accelerate terrestrial economic growth in several ways. A cost of less than 1 cent per kilowatt electric hour seems achievable. This allows poor nations to buy adequate energy. Increasing per capita use of electric power is

  20. Temperature suppresses decay on apple fruit by affecting Penicillium solitum conidial germination, mycelial growth and polygalacturonase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium solitum causes blue mold on apples during storage which results in economic losses. Information pertaining to growth and decay caused by this pathogen is important for developing disease control strategies. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of temperature on decay caused by P. solitum ...

  1. Salivary enzymes and exhaled air affect Streptococcus salivarius growth and physiological state in complemented artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Roger, P; Harn-Arsa, S; Delettre, J; Béal, C

    2011-12-01

    To better understand the phenomena governing the establishment of the oral bacterium Streptococcus salivarius in the mouth, the effect of some environmental factors has been studied in complemented artificial saliva, under oral pH and temperature conditions. Three salivary enzymes at physiological concentrations were tested: peroxidase, lysozyme and amylase, as well as injection of exhaled air. Injection of air containing 5% CO2 and 16% O2 induced a deleterious effect on S. salivarius K12, mainly by increasing redox potential. Addition of lysozyme slightly affected the physiological state of S. salivarius by altering membrane integrity. In contrast, peroxidase was not detrimental as it made it possible to decrease the redox potential. The addition of amylase reduced the specific growth rate of S. salivarius by formation of a complex with amylase and mucins, but led to high final biomass, as a result of enzymatic degradation of some nutrients. Finally, this work demonstrated that salivary enzymes had a slight impact on S. salivarius behaviour. It can thus be concluded that this bacterium was well adapted to in-mouth conditions, as it was able to resist certain salivary enzymes, even if tolerance to expired air was affected, as a result of an increased redox potential. PMID:21892611

  2. Options for decoupling economic growth from water use and water pollution: A report of the Water Working Group of the International Resource Panel Options for decoupling economic growth from water use and water pollution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global trends have pointed to a relative decoupling of water – that is, the rate of water resource use is increasing at a rate slower than that of economic growth. Despite this progress at the global level, it is projected that by 2030 there will be a 40% gap between water supply and water demand if...

  3. Identifying psychological and socio-economic factors affecting motorcycle helmet use.

    PubMed

    Haqverdi, Mahdi Quchaniyan; Seyedabrishami, Seyedehsan; Groeger, John A

    2015-12-01

    Sixty percent of motorcyclist fatalities in traffic accidents of Iran are due to head injuries, but helmet use is low, despite it being a legal requirement. This study used face-to-face interviews to investigate the factors associated with helmet use among motorcycle riders in Mashhad city, the second largest city in Iran. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used for data reduction and identification of consistent features of the data. Ordered and multinomial logit analyses were used to quantify the influences on helmet use and non-use. The data show that 47% of the sample used a helmet, but a substantial proportion of these did not wear their helmet properly. In addition, 5% of motorcyclists believed that helmets reduced their safety. Norms, attitudes toward helmet use, risky traffic behavior and awareness of traffic rules were found to be the key determinants of helmet use, but perceptions of enforcement lacked influence. Duration of daily motorcycle trips, riding experience and type of job also affected helmet use. Results indicate that motorcyclist training, safety courses for offending motorcyclists and social programs to improve social norms and attitudes regarding helmet use are warranted, as are more effective law enforcement techniques, in order to increase proper use of helmets in Iranian motorcyclists. In addition, special safety courses should be considered for motorcyclists who have committed traffic violations. PMID:26410724

  4. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area - Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents' adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources. PMID:27081355

  5. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles affect the growth and microRNA expression of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    PubMed

    Frazier, Taylor P; Burklew, Caitlin E; Zhang, Baohong

    2014-03-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is one of the most widely used pigments in the world. Due to its heavy use in industry and daily life, such as food additives, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and paints, many residues are released into the environment and currently TiO(2) nanoparticles are considered an emerging environmental contaminant. Although several studies have shown the effect of TiO(2) nanoparticles on a wide range of organisms including bacteria, algae, plankton, fish, mice, and rats, little research has been performed on land plants. In this study, we investigated the effect of TiO(2) nanoparticles on the growth, development, and gene expression of tobacco, an important economic and agricultural crop in the southeastern USA as well as around the world. We found that TiO(2) nanoparticles significantly inhibited the germination rates, root lengths, and biomasses of tobacco seedlings after 3 weeks of exposure to 0.1, 1, 2.5, and 5 % TiO(2) nanoparticles and that overall growth and development of the tobacco seedlings significantly decreased as TiO(2) nanoparticle concentrations increased. Overall, tobacco roots were the most sensitive to TiO(2) nanoparticle exposure. Nano-TiO(2) also significantly influenced the expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs), a recently discovered class of small endogenous noncoding RNAs (∼20-22 nt) that are considered important gene regulators and have been shown to play an important role in plant development as well as plant tolerance to abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity, cold, and heavy metal. Low concentrations (0.1 and 1 %) of TiO(2) nanoparticles dramatically induced miRNA expression in tobacco seedlings with miR395 and miR399 exhibiting the greatest fold changes of 285-fold and 143-fold, respectively. The results of this study show that TiO(2) nanoparticles have a negative impact on tobacco growth and development and that miRNAs may play an important role in tobacco response to heavy metals/nanoparticles by regulating

  6. Some Relationships Between Social and Economic Development and Physical and Mental Growth and Health in Tunis. A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Harben Boutourline

    This report summarizes preliminary results of the Yale Project which is attempting to identify and document relationships between social and economic development and major physical and mental growth, and health deficiencies in Tunisian children. A total of 112 children aged 6-1/2 to 8-1/2 were examined physically and psychologically, and a social…

  7. The New Population Debate: Two Views on Population Growth and Economic Development. Population Trends and Public Policy, Number 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Timothy; Kelley, Allen C.

    Articles representing two views on the issue of rapid population growth and economic development are presented. Although the authors present different perspectives, they agree on many of the fundamentals. For example, both reject alarmism about impending "population explosions" and the use of population as a scapegoat for all Third World ills.…

  8. The Adult Education and Economic Growth Act: Toward a Modern Adult Education System and a More Educated Workforce. [Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Marcie

    2012-01-01

    The Adult Education and Economic Growth Act (AEEGA) was introduced in the House of Representatives in June 2011 by Rep. Ruben Hinojosa (TX-15) and in February 2012 in the Senate by Sen. Jim Webb (VA). The Act (H.R. 2226 and S. 2117) would amend the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) to encourage the use and availability of career pathways for…

  9. Public Expenditure on Education and Economic Growth in the USA in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries in Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Earlier studies of France, Germany and the UK suggest that a common framework exists to explain the relationship between public expenditure on education and economic growth in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article shows that while a similar relationship exists in the USA, US policies were particularly committed to the educational…

  10. Structural Position in the World System and Economic Growth, 1955-1970: A Multiple-Network Analysis of Transactional Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, David; Kick, Edward L.

    1979-01-01

    Addresses world-system/dependency theories of differential economic growth among nations and identifies reservations concerning the current empirical status of these theories. Presents a model which relates the world system to blockmodel analysis by considering four types of international networks--trade flows, military interventions, diplomatic…

  11. Productivity in Physical and Chemical Science Predicts the Future Economic Growth of Developing Countries Better than Other Popular Indices

    PubMed Central

    Jaffe, Klaus; Caicedo, Mario; Manzanares, Marcos; Gil, Mario; Rios, Alfredo; Florez, Astrid; Montoreano, Claudia; Davila, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Scientific productivity of middle income countries correlates stronger with present and future wealth than indices reflecting its financial, social, economic or technological sophistication. We identify the contribution of the relative productivity of different scientific disciplines in predicting the future economic growth of a nation. Results show that rich and poor countries differ in the relative proportion of their scientific output in the different disciplines: countries with higher relative productivity in basic sciences such as physics and chemistry had the highest economic growth in the following five years compared to countries with a higher relative productivity in applied sciences such as medicine and pharmacy. Results suggest that the economies of middle income countries that focus their academic efforts in selected areas of applied knowledge grow slower than countries which invest in general basic sciences. PMID:23776640

  12. Socio-economic factors affect mortality in 47,XYY syndrome-A comparison with the background population and Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2012-10-01

    Mortality among males with 47,XYY is increased due to a host of conditions and diseases. Clinical studies have suggested a poorer educational level and social adaptation among 47,XYY persons. We wanted to study the socio-economic profile in 47,XYY persons and the impact on mortality. We conducted a register study using several Danish nationwide registries. 206 47,XYY men and 20,078 controls from the background population and 1,049 controls with Klinefelter syndrome were included. Information concerning marital status, fatherhood, education, income, and retirement were obtained. Compared to the background population, 47,XYY men had fewer partnerships, were less likely to become fathers, had lower income and educational level, and retired at an earlier age. The mortality among 47,XYY men was significantly increased with a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.6-5.1). Adjusting for marital and educational status reduced this HR to 2.7. Compared to Klinefelter syndrome, 47,XYY had significantly fewer partnerships, were more likely to become fathers, but had lower income. Mortality among 47,XYY men was increased compared with Klinefelter syndrome with a HR of 1.36. The results show a severely inferior outcome in all investigated socio-economic parameters compared to the background population and an affected profile compared with Klinefelter syndrome, even though the population in Denmark has equal and free access to health care and education. We conclude that 47,XYY is often associated with a poorer socio-economic profile, which partly explains the increased mortality. PMID:22893477

  13. Aluminum affects heterogeneous Fe(III) (Hydr)oxide nucleation, growth, and ostwald ripening.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yandi; Li, Qingyun; Lee, Byeongdu; Jun, Young-Shin

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous coprecipitation of iron and aluminum oxides is an important process for pollutant immobilization and removal in natural and engineered aqueous environments. Here, using a synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering technique, we studied heterogeneous nucleation and growth of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide on quartz under conditions found in acid mine drainage (at pH = 3.7 ± 0.2, [Fe(3+)] = 10(-4) M) with different initial aqueous Al/Fe ratios (0:1, 1:1, and 5:1). Interestingly, although the atomic ratios of Al/Fe in the newly formed Fe(III) (hydr)oxide precipitates were less than 1%, the in situ particle size and volume evolutions of the precipitates on quartz were significantly influenced by aqueous Al/Fe ratios. At the end of the 3 h experiments, with aqueous Al/Fe ratios of 0:1, 1:1, and 5:1, the average radii of gyration of particles on quartz were 5.7 ± 0.3, 4.6 ± 0.1, and 3.7 ± 0.3 nm, respectively, and the ratio of total particle volumes on quartz was 1.7:3.4:1.0. The Fe(III) (hydr)oxide precipitates were poorly crystallized, and were positively charged in all solutions. In the presence of Al(3+), Al(3+) adsorption onto quartz changed the surface charge of quartz from negative to positive, which caused the slower heterogeneous growth of Fe(III) (hydr)oxide on quartz. Furthermore, Al affected the amount of water included in the Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, which can influence their adsorption capacity. This study yielded important information usable for pollutant removal not only in natural environments, but also in engineered water treatment processes. PMID:24289329

  14. Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Anshasy, Amany A.

    This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

  15. Economic growth and obesity: an interesting relationship with world-wide implications.

    PubMed

    Egger, Garry; Swinburn, Boyd; Islam, F M Amirul

    2012-03-01

    The prosperity of a country, commonly measured in terms of its annual per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), has different relationships with population levels of body weight and happiness, as well as environmental impacts such as carbon emissions. The aim of this study was to examine these relationships and to try to find a level of GDP, which provides for sustainable economic activity, optimal happiness and healthy levels of mean body mass index (BMI). Spline regression analyses were conducted using national indices from 175 countries: GDP, adult BMI, mean happiness scores, and carbon footprint per capita for the year 2007. Results showed that GDP was positively related to BMI and happiness up to ∼$US3000 and ∼$5000 per capita respectively, with no significant relationships beyond these levels. GDP was also positively related to CO(2) emissions with a recognised sustainable carbon footprint of less than 5 tonnes per capita occurring at a GDP of <$US15,000. These findings show that a GDP between $US5 and $15,000 is associated with greater population happiness and environmental stability. A mean BMI of 21-23 kg/m(2), which minimises the prevalence of underweight and overweight in the population then helps to define an ideal position in relation to growth, which few countries appear to have obtained. Within a group of wealthy countries (GDP>$US30,000), those with lower income inequalities and more regulated (less liberal) market systems had lower mean BMIs. PMID:22305524

  16. Environment degradation, economic growth and energy consumption nexus: A wavelet-windowed cross correlation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jammazi, Rania; Aloui, Chaker

    2015-10-01

    This paper analyzes the interactive linkages between carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, energy consumption (EC) and economic growth (EG) using a novel approach namely wavelet windowed cross correlation (WWCC) for six oil-exporting countries from the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) region over the period 1980-2012. Our empirical results show that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EC and EG. However, the results support the occurrence of unidirectional causality from EC to CO2 emissions without any feedback effects, and there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between EG and CO2 emissions for the region as a whole. The study suggests that environmental and energy policies should recognize the differences in the nexus between EC and EG in order to maintain sustainable EG in the GCC region. Our findings will be useful for GCC countries to better evaluate its situation in the future climate negotiations. The overall findings will help GCC countries assess its position better in future climate change negotiations.

  17. Rapid economic growth leads to boost in NO2 pollution over India, as seen from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, the Indian economy has been growing at an exceptional pace. This growth was induced and accompanied by a strong increase of the Indian population. Consequently, traffic, electricity consumption, and industrial production have soared over the past decades, leading to a strong increase in fuel consumption and thus pollutant emissions. Nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2) are a major component of anthropogenic air pollution, playing key part in reaction cycles leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone. They are mainly emitted by the combustion of fossil fuels; other sources include production by lightning, biomass burning, and microbial activity in soils. Since the mid-1990s, space-borne measurements of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) have been conducted by the GOME, SCIAMACHY, GOME-2, and OMI instruments. These instruments perform hyperspectral measurements of scattered and reflected sunlight. Their measurements are then analyzed using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) to yield vertically integrated columnar trace gas abundances. Here, we will present the results of 20 years of NO2 measurements over the Indian subcontinent. After showing the spatial distribution of NO2 pollution over India, we will present time series for individual states and urban agglomerations. These time series will then be related to various indicators of economic development. Finally, we will highlight several instances where single industrial pollution sources and their development can clearly be identified from the NO2 maps and estimate their NO2 emissions.

  18. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  19. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  20. Chinese herbal medicine for miscarriage affects decidual micro-environment and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Piao, L.; Chen, C.-P.; Yeh, C.-C.; Basar, M.; Masch, R.; Cheng, Y.-C.; Lockwood, C. J.; Schatz, F.; Huang, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intrauterine growth restriction complicates 5 - 10% of pregnancies. This study aims to test the hypothesis that Chinese herbal formula, JLFC01, affects pregnancy and fetal development by modulating the pro-inflammatory decidual micro-environment. Methods Human decidua from gestational age-matched elective terminations or incomplete/missed abortion was immunostained using anti-CD68 + anti-CD86 or anti-CD163 antibodies. qRT-PCR and Luminex assay measured the effects of JLFC01 on IL-1β- or TNF-α-induced cytokine expression in first trimester decidual cells and on an established spontaneous abortion/intrauterine growth restriction (SA/IUGR)-prone mouse placentae. The effect of JLFC01 on human endometrial endothelial cell angiogenesis was evaluated by average area, length and numbers of branching points of tube formation. Food intake, litter size, fetal weight, placental weight and resorption rate were recorded in SA/IUGR-prone mouse treated with JLFC01. qRT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry assessed the expression of mouse placental IGF-I and IGF-IR. Results In spontaneous abortion, numbers of decidual macrophages expressing CD86 and CD163 are increased and decreased, respectively. JLFC01 reduces IL-1β- or TNF-α-induced GM-CSF, M-CSF, C-C motif ligand 2 (CCL2), interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10), CCL5 and IL-8 production in first trimester decidual cells. JLFC01 suppresses the activity of IL-1β- or TNF-α-treated first trimester decidual cells in enhancing macrophage-inhibited angiogenesis. In SA/IUGR-prone mice, JLFC01 increases maternal food intake, litter size, fetal and placental weight, and reduces fetal resorption rate. JLFC01 induces IGF-I and IGF-IR expression and inhibits M-CSF, CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, CCL3 and G-CSF expression in the placentae. Discussion JLFC01 improves gestation by inhibiting decidual inflammation, enhancing angiogenesis and promoting fetal growth. PMID:25771406

  1. What Does the Impact Statement Say About Economic Impacts? Coping With Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faas, Ronald C.

    Local public officials may be confronted with the use of economic multipliers when asked to react to project proposals, to environmental impact statements, or to other studies containing economic impact analyses. Employment, income, and output multipliers are tools for estimating private sector economic impacts of a new development within a local…

  2. Histopathology of growth anomaly affecting the coral, Montipora capitata: implications on biological functions and population viability.

    PubMed

    Burns, John H R; Takabayashi, Misaki

    2011-01-01

    Growth anomalies (GAs) affect the coral, Montipora capitata, at Wai'ōpae, southeast Hawai'i Island. Our histopathological analysis of this disease revealed that the GA tissue undergoes changes which compromise anatomical machinery for biological functions such as defense, feeding, digestion, and reproduction. GA tissue exhibited significant reductions in density of ova (66.1-93.7%), symbiotic dinoflagellates (38.8-67.5%), mesenterial filaments (11.2-29.0%), and nematocytes (28.8-46.0%). Hyperplasia of the basal body wall but no abnormal levels of necrosis and algal or fungal invasion was found in GA tissue. Skeletal density along the basal body wall was significantly reduced in GAs compared to healthy or unaffected sections. The reductions in density of the above histological features in GA tissue were collated with disease severity data to quantify the impact of this disease at the colony and population level. Resulting calculations showed this disease reduces the fecundity of M. capitata colonies at Wai'ōpae by 0.7-49.6%, depending on GA severity, and the overall population fecundity by 2.41±0.29%. In sum, GA in this M. capitata population reduces the coral's critical biological functions and increases susceptibility to erosion, clearly defining itself as a disease and an ecological threat. PMID:22205976

  3. The GI-CDF module of Arabidopsis affects freezing tolerance and growth as well as flowering.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Fabio; de Montaigu, Amaury; Sánchez-Villarreal, Alfredo; Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Huettel, Bruno; Davis, Seth J; Coupland, George

    2015-03-01

    Plants monitor and integrate temperature, photoperiod and light quality signals to respond to continuous changes in their environment. The GIGANTEA (GI) protein is central in diverse signaling pathways, including photoperiodic, sugar and light signaling pathways, stress responses and circadian clock regulation. Previously, GI was shown to activate expression of the key floral regulators CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) by facilitating degradation of a family of CYCLING DOF FACTOR (CDF) transcriptional repressors. However, whether CDFs are implicated in other processes affected by GI remains unclear. We investigated the contribution of the GI-CDF module to traits that depend on GI. Transcriptome profiling indicated that mutations in GI and the CDF genes have antagonistic effects on expression of a wider set of genes than CO and FT, whilst other genes are regulated by GI independently of the CDFs. Detailed expression studies followed by phenotypic assays showed that the CDFs function downstream of GI, influencing responses to freezing temperatures and growth, but are not necessary for proper clock function. Thus GI-mediated regulation of CDFs contributes to several processes in addition to flowering, but is not implicated in all of the traits influenced by GI. PMID:25600594

  4. Ice cover affects the growth of a stream-dwelling fish.

    PubMed

    Watz, Johan; Bergman, Eva; Piccolo, John J; Greenberg, Larry

    2016-05-01

    Protection provided by shelter is important for survival and affects the time and energy budgets of animals. It has been suggested that in fresh waters at high latitudes and altitudes, surface ice during winter functions as overhead cover for fish, reducing the predation risk from terrestrial piscivores. We simulated ice cover by suspending plastic sheeting over five 30-m-long stream sections in a boreal forest stream and examined its effects on the growth and habitat use of brown trout (Salmo trutta) during winter. Trout that spent the winter under the artificial ice cover grew more than those in the control (uncovered) sections. Moreover, tracking of trout tagged with passive integrated transponders showed that in the absence of the artificial ice cover, habitat use during the day was restricted to the stream edges, often under undercut banks, whereas under the simulated ice cover condition, trout used the entire width of the stream. These results indicate that the presence of surface ice cover may improve the energetic status and broaden habitat use of stream fish during winter. It is therefore likely that reductions in the duration and extent of ice cover due to climate change will alter time and energy budgets, with potentially negative effects on fish production. PMID:26787075

  5. Sowing and Reaping a Revolution: Economic Change and Growth in the People's Republic of China, 1949-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jeffrey R.

