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Sample records for affects electron transport

  1. Electron transport through 5-substituted pyrimidines in DNA: electron affinities of uracil and cytosine derivatives differently affect the apparent efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takeo; Kurihara, Ryohsuke; Utsumi, Nihiro; Hamaguchi, Yuta; Tanabe, Kazuhito; Nishimoto, Sei-ichi

    2013-11-11

    We investigated excess electron transport (EET) in DNA containing cytosine derivatives. By arranging the derivatives according to their electron affinities, the apparent EET efficiency was successfully regulated. Unexpectedly, however, providing gradients of electron affinity by inserting 5-fluorocytosine did not always enhance EET.

  2. Simulation of runaway electrons, transport affected by J-TEXT resonant magnetic perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z. H.; Wang, X. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Sun, X. F.; Xu, T.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-09-01

    The topology of a magnetic field and transport properties of runaway electrons can be changed by a resonant magnetic perturbation field. The J-TEXT magnetic topology can be effectively altered via static resonant magnetic perturbation (SRMP) and dynamic resonant magnetic perturbation (DRMP). This paper studies the effect of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the confinement of runaway electrons via simulating their drift orbits in the magnetic perturbation field and calculating the orbit losses for different runaway initial energies and different runaway electrons, initial locations. The model adopted is based on Hamiltonian guiding center equations for runaway electrons, and the J-TEXT magnetic turbulences and RMP are taken into account. The simulation indicates that the loss rate of runaway electrons is sensitive to the radial position of electrons. The loss of energetic runaway beam is dominated by the shrinkage of the confinement region. Outside the shrinkage region of the runaway electrons are lost rapidly. Inside the shrinkage region the runaway beam is confined very well and is less sensitive to the magnetic perturbation. The experimental result on the response of runaway transport to the application RMP indicates that the loss of runaway electrons is dominated by the shrinkage of the confinement region, other than the external magnetic perturbation.

  3. How non-adiabatic passing electron layers of linear microinstabilities affect turbulent transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominski, J.; Brunner, S.; Görler, T.; Jenko, F.; Told, D.; Villard, L.

    2015-06-01

    The response of passing electrons in ion temperature gradient and trapped electron mode microturbulence regimes is investigated in tokamak geometry making use of the flux-tube version of the gyrokinetic code GENE. Results are obtained using two different electron models, fully kinetic and hybrid in which passing particles are forced to respond adiabatically, while trapped are handled kinetically. Comparing linear eigenmodes obtained with these two models enables to systematically isolate fine radial structures located at corresponding mode rational surfaces, clearly resulting from the non-adiabatic passing-electron response. Non-linear simulations show that these fine structures on the non-axisymmetric modes survive in the turbulent phase. Furthermore, through non-linear coupling to axisymmetric modes, they induce radial modulations in the effective profiles of density, ion/electron temperature, and E × B shearing rate. Finally, the passing-electron channel is shown to significantly contribute to the transport levels, at least in our ion temperature gradient case. Also shown is that the passing electrons significantly influence the E × B saturation mechanism of turbulence fluxes.

  4. Electron transporting semiconducting polymers in organic electronics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xingang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2011-07-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the preparation of semiconducting polymers over the past two decades, and successful commercial devices based on them are slowly beginning to enter the market. However, most of the conjugated polymers are hole transporting, or p-type, semiconductors that have seen a dramatic rise in performance over the last decade. Much less attention has been devoted to electron transporting, or n-type, materials that have lagged behind their p-type counterparts. Organic electron transporting materials are essential for the fabrication of organic p-n junctions, organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and complementary logic circuits. In this critical review we focus upon recent developments in several classes of electron transporting semiconducting polymers used in OLEDs, OFETs and OPVs, and survey and analyze what is currently known concerning electron transporting semiconductor architecture, electronic structure, and device performance relationships (87 references).

  5. Electronic transport in nanoscale structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerqvist, Johan

    In this dissertation electronic transport in nanoscale structures is discussed. An expression for the shot noise, a fluctuation in current due to the discreteness of charge, is derived directly from the wave functions of a nanoscale system. Investigation of shot noise is of particular interest due to the rich fundamental physics involved. For example, the study of shot noise can provide fundamental insight on the nature of electron transport in a nanoscale junction. We report calculations of the shot noise properties of parallel wires in the regime in which the interwire distance is much smaller than the inelastic mean free path. The validity of quantized transverse momenta in a nanoscale structure and its effect on shot noise is also discussed. We theoretically propose and show the feasibility of a novel protocol for DNA sequencing based on the electronic signature of single-stranded DNA while it translocates through a nanopore. We find that the currents for the bases are sufficiently different to allow for efficient sequencing. Our estimates reveal that sequencing of an entire human genome could be done with very high accuracy in a matter of hours, e.g., orders of magnitude faster than present techniques. We also find that although the overall magnitude of the current may change dramatically with different detection conditions, the intrinsic distinguishability of the bases is not significantly affected by pore size and transverse field strength. Finally, we study the ability of water to screen charges in nanopores by using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations coupled to electrostatic calculations. Due to the short length scales of the nanopore geometry and the large local field gradient of a single ion, the energetics of transporting an ion through the pore is strongly dependent on the microscopic details of the electric field. We show that as long as the pore allows the first hydration shell to stay intact, e.g., ˜6 nearby water molecules, the electric field

  6. Magnetospheric models for electron acceleration and transport in the heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Baker, D. N.

    1993-01-01

    Electron transport and acceleration processes in the earth's magnetosphere have correspondences to analogous processes affecting electrons in the solar magnetosphere (i.e., heliosphere). Energetic electrons in planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere are test particles probing transport and acceleration dynamics with minimal effects on dominant magnetic field configurations. Parallels are discussed relating to electron entry into the magnetospheres from interplanetary and interstellar space, circulatory transport processes, and acceleration by electric fields in boundary regions including shocks and magnetotails.

  7. Electronic transport in polycrystalline graphene.

    PubMed

    Yazyev, Oleg V; Louie, Steven G

    2010-10-01

    Most materials in available macroscopic quantities are polycrystalline. Graphene, a recently discovered two-dimensional form of carbon with strong potential for replacing silicon in future electronics, is no exception. There is growing evidence of the polycrystalline nature of graphene samples obtained using various techniques. Grain boundaries, intrinsic topological defects of polycrystalline materials, are expected to markedly alter the electronic transport in graphene. Here, we develop a theory of charge carrier transmission through grain boundaries composed of a periodic array of dislocations in graphene based on the momentum conservation principle. Depending on the grain-boundary structure we find two distinct transport behaviours--either high transparency, or perfect reflection of charge carriers over remarkably large energy ranges. First-principles quantum transport calculations are used to verify and further investigate this striking behaviour. Our study sheds light on the transport properties of large-area graphene samples. Furthermore, purposeful engineering of periodic grain boundaries with tunable transport gaps would allow for controlling charge currents without the need to introduce bulk bandgaps in otherwise semimetallic graphene. The proposed approach can be regarded as a means towards building practical graphene electronics.

  8. Electron transport in bipyridinium films.

    PubMed

    Raymo, Françisco M; Alvarado, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Bipyridinium dications are versatile building blocks for the assembly of functional materials. In particular, their reliable electrochemical response has encouraged the design of electroactive films. Diverse and elegant experimental strategies to coat metallic and semiconducting electrodes with bipyridinium compounds have, in fact, emerged over the past two decades. The resulting interfacial assemblies span from a few nanometers to several micrometers in thickness. They incorporate from a single molecular layer to large collections of entangled polymer chains. They transport electrons efficiently from the electrode surface to the film/solution interface and vice versa. Electron self-exchange between and the physical diffusion of the bipyridinium building blocks conspire in defining the charge transport properties of these fascinating electroactive assemblies. Often, the matrix of electron-deficient bipyridinium dications can be exploited to entrap electron-rich analytes. Electrostatic interactions promote the supramolecular association of the guests with the surface-confined host matrix. Furthermore, chromophoric sites can be coupled to the bipyridinium dications to produce photosensitive arrays capable of harvesting light and generating current. Thus, thorough investigations on the fundamental properties of these functional molecule-based materials can lead to promising applications in electroanalysis and solar energy conversion, while contributing to advances in the basic understanding of electron transport in interfacial assemblies.

  9. Electron Transport in Hall Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael Sean

    Despite high technological maturity and a long flight heritage, computer models of Hall thrusters remain dependent on empirical inputs and a large part of thruster development to date has been heavily experimental in nature. This empirical approach will become increasingly unsustainable as new high-power thrusters tax existing ground test facilities and more exotic thruster designs stretch and strain the boundaries of existing design experience. The fundamental obstacle preventing predictive modeling of Hall thruster plasma properties and channel erosion is the lack of a first-principles description of electron transport across the strong magnetic fields between the cathode and anode. In spite of an abundance of proposed transport mechanisms, accurate assessments of the magnitude of electron current due to any one mechanism are scarce, and comparative studies of their relative influence on a single thruster platform simply do not exist. Lacking a clear idea of what mechanism(s) are primarily responsible for transport, it is understandably difficult for the electric propulsion scientist to focus his or her theoretical and computational tools on the right targets. This work presents a primarily experimental investigation of collisional and turbulent Hall thruster electron transport mechanisms. High-speed imaging of the thruster discharge channel at tens of thousands of frames per second reveals omnipresent rotating regions of elevated light emission, identified with a rotating spoke instability. This turbulent instability has been shown through construction of an azimuthally segmented anode to drive significant cross-field electron current in the discharge channel, and suggestive evidence points to its spatial extent into the thruster near-field plume as well. Electron trajectory simulations in experimentally measured thruster electromagnetic fields indicate that binary collisional transport mechanisms are not significant in the thruster plume, and experiments

  10. Electronic transport in unconventional superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, M.J.

    1998-12-31

    The author investigates the electron transport coefficients in unconventional superconductors at low temperatures, where charge and heat transport are dominated by electron scattering from random lattice defects. He discusses the features of the pairing symmetry, Fermi surface, and excitation spectrum which are reflected in the low temperature heat transport. For temperatures {kappa}{sub B}T {approx_lt} {gamma} {much_lt} {Delta}{sub 0}, where {gamma} is the bandwidth of impurity induced Andreev states, certain eigenvalues become universal, i.e., independent of the impurity concentration and phase shift. Deep in the superconducting phase ({kappa}{sub B}T {approx_lt} {gamma}) the Wiedemann-Franz law, with Sommerfeld`s value of the Lorenz number, is recovered. He compares the results for theoretical models of unconventional superconductivity in high-{Tc} and heavy fermion superconductors with experiment. The findings show that impurities are a sensitive probe of the low-energy excitation spectrum, and that the zero-temperature limit of the transport coefficients provides an important test of the order parameter symmetry.

  11. Electronic Transport in Graphene Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrea F.; Kim, Philip

    2011-03-01

    The elementary excitations of monolayer graphene, which behave as massless Dirac particles, make it a fascinating venue in which to study relativistic quantum phenomena. One notable example is Klein tunneling, a phenomena in which electrons convert to holes to tunnel through a potential barrier. However, the omnipresence of charged impurities in substrate-supported samples keep the overall charge distribution nonuniform, obscuring much of this "Dirac" point physics in large samples. Using local gates, one can create tunable heterojunctions in graphene, isolating the contribution of small regions of the samples to transport. In this review, we give an overview of quantum transport theory and experiment on locally gated graphene heterostructures, with an emphasis on bipolar junctions.

  12. Coordinating Electron Transport Chains to an Electron Donor.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Carmen; Wolf, Maximilian; Joly, Damien; Delgado, Juan Luis; Guldi, Dirk M; Martín, Nazario

    2015-10-16

    Two electron transport chains (2 and 3) featuring two fullerenes with different electron acceptor strengths have been synthesized, characterized, and coordinated to a light harvesting/electron donating zinc porphyrin. Electrochemical assays corroborate the redox gradients along the designed electron transport chains, and complementary absorption and fluorescence titrations prove the assembly of ZnP-2 and ZnP-3 hybrids.

  13. Electronic transport properties in graphene oxide frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, P.; Cruz-Silva, E.; Meunier, V.

    2014-02-01

    The electronic transport properties in multiterminal graphene oxide framework (GOF) materials are investigated using a combination of theoretical and computational methods. GOFs make up four-terminal [origin=c]90H-shaped GNR-L-GNR junctions where sandwiched boronic acid molecules (L) are covalently linked to two graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of different edge chiralities. The transport properties are governed by both tunneling and quasiresonant regimes. We determine how the presence of linker molecules affects the transport properties and establish that the through-molecule transport properties can be tuned by varying the chemical composition of the pillar molecules but are not significantly modified when changing the type of electrodes from zigzag GNRs to armchair GNRs. In addition, we find that in multilinker systems containing two parallel molecules in the device area, the coupling between the molecules can lead to both constructive and destructive quantum interferences. We also examine the inability of the classical Kirchhoff's superposition law to account for electron flow in multilinker GOF nanonetworks.

  14. Electron transport in ferromagnetic nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungbae

    As the size of a physical system decreases toward the nanoscale, quantum mechanical effects such as the discretization of energy levels and the interactions of the electronic spins become readily observable. To understand what happens within submicrometer scale samples is one of the goals of modern condensed matter physics. Electron transport phenomena drew a lot of attention over the past two decades or so, not only because quantum corrections to the classical transport theory, but also they allow us to probe deeply into the microscopic nature of the system put to test. Although a significant amount of research was done in the past and thus extended our understanding in this field, most of these works were concentrated on simpler examples. Electron transport in strongly correlated systems is still a field that needs to be explored more thoroughly. In fact, experimental works that have been done so far to characterize coherence physics in correlated systems such as ferromagnetic metals are far from conclusive. One reason ferromagnetic samples draw such attention is that there exist correlations that lead to excitations (e.g. spin waves, domain wall motions) not present in normal metals, and these new environmental degrees of freedom can have profound effects on decoherence processes. In this thesis, three different types of magnetic samples were examined: a band ferromagnetism based metallic ferromagnet, permalloy, a III-V diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor with ferromagnetism from a hole-mediated exchange interaction, and magnetite nanocrystals and films. The first observation of time-dependent universal conductance fluctuations (TD-UCF) in permalloy is presented and our observations lead to three major conclusions. First, the cooperon contribution to the conductance is suppressed in this material. This is consistent with some theoretical expectations, and implies that weak localization will be suppressed as well. Second, we see evidence that domain wall motion

  15. Terahertz electromodulation spectroscopy of electron transport in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelbrecht, S. G.; Arend, T. R.; Zhu, T.; Kappers, M. J.; Kersting, R.

    2015-03-01

    Time-resolved terahertz (THz) electromodulation spectroscopy is applied to investigate the high-frequency transport of electrons in gallium nitride at different doping concentrations and densities of threading dislocations. At THz frequencies, all structures reveal Drude transport. The analysis of the spectral response provides the fundamental transport properties, such as the electron scattering time and the electrons' conductivity effective mass. We observe the expected impact of ionized-impurity scattering and that scattering at threading dislocations only marginally affects the high-frequency mobility.

  16. Terahertz electromodulation spectroscopy of electron transport in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, S. G.; Arend, T. R.; Kersting, R.; Zhu, T.; Kappers, M. J.

    2015-03-02

    Time-resolved terahertz (THz) electromodulation spectroscopy is applied to investigate the high-frequency transport of electrons in gallium nitride at different doping concentrations and densities of threading dislocations. At THz frequencies, all structures reveal Drude transport. The analysis of the spectral response provides the fundamental transport properties, such as the electron scattering time and the electrons' conductivity effective mass. We observe the expected impact of ionized-impurity scattering and that scattering at threading dislocations only marginally affects the high-frequency mobility.

  17. Coupled electron-photon radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Lorence, L.; Kensek, R.P.; Valdez, G.D.; Drumm, C.R.; Fan, W.C.; Powell, J.L.

    2000-01-17

    Massively-parallel computers allow detailed 3D radiation transport simulations to be performed to analyze the response of complex systems to radiation. This has been recently been demonstrated with the coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo code, ITS. To enable such calculations, the combinatorial geometry capability of ITS was improved. For greater geometrical flexibility, a version of ITS is under development that can track particles in CAD geometries. Deterministic radiation transport codes that utilize an unstructured spatial mesh are also being devised. For electron transport, the authors are investigating second-order forms of the transport equations which, when discretized, yield symmetric positive definite matrices. A novel parallelization strategy, simultaneously solving for spatial and angular unknowns, has been applied to the even- and odd-parity forms of the transport equation on a 2D unstructured spatial mesh. Another second-order form, the self-adjoint angular flux transport equation, also shows promise for electron transport.

  18. Electron Transport in Water Vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Satoru; Satoh, Kohki; Itoh, Hidenori

    2015-09-01

    Sets of electron collision cross sections for water vapour previously reported are examined by comparing calculated electron swarm parameters with measured parameters. Further, reliable cross section set of water vapour is estimated by the electron swarm method using Monte Carlo simulation to ensure the accuracy of the swarm parameter calculation. The values of an electron drift velocity, a longitudinal diffusion coefficient, and an effective ionisation coefficient calculated from Yousfi and Benabdessadok's set and those calculated from Itikawa and Mason's set do not necessarily agree with measured data. A new cross section set of water vapour, which consists of three kinds of rotational excitation, two kinds of vibrational excitation, three kinds of electron attachment, twenty-six kinds of electronic excitation, and six kinds of ionisation cross sections, and an elastic collision cross section, is estimated, and an anisotropic electron scattering for elastic and rotational excitation collision is considered. The swarm parameters calculated from the estimated cross section set is in good agreement with measured data in a wide range of reduced electric field.

  19. Electron Transport through Porphyrin Molecular Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qi

    The goal of this work is to study the properties that would affect the electron transport through a porphyrin molecular junction. This work contributes to the field of electron transport in molecular junctions in the following 3 aspects. First of all, by carrying out experiments comparing the conductance of the iron (III) porphyrin (protected) and the free base porphyrin (protected), it is confirmed that the molecular energy level broadening and shifting occurs for porphyrin molecules when coupled with the metal electrodes, and this level broadening and shifting plays an important role in the electron transport through molecular junctions. Secondly, by carrying out an in-situ deprotection of the acetyl-protected free base porphyrin molecules, it is found out that the presence of acetyl groups reduces the conductance. Thirdly, by incorporating the Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectrum and the in-situ deprotection prior to formation of molecular junctions, it allows a more precise understanding of the molecules involved in the formation of molecular junctions, and therefore allows an accurate analysis of the conductance histogram. The molecules are prepared by self-assembly and the junctions are formed using a Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) molecular break junction technique. The porphyrin molecules are characterized by MALDI in solution before self-assembly to a gold/mica substrate. The self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of porphyrins on gold are characterized by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) reflection spectroscopy to confirm that the molecules are attached to the substrate. The SAMs are then characterized by Angle-Resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) to determine the thickness and the average molecular orientation of the molecular layer. The electron transport is measured by conductance-displacement (G-S) experiments under a given bias (-0.4V). The conductance value of a single molecule is identified by a statistical analysis

  20. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  1. Transport experiments with Dirac electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checkelsky, Joseph George

    This thesis presents transport experiments performed on solid state systems in which the behavior of the charge carriers can be described by the Dirac equation. Unlike the massive carriers in a typical material, in these systems the carriers behave like massless fermions with a photon-like dispersion predicted to greatly modify their spin and charge transport properties. The first system studied is graphene, a crystalline monolayer of carbon arranged in a hexagonal lattice. The band structure calculated from the hexagonal lattice has the form of the massless Dirac Hamiltonian. At the charge neutral Dirac point, we find that application of a magnetic field drives a transition to an insulating state. We also study the thermoelectric properties of graphene and find that the states near the Dirac point have a unique response compared to those at higher charge density. The second system is the 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3, where a Dirac-like dispersion for states on the 2D surface of the insulating 3D crystal arises as a result of the topology of the 3D bands and time reversal symmetry. To access the transport properties of the 2D states, we suppress the remnant bulk conduction channel by chemical doping and electrostatic gating. In bulk crystals we find strong quantum corrections to transport at low temperature when the bulk conduction channel is maximally suppressed. In microscopic crystals we are able better to isolate the surface conduction channel properties. We identify in-gap conducting states that have relatively high mobility compared to the bulk and exhibit weak anti-localization, consistent with predictions for protected 2D surface states with strong spin-orbit coupling.

  2. The Electron Transport Chain: An Interactive Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Chris; Choun, James

    2014-01-01

    This activity provides students an interactive demonstration of the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis during aerobic respiration. Students use simple, everyday objects as hydrogen ions and electrons and play the roles of the various proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane to show how this specific process in cellular…

  3. Electron transport through single carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Thomas; Chai, G.; Heinrich, H.; Chow, L.; Schenkel, T.

    2007-08-01

    We report on the transport of energetic electrons through single, well aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). Embedding of CNTs in a protective carbon fiber coating enables the application of focused ion beam based sample preparation techniques for the non-destructive isolation and alignment of individual tubes. Aligned tubes with lengths of 0.7 to 3 mu m allow transport of 300 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope through their hollow cores at zero degree incident angles and for a misalignment of up to 1 degree.

  4. Multidimensional Deterministic Electron Transport Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    inlllnlnilinlmmm nMI MII n~lA - Is - -The SMART scattering matrix is not tied to a particular angular flux distribution . -There is considerable numerical...Both expressions are derived by performing an uncollided electron balance over the i’th path length cell. The uncollided flux is then distributed to the...OIS1UTInOIAVALAIT Y STAIEMENT LDIOSTRIUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. A8STRACTO"d noww Fast and accurate techniques for

  5. Electronic Transport in Ultrathin Heterostructures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    rqgion consisting of twelve - 50-A GaAs wells alter- Compounds. St. Lois . 1978. edited by C. M. Wolfe asting with thirteen - I0-A AlAs barriers. The ex...alloy range energy range comparable (and competitive) with III-V al- (x < x, -0.45), an obvious limit to the heterobarrier height loys . or energy-gap...International, Electronics Research Center, Anaheim, CA 92803, U.S.A. (Received 3 November 1980 by J. Tauc ) Data are presented on MO-CVD AlGa I, As

  6. Theoretical investigations into the electronic structures and electron transport properties of fluorine and carbonyl end-functionalized quarterthiophenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Duan, Yuai; Gao, Hong-Ze; Su, Zhong-Мin; Geng, Yun

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we concentrate on systematic investigation on the fluorination and carbonylation effect on electron transport properties of thiophene-based materials with the aim of seeking and designing electron transport materials. Some relative factors, namely, frontier molecular orbital (FMO), vertical electron affinity (VEA), electron reorganization energy (λele), electron transfer integral (tele), electron drift mobility (μele) and band structures have been calculated and discussed based on density functional theory. The results show that the introduction of fluorine atoms and carbonyl group especially for the latter could effectively increase EA and reduce λele, which is beneficial to the improvement of electron transport performance. Furthermore, these introductions could also affect the tele by changing molecular packing manner and distribution of FMO. Finally, according to our calculation, the 3d system is considered to be a promising electron transport material with small λele, high electron transport ability and good ambient stability.

  7. Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport in strongly attaching gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, Zoran; Miric, Jasmina; Simonovic, Ilija; Bosnjakovic, Danko; Dujko, Sasa

    2016-09-01

    Extensive loss of electrons in strongly attaching gases imposes significant difficulties in Monte Carlo simulations at low electric field strengths. In order to compensate for such losses, some kind of rescaling procedures must be used. In this work, we discuss two rescaling procedures for Monte Carlo simulations of electron transport in strongly attaching gases: (1) discrete rescaling, and (2) continuous rescaling. The discrete rescaling procedure is based on duplication of electrons randomly chosen from the remaining swarm at certain discrete time steps. The continuous rescaling procedure employs a dynamically defined fictitious ionization process with the constant collision frequency chosen to be equal to the attachment collision frequency. These procedures should not in any way modify the distribution function. Monte Carlo calculations of transport coefficients for electrons in SF6 and CF3I are performed in a wide range of electric field strengths. However, special emphasis is placed upon the analysis of transport phenomena in the limit of lower electric fields where the transport properties are strongly affected by electron attachment. Two important phenomena arise: (1) the reduction of the mean energy with increasing E/N for electrons in SF6, and (2) the occurrence of negative differential conductivity in the bulk drift velocity of electrons in both SF6 and CF3I.

  8. Space Weather affects on Air Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. B. L.; Bentley, R. D.; Dyer, C.; Shaw, A.

    In Europe, legislation requires the airline industry to monitor the occupational exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation. However, there are other significant impacts of space weather phenomena on the technological systems used for day-to-day operations which need to be considered by the airlines. These were highlighted by the disruption caused to the industry by the period of significant solar activity in late October and early November 2003. Next generation aircraft will utilize increasingly complex avionics as well as expanding the performance envelopes. These and future generation platforms will require the development of a new air-space management infrastructure with improved position accuracy (for route navigation and landing in bad weather) and reduced separation minima in order to cope with the expected growth in air travel. Similarly, greater reliance will be placed upon satellites for command, control, communication and information (C3I) of the operation. However, to maximize effectiveness of this globally interoperable C3I and ensure seamless fusion of all components for a safe operation will require a greater understanding of the space weather affects, their risks with increasing technology, and the inclusion of space weather information into the operation. This paper will review space weather effects on air transport and the increasing risks for future operations cause by them. We will examine how well the effects can be predicted, some of the tools that can be used and the practicalities of using such predictions in an operational scenario. Initial results from the SOARS ESA Space Weather Pilot Project will also be discussed,

  9. Salicylic acid binding of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain components and plays a role in basal defense against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yangwenke; Tian, Miaoying; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xin; Wang, Yu; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion. SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense and involves a specific pathway mediated by mitochondria; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The SA-binding activity of the recombinant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Slα-kGDH) E2 subunit of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was characterized. The biological role of this binding in plant defenses against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was further investigated via Slα-kGDH E2 silencing and transient overexpression in plants. Slα-kGDH E2 was found to bind SA in two independent assays. SA treatment, as well as Slα-kGDH E2 silencing, increased resistance to TMV. SA did not further enhance TMV defense in Slα-kGDH E2-silenced tomato plants but did reduce TMV susceptibility in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing Slα-kGDH E2. Furthermore, Slα-kGDH E2-silencing-induced TMV resistance was fully blocked by bongkrekic acid application and alternative oxidase 1a silencing. These results indicated that binding by Slα-kGDH E2 of SA acts upstream of and affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which plays an important role in basal defense against TMV. The findings of this study help to elucidate the mechanisms of SA-induced viral defense.

  10. Electron Transport in Solvated Porous Nanocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Artem; Kral, Petr

    2013-03-01

    We study electron transport in porous nanocarbons (PNCs) in vacuum, gases, and ionic solutions. Using state of the art electronic structure methods and nonequilibrium Green's functions techniques, we explore the band structures and the current-voltage characteristics of PNCs with different sizes, shapes, positioning and functionalization of pores, edges, and types of electrodes. We find that the presence of ions and molecules around PNCs can largely influence their electron transmissivity. Therefore, PNCs could be used for highly sensitive detection of ions and polar molecules passing around them.

  11. Numerical solution of the electron transport equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Mark

    The electron transport equation has been solved many times for a variety of reasons. The main difficulty in its numerical solution is that it is a very stiff boundary value problem. The most common numerical methods for solving boundary value problems are symmetric collocation methods and shooting methods. Both of these types of methods can only be applied to the electron transport equation if the boundary conditions are altered with unrealistic assumptions because they require too many points to be practical. Further, they result in oscillating and negative solutions, which are physically meaningless for the problem at hand. For these reasons, all numerical methods for this problem to date are a bit unusual because they were designed to try and avoid the problem of extreme stiffness. This dissertation shows that there is no need to introduce spurious boundary conditions or invent other numerical methods for the electron transport equation. Rather, there already exists methods for very stiff boundary value problems within the numerical analysis literature. We demonstrate one such method in which the fast and slow modes of the boundary value problem are essentially decoupled. This allows for an upwind finite difference method to be applied to each mode as is appropriate. This greatly reduces the number of points needed in the mesh, and we demonstrate how this eliminates the need to define new boundary conditions. This method is verified by showing that under certain restrictive assumptions, the electron transport equation has an exact solution that can be written as an integral. We show that the solution from the upwind method agrees with the quadrature evaluation of the exact solution. This serves to verify that the upwind method is properly solving the electron transport equation. Further, it is demonstrated that the output of the upwind method can be used to compute auroral light emissions.

  12. Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Photoinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Thomas; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja Krieger

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms and isolated photosystems are of interest for technical applications. In nature, photosynthetic electron transport has to work efficiently in contrasting environments such as shade and full sunlight at noon. Photosynthetic electron transport is regulated on many levels, starting with the energy transfer processes in antenna and ending with how reducing power is ultimately partitioned. This review starts by explaining how light energy can be dissipated or distributed by the various mechanisms of non-photochemical quenching, including thermal dissipation and state transitions, and how these processes influence photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII). Furthermore, we will highlight the importance of the various alternative electron transport pathways, including the use of oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor and cyclic flow around photosystem I (PSI), the latter which seem particularly relevant to preventing photoinhibition of photosystem I. The control of excitation pressure in combination with the partitioning of reducing power influences the light-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species in PSII and in PSI, which may be a very important consideration to any artificial photosynthetic system or technical device using photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24678670

  13. Modeling electronic quantum transport with machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole

    2014-06-01

    We present a machine learning approach to solve electronic quantum transport equations of one-dimensional nanostructures. The transmission coefficients of disordered systems were computed to provide training and test data sets to the machine. The system's representation encodes energetic as well as geometrical information to characterize similarities between disordered configurations, while the Euclidean norm is used as a measure of similarity. Errors for out-of-sample predictions systematically decrease with training set size, enabling the accurate and fast prediction of new transmission coefficients. The remarkable performance of our model to capture the complexity of interference phenomena lends further support to its viability in dealing with transport problems of undulatory nature.

  14. The effect of electron-electron interaction induced dephasing on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kahnoj, Sina Soleimani; Touski, Shoeib Babaee; Pourfath, Mahdi E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at

    2014-09-08

    The effect of dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons is theoretically investigated. In the presence of disorder in graphene nanoribbons, wavefunction of electrons can set up standing waves along the channel and the conductance exponentially decreases with the ribbon's length. Employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism along with an accurate model for describing the dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction, we show that this kind of interaction prevents localization and transport of electrons remains in the diffusive regime where the conductance is inversely proportional to the ribbon's length.

  15. Self-consistent electron transport in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Gatto, R.; Chavdarovski, I.

    2007-09-15

    Electron particle, momentum, and energy fluxes in axisymmetric toroidal devices are derived from a version of the action-angle collision operator that includes both diffusion and drag in action-space [D. A. Hitchcock, R. D. Hazeltine, and S. M. Mahajan, Phys. Fluids 26, 2603 (1983); H. E. Mynick, J. Plasma Phys. 39, 303 (1988)]. A general result of the theory is that any contribution to transport originating directly from the toroidal frequency of the particle motion is constrained to be zero when the electron temperature is equal to the ion temperature. In particular, this constraint applies to those components of the particle and energy fluxes that are proportional to the magnetic shear, independent of the underlying turbulence and of whether the particles are trapped or untrapped. All the total fluxes describing collisionless transport of passing electrons in steady-state magnetic turbulence contain contributions proportional to the conventional thermodynamic drives, which are always outward, and contributions proportional to the magnetic shear, which have both magnitude and sign dependent on the ion-electron temperature ratio. The turbulent generalization of Ohm's law includes a hyper-resistive term, which flattens the current density profile on a fast time scale, and a turbulent electric field, which can have both signs depending on the electron-ion temperature ratio.

  16. Electron transport fluxes in potato plateau regime

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    Electron transport fluxes in the potato plateau regime are calculated from the solutions of the drift kinetic equation and fluid equations. It is found that the bootstrap current density remains finite in the region close to the magnetic axis, although it decreases with increasing collision frequency. This finite amount of the bootstrap current in the relatively collisional regime is important in modeling tokamak startup with 100{percent} bootstrap current. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Electronic transport in arrays of gold nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    We examine electronic transport through two-dimensional arrays of gold nanocrystals. Recently developed techniques of particle synthesis and array self-assembly provide ordered (and disordered) monolayers of six-nanometer diameter gold nanocrystals on substrates with in-plane electrodes. These well-characterized superlattices allow investigation of basic questions about electronic conduction in metal quantum dot assemblies, answers to which have previously remained elusive. We first address the relation between current and voltage. Central to transport is the Coulomb blockade, the energetic cost of adding a single electron to a nanocrystal. Theoretical studies suggest power-law scaling of current beyond a threshold voltage in Coulomb blockade dominated systems. In ordered arrays, our data follow a power-law form, but with a scaling exponent significantly higher than the theoretical prediction. In disordered arrays, power-law scaling is violated; we explain that disorder disturbs the branching of current-carrying paths responsible for power-law conduction. Second, we examine the effect of temperature on transport. We find a large low-temperature regime (up to about 100 K) in which thermal energy acts only to linearly suppress the threshold voltage, leaving the current scale unaffected. We provide a simple, analytic model of thermally assisted tunneling which quantitatively describes the data. Third, we develop a simple and novel technique to tune the interparticle electronic couplings of the arrays---deposition of small amounts of germanium on the monolayers. The germanium dopant lowers the voltage threshold, and also increases conductivity. It also increases the temperature dependence of transport, suggesting the introduction of trapped states between the gold nanocrystal cores.

  18. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, M. L.; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  19. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L. Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  20. Electronic transport in smectic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyanovskaya, I.; Singer, K. D.; Twieg, R. J.; Sukhomlinova, L.; Gettwert, V.

    2002-04-01

    Time-of-flight measurements of transient photoconductivity have revealed bipolar electronic transport in phenylnaphthalene and biphenyl liquid crystals (LC), which exhibit several smectic mesophases. In the phenylnaphthalene LC, the hole mobility is significantly higher than the electron mobility and exhibits different temperature and phase behavior. Electron mobility in the range ~10-5 cm2/V s is temperature activated and remains continuous at the phase transitions. However, hole mobility is nearly temperature independent within the smectic phases, but is very sensitive to smectic order, 10-3 cm2/V s in the smectic-B (Sm-B) and 10-4 cm2/V s in the smectic-A (Sm-A) mesophases. The different behavior for holes and electron transport is due to differing transport mechanisms. The electron mobility is apparently controlled by rate-limiting multiple shallow trapping by impurities, but hole mobility is not. To explain the lack of temperature dependence for hole mobility within the smectic phases we consider two possible polaron transport mechanisms. The first mechanism is based on the hopping of Holstein small polarons in the nonadiabatic limit. The polaron binding energy and transfer integral values, obtained from the model fit, turned out to be sensitive to the molecular order in smectic mesophases. A second possible scenario for temperature-independent hole mobility involves the competion between two different polaron mechanisms involving so-called nearly small molecular polarons and small lattice polarons. Although the extracted transfer integrals and binding energies are reasonable and consistent with the model assumptions, the limited temperature range of the various phases makes it difficult to distinguish between any of the models. In the biphenyl LCs both electron and hole mobilities exhibit temperature activated behavior in the range of 10-5 cm2/V s without sensitivity to the molecular order. The dominating transport mechanism is considered as multiple trapping

  1. Runaway electron transport via tokamak microturbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Hauff, T.; Jenko, F.

    2009-10-15

    The mechanisms found for the magnetic transport of fast ions in the work of Hauff et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 075004 (2009)] are extended to the diffusion of runaway electrons. Due to their smaller mass and larger energy, they behave strongly relativistically, for which reason the scaling laws defined previously have to be modified. It is found that due to these changes, the regime of constant magnetic transport does not exist anymore, but diffusivity scales with E{sup -1} for magnetic transport, or even with E{sup -2} in the case that finite gyroradius effects become important. It is shown that the modified analytical approaches are able to explain the surprisingly small values found in experiments, although it cannot be excluded that possibly other reduction mechanisms are present at the same time.

  2. Quantum electron transport in toroidal carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jack, Mark; Encinosa, Mario

    2008-03-01

    Electron transport under bias is treated in tight-binding approximation using a non-equilibrium Green's function approach. Density-of-states D(E), transmissivity T(E), and current ISD are calculated through a (3,3) armchair nanotorus with laterally attached metallic leads and a magnetic field penetrating the toroidal plane. Plateaus in T(E) through the torus are observed as a function of both the relative angle between leads and magnetic flux. Initial computational studies performed with 1800 atoms and attached leads show substantial computational slowdown when increasing the system size by a factor of two. Results are generated by inverting the device Hamiltonian with a standard recursion method extended to account for unit cell toroidal closure. Significant computational speed-up is expected for a parallelized code on a multiprocessor computer cluster. The dependence of electronic features on torus size and torus curvature is tested for three tori with 900, 1800 and 3600 carbon atoms, respectively. References: 1. M. Jack and M. Encinosa, Quantum electron transport in toroidal carbon nanotubes with metallic leads. ArXiv: quant-ph/0709.0760. 2. M. Encinosa and M. Jack, Dipole and solenoidal magnetic moments of electronic surface currents on toroidal nanostructures. J. Comp.-Aided Mat. Design (Springer), 14 (1) (2007) 65 -- 71.

  3. Studies of runaway electron transport in TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Pei-Wen.

    1991-12-01

    The transport of runaway electrons is studied by a plasma position shift experiment and by imposing an externally applied perturbing magnetic field on the edge. The perturbing magnetic field can produce either magnetic islands or, with overlapping islands, a stochastic field. Hard X-ray signals are then measured and compared with analytic and numerical model results. Diffusion coefficients in the edge, {approximately}10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/sec, and inside the plasma, {approximately}10{sup 2} {minus} 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2}/sec, are estimated. The averaged drift effects are small and the intrinsic magnetic fluctuations are estimated to be < (b{sub r}/B{sub 0}){sup 2} > {approximately}1-{sup {minus}10} at the edge and decreasing inward. Runaway electrons are a good diagnostic of the magnetic fluctuations. It is considered that the magnetic fluctuations have a negligible effect on electron thermal diffusion in the edge plasma.

  4. On electron transport through Geobacter biofilms.

    PubMed

    Bond, Daniel R; Strycharz-Glaven, Sarah M; Tender, Leonard M; Torres, César I

    2012-06-01

    Geobacter spp. can form a biofilm that is more than 20 μm thick on an anode surface by utilizing the anode as a terminal respiratory electron acceptor. Just how microbes transport electrons through a thick biofilm and across the biofilm/anode interface, and what determines the upper limit to biofilm thickness and catalytic activity (i.e., current, the rate at which electrons are transferred to the anode), are fundamental questions attracting substantial attention. A significant body of experimental evidence suggests that electrons are transferred from individual cells through a network of cytochromes associated with cell outer membranes, within extracellular polymeric substances, and along pili. Here, we describe what is known about this extracellular electron transfer process, referred to as electron superexchange, and its proposed role in biofilm anode respiration. Superexchange is able to account for many different types of experimental results, as well as for the upper limit to biofilm thickness and catalytic activity that Geobacter biofilm anodes can achieve.

  5. Electronic transport in graphene-based heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, J. Y.; Avsar, A.; Balakrishnan, J.; Taychatanapat, T.; O'Farrell, E. C. T.; Eda, G.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Koon, G. K. W.; Özyilmaz, B.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.

    2014-05-05

    While boron nitride (BN) substrates have been utilized to achieve high electronic mobilities in graphene field effect transistors, it is unclear how other layered two dimensional (2D) crystals influence the electronic performance of graphene. In this Letter, we study the surface morphology of 2D BN, gallium selenide (GaSe), and transition metal dichalcogenides (tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2})) crystals and their influence on graphene's electronic quality. Atomic force microscopy analysis shows that these crystals have improved surface roughness (root mean square value of only ∼0.1 nm) compared to conventional SiO{sub 2} substrate. While our results confirm that graphene devices exhibit very high electronic mobility (μ) on BN substrates, graphene devices on WS{sub 2} substrates (G/WS{sub 2}) are equally promising for high quality electronic transport (μ ∼ 38 000 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature), followed by G/MoS{sub 2} (μ ∼ 10 000 cm{sup 2}/V s) and G/GaSe (μ ∼ 2200 cm{sup 2}/V s). However, we observe a significant asymmetry in electron and hole conduction in G/WS{sub 2} and G/MoS{sub 2} heterostructures, most likely due to the presence of sulphur vacancies in the substrate crystals. GaSe crystals are observed to degrade over time even under ambient conditions, leading to a large hysteresis in graphene transport making it a less suitable substrate.

  6. BiP negatively affects ricin transport.

    PubMed

    Gregers, Tone F; Skånland, Sigrid S; Wälchli, Sébastien; Bakke, Oddmund; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2013-05-10

    The AB plant toxin ricin binds both glycoproteins and glycolipids at the cell surface via its B subunit. After binding, ricin is endocytosed and then transported retrogradely through the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the ER, the A subunit is retrotranslocated to the cytosol in a chaperone-dependent process, which is not fully explored. Recently two separate siRNA screens have demonstrated that ER chaperones have implications for ricin toxicity. ER associated degradation (ERAD) involves translocation of misfolded proteins from ER to cytosol and it is conceivable that protein toxins exploit this pathway. The ER chaperone BiP is an important ER regulator and has been implicated in toxicity mediated by cholera and Shiga toxin. In this study, we have investigated the role of BiP in ricin translocation to the cytosol. We first show that overexpression of BiP inhibited ricin translocation and protected cells against the toxin. Furthermore, shRNA-mediated depletion of BiP enhanced toxin translocation resulting in increased cytotoxicity. BiP-dependent inhibition of ricin toxicity was independent of ER stress. Our findings suggest that in contrast to what was shown with the Shiga toxin, the presence of BiP does not facilitate, but rather inhibits the entry of ricin into the cytosol.

  7. Unconventional dc Transport in Rashba Electron Gases.

    PubMed

    Brosco, Valentina; Benfatto, Lara; Cappelluti, Emmanuele; Grimaldi, Claudio

    2016-04-22

    We discuss the transport properties of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We show that in the high-density regime where the Fermi energy overcomes the energy associated with spin-orbit coupling, dc transport is accurately described by a standard Drude's law, due to a nontrivial compensation between the suppression of backscattering and the relativistic correction to the quasiparticle velocity. On the contrary, when the system enters the opposite dominant spin-orbit regime, Drude's paradigm breaks down and the dc conductivity becomes strongly sensitive to the spin-orbit coupling strength, providing a suitable tool to test the entanglement between spin and charge degrees of freedom in these systems.

  8. Electron Transport in Short Peptide Single Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jing; Brisendine, Joseph; Ng, Fay; Nuckolls, Colin; Koder, Ronald; Venkarataman, Latha

    We present a study of the electron transport through a series of short peptides using scanning tunneling microscope-based break junction method. Our work is motivated by the need to gain a better understanding of how various levels of protein structure contribute to the remarkable capacity of proteins to transport charge in biophysical processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. We focus here on short mono, di and tri-peptides, and probe their conductance when bound to gold electrodes in a native buffer environment. We first show that these peptides can bind to gold through amine, carboxyl, thiol and methyl-sulfide termini. We then focus on two systems (glycine and alanine) and show that their conductance decays faster than alkanes terminated by the same linkers. Importantly, our results show that the peptide bond is less conductive than a sigma carbon-carbon bond. This work was supported in part by NSF-DMR 1507440.

  9. Electronic transport in Pd nanocluster devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayesh, A. I.

    2011-03-01

    Palladium nanoclusters with an average diameter of 6.7 nm are prepared by magnetron sputtering and inert gas condensation technique. The nanoclusters are deposited between a pair of electrodes defined by optical lithography to create the device. The electronic transport in the devices is investigated by systematic current-voltage measurements. It is demonstrated through fitting the conductance-temperature profile into a conductance model that the conductance in the device is dominated by tunneling. The fitting provides meaningful physical parameters such as the number of nanoclusters within the conduction path, and it shows that some of the nanoclusters are fused together.

  10. Electronic and Ionic Transport in Polymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-06

    PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION Defense Advanced (if applicable) Research Projects Agency DARPA 1100014-86-K-0769 8c ADDRESS...include Area Code) I22c. OFFiC_: SYM80L Dr. JoAnn Millikan (202) 696-4410 1 DO FORM 1473,84 -MAR 83 APR eaition may be usea until exnaustea. SECURITY...3811 Cognizant ONR Scientific Officer: Dr. JoAnn Millikan Contract No.: N00014-86-K-0769 Short Title of Work: "Electronic and Ionic Transport in Polymers

  11. Current Issues in Electron and Positron Transport Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, Robert

    2007-10-01

    In this paper we review the current status of transport theory for low energy electrons or positrons in gases, in the context of both kinetic theory and fluid modelling. In particular, we focus on the following issues: (i) Muliterm vs two-term representation of the velocity distribution function in solution of Boltzmann's equation; (ii) the effect of non-conservative collisions (attachment, ionization, positron annihilation) on transport properties; (iii) the enduring electron- hydrogen vibrational cross section controversy and possible implications for the Boltzmann equation itself; (iv) closure of the fluid equations and the heat flux ansatz; and (v) correct use of swarm transport coefficients in fluid modelling of low temperature plasmas. Both hydrodynamic and non-hydrodynamic examples will be given, with attention focussed on the Franck-Hertz experiment, particularly the ``window'' of fields in which oscillations of transport properties are produced, and the way in which electric and magnetic fields combine to affect transport properties. In collaboration with co-authors Z. LJ. Petrovi'c, Institute of Physics Belgrade, and R.D. White, James Cook University.

  12. RHIC electron lens beam transport system design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Y.; Heimerle, M.; Fischer, W.; Pikin, A.; Beebe, E.; Bruno, D.; Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; Gupta, R. C.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.; Lambiase, R.; Mapes, M.; Meng, W.; Montag, C.; Oerter, B.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Tan, Y.; Than, R.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, W.

    2010-08-03

    To apply head-on beam-beam compensation for RHIC, two electron lenses are designed and will be installed at IP6 and IP8. Each electron lens has several sub-systems, including electron gun, electron collector, superconducting main solenoid (SM), diagnostics system and power supply system. In addition to these systems, beam transport system which can transport electron beam from electron gun side to collector side is also needed.

  13. Transport of the plasma sheet electrons to the geostationary distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganushkina, N. Y.; Amariutei, O. A.; Shprits, Y.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    The transport and acceleration of low energy electrons (10-250 keV) from the plasma sheet to the geostationary orbit were investigated. Two moderate storm events, which occurred on November 6-7, 1997 and June 12-14, 2005, were modeled using the Inner Magnetosphere Particle Transport and Acceleration model (IMPTAM) with the boundary set at 10 RE in the plasma sheet. The output of the IMPTAM model was compared to the observed electron fluxes in four energy ranges measured onboard the LANL spacecraft by the SOPA instrument. It was found that the large-scale convection in combination with substorm-associated impulsive fields are the drivers of the transport of plasma sheet electrons from 10 RE to geostationary orbit at 6.6 RE during storm times. The addition of radial diffusion had no significant influence on the modeled electron fluxes. At the same time, comparison between the modeled electron fluxes and observed ones showed two orders of difference most likely due to inaccuracy of electron boundary conditions and omission of the important loss processes due to wave-particle interactions. This did not allow us to accuractly reproduce the dynamics of 150-225 keV electron fluxes. The choice of the large-scale convection electric field model used in simulations did not significantly influence on the modeled electron fluxes, since there is not much difference between the equipotential contours given by the Volland-Stern and Boyle et al. [1997] models at the distances from 10 to 6.6 RE in the plasma sheet. Using the TS05 model for the background magnetic field instead of the T96 model resulted in larger deviations of the modeled electron fluxes from the observed ones due to specific features of the TS05 model. The increase in the modeled electron fluxes can be as large as three orders of magnitude when substorm-associated electromagnetic fields were taken into account. The obtained model distribution of low energy electron fluxes can be used as an input to the radiation