    This unit, intended for use with secondary students, presents background information on the Chinese economy. The subject warrants serious consideration because Sino-American trade has grown remarkable in the last decade and economic events occurring in China have the capacity to affect events in this country. The unit contains a six part narrative…

  6. Low-carbon transition of iron and steel industry in China: carbon intensity, economic growth and policy intervention.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Yuanbo; Shi, Lei

    2015-02-01

    As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China's iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Many drivers of the CO2 emissions of the iron and steel industry have been explored, but the relationships between CO2 abatement, investment and technological expenditure, and their connections with the economic growth and governmental policies in China, have not been conjointly and empirically examined. We proposed a concise conceptual model and an econometric model to investigate this crucial question. The results of regression, Granger causality test and impulse response analysis indicated that technological expenditure can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and that investment expansion showed a negative impact on CO2 emission reduction. It was also argued with empirical evidence that a good economic situation favored CO2 abatement in China's iron and steel industry, while achieving CO2 emission reduction in this industrial sector did not necessarily threaten economic growth. This shed light on the dispute over balancing emission cutting and economic growth. Regarding the policy aspects, the year 2000 was found to be an important turning point for policy evolution and the development of the iron and steel industry in China. The subsequent command and control policies had a significant, positive effect on CO2 abatement. PMID:25662248

  7. What the growth of a space tourism industry could contribute to employment, economic growth, environmental protection, education, culture and world peace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Patrick; Autino, Adriano

    2010-06-01

    The authors argue that the creation of a popular new industry of passenger space travel could be economically and socially very beneficial in creating new employment in aerospace and related fields in order to supply these services. In doing so, the application of nearly a half-century of technological development that has yet to be used commercially could create many new aerospace engineering business opportunities. In addition, by growing to large scale, space tourism has unique potential to reduce the cost of space travel sharply, thereby making many other activities in space feasible and profitable. The paper discusses the scope for new employment, stimulating economic growth, reducing environmental damage, sustaining education particularly in the sciences, stimulating cultural growth, and preserving peace by eliminating any need for "resource wars".

  8. The economic downturn and its lingering effects reduced medicare spending growth by $4 billion in 2009-12.

    PubMed

    Dranove, David; Garthwaite, Craig; Ody, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Previous work has found a strong connection between the most recent economic recession and reductions in private health spending. However, the effect of economic downturns on Medicare spending is less clear. In contrast to studies involving earlier time periods, our study found that when the macroeconomy slowed during the Great Recession of 2007-09, so did Medicare spending growth. A small (14 percent) but significant share of the decline in Medicare spending growth from 2009 to 2012 relative to growth from 2004 to 2009 can be attributed to lingering effects of the recession. Absent the economic downturn, Medicare spending would have been $4 billion higher in 2009-12. A major reason for the relatively small impact of the macroeconomy is the relative lack of labor-force participation among people ages sixty-five and older. We estimate that if they had been working at the same rate as the nonelderly before the recession, the effect of the downturn on Medicare spending growth would have been twice as large. PMID:26240251

  9. Culture surfaces coated with various implant materials affect chondrocyte growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hambleton, J; Schwartz, Z; Khare, A; Windeler, S W; Luna, M; Brooks, B P; Dean, D D; Boyan, B D

    1994-07-01

    The effect on chondrocyte metabolism of culture surfaces sputter-coated with various materials used for orthopaedic implants was studied and correlated with the stage of cartilage cell maturation. Confluent, fourth-passage chondrocytes from the costochondral resting zone and growth zone of rats were cultured for 6 or 9 days on 24-well plates sputter-coated with ultrathin films of titanium, titanium dioxide, aluminum oxide, zirconium oxide, and calcium phosphate (1.67:1). Corona-discharged tissue culture plastic served as the control. The effect of surface material was examined with regard to cell morphology; cell proliferation (cell number) and DNA synthesis ([3H]thymidine incorporation); RNA synthesis ([3H]uridine incorporation); collagenase-digestible protein, noncollagenase-digestible protein, and percentage of collagen production; and alkaline phosphatase-specific activity, both in the cell layer and in trypsinized chondrocytes. Cell morphology was dependent on surface material; only cells cultured on titanium had an appearance similar to that of cells cultured on plastic. While titanium or titanium dioxide surfaces had no effect on cell number or [3H]thymidine incorporation, aluminum oxide, calcium phosphate, and zirconium oxide surfaces inhibited both parameters. Cells cultured on aluminum oxide, calcium phosphate, zirconium oxide, and titanium dioxide exhibited decreased collagenase-digestible protein, noncollagenase-digestible protein, and percentage of collagen production, but [3H]uridine incorporation was decreased only in those chondrocytes cultured on aluminum oxide, calcium phosphate, or zirconium oxide. Chondrocytes cultured on titanium had greater alkaline phosphatase-specific activity than did cells cultured on plastic, but the incorporation of [3H]uridine and production of collagenase-digestible protein, noncollagenase-digestible protein, and percentage of collagen was comparable. The response of chondrocytes from the growth zone and resting zone

  10. Does seawater acidification affect survival, growth and shell integrity in bivalve juveniles?

    PubMed

    Bressan, M; Chinellato, A; Munari, M; Matozzo, V; Manci, A; Marčeta, T; Finos, L; Moro, I; Pastore, P; Badocco, D; Marin, M G

    2014-08-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide are leading to decreases in pH and changes in the carbonate chemistry of seawater. Ocean acidification may negatively affect the ability of marine organisms to produce calcareous structures while also influencing their physiological responses and growth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of reduced pH on the survival, growth and shell integrity of juveniles of two marine bivalves from the Northern Adriatic sea: the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the striped venus clam Chamelea gallina. An outdoor flow-through plant was set up and two pH levels (natural seawater pH as a control, pH 7.4 as the treatment) were tested in long-term experiments. Mortality was low throughout the first experiment for both mussels and clams, but a significant increase, which was sensibly higher in clams, was observed at the end of the experiment (6 months). Significant decreases in the live weight (-26%) and, surprisingly, in the shell length (-5%) were observed in treated clams, but not in mussels. In the controls of both species, no shell damage was ever recorded; in the treated mussels and clams, damage proceeded via different modes and to different extents. The severity of shell injuries was maximal in the mussels after just 3 months of exposure to a reduced pH, whereas it progressively increased in clams until the end of the experiment. In shells of both species, the damaged area increased throughout the experiment, peaking at 35% in mussels and 11% in clams. The shell thickness of the treated and control animals significantly decreased after 3 months in clams and after 6 months in mussels. In the second experiment (3 months), only juvenile mussels were exposed to a reduced pH. After 3 months, the mussels at a natural pH level or pH 7.4 did not differ in their survival, shell length or live weight. Conversely, shell damage was clearly visible in the treated mussels from the 1st month onward. Monitoring the

  11. Compensatory growth strategies are affected by the strength of environmental time constraints in anuran larvae.

    PubMed

    Orizaola, Germán; Dahl, Emma; Laurila, Anssi

    2014-01-01

    Organisms normally grow at a sub-maximal rate. After experiencing a period of arrested growth, individuals often show compensatory growth responses by modifying their life-history, behaviour and physiology. However, the strength of compensatory responses may vary across broad geographic scales as populations differ in their exposition to varying time constraints. We examined differences in compensatory growth strategies in common frog (Rana temporaria) populations from southern and northern Sweden. Tadpoles from four populations were reared in the laboratory and exposed to low temperature to evaluate the patterns and mechanisms of compensatory growth responses. We determined tadpoles' growth rate, food intake and growth efficiency during the compensation period. In the absence of arrested growth conditions, tadpoles from all the populations showed similar (size-corrected) growth rates, food intake and growth efficiency. After being exposed to low temperature for 1 week, only larvae from the northern populations increased growth rates by increasing both food intake and growth efficiency. These geographic differences in compensatory growth mechanisms suggest that the strategies for recovering after a period of growth deprivation may depend on the strength of time constraints faced by the populations. Due to the costs of fast growth, only populations exposed to the strong time constraints are prone to develop fast recovering strategies in order to metamorphose before conditions deteriorate. Understanding how organisms balance the cost and benefits of growth strategies may help in forecasting the impact of fluctuating environmental conditions on life-history strategies of populations likely to be exposed to increasing environmental variation in the future. PMID:23996230

  12. The Association Between Natural Amenities, Rural Population Growth, and Long-Term Residents’ Economic Well-Being*

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lori M.; Boardman, Jason D.; Saint Onge, Jarron M.

    2011-01-01

    Population growth in rural areas characterized by high levels of natural amenities has recently received substantial research attention. A noted concern with amenity-driven rural population growth is its potential to raise local costs-of-living while yielding only low-wage service sector employment for long-term residents. The work presented here empirically models long-term rural residents’ economic well-being, making use of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. In general, the results suggest that long-term rural families residing in high-growth amenity and recreation areas tend to have higher annual incomes than do their counterparts in non-growth amenity/recreation areas, regardless of the sex, race, or age of the family head. However, higher costs-of-living in these areas supplant any relative gains in income. As such, these analyses provide empirical evidence of patterns inferred by earlier anecdotal evidence and case studies. PMID:21874070

  13. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Johanna M.; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L.; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C.; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M.; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U.; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Methods Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. Results The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. Conclusion VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples. PMID:26730574

  14. Fully Aligned Academic Health Centers: A Model for 21st-Century Job Creation and Sustainable Economic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Reece, E. Albert; Chrencik, Robert A.; Miller, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Alignment is the degree to which component parts of academic health centers (AHCs) work cohesively. Full alignment allows AHCs to act quickly and cohesively toward common goals and to take advantage of opportunities that present themselves, particularly where collaboration is essential. Maryland’s two major AHCs—University of Maryland Medicine (UMM) and Johns Hopkins Medicine (JHM)—have experienced periods of significant misalignment during each of their histories. Their most recent periods of misalignment caused significant negative economic and academic impacts. However, the process of realigning their clinical and research missions has not only given them a renewed economic vigor but has also paid significant dividends for the state of Maryland, helping it weather the current recession much better than other regions of the country. The two AHCs’ continued economic success during the recession has led Maryland lawmakers to increasingly seek out their expertise in attempts to stimulate economic development. Indeed, UMM, JHM, and other fully aligned AHCs have shown that they can be powerful economic engines and offer a model of job growth and economic development in the 21st century. PMID:22622215

  15. Growth characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes as affected by a -native microflora in cooked ham under refrigerated and temperature abuse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the growth characteristics of L. monocytogenes as affected by a native microflora in cooked ham at refrigerated and abuse temperatures. A five-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes and a native microflora isolated from cooked meat were inoculated alone (monocultured) or co-inoculate...

  16. Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss) The cost and scarcity of key ingredients for aquaculture feed formulation call for a wise use of resources, especially dietary proteins and energy. For years t...

  17. The ups and downs of Mexican economic growth: the biological standard of living and inequality, 1870-1950.

    PubMed

    López-Alonso, Moramay; Condey, Raúl Porras

    2003-06-01

    The secular change in the biological standard of living of the Mexican population between 1870 and 1950 is examined based on evidence on the physical stature from military and passport records. While Mexico industrialized and experienced rapid economic growth during this period, there was only a modest overall improvement in the height, health and nutritional status of the Mexican population. The average Mexican born in the 1940s was not only slightly taller than its compatriot of the 1870s. There were, however, considerable social differences: the Mexican upper class was markedly taller than the working class and the gap increased prior to the revolution. Economic growth with systemic inequality largely accounts for such a pattern. PMID:15463972

  18. An empirical investigation on different methods of economic growth rate forecast and its behavior from fifteen countries across five continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yip Chee; Hock-Eam, Lim

    2012-09-01

    Our empirical results show that we can predict GDP growth rate more accurately in continent with fewer large economies, compared to smaller economies like Malaysia. This difficulty is very likely positively correlated with subsidy or social security policies. The stage of economic development and level of competiveness also appears to have interactive effects on this forecast stability. These results are generally independent of the forecasting procedures. Countries with high stability in their economic growth, forecasting by model selection is better than model averaging. Overall forecast weight averaging (FWA) is a better forecasting procedure in most countries. FWA also outperforms simple model averaging (SMA) and has the same forecasting ability as Bayesian model averaging (BMA) in almost all countries.

  19. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach

    PubMed Central

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Nor, Norashidah Mohamed; Abdullah, Nik Mustapha Raja; Adamu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002–2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally. PMID:26573032

  20. Effect of the Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the Life Expectancy Rate on Economic Growth in SSA Countries: Difference GMM Approach.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Salisu Ibrahim; Mohamed Nor, Norashidah; Raja Abdullah, Nik Mustapha; Adamu, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of countries around the globe is adversely affected by the health-related problems of their labour force. This study examined the effect of the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and life expectancy on the economic growth of 33 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries over a period of 11 years (2002-2012). The study employed a dynamic panel approach as opposed to the static traditional approach utilised in the literature. The dynamic approach became eminent because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is a dynamic variable as its prevalence today depends on the previous years. The result revealed that HIV/AIDS is negatively correlated with economic growth in the region, with a coefficient of 0.014, and significant at the 1% level. That is, a 10% increase in HIV/AIDS prevalence leads to a 0.14% decrease in the GDP of the region. Tackling HIV/AIDS is therefore imperative to the developing Sub-Saharan African region and all hands must be on deck to end the menace globally. PMID:26573032

  1. Economic effects of hypothetical reductions in tree growth in the Northeastern and Southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    Objectives of this research were to review and critically evaluate economic methods and models for assessing the economic impacts of acid deposition-induced changes in forest productivity; to scope and assess the sensitivity of the potential economic impacts of changes in forest productivity; and to provide information and recommendations that will enhance Federal efforts to assess the economic impacts of acid deposition and to determine the benefits of alternative acid deposition mitigation and control strategies. A conceptual framework was developed for understanding and valuing the economic impacts of acid deposition-induced changes in forest productivity in markets for hardwood and softwood stumpage and the prducts made from this stumpage. Although the framework focuses on valuing the economic impacts of acid deposition, it could be used for any factor that causes changes in forest productivity. The scope of potential economic impacts due to changes in forest productivity was characterized. Based on this analysis, key methodological features were identified which would contribute substantially to providing accurate estimates of the economic damages caused by changes in forest productivity. These features served as the basis for identifying and critically evaluating existing models.

  2. Economic-impact study seen as vehicle to spur growth, deter tax.

    PubMed

    Pallarito, K

    1992-12-01

    A new report commissioned by Pennsylvania's Delaware Valley Hospital Council to quantify hospitals' value to the five-county area in services, salaries and other economic benefits could serve as ammunition for economic development leaders to help attract new businesses and by the region's hospitals in defense of their property-tax exemptions. PMID:10122574

  3. Growth factors and hormones which affect survival, growth, and differentiation of the MCF-7 stem cells and their descendants

    SciTech Connect

    Resnicoff, M.; Medrano, E.E. )

    1989-03-01

    The human breast tumor cell line was separated by Percoll density gradient centrifugation into six different subpopulations, A to F, of which (E) appears to contain the stem cells on the basis of several criteria. The authors analyzed the response of the isolated subpopulations to insulin, thrombin, PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, estradiol, and 13-cis-retinal. They demonstrate that the first two growth factors stimulate ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation in the more differentiated subpopulations (D and F), while PGF{sub 2{alpha}} has mitogenic activity in subpopulations C and D. In the absence of any added growth factor, estradiol has the extreme and transient capacity of allowing the stem cell to detach from the tissue culture dish and to grow in suspension as multicellular aggregates (MCF-7/SE cells). 13-cis-Retinal acts as a negative modulator of differentiation and protects the cells from the inhibitory and differentiation activity in Na-butyrate.

  4. Ground-water heat pumps: An examination of hydrogeologic, environmental, legal, and economic factors affecting their use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, D. M.; Bacon, D. J.; Massey-Norton, J. T.; Miller, J. M.

    1980-11-01

    Factors affecting the use of ground water (well) are presented. First is the well cost and the availability of an adequate supply of suitable quality of well water. Second, the removal of significant quantities of well water without suitable recharge may deplete the underground aquifer. Plans to reinject or return the water underground may be precluded by legal restrictions. It could entail additional costs for the disposal well. Special provisions to prevent thermal alterations of the underground source may be required. These issues are addressed in the study and other questions are answered relating to ground water quality and availability, potential environmental effects, legal restrictions, and energy use and economics of ground water heat pump use. The main elements of the study and conclusions are summarized. Other topics briefly discussed are: ground water resources in the US; water source heat pump equipment; and energy use comparisons. Some data on heat pump in Atlanta, Birmingham, Cleveland, Columbus, Concord, Houston, Philadelphia, Seattle, and Tulsa are tabulated and graphically presented. Data of ground water heat pump water use and effluent disposal regulations by states are summarized.