  14. Transport of the plasma sheet electrons to the geostationary distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganushkina, N. Y.; Amariutei, O. A.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">The <span class="hlt">transport</span> and acceleration of low-energy <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (50-250 keV) from the plasma sheet to the geostationary orbit were investigated. Two moderate storm events, which occurred on 6-7 November 1997 and 12-14 June 2005, were modeled using the Inner Magnetosphere Particle <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Acceleration model (IMPTAM) with the boundary set at 10 RE in the plasma sheet. The output of the IMPTAM was compared to the observed <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes in four energy ranges (50-225 keV) measured by the Synchronous Orbit Particle Analyzer instrument onboard the Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft. It was found that the large-scale convection in combination with substorm-associated impulsive fields is the drivers of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of plasma sheet <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from 10 RE to geostationary orbit at 6.6 RE during storm times. The addition of radial diffusion had no significant influence on the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes. At the same time, the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes are one (two) order(s) smaller than the observed ones for 50-150 keV (150-225 keV) <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, respectively, most likely due to inaccuracy of <span class="hlt">electron</span> boundary conditions. The loss processes due to wave-particle interactions were not considered. The choice of the large-scale convection electric field model used in simulations did not have a significant influence on the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes, since there is not much difference between the equipotential contours given by the Volland-Stern and the Boyle et al. (1997) models at distances from 10 to 6.6 RE in the plasma sheet. Using the TS05 model for the background magnetic field instead of the T96 model resulted in larger deviations of the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes from the observed ones due to specific features of the TS05 model. The increase in the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes can be as large as two orders of magnitude when substorm-associated electromagnetic fields were taken into account. The obtained model distribution of low-energy <span class="hlt">electron</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanot..25l0201D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanot..25l0201D"><span>Ion age <span class="hlt">transport</span>: developing devices beyond <span class="hlt">electronics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demming, Anna</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>There is more to current devices than conventional <span class="hlt">electronics</span>. Increasingly research into the controlled movement of ions and molecules is enabling a range of new technologies. For example, as Weihua Guan, Sylvia Xin Li and Mark Reed at Yale University explain, 'It offers a unique opportunity to integrate wet ionics with dry <span class="hlt">electronics</span> seamlessly'. In this issue they provide an overview of voltage-gated ion and molecule <span class="hlt">transport</span> in engineered nanochannels. They cover the theory governing these systems and fabrication techniques, as well as applications, including biological and chemical analysis, and energy conversion [1]. Studying the movement of particles in nanochannels is not new. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> of materials in rock pores led Klinkenberg to describe an analogy between diffusion and electrical conductivity in porous rocks back in 1951 [2]. And already in 1940, Harold Abramson and Manuel Gorin noted that 'When an electric current is applied across the living human skin, the skin may be considered to act like a system of pores through which transfer of substances like ragweed pollen extract may be achieved both by electrophoretic and by diffusion phenomena' [3]. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in living systems through pore structures on a much smaller scale has attracted a great deal of research in recent years as well. The selective <span class="hlt">transport</span> of ions and small organic molecules across the cell membrane facilitates a number of functions including communication between cells, nerve conduction and signal transmission. Understanding these processes may benefit a wide range of potential applications such as selective separation, biochemical sensing, and controlled release and drug delivery processes. In Germany researchers have successfully demonstrated controlled ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> through nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes [4]. The polymer nanobrushes swell and shrink in response to changes in temperature, thus opening and closing the nanopore passage to ionic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........32D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........32D"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through magnetic quantum point contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Day, Timothy Ellis</p> <p></p> <p>Spin-based <span class="hlt">electronics</span>, or spintronics, has generated a great deal of interest as a possible next-generation integrated circuit technology. Recent experimental and theoretical work has shown that these devices could exhibit increased processing speed, decreased power consumption, and increased integration densities as compared with conventional semiconductor devices. The spintronic device that was designed, fabricated, and tested throughout the course of this work aimed to study the generation of spin-polarized currents in semiconductors using magnetic fringe fields. The device scheme relied on the Zeeman effect in combination with a quantum mechanical barrier to generate spin-polarized currents. The Zeeman effect was used to break the degeneracy of spin-up and spin-down <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and the quantum mechanical potential to transmit one while rejecting the other. The design was dictated by the drive to maximize the strength of the magnetic fringe field and in turn maximize the energy separation of the two spin species. The device was fabricated using advanced techniques in semiconductor processing including <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam lithography and DC magnetron sputtering. Measurements were performed in a 3He cryostat equipped with a superconducting magnet at temperatures below 300 mK. Preliminary characterization of the device revealed magnetoconductance oscillations produced by the effect of the transverse confining potential on the density of states and the mobility. Evidence of the effect of the magnetic fringe fields on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the device were observed in multiple device measurements. An abrupt washout of the quantized conductance steps was observed over a minute range of the applied magnetic field. The washout was again observed as <span class="hlt">electrons</span> were shifted closer to the magnetic gates. In addition, bias spectroscopy demonstrated that the washout occurred despite stronger <span class="hlt">electron</span> confinement, as compared to a non-magnetic split-gate. Thus, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5821413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5821413"><span>Effects of Cu deficiency on photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Droppa, M.; Terry, N.; Horvath, G.</p> <p>1984-04-01</p> <p>The role of copper (Cu) in photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> was explored by using Cu deficiency in sugar beet as an experimental approach. Copper influenced <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at two sites in addition to plastocyanin. Under mild deficiency (0.84 nmol of Cu per cm/sup 2/ of leaf area), <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> between the two photosystems (PS) is inhibited but not <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> within PS I or PS II measured separately. The chlorophyll/plastoquinone ratio was normal in Cu-deficient plants. However, the breakpoint in the Arrhenius plot of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> was shifted towards a higher temperature. It is concluded that Cu is necessary to maintain the appropriate membrane fluidity to ensure the mobility of plastoquinone molecules to transfer <span class="hlt">electrons</span> between the two photosystems. Under severe deficiency (0.22 nmol of Cu per cm/sup 2/ of leaf area) both PS II and PS I <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transports</span> were inhibited and to the same extent. PS II <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> activity could not be restored by adding artifical <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors. Polypeptides with M/sub r/s of 28,000 and 13,500 were missing in Cu-deficient chloroplast membranes. In PS II particles prepared from normal chloroplasts of spinach, 2 atoms of Cu per reaction center are present. We conclude that Cu influences PS II <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> either directly, by participation in <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer as a constituent of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> carrier, or indirectly, via the polypeptide composition of the membrane in the PS II complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415682','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415682"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> scattering and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in liquid argon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D.; McEachran, R. P.</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">transport</span> of excess <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......216G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......216G"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Novel Graphene Nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gannett, William Joy</p> <p></p> <p>Graphene, a single sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, is a two-dimensional material with an array of unique <span class="hlt">electronic</span>, chemical, and mechanical properties. Applications including high performance transistors, chemical sensors, and composite materials have already been demonstrated. The introduction of chemical vapor deposition growth of monolayer graphene was an important step towards scalability of such devices. In addition to scalability, the exploration and application of these properties require the fabrication of high quality devices with low carrier scattering. They also require the development of unique geometries and materials combinations to exploit the highly tunable nature of graphene. This dissertation presents the synthesis of materials, fabrication of devices, and measurement of those devices for three previously unexplored types of graphene devices. The first type of device is a field effect transistor made from chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) substrates. We demonstrate a significant improvement in carrier mobility from hBN substrates and are able to explore the sources of scattering in CVD graphene. The second type of device, fluorinated graphene transistors, allows us to examine doping and disorder effects from fluorination of the graphene crystal as well as <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through unfluorinated folds in the graphene. With the third type of device we demonstrate a new route to graphene nanoribbon devices using both hBN flakes and BN nanotubes that may reduce disorder and allow precise measurements of quantum phenomena in graphene nanoribbons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11988637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11988637"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain defects in heart failure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Casademont, Jordi; Miró, Oscar</p> <p>2002-04-01</p> <p>In recent years, the possibility that disorders of cardiac metabolism play a role in the mechanisms that lead to ventricular dilatation and dysfunction in heart failure has attracted much attention. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain is constituted by a series of multimeric protein complexes, located in the inner mitochondrial membranes, whose genes are distributed over both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Its normal function is essential to provide the energy for cardiac function. Many studies have described abnormalities in mitochondrial DNA genes encoding for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain (ETC) in dilated cardiomyopathies. In some cases, heart failure is one more or less relevant symptom among other multisystem manifestations characteristic of mitochondrial encephalomyopathies, being heart failure imputable to a primary mitochondrial disease. In the case of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies (IDC), many mitochondrial abnormalities have also been described using hystological, biochemical or molecular studies. The importance of such findings is under debate. The great variability in the mitochondrial abnormalities described has prompted the proposal that mitochondrial dysfunction could be a secondary phenomenon in IDC, and not a primary one. Among other possible explanations for such findings, the presence of an increased oxidative damage due to a free radical excess has been postulated. In this setting, the dysfunction of ETC could be a consequence, but also a cause of the presence of an increased free radical damage. Independently of its origin, ETC dysfunction may contribute to the persistence and worsening of heart failure. If this hypothesis, still to be proven, was certain, the modulation of cardiac metabolism could be an interesting approach to treat IDC. The precise mechanisms that lead to ventricular dilatation and dysfunction in heart failure are still nowadays poorly understood. Circumstances such as cytotoxic insults, viral infections, immune abnormalities</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...82..129F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...82..129F"><span>Reprint of : Time dependent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chiral edge channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We study time dependent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> along the chiral edge channels of the quantum Hall regime, focusing on the role of Coulomb interaction. In the low frequency regime, the a.c. conductance can be derived from a lumped element description of the circuit. At higher frequencies, the propagation equations of the Coulomb coupled edge channels need to be solved. As a consequence of the interchannel coupling, a charge pulse emitted in a given channel fractionalized in several pulses. In particular, Coulomb interaction between channels leads to the fractionalization of a charge pulse emitted in a given channel in several pulses. We finally study how the Coulomb interaction, and in particular the fractionalization process, <span class="hlt">affects</span> the propagation of a single <span class="hlt">electron</span> in the circuit. All the above-mentioned topics are illustrated by experimental realizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1012258','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1012258"><span>Designing a beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> system for RHIC's <span class="hlt">electron</span> lens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gu, X.; Pikin, A.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Raparia, D.</p> <p>2011-03-28</p> <p>We designed two <span class="hlt">electron</span> lenses to apply head-on beam-beam compensation for RHIC; they will be installed near IP10. The <span class="hlt">electron</span>-beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> system is an important subsystem of the entire <span class="hlt">electron</span>-lens system. <span class="hlt">Electrons</span> are <span class="hlt">transported</span> from the <span class="hlt">electron</span> gun to the main solenoid and further to the collector. The system must allow for changes of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam size inside the superconducting magnet, and for changes of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> position by 5 mm in the horizontal- and vertical-planes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhDT.......152M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhDT.......152M"><span>Charge <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Characterization of Novel <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> Materials.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marcy, Henry Orlando, 5th.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The work presented includes analysis of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> data and related measurements for the following types of materials: molecular metals and conducting polymers based upon phthalocyanine (Pc) building blocks, new composites of conducting polymers with inorganic polymeric and layered materials, and both bulk and thin film samples of the high -T_{rm c} ceramic superconductors. To successfully study such a wide spectrum of materials, the charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> instrumentation has evolved into multiple computer-controlled experimental arrangements which process data for temperature dependent ac and dc conductivity, thermoelectric power, critical current density, and other measurements, over the temperature range of 1.5 K to 400 K. The phthalocyanine-based molecular metals and conducting polymers exhibit some of the highest reported conductivities for environmentally stable organic conductors, and possess a unique structure which is inherently resistant to large structural transformations upon donor/acceptor doping. These properties are demonstrated primarily by results for Ni(Pc)(ClO_4) _{rm y} and { (Si(Pc)O) X_{rm y}}_{rm n}. The rigidly-enforced structure of the latter system of materials allows for controllable tuning of the band-filling and hence, the charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of an organic conductor, from insulating to metal-like behavior, without any major structural alterations of the polymeric backbone. Other types of polymeric samples for which results are presented consist of composite fibers formed from the rigid rod polymers, Kevlar and PBT, "alloyed" with the (Pc)-based conducting polymers, and new microlaminates formed by intercalating various conducting polymers into the van der Waals gap of inorganic, layered host materials. Significant success has been achieved in the fabrication of superconducting films of Y-Ba-Cu-O, Bi-Sr(Pb)-Ca-Cu -O, and Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O by organometallic chemical vapor deposition. Results are also presented for films prepared</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981717','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981717"><span>Transition in <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in a Cylindrical Hall Thruster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>J.B. Parker, Y. Raitses, and N.J. Fisch</p> <p>2010-06-02</p> <p>Through the use of high-speed camera and Langmuir probe measurements in a cylindrical Hall thruster, we report the discovery of a rotating spoke of increased plasma density and light emission which correlates with increased <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across the magnetic field. As cathode <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission is increased, a sharp transition occurs where the spoke disappears and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> decreases. This suggests that a significant fraction of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> current might be directed through the spoke.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27315525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27315525"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> and Ionic <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Dynamics in Organolead Halide Perovskites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Dehui; Wu, Hao; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wang, Gongming; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng</p> <p>2016-07-26</p> <p>Ion migration has been postulated as the underlying mechanism responsible for the hysteresis in organolead halide perovskite devices. However, the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> dynamics and how they impact each other in organolead halide perovskites remain elusive to date. Here we report a systematic investigation of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> dynamics in organolead halide perovskite microplate crystals and thin films using temperature-dependent transient response measurements. Our study reveals that thermally activated ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conduction coexist in perovskite devices. The extracted activation energies suggest that the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is easier, but ions migrate harder in microplates than in thin films, demonstrating that the crystalline quality and grain boundaries can fundamentally modify <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> in perovskites. These findings offer valuable insight on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> dynamics in organolead halide perovskites, which is critical for optimizing perovskite devices with reduced hysteresis and improved stability and efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6353196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6353196"><span>The induction of microsomal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> enzymes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waterman, M R; Estabrook, R W</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Liver endoplasmic reticulum contains as NADPH-dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> complex where the family of hemeproteins, termed cytochrome P-450, serve as catalysts for the oxidation of a variety of different organic chemicals. The content and inventory of the types of cytochrome P-450 is readily modified following in vivo treatment of animals with 'inducing agents' such as barbiturates, steroids and polycyclic hydrocarbons. Recent studies have applied the methods of molecular biology to evaluate changes in the transcription and translation of genomic information occurring concomitant with the initiation of synthesis of various types of cytochrome P-450. The ability to isolate unique cytochrome P-450 proteins and to prepare specific antibodies now permits the study of in vitro translation of mRNA and the preparation of specific cDNAs. The present review summarizes the historic background leading to current concepts of cytochrome P-450 induction and describes recent advances in our knowledge of the regulation of cytochrome P-450 synthesis in the liver.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPhD...41v5105K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPhD...41v5105K"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> injection and <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism in organic devices based on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khan, M. A.; Xu, Wei; Khizar-ul-Haq; Zhang, Xiao Wen; Bai, Yu; Jiang, X. Y.; Zhang, Z. L.; Zhu, W. Q.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> injection and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in organic devices based on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> (ET) materials, such as 4,7- diphyenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bathophenanthroline BPhen), 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bathocuproine BCP) and bipyridyl oxadiazole compound 1,3-bis [2-(2,2'-bipyridin-6-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-5-yl]benzene (Bpy-OXD), have been reported. The devices are composed of ITO/ET materials (BPhen, BCP Bpy-OXD)/cathodes, where cathodes = Au, Al and Ca. Current-voltage characteristics of each ET material are performed as a function of cathodes. We have found that Ca and Al exhibit quite different J-V characteristics compared with the gold (Au) cathode. The current is more than one order of magnitude higher for the Al cathode and more than three orders of magnitude higher for Ca compared with that of the Au cathode at ~8 V for all ET materials. This is because of the relatively low energy barrier at the organic/metal interface for Ca and Al cathodes. <span class="hlt">Electron</span>-only devices with the Au cathode show that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer limitation is located at the organic/cathode interface and the Fowler-Nordheim mechanism is qualitatively consistent with experimental data at high voltages. With Ca and Al cathodes, <span class="hlt">electron</span> conduction is preponderant and is bulk limited. A power law dependence J ~ Vm with m > 2 is consistent with the model of trap-charge limited conduction. The total <span class="hlt">electron</span> trap density is estimated to be ~5 × 1018 cm-3. The critical voltage (Vc) is found to be ~45 V and is almost independent of the materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=305503','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=305503"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Bacillus popilliae1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pepper, Rollin E.; Costilow, Ralph N.</p> <p>1965-01-01</p> <p>Pepper, Rollin E. (Michigan State University, East Lansing), and Ralph N. Costilow. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Bacillus popilliae. J. Bacteriol. 89:271–276. 1965.—Bacillus popilliae was found to be unique among aerobic microorganisms in that it was deficient in a hydrogen peroxide-scavenging system. Neither catalase nor peroxidase was found. At the same time, a system for producing hydrogen peroxide during oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH2) was consistently present in the soluble fraction of extracts of cells from older cultures. Cells harvested from 9-hr cultures did not produce a significant amount of peroxide. The soluble NADH2 oxidase was apparently a flavoprotein, since it was stimulated by flavin nucleotides, insensitive to cyanide and azide, and inhibited by Atabrine. Also, difference spectra demonstrated the presence of a reducible flavin in the soluble fraction of cell extracts. The particulate fraction of cell extracts was shown by difference spectra to contain cytochrome b1; the strong inhibition of NADH2 oxidation by cyanide, azide, and carbon monoxide indicated that a terminal cytochrome oxidase was also present. This system was also flavin-dependent, since it was strongly inhibited by Atabrine. The specific activity of the NADH2 oxidase in the particulate fraction was lower in extracts of cells from older cultures than in those from exponentially growing cultures. Cytochrome c was not found in extracts of these cells. It is believed that the increased participation of the hydrogen peroxide-generating NADH2 oxidase in cells of older cultures may be responsible for the rapid loss in cell viability noted in stationary-phase cultures. PMID:14255689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17882235','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17882235"><span>Enhanced serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> function during depression in seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Willeit, Matthäus; Sitte, Harald H; Thierry, Nikolaus; Michalek, Klaus; Praschak-Rieder, Nicole; Zill, Peter; Winkler, Dietmar; Brannath, Werner; Fischer, Michael B; Bondy, Brigitta; Kasper, Siegfried; Singer, Ernst A</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Decreased synaptic serotonin during depressive episodes is a central element of the monoamine hypothesis of depression. The serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> (5-HTT, SERT) is a key molecule for the control of synaptic serotonin levels. Here we aimed to detect state-related alterations in the efficiency of 5-HTT-mediated inward and outward <span class="hlt">transport</span> in platelets of drug-free depressed patients suffering from seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder (SAD). 5-HTT turnover rate, a measure for the number of inward <span class="hlt">transport</span> events per minute, and tyramine-induced, 5-HTT-mediated outward <span class="hlt">transport</span> were assessed at baseline, after 4 weeks of bright light therapy, and in summer using a case-control design in a consecutive sample of 73 drug-free depressed patients with SAD and 70 nonseasonal healthy controls. Patients were drug-naive or medication-free for at least 6 months prior to study inclusion, females patients were studied in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. All participants were genotyped for a 5-HTT-promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) to assess the influence of this polymorphism on 5-HTT parameters. Efficiency of 5-HTT-mediated inward (p=0.014) and outward (p=0.003) <span class="hlt">transport</span> was enhanced in depressed patients. Both measures normalized toward control levels after therapy and in natural summer remission. Changes in outward <span class="hlt">transport</span> showed a clear correlation with treatment response (rho=0.421, p=0.001). Changes in inward <span class="hlt">transport</span> were mediated by changes in 5-HTT <span class="hlt">transport</span> efficiency rather than affinity or density. 5-HTTLPR was not associated with any of the 5-HTT parameters. In sum, we conclude that the 5-HTT is in a hyperfunctional state during depression in SAD and normalizes after light therapy and in natural summer remission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6503625','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6503625"><span>Magnetic turbulent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a reversed field pinch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schoenberg, K.; Moses, R.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A model of magnetic turbulent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is presented. The model, based on the thermal conduction theory of Rechester and Rosenbluth, entails a Boltzmann description of <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics in the long mean-free-path limit and quantitatively describes the salient features of superthermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> measurements in the RFP edge plasma. Included are predictions of the mean superthermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy, current density, and power flux asymmetry. A discussion of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> model, the assumptions implicit in the model, and the relevance of this work to more general issue of magnetic turbulent <span class="hlt">transport</span> in toroidal systems is presented. 32 refs., 3 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2756358','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2756358"><span>Effect of Noise on DNA Sequencing via Transverse <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krems, Matt; Zwolak, Michael; Pershin, Yuriy V.; Di Ventra, Massimiliano</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Abstract Previous theoretical studies have shown that measuring the transverse current across DNA strands while they translocate through a nanopore or channel may provide a statistically distinguishable signature of the DNA bases, and may thus allow for rapid DNA sequencing. However, fluctuations of the environment, such as ionic and DNA motion, introduce important scattering processes that may <span class="hlt">affect</span> the viability of this approach to sequencing. To understand this issue, we have analyzed a simple model that captures the role of this complex environment in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> dephasing and its ability to remove charge carriers from current-carrying states. We find that these effects do not strongly influence the current distributions due to the off-resonant nature of tunneling through the nucleotides—a result we expect to be a common feature of <span class="hlt">transport</span> in molecular junctions. In particular, only large scattering strengths, as compared to the energetic gap between the molecular states and the Fermi level, significantly alter the form of the current distributions. Since this gap itself is quite large, the current distributions remain protected from this type of noise, further supporting the possibility of using transverse <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements for DNA sequencing. PMID:19804730</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA606338','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA606338"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Graphene From a Diffusion-Drift Perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-24</p> <p>IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON <span class="hlt">ELECTRON</span> DEVICES, VOL. 57, NO. 3, MARCH 2010 681 <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Graphene From a Diffusion-Drift Perspective Mario G...Ancona,Member, IEEE Abstract—A diffusion–drift treatment of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> in macroscopic graphene is presented. The various ma- terial...applied to a variety of situations involving field-effect devices that are of potential technological interest. Both single and multilayer graphene are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..461..310Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..461..310Z"><span>Kinetic theory of <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes in partially ionized reactive plasma, II: <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhdanov, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. A.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The previously obtained in (Zhdanov and Stepanenko, 2016) general <span class="hlt">transport</span> equations for partially ionized reactive plasma are employed for analysis of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in molecular and atomic plasmas. We account for both elastic and inelastic interaction channels of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> with atoms and molecules of plasma and also the processes of <span class="hlt">electron</span> impact ionization of neutral particles and three-body ion-<span class="hlt">electron</span> recombination. The system of scalar <span class="hlt">transport</span> equations for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is discussed and the expressions for non-equilibrium corrections to <span class="hlt">electron</span> ionization and recombination rates and the diagonal part of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> pressure tensor are derived. Special attention is paid to analysis of <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy relaxation during collisions with plasma particles having internal degrees of freedom and the expression for the <span class="hlt">electron</span> coefficient of inelastic energy losses is deduced. We also derive the expressions for <span class="hlt">electron</span> vector and tensorial <span class="hlt">transport</span> fluxes and the corresponding <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients for partially ionized reactive plasma, which represent a generalization of the well-known results obtained by Devoto (1967). The results of numerical evaluation of contribution from <span class="hlt">electron</span> inelastic collisions with neutral particles to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties are presented for a series of molecular and atomic gases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ESRv...81..175K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ESRv...81..175K"><span>Heterogeneous processes <span class="hlt">affecting</span> metal ion <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the presence of organic ligands: Reactive <span class="hlt">transport</span> modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kantar, Cetin</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>The development of models to accurately simulate metal ion <span class="hlt">transport</span> through saturated systems under variable chemical conditions, e.g., in systems containing organic ligands (L) such as natural organic matter (NOM), has two essential aspects: (1) establishing the ability to simulate metal ion sorption to aquifer solids over a range of metal/ligand ratios; and (2) to incorporate this ability to simulate metal speciation over a range in chemical conditions (e.g., pH, ligand activity) into mass <span class="hlt">transport</span> models. Modeling approaches to evaluate metal ion sorption and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the presence of NOM include: (1) isotherm-based <span class="hlt">transport</span> models, and (2) multicomponent (MC) <span class="hlt">transport</span> models. The accuracy of <span class="hlt">transport</span> models depends on how well the chemical interactions <span class="hlt">affecting</span> metal ion <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the presence of organic ligands (e.g., metal/ligand complexation) are described in <span class="hlt">transport</span> equations. The isotherm-based <span class="hlt">transport</span> models often fail to accurately describe metal ion <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the presence of NOM since these models treat NOM as a single solute despite the fact that NOM is a multicomponent mixture of subcomponents with different chemical and polyfunctional behavior. On the other hand, the calculations presented in this study suggest that a multicomponent reactive <span class="hlt">transport</span> model, in conjunction with a mechanistic modeling approach for the description of metal ion binding by NOM in a manner conducive to the application of surface complexation modeling (SCM), can effectively be used as an important predictive tool in simulating metal ion sorption and <span class="hlt">transport</span> under variable chemical conditions in the presence of NOM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15956192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15956192"><span>Molecular <span class="hlt">electronics</span>: some views on <span class="hlt">transport</span> junctions and beyond.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Joachim, Christian; Ratner, Mark A</p> <p>2005-06-21</p> <p>The field of molecular <span class="hlt">electronics</span> comprises a fundamental set of issues concerning the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> response of molecules as parts of a mesoscopic structure and a technology-facing area of science. We will overview some important aspects of these subfields. The most advanced ideas in the field involve the use of molecules as individual logic or memory units and are broadly based on using the quantum state space of the molecule. Current work in molecular <span class="hlt">electronics</span> usually addresses molecular junction <span class="hlt">transport</span>, where the molecule acts as a barrier for incoming <span class="hlt">electrons</span>: This is the fundamental Landauer idea of "conduction as scattering" generalized to molecular junction structures. Another point of view in terms of superexchange as a guiding mechanism for coherent <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer through the molecular bridge is discussed. Molecules generally exhibit relatively strong vibronic coupling. The last section of this overview focuses on vibronic effects, including inelastic <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling spectroscopy, hysteresis in junction charge <span class="hlt">transport</span>, and negative differential resistance in molecular <span class="hlt">transport</span> junctions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5422628','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5422628"><span>Analysis of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the plasma of thermionic converters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stoenescu, M.L.; Heinicke, P.H.</p> <p>1980-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients of a gaseous ensemble are expressed analytically as function of density, and are expressed analytically as function of temperature up to an unknown function which has to be evaluated for each specific <span class="hlt">electron</span>-neutral atom cross section. In order to complete the analytical temperature dependence one may introduce a polynomial expansion of the function or one may derive the temperature dependence of a set of coefficients, numbering thirteen for a third approximation <span class="hlt">transport</span> evaluation, which completely determine the <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients. The latter approach is used for determining the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients of a cesium plasma for any ion neutral composition and any temperature between 500/sup 0/K and 3500/sup 0/K. The relation between the <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients of a fully and partly ionized gas is readily available and shows that, in the classical formalism, <span class="hlt">electron</span>-ion and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-neutral resistivities are not additive. The present form of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients makes possible an accurate numerical integration of <span class="hlt">transport</span> equations eliminating lengthy computations which are frequently inaccessible. It thus provides a detailed knowledge of spatial distribution of particle and energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> and makes possible the determination of one of the three internal voltage drops, surface barrier, sheath and plasma, which are linked together experimentally by current density versus voltage characteristics of thermionic converters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10155522','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10155522"><span>Fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> generation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a turbulent, magnetized plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stoneking, Matthew Randall</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>The nature of fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> generation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) is investigated using two <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy analyzer (EEA) probes and a thermocouple calorimeter. The parallel velocity distribution of the fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> population is well fit by a drifted Maxwellian distribution with temperature of about 100 eV and drift velocity of about 2 x 10<sup>6</sup> m/s. Cross-calibration of the EEA with the calorimeter provides a measurement of the fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> perpendicular temperature of 30 eV, much lower than the parallel temperature, and is evidence that the kinetic dynamo mechanism (KDT) is not operative in MST. The fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> current is found to match to the parallel current at the edge, and the fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> density is about 4 x 10<sup>11</sup> cm<sup>-3</sup> independent of the ratio of the applied toroidal electric field to the critical electric field for runaways. First time measurements of magnetic fluctuation induced particle <span class="hlt">transport</span> are reported. By correlating <span class="hlt">electron</span> current fluctuations with radial magnetic fluctuations the <span class="hlt">transported</span> flux of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is found to be negligible outside r/a~0.9, but rises the level of the expected total particle losses inside r/a~0.85. A comparison of the measured diffusion coefficient is made with the ausilinear stochastic diffusion coefficient. Evidence exists that the reduction of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> is due to the presence of a radial ambipolar electric field of magnitude 500 V/m, that acts to equilibrate the ion and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates. The convective energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> associated with the measured particle <span class="hlt">transport</span> is large enough to account for the observed magnetic fluctuation induced energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> in MST.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......100A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......100A"><span>Hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and current sensing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abraham, Mathew Cheeran</p> <p></p> <p>The effect of hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> on momentum scattering rates in a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas is critically examined. It is shown that with hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> it is possible to explore the temperature dependence of individual scattering mechanisms not easily probed under equilibrium conditions; both the Bloch-Gruneisen (BG) phonon scattering phenomena and the reduction in impurity scattering are clearly observed. The theoretical calculations are consistent with the results obtained from hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> experiments. As a function of bias current, a resistance peak is formed in a 2DEG if the low temperature impurity limited mobilities muI( T = 0) is comparable to muph(TBG ) the phonon limited mobility at the critical BG temperature. In this case, as the bias current is increased, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature Te rises due to Joule heating and the rapid increase in phonon scattering can be detected before the effect of the reduction in impurity scattering sets in. If muI(T = 0) << muph(TBG), there is no peak in resistance because the impurity scattering dominates sufficiently and its reduction has a much stronger effect on the total resistance than the rise in phonon scattering. Furthermore, knowing the momentum relaxation rates allows us to analyze the possible interplay between <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-boundary scattering. The prediction that a Knudsen to Poiseuille (KP) transition similar to that of a classical gas can occur in <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow [26] is examined for the case of a wire defined in a 2DEG. Concurrently, an appropriate current imaging technique to detect this transition is sought. A rigorous evaluation of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) as a possible candidate to detect Poiseuille <span class="hlt">electronic</span> flow was conducted, and a method that exploits the mechanical resonance of the MFM cantilever was implemented to significantly improve its current sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7592334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7592334"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-dependent taxis in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gauden, D E; Armitage, J P</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p>Rhodobacter sphaeroides showed chemotaxis to the terminal <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors oxygen and dimethyl sulfoxide, and the responses to these effectors were shown to be influenced by the relative activities of the different <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways. R. sphaeroides cells tethered by their flagella showed a step-down response to a decrease in the oxygen or dimethyl sulfoxide concentration when using them as terminal acceptors. Bacteria using photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, however, showed a step-down response to oxygen addition. Addition of the proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide 4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone did not cause a transient behavioral response, although it decreased the electrochemical proton gradient (delta p) and increased the rate of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. However, removal of the ionophore, which caused an increase in delta p and a decrease in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rate, resulted in a step-down response. Together, these data suggest that behavioral responses of R. sphaeroides to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> effectors are caused by changes in the rate of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rather than changes in delta p.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1222139','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1222139"><span>Non-nuclear <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Channels in Hollow Molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in inorganic semiconductors and metals occurs through delocalized bands formed by overlapping <span class="hlt">electron</span> orbitals. Strong correlation of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> wave functions with the ionic cores couples the <span class="hlt">electron</span> and lattice motions, leading to efficient interaction and scattering that degrades coherent charge <span class="hlt">transport</span>. By contrast, unoccupied <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states at energies near the vacuum level with diffuse molecular orbitals may form nearly-free-<span class="hlt">electron</span> bands with density maxima in non-nuclear interstitial voids, which are subject to weaker <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interaction. The position of such bands typically above the frontier orbitals, however, renders them unstable with respect to <span class="hlt">electronic</span> interband relaxation and therefore unsuitable for charge <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Through <span class="hlt">electronic</span>-structure calculations, we engineer stable, non-nuclear, nearly-free-<span class="hlt">electron</span> conduction channels in low-dimensional molecular materials by tailoring their electrostatic and polarization potentials. We propose quantum structures of graphane-derived Janus molecular sheets with spatially isolated conducting and insulating regions that potentially exhibit emergent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties, as a paradigm for molecular-scale non-nuclear charge conductors; we also describe tuning of their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties by application of external fields and calculate their electron–acoustic-phonon interaction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50c5103S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50c5103S"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in lead oxide studied by CELIV technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Semeniuk, O.; Juska, G.; Oelerich, J. O.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Reznik, A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Although polycrystalline lead oxide (PbO) has a long history of application in optoelectronics and imaging, the <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in this material has not yet been clarified. Using the photo-generated charge extraction by linear increasing voltage (photo-CELIV) technique, we provide the temperature- and field-dependences of <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility in poly-PbO. It is found that <span class="hlt">electrons</span> undergo dispersive <span class="hlt">transport</span>, i.e. their mobility decreases in the course of time. Multiple trapping of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from the conduction band into the developed band tail is revealed as the dominant <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism. This differs dramatically from the dispersive <span class="hlt">transport</span> of holes in the same material, dominated by topological factors and not by energy disorder.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6530036','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6530036"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of runaway and thermal <span class="hlt">electrons</span> due to magnetic microturbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mynick, H.E.; Strachan, J.D.</p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>The ratio of the runaway <span class="hlt">electron</span> confinement to thermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy confinement is derived for tokamaks where both processes are determined by free streaming along stochastic magnetic field lines. The runaway <span class="hlt">electron</span> confinement is enhanced at high runaway <span class="hlt">electron</span> energies due to phase averaging over the magnetic perturbations when the runaway <span class="hlt">electron</span> drift surfaces are displaced from the magnetic surfaces. Comparison with experimental data from LT-3, Ormak, PLT, ST, and TM-3 indicates that magnetic stochasticity may explain the relative <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates of runaways and thermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhPl...16c2505R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhPl...16c2505R"><span>Simulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> in H-mode discharges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rafiq, T.; Pankin, A. Y.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A. H.; Halpern, F. D.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> in DIII-D H-mode tokamak plasmas [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] is investigated by comparing predictive simulation results for the evolution of <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature profiles with experimental data. The comparison includes the entire profile from the magnetic axis to the bottom of the pedestal. In the simulations, carried out using the automated system for <span class="hlt">transport</span> analysis (ASTRA) integrated modeling code, different combinations of <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> models are considered. The combinations include models for <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient (ETG) anomalous <span class="hlt">transport</span> and trapped <span class="hlt">electron</span> mode (TEM) anomalous <span class="hlt">transport</span>, as well as a model for paleoclassical <span class="hlt">transport</span> [J. D. Callen, Nucl. Fusion 45, 1120 (2005)]. It is found that the electromagnetic limit of the Horton ETG model [W. Horton et al., Phys. Fluids 31, 2971 (1988)] provides an important contribution near the magnetic axis, which is a region where the ETG mode in the GLF23 model [R. E. Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 2482 (1997)] is below threshold. In simulations of DIII-D discharges, the observed shape of the H-mode edge pedestal is produced when <span class="hlt">transport</span> associated with the TEM component of the GLF23 model is suppressed and <span class="hlt">transport</span> given by the paleoclassical model is included. In a study involving 15 DIII-D H-mode discharges, it is found that with a particular combination of <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> models, the average rms deviation of the predicted <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature profile from the experimental profile is reduced to 9% and the offset to -4%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993470','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993470"><span>RHIC <span class="hlt">electron</span> lens beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> system design considerations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gu, X.; Pikin, A.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.; Raparia, D.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>To apply head-on beam-beam compensation for RHIC, two <span class="hlt">electron</span> lenses are designed and will be installed at IP10. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> system is one of important subsystem, which is used to <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam from <span class="hlt">electron</span> gun side to collector side. This system should be able to change beam size inside superconducting magnet and control beam position with 5 mm in horizontal and vertical plane. Some other design considerations for this beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> system are also reported in this paper. The head-on beam-beam effect is one of important nonlinear source in storage ring and linear colliders, which have limited the luminosity improvement of many colliders, such as SppS, Tevatron and RHIC. In order to enhance the performance of colliders, beam-beam effects can be compensated with direct space charge compensation, indirect space charge compensation or betatron phase cancellation scheme. Like other colliders, indirect space charge compensation scheme (<span class="hlt">Electron</span> Lens) was also proposed for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam-beam compensation at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The two similar <span class="hlt">electron</span> lenses are located in IR10 between the DX magnets. One RHIC <span class="hlt">electron</span> lens consists of one DC <span class="hlt">electron</span> gun, one superconducting magnet, one <span class="hlt">electron</span> collector and beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092293','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092293"><span>SUPPRESSION OF ENERGETIC <span class="hlt">ELECTRON</span> <span class="hlt">TRANSPORT</span> IN FLARES BY DOUBLE LAYERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Li, T. C.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.</p> <p>2012-09-20</p> <p>During flares and coronal mass ejections, energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from coronal sources typically have very long lifetimes compared to the transit times across the systems, suggesting confinement in the source region. Particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to explore the mechanisms of energetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from the corona to the chromosphere and possible confinement. We set up an initial system of pre-accelerated hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in contact with ambient cold <span class="hlt">electrons</span> along the local magnetic field and let it evolve over time. Suppression of <span class="hlt">transport</span> by a nonlinear, highly localized electrostatic electric field (in the form of a double layer) is observed after a short phase of free-streaming by hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. The double layer (DL) emerges at the contact of the two <span class="hlt">electron</span> populations. It is driven by an ion-<span class="hlt">electron</span> streaming instability due to the drift of the back-streaming return current <span class="hlt">electrons</span> interacting with the ions. The DL grows over time and supports a significant drop in temperature and hence reduces heat flux between the two regions that is sustained for the duration of the simulation. This study shows that <span class="hlt">transport</span> suppression begins when the energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> start to propagate away from a coronal acceleration site. It also implies confinement of energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> with kinetic energies less than the electrostatic energy of the DL for the DL lifetime, which is much longer than the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transit time through the source region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...8.6209L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanos...8.6209L"><span>Nano-structured <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> materials for perovskite solar cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Hefei; Huang, Ziru; Wei, Shiyuan; Zheng, Lingling; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihuang</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have been developing rapidly in the past several years, and their power conversion efficiency has reached over 20%, nearing that of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Because the diffusion length of the hole in perovskites is longer than that of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>, the performance of the device can be improved by using an <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> layer, e.g., TiO2, ZnO and TiO2/Al2O3. Nano-structured <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> materials facilitate not only <span class="hlt">electron</span> collection but also morphology control of the perovskites. The properties, morphology and preparation methods of perovskites are reviewed in the present article. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between the structure and property will benefit the precise control of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> process and thus further improve the performance of perovskite solar cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26457406','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26457406"><span>Nano-structured <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> materials for perovskite solar cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Hefei; Huang, Ziru; Wei, Shiyuan; Zheng, Lingling; Xiao, Lixin; Gong, Qihuang</p> <p>2016-03-28</p> <p>Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells have been developing rapidly in the past several years, and their power conversion efficiency has reached over 20%, nearing that of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. Because the diffusion length of the hole in perovskites is longer than that of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>, the performance of the device can be improved by using an <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> layer, e.g., TiO2, ZnO and TiO2/Al2O3. Nano-structured <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> materials facilitate not only <span class="hlt">electron</span> collection but also morphology control of the perovskites. The properties, morphology and preparation methods of perovskites are reviewed in the present article. A comprehensive understanding of the relationship between the structure and property will benefit the precise control of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> process and thus further improve the performance of perovskite solar cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835748"><span>Computer modeling of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chloroplasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tikhonov, Alexander N; Vershubskii, Alexey V</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Photosynthesis is one of the most important biological processes in biosphere, which provides production of organic substances from atmospheric CO2 and water at expense of solar energy. In this review, we contemplate computer models of oxygenic photosynthesis in the context of feedback regulation of photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chloroplasts, the energy-transducing organelles of the plant cell. We start with a brief overview of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes in chloroplasts coupled to ATP synthesis and consider basic regulatory mechanisms of oxygenic photosynthesis. General approaches to computer simulation of photosynthetic processes are considered, including the random walk models of plastoquinone diffusion in thylakoid membranes and deterministic approach to modeling <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chloroplasts based on the mass action law. Then we focus on a kinetic model of oxygenic photosynthesis that includes key stages of the linear <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, alternative pathways of <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer around photosystem I (PSI), transmembrane proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> and ATP synthesis in chloroplasts. This model includes different regulatory processes: pH-dependent control of the intersystem <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, down-regulation of photosystem II (PSII) activity (non-photochemical quenching), the light-induced activation of the Bassham-Benson-Calvin (BBC) cycle. The model correctly describes pH-dependent feedback control of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chloroplasts and adequately reproduces a variety of experimental data on induction events observed under different experimental conditions in intact chloroplasts (variations of CO2 and O2 concentrations in atmosphere), including a complex kinetics of P700 (primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> donor in PSI) photooxidation, CO2 consumption in the BBC cycle, and photorespiration. Finally, we describe diffusion-controlled photosynthetic processes in chloroplasts within the framework of the model that takes into account complex architecture of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166966','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166966"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Amplification in Diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Muller, Erik</p> <p>2015-01-05</p> <p>The development of the Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) has produced significant results under our previous HEP funded efforts both on the fabrication of working devices and the understanding of the underlying physics governing its performance. The results presented here substantiate the use of diamond as both a secondary <span class="hlt">electron</span> amplifier for high-brightness, high-average-current <span class="hlt">electron</span> sources and as a photon and particle detector in harsh radiation environments. Very high average current densities (>10A/cm2) have been <span class="hlt">transported</span> through diamond material. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> has been measured as a function of incident photon energy and found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. Measurements of the charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> for photon energies near the carbon K-edge (290 eV for sp3 bonded carbon) have provided insight into carrier loss due to diffusion; modeling of this aspect of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> is underway. The response of diamond to nanosecond x-ray pulses has been measured; in this regime the charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> is as expected. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> emission from hydrogenated diamond has been measured using both <span class="hlt">electron</span> and x-ray generated carriers; a gain of 178 has been observed for <span class="hlt">electron</span>-generated carriers. The energy spectrum of the emitted <span class="hlt">electrons</span> has been measured, providing insight into the <span class="hlt">electron</span> affinity and ultimately the thermal emittance. The origin of charge trapping in diamond has been investigated for both bulk and surface trapping</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182804','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182804"><span>Conditioner for a helically <span class="hlt">transported</span> <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, C.</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the <span class="hlt">electron`s</span> relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...83..246L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...83..246L"><span>Coherent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a helical nanotube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Yong-Long; Du, Long; Jiang, Hua; Kang, Guang-Zhen; Zong, Hong-Shi</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The quantum dynamics of carriers bound to helical tube surfaces is investigated in a thin-layer quantization scheme. By numerically solving the open-boundary Schrödinger equation in curvilinear coordinates, geometric effect on the coherent transmission spectra is analysed in the case of single propagating mode as well as multimode. It is shown that, the coiling endows the helical nanotube with different <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties from a bent cylindrical surface. Fano resonance appears as a purely geometric effect in the conductance, the corresponding energy of quasibound state is obviously influenced by the torsion and length of the nanotube. We also find new plateaus in the conductance. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> of double-degenerate mode in this geometry is reminiscent of the Zeeman coupling between the magnetic field and spin angular momentum in quasi-one-dimensional structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PPCF...59d4012N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PPCF...59d4012N"><span>Effects of toroidal rotation on <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> via changes in inertial force and impurity density</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Narita, E.; Honda, M.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashi, N.; Urano, H.; Ide, S.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Two types of JT-60U discharges are studied with an emphasis on toroidal rotation: in one discharge, which is characterized by the existence of an internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barrier (ITB), <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the core region is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the toroidal rotation direction, while in the other discharge, which is a conventional H-mode plasma without an ITB, the clear correlation between the toroidal rotation direction and <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> is not observed. In both discharges, the impurity density is also found to vary together with the rotation velocity profile. With a flux-tube gyrokinetic code, we have found that the effects of the changes in the rotation velocity profile and the impurity density on <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> are different between these discharges. Including the effects explains the tendency observed in the experiments. First, regarding the rotation velocity profile, which influences heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the inertial force, the dependence of heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> on the rotation direction changes, according to the gradient of the rotation velocity. Next, an increase in the impurity density stabilizes the ion temperature gradient mode, but can destabilize the trapped <span class="hlt">electron</span> mode. Therefore, it is found that the difference in the impact of the impurity density on <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> in these discharges can be attributed to the difference in the dominant instability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95g5405E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95g5405E"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and scattering times in tungsten-decorated graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elias, Jamie A.; Henriksen, Erik A.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a monolayer graphene device have been studied before and after the deposition of a dilute coating of tungsten adatoms on the surface. For coverages up to 2.5% of a monolayer, we find tungsten adatoms simultaneously donate <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to graphene and reduce the carrier mobility, impacting the zero- and finite-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties. Two independent <span class="hlt">transport</span> analyses suggest the adatoms lie nearly 1 nm above the surface. The presence of adatoms is also seen to impact the low-field magnetoresistance, altering the signatures of weak localization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100003174','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100003174"><span>A Deterministic <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Code for Space Environment <span class="hlt">Electrons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamczyk, Anne M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A deterministic computational procedure has been developed to describe <span class="hlt">transport</span> of space environment <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in various shield media. This code is an upgrade and extension of an earlier <span class="hlt">electron</span> code. Whereas the former code was formulated on the basis of parametric functions derived from limited laboratory data, the present code utilizes well established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes. The shield material specification has been made more general, as have the pertinent cross sections. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach has been used in the <span class="hlt">transport</span> formalism. Comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100031095','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100031095"><span>A Deterministic Computational Procedure for Space Environment <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamcyk, Anne M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A deterministic computational procedure for describing the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in condensed media is formulated to simulate the effects and exposures from spectral distributions typical of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> trapped in planetary magnetic fields. The primary purpose for developing the procedure is to provide a means of rapidly performing numerous repetitive <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations essential for <span class="hlt">electron</span> radiation exposure assessments for complex space structures. The present code utilizes well-established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach is used in the <span class="hlt">transport</span> formalism. For typical space environment spectra, several favorable comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are made which have indicated that accuracy is not compromised at the expense of the computational speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPJO9009C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPJO9009C"><span>Role of the magnetic island and low- k turbulence on radial <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, M. J.; Park, H. K.; in, Y.; Ko, S. H.; Kim, H. S.; Bae, C.; Kwon, J. M.; Lee, W.; Lee, K. D.; Lee, H. H.; Ko, W. H.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, J. H.; Ko, J.; Kim, J.; Woo, M. H.; Jeong, M.; Park, B. H.; Yun, G. S.; Lee, J.; Kim, M.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Magnetic islands can enhance or reduce the radial <span class="hlt">transport</span> either by reconnecting field lines or producing the poloidal flow shear across the rational surface. Both cases have been observed in the KSTAR L-mode plasmas. In the first case, the temperature inside the q = 2 surface decreases severely ( 25%) with the enhanced <span class="hlt">transport</span> by the rotating m / n = 2 / 1 magnetic island. However, in the case where the 2/1 magnetic island is driven and locked by the n = 1 resonant magnetic perturbation, the <span class="hlt">transport</span> is reduced and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature (Te) gradient is increased across the island with a clear poloidal flow shear. The poloidal flow shear has been identified utilizing <span class="hlt">electron</span> cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) measurements of the low-k turbulent Te fluctuations driven by the increased Te gradient. In addition, the interaction between the Te turbulence and magnetic island causes the transient heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> events and <span class="hlt">affects</span> the <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics near the q = 2 region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.453..581Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.453..581Y"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through nuclear pasta in magnetized neutron stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yakovlev, D. G.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We present a simple model for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a possible layer of exotic nuclear clusters (in the so-called nuclear pasta layer) between the crust and liquid core of a strongly magnetized neutron star. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> there can be strongly anisotropic and gyrotropic. The anisotropy is produced by different <span class="hlt">electron</span> effective collision frequencies along and across local symmetry axis in domains of exotic ordered nuclear clusters and by complicated effects of the magnetic field. We also calculate averaged kinetic coefficients in case local domains are freely oriented. Possible applications of the obtained results and open problems are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.........4F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT.........4F"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in micro to nanoscale solid state networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fairbanks, Matthew Stetson</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation focuses on low-dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> phenomena in devices ranging from semiconductor <span class="hlt">electron</span> 'billiards' to semimetal atomic clusters to gold nanoparticles. In each material system, the goal of this research is to understand how carrier <span class="hlt">transport</span> occurs when many elements act in concert. In the semiconductor <span class="hlt">electron</span> billiards, magnetoconductance fluctuations, the result of <span class="hlt">electron</span> quantum interference within the device, are used as a probe of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through arrays of one, two, and three connected billiards. By combining two established analysis techniques, this research demonstrates a novel method for determining the quantum energy level spacing in each of the arrays. That information in turn shows the extent (and limits) of the phase-coherent <span class="hlt">electron</span> wavefunction in each of the devices. The use of the following two material systems, the semimetal atomic clusters and the gold nanoparticles, is inspired by the <span class="hlt">electron</span> billiard results. First, the output of the simple, rectangular <span class="hlt">electron</span> billiards, the magnetoconductance fluctuations, is quite generally found to be fractal. This research addresses the question of what output one might expect from a device with manifestly fractal geometry by simulating the electrical response of fractal resistor networks and by outlining a method to implement such devices in fractal aggregates of semimetal atomic clusters. Second, in gold nanoparticle arrays, the number of array elements can increase by orders of magnitude over the billiard arrays, all with the potential to stay in a similar, phase-coherent <span class="hlt">transport</span> regime. The last portion of this dissertation details the fabrication of these nanoparticle-based devices and their electrical characteristics, which exhibit strong evidence for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the Coulomb-blockade regime. A sketch for further 'off-blockade' experiments to realize magnetoconductance fluctuations, i.e. phase-coherent <span class="hlt">electron</span> phenomena, is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/460773','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/460773"><span>Treating <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in MCNP{sup trademark}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hughes, H.G.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and other charged particles is fundamentally different from that of neutrons and photons. A neutron, in aluminum slowing down from 0.5 MeV to 0.0625 MeV will have about 30 collisions; a photon will have fewer than ten. An <span class="hlt">electron</span> with the same energy loss will undergo 10{sup 5} individual interactions. This great increase in computational complexity makes a single- collision Monte Carlo approach to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> unfeasible for many situations of practical interest. Considerable theoretical work has been done to develop a variety of analytic and semi-analytic multiple-scattering theories for the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of charged particles. The theories used in the algorithms in MCNP are the Goudsmit-Saunderson theory for angular deflections, the Landau an theory of energy-loss fluctuations, and the Blunck-Leisegang enhancements of the Landau theory. In order to follow an <span class="hlt">electron</span> through a significant energy loss, it is necessary to break the <span class="hlt">electron`s</span> path into many steps. These steps are chosen to be long enough to encompass many collisions (so that multiple-scattering theories are valid) but short enough that the mean energy loss in any one step is small (for the approximations in the multiple-scattering theories). The energy loss and angular deflection of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> during each step can then be sampled from probability distributions based on the appropriate multiple- scattering theories. This subsumption of the effects of many individual collisions into single steps that are sampled probabilistically constitutes the ``condensed history`` Monte Carlo method. This method is exemplified in the ETRAN series of <span class="hlt">electron</span>/photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> codes. The ETRAN codes are also the basis for the Integrated TIGER Series, a system of general-purpose, application-oriented <span class="hlt">electron</span>/photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> codes. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> physics in MCNP is similar to that of the Integrated TIGER Series.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChPhB..26c7301S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ChPhB..26c7301S"><span>Topological <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Dirac <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems: A concise review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Hua-Ding; Sheng, Dian; Wang, An-Qi; Li, Jin-Guang; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Various novel physical properties have emerged in Dirac <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems, especially the topological characters protected by symmetry. Current studies on these systems have been greatly promoted by the intuitive concepts of Berry phase and Berry curvature, which provide precise definitions of the topological orders. In this topical review, <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of topological insulator (Bi2Se3), topological Dirac semimetal (Cd3As2) and topological insulator-graphene heterojunction are presented and discussed. Perspectives about <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of two-dimensional topological nontrivial systems, including topological edge <span class="hlt">transport</span>, topological valley <span class="hlt">transport</span> and topological Weyl semimetals, are provided.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7160788','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7160788"><span>Conditioner for a helically <span class="hlt">transported</span> <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, C.</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the <span class="hlt">electron</span>'s relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3684773','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3684773"><span>Tau phosphorylation <span class="hlt">affects</span> its axonal <span class="hlt">transport</span> and degradation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Martín, Teresa; Cuchillo-Ibáñez, Inmaculada; Noble, Wendy; Nyenya, Fanon; Anderton, Brian H.; Hanger, Diane P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Phosphorylated forms of microtubule-associated protein tau accumulate in neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the effects of specific phosphorylated tau residues on its function, wild type or phosphomutant tau was expressed in cells. Elevated tau phosphorylation decreased its microtubule binding and bundling, and increased the number of motile tau particles, without <span class="hlt">affecting</span> axonal <span class="hlt">transport</span> kinetics. In contrast, reducing tau phosphorylation enhanced the amount of tau bound to microtubules and inhibited axonal <span class="hlt">transport</span> of tau. To determine whether differential tau clearance is responsible for the increase in phosphomimic tau, we inhibited autophagy in neurons which resulted in a 3-fold accumulation of phosphomimic tau compared with wild type tau, and endogenous tau was unaffected. In autophagy-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but not in neurons, proteasomal degradation of phosphomutant tau was also reduced compared with wild type tau. Therefore, autophagic and proteasomal pathways are involved in tau degradation, with autophagy appearing to be the primary route for clearing phosphorylated tau in neurons. Defective autophagy might contribute to the accumulaton of tau in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23601672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940247','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/940247"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> Structure and <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Magnetic Multilayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-02-18</p> <p>ORNL assisted Seagate Recording Heads Operations in the development of CIPS pin Valves for application as read sensors in hard disk drives. Personnel at ORNL were W. H. Butler and Xiaoguang Zhang. Dr. Olle Heinonen from Seagate RHO also participated. ORNL provided codes and materials parameters that were used by Seagate to model CIP GMR in their heads. The objectives were to: (1) develop a linearized Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span> code for describing CIP GMR based on realistic models of the band structure and interfaces in materials in CIP spin valves in disk drive heads; (2) calculate the materials parameters needed as inputs to the Boltzmann code; and (3) transfer the technology to Seagate Recording Heads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25258073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25258073"><span>Evidence for global <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transportation</span> into the jovian inner magnetosphere.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshioka, K; Murakami, G; Yamazaki, A; Tsuchiya, F; Kimura, T; Kagitani, M; Sakanoi, T; Uemizu, K; Kasaba, Y; Yoshikawa, I; Fujimoto, M</p> <p>2014-09-26</p> <p>Jupiter's magnetosphere is a strong particle accelerator that contains ultrarelativistic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in its inner part. They are thought to be accelerated by whistler-mode waves excited by anisotropic hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (>10 kiloelectron volts) injected from the outer magnetosphere. However, <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in the inner magnetosphere is not well understood. By analyzing the extreme ultraviolet line emission from the inner magnetosphere, we show evidence for global inward <span class="hlt">transport</span> of flux tubes containing hot plasma. High-spectral-resolution scanning observations of the Io plasma torus in the inner magnetosphere enable us to generate radial profiles of the hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> fraction. It gradually decreases with decreasing radial distance, despite the short collisional time scale that should thermalize them rapidly. This indicates a fast and continuous resupply of hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> responsible for exciting the whistler-mode waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22842510','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22842510"><span>Unification of trap-limited <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in semiconducting polymers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicolai, H T; Kuik, M; Wetzelaer, G A H; de Boer, B; Campbell, C; Risko, C; Brédas, J L; Blom, P W M</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in semiconducting polymers is usually inferior to hole <span class="hlt">transport</span>, which is ascribed to charge trapping on isolated defect sites situated within the energy bandgap. However, a general understanding of the origin of these omnipresent charge traps, as well as their energetic position, distribution and concentration, is lacking. Here we investigate <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a wide range of semiconducting polymers by current-voltage measurements of single-carrier devices. We observe for this materials class that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is limited by traps that exhibit a gaussian energy distribution in the bandgap. Remarkably, the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-trap distribution is identical for all polymers considered: the number of traps amounts to 3 × 10(23) traps per m(3) centred at an energy of ~3.6 eV below the vacuum level, with a typical distribution width of ~0.1 eV. This indicates that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> traps have a common origin that, we suggest, is most likely related to hydrated oxygen complexes. A consequence of this finding is that the trap-limited <span class="hlt">electron</span> current can be predicted for any polymer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956571','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956571"><span>Effect of dephasing on DNA sequencing via transverse <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zwolak, Michael; Krems, Matt; Pershin, Yuriy V; Di Ventra, Massimiliano</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We study theoretically the effects of dephasing on DNA sequencing in a nanopore via transverse <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. To do this, we couple classical molecular dynamics simulations with <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations using scattering theory. Previous studies, which did not include dephasing, have shown that by measuring the transverse current of a particular base multiple times, one can get distributions of currents for each base that are distinguishable. We introduce a dephasing parameter into <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations to simulate the effects of the ions and other fluctuations. These effects lower the overall magnitude of the current, but have little effect on the current distributions themselves. The results of this work further implicate that distinguishing DNA bases via transverse <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> has potential as a sequencing tool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27076081','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27076081"><span>Mitochondrial ROS Produced via Reverse <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Extend Animal Lifespan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scialò, Filippo; Sriram, Ashwin; Fernández-Ayala, Daniel; Gubina, Nina; Lõhmus, Madis; Nelson, Glyn; Logan, Angela; Cooper, Helen M; Navas, Plácido; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Murphy, Michael P; Sanz, Alberto</p> <p>2016-04-12</p> <p>Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been considered a cause of aging. However, recent studies have implicated ROS as essential secondary messengers. Here we show that the site of ROS production significantly contributes to their apparent dual nature. We report that ROS increase with age as mitochondrial function deteriorates. However, we also demonstrate that increasing ROS production specifically through respiratory complex I reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> extends Drosophila lifespan. Reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rescued pathogenesis induced by severe oxidative stress, highlighting the importance of the site of ROS production in signaling. Furthermore, preventing ubiquinone reduction, through knockdown of PINK1, shortens lifespan and accelerates aging; phenotypes that are rescued by increasing reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. These results illustrate that the source of a ROS signal is vital in determining its effects on cellular physiology and establish that manipulation of ubiquinone redox state is a valid strategy to delay aging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4835580','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4835580"><span>Mitochondrial ROS Produced via Reverse <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Extend Animal Lifespan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scialò, Filippo; Sriram, Ashwin; Fernández-Ayala, Daniel; Gubina, Nina; Lõhmus, Madis; Nelson, Glyn; Logan, Angela; Cooper, Helen M.; Navas, Plácido; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Murphy, Michael P.; Sanz, Alberto</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been considered a cause of aging. However, recent studies have implicated ROS as essential secondary messengers. Here we show that the site of ROS production significantly contributes to their apparent dual nature. We report that ROS increase with age as mitochondrial function deteriorates. However, we also demonstrate that increasing ROS production specifically through respiratory complex I reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> extends Drosophila lifespan. Reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rescued pathogenesis induced by severe oxidative stress, highlighting the importance of the site of ROS production in signaling. Furthermore, preventing ubiquinone reduction, through knockdown of PINK1, shortens lifespan and accelerates aging; phenotypes that are rescued by increasing reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. These results illustrate that the source of a ROS signal is vital in determining its effects on cellular physiology and establish that manipulation of ubiquinone redox state is a valid strategy to delay aging. PMID:27076081</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1087711','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1087711"><span>Progress in Simulating Turbulent <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Thermal <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in NSTX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guttenfelder, Walter; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; Bell, R. E.; Hammett, G. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Peterson, J. L.; Nevins, W. M.; Candy, J.; Yuh, H.</p> <p>2013-07-17</p> <p>Nonlinear simulations based on multiple NSTX discharge scenarios have progressed to help differentiate unique instability mechanisms and to validate with experimental turbulence and <span class="hlt">transport</span> data. First nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing (MT) turbulence in a high-beta NSTX H-mode discharge predict experimental levels of <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> that are dominated by magnetic flutter and increase with collisionality, roughly consistent with energy confinement times in dimensionless collisionality scaling experiments. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> temperature gradient (ETG) simulations predict significant <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> in some low and high beta discharges when ion scales are suppressed by E x B shear. Although the predicted <span class="hlt">transport</span> in H-modes is insensitive to variation in collisionality (inconsistent with confinement scaling), it is sensitive to variations in other parameters, particularly density gradient stabilization. In reversed shear (RS) Lmode discharges that exhibit <span class="hlt">electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barriers, ETG <span class="hlt">transport</span> has also been shown to be suppressed nonlinearly by strong negative magnetic shear, s<<0. In many high beta plasmas, instabilities which exhibit a stiff beta dependence characteristic of kinetic ballooning modes (KBM) are sometimes found in the core region. However, they do not have a distinct finite beta threshold, instead transitioning gradually to a trapped <span class="hlt">electron</span> mode (TEM) as beta is reduced to zero. Nonlinear simulations of this "hybrid" TEM/KBM predict significant <span class="hlt">transport</span> in all channels, with substantial contributions from compressional magnetic perturbations. As multiple instabilities are often unstable simultaneously in the same plasma discharge, even on the same flux surface, unique parametric dependencies are discussed which may be useful for distinguishing the different mechanisms experimentally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22419910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22419910"><span>Coherently driven, ultrafast <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon dynamics in <span class="hlt">transport</span> junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Szekely, Joshua E.; Seideman, Tamar</p> <p>2014-07-28</p> <p>Although the vast majority of studies of <span class="hlt">transport</span> via molecular-scale heterojunctions have been conducted in the (static) energy domain, experiments are currently beginning to apply time domain approaches to the nanoscale <span class="hlt">transport</span> problem, combining spatial with temporal resolution. It is thus an opportune time for theory to develop models to explore both new phenomena in, and new potential applications of, time-domain, coherently driven molecular <span class="hlt">electronics</span>. In this work, we study the interaction of a molecular phonon with an <span class="hlt">electronic</span> wavepacket transmitted via a conductance junction within a time-domain model that treats the <span class="hlt">electron</span> and phonon on equal footing and spans the weak to strong <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon coupling strengths. We explore interference between two coherent energy pathways in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> subspace, thus complementing previous studies of coherent phenomena in conduction junctions, where the stationary framework was used to study interference between spatial pathways. Our model provides new insights into phase decoherence and population relaxation within the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> subspace, which have been conventionally treated by density matrix approaches that often rely on phenomenological parameters. Although the specific case of a <span class="hlt">transport</span> junction is explored, our results are general, applying also to other instances of coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..GECMW6003W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..GECMW6003W"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> cross-sections and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in liquids and biomolecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>White, Ronald; Casey, M.; Cocks, D.; Konvalov, D.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; McEachran, R.; Buckman, S. J.; de Urquijo, J.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Modelling of <span class="hlt">electron</span> induced processes in plasma medicine and radiation damage is reliant on accurate self-consistent sets of cross-sections for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in tissue. These cross-sections (and associated <span class="hlt">transport</span> theory) must accurately account not only the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-biomolecule interactions but also for the soft-condensed nature of tissue. In this presentation, we report on recent swarm experiments for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in gaseous water and tetrahydrofuran using the pulsed-Townsend experiment, and the associated development of self-consistent cross-section sets that arise from them. We also report on the necessary modifications to gas-phase cross-sections required to accurately treat <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in liquids. These modifications involve the treatment of coherent scattering and screening of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> interaction potential as well as the development of a new <span class="hlt">transport</span> theory to accommodate these cross-sections. The accuracy of the ab-initio cross-sections is highlighted through comparison of theory and experiment for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in liquid argon and xenon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA299431','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA299431"><span>Quantum <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Solids: Two-<span class="hlt">Electron</span> Processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>The central objective of this research program has been to study theoretically the underlying principles of quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> in solids. The area of...research investigated has emphasized the understanding of two <span class="hlt">electron</span> processes in quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> . The problems have been treated analytically to...the extent possible through the use of dynamical localized Wannier functions. These results have been and are being incorporated in a full quantum</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA299878','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA299878"><span>Quantum <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Solids: Two-<span class="hlt">Electron</span> Processes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-06-01</p> <p>The central objective of this research program has been to study theoretically the underlying principles of quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> in solids. The area of...research investigated has emphasized the understanding of two <span class="hlt">electron</span> processes in quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> . The problems have been treated analytically to...the extent possible through the use of dynamical localized Wannier functions. These results have been and are being incorporated in a full quantum</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22047139','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22047139"><span>Collective microdynamics and noise suppression in dispersive <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gover, Avraham; Dyunin, Egor; Duchovni, Tamir; Nause, Ariel</p> <p>2011-12-15</p> <p>A general formulation is presented for deep collective interaction micro-dynamics in dispersive e-beam <span class="hlt">transport</span>. In the regime of transversely coherent interaction, the formulation is applicable to both coherent and random temporal modulation of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam. We demonstrate its use for determining the conditions for suppressing beam current noise below the classical shot-noise level by means of <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a dispersive section with a small momentum compaction parameter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930018584','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930018584"><span>Simulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in quantum well devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, D. R.; Gullapalli, K. K.; Reddy, V. R.; Neikirk, D. P.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Double barrier resonant tunneling diodes (DBRTD) have received much attention as possible terahertz devices. Despite impressive experimental results, the specifics of the device physics (i.e., how the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> propagate through the structure) are only qualitatively understood. Therefore, better <span class="hlt">transport</span> models are warranted if this technology is to mature. In this paper, the Lattice Wigner function is used to explain the important <span class="hlt">transport</span> issues associated with DBRTD device behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261776','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261776"><span>Origin of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of lithium phthalocyanine iodine crystal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koike, Noritake; Oda, Masato; Shinozuka, Yuzo</p> <p>2013-12-04</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structures of Lithium Phthalocyanine Iodine are investigated using density functional theory. Comparing the band structures of several model crystals, the metallic conductivity of highly doped LiPcI{sub x} can be explained by the band of doped iodine. These results reveal that there is a new mechanism for <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of doped organic semiconductors that the dopant band plays the main role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1132770','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1132770"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Amplification in Diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Muller, Erik M.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan</p> <p>2013-03-31</p> <p>As a successful completion of this award, my group has demonstrated world-leading <span class="hlt">electron</span> gain from diamond for use in a diamond-amplified photocathode. Also, using high-resolution photoemission measurements we were able to uncover exciting new physics of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission mechanisms from hydrogen terminated diamond. Our work, through the continued support of HEP, has resulted in a greater understanding of the diamond material science, including current limits, charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> modeling, and spatial uniformity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7045616','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7045616"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in EBT in the low collision frequency limit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hastings, D.E.</p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>A variational principle formulation is used to calculate the <span class="hlt">electron</span> neoclassical <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients in a bumpy torus for the low collisionality regime. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> radial drift is calculated as a function of the plasma position and the poloidal electric field which is determined self-consistently. A bounce-averaged differential collision operator is used and the results are compared to previous treatments using a BGK operator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PSST...23a5012C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PSST...23a5012C"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in magnetrons by a posteriori Monte Carlo simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Costin, C.; Minea, T. M.; Popa, G.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across magnetic barriers is crucial in all magnetized plasmas. It governs not only the plasma parameters in the volume, but also the fluxes of charged particles towards the electrodes and walls. It is particularly important in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) reactors, influencing the quality of the deposited thin films, since this type of discharge is characterized by an increased ionization fraction of the sputtered material. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> coefficients of <span class="hlt">electron</span> clouds released both from the cathode and from several locations in the discharge volume are calculated for a HiPIMS discharge with pre-ionization operated in argon at 0.67 Pa and for very short pulses (few µs) using the a posteriori Monte Carlo simulation technique. For this type of discharge <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is characterized by strong temporal and spatial dependence. Both drift velocity and diffusion coefficient depend on the releasing position of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> cloud. They exhibit minimum values at the centre of the race-track for the secondary <span class="hlt">electrons</span> released from the cathode. The diffusion coefficient of the same <span class="hlt">electrons</span> increases from 2 to 4 times when the cathode voltage is doubled, in the first 1.5 µs of the pulse. These parameters are discussed with respect to empirical Bohm diffusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037249','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037249"><span>Seismic reflection characteristics of naturally-induced subsidence <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">transportation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Steeples, D.W.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>High-resolution seismic reflections have been used effectively to investigate sinkholes formed from the dissolution of a bedded salt unit found throughout most of Central Kansas. Surface subsidence can have devastating effects on <span class="hlt">transportation</span> structures. Roads, rails, bridges, and pipelines can even be dramatically <span class="hlt">affected</span> by minor ground instability. Areas susceptible to surface subsidence can put public safety at risk. Subsurface expressions significantly larger than surface depressions are consistently observed on seismic images recorded over sinkholes in Kansas. Until subsidence reaches the ground surface, failure appears to be controlled by compressional forces evidenced by faults with reverse orientation. Once a surface depression forms or dissolution of the salt slows or stops, subsidence structures are consistent with a tensional stress environment with prevalent normal faults. Detecting areas of rapid subsidence potential, prior to surface failure, is the ultimate goal of any geotechnical survey where the ground surface is susceptible to settling. Seismic reflection images have helped correlate active subsidence to dormant paleofeatures, project horizontal growth of active sinkholes based on subsurface structures, and appraise the risk of catastrophic failure. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...630141S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...630141S"><span>Dynamic defect correlations dominate activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in SrTiO3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Snijders, Paul C.; Şen, Cengiz; McConnell, Michael P.; Ma, Ying-Zhong; May, Andrew F.; Herklotz, Andreas; Wong, Anthony T.; Ward, T. Zac</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) is a critically important material for the study of emergent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> phases in complex oxides, as well as for the development of applications based on their heterostructures. Despite the large body of knowledge on STO, there are still many uncertainties regarding the role of defects in the properties of STO, including their influence on ferroelectricity in bulk STO and ferromagnetism in STO-based heterostructures. We present a detailed analysis of the decay of persistent photoconductivity in STO single crystals with defect concentrations that are relatively low but significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties. The results show that photo-activated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> cannot be described by a superposition of the properties due to independent point defects as current models suggest but is, instead, governed by defect complexes that interact through dynamic correlations. These results emphasize the importance of defect correlations for activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of semiconducting and insulating perovskite oxides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4957113','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4957113"><span>Dynamic defect correlations dominate activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in SrTiO3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Snijders, Paul C.; Şen, Cengiz; McConnell, Michael P.; Ma, Ying-Zhong; May, Andrew F.; Herklotz, Andreas; Wong, Anthony T.; Ward, T. Zac</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) is a critically important material for the study of emergent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> phases in complex oxides, as well as for the development of applications based on their heterostructures. Despite the large body of knowledge on STO, there are still many uncertainties regarding the role of defects in the properties of STO, including their influence on ferroelectricity in bulk STO and ferromagnetism in STO-based heterostructures. We present a detailed analysis of the decay of persistent photoconductivity in STO single crystals with defect concentrations that are relatively low but significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties. The results show that photo-activated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> cannot be described by a superposition of the properties due to independent point defects as current models suggest but is, instead, governed by defect complexes that interact through dynamic correlations. These results emphasize the importance of defect correlations for activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of semiconducting and insulating perovskite oxides. PMID:27443503</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPCM...20K4110J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPCM...20K4110J"><span>Molecular modeling of inelastic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in molecular junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiang, Jun; Kula, Mathias; Luo, Yi</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>A quantum chemical approach for the modeling of inelastic <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling spectroscopy of molecular junctions based on scattering theory is presented. Within a harmonic approximation, the proposed method allows us to calculate the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibration coupling strength analytically, which makes it applicable to many different systems. The calculated inelastic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> spectra are often in very good agreement with their experimental counterparts, allowing the revelation of detailed information about molecular conformations inside the junction, molecule-metal contact structures, and intermolecular interaction that is largely inaccessible experimentally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1124191','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1124191"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> Experiments on 2D Correlated <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Physics in Semiconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsui, Daniel</p> <p>2014-03-24</p> <p>This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the 2D <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated <span class="hlt">electron</span> physics in the dilute density limit, where the <span class="hlt">electron</span> potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013FML.....640013S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013FML.....640013S"><span><span class="hlt">ELECTRONIC</span> AND <span class="hlt">TRANSPORT</span> PROPERTIES OF THERMOELECTRIC Ru2Si3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, David J.; Parker, David</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>We report calculations of the doping and temperature dependent thermopower of Ru2Si3 based on Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span> theory and the first principles <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure. We find that the performance reported to date can be significantly improved by optimization of the doping level and that ultimately n-type should have higher ZT than p-type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PNAS...8911126S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PNAS...8911126S"><span>Requirement for Coenzyme Q in Plasma Membrane <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, I. L.; Sun, E. E.; Crane, F. L.; Morre, D. J.; Lindgren, A.; Low, H.</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>Coenzyme Q is required in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system of rat hepatocyte and human erythrocyte plasma membranes. Extraction of coenzyme Q from the membrane decreases NADH dehydrogenase and NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase activity. Addition of coenzyme Q to the extracted membrane restores the activity. Partial restoration of activity is also found with α-tocopherylquinone, but not with vitamin K_1. Analogs of coenzyme Q inhibit NADH dehydrogenase and oxidase activity and the inhibition is reversed by added coenzyme Q. Ferricyanide reduction by transmembrane <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from HeLa cells is inhibited by coenzyme Q analogs and restored with added coenzyme Q10. Reduction of external ferricyanide and diferric transferrin by HeLa cells is accompanied by proton release from the cells. Inhibition of the reduction by coenzyme Q analogs also inhibits the proton release, and coenzyme Q10 restores the proton release activity. Trans-plasma membrane <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> stimulates growth of serum-deficient cells, and added coenzyme Q10 increases growth of HeLa (human adenocarcinoma) and BALB/3T3 (mouse fibroblast) cells. The evidence is consistent with a function for coenzyme Q in a trans-plasma membrane <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system which influences cell growth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/238813','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/238813"><span>Investigation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a helical undulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jeong, Y.U.; Lee, B.C.; Kim, S.K.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Lossless <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> through the undulator is essential for CW operation of the FELs driven by recirculating electrostatic accelerators. We calculate the <span class="hlt">transport</span> ratio of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam in a helical undulator by using a 3-D simulation code and compare the results with the experimental results. The energy and the current of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam are 400 keV and 2 A, respectively. The 3-D distribution of the magnetic field of a practical permanent-magnet helical undulator is measured and is used in the calculations. The major parameters of the undutlator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, number of periods in adiabatic region = 3.5, magnetic field strength = 1.3 kG. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> ratio is very sensitive to the injection condition of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam such as the emittance, the diameter, the divergence, etc.. The injection motion is varied in the experiments by changing the e-gun voltage or the field strength of the focusing magnet located at the entrance of the undulator. It is confirmed experimentally and with simulations that most of the beam loss occurs at the adiabatic region of the undulator regardless of the length of the adiabatic region The effect of axial guiding magnetic field on the beam finish is investigated. According to the simulations, the increase of the strength of axial magnetic field from 0 to 1 kG results in the increase of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> ratio from 15 % to 95%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95g5409O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95g5409O"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in gadolinium atomic-size contacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olivera, B.; Salgado, C.; Lado, J. L.; Karimi, A.; Henkel, V.; Scheer, E.; Fernández-Rossier, J.; Palacios, J. J.; Untiedt, C.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We report on the fabrication, <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations of atomic-size contacts made of gadolinium (Gd). Gd is known to have local moments mainly associated with f <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. These coexist with itinerant s and d bands that account for its metallic character. Here we explore whether and how the local moments influence <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties at the atomic scale. Using both scanning tunneling microscope and lithographic mechanically controllable break junction techniques under cryogenic conditions, we study the conductance of Gd when only few atoms form the junction between bulk electrodes made of the very same material. Thousands of measurements show that Gd has an average lowest conductance, attributed to single-atom contact, below 2/e2 h . Our DFT calculations for monostrand chains anticipate that the f bands are fully spin polarized and insulating and that the conduction may be dominated by s , p , and d bands. We also analyze the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> for model nanocontacts using the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism in combination with DFT. We obtain an overall good agreement with the experimental results for zero bias and show that the contribution to the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from the f channels is negligible and that from the d channels is marginal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146g4102K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146g4102K"><span>Waiting time distribution for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a molecular junction with <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibration interaction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kosov, Daniel S.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>On the elementary level, <span class="hlt">electronic</span> current consists of individual <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunnelling events that are separated by random time intervals. The waiting time distribution is a probability to observe the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer in the detector electrode at time t +τ given that an <span class="hlt">electron</span> was detected in the same electrode at an earlier time t. We study waiting time distribution for quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a vibrating molecular junction. By treating the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibration interaction exactly and molecule-electrode coupling perturbatively, we obtain the master equation and compute the distribution of waiting times for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. The details of waiting time distributions are used to elucidate microscopic mechanism of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and the role of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibration interactions. We find that as nonequilibrium develops in the molecular junction, the skewness and dispersion of the waiting time distribution experience stepwise drops with the increase of the electric current. These steps are associated with the excitations of vibrational states by tunnelling <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. In the strong <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibration coupling regime, the dispersion decrease dominates over all other changes in the waiting time distribution as the molecular junction departs far away from the equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5086915','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5086915"><span>Energy-filtered <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Structures for Low-power Low-noise 2-D <span class="hlt">Electronics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pan, Xuan; Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In addition to cryogenic techniques, energy filtering has the potential to achieve high-performance low-noise 2-D <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems. Assemblies based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been demonstrated to exhibit interesting <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties, including resonant tunnelling. In this paper, we investigate GQDs based structures with the goal of producing energy filters for next generation lower-power lower-noise 2-D <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems. We evaluate the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the proposed GQD device structures to demonstrate <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy filtering and the ability to control the position and magnitude of the energy passband by appropriate device dimensioning. We also show that the signal-to-thermal noise ratio performance of the proposed nanoscale device can be modified according to device geometry. The tunability of two-dimensional GQD structures indicates a promising route for the design of <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy filters to produce low-power and low-noise <span class="hlt">electronics</span>. PMID:27796343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27796343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27796343"><span>Energy-filtered <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Structures for Low-power Low-noise 2-D <span class="hlt">Electronics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pan, Xuan; Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios</p> <p>2016-10-31</p> <p>In addition to cryogenic techniques, energy filtering has the potential to achieve high-performance low-noise 2-D <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems. Assemblies based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been demonstrated to exhibit interesting <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties, including resonant tunnelling. In this paper, we investigate GQDs based structures with the goal of producing energy filters for next generation lower-power lower-noise 2-D <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems. We evaluate the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the proposed GQD device structures to demonstrate <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy filtering and the ability to control the position and magnitude of the energy passband by appropriate device dimensioning. We also show that the signal-to-thermal noise ratio performance of the proposed nanoscale device can be modified according to device geometry. The tunability of two-dimensional GQD structures indicates a promising route for the design of <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy filters to produce low-power and low-noise <span class="hlt">electronics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...636167P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...636167P"><span>Energy-filtered <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Structures for Low-power Low-noise 2-D <span class="hlt">Electronics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, Xuan; Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In addition to cryogenic techniques, energy filtering has the potential to achieve high-performance low-noise 2-D <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems. Assemblies based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been demonstrated to exhibit interesting <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties, including resonant tunnelling. In this paper, we investigate GQDs based structures with the goal of producing energy filters for next generation lower-power lower-noise 2-D <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems. We evaluate the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the proposed GQD device structures to demonstrate <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy filtering and the ability to control the position and magnitude of the energy passband by appropriate device dimensioning. We also show that the signal-to-thermal noise ratio performance of the proposed nanoscale device can be modified according to device geometry. The tunability of two-dimensional GQD structures indicates a promising route for the design of <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy filters to produce low-power and low-noise <span class="hlt">electronics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......231L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......231L"><span>Nanoscale heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> via <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and phonons by molecular dynamics simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Keng-Hua</p> <p></p> <p>Nanoscale heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> has become a crucial research topic due to the growing importance of nanotechnology for manufacturing, energy conversion, medicine and <span class="hlt">electronics</span>. Thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties at the nanoscale are distinct from the macroscopic ones since the sizes of nanoscale features, such as free surfaces and interfaces, are comparable to the wavelengths and mean free paths of the heat carriers (<span class="hlt">electrons</span> and phonons), and lead to changes in thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties. Therefore, understanding how the nanoscale features and energy exchange between the heat carriers <span class="hlt">affect</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics are the goals of this research. Molecular dynamics (MD) is applied in this research to understand the details of nanoscale heat <span class="hlt">transport</span>. The advantage of MD is that the size effect, anharmonicity, atomistic structure, and non-equilibrium behavior of the system can all be captured since the dynamics of atoms are described explicitly in MD. However, MD neglects the thermal role of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and therefore it is unable to describe heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> in metal or metal-semiconductor systems accurately. To address this limitation of MD, we develop a method to simulate <span class="hlt">electronic</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> by implementing <span class="hlt">electronic</span> degrees of freedom to MD. In this research, nanoscale heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> in semiconductor, metal, and metal-semiconductor systems is studied. Size effects on phonon thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> in SiGe superlattice thin films and nanowires are studied by MD. We find that, opposite to the macroscopic trend, superlattice thin films can achieve lower thermal conductivity than nanowires at small scales due to the change of phonon nature caused by adjusting the superlattice periodic length and specimen length. Effects of size and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon coupling rate on thermal conductivity and thermal interface resistivity in Al and model metal-semiconductor systems are studied by MD with <span class="hlt">electronic</span> degrees of freedom. The results show that increasing the specimen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20085516','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20085516"><span>Crystallization of germanium-carbon alloys -- Structure and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>John, T.M.; Blaesing, J.; Veit, P.; Druesedau, T.</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>Amorphous Ge{sub 1{minus}x}C{sub x} alloys were deposited by rf-magnetron sputtering from a germanium target in methane-argon atmosphere. Structural investigations were performed by means of wide and small angle X-ray scattering, X-ray reflectometry and cross-sectional transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy. The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties were characterized using Hall-measurements and temperature depended conductivity. The results of X-ray techniques together with the <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy clearly prove the existence of a segregation of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductivity in the as-prepared films follows the Mott' T{sup {minus}1/4} law, indicating <span class="hlt">transport</span> by a hopping process. After annealing at 870 K, samples with x {le} 0.4 show crystallization of the Ge-clusters with a crystallite size being a function of x. After Ge-crystallization, the conductivity increases by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude. Above room temperature, <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is determined by a thermally activated process. For lower temperatures, the {sigma}(T) curves show a behavior which is determined by the crystallite size and the free carrier concentration, both depending on the carbon content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22220679','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22220679"><span>Stopping and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of fast <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in superdense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Okabayashi, A.; Habara, H.; Yabuuchi, T.; Iwawaki, T.; Tanaka, K. A.</p> <p>2013-08-15</p> <p>Studied is the stopping and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of relativistic fast <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the vicinity of compressed dense plasma core relevant to fast ignition. Electromagnetic cascade Monte-Carlo is coupled to 2D-PIC simulation. The 2D PIC simulates input <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy spectrum and angular dependence. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy distributions after passing through the plasma core are calculated at different viewing angles, which well agree with the experiment below several MeV energy range. The implications of calculated results as to collisional damping on several MeV <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are discussed with the theory based on the stopping power model. The spatial distribution of plasma temperature is also estimated via deposited energy by fast <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, showing the strong heating at the core surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120a4302N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120a4302N"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanisms in polymer-carbon sphere composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nieves, Cesar A.; Ramos, Idalia; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A set of uniform carbon microspheres (CSs) whose diameters have the order of 0.125 μm to 10 μm was prepared from aqueous sucrose solution by means of hydrothermal carbonization of sugar molecules. A pressed pellet was composed by mixing CSs with polyethylene oxide (PEO). Electrical characterization of the pellet was carried out showing Ohmic current-voltage characteristics and temperature-dependent conductivity in the range of 80 K <T <300 K . The conductivity reached a maximum value of 0.24 S /cm at 258 K . The dependence of conductivity on temperature was theoretically analyzed to determine predominating mechanisms of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. It was shown that thermally induced <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling between adjacent spheres may take on an important part in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the CS/PEO composites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9746E..0GT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9746E..0GT"><span>Ultrafast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene and magnetic nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turchinovich, Dmitry</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy is an ideal tool for observation of dynamics of charge, lattice and spin in solids on the most elementary timescale: in the regime ωτ ~ 1, where ω is the electromagnetic wave oscillation frequency, and τ is the characteristic timescale at which the fundamental phenomena in the three subsystems comprising the solid occur. In this paper two case studies will be discussed. (i) Ultrafast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene. We will show, that the free-carrier conductivity of graphene in arbitrary ultrafast, (sub-)picosecond electric fields is defined by the thermodynamic balance maintained within the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure of graphene acting as thermalized <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas. Within this simple thermodynamic picture, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas quasi-instantaneously increases its temperature by absorbing the energy of driving ultrafast electric field, and at the same time cools down via a time-retarded, few picosecond-long process of phonon emission. The asymmetry in <span class="hlt">electron</span> heating and cooling dynamics leads to heat accumulation in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> population of graphene, concomitantly lowering the chemical potential for hotter <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, and thereby reducing the intraband conductivity of graphene - an effect crucially important for understanding of ultrafast graphene transistors and photodetectors. (ii) We will also discuss the fundamental observation of spin-controlled <span class="hlt">electron</span> conduction of Fermilevel <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in ferromagnetic metals, and will directly quantify the Mott picture of conduction in ferromagnets - the effect directly employed in modern magnetic sensor technologies such as giant magnetoresistance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117o4504R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117o4504R"><span>Vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in van der Waals heterostructures with graphene layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Dubinov, A. A.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We propose and analyze an analytical model for the self-consistent description of the vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in van der Waals graphene-layer (GL) heterostructures with the GLs separated by the barriers layers. The top and bottom GLs serve as the structure emitter and collector. The vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in such structures is associated with the propagation of the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> thermionically emitted from GLs above the inter-GL barriers. The model under consideration describes the processes of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermionic emission from and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> capture to GLs. It accounts for the nonuniformity of the self-consistent electric field governed by the Poisson equation which accounts for the variation of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> population in GLs. The model takes also under consideration the cooling of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the emitter layer due to the Peltier effect. We find the spatial distributions of the electric field and potential with the high-electric-field domain near the emitter GL in the GL heterostructures with different numbers of GLs. Using the obtained spatial distributions of the electric field, we calculate the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate that the Peltier cooling of the two-dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas in the emitter GL can strongly <span class="hlt">affect</span> the current-voltage characteristics resulting in their saturation. The obtained results can be important for the optimization of the hot-<span class="hlt">electron</span> bolometric terahertz detectors and different devices based on GL heterostructures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402879','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402879"><span>Vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in van der Waals heterostructures with graphene layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Dubinov, A. A.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>We propose and analyze an analytical model for the self-consistent description of the vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in van der Waals graphene-layer (GL) heterostructures with the GLs separated by the barriers layers. The top and bottom GLs serve as the structure emitter and collector. The vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in such structures is associated with the propagation of the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> thermionically emitted from GLs above the inter-GL barriers. The model under consideration describes the processes of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermionic emission from and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> capture to GLs. It accounts for the nonuniformity of the self-consistent electric field governed by the Poisson equation which accounts for the variation of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> population in GLs. The model takes also under consideration the cooling of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the emitter layer due to the Peltier effect. We find the spatial distributions of the electric field and potential with the high-electric-field domain near the emitter GL in the GL heterostructures with different numbers of GLs. Using the obtained spatial distributions of the electric field, we calculate the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate that the Peltier cooling of the two-dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas in the emitter GL can strongly <span class="hlt">affect</span> the current-voltage characteristics resulting in their saturation. The obtained results can be important for the optimization of the hot-<span class="hlt">electron</span> bolometric terahertz detectors and different devices based on GL heterostructures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARX44012T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARX44012T"><span>Vibronic coupling effect on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsukada, Masaru; Mitsutake, Kunihiro</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through molecular bridges or molecular layers connected to nano-electrodes is determined by the combination of coherent and dissipative processes, controlled by the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibron coupling, transfer integrals between the molecular orbitals, applied electric field and temperature. We propose a novel theoretical approach, which combines ab initio molecular orbital method with analytical many-boson model. As a case study, the long chain model of the thiophene oligomer is solved by a variation approach. Mixed states of moderately extended molecular orbital states mediated and localised by dress of vibron cloud are found as eigen-states. All the excited states accompanied by multiple quanta of vibration can be solved, and the overall carrier <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties including the conductance, mobility, dissipation spectra are analyzed by solving the master equation with the transition rates estimated by the golden rule. We clarify obtained in a uniform systematic way, how the <span class="hlt">transport</span> mode changes from a dominantly coherent <span class="hlt">transport</span> to the dissipative hopping <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......186G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT.......186G"><span>Breaking the barriers of all-polymer solar cells: Solving <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporter</span> and morphology problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gavvalapalli, Nagarjuna</p> <p></p> <p> trivial. Thus to avoid micro-phase segregation, nanoparticles of hole and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporters</span> are synthesized and blended. But the PCE of nanoparticle blends are far less than those of polymer blends. This is mainly due to the: i) lack of optimal assembly of nanoparticles to facilitate charge transfer and <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes; and ii) lack of control over the exciton and charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties within the nanoparticles. Polymer packing within the nanoparticle controls the optoelectronic and charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the nanoparticle. In this work I have shown that the solvent used to synthesize nanoparticles plays a crucial role in determining the assembly of polymer chains inside the nanoparticle there by <span class="hlt">affecting</span> its exciton and charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes. To obtain the optimal morphology for better charge transfer and <span class="hlt">transport</span>, we have also synthesized nanoparticles of different radius with surfactants of opposite charge. We propose that depending on the radius and/or Coulombic interactions these nanoparticles can be assembled into mineral structure-types that are useful for photovoltaic devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT........93C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT........93C"><span>Theoretical descriptions of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through single molecules: Developing design tools for molecular <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carroll, Natalie R.</p> <p></p> <p>There are vast numbers of organic compounds that could be considered for use in molecular <span class="hlt">electronics</span>. Hence there is a need for efficient and economical screening tools. Here we develop theoretical methods to describe <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through individual molecules, the ultimate goal of which is to establish design tools for molecular <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices. To successfully screen a compound for its use as a device component requires a proper representation of the quantum mechanics of <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission. In this work we report the development of tools for the description of <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission that are: Charge self-consistent, valid in the presence of a finite applied potential field and (in some cases) explicitly time-dependent. In addition, the tools can be extended to any molecular system, including biosystems, because they are free of restrictive parameterizations. Two approaches are explored: (1) correlation of substituent parameter values (sigma), (commonly found in organic chemistry textbooks) to properties associated with <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, (2) explicit tracking of the time evolution of the wave function of a nonstationary <span class="hlt">electron</span>. In (1) we demonstrate that the a correlate strongly with features of the charge migration process, establishing them as useful indicators of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties. In (2) we employ a time-dependent description of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through molecular junctions. To date, the great majority of theoretical treatments of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in molecular junctions have been of the time-independent variety. Time dependence, however, is critical to such properties as switching speeds in binary computer components and alternating current conductance, so we explored methods based on time-dependent quantum mechanics. A molecular junction is modeled as a single molecule sandwiched between two clusters of close-packed metal atoms or other donor and acceptor groups. The time dependence of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is investigated by initially</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1096488','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1096488"><span>LDRD project 151362 : low energy <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Bondi, Robert James; Crawford, Martin James</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>At sufficiently high energies, the wavelengths of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and photons are short enough to only interact with one atom at time, leading to the popular %E2%80%9Cindependent-atom approximation%E2%80%9D. We attempted to incorporate atomic structure in the generation of cross sections (which embody the modeled physics) to improve <span class="hlt">transport</span> at lower energies. We document our successes and failures. This was a three-year LDRD project. The core team consisted of a radiation-<span class="hlt">transport</span> expert, a solid-state physicist, and two DFT experts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B54D..01N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B54D..01N"><span>Extracellular <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> (EET): Metal Cycling in Extreme Places</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nealson, K. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, or EET, is the process whereby bacteria either donate <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to an <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptor (usually insoluble), or take up <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from and <span class="hlt">electron</span> donor (usually insoluble) that is located outside the cell. Iron cycling is inherently linked to EET, as both reduced iron (<span class="hlt">electron</span> donors), and oxidized iron (<span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors) can be found as insoluble minerals, and require specialized molecular machines to accomplish these extracellular geobiological reactions. Bacteria in the group Shewanella are able to catalyze EET in both directions, and are involved with a number of different iron conversions, but are not good role models for extreme conditions - to our knowledge there are no shewanellae that are tolerant to extremes of temperature or pH, the two usual. This being said, when cells are energy starved via limitation for <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors, they respond by turning on the system(s) for EET. Thus, in this presentation the known mechanism(s) of EET will be discussed, along with recent findings and reports of EET-capable organisms from a variety of extreme environments. From these data, I put forward the hypothesis that there are many microbes (many of them from extreme environments) that will be resistant to cultivation by "standard microbiological methods", yet lend themselves well to cultivation via electrochemical methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27m5302S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27m5302S"><span>Geometric effects in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of deformed nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santos, Fernando; Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Bertrand; Moraes, Fernando</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Quasi-two-dimensional systems may exibit curvature, which adds three-dimensional influence to their internal properties. As shown by da Costa (1981 Phys. Rev. A 23 1982-7), charged particles moving on a curved surface experience a curvature-dependent potential which greatly influence their dynamics. In this paper, we study the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> in deformed nanotubes. The one-<span class="hlt">electron</span> Schrödinger equation with open boundary conditions is solved numerically with a flexible MAPLE code made available as supplementary data. We find that the curvature of the deformations indeed has strong effects on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics, suggesting its use in the design of nanotube-based <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22051363','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22051363"><span>Spatially resolved study of primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in magnetic cusps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hubble, Aimee A.; Foster, John E.</p> <p>2012-01-15</p> <p>Spatially resolved primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> current density profiles were measured using a planar Langmuir probe in the region above a magnetic cusp in a small ion thruster discharge chamber. The probe current maps obtained were used to study the <span class="hlt">electron</span> collection mechanics in the cusp region in the limit of zero gas flow and no plasma production, and they allowed for the visualization of primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the cusp. Attenuation coefficients and loss widths were calculated as a function of probe distance above the anode at various operating conditions. Finally, the collection mechanics between two magnetic cusps were studied and compared. It was found that primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> collection was dominated by the upstream magnet ring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/3847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/3847"><span>The macro response Monte Carlo method for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Svatos, M M</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>The main goal of this thesis was to prove the feasibility of basing <span class="hlt">electron</span> depth dose calculations in a phantom on first-principles single scatter physics, in an amount of time that is equal to or better than current <span class="hlt">electron</span> Monte Carlo methods. The Macro Response Monte Carlo (MRMC) method achieves run times that are on the order of conventional <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> methods such as condensed history, with the potential to be much faster. This is possible because MRMC is a Local-to-Global method, meaning the problem is broken down into two separate <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations. The first stage is a local, in this case, single scatter calculation, which generates probability distribution functions (PDFs) to describe the <span class="hlt">electron</span>'s energy, position and trajectory after leaving the local geometry, a small sphere or "kugel" A number of local kugel calculations were run for calcium and carbon, creating a library of kugel data sets over a range of incident energies (0.25 MeV - 8 MeV) and sizes (0.025 cm to 0.1 cm in radius). The second <span class="hlt">transport</span> stage is a global calculation, where steps that conform to the size of the kugels in the library are taken through the global geometry. For each step, the appropriate PDFs from the MRMC library are sampled to determine the <span class="hlt">electron</span>'s new energy, position and trajectory. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> is immediately advanced to the end of the step and then chooses another kugel to sample, which continues until <span class="hlt">transport</span> is completed. The MRMC global stepping code was benchmarked as a series of subroutines inside of the Peregrine Monte Carlo code. It was compared to Peregrine's class II condensed history <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> package, EGS4, and MCNP for depth dose in simple phantoms having density inhomogeneities. Since the kugels completed in the library were of relatively small size, the zoning of the phantoms was scaled down from a clinical size, so that the energy deposition algorithms for spreading dose across 5-10 zones per kugel could be tested. Most</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/503467','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/503467"><span>Fabrication and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> studies of single nanocrystal systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Klein, David Louis</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>Semiconductor and metallic nanocrystals exhibit interesting <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior as a result of electrostatic and quantum mechanical confinement effects. These effects can be studied to learn about the nature of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states in these systems. This thesis describes several techniques for the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> study of nanocrystals. The primary focus is the development of novel methods to attach leads to prefabricated nanocrystals. This is because, while nanocrystals can be readily synthesized from a variety of materials with excellent size control, means to make electrical contact to these nanocrystals are limited. The first approach that will be described uses scanning probe microscopy to first image and then electrically probe surfaces. It is found that <span class="hlt">electronic</span> investigations of nanocrystals by this technique are complicated by tip-sample interactions and environmental factors such as salvation and capillary forces. Next, an atomic force microscope technique for the catalytic patterning of the surface of a self assembled monolayer is described. In principle, this nano-fabrication technique can be used to create <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices which are based upon complex arrangements of nanocrystals. Finally, the fabrication and electrical characterization of a nanocrystal-based single <span class="hlt">electron</span> transistor is presented. This device is fabricated using a hybrid scheme which combines <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam lithography and wet chemistry to bind single nanocrystals in tunneling contact between closely spaced metallic leads. In these devices, both Au and CdSe nanocrystals show Coulomb blockade effects with characteristic energies of several tens of meV. Additional structure is seen the <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior of CdSe nanocrystals as a result of its <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..83x1404R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvB..83x1404R"><span>Single-<span class="hlt">electron</span> heat diode: Asymmetric heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> between <span class="hlt">electronic</span> reservoirs through Coulomb islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruokola, Tomi; Ojanen, Teemu</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>We introduce a functional nanoscale device, a single-<span class="hlt">electron</span> heat diode, consisting of two quantum dots or metallic islands coupled to <span class="hlt">electronic</span> reservoirs by tunnel contacts. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the system is forbidden but the capacitive coupling between the two dots allows <span class="hlt">electronic</span> fluctuations to transmit heat between the reservoirs. When the reservoir temperatures are biased in the forward direction, heat flow is enabled by a four-step sequential tunneling cycle, while in the reverse-biased configuration this process is suppressed due to Coulomb blockade effects. In an optimal setup the leakage heat current in the reverse direction is only a few percent of the forward current.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20860240','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20860240"><span>Nonlocal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in magnetized plasmas with arbitrary atomic number</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bennaceur-Doumaz, D.; Bendib, A.</p> <p>2006-09-15</p> <p>The numerical solution of the steady-state <span class="hlt">electron</span> Fokker-Planck equation perturbed with respect to a global equilibrium is presented in magnetized plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. The magnetic field is assumed to be constant and the <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> collisions are described by the Landau collision operator. The solution is derived in the Fourier space and in the framework of the diffusive approximation which captures the spatial nonlocal effects. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients are deduced and used to close a complete set of nonlocal <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluid equations. This work improves the results of A. Bendib et al. [Phys. Plasmas 9, 1555 (2002)] and of A. V. Brantov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 10, 4633 (2003)] restricted to the local and nonlocal high-Z plasma approximations, respectively. The influence of the magnetic field on the nonlocal effects is discussed. We propose also accurate numerical fits of the relevant <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients with respect to the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L and the atomic number Z, where L is the typical scale length and {lambda}{sub ei} is the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-ion mean-free-path.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.101n1603A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApPhL.101n1603A"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> water-gated thin film transistors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Al Naim, Abdullah; Grell, Martin</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>We demonstrate an <span class="hlt">electron-transporting</span> water-gated thin film transistor, using thermally converted precursor-route zinc-oxide (ZnO) intrinsic semiconductors with hexamethyldisilazene (HMDS) hydrophobic surface modification. Water gated HMDS-ZnO thin film transistors (TFT) display low threshold and high <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility. ZnO films constitute an attractive alternative to organic semiconductors for TFT transducers in sensor applications for waterborne analytes. Despite the use of an electrolyte as gate medium, the gate geometry (shape of gate electrode and distance between gate electrode and TFT channel) is relevant for optimum performance of water-gated TFTs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94l5118W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94l5118W"><span>Interlayer <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in CaMnBi2 antiferromagnet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Aifeng; Graf, D.; Wu, Lijun; Wang, Kefeng; Bozin, E.; Zhu, Yimei; Petrovic, C.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We report interlayer <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in CaMnBi2 single crystals. Quantum oscillations and angular magnetoresistance suggest coherent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conduction and valley polarized conduction of Dirac states. The small cyclotron mass, high mobility of carriers, and nontrivial Berry's phase are consistent with the presence of Dirac fermions on the side wall of the warped cylindrical Fermi surface. Similarly to SrMnBi2, which features an anisotropic Dirac cone, our results suggest that magnetic-field-induced changes in interlayer conduction are also present in layered bismuth-based materials with a zero-energy line in momentum space created by the staggered alkaline earth atoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1345748-interlayer-electronic-transport-camnbi2-antiferromagnet','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1345748-interlayer-electronic-transport-camnbi2-antiferromagnet"><span>Interlayer <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in CaMnBi2 antiferromagnet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Wang, Aifeng; Graf, D.; Wu, Lijun; ...</p> <p>2016-09-12</p> <p>Here, we report interlayer <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in CaMnBi2 single crystals. Quantum oscillations and angular magnetoresistance suggest coherent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conduction and valley polarized conduction of Dirac states. Furthermore, the small cyclotron mass, high mobility of carriers, and nontrivial Berry's phase are consistent with the presence of Dirac fermions on the side wall of the warped cylindrical Fermi surface. Similarly to SrMnBi2 , which features an anisotropic Dirac cone, our results suggest that magnetic-field-induced changes in interlayer conduction are also present in layered bismuth-based materials with a zero-energy line in momentum space created by the staggered alkaline earth atoms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27722501','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27722501"><span>Planarity and multiple components promote organic photovoltaic efficiency by improving <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goldey, Matthew B; Reid, Daniel; de Pablo, Juan; Galli, Giulia</p> <p>2016-11-23</p> <p>Establishing how the conformation of organic photovoltaic (OPV) polymers <span class="hlt">affects</span> their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties is critical in order to determine design rules for new OPV materials and in particular to understand the performance enhancements recently reported for ternary blends. We report coupled classical and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations showing that polymer linkage twisting significantly reduces optical absorption efficiency, as well as hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates in donor polymers. We predict that blends with components favoring planar geometries contribute to the enhancement of the overall efficiency of ternary OPVs. Furthermore, our <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure calculations for the PTB7-PID2-PC71BM system show that hole transfer rates are enhanced in ternary blends with respect to their binary counterpart. Finally, our results point at thermal disorder in the blend as a key reason responsible for device voltage losses and at the need to carry out <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure calculations at finite temperature to reliably compare with experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=246107','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=246107"><span>Lipophilic chelator inhibition of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Escherichia coli.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Crane, R T; Sun, I L; Crane, F L</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The lipophilic chelator bathophenanthroline inhibits <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in membranes from Escherichia coli. The less lipophilic 1,10-phenanthroline, bathophenanthroline sulfonate, and alpha,alpha-dipyridyl have little effect. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase is more sensitive to bathophenanthroline inhibition than lactate oxidase activity. Evidence for two sites of inhibition comes from the fact that both reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide menadione reductase and duroquinol oxidase activities are inhibited. Addition of uncouplers of phosphorylation before bathophenanthroline protects against inhibition. PMID:1092663</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006CP....326..138X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006CP....326..138X"><span>Redox-gated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in electrically wired ferrocene molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Xiaoyin; Brune, Daniel; He, Jin; Lindsay, Stuart; Gorman, Christopher B.; Tao, Nongjian</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>We have synthesized cysteamine-terminated ferrocene molecules and determined the dependence of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the molecules on their redox states by measuring the current through the molecules as a function of the electrode potential. The current fluctuates over a large range, but its average value increases with the potential. We attribute the current fluctuation and its increase with the potential to the switching of the molecules from low-conductance reduced state to high-conductance oxidized state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493833','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493833"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of solar <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ablaßmayer, J.; Tautz, R. C.; Dresing, N.