  5. Phenotypic integration of skeletal traits during growth buffers genetic variants affecting the slenderness of femora in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Jepsen, Karl J.; Hu, Bin; Tommasini, Steven M.; Courtland, Hayden-William; Price, Christopher; Cordova, Matthew; Nadeau, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    Compensatory interactions among adult skeletal traits are critical for establishing strength but complicate the search for fracture susceptibility genes by allowing many genetic variants to exist in a population without loss of function. A better understanding of how these interactions arise during growth will provide new insight into genotype-phenotype relationships and the biological controls that establish skeletal strength. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variants affecting growth in width relative to growth in length (slenderness) are coordinated with movement of the inner bone surface and matrix mineralization to match stiffness with weight-bearing loads during postnatal growth. Midshaft femoral morphology and tissue-mineral density were quantified at ages of 1 day and at 4, 8, and 16 weeks for a panel of 20 female AXB/BXA recombinant inbred mouse strains. Path Analyses revealed significant compensatory interactions among outer-surface expansion rate, inner-surface expansion rate, and tissue-mineral density during postnatal growth, indicating that genetic variants affecting bone slenderness were buffered mechanically by the precise regulation of bone surface movements and matrix mineralization. Importantly, the covariation between morphology and mineralization resulted from a heritable constraint limiting the amount of tissue that could be used to construct a functional femur. The functional interactions during growth explained 56-99% of the variability in adult traits and mechanical properties. These functional interactions provide quantitative expectations of how genetic or environmental variants affecting one trait should be compensated by changes in other traits. Variants that impair this process or that cannot be fully compensated are expected to alter skeletal growth leading to underdesigned (weak) or overdesigned (bulky) structures. PMID:19082857

  6. Survey of naturally and conventionally cured commercial frankfurters, ham, and bacon for physio-chemical characteristics that affect bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Schrader, Kohl D; Xi, Yuan; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

    2012-12-01

    Natural and organic food regulations preclude the use of sodium nitrite/nitrate and other antimicrobials for processed meat products. Consequently, processors have begun to use natural nitrate/nitrite sources, such as celery juice/powder, sea salt, and turbinado sugar, to manufacture natural and organic products with cured meat characteristics but without sodium nitrite. The objective of this study was to compare physio-chemical characteristics that affect Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes growth in naturally cured and traditionally cured commercial frankfurters, hams, and bacon. Correlations of specific product characteristics to pathogen growth varied between products and pathogens, though water activity, salt concentration, and product composition (moisture, protein and fat) were common intrinsic factors correlated to pathogen growth across products. Other frequently correlated traits were related to curing reactions such as % cured pigment. Residual nitrite and nitrate were significantly correlated to C. perfringens growth but only for the ham products. PMID:22857852

  7. Does solar radiation affect the growth of tomato seeds relative to their environment?

    SciTech Connect

    Holzer, K.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to sequentially study and analyze the data collected from the germination and growth of irradiated Rutgers Supreme tomato seeds to adult producing plants. This experiment will not use irradiated seeds as a control as the authors plans to note growth in artificial verses natural environment as the basic experiment.

  8. Does solar radiation affect the growth of tomato seeds relative to their environment?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzer, Kristi

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to sequentially study and analyze the data collected from the germination and growth of irradiated Rutgers Supreme tomato seeds to adult producing plants. This experiment will not use irradiated seeds as a control as I plan to note growth in artificial verses natural environment as the basic experiment.

  9. Dissolved oxygen levels affect dimorphic growth by the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea is capable of dimorphic growth (hyphal or yeast-like) in submerged culture. In shake flask studies, we evaluated the impact of aeration on the mode of growth of I. fumosorosea. Using 250 mL baffled Erlenmeyer flasks, culture volumes of 50, 100, 150, a...

  10. Role of the Placental Vitamin D Receptor in Modulating Feto-Placental Growth in Fetal Growth Restriction and Preeclampsia-Affected Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Murthi, Padma; Yong, Hannah E. J.; Ngyuen, Thy P. H.; Ellery, Stacey; Singh, Harmeet; Rahman, Rahana; Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W.; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Wallace, Euan M.; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common pregnancy complication that affects up to 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in reduced fetal growth, which may be rescued by supplementation of Vitamin D. Despite this, the pathway(s) by which Vitamin D modulate fetal growth remains to be investigated. Our own studies demonstrate that the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is significantly decreased in placentae from human pregnancies complicated by FGR and contributes to abnormal placental trophoblast apoptosis and differentiation and regulation of cell-cycle genes in vitro. Thus, Vitamin D signaling is important for normal placental function and fetal growth. This review discusses the association of Vitamin D with fetal growth, the function of Vitamin D and its receptor in pregnancy, as well as the functional significance of a placental source of Vitamin D in FGR. Additionally, we propose that for Vitamin D to be clinically effective to prevent and manage FGR, the molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D and its receptor in modulating fetal growth requires further investigation. PMID:26924988

  11. Role of the Placental Vitamin D Receptor in Modulating Feto-Placental Growth in Fetal Growth Restriction and Preeclampsia-Affected Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Murthi, Padma; Yong, Hannah E J; Ngyuen, Thy P H; Ellery, Stacey; Singh, Harmeet; Rahman, Rahana; Dickinson, Hayley; Walker, David W; Davies-Tuck, Miranda; Wallace, Euan M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common pregnancy complication that affects up to 5% of pregnancies worldwide. Recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D deficiency is implicated in reduced fetal growth, which may be rescued by supplementation of Vitamin D. Despite this, the pathway(s) by which Vitamin D modulate fetal growth remains to be investigated. Our own studies demonstrate that the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is significantly decreased in placentae from human pregnancies complicated by FGR and contributes to abnormal placental trophoblast apoptosis and differentiation and regulation of cell-cycle genes in vitro. Thus, Vitamin D signaling is important for normal placental function and fetal growth. This review discusses the association of Vitamin D with fetal growth, the function of Vitamin D and its receptor in pregnancy, as well as the functional significance of a placental source of Vitamin D in FGR. Additionally, we propose that for Vitamin D to be clinically effective to prevent and manage FGR, the molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D and its receptor in modulating fetal growth requires further investigation. PMID:26924988

  12. Does Rapid and Sustained Economic Growth Lead to Convergence in Health Resources: The Case of China From 1980 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Liang, Di; Zhang, Donglan; Huang, Jiayan; Schweitzer, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    China's rapid and sustained economic growth offers an opportunity to ask whether the advantages of growth diffuse throughout an economy, or remain localized in areas where the growth has been the greatest. A critical policy area in China has been the health system, and health inequality has become an issue that has led the government to broaden national health insurance programs. This study investigates whether health system resources and performance have converged over the past 30 years across China's 31 provinces. To examine geographic variation of health system resources and performance at the provincial level, we measure the degree of sigma convergence and beta convergence in indicators of health system resources (structure), health services utilization (process), and outcome. All data are from officially published sources: the China Health Statistics Year Book and the China Statistics Year Book. Sigma convergence is found for resource indicators, whereas it is not observed for either process or outcome indicators, indicating that disparities only narrowed in health system resources. Beta convergence is found in most indicators, except for 2 procedure indicators, reflecting that provinces with poorer resources were catching up. Convergence found in this study probably reflects the mixed outcome of government input, and market forces. Thus, left alone, the equitable distribution of health care resources may not occur naturally during a period of economic growth. Governmental and societal efforts are needed to reduce geographic health variation and promote health equity. PMID:26895881

  13. Cyclic Stretch Affects Pulmonary Endothelial Cell Control of Pulmonary Smooth Muscle Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Cristhiaan D.; Baker, Haven; Hasak, Stephen; Matyal, Robina; Salam, Aleya; Hales, Charles A.; Hancock, William; Quinn, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    Endothelial cells are subjected to mechanical forces in the form of cyclic stretch resulting from blood pulsatility. Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) produce factors that stimulate and inhibit pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) growth. We hypothesized that PAECs exposed to cyclic stretch secrete proteins that inhibit PASMC growth. Media from PAECs exposed to cyclic stretch significantly inhibited PASMC growth in a time-dependent manner. Lyophilized material isolated from stretched PAEC-conditioned media significantly inhibited PASMC growth in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibition was reversed by trypsin inactivation, which is consistent with the relevant factor being a protein(s). To identify proteins that inhibited cell growth in conditioned media from stretched PAECs, we used proteomic techniques and found that thrombospondin (TSP)-1, a natural antiangiogenic factor, was up-regulated by stretch. In vitro, exogenous TSP-1 inhibited PASMC growth. TSP-1–blocking antibodies reversed conditioned media–induced inhibition of PASMC growth. Cyclic stretched PAECs secrete protein(s) that inhibit PASMC proliferation. TSP-1 may be, at least in part, responsible for this inhibition. The complete identification and understanding of the secreted proteome of stretched PAECs may lead to new insights into the pathophysiology of pulmonary vascular remodeling. PMID:18314539

  14. Severe dietary lysine restriction affects growth and body composition and hepatic gene expression for nitrogen metabolism in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Lee, K S; Kwon, D-H; Bong, J J; Jeong, J Y; Nam, Y S; Lee, M S; Liu, X; Baik, M

    2014-02-01

    Dietary lysine restriction may differentially affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism, depending on the degree of lysine restriction. This study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary lysine restriction on growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism with two different degree of lysine restriction. Isocaloric amino acid-defined diets containing 1.4% lysine (adequate), 0.70% lysine (50% moderate lysine restriction) and 0.35% lysine (75% severe lysine restriction) were fed from the age of 52 to 77 days for 25 days in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The 75% severe lysine restriction increased (p < 0.05) food intake, but retarded (p < 0.05) growth, increased (p < 0.05) liver and muscle lipid contents and abdominal fat accumulation, increased (p < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen levels and mRNA levels of the serine-synthesizing 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene, but decreased (p < 0.05) urea cycle arginase gene mRNA levels. In contrast, the 50% lysine restriction did not significantly (p > 0.05) affect body growth and lipid and nitrogen metabolism. Our results demonstrate that severe 75% lysine restriction has detrimental effects on body growth and deregulate lipid and nitrogen metabolism. PMID:23441935

  15. Do variations in leaf phenology affect radial growth variations in Fagus sylvatica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čufar, Katarina; De Luis, Martin; Prislan, Peter; Gričar, Jožica; Črepinšek, Zalika; Merela, Maks; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka

    2015-08-01

    We used a dendrochronological and leaf phenology network of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica) in Slovenia, a transitional area between Mediterranean, Alpine and continental climatic regimes, for the period 1955-2007 to test whether year to year variations in leaf unfolding and canopy duration (i.e. time between leaf unfolding and colouring) influence radial growth (annual xylem production and tree ring widths) and if such influences are more pronounced at higher altitudes. We showed that variability in leaf phenology has no significant effect on variations in radial growth. The results are consistent in the entire region, irrespective of the climatic regime or altitude, although previous studies have shown that leaf phenology and tree ring variation depend on altitude. The lack of relationship between year to year variability in leaf phenology and radial growth may suggest that earlier leaf unfolding—as observed in a previous study—probably does not cause increased tree growth rates in beech in Slovenia.

  16. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae).

    PubMed

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ) as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant. PMID:25187878

  17. Density but not climate affects the population growth rate of guanacos ( Lama guanicoe) (Artiodactyla, Camelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zubillaga, María; Skewes, Oscar; Soto, Nicolás; Rabinovich, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of population density and climatic variables on the rate of population growth in the guanaco ( Lama guanicoe), a wild camelid species in South America. We used a time series of 36 years (1977-2012) of population sampling in Tierra del Fuego, Chile. Individuals were grouped in three age-classes: newborns, juveniles, and adults; for each year a female population transition matrix was constructed, and the population growth rate (λ) was estimated for each year as the matrix highest positive eigenvalue. We applied a regression analysis with finite population growth rate (λ) as dependent variable, and total guanaco population, sheep population, annual mean precipitation, and winter mean temperature as independent variables, with and without time lags. The effect of guanaco population size was statistically significant, but the effects of the sheep population and the climatic variables on guanaco population growth rate were not statistically significant. PMID:25187878

  18. Affective Determinants of Anxiety and Depression Development in Children and Adolescents: An Individual Growth Curve Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The tripartite model (in Clark and Watson, "J Abnorm Psychol" 100:316-336, 1991) comprises Negative Affect (NA), Positive Affect (PA), and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH), three temperamental-based dimensions. The current study examined the tripartite model's assumptions that (a) NA interacts with PA to predict subsequent depressive (but not…

  19. Mortality affects adaptive allocation to growth and reproduction: field evidence from a guild of body snatchers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The probability of being killed by external factors (extrinsic mortality) should influence how individuals allocate limited resources to the competing processes of growth and reproduction. Increased extrinsic mortality should select for decreased allocation to growth and for increased reproductive effort. This study presents perhaps the first clear cross-species test of this hypothesis, capitalizing on the unique properties offered by a diverse guild of parasitic castrators (body snatchers). I quantify growth, reproductive effort, and expected extrinsic mortality for several species that, despite being different species, use the same species' phenotype for growth and survival. These are eight trematode parasitic castrators—the individuals of which infect and take over the bodies of the same host species—and their uninfected host, the California horn snail. Results As predicted, across species, growth decreased with increased extrinsic mortality, while reproductive effort increased with increased extrinsic mortality. The trematode parasitic castrator species (operating stolen host bodies) that were more likely to be killed by dominant species allocated less to growth and relatively more to current reproduction than did species with greater life expectancies. Both genders of uninfected snails fit into the patterns observed for the parasitic castrator species, allocating as much to growth and to current reproduction as expected given their probability of reproductive death (castration by trematode parasites). Additionally, species differences appeared to represent species-specific adaptations, not general plastic responses to local mortality risk. Conclusions Broadly, this research illustrates that parasitic castrator guilds can allow unique comparative tests discerning the forces promoting adaptive evolution. The specific findings of this study support the hypothesis that extrinsic mortality influences species differences in growth and reproduction

  20. Contamination by uranium mine drainages affects fungal growth and interactions between fungal species and strains.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Verónica; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia; Pratas, João; Canhoto, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The presence of aquatic hyphomycetes has been reported for several heavy metal-contaminated waters. Tolerance probably is one adaptation to coping with heavy metals. To help clarify this issue strains of two species of aquatic hyphomycetes (Tricladium splendens Ingold and Varicosporium elodeae Kegel) were isolated from a reference stream and a stream contaminated with heavy metals and grown on malt extract agar prepared with reference and contaminated water to characterize colony morphology, growth rate, growth inhibition and interaction among species and strains. In V. elodeae the morphology of colonies differed between strains. Colony diameter increased linearly over time with growth rates being lower for strains isolated from contaminated than from reference streams (mostly for V. elodeae). Strains from the contaminated stream grew faster in medium prepared with contaminated water than in medium prepared with reference water, while for strains from the reference stream there was no significant difference in growth rates on the two media. In interacting isolates radial growth toward the opposing colony was generally lower than toward the dish edge. Percentage growth inhibition was higher for isolates in intraspecific interactions (13-37%) than in interspecific interactions (3-27%). However differences in growth inhibition experienced by interacting isolates were observed only in three cases out of 16. The difference between the percentage inhibition caused and experienced by a given isolate was highest in interactions involving isolates with distinct growth rates. Our results suggest that strains from the reference stream tolerate heavy metals while strains from the contaminated stream seem to be adapted to contaminated waters. We hypothesize that in natural environments fungal species-specific limits of tolerance to metal contamination might determine an abrupt or gradual response of the original fungal community to mine pollution giving origin to a poorer

  1. DETECTION OF QUANTITATIAVE TRAIT LOCI AFFECTING GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN BOS INDICUS BEEF CATTLE (NELLORE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci of economic importance in purebred Bos indicus beef cattle breed (Nellore). Two half-sib families constituted of 187 (family 1) and 189 (family 2) female sisters, daughters from two distinct bulls, where used. Each parent (F0) was ...

  2. Economic Growth, Rural Educational Investment and the Level and Distribution of Rural Incomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badiani, Reena Chandu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines two related questions. First, it estimates the effect of growth in the demand for skilled and unskilled labor on rural household incomes and the rural wage structure. Second, it examines the effect of growth in household incomes and in labor market returns to education on household educational investment. The…

  3. Some socio-economic aspects of population growth in the USSR.

    PubMed

    Simchera, V

    1974-01-01

    This summarizes population trends in the U.S.S.R. since the early 19 00's. On August 9, 1973, the population topped 250 million, almost precisely double that of Russia at the time of the 1st general census in 1897. Since 1922 it had increased by more than 84%. Russia has suffered more population loss in wars than any other country in modern times. The First World War, the Civil War, and the Second World War took a toll of more than 30 million, more than 20 million during the Second World War alone. The extent of these loses can be judged from the following: between 1897 and 1913 the population of Russia increased at the rate of 1.55% per annum or 34.6 million; if this had continued the population would have been at least 182.8 million by the end of 1922. As it was, the population was 136.1 million by 1922 and the hypothetical 182.8 million was not reached until 1952. More than 4/5 of today's population have been born since the October Revolution. Only 43 million were born before the revolution and only 7.5 were born in the last century. The economic base has grown much more rapidly than the population. For the period 1940-1972 the population increased 1.27 times, national income 9.51 times, fixed assets, 8.76 times, industrial production, 13.65 times, agricultural output, 2.14 times, and capital investment 14.52 times. The birthrate has been falling since World War 1 but total population growth has increased steadily. Birthrates have declined from 45.5/1000 in 1913 to 17.8/1000 in 1972 and a slight upturn is seen. It is expected that the birthrate will continue to increase slightly, then stabilize. Much of the population increase has come from significantly reduced mortality rates. 1st and 2nd children now account for 71% of all births. Family allowances, child care, free health care, and other social benefits encourage births while high employment levels for women, a shortage of men in the marriageable age ranges, and late marriages tend to depress the birthrate

  4. Factors that affect bone mineral accrual in the adolescent growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Susan J; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Faulkner, Robert A; Mirwald, Robert; Bailey, Donald A

    2004-03-01

    The development of bone mass during the growing years is an important determinant for risk of osteoporosis in later life. Adequate dietary intake during the growth period may be critical in reaching bone growth potential. The Saskatchewan Bone Mineral Accrual Study (BMAS) is a longitudinal study of bone growth in Caucasian children. We have calculated the times of maximal peak bone mineral content (BMC) velocity to be 14.0 +/- 1.0 y in boys and 12.5 +/- 0.9 y in girls; bone growth is maximal approximately 6 mo after peak height velocity. In the 2 y of peak skeletal growth, adolescents accumulate over 25% of adult bone. BMAS data may provide biological data on calcium requirements through application of calcium accrual values to factorial calculations of requirement. As well, our data are beginning to reveal how dietary patterns may influence attainment of bone mass during the adolescent growth spurt. Replacing milk intake by soft drinks appears to be detrimental to bone gain by girls, but not boys. Fruit and vegetable intake, providing alkalinity to bones and/or acting as a marker of a healthy diet, appears to influence BMC in adolescent girls, but not boys. The reason why these dietary factors appear to be more influential in girls than in boys may be that BMAS girls are consuming less than their requirement for calcium, while boys are above their threshold. Specific dietary and nutrient recommendations for adolescents are needed in order to ensure optimal bone growth and consolidation during this important life stage. PMID:14988470

  5. Bone quality is affected by food restriction and by nutrition-induced catch-up growth.

    PubMed

    Pando, Rakefet; Masarwi, Majdi; Shtaif, Biana; Idelevich, Anna; Monsonego-Ornan, Efrat; Shahar, Ron; Phillip, Moshe; Gat-Yablonski, Galia

    2014-12-01

    Growth stunting constitutes the most common effect of malnutrition. When the primary cause of malnutrition is resolved, catch-up (CU) growth usually occurs. In this study, we have explored the effect of food restriction (RES) and refeeding on bone structure and mechanical properties. Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 24 days were subjected to 10 days of 40% RES, followed by refeeding for 1 (CU) or 26 days long-term CU (LTCU). The rats fed ad libitum served as controls. The growth plates were measured, osteoclasts were identified using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining, and micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning and mechanical testing were used to study structure and mechanical properties. Micro-CT analysis showed that RES led to a significant reduction in trabecular BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N), concomitant with an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp). Trabecular BV/TV and Tb.N were significantly greater in the CU group than in the RES in both short- and long-term experiments. Mechanical testing showed that RES led to weaker and less compliant bones; interestingly, bones of the CU group were also more fragile after 1 day of CU. Longer term of refeeding enabled correction of the bone parameters; however, LTCU did not achieve full recovery. These results suggest that RES in young rats attenuated growth and reduced trabecular bone parameters. While nutrition-induced CU growth led to an immediate increase in epiphyseal growth plate height and active bone modeling, it was also associated with a transient reduction in bone quality. This should be taken into consideration when treating children undergoing CU growth. PMID:25248555

  6. Slow growth of the overexploited milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus affects its sustainability in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Ba, A; Diouf, K; Guilhaumon, F; Panfili, J

    2015-10-01

    Age and growth of Rhizoprionodon acutus were estimated from vertebrae age bands. From December 2009 to November 2010, 423 R. acutus between 37 and 112 cm total length (LT ) were sampled along the Senegalese coast. Marginal increment ratio was used to check annual band deposition. Three growth models were adjusted to the length at age and compared using Akaike's information criterion. The Gompertz growth model with estimated size at birth appeared to be the best and resulted in growth parameters of L∞ = 139.55 (LT ) and K = 0.17 year(-1) for females and L∞ = 126.52 (LT ) and K = 0.18 year(-1) for males. The largest female and male examined were 8 and 9 years old, but the majority was between 1 and 3 years old. Ages at maturity estimated were 5.8 and 4.8 years for females and males, respectively. These results suggest that R. acutus is a slow-growing species, which render the species particularly vulnerable to heavy fishery exploitation. The growth parameters estimated in this study are crucial for stock assessments and for demographic analyses to evaluate the sustainability of commercial harvests. PMID:26436372

  7. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  8. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks

    SciTech Connect

    Canadella, J.G.; Raupacha, M.R.; Le Quere, C.; Buitenhuis, E.T.; Gillett, N.P.; Field, C.B.; Ciais, P.; Conway, T.J.; Houghton, R.A.; Marland, G.

    2007-11-20

    The growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the largest human contributor to human-induced climate change, is increasing rapidly. Three processes contribute to this rapid increase. Two of these processes concern emissions. Recent growth of the world economy combined with an increase in its carbon intensity have led to rapid growth in fossil fuel CO2 emissions since 2000: comparing the 1990s with 2000-2006, the emissions growth rate increased from 1.3% to 3.3%/y. The third process is indicated by increasing evidence (P 0.89) for a long-term (50-year) increase in the airborne fraction (AF) of CO2 emissions, implying a decline in the efficiency of CO2 sinks on land and oceans in absorbing anthropogenic emissions. Since 2000, the contributions of these three factors to the increase in the atmospheric CO2 growth rate have been {approx}65 {+-} 16% from increasing global economic activity, 17 {+-} 6% from the increasing carbon intensity of the global economy, and 18 {+-} 15% from the increase in AF. An increasing AF is consistent with results of climate-carbon cycle models, but the magnitude of the observed signal appears larger than that estimated by models. All of these changes characterize a carbon cycle that is generating stronger-than-expected and sooner-than-expected climate forcing. airborne fraction anthropogenic carbon emissions carbon-climate feedback terrestrial and ocean carbon emissions vulnerabilities of the carbon cycle.

  9. Final Report: "Collaborative Project. Understanding the Chemical Processes That Affect Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James N.; McMurry, Peter H.

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate. Our measurements include a self-organized, DOE-ARM funded project at the Southern Great Plains site, the New Particle Formation Study (NPFS), which took place during spring 2013. NPFS data are available to the research community on the ARM data archive, providing a unique suite observations of trace gas and aerosols that are associated with the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles.

  10. Will China’s nutrition overwhelm its health care system and sloe economic growth?

    PubMed Central

    Popkin, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid social and economic change is transforming China with enormous implications for its population and economy. China is a huge transition toward a country with over a fifth of adults being overweight with related dietary and physical activity patterns. Overweight and poor diets are shifting to be a greater burden for the poor with subsequent large increases in hypertension, stroke and adult onset diabetes. The related economic costs represent 4–8% of the economy. Public investments in China are needed to head off a huge increase in the morbidity, disability, absenteeism and medical care costs linked with this nutritional shift. PMID:18607042

  11. Phenotypic plasticity in growth and fecundity induced by strong population fluctuations affects reproductive traits of female fish.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Juha; Urpanen, Olli; Keskinen, Tapio; Huuskonen, Hannu; Sarvala, Jouko; Valkeajärvi, Pentti; Marjomäki, Timo J

    2016-02-01

    Fish are known for their high phenotypic plasticity in life-history traits in relation to environmental variability, and this is particularly pronounced among salmonids in the Northern Hemisphere. Resource limitation leads to trade-offs in phenotypic plasticity between life-history traits related to the reproduction, growth, and survival of individual fish, which have consequences for the age and size distributions of populations, as well as their dynamics and productivity. We studied the effect of plasticity in growth and fecundity of vendace females on their reproductive traits using a series of long-term incubation experiments. The wild parental fish originated from four separate populations with markedly different densities, and hence naturally induced differences in their growth and fecundity. The energy allocation to somatic tissues and eggs prior to spawning served as a proxy for total resource availability to individual females, and its effects on offspring survival and growth were analyzed. Vendace females allocated a rather constant proportion of available energy to eggs (per body mass) despite different growth patterns depending on the total resources in the different lakes; investment into eggs thus dictated the share remaining for growth. The energy allocation to eggs per mass was higher in young than in old spawners and the egg size and the relative fecundity differed between them: Young females produced more and smaller eggs and larvae than old spawners. In contrast to earlier observations of salmonids, a shortage of maternal food resources did not increase offspring size and survival. Vendace females in sparse populations with ample resources and high growth produced larger eggs and larvae. Vendace accommodate strong population fluctuations by their high plasticity in growth and fecundity, which affect their offspring size and consequently their recruitment and productivity, and account for their persistence and resilience in the face of high

  12. Does temperature and oxygen affect duration of intramarsupial development and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Malacostraca)?

    PubMed Central

    Horváthová, Terézia; Antol, Andrzej; Czarnoleski, Marcin; Kramarz, Paulina; Bauchinger, Ulf; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozłowski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract According to the temperature-size rule (TSR), ectotherms developing under cold conditions experience slower growth as juveniles but reach a larger size at maturity. Whether temperature alone causes this phenomenon is unknown, but oxygen limitation can play a role in the temperature-size relationship. Oxygen may become limited under warm conditions when the resulting higher metabolism creates a greater demand for oxygen, especially in larger individuals. We examined the independent effects of oxygen concentration (10% and 22% O2) and temperature (15 °C and 22 °C) on duration of ontogenic development, which takes place within the maternal brood pouch (marsupium), and juvenile growth in the terrestrial isopod common rough woodlouse (Porcellio scaber). Individuals inside the marsupium undergo the change from the aqueous to the gaseous environment. Under hypoxia, woodlice hatched from the marsupium sooner, but their subsequent growth was not affected by the level of oxygen. Marsupial development and juvenile growth were almost three times slower at low temperature, and marsupial development was longer in larger females but only in the cold treatment. These results show that temperature and oxygen are important ecological factors affecting developmental time and that the strength of the effect likely depends on the availability of oxygen in the environment. PMID:26261441

  13. Collaborative Project: Understanding the Chemical Processes tat Affect Growth rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles

    SciTech Connect

    McMurry, Peter; Smuth, James

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate.

  14. Propagule size and predispersal damage by insects affect establishment and early growth of mangrove seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Wayne P; Kennedy, Peter G; Mitchell, Betsy J

    2003-05-01

    Variation in rates of seedling recruitment, growth, and survival can strongly influence the rate and course of forest regeneration following disturbance. Using a combination of field sampling and shadehouse experiments, we investigated the influence of propagule size and predispersal insect damage on the establishment and early growth of the three common mangrove species on the Caribbean coast of Panama: Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle. In our field samples, all three species exhibited considerable intraspecific variation in mature propagule size, and suffered moderate to high levels of predispersal attack by larval insects. Rates of insect attack were largely independent of propagule size both within and among trees. Our experimental studies using undamaged mature propagules showed that, for all three species, seedlings established at high rates regardless of propagule size. However, propagule size did have a marked effect on early seedling growth: seedlings that developed from larger propagules grew more rapidly. Predispersal insect infestations that had destroyed or removed a substantial amount of tissue, particularly if that tissue was meristematic or conductive, reduced the establishment of propagules of all three species. The effect of sublethal tissue damage or loss on the subsequent growth of established seedlings varied among the three mangrove species. For Avicennia, the growth response was graded: for a propagule of a given size, the more tissue lost, the slower the growth of the seedling. For Laguncularia, the response to insect attack appeared to be all-or-none. If the boring insect penetrated the outer spongy seed coat and reached the developing embryo, it usually caused sufficient damage to prevent a seedling from developing. On the other hand, if the insect damaged but did not penetrate the seed coat, a completely healthy seedling developed and its growth rate was indistinguishable from a seedling developing from an

  15. Elevated pressure of carbon dioxide affects growth of thermophilic Petrotoga sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Gniese, Claudia; Schippers, Axel; Schlömann, Michael; Krüger, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is considered a promising new technology which reduces carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere and thereby decelerates global warming. During CCS, carbon dioxide is captured from emission sources (e.g. fossil fuel power plants or other industries), pressurised, and finally stored in deep geological formations, such as former gas or oil reservoirs as well as saline aquifers. However, with CCS being a very young technology, there are a number of unknown factors that need to be investigated before declaring CCS as being safe. Our research investigates the effect of high carbon dioxide concentrations and pressures on an indigenous microorganism that colonises a potential storage site. Growth experiments were conducted using the thermophilic thiosulphate-reducing bacterium Petrotoga sp., isolated from formation water of the gas reservoir Schneeren (Lower Saxony, Germany), situated in the Northern German Plain. Growth (OD600) was monitored over one growth cycle (10 days) at different carbon dioxide concentrations (50%, 100%, and 150% in the gas phase), and was compared to control cultures grown with 20% carbon dioxide. An additional growth experiment was performed over a period of 145 days with repeated subcultivation steps in order to detect long-term effects of carbon dioxide. Cultivation over 10 days at 50% and 100% carbon dioxide slightly reduced cell growth. In contrast, long-term cultivation at 150% carbon dioxide reduced cell growth and finally led to cell death. This suggested a more pronounced effect of carbon dioxide at prolonged cultivation and stresses the need for a closer consideration of long-term effects. Experiments with supercritical carbon dioxide at 100 bar completely inhibited growth of freshly inoculated cultures and also caused a rapid decrease of growth of a pre-grown culture. This demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide had a sterilising effect on cells. This effect was not observed in control cultures

  16. 'A Federal-State Partnership for Economic Growth.' Fourth Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Four Corners Regional Commission, Farmington, NM.

    The Four Corners Regional Commission (FCRC) is a state-Federal partnership, the purpose of which is to initiate long-range planning, provide data for specific plans, promote private investment, promote legislation, establish plans and program priorities, and initiate and coordinate economic developmental districts in 92 counties in Arizona,…

  17. Partners in Growth: Business-Higher Education Development Strategies. Education-Economic Development Series, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Peter H.; Brisson, Candice

    Strategies to facilitate better cooperation between business and higher education institutions are explored with a focus on policies that colleges, businesses, and public policy makers can implement to utilize educational resources for economic development. Consideration is given to: developing informal university-industry networks, universities…

  18. Beyond Economic Growth: Meeting the Challenges of Global Development. WBI Learning Resources Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubbotina, Tatyana P.

    This book is designed primarily to help readers broaden their knowledge of global issues, gain insight into their country's situation in a global context, and understand the problems of sustainable development nationally and globally. Because development is a comprehensive process involving economic as well as social and environmental changes, the…

  19. Economic Growth, Productivity, and Public Education Funding: Is South Carolina a Death Spiral State?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Lisa G.; Knoeppel, Robert C.; Della Sala, Matthew R.; Watson, Jim R.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the Great Recession of 2007-2009, most states experienced declines in employment, consumer spending, and economic productivity (Alm, Buschman, and Sjoquist 2011). In turn, these events led to historic declines in state tax revenues (Mikesell and Mullins 2010; Boyd and Dadayan 2009), resulting in major cuts in public spending. Local…

  20. Runoff nutrient transport as affected by land application method, swine growth stage, and runoff rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to measure the effects of slurry application method, swine growth stage, and flow rate on runoff nutrient transport. Swine slurry was obtained from production units containing grower pigs, finisher pigs, or sows and gilts. The swine slurry was applied using broadcast, disk, ...

  1. Propagation container and timing of propagation affects growth and quality of oak seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the container effect and the timeline of seed propagation on germination and subsequent shoot and root development for container-grown oaks. Quercus nigra and Q. texana had equal or better growth and better root ratings when acorns were sown in Anderson t...

  2. Luciferase expression and bioluminescence does not affect tumor cell growth in vitro or in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tiffen, Jessamy C; Bailey, Charles G; Ng, Cynthia; Rasko, John E J; Holst, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Live animal imaging is becoming an increasingly common technique for accurate and quantitative assessment of tumor burden over time. Bioluminescence imaging systems rely on a bioluminescent signal from tumor cells, typically generated from expression of the firefly luciferase gene. However, previous reports have suggested that either a high level of luciferase or the resultant light reaction produced upon addition of D-luciferin substrate can have a negative influence on tumor cell growth. To address this issue, we designed an expression vector that allows simultaneous fluorescence and luminescence imaging. Using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), we generated clonal cell populations from a human breast cancer (MCF-7) and a mouse melanoma (B16-F10) cell line that stably expressed different levels of luciferase. We then compared the growth capabilities of these clones in vitro by MTT proliferation assay and in vivo by bioluminescence imaging of tumor growth in live mice. Surprisingly, we found that neither the amount of luciferase nor biophotonic activity was sufficient to inhibit tumor cell growth, in vitro or in vivo. These results suggest that luciferase toxicity is not a necessary consideration when designing bioluminescence experiments, and therefore our approach can be used to rapidly generate high levels of luciferase expression for sensitive imaging experiments. PMID:21092230

  3. Seed Production Affects Maternal Growth and Senescence in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Matthias Anton; Guthörl, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Correlative control (influence of one organ over another organ) of seeds over maternal growth is one of the most obvious phenotypic expressions of the trade-off between growth and reproduction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we characterize the physiological and molecular effects of correlative inhibition by seeds on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescences, i.e. global proliferative arrest (GPA) during which all maternal growth ceases upon the production of a given number of seeds. We observed transcriptional responses to growth- and branching-inhibitory hormones, and low mitotic activity in meristems upon GPA, but found that meristems retain their identity and proliferative potential. In shoot tissues, we detected the induction of stress- and senescence-related gene expression upon fruit production and GPA, and a drop in chlorophyll levels, suggestive of altered source-sink relationships between vegetative shoot and reproductive tissues. Levels of shoot reactive oxygen species, however, strongly decreased upon GPA, a phenomenon that is associated with bud dormancy in some perennials. Indeed, gene expression changes in arrested apical inflorescences after fruit removal resembled changes observed in axillary buds following release from apical dominance. This suggests that GPA represents a form of bud dormancy, and that dominance is gradually transferred from growing inflorescences to maturing seeds, allowing offspring control over maternal resources, simultaneously restricting offspring number. This would provide a mechanistic explanation for the constraint between offspring quality and quantity. PMID:27009281

  4. Study of factors affecting growth and cold acclimation of Vitis callus cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, L.

    1987-01-01

    In vitro grape tissue culture initiation, growth, and cold acclimation were studied. Factors involved were genotypes, media, plant growth regulators, age, light, temperature, antioxidant, clearing and adsorbing agents, sucrose level, osmotic potential, ABA, chilling and freezing treatments. Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 1 ..mu..M 2,4-d + 0.1 uM Ba, MS containing 1 uM 2,4-D, and woody plant medium containing 1 uM 2,4-D + 0.1 uM BA produced abundant callus tissue for most grape genotypes; either WPM or MS containing 1 uM BA stimulated shoot growth in all the 12 genotypes tested. Adding 1 uM abscisic acid (ABA) to the B5 medium with 1 uM 2,4-D and 0.5 uM BA enhanced growth and quality of Chancellor callus. /sup 3/H-ABA was taken up actively by callus tissue at 12 days after subculture, but by 20 d this effect disappeared. When /sup 14/C-sucrose was added to the medium. /sup 14/C level of cells reached a plateau after 48 h; this plateau was higher if ABA was also present in the medium. Cells on media containing ABA were larger in size, lighter in color, and more loosely connected.

  5. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  6. Does Year Round Schooling Affect the Outcome and Growth of California's API Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examined whether year round schooling (YRS) in California had an effect upon the outcome and growth of schools' Academic Performance Index (API) scores. While many previous studies had examined the connection between YRS and academic achievement, most had lacked the statistical rigour required to provide reliable interpretations. As a…

  7. Lysine supplementation of commercial fishmeal-free diet in hybrid striped bass affect growth expression genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substitution of fishmeal with alternate proteins in aquafeeds often results in dietary imbalances of first-limiting essential amino acids (EAA) and poorer fish performance. Previously, we conducted a growth trial to test the hypothesis that ideal protein theory accurately predicts first-limiting ami...