</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>The turbulent <span class="hlt">transport</span> of solar energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated by means of a test-particle Monte-Carlo simulation. The magnetic fields are modeled as a combination of the Parker field and a turbulent component. In combination with the direct calculation of diffusion coefficients via the mean-square displacements, this approach allows one to analyze the effect of the initial ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> phase. In that sense, the model complements the main other approach in which a <span class="hlt">transport</span> equation is solved. The major advancement is that, by recording the flux of particles arriving at virtual detectors, intensity and anisotropy-time profiles can be obtained. Observational indications for a longitudinal asymmetry can thus be explained by tracing the diffusive spread of the particle distribution. The approach may be of future help for the systematic interpretation of observations for instance by the solar terrestrial relations observatory (STEREO) and advanced composition explorer (ACE) spacecrafts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26239075','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26239075"><span>Glucocorticoid <span class="hlt">affects</span> dendritic <span class="hlt">transport</span> of BDNF-containing vesicles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adachi, Naoki; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Nakajima, Shingo; Fukuoka, Masashi; Odaka, Haruki; Katanuma, Yusuke; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Hohjoh, Hirohiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi</p> <p>2015-08-04</p> <p>Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is essential for neuronal survival, differentiation, and functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Because BDNF protein is sorted into secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network in the cell body after translation, <span class="hlt">transport</span> of BDNF-containing vesicles to the secretion sites is an important process for its function. Here we examined the effect of dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, on BDNF-containing vesicle <span class="hlt">transport</span> and found that DEX decreased the proportion of stationary vesicles and increased velocity of the microtubule-based vesicle <span class="hlt">transport</span> in dendrites of cortical neurons. Furthermore, DEX increased huntingtin (Htt) protein levels via glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation, and reduction in the amount of Htt by a specific shRNA reversed the action of DEX on BDNF vesicle <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Given that Htt protein is a positive regulator for the microtubule-dependent vesicular <span class="hlt">transport</span> in neurons, our data suggest that glucocorticoid stimulates BDNF vesicle <span class="hlt">transport</span> through upregulation of Htt protein levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/598594','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/598594"><span>Modeling <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> during magnetic field buildup in SSPX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hua, D.D.; Hooper, E.B.; Fowler, T.K.</p> <p>1997-10-01</p> <p>A model for spheromak magnetic field buildup and <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span>, including a thermal diffusivity associated with magnetic turbulence during helicity injection is applied to a SSPX equilibrium, with a maximum final magnetic field of 1.3 T. Magnetic field-buildup times of 1.0 X 10-3, 5.0 X 10-4 and 1.0 X 10-4 s were used in the model to examine their effects on <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span>. It is found that at <span class="hlt">transport</span> run time of 4 x 10-3 s, the fastest buildup-time results in the highest final temperature profile, with a core temperature of 0.93 kev while requiring the lowest input energy at 140 KJ. The results show that within the model the most rapid buildup rate generates the highest <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature at the fastest rate and at the lowest consumption of energy. However, the peak power requirements are large (> 600 MW for the fastest buildup case examined).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3327..423J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3327..423J"><span>Isolation systems for <span class="hlt">electronic</span> black-box <span class="hlt">transportation</span> to orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jedrich, Nicholas M.; Pendleton, Scott C.</p> <p>1998-06-01</p> <p>Servicing the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) requires the safe <span class="hlt">transportation</span> of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) on the Space <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> System (STS) to replace or enhance the capability of existing units. The delicate design of these <span class="hlt">electronic</span> ORUs makes it imperative to provide isolation from the STS launch random vibration, while maintaining fundamental modes above the transient load environment. Two methods were developed and used exclusively, on Servicing Mission 2 (SM2), to isolate the ORUs from the environmental launch loads imposed by the STS. The first load isolation system utilizes a refined open/closed cell foam design to provide the required damping and corner frequency, while the second method uses an innovative Viscoelastic Material (VEM) design. This paper addresses both systems as initially designed including finite element (FE) model analysis of the VEM system. Vibration testing of prototype systems and modifications to the design resulting from test will be discussed. The final design as flown on HST SM2 with recommendations for future applications of these technologies in <span class="hlt">transporting</span> <span class="hlt">electronic</span> black boxes to orbit will conclude the paper.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415564','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415564"><span>The role of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-impact vibrational excitation in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through gaseous tetrahydrofuran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duque, H. V.; Do, T. P. T.; Konovalov, D. A.; White, R. D.; Brunger, M. J. E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au; Jones, D. B. E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au</p> <p>2015-03-28</p> <p>In this paper, we report newly derived integral cross sections (ICSs) for <span class="hlt">electron</span> impact vibrational excitation of tetrahydrofuran (THF) at intermediate impact energies. These cross sections extend the currently available data from 20 to 50 eV. Further, they indicate that the previously recommended THF ICS set [Garland et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 062712 (2013)] underestimated the strength of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-impact vibrational excitation processes. Thus, that recommended vibrational cross section set is revised to address those deficiencies. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> swarm <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties were calculated with the amended vibrational cross section set, to quantify the role of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-driven vibrational excitation in describing the macroscopic swarm phenomena. Here, significant differences of up to 17% in the <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients were observed between the calculations performed using the original and revised cross section sets for vibrational excitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486307','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486307"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in VO{sub 2}—Experimentally calibrated Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span> modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kinaci, Alper; Rosenmann, Daniel; Chan, Maria K. Y. E-mail: mchan@anl.gov; Kado, Motohisa; Ling, Chen; Zhu, Gaohua; Banerjee, Debasish E-mail: mchan@anl.gov</p> <p>2015-12-28</p> <p>Materials that undergo metal-insulator transitions (MITs) are under intense study, because the transition is scientifically fascinating and technologically promising for various applications. Among these materials, VO{sub 2} has served as a prototype due to its favorable transition temperature. While the physical underpinnings of the transition have been heavily investigated experimentally and computationally, quantitative modeling of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the two phases has yet to be undertaken. In this work, we establish a density-functional-theory (DFT)-based approach with Hubbard U correction (DFT + U) to model <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in VO{sub 2} in the semiconducting and metallic regimes, focusing on band <span class="hlt">transport</span> using the Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span> equations. We synthesized high quality VO{sub 2} films and measured the <span class="hlt">transport</span> quantities across the transition, in order to calibrate the free parameters in the model. We find that the experimental calibration of the Hubbard correction term can efficiently and adequately model the metallic and semiconducting phases, allowing for further computational design of MIT materials for desirable <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......149T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......149T"><span>Charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> and injection in amorphous organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tse, Shing Chi</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis presents how we use various measuring techniques to study the charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> and injection in organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> materials. Understanding charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> and injection properties in organic solids is of vital importance for improving performance characteristics of organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices, including organic-light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), and field effect transistors (OFETs). The charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of amorphous organic materials, commonly used in organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices, are investigated by the means of carrier mobility measurements. Transient electroluminescence (EL) technique was used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> material--- tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3). The results are in excellent agreement with independent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. Then, the effect of dopants on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> was also examined. TOF technique was also used to examine the effects of tertiary-butyl (t-Bu) substitutions on anthracene derivatives (ADN). All ADN compounds were found to be ambipolar. As the degree of t-Bu substitution increases, the carrier mobilities decrease progressively. The reduction of carrier mobilities with increasing t-butylation can be attributed to a decrease in the charge-transfer integral or the wavefunction overlap. In addition, from TOF measurements, two naphthylamine-based hole <span class="hlt">transporters</span>, namely, N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'diamine (NPB) and 4,4',4"-tris(n-(2-naphthyl)-n-phenyl-amino)-triphenylamine (2TNATA) were found to possess <span class="hlt">electron-transporting</span> (ET) abilities. An organic light-emitting diode that employed NPB as the ET material was demonstrated. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> conducting mechanism of NPB and 2TNATA in relation to the hopping model will be discussed. Furthermore, the ET property of NPB applied in OLEDs will also be examined. Besides transient EL and TOF techniques, we also use dark-injection space-charge-limited current</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144l4105R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144l4105R"><span>Distribution of tunnelling times for quantum <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rudge, Samuel L.; Kosov, Daniel S.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the tunnelling time is the time taken for an <span class="hlt">electron</span> to tunnel out of a system after it has tunnelled in. We define the tunnelling time distribution for quantum processes in a dissipative environment and develop a practical approach for calculating it, where the environment is described by the general Markovian master equation. We illustrate the theory by using the rate equation to compute the tunnelling time distribution for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a molecular junction. The tunnelling time distribution is exponential, which indicates that Markovian quantum tunnelling is a Poissonian statistical process. The tunnelling time distribution is used not only to study the quantum statistics of tunnelling along the average electric current but also to analyse extreme quantum events where an <span class="hlt">electron</span> jumps against the applied voltage bias. The average tunnelling time shows distinctly different temperature dependence for p- and n-type molecular junctions and therefore provides a sensitive tool to probe the alignment of molecular orbitals relative to the electrode Fermi energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23173952','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23173952"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a GaPSb film.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lo, Shun-Tsung; Lin, Hung En; Wang, Shu-Wei; Lin, Huang-De; Chin, Yu-Chung; Lin, Hao-Hsiung; Lin, Jheng-Cyuan; Liang, Chi-Te</p> <p>2012-11-23</p> <p>We have performed <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements on a gallium phosphide antimonide (GaPSb) film grown on GaAs. At low temperatures (T), <span class="hlt">transport</span> is governed by three-dimensional Mott variable range hopping (VRH) due to strong localization. Therefore, <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> interactions are not significant in GaPSb. With increasing T, the coexistence of VRH conduction and the activated behavior with a gap of 20 meV is found. The fact that the measured gap is comparable to the thermal broadening at room temperature (approximately 25 meV) demonstrates that <span class="hlt">electrons</span> can be thermally activated in an intrinsic GaPSb film. Moreover, the observed carrier density dependence on temperature also supports the coexistence of VRH and the activated behavior. It is shown that the carriers are delocalized either with increasing temperature or magnetic field in GaPSb. Our new experimental results provide important information regarding GaPSb which may well lay the foundation for possible GaPSb-based device applications such as in high-<span class="hlt">electron</span>-mobility transistor and heterojunction bipolar transistors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099864"><span>Energy level control: toward an efficient hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Xiao; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Tai-Huei; He, Xingdao; Sun, Weifu</p> <p>2014-08-07</p> <p>Highly efficient hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the 'excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot <span class="hlt">electron</span>/hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4124467','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4124467"><span>Energy level control: toward an efficient hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jin, Xiao; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Tai-Huei; He, Xingdao; Sun, Weifu</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Highly efficient hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the ‘excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot <span class="hlt">electron</span>/hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells. PMID:25099864</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28C5301Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28C5301Z"><span>Nonlinear thermoelectric <span class="hlt">transport</span> in single-molecule junctions: the effect of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, we theoretically analyze steady-state thermoelectric <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a single-molecule junction with a vibrating bridge. The thermally induced charge current in the system is explored using a nonequilibrium Green function formalism. We study the combined effects of Coulomb interactions between charge carriers on the bridge and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interactions on the thermocurrent beyond the linear response regime. It is shown that <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibron interactions may significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> both the magnitude and the direction of the thermocurrent, and vibrational signatures may appear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4738282','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4738282"><span>Control of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene by electromagnetic dressing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kristinsson, K.; Kibis, O. V.; Morina, S.; Shelykh, I. A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We demonstrated theoretically that the renormalization of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy spectrum near the Dirac point of graphene by a strong high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field) drastically depends on polarization of the field. Namely, linear polarization results in an anisotropic gapless energy spectrum, whereas circular polarization leads to an isotropic gapped one. As a consequence, the stationary (dc) <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene strongly depends on parameters of the dressing field: A circularly polarized field monotonically decreases the isotropic conductivity of graphene, whereas a linearly polarized one results in both giant anisotropy of conductivity (which can reach thousands of percents) and the oscillating behavior of the conductivity as a function of the field intensity. Since the predicted phenomena can be observed in a graphene layer irradiated by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave, the elaborated theory opens a substantially new way to control <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties of graphene with light. PMID:26838371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26332688','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26332688"><span>Does Membrane Thickness <span class="hlt">Affect</span> the <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of Selective Ions Mediated by Ionophores in Synthetic Membranes?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lomora, Mihai; Dinu, Ionel Adrian; Itel, Fabian; Rigo, Serena; Spulber, Mariana; Palivan, Cornelia G</p> <p>2015-08-31</p> <p>Biomimetic polymer nanocompartments (polymersomes) with preserved architecture and ion-selective membrane permeability represent cutting-edge mimics of cellular compartmentalization. Here it is studied whether the membrane thickness <span class="hlt">affects</span> the functionality of ionophores in respect to the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of Ca(2+) ions in synthetic membranes of polymersomes, which are up to 2.6 times thicker than lipid membranes (5 nm). Selective permeability toward calcium ions is achieved by proper insertion of ionomycin, and demonstrated by using specific fluorescence markers encapsulated in their inner cavities. Preservation of polymersome architecture is shown by a combination of light scattering, transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. By using a combination of stopped-flow and fluorescence spectroscopy, it is shown that ionomycin can function and <span class="hlt">transport</span> calcium ions across polymer membranes with thicknesses in the range 10.7-13.4 nm (7.1-8.9 times larger than the size of the ionophore). Thicker membranes induce a decrease in <span class="hlt">transport</span>, but do not block it due to the intrinsic flexibility of these synthetic membranes. The design of ion selective biomimetic nanocompartments represents a new path toward the development of cellular ion nanosensors and nano-reactors, in which calcium sensitive biomacromolecules can be triggered for specific biological functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1086379','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1086379"><span>Effect of Salts and <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> on the Conformation of Isolated Chloroplasts. II. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Microscopy 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Izawa, Seikichi; Good, Norman E.</p> <p>1966-01-01</p> <p>Spinach chloroplasts isolated in media containing salts and the rare chloroplasts which are still within their envelopes alike retain grana similar to those seen in chloroplasts in situ. Chloroplasts isolated in low-salt media lose their grana without losing any chlorophyll. These grana-free chloroplasts are considerably swollen and consist almost entirely of continuous sheets of paired-membrane structures. These double structures, the lamellae, are only loosely held together, primarily at the edges, by tenuous material which does not react with permanganate. Addition of salts (methylamine hydrochloride, NaCl, MgCl2) to the grana-free low-salt chloroplasts provide strong interlamellar attractions. These attractions result in a stacking of the lamellae which is sometimes almost random but sometimes results in regular structures indistinguishable from the original grana. The phosphorylation-uncoupler atebrin causes further swelling of the chloroplasts in the absence of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> by increasing the space between the paired membranes of the lamellae. The rapid <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> (Hill reaction) made possible by atebrin-uncoupling is associated with a great decrease in chloroplast volume. This decrease results from a collapsing together of the widely separated lamellar membrane pairs. The pairs approach each other so closely that they usually appear as a single membrane when viewed with the <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscope. The much slower <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> which occurs in the absence of uncouplers is associated with a similar but smaller decrease in the space between the lamellar membrane pairs. Chloroplasts swell during the rapid <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> made possible by the phosphorylation-uncoupler methylamine. This swelling is accompanied by a degree of membrane distortion which precludes an interpretation of the mechanism. As with atebrin-faciliated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, obviously paired membranes disappear but it is not yet clear whether this is by association or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhPl...24b2109I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhPl...24b2109I"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> coefficients and heat fluxes in non-equilibrium high-temperature flows with <span class="hlt">electronic</span> excitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The influence of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> excitation on <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes in non-equilibrium high-temperature ionized mixture flows is studied. Two five-component mixtures, N 2 / N2 + / N / N + / e - and O 2 / O2 + / O / O + / e - , are considered taking into account the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> degrees of freedom for atomic species as well as the rotational-vibrational-<span class="hlt">electronic</span> degrees of freedom for molecular species, both neutral and ionized. Using the modified Chapman-Enskog method, the <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients (thermal conductivity, shear viscosity and bulk viscosity, diffusion and thermal diffusion) are calculated in the temperature range 500-50 000 K. Thermal conductivity and bulk viscosity coefficients are strongly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states, especially for neutral atomic species. Shear viscosity, diffusion, and thermal diffusion coefficients are not sensible to <span class="hlt">electronic</span> excitation if the size of excited states is assumed to be constant. The limits of applicability for the Stokes relation are discussed; at high temperatures, this relation is violated not only for molecular species but also for <span class="hlt">electronically</span> excited atomic gases. Two test cases of strongly non-equilibrium flows behind plane shock waves corresponding to the spacecraft re-entry (Hermes and Fire II) are simulated numerically. Fluid-dynamic variables and heat fluxes are evaluated in gases with <span class="hlt">electronic</span> excitation. In inviscid flows without chemical-radiative coupling, the flow-field is weakly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states; however, in viscous flows, their influence can be more important, in particular, on the convective heat flux. The contribution of different dissipative processes to the heat transfer is evaluated as well as the effect of reaction rate coefficients. The competition of diffusion and heat conduction processes reduces the overall effect of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> excitation on the convective heating, especially for the Fire II test case. It is shown that reliable models of chemical reaction rates are of great</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..MARW35003R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..MARW35003R"><span>Tools for Studying <span class="hlt">Electron</span> and Spin <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Single Molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ralph, Daniel C.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>Experiments in the field of single-molecule <span class="hlt">electronics</span> are challenging in part because it can be very difficult to control and characterize the device structure. Molecules contacted by metal electrodes cannot easily be imaged by microscopy techniques. Moreover, if one attempts to characterize the device structure simply by measuring a current-voltage curve, it is easy to mistake nonlinear <span class="hlt">transport</span> across a bare tunnel junction or a metallic short for a molecular signal. I will discuss the development of a set of experimental test structures that enable the properties of a molecular device to be tuned controllably in-situ, so that the <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanisms can be studied more systematically and compared with theoretical predictions. My collaborators and I are developing the means to use several different types of such experimental "knobs" in coordination: electrostatic gating to shift the energy levels in a molecule, mechanical motion to adjust the molecular configuration or the molecule-electrode coupling strength, illumination with light to promote <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to excited states or to make and break chemical bonds, and the use of ferromagnetic electrodes to study spin-polarized <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Our work so far has provided new insights into Kondo physics, the coupling between a molecule's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and mechanical degrees of freedom, and spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a molecule between magnetic electrodes. Collaborators: Radek Bialczak, Alex Champagne, Luke Donev, Jonas Goldsmith, Jacob Grose, Janice Guikema, Jiwoong Park, Josh Parks, Abhay Pasupathy, Jason Petta, Sara Slater, Burak Ulgut, Alexander Soldatov, H'ector Abruña, and Paul McEuen.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016168','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016168"><span>Kinetically influenced terms for solute <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> by heterogeneous and homogeneous classical reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bahr, J.M.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>This paper extends a four-step derivation procedure, previously presented for cases of <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> by surface reactions, to <span class="hlt">transport</span> problems involving homogeneous reactions. Derivations for these classes of reactions are used to illustrate the manner in which mathematical differences between reaction classes are reflected in the mathematical derivation procedures required to identify kinetically influenced terms. Simulation results for a case of <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> by a single solution phase complexation reaction and for a case of <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> by a precipitation-dissolution reaction are used to demonstrate the nature of departures from equilibrium-controlled <span class="hlt">transport</span> as well as the use of kinetically influenced terms in determining criteria for the applicability of the local equilibrium assumption. A final derivation for a multireaction problem demonstrates the application of the generalized procedure to a case of <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> by reactions of several classes. -from Author</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..91l5419M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..91l5419M"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span>-vibron coupling effects on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> via a single-molecule magnet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCaskey, Alexander; Yamamoto, Yoh; Warnock, Michael; Burzurí, Enrique; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Park, Kyungwha</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We investigate how the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibron coupling influences <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> via an anisotropic magnetic molecule, such as a single-molecule magnet (SMM) Fe4, by using a model Hamiltonian with parameter values obtained from density-functional theory (DFT). The magnetic anisotropy parameters, vibrational energies, and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibron coupling strengths of the Fe4 are computed using DFT. A giant spin model is applied to the Fe4 with only two charge states, specifically a neutral state with a total spin S =5 and a singly charged state with S =9 /2 , which is consistent with our DFT result and experiments on Fe4 single-molecule transistors. In sequential <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling, we find that the magnetic anisotropy gives rise to new features in the conductance peaks arising from vibrational excitations. In particular, the peak height shows a strong, unusual dependence on the direction as well as magnitude of applied B field. The magnetic anisotropy also introduces vibrational satellite peaks whose position and height are modified with the direction and magnitude of applied B field. Furthermore, when multiple vibrational modes with considerable <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibron coupling have energies close to one another, a low-bias current is suppressed, independently of gate voltage and applied B field, although that is not the case for a single mode with a similar <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibron coupling. In the former case, the conductance peaks reveal a stronger B -field dependence than in the latter case. The new features appear because the magnetic anisotropy barrier is of the same order of magnitude as the energies of vibrational modes with significant <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibron coupling. Our findings clearly show the interesting interplay between magnetic anisotropy and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibron coupling in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> via the Fe4. Similar behavior can be observed in <span class="hlt">transport</span> via other anisotropic magnetic molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=217209','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=217209"><span>Aerotaxis in Salmonella typhimurium: role of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Laszlo, D J; Taylor, B L</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Sensory transduction in aerotaxis required <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, in contrast to chemotaxis, which is independent of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Assays for aerotaxis were developed by employing spatial and temporal oxygen gradients imposed independently of respiration. By varying the step increase in oxygen concentration in the temporal assay, the dose-response relationship was obtained for aerotaxis in Salmonella typhimurium. A half-maximal response at 0.4 microM oxygen and inhibition by 5 mM KCN suggested that the "receptor" for aerotaxis is cytochrome o. The response was independent of adenosine triphosphate formation via oxidative phosphorylation but did correlate with changes in membrane potential monitored with the fluorescent cyanine dye diS-C3-(5). Nitrate and fumarate, which are alternative <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors for the respiratory chain in S. typhimurium, inhibited aerotaxis when nitrate reductase and fumarate reductase were induced. These results support the hypothesis that taxis to oxygen, nitrate, and fumarate is mediated by the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system and by changes in the proton motive force. Aerotaxis was normal in Escherichia coli mutants that were defective in the tsr, tar, or trg genes; in S. typhimurium, oxygen did not stimulate methylation of the products of these genes. A cheC mutant which shows an inverse response to chemoattractants also gave an inverse response to oxygen. Therefore, aerotaxis is transduced by a distinct and unidentified signally protein but is focused into the common chemosensory pathway before the step involving the cheC product. When S. typhimurium became anaerobic, the decreased proton motive force from glycolysis supported slow swimming but not tumbling, indicating that a minimum proton motive force was required for tumbling. The bacteria rapidly adapted to the anaerobic condition and resumed tumbling after about 3 min. The adaptation period was much shorter when the bacteria had been previously grown anaerobically. Images PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760016988','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760016988"><span>Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues <span class="hlt">affecting</span> intercity <span class="hlt">transportation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Papers on major issues and trends that <span class="hlt">affect</span> the future of intercity <span class="hlt">transportation</span> are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity <span class="hlt">transportation</span> from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the evolution of intercity <span class="hlt">transportation</span> technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1175/ofr20161175.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1175/ofr20161175.pdf"><span>Benthic processes <span class="hlt">affecting</span> contaminant <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.</p> <p>2016-09-30</p> <p>Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially <span class="hlt">affect</span> contaminant <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90t5416W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90t5416W"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in multiterminal networks of Majorana bound states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weithofer, Luzie; Recher, Patrik; Schmidt, Thomas L.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We investigate <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through multiterminal networks hosting Majorana bound states (MBS) in the framework of full counting statistics. In particular, we apply our general results to T-shaped junctions of two Majorana nanowires. When the wires are in the topologically nontrivial regime, three MBS are localized near the outer ends of the wires, while one MBS is localized near the crossing point, and when the lengths of the wires are finite adjacent MBS can overlap. We propose a combination of current and cross-correlation measurements to reveal the predicted coupling of four Majoranas in a topological T junction. Interestingly, we show that the elementary <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes at the central lead are different compared to the outer leads, giving rise to characteristic nonlocal signatures in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. We find quantitative agreement between our analytical model and numerical simulations of a tight-binding model. Using the numerical simulations, we discuss the effect of weak disorder on the current and the cross-correlation functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0141.pdf','DOE-RDACC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0141.pdf"><span>Helium, Iron and <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Particle <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Energy <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Studies on the TFTR Tokamak</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/fieldedsearch.html">DOE R&D Accomplishments Database</a></p> <p>Synakowski, E. J.; Efthimion, P. C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B. C.; Tang, W. M.; Grek, B.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Johnson, D .W.; Mansfield, D. K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Park, H. K.; Ramsey, A. T.; Redi, M. H.; Scott, S. D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M. C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Kissick, M. W. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States))</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Results from helium, iron, and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> on TFTR in L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power are presented. They are compared to results from thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> analysis based on power balance. Particle diffusivities and thermal conductivities are radially hollow and larger than neoclassical values, except possibly near the magnetic axis. The ion channel dominates over the <span class="hlt">electron</span> channel in both particle and thermal diffusion. A peaked helium profile, supported by inward convection that is stronger than predicted by neoclassical theory, is measured in the Supershot The helium profile shape is consistent with predictions from quasilinear electrostatic drift-wave theory. While the perturbative particle diffusion coefficients of all three species are similar in the Supershot, differences are found in the L-Mode. Quasilinear theory calculations of the ratios of impurity diffusivities are in good accord with measurements. Theory estimates indicate that the ion heat flux should be larger than the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux, consistent with power balance analysis. However, theoretical values of the ratio of the ion to <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux can be more than a factor of three larger than experimental values. A correlation between helium diffusion and ion thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> is observed and has favorable implications for sustained ignition of a tokamak fusion reactor.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/950776','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/950776"><span>Momentum <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in <span class="hlt">Electron</span>-Dominated Spherical Torus Plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kaye, S. M.; Solomon, W.; Bell, R. E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Levinton, F.; Menard, J.; Rewoldt, G.; Sabbagh, S.; Wang, W.; Yuh, H.</p> <p>2009-02-24</p> <p>The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operates between 0.35 and 0.55 T, which, when coupled to up to 7 MW of neutral beam injection, leads to central rotation velocities in excess of 300 km/s and ExB shearing rates up to 1 MHz. This level of ExB shear can be up to a factor of five greater than typical linear growth rates of long-wavelength ion (e.g., ITG) modes, at least partially suppressing these instabilities. Evidence for this turbulence suppression is that the inferred diffusive ion thermal flux in NSTX H-modes is often at the neoclassical level, and thus these plasmas operate in an <span class="hlt">electron</span>-dominated <span class="hlt">transport</span> regime. Analysis of experiments using n=3 magnetic fields to change plasma rotation indicate that local rotation shear influences local <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients, most notably the ion thermal diffusivity, in a manner consistent with suppression of the low-k turbulence by this rotation shear. The value of the effective momentum diffusivity, as inferred from steady-state momentum balance, is found to be larger than the neoclassical value. Results of perturbative experiments indicate inward pinch velocities up to 40 m/s and perturbative momentum diffusivities of up to 4 m2/s, which are larger by a factor of several than those values inferred from steady-state analysis. The inferred pinch velocity values are consistent with values based on theories in which low-k turbulence drives the inward momentum pinch. Thus, in Spherical Tori (STs), while the neoclassical ion energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> effects can be relatively high and dominate the ion energy <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the neoclassical momentum <span class="hlt">transport</span> effects are near zero, meaning that <span class="hlt">transport</span> of momentum is dominated by any low-k turbulence that exists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.774a2103P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.774a2103P"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> properties of copper with excited <span class="hlt">electron</span> subsystem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petrov, Yu V.; Migdal, K. P.; Knyazev, D. V.; Inogamov, N. A.; Levashov, P. R.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We have investigated <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> subsystem of copper heated by a femtosecond laser pulse. These properties change greatly in comparison with the room temperature solid metal. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature and pressure profiles significantly depend on these properties in bulk laser targets according to the two-temperature (2T) model. These profiles at the 2T stage are responsible for shock and rarefaction waves' formation. We have developed the analytical model of electroconductivity and heat conductivity of copper which takes into account changes of density, <span class="hlt">electron</span> and ion temperatures. The model is based on the solution of the Boltzmann equation in the relaxation time approximation for consideration of <span class="hlt">electron</span> collisions. Also we have carried out the first-principles calculations using the Kubo-Greenwood theory, methods of pseudopotential and linear augmented plane waves which are necessary to evaluate <span class="hlt">electron</span> wavefunctions. We have provided the check of convergence of all parameters of our first-principles calculations. The results of our analytical model for electro- and heat conductivities are in good agreement with the data obtained using the linearized augmented plane wave (LAPW) method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BGeo...14..683B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017BGeo...14..683B"><span>Long-distance <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> occurs globally in marine sediments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burdorf, Laurine D. W.; Tramper, Anton; Seitaj, Dorina; Meire, Lorenz; Hidalgo-Martinez, Silvia; Zetsche, Eva-Maria; Boschker, Henricus T. S.; Meysman, Filip J. R.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Recently, long filamentous bacteria have been reported conducting <span class="hlt">electrons</span> over centimetre distances in marine sediments. These so-called cable bacteria perform an electrogenic form of sulfur oxidation, whereby long-distance <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> links sulfide oxidation in deeper sediment horizons to oxygen reduction in the upper millimetres of the sediment. Electrogenic sulfur oxidation exerts a strong impact on the local sediment biogeochemistry, but it is currently unknown how prevalent the process is within the seafloor. Here we provide a state-of-the-art assessment of its global distribution by combining new field observations with previous reports from the literature. This synthesis demonstrates that electrogenic sulfur oxidation, and hence microbial long-distance <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, is a widespread phenomenon in the present-day seafloor. The process is found in coastal sediments within different climate zones (off the Netherlands, Greenland, the USA, Australia) and thrives on a range of different coastal habitats (estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves, coastal hypoxic basins, intertidal flats). The combination of a widespread occurrence and a strong local geochemical imprint suggests that electrogenic sulfur oxidation could be an important, and hitherto overlooked, component of the marine cycle of carbon, sulfur and other elements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SSEle..53.1009S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SSEle..53.1009S"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> properties in semiconductor-gas discharge <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadiq, Y.; (Yücel) Kurt, H.; Albarzanji, A. O.; Alekperov, S. D.; Salamov, B. G.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Nonlinear electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> of semi-insulating (SI) GaAs detector in semiconductor-gas discharge IR image converter (SGDIC) are studied experimentally for a wide range of the gas pressures ( p = 28-55 Torr), interelectrode distances ( d = 445-525 μm) and inner electrode diameters ( D = 12-22 mm) of photocathode. The destabilization of homogeneous state observed in a planar dc-driven structure is due to nonlinear <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of GaAs photocathode. Experimental investigation of electrical instability in SGDIC structure was analyzed using hysteresis, N-shaped negative differential conductivity (NDC) current voltage characteristics (CVC) and dynamic behavior of current in a wide range of feeding voltage ( U = 590-1000 V) under different IR light intensities incident on cathode material. It is established that hysteresis are related to <span class="hlt">electron</span> capture and emission from EL2 deep center on the detector substrate. We have experimentally investigated domain velocity and <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility based on well-understood transferred <span class="hlt">electron</span> effect (TEE) for abovementioned nonlinear electrical characteristics of SI GaAs. The experimental findings are in good agreement with estimated results reported by other independent authors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARL11009E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARL11009E"><span>Molecular orbital theory of ballistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ernzerhof, Matthias; Rocheleau, Philippe; Goyer, Francois</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through molecules occurs, for instance, in STM imaging and in conductance measurements on molecular <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices (MEDs). To model these phenomena, we use a non-Hermitian model Hamiltonian [1] for the description of open systems that exchange current density with their environment. We derive qualitative, molecular-orbital-based rules relating molecular structure and conductance. We show how side groups attached to molecular conductors [2] can completely suppress the conductance. We discuss interference effects in aromatic molecules [3] that can also inhibit <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Rules are developed [1] for the prediction of Fano resonances. All these phenomena are explained with a molecular orbital theory [1,4] for molecules attached to macroscopic reservoirs. [1] F. Goyer, M. Ernzerhof, and M. Zhuang, JCP 126, 144104 (2007); M. Ernzerhof, JCP 127, 204709 (2007). [2] M. Ernzerhof, M. Zhuang, and P. Rocheleau, JCP 123, 134704 (2005); G. C. Solomon, D Q. Andrews, R P. Van Duyne, and M A. Ratner, JACS 130, 7788 (2008). [3] M. Ernzerhof, H. Bahmann, F. Goyer, M. Zhuang, and P. Rocheleau, JCTC 2, 1291 (2006); G. C. Solomon, D. Q. Andrews, R. P. Van Duyne, and M. A. Ratner, JCP 129, 054701 (2008). [4] B.T. Pickup, P.W. Fowler, CPL 459, 198 (2008); P. Rocheleau and M. Ernzerhof, JCP, submitted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10183507','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10183507"><span>Studies of local <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> on TFTR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fredrickson, E.D.; Chang, Z.Y.; Janos, A.; McGuire, K.M.; Scott, S.; Taylor, G.</p> <p>1993-08-16</p> <p>The anomalously fast relaxation of the perturbations to the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature profile caused by a sawtooth crash has been studied extensively on TFTR. We will show that on a short timescale the heat pulse is not simply diffusive as has been generally assumed, but that modeling of the heat pulse requires a transient enhancement in {chi}{sub e} following the sawtooth crash. It will be shown that the time-dependent enhancement in {chi}{sub e} predicted by non-linear thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> models, i.e., incremental {chi} models or the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins <span class="hlt">transport</span> model, is much smaller than that required to explain the anomalies in the heat pulse propagation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhPl....7.2810B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhPl....7.2810B"><span>Linear delta-f simulations of nonlocal <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brunner, S.; Valeo, E.; Krommes, J. A.</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>Nonlocal <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations are carried out by making use of some of the techniques developed previously for extending the δf method to <span class="hlt">transport</span> time scale simulations [S. Brunner, E. Valeo, and J. Krommes, Phys. Plasmas 6, 4504 (1999)]. By considering the relaxation of small amplitude temperature perturbations of an homogeneous Maxwellian background, only the linearized Fokker-Planck equation has to be solved, and direct comparisons can be made with the equivalent, nonlocal hydrodynamic approach [V. Yu. Bychenkov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4405 (1995)]. A quasineutrality-conserving algorithm is derived for computing the self-consistent electric fields driving the return currents. In the low-collisionality regime, results illustrate the importance of taking account of nonlocality in both space and time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5197113','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5197113"><span>Conservative differencing of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> Fokker-Planck <span class="hlt">transport</span> equation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Langdon, A.B.</p> <p>1981-01-12</p> <p>We need to extend the applicability and improve the accuracy of kinetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> codes. In this paper, special attention is given to modelling of e-e collisions, including the dominant contributions arising from anisotropy. The electric field and spatial gradient terms are also considered. I construct finite-difference analogues to the Fokker-Planck integral-differential collision operator, which conserve the particle number, momentum and energy integrals (sums) regardless of the coarseness of the velocity zoning. Such properties are usually desirable, but are especially useful, for example, when there are spatial regions and/or time intervals in which the plasma is cool, so that the collision operator acts rapidly and the velocity distribution is poorly resolved, yet it is crucial that gross conservation properties be respected in hydro-<span class="hlt">transport</span> applications, such as in the LASNEX code. Some points are raised concerning spatial differencing and time integration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984PhRvB..29.6879H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984PhRvB..29.6879H"><span>Intersoliton hopping <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in molecular crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Howard, I. A.; Conwell, E. M.</p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>Quarter-filled-band quasi-one-dimensional compounds which exhibit large Coulomb repulsion between two <span class="hlt">electrons</span> on the same site ("large U") can support the formation of fractionally charged solitons. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> hopping between solitons may contribute substantially to <span class="hlt">transport</span> in these materials. We calculate the intersoliton <span class="hlt">electron</span> hopping rate for transitions mediated by intramolecular phonons and by acoustic phonons. Acoustic phonons are found to be much less effective and are expected to contribute significantly only when intramolecular phonons are not excited or cannot satisfy conservation of energy. For the case of intramolecular phonons, we consider both hopping of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> from a soliton pinned by an impurity to a second soliton which then becomes pinned, and hopping between a pair of solitons, one of which remains free to move. [Owing to the large on-chain dielectric constant (~ 100-1000) in these materials, the solitons are probably not bound except at low temperatures.] The transition rates are used to find the hopping mobility for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the soliton levels. Evaluation of the mobility due to the different hopping mechanisms for (N-methylphenazinium)0.54(phenazine)0.46 tetracyanoquinodimethane [(NMP)0.54(Phen)0.46-(TCNQ)] at a temperature of 100 K suggests that, unlike the polyacetylene case, the predominant process at temperatures >~100 K is on-chain hopping, due to the large interchain distances involved. We find a mobility at 100 K of 0.06-1.03 cm2/V sec due to on-chain hopping, mediated by intramolecular phonons, between pinned and free solitons. This mobility should increase at higher temperatures. The thermoelectric power due to the various <span class="hlt">electron</span> hopping processes is calculated as well. We find that for hopping processes involving transitions between pinned and free solitons there is a term in the thermopower involving the soliton pinning energy, in addition to the usual term involving <span class="hlt">electronic</span> energy levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/971443','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/971443"><span>Electrokinesis is a microbial behavior that requires extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harris, Howard W.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Bretschger, Orianna; Ward, Melissa J.; Romine, Margaret F.; Obraztsova, Anna; Nealson, Kenneth H.</p> <p>2010-01-05</p> <p>Shewanella species are widespread in nature, enjoying a cosmopolitan distribution in marine,freshwater, sedimentary and soil environments (1), and have attracted considerable attention in recent years because of their ability to reduce an extensive number of different <span class="hlt">electron</span> 3 acceptors, including the solid (oxy)hydroxides of iron and manganese, such as Fe(OH)3 and MnO2, using one or more proposed mechanisms of extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> (EET) (2, 3). The EET ability of Shewanella species is consistent with their ability to generate electric current in microbial fuel cells in the absence of exogenous <span class="hlt">electron</span> shuttles (4). Various strategies of extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer have been proposed in metal-reducing microbes, including naturally-occurring (2) or biogenic (5-7) soluble mediators that ‘shuttle’ <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from cells to acceptors, as well as direct transfer using multiheme cytochromes located on the cell exterior (8) and transfer via conductive nanowires (9-11). S. oneidensis MR-1 features several proteins that are involved with the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to the exterior of the cell where they play an important role with regard to the reduction of solid <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors such as metal oxides. These include two outer-membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes (MtrC and OmcA), a membrane spanning protein (MtrB), and two periplasmic multi-heme c-type cytochromes (MtrA and CymA). Deletion of the genes encoding any of these proteins leads to phenotypes that are greatly inhibited with regard to metal-oxide reduction and current production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) (12, 13). The mutation of genes that code for proteins involved in the movement of cytochromes to the outer membrane also results in loss of metal-reducing phenotypes (13). The shewanellae are highly motile, by virtue of a single polar flagellum, and individual S. oneidensis MR-1 cells have been tracked swimming at speeds of up to, and sometimes over, 100 μm/sec, although the average</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.........6B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.........6B"><span>Nanoscale <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and ions in water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boynton, Paul Christopher</p> <p></p> <p>The following dissertation discusses the theoretical study of water on the nanoscale, often involved with essential biological molecules such as DNA and proteins. First I introduce the study of water on the nanoscale and how experimentalists approach confinement with nanopores and nanogaps. Then I discuss the theoretical method we choose for understanding this important biological medium on the molecular level, namely classical molecular dynamics. This leads into <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanisms that utilize water on the nanoscale, in our case <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span>. On the scale of mere nanometers or less <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in water enters the tunneling regime, requiring the use of a quantum treatment. In addition, I discuss the importance of water in ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> and its known effects on biological phenomena such as ion selectivity. Water also has great influence over DNA and proteins, which are both introduced in the context of nanopore sequencing. Several techniques for nanopore sequencing are examined and the importance of protein sequencing is explained. In Chapter 2, we study the effect of volumetric constraints on the structure and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of distilled water in a nanopore with embedded electrodes. Combining classical molecular dynamics simulations with quantum scattering theory, we show that the structural motifs water assumes inside the pore can be probed directly by tunneling. In Chapter 3, we propose an improvement to the original sequencing by tunneling method, in which N pairs of electrodes are built in series along a synthetic nanochannel. Each current time series for each nucleobase is cross-correlated together, reducing noise in the signals. We show using random sampling of data from classical molecular dynamics, that indeed the sequencing error is significantly reduced as the number of pairs of electrodes, N, increases. In Chapter 4, we propose a new technique for de novo protein sequencing that involves translocating a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270371"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> and Quantum <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Properties of Atomically Identified Si Point Defects in Graphene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Zhou, Wu; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos</p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>We report high-resolution scanning transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy images displaying a range of inclusions of isolated silicon atoms at the edges and inner zones of graphene layers. Whereas the incorporation of Si atoms to a graphene armchair edge involves no reconstruction of the neighboring carbon atoms, the inclusion of a Si atom to a zigzag graphene edge entails the formation of five-membered carbon rings. In all the observed atomic edge terminations, a Si atom is found bridging two C atoms in a 2-fold coordinated configuration. The atomic-scale observations are underpinned by first-principles calculations of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the structural anomalies. Experimental estimations of Si-doped graphene band gaps realized by means of <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements may be <span class="hlt">affected</span> by a low doping rate of 2-fold coordinated Si atoms at the graphene edges, and 4-fold coordinated at inner zones due to the apparition of mobility gaps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22269317','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22269317"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of doped 8AGNR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sharma, Uma Shankar; Srivastava, Anurag; Verma, U. P.</p> <p>2014-04-24</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of 8-armchair graphene nanoribbon (8AGNR) with defect at different sites are investigated by performing first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The calculated results show that the 8AGNR are semiconductor. The introduction of 3d transition metals, creates the nondegenerate states in the conduction band, makes 8AGNR metallic. The computed transmission spectrum confirms that AGNR are semiconducting in nature and their band gap remain unchanged and localized states appear when there is vacancy in their structures, and the conductance decreases due to defects compared with the pristine nanoribbon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612543','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612543"><span>Calculation of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients of Ag and Au plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Apfelbaum, E. M.</p> <p>2011-12-15</p> <p>The thermoelectric <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients of silver and gold plasma have been calculated within the relaxation-time approximation. We considered temperatures of 10-100 kK and densities of {rho} < or approx. 1 g/cm{sup 3}. The plasma composition was calculated using a corresponding system of coupled mass action laws, including the atom ionization up to +4. For momentum cross sections of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-atom scattering we used the most accurate expressions available. The results of our modeling have been compared with other researchers' data whenever possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11088933','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11088933"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in argon in crossed electric and magnetic fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ness; Makabe</p> <p>2000-09-01</p> <p>An investigation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in argon in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is carried out over a wide range of values of electric and magnetic field strengths. Values of mean energy, ionization rate, drift velocity, and diffusion tensor are reported here. Two unexpected phenomena arise; for certain values of electric and magnetic field we find regions where the swarm mean energy decreases with increasing electric fields for a fixed magnetic field and regions where swarm mean energy increases with increasing magnetic field for a fixed electric field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARZ37013T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARZ37013T"><span>Theory of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibration coupling in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of molecular bridges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsukada, Masaru; Mitsutake, Kunihiro</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through molecules connecting nano-electrodes is the key issue for molecular devices. The competition and coexistence of the coherent and dissipative <span class="hlt">transport</span> are unresolved issue, in spite of its importance. In this work, this problem is investigated by a novel theoretical approach of an ab initio molecular orbital model with combining polaron effect. When carriers are injected into molecules from electrodes, the structure of the molecule changes, which leads the coupling term of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>/hole and the molecular vibration. The model Hamiltonian for the thiophene oligomer is solved by a variational approach, and a mixed states of dressed polaron with molecular orbital states mediated by the phonon cloud is found. The former and latter are predominant for small or large transfer integral, respectively. The excited states can be calculated in the same framework as the ground state. The overall carrier <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties can be analyzed by solving the master equation with the transition rate estimated by the golden rule including the phonon degrees of freedom. In this theoretical approach, the coherent and dissipative <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through molecular bridges can be described in a uniform systematic way.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3896775','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3896775"><span>Orthogonally modulated molecular <span class="hlt">transport</span> junctions for resettable <span class="hlt">electronic</span> logic gates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Meng, Fanben; Hervault, Yves-Marie; Shao, Qi; Hu, Benhui; Norel, Lucie; Rigaut, Stéphane; Chen, Xiaodong</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Individual molecules have been demonstrated to exhibit promising applications as functional components in the fabrication of computing nanocircuits. Based on their advantage in chemical tailorability, many molecular devices with advanced <span class="hlt">electronic</span> functions have been developed, which can be further modulated by the introduction of external stimuli. Here, orthogonally modulated molecular <span class="hlt">transport</span> junctions are achieved via chemically fabricated nanogaps functionalized with dithienylethene units bearing organometallic ruthenium fragments. The addressable and stepwise control of molecular isomerization can be repeatedly and reversibly completed with a judicious use of the orthogonal optical and electrochemical stimuli to reach the controllable switching of conductivity between two distinct states. These photo-/electro-cooperative nanodevices can be applied as resettable <span class="hlt">electronic</span> logic gates for Boolean computing, such as a two-input OR and a three-input AND-OR. The proof-of-concept of such logic gates demonstrates the possibility to develop multifunctional molecular devices by rational chemical design. PMID:24394717</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146i2302K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146i2302K"><span>Structure dependent spin selectivity in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through oligopeptides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiran, Vankayala; Cohen, Sidney R.; Naaman, Ron</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect entails spin-selective <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission through chiral molecules. In the present study, the spin filtering ability of chiral, helical oligopeptide monolayers of two different lengths is demonstrated using magnetic conductive probe atomic force microscopy. Spin-specific nanoscale <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> studies elucidate that the spin polarization is higher for 14-mer oligopeptides than that of the 10-mer. We also show that the spin filtering ability can be tuned by changing the tip-loading force applied on the molecules. The spin selectivity decreases with increasing applied force, an effect attributed to the increased ratio of radius to pitch of the helix upon compression and increased tilt angles between the molecular axis and the surface normal. The method applied here provides new insights into the parameters controlling the CISS effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1253733','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1253733"><span>Structural control of mixed ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in conducting polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Collins, Brian A.; Sessolo, Michele; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Strakosas, Xenofon; Tassone, Christopher; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Malliaras, George G.</p> <p>2016-04-19</p> <p>Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, has been utilized for over two decades as a stable, solution-processable hole conductor. While its hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties have been the subject of intense investigation, recent work has turned to PEDOT:PSS as a mixed ionic/<span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductor in applications including bioelectronics, energy storage and management, and soft robotics. Conducting polymers can efficiently <span class="hlt">transport</span> both holes and ions when sufficiently hydrated, however, little is known about the role of morphology on mixed conduction. Here, we show that bulk ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> mobilities are simultaneously <span class="hlt">affected</span> by processing-induced changes in nano- and meso-scale structure in PEDOT:PSS films. We quantify domain composition, and find that domain purification on addition of dispersion co-solvents limits ion mobility, even while <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductivity improves. We show that an optimal morphology allows for the balanced ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> that is critical for prototypical mixed conductor devices. As a result, these findings may pave the way for the rational design of polymeric materials and processing routes to enhance devices reliant on mixed conduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...711287R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...711287R"><span>Structural control of mixed ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in conducting polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Collins, Brian A.; Sessolo, Michele; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Strakosas, Xenofon; Tassone, Christopher; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Malliaras, George G.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, has been utilized for over two decades as a stable, solution-processable hole conductor. While its hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties have been the subject of intense investigation, recent work has turned to PEDOT:PSS as a mixed ionic/<span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductor in applications including bioelectronics, energy storage and management, and soft robotics. Conducting polymers can efficiently <span class="hlt">transport</span> both holes and ions when sufficiently hydrated, however, little is known about the role of morphology on mixed conduction. Here, we show that bulk ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> mobilities are simultaneously <span class="hlt">affected</span> by processing-induced changes in nano- and meso-scale structure in PEDOT:PSS films. We quantify domain composition, and find that domain purification on addition of dispersion co-solvents limits ion mobility, even while <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductivity improves. We show that an optimal morphology allows for the balanced ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> that is critical for prototypical mixed conductor devices. These findings may pave the way for the rational design of polymeric materials and processing routes to enhance devices reliant on mixed conduction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4838877','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4838877"><span>Structural control of mixed ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in conducting polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Collins, Brian A.; Sessolo, Michele; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Strakosas, Xenofon; Tassone, Christopher; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Malliaras, George G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, has been utilized for over two decades as a stable, solution-processable hole conductor. While its hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties have been the subject of intense investigation, recent work has turned to PEDOT:PSS as a mixed ionic/<span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductor in applications including bioelectronics, energy storage and management, and soft robotics. Conducting polymers can efficiently <span class="hlt">transport</span> both holes and ions when sufficiently hydrated, however, little is known about the role of morphology on mixed conduction. Here, we show that bulk ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> mobilities are simultaneously <span class="hlt">affected</span> by processing-induced changes in nano- and meso-scale structure in PEDOT:PSS films. We quantify domain composition, and find that domain purification on addition of dispersion co-solvents limits ion mobility, even while <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductivity improves. We show that an optimal morphology allows for the balanced ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> that is critical for prototypical mixed conductor devices. These findings may pave the way for the rational design of polymeric materials and processing routes to enhance devices reliant on mixed conduction. PMID:27090156</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9799121','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9799121"><span>Menaquinone-dependent succinate dehydrogenase of bacteria catalyzes reversed <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> driven by the proton potential.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schirawski, J; Unden, G</p> <p>1998-10-01</p> <p>Succinate dehydrogenases from bacteria and archaea using menaquinone (MK) as an <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptor (succinate/menaquinone oxidoreductases) contain, or are predicted to contain, two heme-B groups in the membrane-anchoring protein(s), located close to opposite sides of the membrane. All succinate/ubiquinone oxidoreductases, however, contain only one heme-B molecule. In Bacillus subtilis and other bacteria that use MK as the respiratory quinone, the succinate oxidase activity (succinate-->O2), and the succinate/menaquinone oxidoreductase activity were specifically inhibited by uncoupler (CCCP, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone) or by agents dissipating the membrane potential (valinomycin). Other parts of the respiratory chains were not <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the agents. Succinate oxidase or succinate/ubiquinone oxidoreductase from bacteria using ubiquinone as an acceptor were not inhibited. We propose that the endergonic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from succinate (Eo' = +30 mV) to MK (Eo' approximately/= -80 mV) in succinate/menaquinone oxidoreductase includes a reversed <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across the cytoplasmic membrane from the inner (negative) to the outer (positive) side via the two heme-B groups. The reversed <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is driven by the proton or electrical potential, which provides the driving force for MK reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1253733-structural-control-mixed-ionic-electronic-transport-conducting-polymers','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1253733-structural-control-mixed-ionic-electronic-transport-conducting-polymers"><span>Structural control of mixed ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in conducting polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Collins, Brian A.; ...</p> <p>2016-04-19</p> <p>Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, has been utilized for over two decades as a stable, solution-processable hole conductor. While its hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties have been the subject of intense investigation, recent work has turned to PEDOT:PSS as a mixed ionic/<span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductor in applications including bioelectronics, energy storage and management, and soft robotics. Conducting polymers can efficiently <span class="hlt">transport</span> both holes and ions when sufficiently hydrated, however, little is known about the role of morphology on mixed conduction. Here, we show that bulk ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> mobilities are simultaneously <span class="hlt">affected</span> by processing-induced changes in nano- and meso-scale structure in PEDOT:PSS films. Wemore » quantify domain composition, and find that domain purification on addition of dispersion co-solvents limits ion mobility, even while <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductivity improves. We show that an optimal morphology allows for the balanced ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> that is critical for prototypical mixed conductor devices. As a result, these findings may pave the way for the rational design of polymeric materials and processing routes to enhance devices reliant on mixed conduction.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1144360','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1144360"><span>Electrostatic screening stimulates rate-limiting steps in mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Møller, I M; Kay, C J; Palmer, J M</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The effect of electrostatic screening of fixed negative charges on uncoupled mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> was investigated with substrates with different charge and different sites of donation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to the <span class="hlt">electron-transport</span> chain of Jerusalem-artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) mitochondria. Duroquinol (neutral substrate) was oxidized with a pH optimum of 7.6-7.8. The addition of cations caused a doubling of Vmax. (order of efficiency C3+ greater than C2+ greater than C+) through electrostatic screening, whereas the Km was unaffected. Screening stimulated (by 150%) the Vmax. for the oxidation of reduced cytochrome c (positive substrate; to O2), but in this case the Km doubled. The Vmax. of the oxidation of exogenous NADH (negative substrate) was also stimulated by screening when the acceptor was O2, but unaffected when duroquinone was the acceptor. In both cases, the Km for NADH was considerably decreased. The effect of screening on the Km for the different substrates can be explained by the changes in the effective concentration of substrate near the active site due to the lowering in the size of the surface potential. The effect of screening on the Vmax. of the different partial processes indicates that increasing the salt concentration of the medium enhances the maximal activity of cytochrome c oxidase. However, the results also point at the existence of other rate-limiting steps, which are <span class="hlt">affected</span> by screening and may involve ubiquinone, in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in plant mitochondria. PMID:6095808</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26994750','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26994750"><span>Seasonal difference in brain serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span>; this relationship is modified by serotonin-<span class="hlt">transporter</span>-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> fluctuations in both patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder had higher serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder changed their serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal <span class="hlt">Affective</span> Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video_abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.717a2043O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.717a2043O"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> estimated from <span class="hlt">electron</span> spectra using <span class="hlt">electron</span> spectrometer in LFEX laser target experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozaki, T.; Hata, M.; Matsuo, K.; Kojima, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Fujioka, S.; Sakagami, H.; Sunahara, A.; Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Yogo, A.; Morace, A.; Zhang, Z.; Shiraga, H.; Sakata, S.; Nagai, T.; Abe, Y.; Lee, S.; Nakai, M.; Nishimura, H.; Azechi, H.; FIREX Group; GXII-LFEX Group</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> which are generated from targets irradiated by a high-intense laser are measured by two <span class="hlt">electron</span> spectrometers (ESMs). However, total <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy observed by the ESM is only less than 1%. Hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are confined by self-fields due to the huge current. When an external magnetic field of several hundred Tesla is applied during the laser irradiation on targets, the ESM signals always increase. In the simulation, the same result can be obtained. The reason is that the Alfvén limit can be mitigated due to the external longitudinal magnetic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/763897','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/763897"><span>Interfacial Charge <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Organic <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> Materials: the Key to a New <span class="hlt">Electronics</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, D.L.; Campbell, I.H.; Davids, P.S.; Heller, C.M.; Laurich, B.K.; Crone, B.K.