  8. A mutation affecting carbon catabolite repression suppresses growth defects in pyruvate carboxylase mutants from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Blázquez, M A; Gamo, F J; Gancedo, C

    1995-12-18

    Yeasts with disruptions in the genes PYC1 and PYC2 encoding the isoenzymes of pyruvate carboxylase cannot grow in a glucose-ammonium medium (Stucka et al. (1991) Mol. Gen. Genet. 229, 307-315). We have isolated a dominant mutation, BPC1-1, that allows growth in this medium of yeasts with interrupted PYC1 and PYC2 genes. The BPC1-1 mutation abolishes catabolite repression of a series of genes and allows expression of the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle during growth in glucose. A functional glyoxylate cycle is necessary for suppression as a disruption of gene ICL1 encoding isocitrate lyase abolished the phenotypic effect of BPC1-1 on growth in glucose-ammonium. Concurrent expression from constitutive promoters of genes ICL1 and MLS1 (encoding malate synthase) also suppressed the growth phenotype of pyc1 pyc2 mutants. The mutation BPC1-1 is either allelic or closely linked to the mutation DGT1-1. PMID:8543050

  9. The Ecology of Technological Progress: How Symbiosis and Competition Affect the Growth of Technology Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnabuci, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    We show that the progress of technological knowledge is an inherently ecological process, wherein the growth rate of each technology domain depends on dynamics occurring in "other" technology domains. We identify two sources of ecological interdependence among technology domains. First, there are symbiotic interdependencies, implying that the rate…

  10. Stocker growth on rye and ryegrass pastures affects subsequent feedlot gains and carcass traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stocker calves were stocked on annual rye (Secale cereale L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures using stocking strategies (STK) to create graded levels of gain to assess subsequent growth rates, feedlot performance, and carcass traits. During two consecutive years, yearling Angus, Here...

  11. A chloroplast-localized protein LESION AND LAMINA BENDING affects defence and growth responses in rice.

    PubMed

    Tamiru, Muluneh; Takagi, Hiroki; Abe, Akira; Yokota, Takao; Kanzaki, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Haruko; Saitoh, Hiromasa; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Fujisaki, Koki; Oikawa, Kaori; Uemura, Aiko; Natsume, Satoshi; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Umemura, Kenji; Terry, Matthew J; Terauchi, Ryohei

    2016-06-01

    Understanding how plants allocate their resources to growth or defence is of long-term importance to the development of new and improved varieties of different crops. Using molecular genetics, plant physiology, hormone analysis and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS)-based transcript profiling, we have isolated and characterized the rice (Oryza sativa) LESION AND LAMINA BENDING (LLB) gene that encodes a chloroplast-targeted putative leucine carboxyl methyltransferase. Loss of LLB function results in reduced growth and yield, hypersensitive response (HR)-like lesions, accumulation of the antimicrobial compounds momilactones and phytocassanes, and constitutive expression of pathogenesis-related genes. Consistent with these defence-associated responses, llb shows enhanced resistance to rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae). The lesion and resistance phenotypes are likely to be caused by the over-accumulation of jasmonates (JAs) in the llb mutant including the JA precursor 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid. Additionally, llb shows an increased lamina inclination and enhanced early seedling growth due to elevated brassinosteroid (BR) synthesis and/or signalling. These findings show that LLB functions in the chloroplast to either directly or indirectly repress both JA- and BR-mediated responses, revealing a possible mechanism for controlling how plants allocate resources for defence and growth. PMID:26864209

  12. Does the introduced brook trout ( Salvelinus fontinalis) affect growth of the native brown trout ( Salmo trutta)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsu, Kai; Huusko, Ari; Muotka, Timo

    2009-03-01

    Non-native brook trout have become widely established in North European streams. We combined evidence from an artificial-stream experiment and drainage-scale field surveys to examine whether brook trout suppressed the growth of the native brown trout (age 0 to age 2). Our experimental results demonstrated that brown trout were unaffected by the presence of brook trout but that brook trout showed reduced growth in the presence of brown trout. However, the growth reduction only appeared in the experimental setting, indicating that the reduced spatial constraint of the experimental system may have forced the fish to unnaturally intense interactions. Indeed, in the field, no effect of either species on the growth of the putative competitor was detected. These results caution against uncritical acceptance of findings from small-scale experiments because they rarely scale up to more complex field situations. This and earlier work suggest that the establishment of brook trout in North European streams has taken place mainly because of the availability of unoccupied (or underutilized) niche space, rather than as a result of species trait combinations or interspecific competition per se.

  13. Factors affecting growth and survival of the asiatic clam Corbicula sp. under controlled laboratory conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Double, D.D.; Daly, D.S.; Abernethy, C.S.

    1983-04-01

    Growth of Corbicula sp. was determined in relation to food supply, water temperature, and clam size as an aid to researchers conducting chronic effects toxicity studies. Water temperatures for the two 84-day test series were 10, 20, and 30/sup 0/C. Linear models provided good relationships (r/sup 2/ > 0.90) between clam shell length (SL), total weight (TW), and wet/dry tissue weights. Clam growth was minimal during low phytoplankton densities (approx. 300 cells/ml), and all three size groups lost weight at 20 and 30/sup 0/C. Mortality of small clams at 30/sup 0/C was 100% after 71 days. At phytoplankton densities > 1000 cells/ml, overall differences in growth with respect to clam size and temperature were detectable at p < 0.01; growth of all clam groups was greatest at 30/sup 0/C. Small clams exhibited the greatest absolute increase in mean shell length at all test temperatures, and weight gains were similar to those of medium and large clams.

  14. Rate of Physical Growth and Its Affect on Head Start Children's Motor and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    In the United States, growth retardation is higher among low-income children, with adverse cognitive effects of undernutrition more prevalent when combined with poverty. This study examined anthropometric indicators of physical development and their relationship to motor and cognitive development in Head Start children. Motor integration and…

  15. Induction of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 under different growth conditions can affect Salmonella–host cell interactions in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, J. Antonio; Knodler, Leigh A.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Carmody, Aaron B.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Porcella, Stephen F.; Steele-Mortimer, Olivia

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella invade non-phagocytic cells by inducing massive actin rearrangements, resulting in membrane ruffle formation and phagocytosis of the bacteria. This process is mediated by a cohort of effector proteins translocated into the host cell by type III secretion system 1, which is encoded by genes in the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI) 1 regulon. This network is precisely regulated and must be induced outside of host cells. In vitro invasive Salmonella are prepared by growth in synthetic media although the details vary. Here, we show that culture conditions affect the frequency, and therefore invasion efficiency, of SPI1-induced bacteria and also can affect the ability of Salmonella to adapt to its intracellular niche following invasion. Aerobically grown late-exponential-phase bacteria were more invasive and this was associated with a greater frequency of SPI1-induced, motile bacteria, as revealed by single-cell analysis of gene expression. Culture conditions also affected the ability of Salmonella to adapt to the intracellular environment, since they caused marked differences in intracellular replication. These findings show that induction of SPI1 under different pre-invasion growth conditions can affect the ability of Salmonella to interact with eukaryotic host cells. PMID:20035008

  16. Growth of and fumitremorgin production by Neosartorya fischeri as affected by temperature, light, and water activity.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, P V; Beuchat, L R; Frisvad, J C

    1988-01-01

    The effects of temperature, light, and water activity (aw) on the growth and fumitremorgin production of a heat-resistant mold, Neosartorya fischeri, cultured on Czapek Yeast Autolysate agar (CYA) were studied for incubation periods of up to 74 days. Colonies were examined visually, and extracts of mycelia and CYA on which the mold was cultured were analyzed for mycotoxin content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Growth always resulted in the production of the tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgins A and C. The optimum temperatures for the production of verruculogen and fumitremorgins A and C on CYA at pH 7.0 were 25, 30, and 37 degrees C, respectively. The production of fumitremorgin C by N. fischeri has not been previously reported. Fumitremorgin production was retarded at 15 degrees C, but an extension of the incubation period resulted in concentrations approaching those observed at 25 degrees C. Light clearly enhanced fumitremorgin production on CYA (pH 7.0, 25 degrees C), but not as dramatically as did the addition of glucose, fructose, or sucrose to CYA growth medium (pH 3.5, 25 degrees C). Growth and fumitremorgin production was greatest at aw of 0.980 on CYA supplemented with glucose or fructose and at aw of 0.990 on CYA supplemented with sucrose. Growth and fumitremorgin production were observed at aw as low as 0.925 on glucose-supplemented CYA but not at aw lower than 0.970 on CYA supplemented with sucrose. Verruculogen was produced in the highest amount on all test media, followed by fumitremorgin A and fumitremorgin C. PMID:3415223

  17. Growth of and fumitremorgin production by Neosartorya fischeri as affected by temperature, light, and water activity.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, P V; Beuchat, L R; Frisvad, J C

    1988-06-01

    The effects of temperature, light, and water activity (aw) on the growth and fumitremorgin production of a heat-resistant mold, Neosartorya fischeri, cultured on Czapek Yeast Autolysate agar (CYA) were studied for incubation periods of up to 74 days. Colonies were examined visually, and extracts of mycelia and CYA on which the mold was cultured were analyzed for mycotoxin content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Growth always resulted in the production of the tremorgenic mycotoxins verruculogen and fumitremorgins A and C. The optimum temperatures for the production of verruculogen and fumitremorgins A and C on CYA at pH 7.0 were 25, 30, and 37 degrees C, respectively. The production of fumitremorgin C by N. fischeri has not been previously reported. Fumitremorgin production was retarded at 15 degrees C, but an extension of the incubation period resulted in concentrations approaching those observed at 25 degrees C. Light clearly enhanced fumitremorgin production on CYA (pH 7.0, 25 degrees C), but not as dramatically as did the addition of glucose, fructose, or sucrose to CYA growth medium (pH 3.5, 25 degrees C). Growth and fumitremorgin production was greatest at aw of 0.980 on CYA supplemented with glucose or fructose and at aw of 0.990 on CYA supplemented with sucrose. Growth and fumitremorgin production were observed at aw as low as 0.925 on glucose-supplemented CYA but not at aw lower than 0.970 on CYA supplemented with sucrose. Verruculogen was produced in the highest amount on all test media, followed by fumitremorgin A and fumitremorgin C. PMID:3415223

  18. Local and global bifurcations in an economic growth model with endogenous labour supply and multiplicative external habits.

    PubMed

    Gori, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the mathematical properties of an economic growth model with overlapping generations, endogenous labour supply, and multiplicative external habits. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a two-dimensional map describing the time evolution of capital and labour supply. We show that if the relative importance of external habits in the utility function is sufficiently high, multiple (determinate or indeterminate) fixed points and poverty traps can exist. In addition, periodic or quasiperiodic behaviour and/or coexistence of attractors may occur. PMID:24697384

  19. Local and global bifurcations in an economic growth model with endogenous labour supply and multiplicative external habits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Luca; Sodini, Mauro

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyses the mathematical properties of an economic growth model with overlapping generations, endogenous labour supply, and multiplicative external habits. The dynamics of the economy is characterised by a two-dimensional map describing the time evolution of capital and labour supply. We show that if the relative importance of external habits in the utility function is sufficiently high, multiple (determinate or indeterminate) fixed points and poverty traps can exist. In addition, periodic or quasiperiodic behaviour and/or coexistence of attractors may occur.

  20. Geotechnical studies for evaluation and limitations of environmental and engineering hazards that affect the economic infrastructure in Abha, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, Fathy; Al-Salami, Ali E.

    2014-12-01

    Abha is the capital of Asir province in Saudi Arabia. It is situated 2200 meters (7200 ft) above the sea level in the fertile mountains of the south-western Saudi Arabia. One of the most important structures of this region is Abha dam that acts as a barrier that impounds water or underground streams thereby retaining the ground water of the region. With the passage of time, various environmental factors such as ground movement, wind and changes in temperature may have significant effect on these various structure factors and may lead to invisible cracks and other structural defects. Because the dams and tunnels are prone to sudden collapse, there is potential great risk to lives of the people and significant economic loss in this area. The use of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electric resistivity techniques is a non-invasive scan and could assess the conditions of various built structures as well as the earth beneath or surrounding it. So the GPR system with appropriate types of antennas (1.5 GH, 1 GH, 400 MH and 100 MH) and electrical resistivity in one dimension (VES) and two dimensions (electrical profiling and imaging) is used in this work. This work aims to investigate the dam structure, developing cracks or areas of increased moisture. Also to study the surrounding areas to detect seepage from pond that may affect nearby buildings and the dam itself. It reveals that, the depth of water bearing layer ranges from 2 m to 10 m, where the three geoelectric layers are present. The first layer has resistivity values ranging from 44 Ω m-1200 Ω m with thickness ranging from 3 m to 18 m that is interpreted as the wadi deposits. The second layer having resistivity values from 11 Ω m to 137 Ω m is interpreted as the water saturated in the fractured basements. The third layer of resistivity values ranging from 2200 Ω m to 90,000 Ω m is interpreted as dry, massive basements. The GPR results provided internal images of the slab, showing its morphology, areas

  1. Measuring the Affective and Cognitive Growth of Regularly Admitted and Developmental Studies Students Using the "Learning and Study Strategies Inventory" (LASSI).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates the utility and predictive validity of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) as a means of measuring college students' cognitive and affective growth following a study strategies course. Finds cognitive and affective growth in both regularly admitted and developmental studies students. Finds that LASSI cannot yet be used…

  2. Patchy Distributions of Competitors Affect the Growth of a Clonal Plant When the Competitor Density Is High

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wei; Huang, Lin; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Environments are patchy in not only abiotic factors but also biotic ones. Many studies have examined effects of spatial heterogeneity in abiotic factors such as light, water and nutrients on the growth of clonal plants, but few have tested those in biotic factors. We conducted a greenhouse experiment to examine how patchy distributions of competitors affect the growth of a rhizomatous wetland plant Bolboschoenus planiculmis and whether such effects depend on the density of the competitors. We grew one ramet of B. planiculmis in the center of each of the experimental boxes without competitors (Schoenoplectus triqueter), with a homogeneous distribution of the competitors of low or high density, and with a patchy distribution of the competitors of low or high density. The presence of competitors markedly decreased the growth (biomass, number of ramets, number of tubers and rhizome length) of the B. planiculmis clones. When the density of the competitors was low, the growth of B. planiculmis did not differ significantly between the competitor patches and competitor-free patches. However, when the density of the competitors was high, the growth of B. planiculmis was significantly higher in the competitor-free patches than in the competitor patches. Therefore, B. planiculmis can respond to patchy distributions of competitors by placing more ramets in competition-free patches when the density of competitors is high, but cannot do so when the density of competitors is low. PMID:24205165

  3. Neonatal and fetal exposure to trans-fatty acid retards early growth and adiposity while adversely affecting glucose in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Sajadian, Soraya; Jenkins, Kurt A.; Wilson, Martha D.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Wagner, Janice D.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs) consumed in western diets are incorporated into maternal and fetal tissues, and are passed linearly to offspring via breast milk. We hypothesized that TFA exposure in utero and during lactation in infants would promote obesity and poor glycemic control as compared to unmodified fatty acids. We further hypothesized that in utero exposure alone may program for these outcomes in adulthood. To test this hypothesis we fed female C57/BL6 mice identical western diets that differed only in cis- or trans-isomers of C18:1 and then aimed to determine whether maternal transfer of TFAs through pregnancy and lactation alters growth, body composition and glucose metabolism. Mice were unexposed, exposed during pregnancy, during lactation, or throughout pregnancy and lactation to TFA. Body weight and composition (by computed tomography), and glucose metabolism we assessed at weaning and adulthood. TFA exposure through breast milk caused significant early growth retardation (p<0.001) and higher fasting glucose (p=0.01) but insulin sensitivity was not different. Elevated plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in mice consuming TFA-enriched milk (p=0.02) may contribute to later catch-up growth, leanness and preserved peripheral insulin sensitivity observed in these mice. Mice exposed to TFA in utero underwent rapid early neonatal growth with TFA-free breast milk and had significantly impaired insulin sensitivity (p<0.05) and greater abdominal fat (p=0.01). We conclude that very early catch-up growth resulted in impaired peripheral insulin sensitivity in this model of diet-related fetal and neonatal programming. TFA surprisingly retarded growth and adiposity while still adversely affecting glucose metabolism. PMID:20650350

  4. Submerged Conidiation and Product Formation by Aspergillus niger at Low Specific Growth Rates Are Affected in Aerial Developmental Mutants ▿

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Thomas R.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Arentshorst, Mark; Park, JooHae; van den Hondel, Cees A.; Frisvad, Jens C.; Ram, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to an aerial environment or severe nutrient limitation induces asexual differentiation in filamentous fungi. Submerged cultivation of Aspergillus niger in carbon- and energy-limited retentostat cultures both induces and fuels conidiation. Physiological and transcriptomic analyses have revealed that this differentiation strongly affects product formation. Since conidiation is inherent in the aerial environment, we hypothesized that product formation near zero growth can be influenced by affecting differentiation or development of aerial hyphae in general. To investigate this idea, three developmental mutants (ΔfwnA, scl-1, and scl-2 mutants) that have no apparent vegetative growth defects were cultured in maltose-limited retentostat cultures. The secondary-metabolite profile of the wild-type strain defined flavasperone, aurasperone B, tensidol B, and two so far uncharacterized compounds as associated with conidium formation, while fumonisins B2, B4, and B6 were characteristic of early response to nutrient limitation by the vegetative mycelium. The developmental mutants responded differently to the severe substrate limitation, which resulted in distinct profiles of growth and product formation. fwnA encodes the polyketide synthase responsible for melanin biosynthesis during aerial differentiation, and we show that conidial melanin synthesis in submerged retentostat cultures and aurasperone B production are fwnA dependent. The scl-1 and scl-2 strains are two UV mutants generated in the ΔfwnA background that displayed reduced asexual conidiation and formed sclerotium-like structures on agar plates. The reduced conidiation phenotypes of the scl-1 and scl-2 strains are reflected in the retentostat cultivation and are accompanied by elimination or severely reduced accumulation of secondary metabolites and distinctly enhanced accumulation of extracellular protein. This investigation shows that submerged conidiation and product formation of a mitosporic fungus

  5. Watermelon seedling growth and mortality as affected by Anasa tristis (Heteroptera: Coreidae).

    PubMed

    Edelson, J V; Duthie, J; Roberts, W

    2002-06-01

    Adult squash bugs, Anasa tristis (De Geer), were confined on seedling watermelon plants at densities of zero, one, two, and four per plant. Squash bugs were allowed to feed on the plants until plants died or reached 30 cm in height. Number of leaves and length of plant vine were recorded at 2- or 3-d intervals. Seedling foliage, stems, and roots were harvested and dried after plants reached 30 cm in height. Growth of seedlings was regressed on number of squash bugs and results indicated that an increasing density of squash bugs feeding on seedlings resulted in a significant reduction in plant growth. Additionally, increased density of squash bugs resulted in reduced weight of foliage and root dry biomass. Seedling mortality increased as the density of squash bugs increased. PMID:12076005

  6. Infrared warming affects intrarow soil carbon dioxide efflux during early vegetative growth of spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global warming will likely affect carbon cycles in agricultural soils. Our objective was to deploy infrared (IR) warming to characterize the effect of global warming on soil temperature (Ts), volumetric soil-water content ('s), and intrarow soil CO2 efflux (Fs) of an open-field spring wheat (Triticu...

  7. Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Koch, G.W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Factors that affect postnatal bone growth retardation in the twitcher murine model of Krabbe disease

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Miguel Agustin; Ries, William Louis; Shanmugarajan, Srinivasan; Arboleda, Gonzalo; Singh, Inderjit; Singh, Avtar Kaur

    2010-01-01

    Krabbe disease is an inherited lysosomal disorder in which galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) accumulates mainly in the central nervous system. To gain insight into the possible mechanism(s) that may be participating in the inhibition of the postnatal somatic growth described in the animal model of this disease (twitcher mouse, twi), we studied their femora. This study reports that twi femora are smaller than of those of wild type (wt), and present with abnormality of marrow cellularity, bone deposition (osteoblastic function), and osteoclastic activity. Furthermore, lipidomic analysis indicates altered sphingolipid homeostasis, but without significant changes in the levels of sphingolipid-derived intermediates of cell death (ceramide) or the levels of the osteoclast-osteoblast coupling factor (sphingosine-1-phosphate). However, there was significant accumulation of psychosine in the femora of adult twi animals as compared to wt, without induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha or interleukin-6. Analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plasma levels, a liver secreted hormone known to play a role in bone growth, indicated a drastic reduction in twi animals when compared to wt. To identify the cause of the decrease, we examined the IGF-1 mRNA expression and protein levels in the liver. The results indicated a significant reduction of IGF-1 mRNA as well as protein levels in the liver from twi as compared to wt littermates. Our data suggest that a combination of endogenous (psychosine) and endocrine (IGF-1) factors play a role in the inhibition of postnatal bone growth in twi mice; and further suggest that derangements of liver function may be contributing, at least in part, to this alteration. PMID:20441793

  9. Phosphorylation of Measles Virus Nucleoprotein Affects Viral Growth by Changing Gene Expression and Genomic RNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Sugai, Akihiro; Sato, Hiroki; Yoneda, Misako

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) nucleoprotein associates with the viral RNA genome to form the N-RNA complex, providing a template for viral RNA synthesis. In our previous study, major phosphorylation sites of the nucleoprotein were identified as S479 and S510. However, the functions of these phosphorylation sites have not been clarified. In this study, we rescued recombinant MVs (rMVs) whose phosphorylation sites in the nucleoprotein were substituted (rMV-S479A, rMV-S510A, and rMV-S479A/S510A) by reverse genetics and used them in subsequent analyses. In a one-step growth experiment, rMVs showed rapid growth kinetics compared with wild-type MV, although the peak titer of the wild-type MV was the same as or slightly higher than those of the rMVs. Time course analysis of nucleoprotein accumulation also revealed that viral gene expression of rMV was enhanced during the early phase of infection. These findings suggest that nucleoprotein phosphorylation has an important role in controlling viral growth rate through the regulation of viral gene expression. Conversely, multistep growth curves revealed that nucleoprotein-phosphorylation intensity inversely correlated with viral titer at the plateau phase. Additionally, the phosphorylation intensity of the wild-type nucleoprotein in infected cells was significantly reduced through nucleoprotein-phosphoprotein binding. Excessive nucleoprotein-phosphorylation resulted in lower stability against RNase and faster turnover of viral genomic RNA. These results suggest that nucleoprotein-phosphorylation is also involved in viral genomic RNA stability. PMID:23966404

  10. Longitudinal measures of circulating leptin and ghrelin concentrations are associated with the growth of young Peruvian children but are not affected by zinc supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Leptin, ghrelin and insulin are hormonal regulators of energy balance and, therefore, may be related to growth during infancy. Zinc is essential for growth and may have an effect on growth through these hormones. Objectives: To determine whether supplemental zinc affects plasma leptin an...

  11. Insights into Embryo Defenses of the Invasive Apple Snail Pomacea canaliculata: Egg Mass Ingestion Affects Rat Intestine Morphology and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, Eduardo J.; Heras, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Background The spread of the invasive snail Pomacea canaliculata is expanding the rat lungworm disease beyond its native range. Their toxic eggs have virtually no predators and unusual defenses including a neurotoxic lectin and a proteinase inhibitor, presumably advertised by a warning coloration. We explored the effect of egg perivitellin fluid (PVF) ingestion on the rat small intestine morphology and physiology. Methodology/Principal Findings Through a combination of biochemical, histochemical, histopathological, scanning electron microscopy, cell culture and feeding experiments, we analyzed intestinal morphology, growth rate, hemaglutinating activity, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation after oral administration of PVF to rats. PVF adversely affects small intestine metabolism and morphology and consequently the standard growth rate, presumably by lectin-like proteins, as suggested by PVF hemaglutinating activity and its cytotoxic effect on Caco-2 cell culture. Short-term effects of ingested PVF were studied in growing rats. PVF-supplemented diet induced the appearance of shorter and wider villi as well as fused villi. This was associated with changes in glycoconjugate expression, increased cell proliferation at crypt base, and hypertrophic mucosal growth. This resulted in a decreased absorptive surface after 3 days of treatment and a diminished rat growth rate that reverted to normal after the fourth day of treatment. Longer exposure to PVF induced a time-dependent lengthening of the small intestine while switching to a control diet restored intestine length and morphology after 4 days. Conclusions/Significance Ingestion of PVF rapidly limits the ability of potential predators to absorb nutrients by inducing large, reversible changes in intestinal morphology and growth rate. The occurrence of toxins that affect intestinal morphology and absorption is a strategy against predation not recognized among animals before. Remarkably, this defense is rather similar to

  12. Carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes negatively affect bacterial growth and denitrification activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Wei, Yuanyuan; Huang, Haining

    2014-07-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been used in a wide range of fields, and the surface modification via carboxyl functionalization can further improve their physicochemical properties. However, whether carboxyl-modified SWNT poses potential risks to microbial denitrification after its release into the environment remains unknown. Here we present the possible effects of carboxyl-modified SWNT on the growth and denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans (a model denitrifying bacterium). It was found that carboxyl-modified SWNT were present both outside and inside the bacteria, and thus induced bacterial growth inhibition at the concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/L. After 24 h of exposure, the final nitrate concentration in the presence of 50 mg/L carboxyl-modified SWNT was 21-fold higher than that in its absence, indicating that nitrate reduction was substantially suppressed by carboxyl-modified SWNT. The transcriptional profiling revealed that carboxyl-modified SWNT led to the transcriptional activation of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in response to DNA damage and also decreased the gene expressions involved in glucose metabolism and energy production, which was an important reason for bacterial growth inhibition. Moreover, carboxyl-modified SWNT caused the significant down-regulation and lower activity of nitrate reductase, which was consistent with the decreased efficiency of nitrate reduction.

  13. Carboxyl-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes negatively affect bacterial growth and denitrification activity

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Chen, Yinguang; Wan, Rui; Li, Mu; Wei, Yuanyuan; Huang, Haining

    2014-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been used in a wide range of fields, and the surface modification via carboxyl functionalization can further improve their physicochemical properties. However, whether carboxyl-modified SWNT poses potential risks to microbial denitrification after its release into the environment remains unknown. Here we present the possible effects of carboxyl-modified SWNT on the growth and denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans (a model denitrifying bacterium). It was found that carboxyl-modified SWNT were present both outside and inside the bacteria, and thus induced bacterial growth inhibition at the concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/L. After 24 h of exposure, the final nitrate concentration in the presence of 50 mg/L carboxyl-modified SWNT was 21-fold higher than that in its absence, indicating that nitrate reduction was substantially suppressed by carboxyl-modified SWNT. The transcriptional profiling revealed that carboxyl-modified SWNT led to the transcriptional activation of the genes encoding ribonucleotide reductase in response to DNA damage and also decreased the gene expressions involved in glucose metabolism and energy production, which was an important reason for bacterial growth inhibition. Moreover, carboxyl-modified SWNT caused the significant down-regulation and lower activity of nitrate reductase, which was consistent with the decreased efficiency of nitrate reduction. PMID:25008009

  14. How microRNA172 affects fruit growth in different species is dependent on fruit type.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Xu, Juan; Gleave, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    microRNA172 (miR172) expression has been shown to have a positive effect on Arabidopsis fruit (siliques) growth. In contrast, over-expression of miR172 has a negative influence on fruit growth in apple, resulting in a dramatic reduction in fruit size. This negative influence is supported by the results of analyzing a transposable element (TE) insertional allele of a MIR172 gene that has reduced expression of the miRNA and is associated with an increase in fruit size. Arabidopsis siliques are a dry fruit derived from ovary tissues, whereas apple is a fleshy pome fruit derived mostly from hypanthium tissues. A model has been developed to explain the contrasting impact of miR172 expression in these two plant species based on the differences in their fruit structure. Transgenic apple plants with extremely high levels of miR172 overexpression produced flowers consisting of carpel tissues only, which failed to produce fruit. By comparison, in tomato, a fleshy berry fruit derived from the ovary, high level over-expression of the same miR172 resulted in carpel-only flowers which developed into parthenocarpic fruit. These results further indicate that the influence of miR172 on fruit growth in different plant species depends on its fruit type. PMID:26926448

  15. Regulation of Expansin Gene Expression Affects Growth and Development in Transgenic Rice Plants

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dongsu; Lee, Yi; Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Kende, Hans

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the in vivo functions of expansins, we generated transgenic rice plants that express sense and antisense constructs of the expansin gene OsEXP4. In adult plants with constitutive OsEXP4 expression, 12% of overexpressors were taller and 88% were shorter than the average control plants, and most overexpressors developed at least two additional leaves. Antisense plants were shorter and flowered earlier than the average control plants. In transgenic plants with inducible OsEXP4 expression, we observed a close correlation between OsEXP4 protein levels and seedling growth. Coleoptile and mesocotyl length increased by up to 31 and 97%, respectively, in overexpressors, whereas in antisense seedlings, they decreased by up to 28 and 43%, respectively. The change in seedling growth resulted from corresponding changes in cell size, which in turn appeared to be a function of altered cell wall extensibility. Our results support the hypothesis that expansins are involved in enhancing growth by mediating cell wall loosening. PMID:12782731

  16. Nanoplastic affects growth of S. obliquus and reproduction of D. magna.

    PubMed

    Besseling, Ellen; Wang, Bo; Lürling, Miquel; Koelmans, Albert A

    2014-10-21

    The amount of nano- and microplastic in the aquatic environment rises due to the industrial production of plastic and the degradation of plastic into smaller particles. Concerns have been raised about their incorporation into food webs. Little is known about the fate and effects of nanoplastic, especially for the freshwater environment. In this study, effects of nano-polystyrene (nano-PS) on the growth and photosynthesis of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the growth, mortality, neonate production, and malformations of the zooplankter Daphnia magna were assessed. Nano-PS reduced population growth and reduced chlorophyll concentrations in the algae. Exposed Daphnia showed a reduced body size and severe alterations in reproduction. Numbers and body size of neonates were lower, while the number of neonate malformations among neonates rose to 68% of the individuals. These effects of nano-PS were observed between 0.22 and 103 mg nano-PS/L. Malformations occurred from 30 mg of nano-PS/L onward. Such plastic concentrations are much higher than presently reported for marine waters as well as freshwater, but may eventually occur in sediment pore waters. As far as we know, these results are the first to show that direct life history shifts in algae and Daphnia populations may occur as a result of exposure to nanoplastic. PMID:25268330

  17. Does trade affect child health?

    PubMed

    Levine, David I; Rothman, Dov

    2006-05-01

    Frankel and Romer [Frankel, J., Romer, D., 1999. Does trade cause growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379-399] documented positive effects of geographically determined trade openness on economic growth. At the same time, critics fear that openness can lead to a "race to the bottom" that increases pollution and reduces government resources for investments in health and education. We use Frankel and Romer's gravity model of trade to examine how openness to trade affects children. Overall, we find little harm from trade, and potential benefits largely through slightly faster GDP growth. PMID:16303196

  18. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01–0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20–20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  19. The Garlic Allelochemical Diallyl Disulfide Affects Tomato Root Growth by Influencing Cell Division, Phytohormone Balance and Expansin Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Tang, Xiangwei

    2016-01-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a volatile organosulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum L.), and it is known as an allelochemical responsible for the strong allelopathic potential of garlic. The anticancer properties of DADS have been studied in experimental animals and various types of cancer cells, but to date, little is known about its mode of action as an allelochemical at the cytological level. The current research presents further studies on the effects of DADS on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) seed germination, root growth, mitotic index, and cell size in root meristem, as well as the phytohormone levels and expression profile of auxin biosynthesis genes (FZYs), auxin transport genes (SlPINs), and expansin genes (EXPs) in tomato root. The results showed a biphasic, dose-dependent effect on tomato seed germination and root growth under different DADS concentrations. Lower concentrations (0.01-0.62 mM) of DADS significantly promoted root growth, whereas higher levels (6.20-20.67 mM) showed inhibitory effects. Cytological observations showed that the cell length of root meristem was increased and that the mitotic activity of meristematic cells in seedling root tips was enhanced at lower concentrations of DADS. In contrast, DADS at higher concentrations inhibited root growth by affecting both the length and division activity of meristematic cells. However, the cell width of the root meristem was not affected. Additionally, DADS increased the IAA and ZR contents of seedling roots in a dose-dependent manner. The influence on IAA content may be mediated by the up-regulation of FZYs and PINs. Further investigation into the underlying mechanism revealed that the expression levels of tomato EXPs were significantly affected by DADS. The expression levels of EXPB2 and beta-expansin precursor were increased after 3 d, and those of EXP1, EXPB3 and EXLB1 were increased after 5 d of DADS treatment (0.41 mM). This result suggests that tomato root growth may be

  20. Modeling Financial Innovation and Economic Growth: Why the Financial Sector Matters to the Real Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yuan K.

    2007-01-01

    The author devises a simple way of incorporating the financial sector into a growth model that is pedagogically useful. Financial innovation raises the efficiency of financial intermediation by increasing the variety of financial products and services, resulting in improved matching of the needs of individual savers with those of firms raising…

  1. Socio-Demographic Determinants of Economic Growth: Age-Structure, Preindustrial Heritage and Sociolinguistic Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crenshaw, Edward; Robison, Kristopher

    2010-01-01

    This study establishes a socio-demographic theory of international development derived from selected classical and contemporary sociological theories. Four hypotheses are tested: (1. population growth's effect on development depends on age-structure; (2. historic population density (used here as an indicator of preindustrial social complexity)…

  2. The Growth of International Students and Economic Development: Friends or Foes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adnett, Nick

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been a significant growth in the number of international students. In several developed countries the inflow of foreign tertiary students has become a significant source of income for higher education (HE) providers and the economy as a whole. This net inflow of foreign students has been indirectly and, more recently,…

  3. India--Karnataka: Secondary Education and The New Agenda for Economic Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashir, Sajitha

    Karnataka (India) recorded impressive growth in the 1990s, with state income growing at 8% per annum, driven largely by expansion of the industrial and service sectors. However, this impressive performance has not reduced rural poverty levels or regional disparities to a great extent. This report addresses three major concerns of policy makers in…

  4. Economics of growth regulator treatment of alfalfa seed for interseeding into silage corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...

  5. Female Education as a Determinant of Economic Growth: The Case Study of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatima, Goher

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of female education has been very important in the GDP growth of the country, but this very sector has been ignored by the Government. This paper focuses on the importance of female education and highlights its significance for national development. It also brings out some impediments, obstacles and barriers confronting female…

  6. Investigating impacts of economic growth on the environment using remote sensing tools: A case study of gross domestic product and net primary production in China from 2001 to 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Naizhuo

    study objectives, nighttime light images and LandScan gridded population data were used to disaggregate demographic GDP data reported at the province level to the pixel level. The disaggregated GDP data were integrated with MODIS annual NPP data to map joint changes of GDP and NPP from 2001 to 2007. Economic development and environmental change can lead to land cover change, and the land cover change can, in turn, determine the changes of NPP. Thus, a change detection matrix with basic land cover elements was produced from MODIS land cover type products to augment the analyses of changing patterns of GDP and NPP in China. To safely discern that the changes of NPP are mainly affected by anthropogenic factors and not natural forces, the extents of undeveloped, established developed (existing before 2001), and newly developed (emerging after 2001) areas were delimited from the nighttime light images. Results show that most Chinese developed areas experienced coupled increases in GDP and NPP between 2001 and 2007 across different geographic scales, but no significant correlations exist between the total changes (or percentage changes) in GDP and NPP at the province, the city, or the pixel level. Despite large increases in GDP, the decreases in vegetated land expected according to IPAT theory did not occur in developed areas. Instead, barren land markedly decreased and built-up land slightly decreased in extent. These changing patterns suggest that China's economic growth produced some positive impacts on its ecosystem production as measured using NPP. In light of these findings a reexamination of the IPAT theory is necessary. I propose a revision to the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) concept to fully illustrate the relationship between economic growth and ecosystem production as an indicator of environmental quality. According to the EKC, at relatively low levels of economic output, economic growth produces negative impacts on environmental quality. The negative impacts

  7. Dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hamisu Sadi; Law, Siong Hook; Zannah, Talha Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria based on autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach for the period of 1971-2011. The result shows that variables were cointegrated as null hypothesis was rejected at 1 % level of significance. The coefficients of long-run result reveal that urbanization does not have any significant impact on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria, economic growth, and energy consumption has a positive and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. However, trade openness has negative and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. Consumption of energy is among the main determinant of CO 2 emissions which is directly linked to the level of income. Despite the high level of urbanization in the country, consumption of energy still remains low due to lower income of the majority populace and this might be among the reasons why urbanization does not influence emissions of CO 2 in the country. Initiating more open economy policies will be welcoming in the Nigerian economy as the openness leads to the reduction of pollutants from the environment particularly CO 2 emissions which is the major gases that deteriorate physical environment. PMID:26983914

  8. Rice LGD1 containing RNA binding activity affects growth and development through alternative promoters.

    PubMed

    Thangasamy, Saminathan; Chen, Pei-Wei; Lai, Ming-Hsing; Chen, Jychian; Jauh, Guang-Yuh

    2012-07-01

    Tiller initiation and panicle development are important agronomical traits for grain production in Oryza sativa L. (rice), but their regulatory mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In this study, T-DNA mutant and RNAi transgenic approaches were used to functionally characterize a unique rice gene, LAGGING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 1 (LGD1). The lgd1 mutant showed slow growth, reduced tiller number and plant height, altered panicle architecture and reduced grain yield. The fewer unelongated internodes and cells in lgd1 led to respective reductions in tiller number and to semi-dwarfism. Several independent LGD1-RNAi lines exhibited defective phenotypes similar to those observed in lgd1. Interestingly, LGD1 encodes multiple transcripts with different transcription start sites (TSSs), which were validated by RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of 5' and 3' cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). Additionally, GUS assays and a luciferase promoter assay confirmed the promoter activities of LGD1.1 and LGD1.5. LGD1 encoding a von Willebrand factor type A (vWA) domain containing protein is a single gene in rice that is seemingly specific to grasses. GFP-tagged LGD1 isoforms were predominantly detected in the nucleus, and weakly in the cytoplasm. In vitro northwestern analysis showed the RNA-binding activity of the recombinant C-terminal LGD1 protein. Our results demonstrated that LGD1 pleiotropically regulated rice vegetative growth and development through both the distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns of its multiple transcripts and RNA binding activity. Hence, the study of LGD1 will strengthen our understanding of the molecular basis of the multiple transcripts, and their corresponding polypeptides with RNA binding activity, that regulate pleiotropic effects in rice. PMID:22409537

  9. Honokiol affects melanoma cell growth by targeting the AMPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Kwatra, Deep; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Jensen, Roy A.; Anant, Shrikant; Mammen, Joshua M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Malignant melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer with limited effective therapeutic options. Melanoma research concentrates on maximizing the effect on cancer cells with minimal toxicity to normal cells. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important regulator of cellular energy homeostasis and has been shown to control tumor progression regulating the cell cycle, protein synthesis and cell growth and/or survival. Honokiol (HNK) is a biphenolic compound derived from Magnolia officianalis, a plant that has been used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine for the treatment of various pathological conditions. Recent studies have shown that HNK has antitumor activity with relatively low toxicity. In this study we demonstrated that the growth inhibitory effects of HNK on melanoma and melanoma cancer stem cells (CSCs) was mediated through the activation of AMPK and hence AMPK signaling in melanoma cells. Methods We determined the effects of HNK treatment on various melanoma cell lines. HNK induced cell growth inhibitory effects were determined using hexosaminidase assay. Protein expression studies were done by immunoblotting. Primary spheroid assay was used to assess stemness by growing single suspension cells in ultra-low attachment plates. Results HNK is highly effective in inhibiting melanoma cells by attenuating AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin and AMPK signaling. HNK showed significant inhibition of the spheroid forming capacity of melanoma cells and, hence, stemness. HNK significantly decreased the number and size of melanospheres in a dose dependent manner. Western blot analyses showed enhanced phosphorylation of AMPK in melanoma cells. Furthermore, HNK decreased the cellular ATP pool in a dose-dependent manner with maximum effects observed at 48 h. Conclusion The results suggest that HNK can target melanoma cells and mark them for cell death through AMPK signaling. Further studies are warranted for developing HNK as an effective

  10. Mutations in NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase of Escherichia coli affect growth on mixed amino acids.