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.; Ferraris, J.P.; Yu, Z.G.</p> <p>1999-06-04</p> <p>This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The primary aim of this project is to obtain a basic scientific understanding of electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes at interfaces that contain an organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> material. Because of their processing advantages and the tunability of their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties, organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> materials are revolutionizing major technological areas such as information display. We completed an investigation of the fundamental <span class="hlt">electronic</span> excitation energies in the prototype conjugated polymer MEH-PPV. We completed a combined theoretical/experimental study of the energy relation between charged excitations in a conjugated polymer and the metal at a polymer/metal interface. We developed a theoretical model that explains injection currents at polymer/metal interfaces. We have made electrical measurements on devices fabricated using the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV a nd a series of metals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4734416','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4734416"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> coupling and electrostatic potential on charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> in carbon-based molecular <span class="hlt">electronic</span> junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Molecular junctions consisting of 2–20 nm thick layers of organic oligomers oriented between a conducting carbon substrate and a carbon/gold top contact have proven to be reproducible and reliable, and will soon enter commercial production in audio processing circuits. The covalent, conjugated bond between one or both sp2-hybridized carbon contacts and an aromatic molecular layer is distinct from the more common metal/molecule or silicon/molecule structures in many reported molecular junctions. Theoretical observations based on density functional theory are presented here, which model carbon-based molecular junctions as single molecules and oligomers between fragments of graphene. <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> coupling between the molecules and the contacts is demonstrated by the formation of hybrid orbitals in the model structure, which have significant <span class="hlt">electron</span> density on both the graphene and the molecule. The energies of such hybrid orbitals correlate with tunneling barriers determined experimentally, and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> coupling between the two graphene fragments in the model correlates with experimentally observed attenuation of <span class="hlt">transport</span> with molecular layer thickness. <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> coupling is <span class="hlt">affected</span> significantly by the dihedral angle between the planes of the graphene and the molecular π-systems, but is absent only when the two planes are orthogonal. Coupling also results in partial charge transfer between the graphene contacts and the molecular layer, which results in a shift in electrostatic potential which <span class="hlt">affects</span> the observed tunneling barrier. Although the degree of partial charge transfer is difficult to calculate accurately, it does provide a basis for the “vacuum level shift” observed in many experiments, including <span class="hlt">transport</span> and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular layers on conductors. PMID:26925350</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24096938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24096938"><span>Theoretical investigation of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure and quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the graphene-C(111) diamond surface system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Selli, Daniele; Baburin, Igor; Leoni, Stefano; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David; Seifert, Gotthard</p> <p>2013-10-30</p> <p>We investigate the interaction of a graphene monolayer with the C(111) diamond surface using ab initio density functional theory. To accommodate the lattice mismatch between graphene and diamond, the overlayer deforms into a wavy structure that binds strongly to the diamond substrate. The detached ridges of the wavy graphene overlayer behave <span class="hlt">electronically</span> as free-standing polyacetylene chains with delocalized π <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, separated by regions containing only sp(3) carbon atoms covalently bonded to the (111) diamond surface. We performed quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations for different geometries of the system to study how the buckling of the graphene layer and the associated bonding to the diamond substrate <span class="hlt">affect</span> the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties. The system displays high carrier mobility along the ridges and a wide <span class="hlt">transport</span> gap in the direction normal to the ridges. These intriguing, strongly anisotropic <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties qualify the hybrid graphene-diamond system as a viable candidate for <span class="hlt">electronic</span> nanodevices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95c5430R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95c5430R"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in disordered MoS2 nanoribbons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ridolfi, Emilia; Lima, Leandro R. F.; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Lewenkopf, Caio H.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We study the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of zigzag and armchair monolayer molybdenum disulfide nanoribbons using an 11-band tight-binding model that accurately reproduces the material's bulk band structure near the band gap. We study the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties of pristine zigzag and armchair nanoribbons, paying particular attention to the edges states that appear within the MoS2 bulk gap. By analyzing both their orbital composition and their local density of states, we find that in zigzag-terminated nanoribbons these states can be localized at a single edge for certain energies independent of the nanoribbon width. We also study the effects of disorder in these systems using the recursive Green's function technique. We show that for the zigzag nanoribbons, the conductance due to the edge states is strongly suppressed by short-range disorder such as vacancies. In contrast, the local density of states still shows edge localization. We also show that long-range disorder has a small effect on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of nanoribbons within the bulk gap energy window.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/477761','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/477761"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in coupled double quantum wells and wires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harff, N.E.; Simmons, J.A.; Lyo, S.K.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>Due to inter-quantum well tunneling, coupled double quantum wells (DQWs) contain an extra degree of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> freedom in the growth direction, giving rise to new <span class="hlt">transport</span> phenomena not found in single <span class="hlt">electron</span> layers. This report describes work done on coupled DQWs subject to inplane magnetic fields B{sub {parallel}}, and is based on the lead author`s doctoral thesis, successfully defended at Oregon State University on March 4, 1997. First, the conductance of closely coupled DQWs in B{sub {parallel}} is studied. B{sub {parallel}}-induced distortions in the dispersion, the density of states, and the Fermi surface are described both theoretically and experimentally, with particular attention paid to the dispersion anticrossing and resulting partial energy gap. Measurements of giant distortions in the effective mass are found to agree with theoretical calculations. Second, the Landau level spectra of coupled DQWs in tilted magnetic fields is studied. The magnetoresistance oscillations show complex beating as Landau levels from the two Fermi surface components cross the Fermi level. A third set of oscillations resulting from magnetic breakdown is observed. A semiclassical calculation of the Landau level spectra is then performed, and shown to agree exceptionally well with the data. Finally, quantum wires and quantum point contacts formed in DQW structures are investigated. Anticrossings of the one-dimensional DQW dispersion curves are predicted to have interesting <span class="hlt">transport</span> effects in these devices. Difficulties in sample fabrication have to date prevented experimental verification. However, recently developed techniques to overcome these difficulties are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5379059','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5379059"><span>Plasmonic hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> drives nano-localized chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cortés, Emiliano; Xie, Wei; Cambiasso, Javier; Jermyn, Adam S.; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Schlücker, Sebastian; Maier, Stefan A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Nanoscale localization of electromagnetic fields near metallic nanostructures underpins the fundamentals and applications of plasmonics. The unavoidable energy loss from plasmon decay, initially seen as a detriment, has now expanded the scope of plasmonic applications to exploit the generated hot carriers. However, quantitative understanding of the spatial localization of these hot carriers, akin to electromagnetic near-field maps, has been elusive. Here we spatially map hot-<span class="hlt">electron</span>-driven reduction chemistry with 15 nm resolution as a function of time and electromagnetic field polarization for different plasmonic nanostructures. We combine experiments employing a six-<span class="hlt">electron</span> photo-recycling process that modify the terminal group of a self-assembled monolayer on plasmonic silver nanoantennas, with theoretical predictions from first-principles calculations of non-equilibrium hot-carrier <span class="hlt">transport</span> in these systems. The resulting localization of reactive regions, determined by hot-carrier <span class="hlt">transport</span> from high-field regions, paves the way for improving efficiency in hot-carrier extraction science and nanoscale regio-selective surface chemistry. PMID:28348402</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28348402','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28348402"><span>Plasmonic hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> drives nano-localized chemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cortés, Emiliano; Xie, Wei; Cambiasso, Javier; Jermyn, Adam S; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Schlücker, Sebastian; Maier, Stefan A</p> <p>2017-03-28</p> <p>Nanoscale localization of electromagnetic fields near metallic nanostructures underpins the fundamentals and applications of plasmonics. The unavoidable energy loss from plasmon decay, initially seen as a detriment, has now expanded the scope of plasmonic applications to exploit the generated hot carriers. However, quantitative understanding of the spatial localization of these hot carriers, akin to electromagnetic near-field maps, has been elusive. Here we spatially map hot-<span class="hlt">electron</span>-driven reduction chemistry with 15 nm resolution as a function of time and electromagnetic field polarization for different plasmonic nanostructures. We combine experiments employing a six-<span class="hlt">electron</span> photo-recycling process that modify the terminal group of a self-assembled monolayer on plasmonic silver nanoantennas, with theoretical predictions from first-principles calculations of non-equilibrium hot-carrier <span class="hlt">transport</span> in these systems. The resulting localization of reactive regions, determined by hot-carrier <span class="hlt">transport</span> from high-field regions, paves the way for improving efficiency in hot-carrier extraction science and nanoscale regio-selective surface chemistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25071080','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25071080"><span>Dirac model of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene antidot barriers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomsen, M R; Brun, S J; Pedersen, T G</p> <p>2014-08-20</p> <p>In order to use graphene for semiconductor applications, such as transistors with high on/off ratios, a band gap must be introduced into this otherwise semimetallic material. A promising method of achieving a band gap is by introducing nanoscale perforations (antidots) in a periodic pattern, known as a graphene antidot lattice (GAL). A graphene antidot barrier (GAB) can be made by introducing a 1D GAL strip in an otherwise pristine sheet of graphene. In this paper, we will use the Dirac equation (DE) with a spatially varying mass term to calculate the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through such structures. Our approach is much more general than previous attempts to use the Dirac equation to calculate scattering of Dirac <span class="hlt">electrons</span> on antidots. The advantage of using the DE is that the computational time is scale invariant and our method may therefore be used to calculate properties of arbitrarily large structures. We show that the results of our Dirac model are in quantitative agreement with tight-binding for hexagonal antidots with armchair edges. Furthermore, for a wide range of structures, we verify that a relatively narrow GAB, with only a few antidots in the unit cell, is sufficient to give rise to a <span class="hlt">transport</span> gap.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1343313','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1343313"><span>ecode - <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Algorithm Testing v. 1.0</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Franke, Brian C.; Olson, Aaron J.; Bruss, Donald Eugene; Laub, Thomas W.; Crawford, Martin J; Kenseck, Ronald P.; Prinja, Anil</p> <p>2016-10-05</p> <p>ecode is a Monte Carlo code used for testing algorithms related to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. The code can read basic physics parameters, such as energy-dependent stopping powers and screening parameters. The code permits simple planar geometries of slabs or cubes. Parallelization consists of domain replication, with work distributed at the start of the calculation and statistical results gathered at the end of the calculation. Some basic routines (such as input parsing, random number generation, and statistics processing) are shared with the Integrated Tiger Series codes. A variety of algorithms for uncertainty propagation are incorporated based on the stochastic collocation and stochastic Galerkin methods. These permit uncertainty only in the total and angular scattering cross sections. The code contains algorithms for simulating stochastic mixtures of two materials. The physics is approximate, ranging from mono-energetic and isotropic scattering to screened Rutherford angular scattering and Rutherford energy-loss scattering (simple <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> models). No production of secondary particles is implemented, and no photon physics is implemented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787905','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787905"><span>Simulations of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Laser Hot Spots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>S. Brunner; E. Valeo</p> <p>2001-08-30</p> <p>Simulations of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> are carried out by solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the diffusive approximation. The system of a single laser hot spot, with open boundary conditions, is systematically studied by performing a scan over a wide range of the two relevant parameters: (1) Ratio of the stopping length over the width of the hot spot. (2) Relative importance of the heating through inverse Bremsstrahlung compared to the thermalization through self-collisions. As for uniform illumination [J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30 (1988) 1665], the bulk of the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) present a super-Gaussian dependence. However, as a result of spatial <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the tails are observed to be well represented by a Maxwellian. A similar dependence of the distributions is also found for multiple hot spot systems. For its relevance with respect to stimulated Raman scattering, the linear Landau damping of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> plasma wave is estimated for such VD Fs. Finally, the nonlinear Fokker-Planck simulations of the single laser hot spot system are also compared to the results obtained with the linear non-local hydrodynamic approach [A.V. Brantov et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 2742], thus providing a quantitative limit to the latter method: The hydrodynamic approach presents more than 10% inaccuracy in the presence of temperature variations of the order delta T/T greater than or equal to 1%, and similar levels of deformation of the Gaussian shape of the Maxwellian background.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARF29007L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MARF29007L"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene sheets in a random magnetic field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lewenkopf, Caio; Burgos, Rhonald; Warnes, Jesus; Lima, Leandro</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We present a theoretical study of the effect of ripples and strain fields in the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of diffusive deposited graphene flakes. Defects in the crystalline structure, adsorbed atomic impurities and charge inhomogeneities at the substrate are believed to be the dominant disorder sources for the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene at low temperatures. We show that intrinsic ripples also effect the conductivity, in particular, its quantum corrections. To this end, we analyze recent experimental results on the conductivity of rippled monolayer graphene sheets subjected to a strong magnetic field parallel to the graphene-substrate interface, B∥ [M. B. Lundeberg and J. A. Folk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 146804 (2010)]. In this setting, B∥ gives rise to a random magnetic field normal to graphene sheet, that depends on the local curvature of the smooth disordered ripples. The analysis of the weak localization corrections of the magnetoconductance allows to establish the dependence of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> dephasing rate on the magnitude of the random magnetic field. We compare the results for B∥ with the conductivity and weak localization corrections due to the pseudo-magnetic fields originated by intrinsic ripples and strain fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90c5445F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhRvB..90c5445F"><span>Real-space method for highly parallelizable <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feldman, Baruch; Seideman, Tamar; Hod, Oded; Kronik, Leeor</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>We present a real-space method for first-principles nanoscale <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations. We use the nonequilibrium Green's function method with density functional theory and implement absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs, also known as complex absorbing potentials, or CAPs) to represent the effects of the semi-infinite leads. In real space, the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian matrix is highly sparse. As a result, the <span class="hlt">transport</span> problem parallelizes naturally and can scale favorably with system size, enabling the computation of conductance in relatively large molecular junction models. Our use of ABCs circumvents the demanding task of explicitly calculating the leads' self-energies from surface Green's functions, and is expected to be more accurate than the use of the jellium approximation. In addition, we take advantage of the sparsity in real space to solve efficiently for the Green's function over the entire energy range relevant to low-bias <span class="hlt">transport</span>. We illustrate the advantages of our method with calculations on several challenging test systems and find good agreement with reference calculation results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..GECMW6035D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..GECMW6035D"><span>Third order <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and positrons in gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dujko, Sasa; Simonovic, Ilija; White, Ronald; Petrovic, Zoran</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Third order <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients (the skewness tensor) of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> and positron swarms, in atomic and molecular gases, are investigated. The knowledge of the skewness tensor is necessary for the conversion of the hydrodynamic <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients to the arrival time and steady-state Townsend <span class="hlt">transport</span> data as well as for the determination of the deviations of the spatial density profiles from an ideal Gaussian. In this work, we investigate the structure and symmetries along individual elements of the skewness tensor by the group projector method. Individual components of the skewness tensor are calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation technique and multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation. Results obtained by these two methods are in excellent agreement. We extend previous studies by considering the sensitivity of the skewness components to explicit and implicit effects of non-conservative collisions, post-ionization energy partitioning, and inelastic collisions. The errors of the two term approximation for solving the Boltzmann equation are highlighted. We also investigate the influence of a magnetic field on the skewness tensor in varying configurations of electric and magnetic fields. Among many interesting points, we have observed a strong correlation between the skewness and diffusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......246M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......246M"><span>Low-dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in mesoscopic semiconductor devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, Theodore Peyton</p> <p></p> <p>Recent advances in solid state materials engineering have led to mesoscopic devices with feature sizes that approach the fundamental quantum wavelength of charge carriers in the solid, allowing for the experimental observation of quantum interference. By confining carriers to a single quantum state in one or more dimensions, the degrees of freedom for charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> can be reduced to achieve new device functionality. This dissertation focuses on mesoscopic <span class="hlt">electron</span> billiards that combine the aspects of zero, one, and two-dimensional <span class="hlt">transport</span> into one system. Low-temperature measurement of billiards fabricated within a relatively defect-free semiconductor heterostructure results in ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span>, where the <span class="hlt">electron</span> waves follow classical trajectories and the confining walls play a major role in determining the <span class="hlt">electron</span> interference. Billiards have been traditionally formed by applying a bias to patterned surface gates atop an AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructure. Within this system, fractal fluctuations in the billiard conductance are observed as a function of an applied external magnetic field. These fluctuations are tied to quantum interference via an empirical parameter that describes the resolution of energy levels within the billiard. To investigate whether fractal fluctuations are a robust phenomenon intrinsic to billiard-like structures, this study centers on billiards defined by etching walls into a GaInAs/InP heterostructure, departing from the traditional system in both the type of confinement and material system used. It is expected that etched walls will provide a steeper confinement profile leading to well-defined device shapes. Conductance measurements through the one-dimensional leads that couple <span class="hlt">electrons</span> into the billiard are utilized in combination with a self-consistent Schrodinger/Poisson solution to demonstrate a steeper confinement potential. Experiments are also carried out to determine whether fractal fluctuations persist when billiards are</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1889S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1889S"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the solar wind -results from numerical simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Håkan; Marsch, Eckart; Helander, Per</p> <p></p> <p>A conventional fluid approach is in general insufficient for a correct description of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">trans-port</span> in weakly collisional plasmas such as the solar wind. The classical Spitzer-Hürm theory is a not valid when the Knudsen number (the mean free path divided by the length scale of tem-perature variation) is greater than ˜ 10-2 . Despite this, the heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> from Spitzer-Hürm a theory is widely used in situations with relatively long mean free paths. For realistic Knud-sen numbers in the solar wind, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> distribution function develops suprathermal tails, and the departure from a local Maxwellian can be significant at the energies which contribute the most to the heat flux moment. To accurately model heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> a kinetic approach is therefore more adequate. Different techniques have been used previously, e.g. particle sim-ulations [Landi, 2003], spectral methods [Pierrard, 2001], the so-called 16 moment method [Lie-Svendsen, 2001], and approximation by kappa functions [Dorelli, 2003]. In the present study we solve the Fokker-Planck equation for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in one spatial dimension and two velocity dimensions. The distribution function is expanded in Laguerre polynomials in energy, and a finite difference scheme is used to solve the equation in the spatial dimension and the velocity pitch angle. The ion temperature and density profiles are assumed to be known, but the electric field is calculated self-consistently to guarantee quasi-neutrality. The kinetic equation is of a two-way diffusion type, for which the distribution of particles entering the computational domain in both ends of the spatial dimension must be specified, leaving the outgoing distributions to be calculated. The long mean free path of the suprathermal <span class="hlt">electrons</span> has the effect that the details of the boundary conditions play an important role in determining the particle and heat fluxes as well as the electric potential drop across the domain. Dorelli, J. C., and J. D. Scudder, J. D</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........31O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........31O"><span>Essays on alternative energy policies <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the US <span class="hlt">transportation</span> sector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Rear, Eric G.</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the <span class="hlt">transportation</span> sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in <span class="hlt">transportation</span> emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23331168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23331168"><span>When <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer meets <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in redox-active molecular nanojunctions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Janin, Marion; Ghilane, Jalal; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe</p> <p>2013-02-13</p> <p>A scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) was used to arrange two microelectrodes face-to-face separated by a micrometric gap. Polyaniline (PANI) was deposited electrochemically from the SECM tip side until it bridged the two electrodes. The junctions obtained were characterized by following the current through the PANI as a function of its electrochemical potential measured versus a reference electrode acting as a gate electrode in a solid-state transistor. PANI nanojunctions showed conductances below 100 nS in the oxidized state, indicating control of the charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> within the whole micrometric gap by a limited number of PANI wires. The SECM configuration makes it possible to observe in the same experiment and in the same current range the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-transfer and <span class="hlt">electron-transport</span> processes. These two phenomena are distinguished here and characterized by following the variation of the current with the bias voltage and the scan rate. The <span class="hlt">electron</span>-transfer current changes with the scan rate, while the charge-<span class="hlt">transport</span> current varies with the bias voltage. Finally, despite the initially micrometric gap, a junction where the conductance is controlled by a single oligoaniline strand is achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JChPh.124c4708J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006JChPh.124c4708J"><span>A generalized quantum chemical approach for elastic and inelastic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transports</span> in molecular <span class="hlt">electronics</span> devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiang, Jun; Kula, Mathias; Luo, Yi</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>A generalized quantum chemical approach for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in molecular devices is developed. It allows one to treat devices where the metal electrodes and the molecule are either chemically or physically bonded on equal footing. An extension to include the vibration motions of the molecule has also been implemented which has produced the inelastic <span class="hlt">electron</span>-tunneling spectroscopy of molecular <span class="hlt">electronics</span> devices with unprecedented accuracy. Important information about the structure of the molecule and of metal-molecule contacts that are not accessible in the experiment are revealed. The calculated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of different molecular devices, including benzene-1,4-dithiolate, octanemonothiolate [H(CH2)8S], and octanedithiolate [S(CH2)8S] bonded to gold electrodes, are in very good agreement with experimental measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22262617','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22262617"><span><span class="hlt">Electron-electron</span> interaction, weak localization and spin valve effect in vertical-<span class="hlt">transport</span> graphene devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Long, Mingsheng; Gong, Youpin; Wei, Xiangfei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Jianbao; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yufen; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Liwei; Liu, Guangtong</p> <p>2014-04-14</p> <p>We fabricated a vertical structure device, in which graphene is sandwiched between two asymmetric ferromagnetic electrodes. The measurements of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> were performed across the combined channels containing the vertical and horizontal components. The presence of <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> interaction (EEI) was found not only at low temperatures but also at moderate temperatures up to ∼120 K, and EEI dominates over weak localization (WL) with and without applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the sample plane. Moreover, spin valve effect was observed when magnetic filed is swept at the direction parallel to the sample surface. We attribute the EEI and WL surviving at a relatively high temperature to the effective suppress of phonon scattering in the vertical device structure. The findings open a way for studying quantum correlation at relatively high temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482256','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482256"><span>Density-dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and precise modeling of GaN high <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility transistors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bajaj, Sanyam Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth</p> <p>2015-10-12</p> <p>We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in AlGaN/GaN high <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}. An optical phonon emission-based <span class="hlt">electron</span> velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the <span class="hlt">electron</span> velocity with strong <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21180303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21180303"><span>Correlation between <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Shear Alfven Activity in the National Spherical Torus Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stutman, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Tritz, K.; Gorelenkov, N.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaye, S.; Mazzucato, E.</p> <p>2009-03-20</p> <p>We report the observation of a correlation between shear Alfven eigenmode activity and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in plasma regimes where the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient is flat, and thus the drive for temperature gradient microinstabilities is absent. Plasmas having rapid central <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> show intense, broadband global Alfven eigenmode (GAE) activity in the 0.5-1.1 MHz range, while plasmas with low <span class="hlt">transport</span> are essentially GAE-free. The first theoretical assessment of a GAE-<span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> connection indicates that overlapping modes can resonantly couple to the bulk thermal <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and induce their stochastic diffusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/984468','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/984468"><span>Anomalous <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Due to Multiple High Frequency Beam Ion Driven Alfven Eigenmode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gorelenkov, N. N.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Boozer, A.; Delgardo-Aparicio, L.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaye, S.; White, R.</p> <p>2010-07-13</p> <p>We report on the simulations of recently observed correlations of the core <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> with the sub-thermal ion cyclotron frequency instabilities in low aspect ratio plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In order to model the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of the guiding center code ORBIT is employed. A spectrum of test functions of multiple core localized Global shear Alfven Eigenmode (GAE) instabilities based on a previously developed theory and experimental observations is used to examine the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties. The simulations exhibit thermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> induced by <span class="hlt">electron</span> drift orbit stochasticity in the presence of multiple core localized GAE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1009202','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1009202"><span>Hot <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Generation and <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Using K(alpha) Emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Akli, K U; Stephens, R B; Key, M H; Bartal, T; Beg, F N; Chawla, S; Chen, C D; Fedosejevs, R; Freeman, R R; Friesen, H; Giraldez, E; Green, J S; Hey, D S; Higginson, D P; Hund, J; Jarrott, L C; Kemp, G E; King, J A; Kryger, A; Lancaster, K; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; Mackinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; McLean, H S; Murphy, C; Norreys, P A; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P K; Ping, Y; Sawada, H; Schumacher, D; Theobald, W; Tsui, Y Y; Van Woerkom, L D; Wei, M S; Westover, B; Yabuuchi, T</p> <p>2009-10-15</p> <p>We have conducted experiments on both the Vulcan and Titan laser facilities to study hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> generation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the context of fast ignition. Cu wires attached to Al cones were used to investigate the effect on coupling efficiency of plasma surround and the pre-formed plasma inside the cone. We found that with thin cones 15% of laser energy is coupled to the 40{micro}m diameter wire emulating a 40{micro}m fast ignition spot. Thick cone walls, simulating plasma in fast ignition, reduce coupling by x4. An increase of prepulse level inside the cone by a factor of 50 reduces coupling by a factor of 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26196817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26196817"><span>Pauli-Heisenberg Oscillations in <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Quantum <span class="hlt">Transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thibault, Karl; Gabelli, Julien; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand</p> <p>2015-06-12</p> <p>We measure the current fluctuations emitted by a normal-metal-insulator-normal-metal tunnel junction with a very wide bandwidth, from 0.3 to 13 GHz, down to very low temperature T=35  mK. This allows us to perform the spectroscopy (i.e., measure the frequency dependence) of thermal noise (no dc bias, variable temperature) and shot noise (low temperature, variable dc voltage bias). Because of the very wide bandwidth of our measurement, we deduce the current-current correlator in the time domain. We observe the thermal decay of this correlator as well as its oscillations with a period h/eV, a direct consequence of the effect of the Pauli and Heisenberg principles in quantum <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25c7309H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25c7309H"><span>Velocity modulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a ferromagnetic silicene junction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huai-Hua, Shao; Dan, Guo; Ben-Liang, Zhou; Guang-Hui, Zhou</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We address velocity-modulation control of <span class="hlt">electron</span> wave propagation in a normal/ferromagnetic/normal silicene junction with local variation of Fermi velocity, where the properties of charge, valley, and spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the junction are investigated. By matching the wavefunctions at the normal-ferromagnetic interfaces, it is demonstrated that the variation of Fermi velocity in a small range can largely enhance the total conductance while keeping the current nearly fully valley- and spin-polarized. Further, the variation of Fermi velocity in ferromagnetic silicene has significant influence on the valley and spin polarization, especially in the low-energy regime. It may drastically reduce the high polarizations, which can be realized by adjusting the local application of a gate voltage and exchange field on the junction. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274108).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.F5008Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.F5008Q"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> measurement of strain effects on spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> in silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qing, Lan; Tinkey, Holly; Appelbaum, Ian</p> <p></p> <p>Spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> in silicon is limited by the Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism, which is driven by scattering between degenerate conduction band valleys. Mechanical strain along a valley axis partially breaks this degeneracy, and will ultimately quench intervalley spin relaxation for transitions between states on orthogonal axes. Using a custom-designed and constructed strain probe, we study the effects of uniaxial compressive strain along the < 100 > direction on ballistic tunnel junction devices used to inject spin-polarized <span class="hlt">electrons</span> into silicon. The effects of strain-induced valley splitting will be presented and compared to our theoretical model. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research under Contract No. N000141410317, the National Science Foundation under Contract No. ECCS-1231855, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency under Contract No. HDTRA1-13-1-0013, and the Maryland NanoCenter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..75..948D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..75..948D"><span>Relativistic Effects on <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Magnetic Alloys</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drchal, Václav; Kudrnovský, Josef; Turek, Ilja</p> <p></p> <p>We study the relativistic effects on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in spin-polarized metals and random alloys on ab initio level using the fully relativistic tight-binding linear muffin-tin-orbital (TB-LMTO) method. We employ a Kubo linear-response approach adapted to disordered multisublattice systems in which the chemical disorder is described in terms of the coherent potential approximation (CPA). The CPA vertex corrections are included. We calculate both the Fermi surface and Fermi sea terms of the full conductivity tensor. We find that in cubic ferromagnetic 3d transition metals (Fe, Co, Ni) and their random binary alloys (Ni-Fe, Fe-Si) the Fermi sea term in the anomalous Hall conductivity is small in comparison with the Fermi surface term, however, in more complicated structures, such as hexagonal Co and selected Co-based Heusler alloys, it becomes important. We find an overall good agreement between the theory and experimental data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJB...89..191Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJB...89..191Z"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a quinone-based molecular switch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Ya-Peng; Bian, Bao-An; Yuan, Pei-Pei</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, we carried out first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function to investigate the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a quinone-based molecule sandwiched between two Au electrodes. The molecular switch can be reversibly switched between the reduced hydroquinone (HQ) and oxidized quinone (Q) states via redox reactions. The switching behavior of two forms is analyzed through their I- V curves, transmission spectra and molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian at zero bias. Then we discuss the transmission spectra of the HQ and Q forms at different bias, and explain the oscillation of current according to the transmission eigenstates of LUMO energy level for Q form. The results suggest that this kind of a quinone-based molecule is usable as one of the good candidates for redox-controlled molecular switches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARC26001B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARC26001B"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Simulations of 4-Terminal Crossed Graphene Nanoribbons Devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brandimarte, Pedro; Papior, Nick R.; Engelund, Mads; Garcia-Lekue, Aran; Frederiksen, Thomas; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel</p> <p></p> <p>Recently, it has been reported theoretically a current switching mechanism by voltage control in a system made by two perpendicular 14-armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). In order to investigate the possibilities of using crossed GNRs as ON/OFF devices, we have studied their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties as function structural parameters determining the crossing. Our calculations were performed with TranSIESTA code, which has been recently generalized to consider N >= 1 arbitrarily distributed electrodes at finite bias. We find that the transmission along each individual GNR and among them strongly depends on the stacking. For a 60° rotation angle, the lattice matching in the crossing region provokes a strong scattering effect that translates into an increased interlayer transmission. FP7 FET-ICT PAMS-project (European Commission, contract 610446), MINECO (Grant MAT2013-46593-C6-2-P) and Basque Dep. de Educación, UPV/EHU (Grant IT-756-13).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492133"><span>Conformation dependent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a DNA double-helix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kundu, Sourav Karmakar, S. N.</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>We present a tight-binding study of conformation dependent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of DNA double-helix including its helical symmetry. We have studied the changes in the localization properties of DNA as we alter the number of stacked bases within every pitch of the double-helix keeping fixed the total number of nitrogen bases within the DNA molecule. We take three DNA sequences, two of them are periodic and one is random and observe that in all the cases localization length increases as we increase the radius of DNA double-helix i.e., number of nucleobases within a pitch. We have also investigated the effect of backbone energetic on the I-V response of the system and found that in presence of helical symmetry, depending on the interplay of conformal variation and disorder, DNA can be found in either metallic, semiconducting and insulating phases, as observed experimentally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......107L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......107L"><span>Quantum chaos and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in a quantum waveguide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Hoshik</p> <p></p> <p>We numerically investigate <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in an <span class="hlt">electron</span> waveguide which can be constructed in 2DEG of the heterostructure of GaAs and AlGaAs. We apply R-matrix theory to solve a Schrodinger equation and construct a S-matrix, and we then calculate conductance of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> waveguide. We study single impurity scattering in a waveguide. A delta-function model as a single impurity is very attractive, but it has been known that delta-function potential does not give a convergent result in two or higher space dimensions. However, we find that it can be used as a single impurity in a waveguide with the truncation of the number of modes. We also compute conductance for a finite size impurity by using R-matrix theory. We propose an appropriate criteria for determining the cut-off mode for a delta-function impurity that reproduces the conductance of a waveguide when a finite impurity presents. We find quantum scattering echoes in a ripple waveguide. A ripple waveguide (or cavity) is widely used for quantum chaos studies because it is easy to control a particle's dynamics. Moreover we can obtain an exact expression of Hamiltonian matrix with for the waveguide using a simple coordinate transformation. Having an exact Hamiltonian matrix reduces computation time significantly. It saves a lot of computational needs. We identify three families of resonance which correspond to three different classical phase space structures. Quasi bound states of one of those resonances reside on a hetero-clinic tangle formed by unstable manifolds and stable manifolds in the phase space of a corresponding classical system. Resonances due to these states appear in the conductance in a nearly periodic manner as a function of energy. Period from energy frequency gives a good agreement with a prediction of the classical theory. We also demonstrate wavepacket dynamics in a ripple waveguide. We find quantum echoes in the transmitted probability of a wavepacket. The period of echoes also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986PhRvB..34.2158K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986PhRvB..34.2158K"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-hole plasma in germanium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kirch, S. J.; Wolfe, J. P.</p> <p>1986-08-01</p> <p>Time-resolved luminescence imaging techniques are used to observe the spectral and spatial evolution of laser-generated <span class="hlt">electron</span>-hole plasma in Ge. Both pulsed and cw excitation conditions are examined above and below the critical temperature for <span class="hlt">electron</span>-hole liquid formation, Tc(LG). For Q-switched Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser excitation, the <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior is qualitatively similar above and below Tc(LG), although the luminescence spectrum undergoes significant changes in this temperature range. A rapid initial expansion (v~105 cm/s) is followed by a period of slower growth which gradually reduces as the carriers recombine. The initial velocity for pulsed excitation increases monotonically as the crystal temperature is lowered and saturates near the phonon sound velocity for high-energy excitation. These observations are consistent with phonon-wind driven <span class="hlt">transport</span>. For intense Q-switched excitation, the motion is characterized by three regimes: (1) During the laser pulse the plasma expands as a large drop with near-unity filling fraction. (2) Expansion at near-sonic velocity continues after the peak of the laser pulse due to a ``prompt'' pulse of ballistic phonons produced by the carrier thermalization process. (3) After this intense phonon wind passes the carrier distribution, the expansion velocity abruptly decreases, but the plasma continues to expand more slowly under the influence of a ``hot spot'' produced at the excitation point. The sound barrier observed on these time scales (>=30 ns) can be explained in terms of nonlinear damping of the plasma motion near the sound velocity. For cw excitation, the expansion is observed to occur at much lower velocities (v~104 cm/s). These expansion rates are much too low to require the inclusion of a drifted Fermi distribution in the spectral analysis as has been previously suggested. Instead, based upon a careful study of corresponding spectral data, an alternative explanation for these spectra is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......167B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......167B"><span>Characterization of ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> in polymer and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in disordered selenium and ceramic materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bandyopadhyay, Subhasish</p> <p></p> <p>In this thesis, the properties of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conduction in vanadium (donor) and scandium (acceptor) doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 ceramics, amorphous Selenium and ionic conduction in polyester polyol based polyurethane have been investigated. The leakage current of bulk vanadium (donor) and scandium (acceptor) doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 ceramics structures measured using gold electrical contacts have been characterized and analyzed. Vanadium doping reduces the ohmic leakage current that dominates the <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics up to 5 kV/cm. The Arrhenius activation energy is 0.18, 0.20 and 0.23 eV for 1, 2 and 4 at % V-doped samples, respectively. Above this field, the current-voltage characteristics exhibit discontinuous current transitions associated with trap filling by <span class="hlt">electronic</span> carriers. At higher fields, trap controlled space charge limited conduction (SCLC) is observed with an effective mobility of 4+/-1x10-7 cm2/V s, characteristic of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> process that involves quasi equilibrium between conduction in the band and trapping. In contrast, the leakage current of Sc-doped samples increases with impurity concentration and exhibits a 0.60 eV activation energy. In this case, the limiting current conduction mechanism is the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of holes over the electrostatic barrier at grain boundaries. Comparison of these results to those on similarly-doped homoepitaxial SrTiO3 thin-films deposited on single-crystal and bicrystal substrates helped to identify the characteristics of <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the bulk and across grain boundaries for this class of materials. Electrical, thermal and Li <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties have been measured for polyester polyol and isocyanate-based polyurethanes doped with Lithium trifluoromethanesulfonimide (LiTFSI) and Lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) Electrical conductivities are estimated at 10-5--10-6 S/cm near 300 K. The conductivities show Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) behavior over a wide temperature ranges. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344444','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344444"><span>Do Unpolarized <span class="hlt">Electrons</span> <span class="hlt">Affect</span> the Polarization of a Stored Beam?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rathmann, Frank</p> <p>2009-08-04</p> <p>We present a short overview of the PAX physics case for polarized antiprotons. In order to progress towards a stored polarized antiproton beam, it is crucial to understand the interaction of polarized protons with unpolarized <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Therefore investigations that address in particular the contributions of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to the polarization buildup of a stored proton beam are presented here in more detail. The measurement of the depolarizing p-vectore cross section settled a long-standing controversy about the role of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the polarization buildup of a stored beam by spin-filtering. Instead of studying the buildup of polarization in an initially unpolarized beam, here the inverse situation was investigated by observation of the depolarization of an initially polarized beam. For the first time, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> cooler have been used as a target to study their depolarizing effect on a 49.3 MeV proton beam orbiting in COSY. The foreseen spin-filtering experiments at COSY-Juelich and at the AD of CERN are briefly discussed as well.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493896','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493896"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in molecular junctions with graphene as protecting layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hüser, Falco; Solomon, Gemma C.</p> <p>2015-12-07</p> <p>We present ab initio <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations for molecular junctions that include graphene as a protecting layer between a single molecule and gold electrodes. This vertical setup has recently gained significant interest in experiment for the design of particularly stable and reproducible devices. We observe that the signals from the molecule in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> transmission are overlayed by the signatures of the graphene sheet, thus raising the need for a reinterpretation of the transmission. On the other hand, we see that our results are stable with respect to various defects in the graphene. For weakly physiosorbed molecules, no signs of interaction with the graphene are evident, so the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties are determined by offresonant tunnelling between the gold leads across an extended structure that includes the molecule itself and the additional graphene layer. Compared with pure gold electrodes, calculated conductances are about one order of magnitude lower due to the increased tunnelling distance. Relative differences upon changing the end group and the length of the molecule on the other hand, are similar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1271865-dynamic-defect-correlations-dominate-activated-electronic-transport-srtio3','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1271865-dynamic-defect-correlations-dominate-activated-electronic-transport-srtio3"><span>Dynamic defect correlations dominate activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in SrTiO3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Snijders, Paul C.; Sen, Cengiz; McConnell, Michael P.; ...</p> <p>2016-07-22</p> <p>Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) is a critically important material for the study of emergent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> phases in complex oxides, as well as for the development of applications based on their heterostructures. Despite the large body of knowledge on STO, there are still many uncertainties regarding the role of defects in the properties of STO, including their influence on ferroelectricity in bulk STO and ferromagnetism in STO-based heterostructures. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the decay of persistent photoconductivity in STO single crystals with defect concentrations that are relatively low but significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties. The resultsmore » show that photo-activated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> cannot be described by a superposition of the properties due to independent point defects as current models suggest but is, instead, governed by defect complexes that interact through dynamic correlations. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of defect correlations for activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of semiconducting and insulating perovskite oxides.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1271865','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1271865"><span>Dynamic defect correlations dominate activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in SrTiO<sub>3</sub></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Snijders, Paul C.; Sen, Cengiz; McConnell, Michael P.; Ma, Ying-Zhong; May, Andrew F.; Herklotz, Andreas; Wong, Anthony T.; Ward, Thomas Zac</p> <p>2016-07-22</p> <p>Strontium titanate (SrTiO<sub>3</sub>, STO) is a critically important material for the study of emergent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> phases in complex oxides, as well as for the development of applications based on their heterostructures. Despite the large body of knowledge on STO, there are still many uncertainties regarding the role of defects in the properties of STO, including their influence on ferroelectricity in bulk STO and ferromagnetism in STO-based heterostructures. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the decay of persistent photoconductivity in STO single crystals with defect concentrations that are relatively low but significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties. The results show that photo-activated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> cannot be described by a superposition of the properties due to independent point defects as current models suggest but is, instead, governed by defect complexes that interact through dynamic correlations. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of defect correlations for activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of semiconducting and insulating perovskite oxides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6227286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6227286"><span>Action of the antitumor and antispermatogenic agent lonidamine on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Floridi, A; Lehninger, A L</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>The effect of lonidamine, an antispermatogenic and antitumor drug, on the oxygen consumption, ATPase activity, and redox state of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> carriers of Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria has been studied. Lonidamine inhibits ADP- and uncoupler-stimulated respiration on various NAD- and FAD-linked substrates, but does not <span class="hlt">affect</span> state 4 respiration. Experiments to determine its site of action showed that lonidamine does not significantly inhibit <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow through cytochrome oxidase. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> flow through site 2, the ubiquinone-cytochrome b-cytochrome c1 complex, also was unaffected by lonidamine, which failed to inhibit the oxidation of duroquinol. Moreover, inhibition of <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow through site 2 was also excluded because of the inability of the N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine bypass to relieve the lonidamine inhibition of the oxidation of pyruvate + malate. The F0F1ATPase activity and vectorial H+ ejection are also unaffected by lonidamine. The inhibition of succinate oxidation by lonidamine was found to take place at a point between succinate and iron-sulfur center S3. Spectroscopic experiments demonstrated that lonidamine inhibits the reduction of mitochondrial NAD+ by pyruvate + malate and other NAD-linked substrates in the transition from state 1 to state 4. However, lonidamine does not inhibit reduction of added NAD+ by submitochondrial vesicles or by soluble purified NAD-linked dehydrogenases. These observations, together with other evidence, suggest that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in tumor mitochondria is inhibited by lonidamine at the dehydrogenase-coenzyme level, particularly when the <span class="hlt">electron</span> carriers are in a relatively oxidized state and/or when the inner membrane-matrix compartment is in the condensed state. The action of lonidamine in several respects resembles the selective inhibition of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in tumor cells produced by cytotoxic macrophages (D. L. Granger and A. L. Lehninger (1982) J. Cell Biol. 95, 527).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22475073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22475073"><span>Role of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in the persuasion process: cognitive and <span class="hlt">affective</span> responses to antidrug narratives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study examined <span class="hlt">transportation</span> effects of first- and third-person narratives as well as the role of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in the persuasion process. In particular, the authors evaluated the role of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in <span class="hlt">affecting</span> cognitive and <span class="hlt">affective</span> responses. Last, they addressed the relation between (a) cognitive and <span class="hlt">affective</span> responses and (b) antidrug expectancies. Participants were 500 undergraduate students at a large northern university in the United Kingdom who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: first- or third-person narratives on cocaine use. The results demonstrated that there was no difference between first- and third-person narratives in terms of <span class="hlt">transportation</span>. However, overall, greater <span class="hlt">transportation</span> was associated with more favorable cognitive responses, and more favorable cognitive response was associated with stronger anticocaine expectancies. In terms of <span class="hlt">affective</span> responses, results indicated the mediating role of sadness and contentment in the association between <span class="hlt">transportation</span> and anticocaine expectancies. In particular, increased <span class="hlt">transportation</span> was associated with greater sadness and lower contentment. Lower sadness and contentment were associated with stronger anticocaine expectancies. Important theoretical and empirical implications are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JaJAP..44..523L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JaJAP..44..523L"><span>Intrinsic <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> through Alkanedithiol Self-Assembled Monolayer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Takhee; Wang, Wenyong; Reed, Mark A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through an alkanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is investigated using a nanometer scale device. Temperature-independent current-voltage characteristics are observed, indicating tunneling is the main conduction mechanism. The measured current-voltage characteristics are analyzed with a metal-insulator-metal tunneling model. The inelastic <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) study on the octanedithiol device clearly shows the vibrational signatures of molecules. The pronounced IETS peaks correspond to vibrational modes perpendicular to the junction interface, which include the stretching modes of Au-S (at 33 mV) and C-C (at 133 mV), and wagging mode of CH2 (at 158 mV). Intrinsic linewidths are determined as 1.69 (upper limit), 3.73± 0.98, and 13.5± 2.4 meV for Au-S, C-C streching modes, and CH2 wagging mode, respectively. The observed peak intensities and peak widths are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28147541','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28147541"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in real time from first-principles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morzan, Uriel N; Ramírez, Francisco F; González Lebrero, Mariano C; Scherlis, Damián A</p> <p>2017-01-28</p> <p>While the vast majority of calculations reported on molecular conductance have been based on the static non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory (DFT), in recent years a few time-dependent approaches to <span class="hlt">transport</span> have started to emerge. Among these, the driven Liouville-von Neumann equation [C. G. Sánchez et al., J. Chem. Phys. 124, 214708 (2006)] is a simple and appealing route relying on a tunable rate parameter, which has been explored in the context of semi-empirical methods. In the present study, we adapt this formulation to a density functional theory framework and analyze its performance. In particular, it is implemented in an efficient all-<span class="hlt">electron</span> DFT code with Gaussian basis functions, suitable for quantum-dynamics simulations of large molecular systems. At variance with the case of the tight-binding calculations reported in the literature, we find that now the initial perturbation to drive the system out of equilibrium plays a fundamental role in the stability of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics. The equation of motion used in previous tight-binding implementations with massive electrodes has to be modified to produce a stable and unidirectional current during time propagation in time-dependent DFT simulations using much smaller leads. Moreover, we propose a procedure to get rid of the dependence of the current-voltage curves on the rate parameter. This method is employed to obtain the current-voltage characteristic of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons of different lengths, with very promising prospects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14507427','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14507427"><span>Endosymbiosis and the design of eukaryotic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berry, Stephan</p> <p>2003-09-30</p> <p>The bioenergetic organelles of eukaryotic cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts, are derived from endosymbiotic bacteria. Their <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chains (ETCs) resemble those of free-living bacteria, but were tailored for energy transformation within the host cell. Parallel evolutionary processes in mitochondria and chloroplasts include reductive as well as expansive events: On one hand, bacterial complexes were lost in eukaryotes with a concomitant loss of metabolic flexibility. On the other hand, new subunits have been added to the remaining bacterial complexes, new complexes have been introduced, and elaborate folding patterns of the thylakoid and mitochondrial inner membranes have emerged. Some bacterial pathways were reinvented independently by eukaryotes, such as parallel routes for quinol oxidation or the use of various anaerobic <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors. Multicellular organization and ontogenetic cycles in eukaryotes gave rise to further modifications of the bioenergetic organelles. Besides mitochondria and chloroplasts, eukaryotes have ETCs in other membranes, such as the plasma membrane (PM) redox system, or the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. These systems have fewer complexes and simpler branching patterns than those in energy-transforming organelles, and they are often adapted to non-bioenergetic functions such as detoxification or cellular defense.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146d4110M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146d4110M"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in real time from first-principles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morzan, Uriel N.; Ramírez, Francisco F.; González Lebrero, Mariano C.; Scherlis, Damián A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>While the vast majority of calculations reported on molecular conductance have been based on the static non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with density functional theory (DFT), in recent years a few time-dependent approaches to <span class="hlt">transport</span> have started to emerge. Among these, the driven Liouville-von Neumann equation [C. G. Sánchez et al., J. Chem. Phys. 124, 214708 (2006)] is a simple and appealing route relying on a tunable rate parameter, which has been explored in the context of semi-empirical methods. In the present study, we adapt this formulation to a density functional theory framework and analyze its performance. In particular, it is implemented in an efficient all-<span class="hlt">electron</span> DFT code with Gaussian basis functions, suitable for quantum-dynamics simulations of large molecular systems. At variance with the case of the tight-binding calculations reported in the literature, we find that now the initial perturbation to drive the system out of equilibrium plays a fundamental role in the stability of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics. The equation of motion used in previous tight-binding implementations with massive electrodes has to be modified to produce a stable and unidirectional current during time propagation in time-dependent DFT simulations using much smaller leads. Moreover, we propose a procedure to get rid of the dependence of the current-voltage curves on the rate parameter. This method is employed to obtain the current-voltage characteristic of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons of different lengths, with very promising prospects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178203','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1178203"><span>Fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in lower-hybrid current drive</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kupfer, K.; Bers, A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>We generalize the quasilinear-Fokker-Planck formulation for lower-hybrid current drive to include the wave induced radial <span class="hlt">transport</span> of fast <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Toroidal ray tracing shows that the wave fields in the plasma develop a large poloidal component associated with the upshift in k1l and the filling of the "spectral gap". These fields lead to an enhanced radial E x B drift of resonant <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Two types of radial flows are obtained: an outward convective flow driven by the asymmetry in the poloidal wave spectrum, and a diffusive flow proportional to the width of the poloidal spectrum. Simulations of Alcator C and JT60, show that the radial convection velocity has a broad maximum of nearly 1 m/sec and is independent of the amplitude of fields. In both cases, the radial diffusion is found to be highly localized near the magnetic axis. For JT60, the peak of the diffusion profile can be quite large, nearly 1 m2/sec.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50a5205Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50a5205Z"><span>Cross-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> at the magnetic throat in an annular plasma reactor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Cross-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> has been studied at the magnetic throat of the annular Chi-Kung reactor. This annular configuration allows the creation of a low pressure argon plasma with two distinct <span class="hlt">electron</span> heating locations by independently operating a radio-frequency antenna surrounding the outer source tube, or an antenna housed inside the inner source tube. The two antenna cases show opposite variation trends in radial profiles of <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy probability function, <span class="hlt">electron</span> density, plasma potential and <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature. The momentum and energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients are obtained from the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy probability functions, and the related <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes follow the path of <span class="hlt">electron</span> cooling across the magnetic throat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26512795','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26512795"><span>Detailed Monte Carlo Simulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy loss spectra.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Attarian Shandiz, M; Salvat, F; Gauvin, R</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A computer program for detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> with kinetic energies in the range between about 0.1 and about 500 keV in bulk materials and in thin solid films is presented. Elastic scattering is described from differential cross sections calculated by the relativistic (Dirac) partial-wave expansion method with different models of the scattering potential. Inelastic interactions are simulated from an optical-data model based on an empirical optical oscillator strength that combines optical functions of the solid with atomic photoelectric data. The generalized oscillator strength is built from the adopted optical oscillator strength by using an extension algorithm derived from Lindhard's dielectric function for a free-<span class="hlt">electron</span> gas. It is shown that simulated backscattering fractions of <span class="hlt">electron</span> beams from bulk (semi-infinite) specimens are in good agreement with experimental data for beam energies from 0.1 keV up to about 100 keV. Simulations also yield transmitted and backscattered fractions of <span class="hlt">electron</span> beams on thin solid films that agree closely with measurements for different film thicknesses and incidence angles. Simulated most probable deflection angles and depth-dose distributions also agree satisfactorily with measurements. Finally, <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy loss spectra of several elemental solids are simulated and the effects of the beam energy and the foil thickness on the signal to background and signal to noise ratios are investigated. SCANNING 38:475-491, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........75K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhDT........75K"><span>Atomistic modeling of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in disordered nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kharche, Neerav</p> <p></p> <p>As the Si-CMOS technology approaches the end of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the semiconductor industry faces a formidable challenge to continue the transistor scaling according to Moore's law. To continue the scaling of classical devices, alternative channel materials such as SiGe, carbon nanotubes, nanowires, and III-V based materials are being investigated along with novel 3D device geometries. Researchers are also investigating radically new quantum computing devices, which are expected to perform calculations faster than the existing classical Si-CMOS based structures. Atomic scale disorders such as interface roughness, alloy randomness, non-uniform strain, and dopant fluctuations are routinely present in the experimental realization of such devices. These disorders now play an increasingly important role in determining the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties as device sizes enter the nanometer regime. This work employs the atomistic tight-binding technique, which is ideally suited for modeling systems with local disorders on an atomic scale. High-precision multi-million atom <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure calculations of (111) Si surface quantum wells and (100) SiGe/Si/SiGe heterostructure quantum wells are performed to investigate the modulation of valley splitting induced by atomic scale disorders. The calculations presented here resolve the existing discrepancies between theoretically predicted and experimentally measured valley splitting, which is an important design parameter in quantum computing devices. Supercell calculations and the zone-unfolding method are used to compute the bandstructures of inhomogeneous nanowires made of AlGaAs and SiGe and their connection with the transmission coefficients computed using non-equilibrium Green's function method is established. A unified picture of alloy nanowires emerges, in which the nanodevice (transmission) and nanomaterials (bandstructure) viewpoints complement each other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PlPhR..42..713G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PlPhR..42..713G"><span>Simulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam formation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a gas-filled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-optical system with a plasma emitter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grishkov, A. A.; Kornilov, S. Yu.; Rempe, N. G.; Shidlovskiy, S. V.; Shklyaev, V. A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The results of computer simulations of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-optical system of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> gun with a plasma emitter are presented. The simulations are performed using the KOBRA3-INP, XOOPIC, and ANSYS codes. The results describe the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam formation and <span class="hlt">transport</span>. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> trajectories are analyzed. The mechanisms of gas influence on the energy inhomogeneity of the beam and its current in the regions of beam primary formation, acceleration, and <span class="hlt">transport</span> are described. Recommendations for optimizing the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-optical system with a plasma emitter are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109o2904O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109o2904O"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and dielectric breakdown in silicon nitride using a charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogden, Sean P.; Lu, Toh-Ming; Plawsky, Joel L.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Silicon nitride is an important material used in the <span class="hlt">electronics</span> industry. As such, the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and reliability of these materials are important to study and understand. We report on a charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> model to predict leakage current and failure trends based on previously published data for a stoichiometric silicon nitride dielectric. Failure occurs when the defect density increases to a critical value of approximately 6 × 1025 traps/m3. The model's parameters are determined using voltage ramp data only, and yet, the model is also able to predict constant voltage stress failure over a time scale ranging from minutes to months. The successful fit of the model to the experimental data validates our assumption that the dominant defect in the dielectric is the Si dangling bond, located approximately 2.2 eV below the conduction band. A comparison with previous SiCOH simulations shows SiN and SiCOH have similar defect-related material properties. It is also speculated that, based on the estimated parameter values of 2.75 eV for the defect formation activation energy, the materials' TDDB wear-out are caused by broken Si-H bonds, resulting in Si dangling bond defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23592749','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23592749"><span>Histidines in potential substrate recognition sites <span class="hlt">affect</span> thyroid hormone <span class="hlt">transport</span> by monocarboxylate <span class="hlt">transporter</span> 8 (MCT8).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Braun, Doreen; Lelios, Iva; Krause, Gerd; Schweizer, Ulrich</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Mutations in monocarboxylate <span class="hlt">transporter</span> 8 (MCT8; SLC16A2) cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, a severe X-linked psychomotor retardation syndrome. MCT8 belongs to the major facilitator superfamily of 12 transmembrane-spanning proteins and <span class="hlt">transports</span> thyroid hormones across the blood-brain barrier and into neurons. How MCT8 distinguishes thyroid hormone substrates from structurally closely related compounds is not known. The goal of this study was to identify critical amino acids along the <span class="hlt">transport</span> channel cavity, which participate in thyroid hormone recognition. The fact that T3 is bound between a His-Arg clamp in the crystal structure of the T3 receptor/T3 complex prompted us to investigate whether such a motif might potentially be relevant for T3 recognition in MCT8. We therefore replaced candidate histidines and arginines by site-directed mutagenesis and performed activity assays in MDCK-1 cells and Xenopus oocytes. Histidines were replaced by alanine, phenylalanine, and glutamine to probe for molecular properties like aromatic ring structure and H-bonding properties. It was found that some mutations in His192 and His415 significantly changed substrate <span class="hlt">transport</span> kinetics. Arg301 at the intracellular end of the substrate channel is at an ideal distance to His415 to participate in a His-Arg clamp and mutation to alanine-abrogated hormone <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Molecular modeling demonstrates a perfect fit of T3 poised into the substrate channel between His415 and Arg301 and observing the same geometry as in the T3 receptor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26583343','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26583343"><span>How does <span class="hlt">electronic</span> cigarette access <span class="hlt">affect</span> adolescent smoking?