    PubMed Central

    Prüss, B M; Nelms, J M; Park, C; Wolfe, A J

    1994-01-01

    We isolated and characterized mutants defective in nuo, encoding NADH dehydrogenase I, the multisubunit complex homologous to eucaryotic mitochondrial complex I. By Southern hybridization and/or sequence analysis, we characterized three distinct mutations: a polar insertion designated nuoG::Tn10-1, a nonpolar insertion designated nuoF::Km-1, and a large deletion designated delta(nuoFGHIJKL)-1. Cells carrying any of these three mutations exhibited identical phenotypes. Each mutant exhibited reduced NADH oxidase activity, grew poorly on minimal salts medium containing acetate as the sole carbon source, and failed to produce the inner, L-aspartate chemotactic band on tryptone swarm plates. During exponential growth in tryptone broth, nuo mutants grew as rapidly as wild-type cells and excreted similar amounts of acetate into the medium. As they began the transition to stationary phase, in contrast to wild-type cells, the mutant cells abruptly slowed their growth and continued to excrete acetate. The growth defect was entirely suppressed by L-serine or D-pyruvate, partially suppressed by alpha-ketoglutarate or acetate, and not suppressed by L-aspartate or L-glutamate. We extended these studies, analyzing the sequential consumption of amino acids by both wild-type and nuo mutant cells growing in tryptone broth. During the lag and exponential phases, both wild-type and mutant cells consumed, in order, L-serine and L-aspartate. As they began the transition to stationary phase, both cell types consumed L-tryptophan. Whereas wild-type cells then consumed L-glutamate, glycine, L-threonine, and L-alanine, mutant cells utilized these amino acids poorly. We propose that cells defective for NADH dehydrogenase I exhibit all these phenotypes, because large NADH/NAD+ ratios inhibit certain tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes, e.g., citrate synthase and malate dehydrogenase. Images PMID:8157582

  11. Moving toward a Higher Value-Added Economy: What Is the National Need for Economic Growth and Work Improvements? Monograph Series Vol. 1, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Stephen E.

    Elements of the "American dream" are adequate housing, education for one's children, and a secure retirement. Economic growth has long been seen as a way to realize the dream. Recent data indicate that achieving the dream and succeeding in the labor market have become more difficult due to sluggish productivity growth, increased competition from…

  12. Deiodinase Knockdown during Early Zebrafish Development Affects Growth, Development, Energy Metabolism, Motility and Phototransduction

    PubMed Central

    Bagci, Enise; Heijlen, Marjolein; Vergauwen, Lucia; Hagenaars, An; Houbrechts, Anne M.; Esguerra, Camila V.; Blust, Ronny; Darras, Veerle M.; Knapen, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) balance is essential for vertebrate development. Deiodinase type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) increase and deiodinase type 3 (D3) decreases local intracellular levels of T3, the most important active TH. The role of deiodinase-mediated TH effects in early vertebrate development is only partially understood. Therefore, we investigated the role of deiodinases during early development of zebrafish until 96 hours post fertilization at the level of the transcriptome (microarray), biochemistry, morphology and physiology using morpholino (MO) knockdown. Knockdown of D1+D2 (D1D2MO) and knockdown of D3 (D3MO) both resulted in transcriptional regulation of energy metabolism and (muscle) development in abdomen and tail, together with reduced growth, impaired swim bladder inflation, reduced protein content and reduced motility. The reduced growth and impaired swim bladder inflation in D1D2MO could be due to lower levels of T3 which is known to drive growth and development. The pronounced upregulation of a large number of transcripts coding for key proteins in ATP-producing pathways in D1D2MO could reflect a compensatory response to a decreased metabolic rate, also typically linked to hypothyroidism. Compared to D1D2MO, the effects were more pronounced or more frequent in D3MO, in which hyperthyroidism is expected. More specifically, increased heart rate, delayed hatching and increased carbohydrate content were observed only in D3MO. An increase of the metabolic rate, a decrease of the metabolic efficiency and a stimulation of gluconeogenesis using amino acids as substrates may have been involved in the observed reduced protein content, growth and motility in D3MO larvae. Furthermore, expression of transcripts involved in purine metabolism coupled to vision was decreased in both knockdown conditions, suggesting that both may impair vision. This study provides new insights, not only into the role of deiodinases, but also into the importance of a correct TH balance

  13. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  14. Molecular analyses of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions affecting plant growth and yield. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, K.J.

    1998-11-01

    Mitochondria have a central role in the production of cellular energy. The biogenesis and functioning of mitochondria depends on the expression of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. One approach to investigating the role of nuclear-mitochondrial cooperation in plant growth and development is to identify combinations of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes that result in altered but sublethal phenotypes. Plants that have certain maize nuclear genotypes in combination with cytoplasmic genomes from more distantly-related teosintes can exhibit incompatible phenotypes, such as reduced plant growth and yield and cytoplasmic male sterility, as well as altered mitochondrial gene expression. The characterization of these nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions was the focus of this grant. The authors were investigating the effects of two maize nuclear genes, RcmI and Mct, on mitochondrial function and gene expression. Plants with the teosinte cytoplasms and homozygous for the recessive rcm allele are small (miniature) and-slow-growing and the kernels are reduced in size. The authors mapped this locus to molecular markers on chromosome 7 and attempted to clone this locus by transposon tagging. The effects of the nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction on mitochondrial function and mitochondrial protein profiles were also studied.

  15. Drosophila Ten-m and Filamin Affect Motor Neuron Growth Cone Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lihua; Michelson, Yehudit; Freger, Vita; Avraham, Ziva; Venken, Koen J. T.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Justice, Monica J.; Wides, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila Ten-m (also called Tenascin-major, or odd Oz (odz)) gene has been associated with a pair-rule phenotype. We identified and characterized new alleles of Drosophila Ten-m to establish that this gene is not responsible for segmentation defects but rather causes defects in motor neuron axon routing. In Ten-m mutants the inter-segmental nerve (ISN) often crosses segment boundaries and fasciculates with the ISN in the adjacent segment. Ten-m is expressed in the central nervous system and epidermal stripes during the stages when the growth cones of the neurons that form the ISN navigate to their targets. Over-expression of Ten-m in epidermal cells also leads to ISN misrouting. We also found that Filamin, an actin binding protein, physically interacts with the Ten-m protein. Mutations in cheerio, which encodes Filamin, cause defects in motor neuron axon routing like those of Ten-m. During embryonic development, the expression of Filamin and Ten-m partially overlap in ectodermal cells. These results suggest that Ten-m and Filamin in epidermal cells might together influence growth cone progression. PMID:21857973

  16. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase activity affects growth and riboflavin production in Ashbya gossypii

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Alberto; Santos, María A; Revuelta, José L

    2008-01-01

    Background Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) is a central compound for cellular metabolism and may be considered as a link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. PRPP is directly involved in the de novo and salvage biosynthesis of GTP, which is the immediate precursor of riboflavin. The industrial production of this vitamin using the fungus Ashbya gossypii is an important biotechnological process that is strongly influenced by substrate availability. Results Here we describe the characterization and manipulation of two genes of A. gossypii encoding PRPP synthetase (AGR371C and AGL080C). We show that the AGR371C and AGL080C gene products participate in PRPP synthesis and exhibit inhibition by ADP. We also observed a major contribution of AGL080C to total PRPP synthetase activity, which was confirmed by an evident growth defect of the Δagl080c strain. Moreover, we report the overexpression of wild-type and mutant deregulated isoforms of Agr371cp and Agl080cp that significantly enhanced the production of riboflavin in the engineered A. gossypii strains. Conclusion It is shown that alterations in PRPP synthetase activity have pleiotropic effects on the fungal growth pattern and that an increase in PRPP synthetase enzymatic activity can be used to enhance riboflavin production in A. gossypii. PMID:18782443

  17. Fertilizer residence time affects nitrogen uptake efficiency and growth of sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Zotarelli, L; Scholberg, J M; Dukes, M D; Muñoz-Carpena, R

    2008-01-01

    Understanding plant N uptake dynamics is critical for increasing fertilizer N uptake efficiency (FUE) and minimize the risk of N leaching. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of residence time of N fertilizer on N uptake and FUE of sweet corn. Plants were grown in 25 L columns during the fall and spring to mimic short-term N uptake dynamics. Nitrogen was applied either 1, 3, or 7 d before a weekly leaching event, using KNO3 solution (total of 393 kg N ha(-1)). Residence times (tR) were tR-1, tR-3, and tR-7 d before weekly removal of residual soil N. Plant N uptake was calculated by comparing weekly N recovery from planted with non-planted columns. During the fall, N uptake values at 70 d after emergence were 59, 73, and 126 kg N ha(-1). During the spring, corresponding values were 54, 108, and 159 kg N ha(-1). A linear response of plant growth and yield to the tR was observed under cooler conditions, whereas a quadratic response occurred under warmer conditions. There was correlation between root length density and yield. It is concluded that increasing N fertilizer residence time, which is indicative of better irrigation practices, enhanced overall sweet corn growth, yield, N uptake, and FUE, consequently reduced the risk of N being leached below the root zone before complete N uptake. PMID:18453447

  18. Feed and Feeding Regime Affect Growth Rate and Gonadosomatic Index of Adult Zebrafish (Danio Rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Law, Sheran Hiu Wan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A 5-week study was conducted to evaluate commercially available Artemia, Ziegler zebrafish diet, and Calamac diet fed in five different feeding regimes on the growth and reproductive development of 7-month-old zebrafish. Zebrafish were fed to satiation three times daily during the normal work week and twice daily during the weekend and holidays. Zebrafish in dietary groups CCC (Calamac three times daily) and CCA (Calamac twice daily, Artemia once daily) had a significantly (p<0.05) greater weight gain and specific growth rate as compared to all other dietary groups. Male zebrafish in dietary group 5 had significantly larger gonadosomatic index (GSI) values than all other groups, while female zebrafish in dietary group CCC had significantly larger GSI values than all other groups. No differences in the fatty acid content of female gonads were detected. Zebrafish fed solely Artemia had the greatest weight loss and lowest GSI values. Preliminary evidence of protein sparing in zebrafish is reported. Collectively, this study sheds more light into the effects of the use of commercially available feeds and feeding regime on the rearing of zebrafish. PMID:23902461

  19. The Stress Corrosion Crack Growth Rate of Alloy 600 Heat Affected Zones Exposed to High Purity Water

    SciTech Connect

    George A. Young; Nathan Lewis

    2003-04-05

    Grain boundary chromium carbides improve the resistance of nickel based alloys to primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC). However, in weld heat affected zones (HAZ's), thermal cycles from fusion welding can solutionize beneficial grain boundary carbides, produce locally high residual stresses and strains, and promote PWSCC. The present research investigates the crack growth rate of an A600 HAZ as a function of test temperature. The A600 HAZ was fabricated by building up a gas-tungsten-arc-weld deposit of EN82H filler metal onto a mill-annealed A600 plate. Fracture mechanics based, stress corrosion crack growth rate testing was performed in high purity water between 600 F and 680 F at an initial stress intensity factor of 40 ksi {radical}in and at a constant electrochemical potential. The HAZ samples exhibited significant SCC, entirely within the HAZ at all temperatures tested. While the HAZ samples showed the same temperature dependence for SCC as the base material (HAZ: 29.8 {+-} 11.2{sub 95%} kcal/mol vs A600 Base: 35.3 {+-} 2.58{sub 95%} kcal/mol), the crack growth rates were {approx} 30X faster than the A600 base material tested at the same conditions. The increased crack growth rates of the HAZ is attributed to fewer intergranular chromium rich carbides and to increased plastic strain in the HAZ as compared to the unaffected base material.

  20. CO2 and fertility affect growth and reproduction but not susceptibility to aphids in field grown Solanum ptycanthum

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.M.

    1995-09-01

    In general, C3 annual plants respond positively in terms of growth, reproduction and biomass accrued when grown under elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide. However, most studies documenting this response have been conducted in growth chambers where plants can be reared under conditions free form environmental stressors such as nutrient and water constraints, UV exposure and damage from pests. During the 1993 fieldseason, I grew 200 individuals of Solanum ptycanthum in an array of 10 outdoor, open-topped CO2 enclosures (5 @ 700 ppm CO2) at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI. Half of the plants were grown in a 50;50 mix of native C-horizon soil and topsoil (low fertility); the other half were grown in 100% topsoil (high-fertility). Plants were censused throughout the growing season for flower and fruit production, growth rate and degree of infestation of aphids. Fertility and CO2 both significantly affected production of flowers and fruits, but only fertility was significantly related to vegetative growth. Aphid infestation varied significantly among enclosures, but was not related to CO2 or fertility.

  1. microRNA 21-mediated suppression of Sprouty1 by Pokemon affects liver cancer cell growth and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiu-Li; Sun, Qin-Sheng; Liu, Feng; Yang, Hong-Wei; Liu, Min; Liu, Hong-Xia; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yu-Yang

    2013-07-01

    Transcriptional repressor Pokemon is a critical factor in embryogenesis, development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and oncogenesis, thus behaving as an oncogene. Oncomine database suggests a potential correlation between the expressions of Pokemon and Sprouty1. This study investigated the regulatory role of Pokemon in Sprouty1 expression and the effect on liver cancer cell growth and proliferation, revealing a novel miR-21-mediated regulatory circuit. In normal (HL-7702) and cancer (QGY-7703) liver cell lines, Sprouty1 expression is inversely correlated with Pokemon levels. Targeted expression or siRNA-mediated silencing showed that Pokemon is a repressor of Sprouty1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, but Pokemon cannot affect the promoter activity of Sprouty1. Sprouty1 is a target of miR-21 and interestingly, we found that miR-21 is up-regulated by Pokemon in liver cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Pokemon up-regulated miR-21 transcription in a dose-dependent manner, and ChIP assay exhibited a direct binding of Pokemon to the miR-21 promoter at -747 to -399 bp. Site-directed mutagenesis of the GC boxes at -684 to -679 bp and -652 to -647 bp of miR-21 promoter abolished the regulatory activity by Pokemon. Furthermore, we found that the modulation of Pokemon and miR-21 expression affected the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells QGY-7703. In summary, our findings demonstrate that Pokemon suppresses Sprouty1 expression through a miR-21-mediated mechanism, affecting the growth and proliferation of liver cancer cells. This study recognized miR-21 and Sprouty1 as novel targets of the Pokemon regulatory network. PMID:23355454

  2. Similarities between the growth dynamics of university research and of competitive economic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plerou, Vasiliki; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Meyer, Martin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1999-07-01

    Quantifying the dynamics of research activities is of considerable current interest, not least because of recent changes in research and development (R&D) funding. Here we quantify and analyse university research activities, and compare their growth dynamics with those of business firms. Our study involves the analysis of five distinct databases, the largest of which is a National Science Foundation database of the R&D expenditures in science and engineering for a 17-year period (1979-95) in 719 United States universities. We find that the distribution of growth rates displays a `universal' form that does not depend on the size of the university or on the measure of size used; and the width of this distribution decays with size as a power law. These findings are quantitatively similar to those of business firms, and so are consistent with the hypothesis that the growth dynamics of complex organizations are governed by universal mechanisms. One possible explanation for these similarities is that the combination of peer review and government direction leads to an outcome similar to that induced by market forces (where the analogues of peer review and government direction are, respectively, consumer evaluation and product regulation).

  3. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, Paul; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade’s record of growth in the photovoltaic manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  4. Growth Performance of Early Finishing Gilts as Affected by Different Net Energy Concentrations in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Kil, Dong Yong

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to study the response of the growth performance of early finishing gilts to different net energy (NE) concentrations in diets, and to compare the NE values of diets between calculated NE values and measured NE values using French and Dutch CVB (Centraal Veevoederbureau; Central Bureau for Livestock Feeding) NE systems. In a metabolism trail, the NE concentrations in five diets used for the growth trial were determined based on digestible nutrient concentrations, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy using a replicated 5×5 Latin square design with 10 barrows (initial body weight [BW], 39.2±2.2 kg). In a growth trial, a total of 60 early finishing gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire; initial BW, 47.7±3.5 kg) were allotted to five dietary treatments of 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, and 12.0 MJ NE/kg (calculated, as-is basis) with 12 replicate pens and one pig per pen in a 42-d feeding experiment. The NE and amino acid (AA) concentrations in all diets were calculated based on the values from NRC (2012). Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE concentrations in all diets were closely maintained. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. Results indicated that calculated NE concentrations in diets (i.e., five dietary treatments) were close to measured NE concentrations using French NE system in diets. The final BW was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. Furthermore, average daily gain (ADG) was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. There was a quadratic relationship (p<0.01) between average daily feed intake and NE concentrations in diets. Feed efficiency (G:F) was also increased (linear, p<0.01) as NE concentrations in diets were increased. The NE intake per BW gain (kcal NE/kg of BWG) was increased (linear, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets that were predicted from both French and Dutch CVB NE

  5. State Outlook: Fiscal and State Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…

  6. Father's death does not affect growth and maturation but hinders reproduction: evidence from adolescent girls in post-war Estonia.

    PubMed

    Hõrak, Peeter; Valge, Markus

    2015-12-01

    The popular concept of predictive-adaptive responses poses that girls growing up without a father present in the family mature and start reproduction earlier because the father's absence is a cue for environmental harshness and uncertainty that favours switching to a precocious life-history strategy. Most studies supporting this concept have been performed in situations where the father's absence is caused by divorce or abandonment. Using a dataset of Estonian adolescent girls who had lost their fathers over the period of World War II, we show that father's death did not affect the rate of pubertal maturation (assessed on the basis of development of breasts and axillary hair) or growth. Father's death did not affect the age of first birth but, contrary to predictions, reduced lifetime reproductive success. Our findings thus do not support the concept of predictive-adaptive responses and suggest that alternative explanations for covariation between fatherlessness and early maturation are required. PMID:26673934

  7. Does chronic nitrogen deposition during biomass growth affect atmospheric emissions from biomass burning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Michael R.; Chong, Joey; Weise, David R.; Asa-Awuku, Akua A.

    2016-03-01

    Chronic nitrogen deposition has measureable impacts on soil and plant health. We investigate burning emissions from biomass grown in areas of high and low NO x deposition. Gas and aerosol-phase emissions were measured as a function of photochemical aging in an environmental chamber at UC-Riverside. Though aerosol chemical speciation was not available, results indicate a systemic compositional difference between biomass grown in high and low deposition areas. Aerosol emissions from biomass grown in areas of high NO x deposition exhibit a lower volatility than biomass grown in a low deposition area. Furthermore, fuel elemental analysis, NO x emission rates, and aerosol particle number distributions differed significantly between the two sites. Despite the limited scale of fuels explored, there is strong evidence that the atmospheric emissions community must pay attention to the regional air quality of biomass fuels growth areas.

  8. The asymmetrical growth of otoliths in fish is affected by hypergravity.

    PubMed

    Anken, R H; Kappel, T; Rahmann, H

    1999-08-01

    Size and asymmetry (size difference between the left and the right side) of inner ear otoliths of larval cichlid fish were determined after a long-term stay at moderate hypergravity conditions (3g; centrifuge), in the course of which the animals completed their ontogenetic development from hatch to freely swimming. Both the normal morphogenetic development as well as the timely onset and gain of performance of the swimming behaviour was not impaired by the experimental conditions. However, both utricular and saccular otoliths (lapilli and sagittae, respectively) were significantly smaller after hyper-g exposure as compared to parallely raised 1g control specimens. The asymmetry of sagittae was significantly increased in the experimental animals, whereas the respective asymmetry con-cerning lapilli was pronouncedly decreased in comparison to the 1g controls. These findings suggest, that the growth and the development of bilateral asymmetry of otoliths is guided by the environmental gravity vector. PMID:11542805

  9. The asymmetrical growth of otoliths in fish is affected by hypergravity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anken, R. H.; Kappel, T.; Rahmann, H.

    1999-12-01

    Size and asymmetry (size difference between the left and the right side) of inner ear otoliths of larval cichlid fish were determined after a long-term stay at moderate hypergravity conditions (3 g; centrifuge), in the course of which the animals completed their ontogenetic development from hatch to freely swimming. Both the normal morphogenetic development as well as the timely onset and gain of performance of the swimming behaviour was not impaired by the experimental conditions. However, both utricular and saccular otoliths (lapilli and sagittae, respectively) were significantly smaller after hyper- g exposure as compared to parallely raised 1 g control specimens. The asymmetry of sagittae was significantly increased in the experimental animals, whereas the respective asymmetry concerning lapilli was pronouncedly decreased in comparison to the 1 g controls. These findings suggest, that the growth and the development of bilateral asymmetry of otoliths is guided by the environmental gravity vector.

  10. Cationic Pillararenes Potently Inhibit Biofilm Formation without Affecting Bacterial Growth and Viability.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Roymon; Naugolny, Alissa; Feldman, Mark; Herzog, Ido M; Fridman, Micha; Cohen, Yoram

    2016-01-27

    It is estimated that up to 80% of bacterial infections are accompanied by biofilm formation. Since bacteria in biofilms are less susceptible to antibiotics than are bacteria in the planktonic state, biofilm-associated infections pose a major health threat, and there is a pressing need for antibiofilm agents. Here we report that water-soluble cationic pillararenes differing in the quaternary ammonium groups efficiently inhibited the formation of biofilms by clinically important Gram-positive pathogens. Biofilm inhibition did not result from antimicrobial activity; thus, the compounds should not inhibit growth of natural bacterial flora. Moreover, none of the cationic pillararenes caused detectable membrane damage to red blood cells or toxicity to human cells in culture. The results indicate that cationic pillararenes have potential for use in medical applications in which biofilm formation is a problem. PMID:26745311

  11. The presence of Bt-transgenic oilseed rape in wild mustard populations affects plant growth.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongbo; Stewart, C Neal; Li, Junsheng; Huang, Hai; Zhang, Xitao

    2015-12-01

    The adventitious presence of transgenic plants in wild plant populations is of ecological and regulatory concern, but the consequences of adventitious presence are not well understood. Here, we introduced Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac (Bt)-transgenic oilseed rape (Bt OSR, Brassica napus) with various frequencies into wild mustard (Brassica juncea) populations. We sought to better understand the adventitious presence of this transgenic insecticidal crop in a wild-relative plant population. We assessed the factors of competition, resource availability and diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) infestation on plant population dynamics. As expected, Bt OSR performed better than wild mustard in mixed populations under herbivore attack in habitats with enough resources, whereas wild mustard had higher fitness when Bt OSR was rarer in habitats with limited resources. Results suggest that the presence of insect-resistant transgenic plants could decrease the growth of wild mustard and Bt OSR plants and their populations, especially under high herbivore pressure. PMID:26338267

  12. Factors Affecting the Growth Behavior of De-lonized Water Assisted Carbon Nanotube Forests.

    PubMed

    Adusumilli, Siva P; Westgate, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the conditions for producing water assisted carbon nanotubes (WA-CNT) forests by varying parameters that include growth temperature; de-ionized (DI) water flow; carbon-containing gas flow; and thereby determine the length, impurities and catalyst utilization in the CNT forest. Most importantly, the impact of water molecules on the length and catalyst utilization of the CNT forest was investigated. The CNT forests with lengths up to 140 microns were grown using a chemical vapor deposition technique at atmospheric pressure. The forest bundles had weak adhesion with the substrate which allows them to be peeled off easily, enabling easy transfer to other substrates. The characterization of CNT forest were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) techniques. PMID:26716218

  13. Tender coconut water an economical growth medium for the production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Escherichia coli is most widely used prokaryotic expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Several strategies have been employed for expressing recombinant proteins in E.coli. This includes the development of novel host systems, expression vectors and cost effective media. In this study, we exploit tender coconut water (TCW) as a natural and cheaper growth medium for E.coli and Pichia pastoris. Result E.coli and P.pastoris were cultivated in TCW and the growth rate was monitored by measuring optical density at 600 nm (OD600nm), where 1.55 for E.coli and 8.7 for P.pastoris was obtained after 12 and 60 hours, respectively. However, variation in growth rate was observed among TCW when collected from different localities (0.15-2.5 at OD600nm), which is attributed to the varying chemical profile among samples. In this regard, we attempted the supplementation of TCW with different carbon and nitrogen sources to attain consistency in growth rate. Here, supplementation of TCW with 25 mM ammonium sulphate (TCW-S) was noted efficient for the normalization of inconsistency, which further increased the biomass of E.coli by 2 to 10 folds, and 1.5 to 2 fold in P.pastoris. These results indicate that nitrogen source is the major limiting factor for growth. This was supported by total nitrogen and carbon estimation where, nitrogen varies from 20 to 60 mg/100 ml while carbohydrates showed no considerable variation (2.32 to 3.96 g/100 ml). In this study, we also employed TCW as an expression media for recombinant proteins by demonstrating successful expression of maltose binding protein (MBP), MBP-TEV protease fusion and a photo switchable fluorescent protein (mEos2) using TCW and the expression level was found to be equivalent to Luria Broth (LB). Conclusion This study highlights the possible application of TCW-S as a media for cultivation of a variety of microorganisms and recombinant protein expression. PMID:24004578

  14. Biowaste Mixtures Affecting the Growth and Elemental Composition of Italian Ryegrass ().

    PubMed

    Esperschütz, Jürgen; Lense, Obed; Anderson, Craig; Bulman, Simon; Horswell, Jacqui; Dickinson, Nicholas; Robinson, Brett

    2016-05-01

    Biosolids (sewage sludge) can be beneficially applied to degraded lands to improve soil quality. Plants grown on biosolids-amended soils have distinct concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements, which can be beneficial or present a risk to humans and ecosystems. Potentially, biosolids could be blended with other biowastes, such as sawdust, to reduce the risks posed by rebuilding soils using biosolids alone. We sought to determine the effect of mixing biosolids and sawdust on the macronutrient and trace element concentration of ryegrass over a 5-mo period. was grown in a low fertility soil, typical for marginal farm areas, that was amended with biosolids (1250 kg N ha), biosolids + sawdust (0.5:1) and urea (200 kg N ha), as well as a control. Biosolids increased the growth of from 2.93 to 4.14 t ha. This increase was offset by blending the biosolids with sawdust (3.00 t ha). Urea application increased growth to 4.93 t ha. The biowaste treatments increased N, P, Cu, Mn, and Zn relative to the control, which may be beneficial for grazing animals. Although biowaste application caused elevated Cd concentrations (0.15-0.24 mg kg) five- to eightfold higher than control and urea treatments, these were below levels that are likely to result in unacceptable concentrations in animal tissues. Mixing biosolids with sawdust reduced Cd uptake while still resulting in increased micronutrient concentrations (P, S, Mn, Zn, Cu) in plants. There were significant changes in the elemental uptake during the experiment, which was attributed to the decomposition of the sawdust. PMID:27136174

  15. Antagonizing the Hedgehog Pathway with Vismodegib Impairs Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Growth In Vivo by Affecting Stroma.

    PubMed

    Meerang, Mayura; Bérard, Karima; Felley-Bosco, Emanuela; Lauk, Olivia; Vrugt, Bart; Boss, Andreas; Kenkel, David; Broggini-Tenzer, Angela; Stahel, Rolf A; Arni, Stephan; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle

    2016-05-01

    An autocrine-driven upregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been described in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), in which the ligand, desert Hh (DHH), was produced from tumor cells. However, our investigation revealed that the Hh pathway is activated in both tumor and stroma of MPM tumor specimens and an orthotopic immunocompetent rat MPM model. This was demonstrated by positive immunohistochemical staining of Glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1) and Patched1 (PTCH1) in both tumor and stromal fractions. DHH was predominantly expressed in the tumor fractions. To further investigate the role of the Hh pathway in MPM stroma, we antagonized Hh signaling in the rat model of MPM using a Hh antagonist, vismodegib, (100 mg/kg orally). Daily treatment with vismodegib efficiently downregulated Hh target genes Gli1, Hedgehog Interacting Protein (Hhip), and Ptch1, and caused a significant reduction of tumor volume and tumor growth delay. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that vismodegib treatment primarily downregulated GLI1 and HHIP in the stromal compartment along with a reduced expression of previously described fibroblast Hh-responsive genes such as Fibronectin (Fn1) and Vegfa Primary cells isolated from the rat model cultured in 3% O2 continued to express Dhh but did not respond to vismodegib in vitro However, culture supernatant from these cells stimulated Gli1, Ptch1, and Fn1 expression in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which was suppressed by vismodegib. Our study provides new evidence regarding the role of Hh signaling in MPM stroma in the maintenance of tumor growth, emphasizing Hh signaling as a treatment target for MPM. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 1095-105. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26839306

  16. Mutation of luxS affects growth and virulence factor expression in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Lyon, W R; Madden, J C; Levin, J C; Stein, J L; Caparon, M G

    2001-10-01

    Adaptive responses of bacteria that involve sensing the presence of other bacteria are often critical for proliferation and the expression of virulence characteristics. The autoinducer II (AI-2) pathway has recently been shown to be a mechanism for sensing other bacteria that is highly conserved among diverse bacterial species, including Gram-positive pathogens. However, a role for this pathway in the regulation of virulence factors in Gram-positive pathogens has yet to be established. In this study, we have inactivated luxS, an essential component of the AI-2 pathway, in the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. Analyses of the resulting mutants revealed the aberrant expression of several virulence properties that are regulated in response to growth phase, including enhanced haemolytic activity, and a dramatic reduction in the expression of secreted proteolytic activity. This latter defect was associated with a reduced ability to secrete and process the precursor of the cysteine protease (SpeB) as well as a difference in the timing of expression of the protease. Enhanced haemolytic activity of the luxS strain was also shown to be linked with an increased expression of the haemolysin S-associated gene sagA. Disruptions of luxS in these mutants also produced a media-dependent growth defect. Finally, an allelic replacement analysis of an S. pyogenes strain with a naturally occurring insertion of IS1239 in luxS suggested a mechanism for modulation of virulence during infection. Results from this study suggest that luxS makes an important contribution to the regulation of S. pyogenes virulence factors. PMID:11679074

  17. Overexpression of Arabidopsis Ceramide Synthases Differentially Affects Growth, Sphingolipid Metabolism, Programmed Cell Death, and Mycotoxin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Luttgeharm, Kyle D; Chen, Ming; Mehra, Amit; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Markham, Jonathan E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-10-01

    Ceramide synthases catalyze an N-acyltransferase reaction using fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) and long-chain base (LCB) substrates to form the sphingolipid ceramide backbone and are targets for inhibition by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1). Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) contains three genes encoding ceramide synthases with distinct substrate specificities: LONGEVITY ASSURANCE GENE ONE HOMOLOG1 (LOH1; At3g25540)- and LOH3 (At1g19260)-encoded ceramide synthases use very-long-chain fatty acyl-CoA and trihydroxy LCB substrates, and LOH2 (At3g19260)-encoded ceramide synthase uses palmitoyl-CoA and dihydroxy LCB substrates. In this study, complementary DNAs for each gene were overexpressed to determine the role of individual isoforms in physiology and sphingolipid metabolism. Differences were observed in growth resulting from LOH1 and LOH3 overexpression compared with LOH2 overexpression. LOH1- and LOH3-overexpressing plants had enhanced biomass relative to wild-type plants, due in part to increased cell division, suggesting that enhanced synthesis of very-long-chain fatty acid/trihydroxy LCB ceramides promotes cell division and growth. Conversely, LOH2 overexpression resulted in dwarfing. LOH2 overexpression also resulted in the accumulation of sphingolipids with C16 fatty acid/dihydroxy LCB ceramides, constitutive induction of programmed cell death, and accumulation of salicylic acid, closely mimicking phenotypes observed previously in LCB C-4 hydroxylase mutants defective in trihydroxy LCB synthesis. In addition, LOH2- and LOH3-overexpressing plants acquired increased resistance to FB1, whereas LOH1-overexpressing plants showed no increase in FB1 resistance, compared with wild-type plants, indicating that LOH1 ceramide synthase is most strongly inhibited by FB1. Overall, the findings described here demonstrate that overexpression of Arabidopsis ceramide synthases results in strongly divergent physiological and metabolic phenotypes, some of which have significance

  18. Terpenoids inhibit Candida albicans growth by affecting membrane integrity and arrest of cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Zore, Gajanan B; Thakre, Archana D; Jadhav, Sitaram; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2011-10-15

    Anti-Candida potential of six terpenoids were evaluated in this study against various isolates of Candida albicans (n=39) and non-C. albicans (n=9) that are differentially susceptible to fluconazole. All the six terpenoids tested, showed excellent activity and were equally effective against isolates of Candida sps., tested in this study. Linalool and citral were the most effective ones, inhibiting all the isolates at ≤0.064% (v/v). Five among the six terpenoids tested were fungicidal. Time dependent kill curve assay showed that MFCs of linalool and eugenol were highly toxic to C. albicans, killing 99.9% inoculum within seven min of exposure, while that of citronellal, linalyl acetate and citral required 15min, 1h and 2h, respectively. FIC index values (Linalool - 0.140, benzyl benzoate - 0.156, eugenol - 0.265, citral - 0.281 and 0.312 for linalyl acetate and citronellal) and isobologram obtained by checker board assay showed that all the six terpenoids tested exhibit excellent synergistic activity with fluconazole against a fluconazole resistant strain of C. albicans. Terpenoids tested arrested C. albicans cells at different phases of the cell cycle i.e. linalool and LA at G1, citral and citronellal at S phase and benzyl benzoate at G2-M phase and induced apoptosis. Linalool, citral, citronellal and benzyl benzoate caused more than 50% inhibition of germ tube induction at 0.008%, while eugenol and LA required 0.032 and 0.016% (v/v) concentrations, respectively. MICs of all the terpenoids for the C. albicans growth were non toxic to HeLa cells. Terpenoids tested exhibited excellent activity against C. albicans yeast and hyphal form growth at the concentrations that are non toxic to HeLa cells. Terpenoids tested in this study may find use in antifungal chemotherapy, not only as antifungal agents but also as synergistic agents along with conventional drugs like fluconazole. PMID:21596542

  19. Focus on SREB States' Responses to the Economic Slowdown: Budget Actions Affecting Education in 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaines, Gale

    2008-01-01

    Unfortunately, Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) states are not immune to the economic slowdown sweeping the nation. States are taking action to bring budgets into balance while working to protect essential services and programs. In a 1991 report, "Coping With the Sluggish Economy," SREB noted the accelerated efforts to reshape schools and…

  20. An Analysis of Economic Variables Affecting Enrollments in the South Carolina Technical College System and Virginia Community College System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivers, Hope Epps

    2010-01-01

    The idea that high unemployment rates give rise to higher enrollments for community colleges is widely accepted (Sundberg, 1998). However, according to Betts and McFarland (1995), not much is known empirically about the role that economic factors play in determining two-year college enrollment. Only a few states have included cyclical variables in…