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Friedman, Abigail S</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Understanding <span class="hlt">electronic</span> cigarettes' effect on tobacco smoking is a central economic and policy issue. This paper examines the causal impact of e-cigarette access on conventional cigarette use by adolescents. Regression analyses consider how state bans on e-cigarette sales to minors influence smoking rates among 12 to 17 year olds. Such bans yield a statistically significant 0.9 percentage point increase in recent smoking in this age group, relative to states without such bans. Results are robust to multiple specifications as well as several falsification and placebo checks. This effect is both consistent with e-cigarette access reducing smoking among minors, and large: banning <span class="hlt">electronic</span> cigarette sales to minors counteracts 70 percent of the downward pre-trend in teen cigarette smoking for a given two-year period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1287449','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1287449"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Modeling of Molecular Nanoscale Bridges Used in Energy Conversion Schemes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dunietz, Barry D.</p> <p>2016-08-09</p> <p>The goal of the research program is to reliably describe <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and transfer processes at the molecular level. Such insight is essential for improving molecular applications of solar and thermal energy conversion. We develop <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure models to study (1) photoinduced <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer and <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes in organic semiconducting materials, and (2) charge and heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> through molecular bridges. We seek fundamental understanding of key processes, which lead to design new experiments and ultimately to achieve systems with improved properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CoTPh..59..121B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CoTPh..59..121B"><span>Simulation Study of the <span class="hlt">Electron</span> and Hole <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in a CNTFET</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bahari, A.; Amiri, M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this work we have investigated <span class="hlt">electron</span> and hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> through zig zag carbon nanotubes by solving Boltzmann <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Equation (BTE). We find that the mobility of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is rather greater than holes. Carbo nanotubes with longer diameter can carry higher current. Normally, <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (or holes) is dominated by scattering events, which relax the carrier momentum in an effort to bring the conducting material to equilibrium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..359..153B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..359..153B"><span>Effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Ti3C2 MXene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berdiyorov, G. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>MXenes are found to be promising electrode materials for energy storage applications. Recent theoretical and experimental studies indicate the possibility of using these novel low dimensional materials for metal-ion batteries. Herein, we use density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism to study the effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the MXene, Ti3C2. Oxygen, hydroxyl and fluorine terminated species are considered and the obtained results are compared with the ones for the pristine MXene. We found that the ion adsorption results in reduced <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the pristine MXene: depending on the type of the ions and the bias voltage, the current in the system can be reduced by more than 30%. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the oxygen terminated sample can be improved by the ion adsorption: for both types of ions the current in the system can be increased by more than a factor of 4. However, the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is less <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the ions in fluorinated and hydroxylated samples. These two samples show enhanced <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> as compared to the pristine MXene. The obtained results are explained in terms of <span class="hlt">electron</span> localization in the system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...119b5104C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...119b5104C"><span>Comparative study of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanisms in epitaxial and polycrystalline zinc nitride films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, Xiang; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Naoomi</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Zn3N2 has been reported to have high <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility even in polycrystalline films. The high mobility in polycrystalline films is a striking feature as compared with group-III nitrides. However, the origins of the high mobility have not been elucidated to date. In this paper, we discuss the reason for high mobility in Zn3N2. We grew epitaxial and polycrystalline films of Zn3N2. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> effective mass (m*) was determined optically and found to decrease with a decrease in <span class="hlt">electron</span> density. Using a nonparabolic conduction band model, the m* at the bottom of the conduction band was derived to be (0.08 ± 0.03)m0 (m0 denotes the free <span class="hlt">electron</span> mass), which is comparable to that in InN. Optically determined intra-grain mobility (μopt) in the polycrystalline films was higher than 110 cm2 V-1 s-1, resulting from the small m*. The Hall mobility (μH) in the polycrystalline films was significantly smaller than μopt, indicating that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is impeded by scattering at the grain boundaries. Nevertheless, μH higher than 70 cm2 V-1 s-1 was achievable owing to the beneficial effect of the high μopt. As for the epitaxial films, we revealed that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is hardly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by grain boundary scattering and is governed solely by ionized impurity scattering. The findings in this study suggest that Zn3N2 is a high-mobility semiconductor with small effective mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22494905','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22494905"><span>Comparative study of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanisms in epitaxial and polycrystalline zinc nitride films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cao, Xiang; Yamaguchi, Yuuki; Ninomiya, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Naoomi</p> <p>2016-01-14</p> <p>Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} has been reported to have high <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility even in polycrystalline films. The high mobility in polycrystalline films is a striking feature as compared with group-III nitrides. However, the origins of the high mobility have not been elucidated to date. In this paper, we discuss the reason for high mobility in Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2}. We grew epitaxial and polycrystalline films of Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2}. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> effective mass (m*) was determined optically and found to decrease with a decrease in <span class="hlt">electron</span> density. Using a nonparabolic conduction band model, the m* at the bottom of the conduction band was derived to be (0.08 ± 0.03)m{sub 0} (m{sub 0} denotes the free <span class="hlt">electron</span> mass), which is comparable to that in InN. Optically determined intra-grain mobility (μ{sub opt}) in the polycrystalline films was higher than 110 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, resulting from the small m*. The Hall mobility (μ{sub H}) in the polycrystalline films was significantly smaller than μ{sub opt}, indicating that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is impeded by scattering at the grain boundaries. Nevertheless, μ{sub H} higher than 70 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} was achievable owing to the beneficial effect of the high μ{sub opt}. As for the epitaxial films, we revealed that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is hardly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by grain boundary scattering and is governed solely by ionized impurity scattering. The findings in this study suggest that Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2} is a high-mobility semiconductor with small effective mass.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23176467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23176467"><span>A long way to the electrode: how do Geobacter cells <span class="hlt">transport</span> their <span class="hlt">electrons</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonanni, Pablo Sebastián; Schrott, Germán David; Busalmen, Juan Pablo</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The mechanism of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms is a topic under intense study and debate. Although some proteins were found to be essential for current production, the specific role that each one plays in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> to the electrode remains to be elucidated and a consensus on the mechanism of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> has not been reached. In the present paper, to understand the state of the art in the topic, <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from inside of the cell to the electrode in Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms is analysed, reviewing genetic studies, biofilm conductivity assays and electrochemical and spectro-electrochemical experiments. Furthermore, crucial data still required to achieve a deeper understanding are highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PPCF...57i5004G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PPCF...57i5004G"><span>Spontaneous versus induced hydrogen and deuterium helical shaped plasmas with <span class="hlt">electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barriers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gobbin, M.; Franz, P.; Auriemma, F.; Lorenzini, R.; Marrelli, L.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barriers (eITBs) in high current plasmas with helical equilibria of the reversed field pinch experiment RFX-mod are analyzed and characterized in detail thanks to a high time resolution double filter diagnostic for the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature spatial profile determination. The large amount of data provided by this diagnostic has required the development of dedicated algorithms and the identification of suitable parameters, reported and described in this paper, in order to perform automatic statistical studies. These numerical tools have been used to examine the effect of three dimensional (3D) magnetic fields applied by the RFX-mod 192 active coils in deuterium and hydrogen discharges with the aim to improve the sustainment and control of helical equilibria with eITBs. It is shown that 3D fields partially increase the occurring of helical states but with only a moderate effect on the eITBs duration; moreover, they have a different impact on the confinement properties in hydrogen and deuterium discharges. Numerical simulations, by the Hamiltonian guiding center code ORBIT, investigate the effect of magnetic topology in plasmas with and without the application of 3D fields on deuterium and hydrogen test ions <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Results from numerical studies are in agreement with estimates of the particle confinement times showing that particle <span class="hlt">transport</span> is reduced in deuterium plasmas but not significantly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the application of helical boundary conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18790827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18790827"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> and sorting of the solanum tuberosum sucrose <span class="hlt">transporter</span> SUT1 is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by posttranslational modification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krügel, Undine; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M; Langbein, Jennifer; Wiederhold, Elena; Liesche, Johannes; Friedrich, Thomas; Grimm, Bernhard; Martinoia, Enrico; Poolman, Bert; Kühn, Christina</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>The plant sucrose <span class="hlt">transporter</span> SUT1 from Solanum tuberosum revealed a dramatic redox-dependent increase in sucrose <span class="hlt">transport</span> activity when heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plant plasma membrane vesicles do not show any change in proton flux across the plasma membrane in the presence of redox reagents, indicating a SUT1-specific effect of redox reagents. Redox-dependent sucrose <span class="hlt">transport</span> activity was confirmed electrophysiologically in Xenopus laevis oocytes with SUT1 from maize (Zea mays). Localization studies of green fluorescent protein fusion constructs showed that an oxidative environment increased the targeting of SUT1 to the plasma membrane where the protein concentrates in 200- to 300-nm raft-like microdomains. Using plant plasma membranes, St SUT1 can be detected in the detergent-resistant membrane fraction. Importantly, in yeast and in plants, oxidative reagents induced a shift in the monomer to dimer equilibrium of the St SUT1 protein and increased the fraction of dimer. Biochemical methods confirmed the capacity of SUT1 to form a dimer in plants and yeast cells in a redox-dependent manner. Blue native PAGE, chemical cross-linking, and immunoprecipitation, as well as the analysis of transgenic plants with reduced expression of St SUT1, confirmed the dimerization of St SUT1 and Sl SUT1 (from Solanum lycopersicum) in planta. The ability to form homodimers in plant cells was analyzed by the split yellow fluorescent protein technique in transiently transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves and protoplasts. Oligomerization seems to be cell type specific since under native-like conditions, a phloem-specific reduction of the dimeric form of the St SUT1 protein was detectable in SUT1 antisense plants, whereas constitutively inhibited antisense plants showed reduction only of the monomeric form. The role of redox control of sucrose <span class="hlt">transport</span> in plants is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...115t3714A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JAP...115t3714A"><span>Local atomic order, <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Cu-Zr metallic glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Antonowicz, J.; Pietnoczka, A.; Pekała, K.; Latuch, J.; Evangelakis, G. A.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We studied atomic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structures of binary Cu-Zr metallic glasses (MGs) using combined experimental and computational methods including X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and ab-initio calculations. The results of MD simulations and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicate that atomic order of Cu-Zr MGs and can be described in terms of interpenetrating icosahedral-like clusters involving five-fold symmetry. MD configurations were used as an input for calculations of theoretical <span class="hlt">electronic</span> density of states (DOS) functions which exhibits good agreement with the experimental X-ray absorption near-edge spectra. We found no indication of minimum of DOS at Fermi energy predicted by Mott's nearly free <span class="hlt">electron</span> (NFE) model for glass-forming alloys. The theoretical DOS was subsequently used to test Mott's model describing the temperature variation of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of transition metal-based MGs. We demonstrate that the measured temperature variations of electrical resistivity and TEP remain in a contradiction with this model. On the other hand, the experimental temperature dependence of electrical resistivity can be explained by incipient localization of conduction <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. It is shown that weak localization model works up to relatively high temperatures when localization is destroyed by phonons. Our results indicate that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Cu-Zr MGs are dominated by localization effects rather than by <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure. We suggest that NFE model fails to explain a relatively high glass-forming ability of binary Cu-Zr alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22304308','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22304308"><span>Local atomic order, <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Cu-Zr metallic glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Antonowicz, J. Pietnoczka, A.; Pękała, K.; Latuch, J.; Evangelakis, G. A.</p> <p>2014-05-28</p> <p>We studied atomic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structures of binary Cu-Zr metallic glasses (MGs) using combined experimental and computational methods including X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and ab-initio calculations. The results of MD simulations and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis indicate that atomic order of Cu-Zr MGs and can be described in terms of interpenetrating icosahedral-like clusters involving five-fold symmetry. MD configurations were used as an input for calculations of theoretical <span class="hlt">electronic</span> density of states (DOS) functions which exhibits good agreement with the experimental X-ray absorption near-edge spectra. We found no indication of minimum of DOS at Fermi energy predicted by Mott's nearly free <span class="hlt">electron</span> (NFE) model for glass-forming alloys. The theoretical DOS was subsequently used to test Mott's model describing the temperature variation of electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of transition metal-based MGs. We demonstrate that the measured temperature variations of electrical resistivity and TEP remain in a contradiction with this model. On the other hand, the experimental temperature dependence of electrical resistivity can be explained by incipient localization of conduction <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. It is shown that weak localization model works up to relatively high temperatures when localization is destroyed by phonons. Our results indicate that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Cu-Zr MGs are dominated by localization effects rather than by <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure. We suggest that NFE model fails to explain a relatively high glass-forming ability of binary Cu-Zr alloys.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21237527','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21237527"><span>The addition of organic carbon and nitrate <span class="hlt">affects</span> reactive <span class="hlt">transport</span> of heavy metals in sandy aquifers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Satyawali, Yamini; Seuntjens, Piet; Van Roy, Sandra; Joris, Ingeborg; Vangeel, Silvia; Dejonghe, Winnie; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien</p> <p>2011-04-25</p> <p>Organic carbon introduction in the soil to initiate remedial measures, nitrate infiltration due to agricultural practices or sulphate intrusion owing to industrial usage can influence the redox conditions and pH, thus <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the mobility of heavy metals in soil and groundwater. This study reports the fate of Zn and Cd in sandy aquifers under a variety of plausible in-situ redox conditions that were induced by introduction of carbon and various <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors in column experiments. Up to 100% Zn and Cd removal (from the liquid phase) was observed in all the four columns, however the mechanisms were different. Metal removal in column K1 (containing sulphate), was attributed to biological sulphate reduction and subsequent metal precipitation (as sulphides). In the presence of both nitrate and sulphate (K2), the former dominated the process, precipitating the heavy metals as hydroxides and/or carbonates. In the presence of sulphate, nitrate and supplemental iron (Fe(OH)(3)) (K3), metal removal was also due to precipitation as hydroxides and/or carbonates. In abiotic column, K4, (with supplemental iron (Fe(OH)(3)), but no nitrate), cation exchange with soil led to metal removal. The results obtained were modeled using the reactive <span class="hlt">transport</span> model PHREEQC-2 to elucidate governing processes and to evaluate scenarios of organic carbon, sulphate and nitrate inputs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27H5503P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27H5503P"><span>Surface trap mediated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in biofunctionalized silicon nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puppo, F.; Traversa, F. L.; Di Ventra, M.; De Micheli, G.; Carrara, S.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Silicon nanowires (SiNWs), fabricated via a top-down approach and then functionalized with biological probes, are used for electrically-based sensing of breast tumor markers. The SiNWs, featuring memristive-like behavior in bare conditions, show, in the presence of biomarkers, modified hysteresis and, more importantly, a voltage memory component, namely a voltage gap. The voltage gap is demonstrated to be a novel and powerful parameter of detection thanks to its high-resolution dependence on charges in proximity of the wire. This unique approach of sensing has never been studied and adopted before. Here, we propose a physical model of the surface <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Schottky barrier SiNW biosensors, aiming at reproducing and understanding the voltage gap based behavior. The implemented model describes well the experimental I-V characteristics of the device. It also links the modification of the voltage gap to the changing concentration of antigens by showing the decrease of this parameter in response to increasing concentrations of the molecules that are detected with femtomolar resolution in real human samples. Both experiments and simulations highlight the predominant role of the dynamic recombination of the nanowire surface states, with the incoming external charges from bio-species, in the appearance and modification of the voltage gap. Finally, thanks to its compactness, and strict correlation with the physics of the nanodevice, this model can be used to describe and predict the I-V characteristics in other nanostructured devices, for different than antibody-based sensing as well as <span class="hlt">electronic</span> applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22341856','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22341856"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in gamma ray exposed nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gehlawat, Devender Chauhan, R.P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Graphical abstract: A sharp decline in the I–V characteristics of Cu (and Cd) nanowires was experimentally observed after the gamma ray exposure of nanowires. Irradiation induced transformations in the granular properties and the resonance state of electron–phonon coupling beyond a particular value of external field may be accountable for observed shape of I–V characteristics in gamma ray exposed nanowires. - Highlights: • Cu and Cd nanowires were synthesized by technique of electrodeposition in templates. • The nanowires were exposed to different doses of gamma ray photons. • A sharp decline in the current in I–V characteristics (IVC) was observed. • Structural deviation in terms of granular orientations was also analysed. • The electron–phonon coupling may be responsible for observed sharp decline in IVC. - Abstract: One dimensional nanostructures provide the most restricted and narrow channel for the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of charge carriers and therefore 1D structures preserve their significance from the viewpoint of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices. The net radiation effect on nanomaterials is expected to be more (due to their increased reactivity and lesser bulk volume) than their bulk counterparts. Radiation often modifies the structure and simultaneously the other physical properties of materials. In this manner, the irradiation phenomenon could be counted as a strong criterion to induce changes in the structural and electrical properties of nanowires. We have studied the effect of gamma rays on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> flow through Cu and Cd nanowires by plotting their I–V characteristics (IVC). The IVC of gamma ray exposed nanowires was found to be a combination of the linear and nonlinear regions and a decreasing pattern in the electrical conductivity (calculated from the linear portion of IVC) was observed as we increased the dose of gamma rays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/40204621','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/40204621"><span>Experimental Characterization of the <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Heat <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Low-Density ASDEX Upgrade Plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ryter, F.; Imbeaux, F.; Leuterer, F.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Suttrop, W.; ASDEX Upgrade Team</p> <p>2001-06-11</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> is investigated in ASDEX Upgrade conventional L -mode plasmas with pure <span class="hlt">electron</span> heating provided by <span class="hlt">electron</span>-cyclotron heating (ECH) at low density. Under these conditions, steady-state and ECH modulation experiments indicate without ambiguity that <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> exhibits a clear threshold in {nabla}T{sub e}/T{sub e} and also suggest that it has a gyro-Bohm character.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.388...41R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPB.388...41R"><span>Effects of model approximations for <span class="hlt">electron</span>, hole, and photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> in swift heavy ion tracks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rymzhanov, R. A.; Medvedev, N. A.; Volkov, A. E.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The event-by-event Monte Carlo code, TREKIS, was recently developed to describe excitation of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> subsystems of solids in the nanometric vicinity of a trajectory of a nonrelativistic swift heavy ion (SHI) decelerated in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> stopping regime. The complex dielectric function (CDF) formalism was applied in the used cross sections to account for collective response of a matter to excitation. Using this model we investigate effects of the basic assumptions on the modeled kinetics of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> subsystem which ultimately determine parameters of an excited material in an SHI track. In particular, (a) effects of different momentum dependencies of the CDF on scattering of projectiles on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> subsystem are investigated. The 'effective one-band' approximation for target <span class="hlt">electrons</span> produces good coincidence of the calculated <span class="hlt">electron</span> mean free paths with those obtained in experiments in metals. (b) Effects of collective response of a lattice appeared to dominate in randomization of <span class="hlt">electron</span> motion. We study how sensitive these effects are to the target temperature. We also compare results of applications of different model forms of (quasi-) elastic cross sections in simulations of the ion track kinetics, e.g. those calculated taking into account optical phonons in the CDF form vs. Mott's atomic cross sections. (c) It is demonstrated that the kinetics of valence holes significantly <span class="hlt">affects</span> redistribution of the excess <span class="hlt">electronic</span> energy in the vicinity of an SHI trajectory as well as its conversion into lattice excitation in dielectrics and semiconductors. (d) It is also shown that induced <span class="hlt">transport</span> of photons originated from radiative decay of core holes brings the excess energy faster and farther away from the track core, however, the amount of this energy is relatively small.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011207','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120011207"><span>How Does the <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Dynamics <span class="hlt">Affect</span> the Global Reconnection Rate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hesse, Michael</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The question of whether the microscale controls the macroscale or vice-versa remains one of the most challenging problems in plasmas. A particular topic of interest within this context is collisionless magnetic reconnection, where both points of views are espoused by different groups of researchers. This presentation will focus on this topic. We will begin by analyzing the properties of <span class="hlt">electron</span> diffusion region dynamics both for guide field and anti-parallel reconnection, and how they can be scaled to different inflow conditions. As a next step, we will study typical temporal variations of the microscopic dynamics with the objective of understanding the potential for secular changes to the macroscopic system. The research will be based on a combination of analytical theory and numerical modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPPI3002M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPPI3002M"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> turbulence and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in large magnetic islands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morton, Lucas</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Magnetic islands, observed in both reversed-field pinches (RFPs) and tokamaks, often display unexpected turbulence and <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics. For the first time in an RFP, the high repetition rate Thomson scattering diagnostic on MST has captured a 2D image of the rotating <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature structure of a magnetic island in a single discharge. MHD modeling using edge magnetic signals implies a 16 cm wide m,n =1,6 tearing mode island which completely overlaps a 5.5 cm n =7 island (12 cm between island centers). The 3D field is partially chaotic, but still reflective of the n =6 island structure. The measured temperature structure matches the shape and location of the n =6 partially chaotic (or `remnant') island. Contrary to the usual assumption that islands have flat internal temperature, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature is peaked inside the remnant magnetic island due to ohmic heating. The temperature peaking implies a local effective perpendicular conductivity 10-40 m2/s inside the remnant island. This agrees quantitatively with an effective perpendicular conductivity of 16 m2/s estimated using the magnetic diffusion coefficient (evaluated at the <span class="hlt">electron</span> mean free path) calculated from the modeled chaotic field. Statistical analysis of measurement ensembles with lower time resolution implies that remnant island heating is common in MST discharges. To investigate the role of turbulence near a magnetic island, the 2D structure of long-wavelength density turbulence has been mapped around a large applied static m,n =2,1 L-mode island in the DIII-D tokamak. The turbulence exhibits intriguing spatial structure. Fluctuations are enhanced several-fold (compared to the no-island case) on the inboard side of the X-point, but not on the outboard side of the X-point and are also reduced near the O-point. This work is supported by the NSF and US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, and DE-FG02-89ER53296.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5381704','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5381704"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials. PMID:25860804</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1200859-electronic-transport-two-dimensional-high-dielectric-constant-nanosystems','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1200859-electronic-transport-two-dimensional-high-dielectric-constant-nanosystems"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; ...</p> <p>2015-04-10</p> <p>There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screeningmore » length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1200859','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1200859"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.</p> <p>2015-04-10</p> <p>There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6067021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6067021"><span>Considerations of beta and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in internal dose calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bolch, W.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>Ionizing radiation has broad uses in modern science and medicine. These uses often require the calculation of energy deposition in the irradiated media and, usually, the medium of interest is the human body. Energy deposition from radioactive sources within the human body and the effects of such deposition are considered in the field of internal dosimetry. In July of 1988, a three-year research project was initiated by the Nuclear Engineering Department at Texas A M University under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The main thrust of the research was to consider, for the first time, the detailed spatial <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and beta particles in the estimation of average organ doses under the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. At the present time (December of 1990), research activities are continuing within five areas. Several are new initiatives begun within the second or third year of the current contract period. They include: (1) development of small-scale dosimetry; (2) development of a differential volume phantom; (3) development of a dosimetric bone model; (4) assessment of the new ICRP lung model; and (5) studies into the mechanisms of DNA damage. A progress report is given for each of these tasks within the Comprehensive Report. In each use, preliminary results are very encouraging and plans for further research are detailed within this document. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6067078','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6067078"><span>Considerations of beta and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in internal dose calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bolch, W.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>Ionizing radiation has broad uses in modern science and medicine. These uses often require the calculation of energy deposition in the irradiated media and, usually, the medium of interest is the human body. Energy deposition from radioactive sources within the human body and the effects of such deposition are considered in the field of internal dosimetry. In July of 1988, a three-year research project was initiated by the Nuclear Engineering Department at Texas A M University under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The main thrust of the research was to consider, for the first time, the detailed spatial <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and beta particles in the estimation of average organ doses under the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. At the present time (December of 1990), research activities are continuing within five areas. Several are new initiatives begun within the second or third year of the current contract period. They include: (1) development of small-scale dosimetry; (2) development of a differential volume phantom; (3) development of a dosimetric bone model; (4) assessment of the new ICRP lung model; and (5) studies into the mechanisms of DNA damage. A progress report is given for each of these tasks within the Comprehensive Report. In each case, preliminary results are very encouraging and plans for further research are detailed within this document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4891735','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4891735"><span>Defect engineering of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through cuprous oxide interlayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fadlallah, Mohamed M.; Eckern, Ulrich; Schwingenschlögl, Udo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through Au–(Cu2O)n–Au junctions is investigated using first-principles calculations and the nonequilibrium Green’s function method. The effect of varying the thickness (i.e., n) is studied as well as that of point defects and anion substitution. For all Cu2O thicknesses the conductance is more enhanced by bulk-like (in contrast to near-interface) defects, with the exception of O vacancies and Cl substitutional defects. A similar transmission behavior results from Cu deficiency and N substitution, as well as from Cl substitution and N interstitials for thick Cu2O junctions. In agreement with recent experimental observations, it is found that N and Cl doping enhances the conductance. A Frenkel defect, i.e., a superposition of an O interstitial and O substitutional defect, leads to a remarkably high conductance. From the analysis of the defect formation energies, Cu vacancies are found to be particularly stable, in agreement with earlier experimental and theoretical work. PMID:27256905</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95h5303W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95h5303W"><span>Comparative investigation of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across three-dimensional nanojunctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yun-Peng; Zhang, X.-G.; Fry, J. N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>We show the thickness-dependent transition from metallic conduction to tunneling in three-dimensional (3D) Ag/Si/Ag nanojunctions through layer-by-layer <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure and quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations. The transmission coefficients are calculated quantum mechanically within the framework of density functional theory in conjunction with nonequilibrium Green's function techniques. Thin junctions show nearly metallic character with no energy gap opening in Si layers due to the metal-induced interface states, and the transmission is independent of the stacking order of Si layers. An energy gap reemerges for Si layers deeply buried within thick junction, and the decay rate of transmission in this insulating region depends on the stacking order. Complex band analysis indicates that the decay of transmission is not determined by a single exponential constant but also depends on the available number of evanescent states. Calculating the electric resistance from the transmission coefficient requires a 3D generalization of the Landauer formula, which is not unique. We examine two approaches, the Landauer-Büttiker formula, with and without subtraction of the Sharvin resistance, and a semiclassical Boltzmann equation with boundary conditions defined by the transmission coefficients at the junction. We identify an empirical upper limit of ˜0.05 per channel in the transmission coefficient, below which the Landauer-Büttiker formula without the Sharvin resistance correction remains a good approximation. In the high transmission limit, the Landauer-Büttiker formula with Sharvin correction and the semiclassical Boltzmann method reach fair agreement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627049F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627049F"><span>Defect engineering of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through cuprous oxide interlayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fadlallah, Mohamed M.; Eckern, Ulrich; Schwingenschlögl, Udo</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through Au–(Cu2O)n–Au junctions is investigated using first-principles calculations and the nonequilibrium Green’s function method. The effect of varying the thickness (i.e., n) is studied as well as that of point defects and anion substitution. For all Cu2O thicknesses the conductance is more enhanced by bulk-like (in contrast to near-interface) defects, with the exception of O vacancies and Cl substitutional defects. A similar transmission behavior results from Cu deficiency and N substitution, as well as from Cl substitution and N interstitials for thick Cu2O junctions. In agreement with recent experimental observations, it is found that N and Cl doping enhances the conductance. A Frenkel defect, i.e., a superposition of an O interstitial and O substitutional defect, leads to a remarkably high conductance. From the analysis of the defect formation energies, Cu vacancies are found to be particularly stable, in agreement with earlier experimental and theoretical work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94w5448P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94w5448P"><span>Spin-polarized <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through helicene molecular junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pan, Ting-Rui; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Recently, the spin-selectivity effect of chiral molecules has been attracting extensive and growing interest among the scientific communities. Here, we propose a model Hamiltonian to study spin-dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through helicene molecules which are connected by two semi-infinite graphene nanoribbons and try to elucidate a recent experiment of the spin-selectivity effect observed in the helicene molecules. The results indicate that the helicene molecules can present a significant spin-filtering effect in the case of extremely weak spin-orbit coupling, which is three orders of magnitude smaller than the hopping integral. The underlying physics is attributed to intrinsic chiral symmetry of the helicene molecules. When the chirality is switched from the right-handed species to the left-handed species, the spin polarization is reversed exactly. These results are consistent with a recent experiment [V. Kiran et al., Adv. Mater. 28, 1957 (2016), 10.1002/adma.201504725]. In addition, the spin-filtering effect of the helicene molecules is robust against molecular lengths, dephasing strengths, and space position disorder. This theoretical work may motivate further studies on chiral-induced spin selectivity in molecular systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1009941','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1009941"><span>Nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a one-dimensional Mott insulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Heidrich-Meisner, F.; Gonzalez, Ivan; Al-Hassanieh, K. A.; Feiguin, A. E.; Rozenberg, M. J.; Dagotto, Elbio R</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We calculate the nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a one-dimensional interacting chain at half filling, coupled to noninteracting leads. The interacting chain is initially in a Mott insulator state that is driven out of equilibrium by applying a strong bias voltage between the leads. For bias voltages above a certain threshold we observe the breakdown of the Mott insulator state and the establishment of a steady-state elec- tronic current through the system. Based on extensive time-dependent density-matrix renormalization-group simulations, we show that this steady-state current always has the same functional dependence on voltage, independent of the microscopic details of the model and we relate the value of the threshold to the Lieb-Wu gap. We frame our results in terms of the Landau-Zener dielectric breakdown picture. Finally, we also discuss the real-time evolution of the current, and characterize the current-carrying state resulting from the breakdown of the Mott insulator by computing the double occupancy, the spin structure factor, and the entanglement entropy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E9667O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E9667O"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874817"><span>Facilities, breed and experience <span class="hlt">affect</span> ease of sheep handling: the livestock <span class="hlt">transporter</span>'s perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock <span class="hlt">transporter</span>. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock <span class="hlt">transporters</span> discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. <span class="hlt">Transporters</span> demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock <span class="hlt">transporters</span> strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and <span class="hlt">transport</span>) and breed. <span class="hlt">Transporters</span> also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017486','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017486"><span>Coupling of hydrologic <span class="hlt">transport</span> and chemical reactions in a stream <span class="hlt">affected</span> by acid mine drainage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kimball, B.A.; Broshears, R.E.; Bencala, K.E.; McKnight, Diane M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Experiments in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream, examined the coupling of hydrologic <span class="hlt">transport</span> to chemical reactions <span class="hlt">affecting</span> metal concentrations. Injection of LiCl as a conservative tracer was used to determine discharge and residence time along a 1497-m reach. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of metals downstream from inflows of acidic, metal-rich water was evaluated based on synoptic samples of metal concentrations and the hydrologic characteristics of the stream. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of SO4 and Mn was generally conservative, but in the subreaches most <span class="hlt">affected</span> by acidic inflows, <span class="hlt">transport</span> was reactive. Both 0.1-??m filtered and particulate Fe were reactive over most of the stream reach. Filtered Al partitioned to the particulate phase in response to high instream concentrations. Simulations that accounted for the removal of SO4, Mn, Fe, and Al with first-order reactions reproduced the steady-state profiles. The calculated rate constants for net removal used in the simulations embody several processes that occur on a stream-reach scale. The comparison between rates of hydrologie <span class="hlt">transport</span> and chemical reactions indicates that reactions are only important over short distances in the stream near the acidic inflows, where reactions occur on a comparable time scale with hydrologic <span class="hlt">transport</span> and thus <span class="hlt">affect</span> metal concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990071231','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990071231"><span>Inner Magnetospheric Superthermal <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span>: Photoelectron and Plasma Sheet <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Kozyra, J. U.; Moore, T. E.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Two time-dependent kinetic models of superthermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> are combined to conduct global calculations of the nonthermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> distribution function throughout the inner magnetosphere. It is shown that the energy range of validity for this combined model extends down to the superthermal-thermal intersection at a few eV, allowing for the calculation of the en- tire distribution function and thus an accurate heating rate to the thermal plasma. Because of the linearity of the formulas, the source terms are separated to calculate the distributions from the various populations, namely photoelectrons (PEs) and plasma sheet <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (PSEs). These distributions are discussed in detail, examining the processes responsible for their formation in the various regions of the inner magnetosphere. It is shown that convection, corotation, and Coulomb collisions are the dominant processes in the formation of the PE distribution function and that PSEs are dominated by the interplay between the drift terms. Of note is that the PEs propagate around the nightside in a narrow channel at the edge of the plasmasphere as Coulomb collisions reduce the fluxes inside of this and convection compresses the flux tubes inward. These distributions are then recombined to show the development of the total superthermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> distribution function in the inner magnetosphere and their influence on the thermal plasma. PEs usually dominate the dayside heating, with integral energy fluxes to the ionosphere reaching 10(exp 10) eV/sq cm/s in the plasmasphere, while heating from the PSEs typically does not exceed 10(exp 8) eV/sq cm/s. On the nightside, the inner plasmasphere is usually unheated by superthermal <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. A feature of these combined spectra is that the distribution often has upward slopes with energy, particularly at the crossover from PE to PSE dominance, indicating that instabilities are possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185679-defect-mediated-transport-electronic-irradiation-effect-individual-domains-cvd-grown-monolayer-mos2','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185679-defect-mediated-transport-electronic-irradiation-effect-individual-domains-cvd-grown-monolayer-mos2"><span>Defect-mediated <span class="hlt">transport</span> and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> irradiation effect in individual domains of CVD-grown monolayer MoS2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Durand, Corentin; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Fowlkes, Jason; ...</p> <p>2015-01-16</p> <p>We study the electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of atomically thin individual crystalline grains of MoS2 with four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy. The monolayer MoS2 domains are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on SiO2/Si substrate. Temperature dependent measurements on conductance and mobility show that <span class="hlt">transport</span> is dominated by an <span class="hlt">electron</span> charge trapping and thermal release process with very low carrier density and mobility. The effects of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> irradiation are examined by exposing the film to <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam in the scanning <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscope in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The irradiation process is found to significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> the mobility and the carrier density of themore » material, with the conductance showing a peculiar time-dependent relaxation behavior. It is suggested that the presence of defects in active MoS2 layer and dielectric layer create charge trapping sites, and a multiple trapping and thermal release process dictates the <span class="hlt">transport</span> and mobility characteristics. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam irradiation promotes the formation of defects and impact the electrical properties of MoS2. Finally, our study reveals the important roles of defects and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam irradiation effects in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties of atomic layers of MoS2.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25k7303Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25k7303Z"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of bilayer graphene with asymmetry line defects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Wu, Ya-Jie; Chen, Chan; Liang, Ying; Kou, Su-Peng</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, we study the quantum properties of a bilayer graphene with (asymmetry) line defects. The localized states are found around the line defects. Thus, the line defects on one certain layer of the bilayer graphene can lead to an electric <span class="hlt">transport</span> channel. By adding a bias potential along the direction of the line defects, we calculate the electric conductivity of bilayer graphene with line defects using the Landauer-Büttiker theory, and show that the channel <span class="hlt">affects</span> the electric conductivity remarkably by comparing the results with those in a perfect bilayer graphene. This one-dimensional line electric channel has the potential to be applied in nanotechnology engineering. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921803 and 2012CB921704), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174035, 11474025, 11504285, and 11404090), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, the Scientific Research Program Fund of the Shaanxi Provincial Education Department, China (Grant No. 15JK1363), and the Young Talent Fund of University Association for Science and Technology in Shaanxi Province, China.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Biochemistry&pg=7&id=EJ1068668','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Biochemistry&pg=7&id=EJ1068668"><span>Using Adobe Flash Animations of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Teaching the subject of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "<span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21910905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21910905"><span>Tuning the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of grapheme through functionalisation with fluorine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Withers, Freddie; Russo, Saverio; Dubois, Marc; Craciun, Monica F</p> <p>2011-09-12</p> <p>We demonstrate the possibility to tune the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of graphene mono-layers and multi-layers by functionalisation with fluorine. For mono-layer samples, with increasing the fluorine content, we observe a transition from <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through Mott variable range hopping (VRH) in two dimensions to Efros-Shklovskii VRH. Multi-layer fluorinated graphene with high concentration of fluorine show two-dimensional Mott VRH <span class="hlt">transport</span>, whereas CF0.28 multi-layer flakes exhibit thermally activated <span class="hlt">transport</span> through near neighbour hopping. Our experimental findings demonstrate that the ability to control the degree of functionalisation of graphene is instrumental to engineer different <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties in graphene materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title41-vol3-sec102-118-65.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title41-vol3-sec102-118-65.pdf"><span>41 CFR 102-118.65 - Can my agency receive <span class="hlt">electronic</span> billing for payment of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> services?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">electronic</span> billing for payment of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> services? 102-118.65 Section 102-118.65 Public Contracts and... <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services § 102-118.65 Can my agency receive <span class="hlt">electronic</span> billing for payment of <span class="hlt">transportation</span>... to use <span class="hlt">electronic</span> billing for the procurement and billing of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> services....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title41-vol3-sec102-118-65.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title41-vol3-sec102-118-65.pdf"><span>41 CFR 102-118.65 - Can my agency receive <span class="hlt">electronic</span> billing for payment of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> services?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">electronic</span> billing for payment of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> services? 102-118.65 Section 102-118.65 Public Contracts and... <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services § 102-118.65 Can my agency receive <span class="hlt">electronic</span> billing for payment of <span class="hlt">transportation</span>... to use <span class="hlt">electronic</span> billing for the procurement and billing of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> services....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-02/pdf/2012-7804.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-04-02/pdf/2012-7804.pdf"><span>77 FR 19747 - Notice of <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services' Transition from Paper to <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> Fare Media</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-02</p> <p>... Office of the Secretary of <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Notice of <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services' Transition from Paper to... implementation of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> distribution, and a limited paper voucher process, allows for the most effective and... distributed the qualified <span class="hlt">transportation</span> fringe benefit to participating Federal employees via a paper...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1786o0002I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1786o0002I"><span>State-to-state kinetics and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of <span class="hlt">electronically</span> excited N and O atoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>A theoretical model of <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in <span class="hlt">electronically</span> excited atomic gases in the state-to-state approach is developed. Different models for the collision diameters of atoms in excited states are discussed, and it is shown that the Slater-like models can be applied for the state-resolved <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficient calculations. The influence of collision diameters of N and O atoms with <span class="hlt">electronic</span> degrees of freedom on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties is evaluated. Different distributions on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> energy are considered for the calculation of <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients. For the Boltzmann-like distributions at temperatures greater than 15000 K, an important effect of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> excitation on the thermal conductivity and viscosity coefficients is found; the coefficients decrease significantly when many <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states are taken into account. It is shown that under hypersonic reentry conditions the impact of collision diameters on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties is not really important since the populations of high levels behind the shock waves are low.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5095899','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5095899"><span>Insights into the post-transcriptional regulation of the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sirey, Tamara M.; Ponting, Chris P.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The regulation of the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain is central to the control of cellular homeostasis. There are significant gaps in our understanding of how the expression of the mitochondrial and nuclear genome-encoded components of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain are co-ordinated, and how the assembly of the protein complexes that constitute the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain are regulated. Furthermore, the role post-transcriptional gene regulation may play in modulating these processes needs to be clarified. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the post-transcriptional gene regulation of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain and highlights how noncoding RNAs may contribute significantly both to complex <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain regulatory networks and to mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27911731</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17123468','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17123468"><span>Dicoumarol impairs mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and pyrimidine biosynthesis in human myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González-Aragón, David; Ariza, Julia; Villalba, José M</p> <p>2007-02-01</p> <p>Dicoumarol, a competitive inhibitor of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), increases intracellular superoxide and <span class="hlt">affects</span> cell growth of tumor cells. This work was set to establish a mechanistic link between dicoumarol, superoxide and cell cycle alterations in HL-60 cells. Using ES936, a mechanism-based irreversible inhibitor of NQO1, we demonstrate that NQO1 inhibition is not a major factor involved in superoxide boost. Mitochondrial Complexes II, III and IV were directly inhibited by dicoumarol. Succinate, which inhibits superoxide generation by reversed <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow in Complex II, significantly decreased superoxide boost in dicoumarol-treated cells and in isolated mitochondria incubated with dicoumarol and decylubiquinol. Superoxide generation in cells was strongly potentiated by blocking the quinone site of Complex II with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, supporting the involvement of cytochrome b560 to drive <span class="hlt">electrons</span> for increasing superoxide. Simultaneous inhibition of the mitochondrial chain upstream ubiquinone and displacement of succinate from the Complex II active site is proposed as a major mechanism to explain how dicoumarol increases superoxide in HL-60 cells. Dicoumarol-treated cells accumulated in S phase due to the impairment of pyrimidine biosynthesis at dihydroorotate dehydrogenase step because blockade was overcome by addition of exogenous uridine or orotate, but not by dihydroorotate. We demonstrate for the first time that dicoumarol inhibits mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, induces superoxide release by reversed <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow in Complex II, and inhibits pyrimidines biosynthesis. These actions must be taken into account when considering dicoumarol effects on cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatPh..12..499J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatPh..12..499J"><span>Visualizing fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> into laser-compressed high-density fast-ignition targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jarrott, L. C.; Wei, M. S.; McGuffey, C.; Solodov, A. A.; Theobald, W.; Qiao, B.; Stoeckl, C.; Betti, R.; Chen, H.; Delettrez, J.; Döppner, T.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Y.; Habara, H.; Iwawaki, T.; Key, M. H.; Luo, R. W.; Marshall, F. J.; McLean, H. S.; Mileham, C.; Patel, P. K.; Santos, J. J.; Sawada, H.; Stephens, R. B.; Yabuuchi, T.; Beg, F. N.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Recent progress in kilojoule-scale high-intensity lasers has opened up new areas of research in radiography, laboratory astrophysics, high-energy-density physics, and fast-ignition (FI) laser fusion. FI requires efficient heating of pre-compressed high-density fuel by an intense relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam produced from laser-matter interaction. Understanding the details of <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam generation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> is crucial for FI. Here we report on the first visualization of fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> spatial energy deposition in a laser-compressed cone-in-shell FI target, facilitated by doping the shell with copper and imaging the K-shell radiation. Multi-scale simulations accompanying the experiments clearly show the location of fast <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and reveal key parameters <span class="hlt">affecting</span> energy coupling. The approach provides a more direct way to infer energy coupling and guide experimental designs that significantly improve the laser-to-core coupling to 7%. Our findings lay the groundwork for further improving efficiency, with 15% energy coupling predicted in FI experiments using an existing megajoule-scale laser driver.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94w5153Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94w5153Y"><span>Bidirectional effect of magnetic field on <span class="hlt">electronic</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> of metals from all-<span class="hlt">electron</span> first-principles calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Jia-Yue; Yue, Sheng-Ying; Hu, Ming</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Considerable discussions have occurred about the critical role played by free <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of heat in pure metals. In principle, any environment that can influence the dynamical behaviors of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> would have impact on <span class="hlt">electronic</span> thermal conductivity (κel) of metals. Over the past decades, significant progress and comprehensive understanding have been gained from theoretical, as well as experimental, investigations by taking into account the effects of various conditions, typically temperature, impurities, strain, dimensionality, interface, etc. However, the effect of external magnetic field has received less attention. In this paper, the magnetic-field dependence of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon scattering, the <span class="hlt">electron</span>'s lifetime, and κel of representative metals (Al, Ni, and Nb) are investigated within the framework of all-<span class="hlt">electron</span> spin-density functional theory. For Al and Ni, the induced magnetization vector field and difference in <span class="hlt">electron</span> density under external magnetic-field aggregate toward the center of unit cell, leading to the enhanced <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon scattering, the damped <span class="hlt">electron</span>'s lifetime, and thus the reduced κel. On the contrary, for Nb with strong intrinsic <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interaction, the <span class="hlt">electron</span>'s lifetime and κel slightly increase as external magnetic field is enhanced. This is mainly attributed to the separately distributed magnetization vector field and difference in <span class="hlt">electron</span> density along the corner of unit cell. This paper sheds light on the origin of influence of external magnetic field on κel for pure metals and offers a new route for robust manipulation of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> via applying external magnetic field.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3572443','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3572443"><span>Hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a strongly correlated transition-metal oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rana, Kumari Gaurav; Yajima, Takeaki; Parui, Subir; Kemper, Alexander F.; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.; Banerjee, Tamalika</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Oxide heterointerfaces are ideal for investigating strong correlation effects to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, relevant for oxide-<span class="hlt">electronics</span>. Using hot-<span class="hlt">electrons</span>, we probe <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> perpendicular to the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO)- Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) interface and find the characteristic hot-<span class="hlt">electron</span> attenuation length in LSMO to be 1.48 ± 0.10 unit cells (u.c.) at −1.9 V, increasing to 2.02 ± 0.16 u.c. at −1.3 V at room temperature. Theoretical analysis of this energy dispersion reveals the dominance of <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> and polaron scattering. Direct visualization of the local <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> shows different transmission at the terraces and at the step-edges. PMID:23429420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2643938','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2643938"><span>Membrane <span class="hlt">transporters</span> and protein traffic networks differentially <span class="hlt">affecting</span> metal tolerance: a genomic phenotyping study in yeast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruotolo, Roberta; Marchini, Gessica; Ottonello, Simone</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Background The cellular mechanisms that underlie metal toxicity and detoxification are rather variegated and incompletely understood. Genomic phenotyping was used to assess the roles played by all nonessential Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins in modulating cell viability after exposure to cadmium, nickel, and other metals. Results A number of novel genes and pathways that <span class="hlt">affect</span> multimetal as well as metal-specific tolerance were discovered. Although the vacuole emerged as a major hot spot for metal detoxification, we also identified a number of pathways that play a more general, less direct role in promoting cell survival under stress conditions (for example, mRNA decay, nucleocytoplasmic <span class="hlt">transport</span>, and iron acquisition) as well as proteins that are more proximally related to metal damage prevention or repair. Most prominent among the latter are various nutrient <span class="hlt">transporters</span> previously not associated with metal toxicity. A strikingly differential effect was observed for a large set of deletions, the majority of which centered on the ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for <span class="hlt">transport</span>) and retromer complexes, which - by <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">transporter</span> downregulation and intracellular protein traffic - cause cadmium sensitivity but nickel resistance. Conclusion The data show that a previously underestimated variety of pathways are involved in cadmium and nickel tolerance in eukaryotic cells. As revealed by comparison with five additional metals, there is a good correlation between the chemical properties and the cellular toxicity signatures of various metals. However, many conserved pathways centered on membrane <span class="hlt">transporters</span> and protein traffic <span class="hlt">affect</span> cell viability with a surprisingly high degree of metal specificity. PMID:18394190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5103186','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5103186"><span>Trap-mediated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of gate-tunable pentacene/MoS2 p-n heterojunction diodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Jae-Keun; Cho, Kyungjune; Kim, Tae-Young; Pak, Jinsu; Jang, Jingon; Song, Younggul; Kim, Youngrok; Choi, Barbara Yuri; Chung, Seungjun; Hong, Woong-Ki; Lee, Takhee</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We investigated the trap-mediated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of pentacene/molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) p-n heterojunction devices. We observed that the hybrid p-n heterojunctions were gate-tunable and were strongly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by trap-assisted tunnelling through the van der Waals gap at the heterojunction interfaces between MoS2 and pentacene. The pentacene/MoS2 p-n heterojunction diodes had gate-tunable high ideality factor, which resulted from trap-mediated conduction nature of devices. From the temperature-variable current-voltage measurement, a space-charge-limited conduction and a variable range hopping conduction at a low temperature were suggested as the gate-tunable charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics of these hybrid p-n heterojunctions. Our study provides a better understanding of the trap-mediated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in organic/2-dimensional material hybrid heterojunction devices. PMID:27829663</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.488a2047P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhCS.488a2047P"><span>Kinetic Phenomena in <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of <span class="hlt">Electrons</span> and Positrons in Gases caused by the Properties of Scattering Cross Sections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petrović, Zoran Lj; Marjanović, Srdan; Dujko, Saša; Banković, Ana; Šašić, Olivera; Bošnjaković, Danko; Stojanović, Vladimir; Malović, Gordana; Buckman, Stephen; Garcia, Gustavo; White, Ron; Sullivan, James; Brunger, Michael</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Collisions of <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, atoms, molecules, photons and ions are the basic processes in plasmas and ionized gases in general. This is especially valid for low temperature collisional plasmas. Kinetic phenomena in <span class="hlt">transport</span> are very sensitivitive to the shape of the cross sections and may at the same time <span class="hlt">affect</span> the macroscopic applications. We will show how <span class="hlt">transport</span> theory or simulation codes, phenomenology, kinetic phenomena and <span class="hlt">transport</span> data may be used to improve our knowledge of the cross sections, our understanding of the plasma models, application of the swarm physics in ionized gases and similar applications to model and improve gas filled traps of positrons. Swarm techniques could also be a starting point in applying atomic and molecular data in models of <span class="hlt">electron</span> or positron therapy/diagnostics in radiation related medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1096262','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1096262"><span>Modeling <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the presence of electric and magnetic fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fan, Wesley C.; Drumm, Clifton Russell; Pautz, Shawn D.; Turner, C. David</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>This report describes the theoretical background on modeling <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the presence of electric and magnetic fields by incorporating the effects of the Lorentz force on <span class="hlt">electron</span> motion into the Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span> equation. Electromagnetic fields alter the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy and trajectory continuously, and these effects can be characterized mathematically by differential operators in terms of <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy and direction. Numerical solution techniques, based on the discrete-ordinates and finite-element methods, are developed and implemented in an existing radiation <span class="hlt">transport</span> code, SCEPTRE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080544','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080544"><span>Oocyte aging-induced Neuronatin (NNAT) hypermethylation <span class="hlt">affects</span> oocyte quality by impairing glucose <span class="hlt">transport</span> in porcine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gao, Ying-Ying; Chen, Li; Wang, Tao; Nie, Zheng-Wen; Zhang, Xia; Miao, Yi-Liang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>DNA methylation plays important roles in regulating many physiological behaviors; however, few studies were focused on the changes of DNA methylation during oocyte aging. Early studies showed that some imprinted genes’ DNA methylation had been changed in aged mouse oocytes. In this study, we used porcine oocytes to test the hypothesis that oocyte aging would alter DNA methylation pattern of genes and disturb their expression in age oocytes, which <span class="hlt">affected</span> the developmental potential of oocytes. We compared several different types of genes and found that the expression and DNA methylation of Neuronatin (NNAT) were disturbed in aged oocytes significantly. Additional experiments demonstrated that glucose <span class="hlt">transport</span> was impaired in aged oocytes and injection of NNAT antibody into fresh oocytes led to the same effects on glucose <span class="hlt">transport</span>. These results suggest that the expression of NNAT was declined by elevating DNA methylation, which <span class="hlt">affected</span> oocyte quality by decreasing the ability of glucose <span class="hlt">transport</span> in aged oocytes. PMID:27782163</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/946455','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/946455"><span><span class="hlt">Electrons</span> in a positive-ion beam with solenoid or quadrupole magnetic <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Molvik, A.W.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Cohen, R.; Coleman, J.; Sharp, W.; Bieniosek, F.; Friedman, A.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.; Lund, S.M.; Faltens, A.; Vay, J.L.; Prost, L.</p> <p>2007-06-04</p> <p>The High Current Experiment (HCX) is used to study beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> and accumulation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in quadrupole magnets and the Neutralized Drift-Compression Experiment (NDCX) to study beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> through and accumulation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in magnetic solenoids. We find that both clearing and suppressor electrodes perform as intended, enabling <span class="hlt">electron</span> cloud densities to be minimized. Then, the measured beam envelopes in both quadrupoles and solenoids agree with simulations, indicating that theoretical beam current <span class="hlt">transport</span> limits are reliable, in the absence of <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. At the other extreme, reversing electrode biases with the solenoid <span class="hlt">transport</span> effectively traps <span class="hlt">electrons</span>; or, in quadrupole magnets, grounding the suppressor electrode allows <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission from the end wall to flood the beam, in both cases producing significant degradation in the beam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/919961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/919961"><span><span class="hlt">Electrons</span> in a Positive-Ion Beam with Solenoid or Quadrupole Magnet <span class="hlt">Transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Molvik, A W; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Covo, M K; Lund, S M; Sharp, W M; Seidl, P A; Bieniosek, F M; Coleman, J E; Faltens, A; Roy, P K; Vay, J L; Prost, L</p> <p>2007-06-01</p> <p>The High Current Experiment (HCX) is used to study beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> and accumulation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in quadrupole magnets and the Neutralized Drift-Compression Experiment (NDCX) to study beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> through and accumulation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in magnetic solenoids. We find that both clearing and suppressor electrodes perform as intended, enabling <span class="hlt">electron</span> cloud densities to be minimized. Then, the measured beam envelopes in both quadrupoles and solenoids agree with simulations, indicating that theoretical beam current <span class="hlt">transport</span> limits are reliable, in the absence of <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. At the other extreme, reversing electrode biases with the solenoid <span class="hlt">transport</span> effectively traps <span class="hlt">electrons</span>; or, in quadrupole magnets, grounding the suppressor electrode allows <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission from the end wall to flood the beam, in both cases producing significant degradation in the beam.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23698325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23698325"><span>Stepping stones in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from cells to electrodes in Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonanni, Pablo Sebastián; Massazza, Diego; Busalmen, Juan Pablo</p> <p>2013-07-07</p> <p>Geobacter sulfurreducens bacteria grow on biofilms and have the particular ability of using polarized electrodes as the final <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptor of their respiratory chain. In these biofilms, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are <span class="hlt">transported</span> through distances of more than 50 μm before reaching the electrode. The way in which <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are <span class="hlt">transported</span> across the biofilm matrix through such large distances remains under intense discussion. None of the two mechanisms proposed for explaining the process, <span class="hlt">electron</span> hopping through outer membrane cytochromes and metallic like conduction through conductive PilA filaments, can account for all the experimental evidence collected so far. Aiming at providing new elements for understanding the basis for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, in this perspective article we present a modelled structure of Geobacter pilus. Its analysis in combination with already existing experimental evidence gives support to the proposal of the "stepping stone" mechanism, in which the combined action of pili and cytochromes allows long range <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the biofilm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPT10020T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPT10020T"><span>Comparison of the nonlocal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> phenomenon between LHD and TFTR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tamura, Naoki; Fredrickson, Eric; Inagaki, Shigeru; Ida, Katsumi; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Tokuzawa, Tokihiko; Itoh, Kimitaka; Nagayama, Yoshio; Yamada, Hiroshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro; LHD Team</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>In order to gain a predictive capability to achieve high-performance fusion plasmas, a better understanding of <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> in magnetically confined plasmas is highly required. Although recent experiments and simulations in the fusion research have revealed important characteristics of <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span>, there still are a number of outstanding issues in <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> such as nonlocality, which is defined as an instant interaction of <span class="hlt">transport</span> at between distant locations. The nonlocality in <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> is believed to be particularly prominent in a so-called nonlocal <span class="hlt">transport</span> phenomenon, a sudden jump in core <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature right after an edge cooling, which has been firstly discovered in tokamak and recently done in helical device, the Large Helical Device (LHD). Experimental results obtained in the LHD provided new insights on the nonlocal <span class="hlt">transport</span> phenomenon. In this contribution, we will discuss and compare the nonlocal <span class="hlt">transport</span> phenomena observed in LHD and TFTR with analysis techniques developed for the LHD, which will provide a clearer understanding on the nonlocality in <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span>. This work is supported by Japan/U.S. Cooperation in Fusion Research and Development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22037505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22037505"><span>Connexin-deficiency <span class="hlt">affects</span> expression levels of glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transporters</span> within the cerebrum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Unger, Tina; Bette, Stefanie; Zhang, Jiong; Theis, Martin; Engele, Jürgen</p> <p>2012-01-06</p> <p>The glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transporter</span> subtypes, GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1 clear the bulk of extracellular glutamate and are severely dysregulated in various acute and chronic brain diseases. Despite the previous identification of several extracellular factors modulating glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transporter</span> expression, our knowledge of the regulatory network controlling glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transport</span> in health and disease still remains incomplete. In studies with cultured cortical astrocytes, we previously obtained evidence that glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transporter</span> expression is also <span class="hlt">affected</span> by gap junctions/connexins. To assess whether gap junctions would likewise control the in vivo expression of glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transporters</span>, we have now assessed their expression levels in brains of conditional Cx43 knockout mice, total Cx30 knockouts, as well as Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts. We found that either knocking out Cx30, Cx43, or both increases GLT-1/EAAT-2 protein levels in the cerebral cortex to a similar extent. By contrast, GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels maximally increased in cerebral cortices of Cx30/Cx43 double knockouts, implying that gap junctions differentially <span class="hlt">affect</span> the expression of GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1. Quantitative PCR analysis further revealed that increases in glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transporter</span> expression are brought about by transcriptional and translational/posttranslational processes. Moreover, GLT-1/EAAT-2- and GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels remained unchanged in the hippocampi of Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts when compared to Cx43fl/fl controls, indicating brain region-specific effects of gap junctions on glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Since astrocytic gap junction coupling is <span class="hlt">affected</span> in various forms of brain injuries, our findings point to gap junctions/connexins as important regulators of glial glutamate turnover in the diseased cerebral cortex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015193','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015193"><span>DIRECT COMPARISON OF KINETIC AND LOCAL EQUILIBRIUM FORMULATIONS FOR SOLUTE <span class="hlt">TRANSPORT</span> <span class="hlt">AFFECTED</span> BY SURFACE REACTIONS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bahr, Jean M.; Rubin, Jacob</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Modeling <span class="hlt">transport</span> of reacting solutes in porous media often requires a choice between models based on the local equilibrium assumption (LEA) and models involving reaction kinetics. Direct comparison of the mathematical formulations for these two types of <span class="hlt">transport</span> models can aid in this choice. For cases of <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> by surface reaction, such a comparison is made possible by a new derivation procedure. This procedure yields a kinetics-based formulation that is the sum of the LEA formulation and one or more kinetically influenced terms. The dimensionless form of the new kinetics-based formulation facilitates identification of critical parameter groupings which control the approach to <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior consistent with LEA model predictions. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate that criteria for LEA applicability can be expressed conveniently in terms of these parameter groupings. The derivation procedure is demonstrated for examples of surface reactions including first-order reversible sorption, Langmuir-type kinetics and binary, homovalent ion exchange.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20825034','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20825034"><span>[Vertical <span class="hlt">transporting</span> risk of nitrogen in purple soil <span class="hlt">affected</span> by surfactant].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Yu-cheng; Yang, Zhi-min; Jiang, Ling; Chen, Qing-hu; Gao, Meng</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>The simulated leaching experiment was conducted to determine the effects of surfactant of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS) on vertical <span class="hlt">transporting</span> of nitrogen in purple soil. SDBS could reduce NH4+ -N loss from soil, and the higher concentration of SDBS, the less loss. SDBS could increase NO3- -N loss from soil, and the order of accumulation loss is SDBS100 > SDBS40 > SDBS0 > SDBS5. Lower concentration SDBS decrease TKN loss, but higher concentration SDBS had a reverse effect, and compared with SDBS0, the accumulation loss TKN of SDBS40, SDBS100 increased by 16.8%, 22.36%, respectively. SDBS could <span class="hlt">affect</span> vertical <span class="hlt">transporting</span> of nitrogen in purple soil, that is, the significant down-<span class="hlt">transporting</span> of nitrogen was observed after leaching with SDBS, and the higher concentration of SDBS, the more obviously <span class="hlt">transporting</span> trend.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPCM...23e5501S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPCM...23e5501S"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and Goos-Hänchen shift in graphene with electric and magnetic barriers: optical analogy and band structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sharma, Manish; Ghosh, Sankalpa</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of massless Dirac fermions in graphene monolayers is analysed in the presence of a combination of singular magnetic barriers and applied electrostatic potential. Extending a recently proposed (Ghosh and Sharma 2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 292204) analogy between the transmission of light through a medium with modulated refractive index and <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission in graphene through singular magnetic barriers to the present case, we find the addition of a scalar potential profoundly changes the transmission. We calculate the quantum version of the Goos-Hänchen shift that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> wave suffers upon being totally reflected by such barriers. The combined electric and magnetic barriers substantially modify the band structure near the Dirac point. This <span class="hlt">affects</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> near the Dirac point significantly and has important consequences for graphene-based <span class="hlt">electronics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406909','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21406909"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and Goos-Hänchen shift in graphene with electric and magnetic barriers: optical analogy and band structure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, Manish; Ghosh, Sankalpa</p> <p>2011-02-09</p> <p><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of massless Dirac fermions in graphene monolayers is analysed in the presence of a combination of singular magnetic barriers and applied electrostatic potential. Extending a recently proposed (Ghosh and Sharma 2009 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 21 292204) analogy between the transmission of light through a medium with modulated refractive index and <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission in graphene through singular magnetic barriers to the present case, we find the addition of a scalar potential profoundly changes the transmission. We calculate the quantum version of the Goos-Hänchen shift that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> wave suffers upon being totally reflected by such barriers. The combined electric and magnetic barriers substantially modify the band structure near the Dirac point. This <span class="hlt">affects</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> near the Dirac point significantly and has important consequences for graphene-based <span class="hlt">electronics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95k5416S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvB..95k5416S"><span>Landauer-Büttiker approach for hyperfine mediated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the integer quantum Hall regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singha, Aniket; Fauzi, M. H.; Hirayama, Y.; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>The interplay of spin-polarized <span class="hlt">electronic</span> edge states with the dynamics of the host nuclei in quantum Hall systems presents rich and nontrivial <span class="hlt">transport</span> physics. Here, we develop a Landauer-Büttiker approach to understand various experimental features observed in the integer quantum Hall setups featuring quantum point contacts. The approach developed here entails a phenomenological description of spin-resolved interedge scattering induced via hyperfine assisted <span class="hlt">electron</span>-nuclear spin flip-flop processes. A self-consistent simulation framework between the nuclear spin dynamics and edge state <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is presented in order to gain crucial insights into the dynamic nuclear polarization effects on <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and in turn the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-spin polarization effects on the nuclear spin dynamics. In particular, we show that the hysteresis noted experimentally in the conductance-voltage trace as well as in the resistively detected NMR line-shape results from a lack of quasiequilibrium between <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and nuclear polarization evolution. In addition, we present circuit models to emulate such hyperfine mediated <span class="hlt">transport</span> effects to further facilitate a clear understanding of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes occurring around the quantum point contact. Finally, we extend our model to account for the effects of quadrupolar splitting of nuclear levels and also depict the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> signatures that arise from single and multiphoton processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811113','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811113"><span>Decreased vesicular monoamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span> 2 (VMAT2) and dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span> (DAT) function in knockout mice <span class="hlt">affects</span> aging of dopaminergic systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hall, F. S.; Itokawa, K.; Schmitt, A.; Moessner, R.; Sora, I.; Lesch, K. P.; Uhl, G. R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dopamine (DA) is accumulated and compartmentalized by the dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span> (DAT; SLC3A6) and the vesicular monoamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span> 2 (VMAT2; SLC18A2). These <span class="hlt">transporters</span> work at the plasma and vesicular membranes of dopaminergic neurons, respectively, and thus regulate levels of DA in neuronal compartments that include the extravesicular cytoplasmic compartment. DA in this compartment has been hypothesized to contribute to oxidative damage that can reduce the function of dopaminergic neurons in aging brains and may contribute to reductions in dopaminergic neurochemical markers, locomotor behavior and responses to dopaminergic drugs that are found in aged animals. The studies reported here examined aged mice with heterozygous deletions of VMAT2 or of DAT, which each reduce <span class="hlt">transporter</span> expression to about 50% of levels found in wild-type (WT) mice. Aged mice displayed reduced locomotor responses under a variety of circumstances, including in response to locomotor stimulants, as well as changes in monoamine levels and metabolites in a regionally dependent manner. Several effects of aging were more pronounced in heterozygous VMAT2 knockout (KO) mice, including aging induced reductions in locomotion and reduced locomotor responses to cocaine. By contrast, some effects of aging were reduced or not observed in heterozygous DAT KO mice. These findings support the idea that altered DAT and VMAT2 expression <span class="hlt">affect</span> age-related changes in dopaminergic function. These effects are most likely mediated by alterations in DA compartmentalization, and might be hypothesized to be more exacerbated by other factors that <span class="hlt">affect</span> the metabolism of cytosolic DA. PMID:23978383</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27420809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27420809"><span>Competition of static magnetic and dynamic photon forces in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a quantum dot.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rauf Abdullah, Nzar; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar</p> <p>2016-09-21</p> <p>We investigate theoretically the balance of the static magnetic and the dynamical photon forces in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a quantum dot in a photon cavity with a single photon mode. The quantum dot system is connected to external leads and the total system is exposed to a static perpendicular magnetic field. We explore the <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics through the system by tuning the ratio, [Formula: see text], between the photon energy, [Formula: see text], and the cyclotron energy, [Formula: see text]. Enhancement in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> with increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon coupling is observed when [Formula: see text]. In this case the photon field dominates and stretches the <span class="hlt">electron</span> charge distribution in the quantum dot, extending it towards the contact area for the leads. Suppression in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is found when [Formula: see text], as the external magnetic field causes circular confinement of the charge density around the dot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4538862','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4538862"><span>Mode-selective vibrational modulation of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> in organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bakulin, Artem A.; Lovrincic, Robert; Yu, Xi; Selig, Oleg; Bakker, Huib J.; Rezus, Yves L. A.; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Fonari, Alexandr; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Cahen, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular, nuclear and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> dynamics. This coupling opens the way to influence charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> in organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices by exciting molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such approach has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be modulated by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1,500–1,700 cm−1 region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations <span class="hlt">affect</span> predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular <span class="hlt">electronic</span> couplings. This presents a new tool for studying electron–phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials. PMID:26246039</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209364"><span>Psychostimulants <span class="hlt">affect</span> dopamine transmission through both dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-dependent and independent mechanisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing</p> <p>2015-10-05</p> <p>The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-mediated reverse <span class="hlt">transport</span> and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>, non-dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further <span class="hlt">affect</span> the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218299','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218299"><span>The effect of <span class="hlt">electron</span> induced hydrogenation of graphene on its electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Woo, Sung Oh; Teizer, Winfried</p> <p>2013-07-22</p> <p>We report a deterioration of the electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a graphene field effect transistor due to energetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> irradiation on a stack of Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) on graphene (PMMA/graphene bilayer). Prior to <span class="hlt">electron</span> irradiation, we observed that the PMMA layer on graphene does not deteriorate the carrier <span class="hlt">transport</span> of graphene but improves its electrical properties instead. As a result of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> irradiation on the PMMA/graphene bilayer, the Raman “D” band appears after removal of PMMA. We argue that the degradation of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior originates from the binding of hydrogen generated during the PMMA backbone secession process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021284&hterms=solar+energy+you&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy%2Byou','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021284&hterms=solar+energy+you&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dsolar%2Benergy%2Byou"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the solar wind: Ulysses observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scime, Earl; Gary, S. Peter; Phillips, J. L.; Corniileau-Wehrlin, N.; Solomon, J.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux in the solar wind has been measured by the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment in the ecliptic from 1 to 5 AU and out of the ecliptic during the recently completed pass over the solar south pole and the ongoing pass over the solar north pole. Although the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux contains only a fraction of the kinetic energy of the solar wind. the available energy is sufficient to account for the non-adiabatic expansion of the solar wind <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. The Ulysses measurements indicate that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux is actively dissipated in the solar wind. The exact mechanism or mechanisms is unknown. but a model based on the whistler heat flux instability predicts radial gradients for the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux in good agreement with the data. We will present measurements of the correlation between wave activity measured by the unified radio and plasma experiment (URAP) and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux throughout the Ulysses mission. The goal is to determine if whistler waves are a good candidate for the observed <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux dissipation. The latitudinal gradients of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux. wave activity. and <span class="hlt">electron</span> pressure will be discussed in light of the changes in the magnetic field geometry from equator to poles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412279V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412279V"><span>Probabilities of adverse weather <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Europe: climatology and scenarios up to the 2050s</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vajda, A.; Tuomenvirta, H.; Jokinen, P.; Luomaranta, A.; Makkonen, L.; Tikanmäki, M.; Groenemeijer, P.; Saarikivi, P.; Michaelides, S.; Papadakis, M.; Tymvios, F.; Athanasatos, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>This paper provides the first comprehensive climatology of the adverse and extreme weather events <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the European <span class="hlt">transport</span> system by estimating the frequency (or probability) of phenomena for the present climate (1971-2000) and an overview of the projected changes in some of these extremes in the future climate until the 2050s. The research was carried out within the framework of the EWENT Project that addresses the European Union (EU) policies and strategies related to climate change, with a particular focus on extreme weather impacts on the EU <span class="hlt">transportation</span> system. This project is funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (<span class="hlt">Transports</span>, call ID FPT7-TPT-2008-RTD-1). The analyzed phenomena are wind, snow, blizzards, heavy precipitation, cold spells and heat waves. In addition, reduced visibility conditions determined by fog and dust events, small-scale phenomena <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the <span class="hlt">transport</span> system, such as thunderstorms, lightning, large hail and tornadoes and events damaging infrastructure of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> system, have been considered. Frequency and probability analysis of past and present ex¬tremes were performed using observational and atmospheric reanalysis data. Future changes in the probability of severe events were assessed based on six regional climate model simulations produced in the FP6 ENSEMBLES project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). To facilitate the assessment of impacts and consequences of extreme phenomena on a continental level, the WP2 Deliverable introduces a regionalization of the European extreme phenomena, defining the climate zones with similarities in extreme phenomena. The projected changes as well as large natural variability in weather extremes on the <span class="hlt">transportation</span> network will have impacts of both signs. The decline of extreme cold and snowfall over most of the continent implies a positive impact on road, rail, inland water and air <span class="hlt">transportation</span>, e.g., by reducing snow removal. However, even with a general decreasing trend in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPA....7a5029V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPA....7a5029V"><span>Alloy disorder modulated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at MgxZn1-xO/ZnO heterointerface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vishnuradhan, Aswin; Kozuka, Y.; Uchida, M.; Falson, J.; Tsukazaki, A.; Kawasaki, M.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>High-mobility <span class="hlt">electron</span> systems in two dimensions have been the platform for realizing many fascinating quantum phenomena at low temperatures. Continuous demand to improve the sample quality has necessitated the investigations of various disorders influencing the quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Here, we study the effect of short-ranged alloy disorder on the scattering of two-dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> system in MgxZn1-xO/ZnO. For this purpose, we employ a modified interface profile consisting of Mg0.01Zn0.99O/ZnO with a thin (2nm) MgxZn1-xO interlayer with x ranging from 0.005 to 0.4. This interlayer design allows us to investigate scattering mechanisms at a nearly constant carrier density as the interlayer is found not to significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> the carrier density but enhance alloy disorder. While the <span class="hlt">transport</span> scattering time (τtr) shows a strong correlation with x, the quantum scattering time (τq) remains insensitive to x. The large variation in the τtr/τq ratio (from 16.2 to 1.5 corresponding to x from 0.005 to 0.4) implies a change in the dominant scattering mechanism from long range towards short range with increasing x. The insensitivity of τq on x indicates the scattering rate is not dominated by the alloy disorder. This implies that other scattering mechanisms, likely unintentional background impurities or remote surface disorders, are dominant in limiting τq, and therefore providing a prospect for pursuing ever higher levels in the quality of the two-dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> system in MgxZn1-xO/ZnO system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22285428','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22285428"><span>Tumor cell death induced by the inhibition of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>: The effect of 3-hydroxybakuchiol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jaña, Fabián; Faini, Francesca; Lapier, Michel; Pavani, Mario; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Morello, Antonio; Maya, Juan Diego; Jara, José; Parra, Eduardo; Ferreira, Jorge</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>Changes in mitochondrial ATP synthesis can <span class="hlt">affect</span> the function of tumor cells due to the dependence of the first step of glycolysis on mitochondrial ATP. The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system is responsible for the synthesis of approximately 90% of the ATP in normal cells and up to 50% in most glycolytic cancers; therefore, inhibition of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain (ETC) emerges as an attractive therapeutic target. We studied the effect of a lipophilic isoprenylated catechol, 3-hydroxybakuchiol (3-OHbk), a putative ETC inhibitor isolated from Psoralea glandulosa. 3-OHbk exerted cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects on the TA3/Ha mouse mammary adenocarcinoma cell line and induced a decrease in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, the activation of caspase-3, the opening of the mitochondrial permeability <span class="hlt">transport</span> pore (MPTP) and nuclear DNA fragmentation. Additionally, 3-OHbk inhibited oxygen consumption, an effect that was completely reversed by succinate (an <span class="hlt">electron</span> donor for Complex II) and duroquinol (<span class="hlt">electron</span> donor for Complex III), suggesting that 3-OHbk disrupted the <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow at the level of Complex I. The inhibition of OXPHOS did not increase the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but caused a large decrease in the intracellular ATP level. ETC inhibitors have been shown to induce cell death through necrosis and apoptosis by increasing ROS generation. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that 3-OHbk inhibited the ETC and induced apoptosis through an interaction with Complex I. By delivering <span class="hlt">electrons</span> directly to Complex III with duroquinol, cell death was almost completely abrogated. These results suggest that 3-OHbk has antitumor activity resulting from interactions with the ETC, a system that is already deficient in cancer cells. - Highlights: • We studied the anticancer activity of a natural compound, 3-OHbk, on TA3/Ha cells. • 3-OHbk inhibited mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow by interacting with Complex I. • Complex I inhibition did</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoPhC.203..268R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoPhC.203..268R"><span>METHES: A Monte Carlo collision code for the simulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in low temperature plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabie, M.; Franck, C. M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We present a freely available MATLAB code for the simulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in arbitrary gas mixtures in the presence of uniform electric fields. For steady-state <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the program provides the <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients, reaction rates and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy distribution function. The program uses established Monte Carlo techniques and is compatible with the <span class="hlt">electron</span> scattering cross section files from the open-access Plasma Data Exchange Project LXCat. The code is written in object-oriented design, allowing the tracing and visualization of the spatiotemporal evolution of <span class="hlt">electron</span> swarms and the temporal development of the mean energy and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> number due to attachment and/or ionization processes. We benchmark our code with well-known model gases as well as the real gases argon, N2, O2, CF4, SF6 and mixtures of N2 and O2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AIPC..355..487C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996AIPC..355..487C"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> ripple injection concept for tokamak <span class="hlt">transport</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choe, W.; Ono, M.; Chang, C. S.</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>A non-intrusive method for inducing a radial electric field (Er) based on <span class="hlt">electron</span> ripple injection (ERI) is under development by the Princeton CDX-U group. Since Er is known to play an important role in the L-H and H-VH mode transition, it is therefore important to develop a non-intrusive tool to control the Er profile in tokamak plasmas. The present technique utilizes externally-applied local magnetic ripple fields to trap <span class="hlt">electrons</span> at the edge, allowing them to penetrate towards the plasma center via ∇B and curvature drifts, causing the flux surfaces to charge up negatively. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) is utilized to increase the trapped population and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> drift velocity by raising the perpendicular energy of trapped <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. The temperature anisotropy of resonant <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in a tokamak plasma is calculated in order to investigate effects of ECRH on <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Simulations using a guiding-center orbit model have been performed to understand the behavior of suprathermal <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the presence of ripple fields. Examples for CDX-U and ITER are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415692','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415692"><span>Communication: Microsecond dynamics of the protein and water <span class="hlt">affect</span> <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer in a bacterial bc{sub 1} complex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.</p> <p>2015-04-28</p> <p>Cross-membrane <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> between cofactors localized in proteins of mitochondrial respiration and bacterial photosynthesis is the source of all biological energy. The statistics and dynamics of nuclear fluctuations in these protein/membrane/water heterogeneous systems are critical for their energetic efficiency. The results of 13 μs of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-bound bc{sub 1} bacterial complex are analyzed here. The reaction is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by a broad spectrum of nuclear modes, with the slowest dynamics in the range of time-scales ∼0.1-1.6 μs contributing half of the reaction reorganization energy. Two reorganization energies are required to describe protein <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer due to dynamical arrest of protein conformations on the observation window. This mechanistic distinction allows significant lowering of activation barriers for reactions in proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvB..82h5435I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvB..82h5435I"><span>Order- N <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations from ballistic to diffusive regimes by a time-dependent wave-packet diffusion method: Application to <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of carbon nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Hirose, Kenji</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We present an order- N [O(N)] calculation method for the quantum <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of huge systems up to 80 million atoms. Based on the linear-response Kubo-Greenwood formula, we calculate the conductance through time-dependent diffusion coefficients using the time-dependent wave-packet diffusion approach, which treats the <span class="hlt">electron</span> wave-packet motion with an O(N) and very high-speed calculation. Combining with molecular-dynamics simulations, we can study the temperature dependence of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of materials from atomistic viewpoints from ballistic to diffusive regimes. We apply the present calculation method to <span class="hlt">transport</span> of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with various lengths at various temperatures. In metallic CNTs, the mean-free paths are in good agreements with recent experiments, which reach about 500 nm at room temperature and increase up to several micrometers at low temperature. We find that the resistance increases almost linearly with temperature and takes larger values than expected in the quasiballistic regime. In semiconducting CNTs, the mobilities are <span class="hlt">affected</span> strongly by the contacts with metallic electrodes through Schottky barriers. The mobilities are maximally 30000cm2/Vs and cut-off frequencies of 300 GHz at room temperature. These calculated results provide useful information to the design of CNT field-effect-transistor devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5988U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5988U"><span>Soil water repellency <span class="hlt">affects</span> production and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of CO2 and CH4 in soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Soil moisture is known to be vital in controlling both the production and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of C gases in soil. Water availability regulates the decomposition rates of soil organic matter by the microorganisms, while the proportion of water/air filled pores controls the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of gases within the soil and at the soil-atmosphere interface. Many experimental studies and process models looking at soil C gas fluxes assume that soil water is uniformly distributed and soil is easily wettable. Most soils, however, exhibit some degree of soil water repellency (i.e. hydrophobicity) and do not wet spontaneously when dry or moderately moist. They have restricted infiltration and conductivity of water, which also results in extremely heterogeneous soil water distribution. This is a world-wide occurring phenomenon which is particularly common under permanent vegetation e.g. forest, grass and shrub vegetation. This study investigates the effect of soil water repellency on microbial respiration, CO2 <span class="hlt">transport</span> within the soil and C gas fluxes between the soil and the atmosphere. The results from the field monitoring and laboratory experiments show that soil water repellency results in non-uniform water distribution in the soil which <span class="hlt">affects</span> the CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only <span class="hlt">affects</span> the water relations in the soil, but has also a great impact on greenhouse gas production and <span class="hlt">transport</span> and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20698372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20698372"><span>Effect of <span class="hlt">electron</span> collisions on <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients induced by the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bendib, A.; Tahraoui, A.; Bendib, K.; Mohammed El Hadj, K.; Hueller, S.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients of fully ionized plasmas under the influence of a high-frequency electric field are derived solving numerically the <span class="hlt">electron</span> Fokker-Planck equation using a perturbation method, parametrized as a function of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> mean-free-path {lambda}{sub ei} compared to the spatial scales L. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions of the inverse bremsstrahlung heating are considered. <span class="hlt">Electron-electron</span> collision terms are kept in the analysis, which allows us to consider with sufficient accuracy to describe plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. Practical numerical fits of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients are proposed as functions of Z and the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22665642','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22665642"><span>Factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> body weight loss during commercial long haul <span class="hlt">transport</span> of cattle in North America.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>González, L A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Bryan, M; Silasi, R; Brown, F</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify several factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> shrink in cattle during commercial long-haul <span class="hlt">transport</span> (≥400 km; n = 6,152 journeys). Surveys were designed and delivered to <span class="hlt">transport</span> carriers to collect relevant information regarding the characteristics of animals, time of loading, origin and destination, and loaded weight before and after <span class="hlt">transport</span>. In contrast to fat cattle, feeder cattle exhibited greater shrink (4.9 vs. 7.9 ± 0.2% of BW, respectively; P < 0.01), and experienced longer total <span class="hlt">transport</span> durations (12.4 vs. 14.9 ± 0.99, respectively; P < 0.01) due to border crossing protocols which require mandatory animal inspection. Shrink was greater (P < 0.001) for feeder cattle loaded at ranches/farms and feed yards compared with those loaded at auction markets. Cattle loaded during the afternoon and evening shrank more than those loaded during the night and morning (P < 0.05). Shrinkage was less in cattle <span class="hlt">transported</span> by truck drivers having 6 or more years of experience hauling livestock compared with those with 5 yr or less (P < 0.05). Shrink increased with both midpoint ambient temperature (% of BW/°C; P < 0.001) and time on truck (% of BW/h; P < 0.001). Temperature and time on truck had a multiplicative effect on each other because shrink increased most rapidly in cattle <span class="hlt">transported</span> for both longer durations and at higher ambient temperatures (P < 0.001). The rate of shrink over time (% of BW/h) was greatest in cull cattle, intermediate in calves and feeder cattle, and slowest in fat cattle (P < 0.05) but such differences disappeared when the effects of place of origin, loading time, and experience of truck drivers were included in the model. Cull cattle, calves and feeder cattle appear to be more <span class="hlt">affected</span> by <span class="hlt">transport</span> compared with fat cattle going to slaughter because of greater shrink. Several factors should be considered when developing guidelines to reduce cattle <span class="hlt">transport</span> stress and shrink including type</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title41-vol3-sec102-118-80.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title41-vol3-sec102-118-80.pdf"><span>41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> and <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title41-vol3-sec102-118-80.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title41-vol3-sec102-118-80.pdf"><span>41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> and <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title41-vol3-sec102-118-80.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title41-vol3-sec102-118-80.pdf"><span>41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> and <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title41-vol3-sec102-118-80.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title41-vol3-sec102-118-80.pdf"><span>41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> and <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004CP....299...89V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004CP....299...89V"><span>Correlating substituent parameter values to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vedova-Brook, Natalie; Matsunaga, Nikita; Sohlberg, Karl</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>There are a vast number of organic compounds that could be considered for use in molecular <span class="hlt">electronics</span>. Because of this, the need for efficient and economical screening tools has emerged. We demonstrate that the substituent parameter values ( σ), commonly found in advanced organic chemistry textbooks, correlate strongly with features of the charge migration process, establishing them as useful indicators of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties. Specifically, we report that ab initio derived <span class="hlt">electronic</span> charge transfer values for 16 different substituted aromatic molecules for molecular junctions correlate to the σ values with a correlation coefficient squared ( R2) of 0.863.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA638603','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA638603"><span>Temperature Dependent <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Studies for Diffuse Discharge Switching Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-06-01</p> <p>of <e>, k (<e >), for C2F6 and C3F8 at gas temperature up to 7!fu K. These results may be used to under stand the influence of elevated gas...of k (<&>) have also been performed in c3F8 as a functionaof gas temperature up to 750 R in Ar buffer gas (over the mean <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy range 0.76...dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> attachment pro- cesses are negligible indicating that <span class="hlt">electron</span> attachment to C3F8 at t hese t emperatures i s predomi- nantly dissociati</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490743','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490743"><span>Color stable white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with red emissive <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wook Kim, Jin; Yoo, Seung Il; Sung Kang, Jin; Eun Lee, Song; Kwan Kim, Young; Hwa Yu, Hyeong; Turak, Ayse; Young Kim, Woo</p> <p>2015-06-28</p> <p>We analyzed the performance of multi-emissive white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) in relation to various red emitting sites of hole and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layers (HTL and ETL). The shift of the recombination zone producing stable white emission in PHOLEDs was utilized as luminance was increased with red emission in its <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer. Multi-emissive white PHOLEDs including the red light emitting <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer yielded maximum external quantum efficiency of 17.4% with CIE color coordinates (−0.030, +0.001) shifting only from 1000 to 10 000 cd/m{sup 2}. Additionally, we observed a reduction of energy loss in the white PHOLED via Ir(piq){sub 3} as phosphorescent red dopant in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117x5503W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117x5503W"><span>Color stable white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with red emissive <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wook Kim, Jin; Yoo, Seung Il; Sung Kang, Jin; Eun Lee, Song; Kwan Kim, Young; Hwa Yu, Hyeong; Turak, Ayse; Young Kim, Woo</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We analyzed the performance of multi-emissive white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) in relation to various red emitting sites of hole and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layers (HTL and ETL). The shift of the recombination zone producing stable white emission in PHOLEDs was utilized as luminance was increased with red emission in its <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer. Multi-emissive white PHOLEDs including the red light emitting <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer yielded maximum external quantum efficiency of 17.4% with CIE color coordinates (-0.030, +0.001) shifting only from 1000 to 10 000 cd/m2. Additionally, we observed a reduction of energy loss in the white PHOLED via Ir(piq)3 as phosphorescent red dopant in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22495003','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22495003"><span>Decoupled <span class="hlt">electron</span> and phonon <span class="hlt">transports</span> in hexagonal boron nitride-silicene bilayer heterostructure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cai, Yongqing; Pei, Qing-Xiang E-mail: zhangg@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg; Zhang, Gang E-mail: zhangg@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg; Zhang, Yong-Wei</p> <p>2016-02-14</p> <p>Calculations based on the density functional theory and empirical molecular dynamics are performed to investigate interlayer interaction, <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure and thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> of a bilayer heterostructure consisting of silicene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In this heterostructure, the two layers are found to interact weakly via a non-covalent binding. As a result, the Dirac cone of silicene is preserved with the Dirac cone point being located exactly at the Fermi level, and only a small amount of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are transferred from h-BN to silicene, suggesting that silicene dominates the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Molecular dynamics calculation results demonstrate that the heat current along h-BN is six times of that along silicene, suggesting that h-BN dominates the thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span>. This decoupled role of h-BN and silicene in thermal and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> suggests that the BN-silicene bilayer heterostructure is promising for thermoelectric applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AnP...515..471S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AnP...515..471S"><span>Quasiclassical theory of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> in disordered interacting <span class="hlt">electron</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwab, P.; Raimondi, R.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>We consider the corrections to the Boltzmann theory of electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> arising from the Coulomb interaction in disordered conductors. In this article the theory is formulated in terms of quasiclassical Green's functions. We demonstrate that the formalism is equivalent to the conventional diagrammatic technique by deriving the well-known Altshuler-Aronov corrections to the conductivity. Compared to the conventional approach, the quasiclassical theory has the advantage of being closer to the Boltzmann theory, and also allows description of interaction effects in the <span class="hlt">transport</span> across interfaces, as well as non-equilibrium phenomena in the same theoretical framework. As an example, by applying the Zaitsev boundary conditions which were originally developed for superconductors, we obtain the P(E)-theory of the Coulomb blockade in tunnel junctions. Furthermore we summarize recent results obtained for the non-equilibrium <span class="hlt">transport</span> in thin films, wires and fully coherent conductors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21606447','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21606447"><span>Yeast culture supplement during nursing and <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affects</span> immunity and intestinal microbial ecology of weanling pigs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weedman, S M; Rostagno, M H; Patterson, J A; Yoon, I; Fitzner, G; Eicher, S D</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on innate immunity and intestinal microbial ecology after weaning and <span class="hlt">transport</span> stress. In a randomized complete block design, before weaning and in a split-plot analysis of a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of yeast culture (YY) and <span class="hlt">transport</span> (TT) after weaning, 3-d-old pigs (n = 108) were randomly assigned within litter (block) to either a control (NY, milk only) or yeast culture diet (YY; delivered in milk to provide 0.1 g of yeast culture product/kg of BW) from d 4 to 21. At weaning (d 21), randomly, one-half of the NY and YY pigs were assigned to a 6-h <span class="hlt">transport</span> (NY-TT and YY-TT) before being moved to nursery housing, and the other one-half were moved directly to nursery housing (NY-NT and YY-NT, where NT is no <span class="hlt">transport</span>). The yeast treatment was a 0.2% S. cerevisiae fermentation product and the control treatment was a 0.2% grain blank in feed for 2 wk. On d 1 before <span class="hlt">transport</span> and on d 1, 4, 7, and 14 after <span class="hlt">transport</span>, blood was collected for leukocyte assays, and mesenteric lymph node, jejunal, and ileal tissue, and jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents were collected for Toll-like receptor expression (TLR); enumeration of Escherichia coli, total coliforms, and lactobacilli; detection of Salmonella; and microbial analysis. After weaning, a yeast × <span class="hlt">transport</span> interaction for ADG was seen (P = 0.05). <span class="hlt">Transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> (P = 0.09) ADFI after weaning. Yeast treatment decreased hematocrit (P = 0.04). A yeast × <span class="hlt">transport</span> interaction was found for counts of white blood cells (P = 0.01) and neutrophils (P = 0.02) and for the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.02). Monocyte counts revealed a <span class="hlt">transport</span> (P = 0.01) effect. Interactions of yeast × <span class="hlt">transport</span> (P = 0.001) and yeast × <span class="hlt">transport</span> × day (P = 0.09) for TLR2 and yeast × <span class="hlt">transport</span> (P = 0.08) for TLR4 expression in the mesenteric lymph node were detected. Day <span class="hlt">affected</span> lactobacilli, total coliform, and E</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13O..05F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13O..05F"><span>Interacting Physical and Biological Processes <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Nutrient <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Through Human Dominated Landscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finlay, J. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Human activities increasingly dominate biogeochemical cycles of limiting nutrients on Earth. Urban and agricultural landscapes represent the largest sources of excess nutrients that drive water quality degradation. The physical structure of both urban and agricultural watersheds has been extensively modified, and these changes have large impacts on water and nutrient <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Despite strong physical controls over nutrient <span class="hlt">transport</span> in human dominated landscapes, biological processes play important roles in determining the fates of both nitrogen and phosphorus. This talk uses examples from research in urban and agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern USA to illustrate interactions of physical and biological controls over nutrient cycles that have shifted nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources and cycling in unexpected ways in response to management changes. In urban watersheds, efforts to improve water quality have been hindered by legacy sources of phosphorus added to storm water through <span class="hlt">transport</span> to drainage systems by vegetation. Similarly, reductions in field erosion in agricultural watersheds have not led to major reductions in phosphorus <span class="hlt">transport</span>, because of continued release of biological sources of P. Where management of phosphorus has been most effective in reducing eutrophication of lakes, decreases in N removal processes have led to long term increases in N concentration and <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Together, these examples show important roles for biological processes <span class="hlt">affecting</span> nutrient movement in highly modified landscapes. Consideration of the downstream physical and biological responses of management changes are thus critical toward identification of actions that will most effectively reduce excess nutrients watersheds and coastal zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1206544','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1206544"><span>Ultrafast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across nano gaps in nanowire circuits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Potma, Eric O.</p> <p>2015-07-31</p> <p>In this Program we aim for a closer look at <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer through single molecules. To achieve this, we use ultrafast laser pulses to time stamp an <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling event in a molecule that is connected between two metallic electrodes, while reading out the <span class="hlt">electron</span> current. A key aspect of this project is the use of metallic substrates with plasmonic activity to efficiently manipulate the tunneling probability. The first Phase of this program is concerned with developing highly sensitive tools for the ultrafast optical manipulation of tethered molecules through the evanescent surface field of plasmonic substrates. The second Phase of the program aims to use these tools for exercising control over the <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling probability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/828197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/828197"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> Cross-field <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in a Low Power Cylindrical Hall Thruster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch</p> <p>2004-06-24</p> <p>Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are therefore more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> cross-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level) has been studied through the analysis of experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations of <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics in the thruster channel. The numerical model takes into account elastic and inelastic <span class="hlt">electron</span> collisions with atoms, <span class="hlt">electron</span>-wall collisions, including secondary <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission, and Bohm diffusion. We show that in order to explain the observed discharge current, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> anomalous collision frequency {nu}{sub B} has to be on the order of the Bohm value, {nu}{sub B} {approx} {omega}{sub c}/16. The contribution of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-wall collisions to cross-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> is found to be insignificant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/9469"><span>The Role of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Trapping in MOS Total-Dose Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.; Riewe, L.C.; Flament, O.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.L.</p> <p>1999-07-19</p> <p>Radiation-induced hole and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and trapping are fundamental to MOS total-dose models. Here we separate the effects of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-hole annihilation and <span class="hlt">electron</span> trapping on the neutralization of radiation-induced charge during switched-bias irradiation for hard and soft oxides, via combined thermally stimulated current (TSC) and capacitance-voltage measurements. We also show that present total-dose models cannot account for the thermal stability of deeply trapped <span class="hlt">electrons</span> near the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface, or the inability of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in deep or shallow traps to contribute to TSC at positive bias following (1) room-temperature, (2) high-temperature, or (3) switched-bias irradiation. These results require revisions of modeling parameters and boundary conditions for hole and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in SiO{sub 2}. The nature of deep and shallow <span class="hlt">electron</span> traps in the near-interfacial SiO{sub 2} is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1061446','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1061446"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> Beam <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Advanced Plasma Wave Accelerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, Ronald L</p> <p>2013-01-31</p> <p>The primary goal of this grant was to develop a diagnostic for relativistic plasma wave accelerators based on injecting a low energy <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam (5-50keV) perpendicular to the plasma wave and observing the distortion of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam's cross section due to the plasma wave's electrostatic fields. The amount of distortion would be proportional to the plasma wave amplitude, and is the basis for the diagnostic. The beat-wave scheme for producing plasma waves, using two CO2 laser beam, was modeled using a leap-frog integration scheme to solve the equations of motion. Single <span class="hlt">electron</span> trajectories and corresponding phase space diagrams were generated in order to study and understand the details of the interaction dynamics. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam was simulated by combining thousands of single <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, whose initial positions and momenta were selected by random number generators. The model was extended by including the interactions of the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> with the CO2 laser fields of the beat wave, superimposed with the plasma wave fields. The results of the model were used to guide the design and construction of a small laboratory experiment that may be used to test the diagnostic idea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22269300','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22269300"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties with relativistic ponderomotive effect in two-<span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sen, Sonu Dubey, A.; Varshney, Meenu Asthana; Varshney, Dinesh</p> <p>2014-04-24</p> <p>In the present paper we make an analytical investigation to study <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties with relativistic ponderomotive effect in two-<span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature plasma. Using fluid model the two-<span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature are introduced through relativistic ponderomotive force for the <span class="hlt">transportation</span> of two species of <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Applying WKB and paraxial ray approximation the nonlinear dielectric constant and self-focusing equation is evaluated and analyzed with experimental relevance. Numerical calculations are made for different concentration of <span class="hlt">electron</span> density (10{sup 19}−10{sup 21} per cm{sup 3}) at arbitrary values of laser intensity in the range 10{sup 18}−10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}. For a minimum radius depending on the initial conditions it is oscillating between a minimum and maximum value. The hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> leading to the increase of the on-axis <span class="hlt">transportation</span> and favorable effect on relativistic self-focusing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EL....11167002B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EL....11167002B"><span>Effect of surface functionalization on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Ti3C2 MXene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berdiyorov, G. R.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The effects of surface functionalization on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the MXene compound Ti3C2 are studied using density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Fluorinated, oxidized and hydroxylated surfaces are considered and the obtained results are compared with the ones for the pristine MXene. It is found that the surface termination has a considerable impact on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in MXene. For example, the fluorinated sample shows the largest transmission, whereas surface oxidation results in a considerable reduction of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> transmission. The current in the former sample can be up to 4 times larger for a given bias voltage as compared to the case of bare MXene. The increased transmission originates from the extended <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states and smaller variations of the electrostatic potential profile. Our findings can be useful in designing MXene-based anode materials for energy storage applications, where enhanced <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> will be an asset.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020041462','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020041462"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of Space Environment <span class="hlt">Electrons</span>: A Simplified Rapid-Analysis Computational Procedure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nealy, John E.; Anderson, Brooke M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Katz, Robert; Chang, C. K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A computational procedure for describing <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in condensed media has been formulated for application to effects and exposures from spectral distributions typical of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> trapped in planetary magnetic fields. The procedure is based on earlier parameterizations established from numerous <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam experiments. New parameterizations have been derived that logically extend the domain of application to low molecular weight (high hydrogen content) materials and higher energies (approximately 50 MeV). The production and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of high energy photons (bremsstrahlung) generated in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes have also been modeled using tabulated values of photon production cross sections. A primary purpose for developing the procedure has been to provide a means for rapidly performing numerous repetitive calculations essential for <span class="hlt">electron</span> radiation exposure assessments for complex space structures. Several favorable comparisons have been made with previous calculations for typical space environment spectra, which have indicated that accuracy has not been substantially compromised at the expense of computational speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-09/pdf/2012-19584.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-09/pdf/2012-19584.pdf"><span>77 FR 47692 - Notice of <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services' Transition From Paper to <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> Fare Media Comments...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-08-09</p> <p>... Office of the Secretary of <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Notice of <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services' Transition From Paper to... transitioning, or have already transitioned, to <span class="hlt">electronic</span> fare media, compelling the shift from a paper based... participating Federal employees via a paper voucher process. In addition to a growing number of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10814822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10814822"><span>Plastid gene expression is not associated with midday depression in CO(2) assimilation and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Trivedi; Reddy; Sane</p> <p>2000-06-29</p> <p>To investigate the effect of diurnal variations on chloroplastic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> as well as accumulation of gene products associated with it, studies were carried out on Populus deltoides, a tree species. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> studies showed two peak responses as a large diurnal change with pronounced midday depression in whole chain (H(2)O--> MV) as well as partial reactions for PSII (H(2)O-->PBQ) and PSI (DCPIP-->MV). The <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates first increased from 05:00 h to a maximum at around 09:00 h and then showed a decrease at 13:00 h followed by recovery and further decrease. The pigments associated with <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain did not show any change during the day. Surprisingly midday depression in the accumulation of transcripts and polypeptides related to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> was not observed. This suggests that chloroplastic gene expression is not associated with the midday depression observed for both CO(2) assimilation and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Studies on the transcripts of psbD/C operon during the day showed that there were differences in the processing pattern although the steady state levels of the processed transcripts of this operon did not show any variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344476','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344476"><span><span class="hlt">Affective</span> Neural Responses Modulated by Serotonin <span class="hlt">Transporter</span> Genotype in Clinical Anxiety and Depression</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oathes, Desmond J.; Hilt, Lori M.; Nitschke, Jack B.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> gene variants are known to interact with stressful life experiences to increase chances of developing <span class="hlt">affective</span> symptoms, and these same variants have been shown to influence amygdala reactivity to <span class="hlt">affective</span> stimuli in non-psychiatric populations. The impact of these gene variants on <span class="hlt">affective</span> neurocircuitry in anxiety and mood disorders has been studied less extensively. Utilizing a triallelic assay (5-HTTLPR and rs25531) to assess genetic variation linked with altered serotonin signaling, this fMRI study investigated genetic influences on amygdala and anterior insula activity in 50 generalized anxiety disorder patients, 26 of whom also met DSM-IV criteria for social anxiety disorder and/or major depressive disorder, and 39 healthy comparison subjects. A Group x Genotype interaction was observed for both the amygdala and anterior insula in a paradigm designed to elicit responses in these brain areas during the anticipation of and response to aversive pictures. Patients who are S/LG carriers showed less activity than their LA/LA counterparts in both regions and less activity than S/LG healthy comparison subjects in the amygdala. Moreover, patients with greater insula responses reported higher levels of intolerance of uncertainty, an association that was particularly pronounced for patients with two LA alleles. A genotype effect was not established in healthy controls. These findings link the serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> gene to <span class="hlt">affective</span> circuitry findings in anxiety and depression psychopathology and further suggest that its impact on patients may be different from effects typically observed in healthy populations. PMID:25675343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410515K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410515K"><span>Advances in Understanding Sorption and <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Processes <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Processes <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive <span class="hlt">transport</span> problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and <span class="hlt">transport</span> models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> and fate of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3847209','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3847209"><span>Methane <span class="hlt">transport</span> and emissions from soil as <span class="hlt">affected</span> by water table and vascular plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background The important greenhouse gas (GHG) methane is produced naturally in anaerobic wetland soils. By <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the production, oxidation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of methane to the atmosphere, plants have a major influence upon the quantities emitted by wetlands. Different species and functional plant groups have been shown to <span class="hlt">affect</span> these processes differently, but our knowledge about how these effects are influenced by abiotic factors such as water regime and temperature remains limited. Here we present a mesocosm experiment comparing eight plant species for their effects on internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> and overall emissions of methane under contrasting hydrological conditions. To quantify how much methane was <span class="hlt">transported</span> internally through plants (the chimney effect), we blocked diffusion from the soil surface with an agar seal. Results We found that graminoids caused higher methane emissions than forbs, although the emissions from mesocosms with different species were either lower than or comparable to those from control mesocosms with no plant (i.e. bare soil). Species with a relatively greater root volume and a larger biomass exhibited a larger chimney effect, though overall methane emissions were negatively related to plant biomass. Emissions were also reduced by lowering the water table. Conclusions We conclude that plant species (and functional groups) vary in the degree to which they <span class="hlt">transport</span> methane to the atmosphere. However, a plant with a high capacity to <span class="hlt">transport</span> methane does not necessarily emit more methane, as it may also cause more rhizosphere oxidation of methane. A shift in plant species composition from graminoids to forbs and/or from low to high productive species may lead to reduction of methane emissions. PMID:24010540</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21403192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21403192"><span>The effect of magnetic field and disorders on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene nanoribbons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, S Bala; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G; Liang, Gengchiau</p> <p>2010-09-22</p> <p>We developed a unified mesoscopic <span class="hlt">transport</span> model for graphene nanoribbons, which combines the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism with the real-space π-orbital model. Based on this model, we probe the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> under a magnetic field, in order to obtain insights into the various signature Hall effects in disordered armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNR). In the presence of a uniform perpendicular magnetic field (B[Symbol: see text]-field), a perfect AGNR shows three distinct spatial current profiles at equilibrium, depending on its width. Under nonequilibrium conditions (i.e. in the presence of an applied bias), the net <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow is restricted to the edges and occurs in opposite directions depending on whether the Fermi level lies within the valence or conduction band. For <span class="hlt">electrons</span> at an energy level below the conduction window, the B[Symbol: see text]-field gives rise to local <span class="hlt">electron</span> flux circulation, although the global flux is zero. Our study also reveals the suppression of <span class="hlt">electron</span> backscattering as a result of the edge <span class="hlt">transport</span> which is induced by the B[Symbol: see text]-field. This phenomenon can potentially mitigate the undesired effects of disorder, such as bulk and edge vacancies, on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of AGNR. Lastly, we show that the effect of [Formula: see text]-field on <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is less significant in the multimode compared to the single-mode <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490523','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490523"><span>Opto-<span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of graphene oxide based devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Das, Poulomi; Ibrahim, Sk; Pal, Tanusri; Chakraborty, Koushik; Ghosh, Surajit</p> <p>2015-06-24</p> <p>Large area, solution-processed, graphene oxide (GO)nanocomposite based photo FET has been successfully fabricated. The device exhibits p-type charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics in dark condition. Our measurements indicate that the <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics are gate dependent and extremely sensitive to solar light. Photo current decay mechanism of GO is well explained and is associated with two phenomena: a) fast response process and b) slow response process. Slow response photo decay can be considered as the intrinsic phenomena which are present for both GO and reduced GO (r-GO), whereas the first response photo decay is controlled by the surface defect states. Demonstration of photo FET performance of GO thin film is a significant step forward in integrating these devices in various optoelectronic circuits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12164','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12164"><span>Evaluation of the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from rate measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reynafarje, B; Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L</p> <p>1976-12-10</p> <p>The mitochondrial H+/site ratio (i.e. the number of protons ejected per pair of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> traversing each of the energy-conserving sites of the respiratory chain) has been evaluated employing a new experimental approach. In this method the rates of oxygen uptake and H+ ejection were measured simultaneously during the initial period of respiration evoked by addition of succinate to aerobic, rotenone-inhibited, de-energized mitochondria. Either K+, in the presence of valinomycin, or Ca2+, was used as mobile cation to dissipate the membrane potential and allow quantitative H+ ejection into the medium. The H+/site ratio observed with this method in the absence of precautions to inhibit the uptake of phosphate was close to 2.0, in agreement with values obtained using the oxygen pulse technique (Mitchell, P. and Moyle, J. (1967) Biochem. J. 105, 1147-1162). However, when phosphate movements were eliminated either by inhibition of the phosphate-hydroxide antiporter with N-ethylamaleimide or by depleting the mitochondria of their endogenous phosphate content, H+/site ratios close to 4.0 were consistently observed. This ratio was independent of the concentration of succinate, of mitochondrial protein, of pH between 6 and 8, and of ionic composition of the medium, provided that sufficient K+ (plus valinomycin) or Ca2+ were present. Specific inhibitors of the hydrolysis of endogenous ATP or <span class="hlt">transport</span> of other ions (adenine nucleotides, tricarboxylates, HCO3-, etc.) were shown not to <span class="hlt">affect</span> the observed H+/site ratio. Furthermore, the replacement of succinate by alpha-glycerol phosphate, a substrate which is oxidized on the outer surface of the inner membrane and thus does not need to enter the matrix, gave the same H+/site ratios as did succinate. It is concluded that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, when phosphate movements are eliminated, may be close to 4.0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18214379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18214379"><span>Saturation-recovery <span class="hlt">electron</span> paramagnetic resonance discrimination by oxygen <span class="hlt">transport</span> (DOT) method for characterizing membrane domains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Subczynski, Witold K; Widomska, Justyna; Wisniewska, Anna; Kusumi, Akihiro</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The discrimination by oxygen <span class="hlt">transport</span> (DOT) method is a dual-probe saturation-recovery <span class="hlt">electron</span> paramagnetic resonance approach in which the observable parameter is the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of lipid spin labels, and the measured value is the bimolecular collision rate between molecular oxygen and the nitroxide moiety of spin labels. This method has proven to be extremely sensitive to changes in the local oxygen diffusion-concentration product (around the nitroxide moiety) because of the long T1 of lipid spin labels (1-10 micros) and also because molecular oxygen is a unique probe molecule. Molecular oxygen is paramagnetic, small, and has the appropriate level of hydrophobicity that allows it to partition into various supramolecular structures such as different membrane domains. When located in two different membrane domains, the spin label alone most often cannot differentiate between these domains, giving very similar (indistinguishable) conventional <span class="hlt">electron</span> paramagnetic resonance spectra and similar T1 values. However, even small differences in lipid packing in these domains will <span class="hlt">affect</span> oxygen partitioning and oxygen diffusion, which can be easily detected by observing the different T1s from spin labels in these two locations in the presence of molecular oxygen. The DOT method allows one not only to distinguish between the different domains, but also to obtain the value of the oxygen diffusion-concentration product in these domains, which is a useful physical characteristic of the organization of lipids in domains. Profiles of the oxygen diffusion-concentration product (the oxygen <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameter) in coexisting domains can be obtained in situ without the need for the physical separation of the two domains. Furthermore, under optimal conditions, the exchange rate of spin-labeled molecules between the two domains could be measured.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22955881','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22955881"><span>Long-range <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms is redox gradient-driven.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Snider, Rachel M; Strycharz-Glaven, Sarah M; Tsoi, Stanislav D; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Tender, Leonard M</p> <p>2012-09-18</p> <p>Geobacter spp. can acquire energy by coupling intracellular oxidation of organic matter with extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer to an anode (an electrode poised at a metabolically oxidizing potential), forming a biofilm extending many cell lengths away from the anode surface. It has been proposed that long-range <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in such biofilms occurs through a network of bound redox cofactors, thought to involve extracellular matrix c-type cytochromes, as occurs for polymers containing discrete redox moieties. Here, we report measurements of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in actively respiring Geobacter sulfurreducens wild type biofilms using interdigitated microelectrode arrays. Measurements when one electrode is used as an anode and the other electrode is used to monitor redox status of the biofilm 15 μm away indicate the presence of an intrabiofilm redox gradient, in which the concentration of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> residing within the proposed redox cofactor network is higher farther from the anode surface. The magnitude of the redox gradient seems to correlate with current, which is consistent with <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from cells in the biofilm to the anode, where <span class="hlt">electrons</span> effectively diffuse from areas of high to low concentration, hopping between redox cofactors. Comparison with gate measurements, when one electrode is used as an <span class="hlt">electron</span> source and the other electrode is used as an <span class="hlt">electron</span> drain, suggests that there are multiple types of redox cofactors in Geobacter biofilms spanning a range in oxidation potential that can engage in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. The majority of these redox cofactors, however, seem to have oxidation potentials too negative to be involved in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> when acetate is the <span class="hlt">electron</span> source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA234597','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA234597"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> and Ionic <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Processable Conducting Polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-04-12</p> <p>Reynolds, J. R. "Charge and Ion <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Poly(pyrrole copper phthalocyanine - sulfonate ) During Redox Switching," J. Electroanal. Chem., submitted...the following polymers: (1) copolymers of heterocyclic rings such as pyrrole or furan with disubstituted ( methyl or methoxy groups ) benzene; (2...SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIEL GRUP I SUB- GROUP IPoly[1,4-bis(2-furanyl)-2,5-disubstituted-p</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA260122','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA260122"><span>Simulation of <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Semiconductor Heterolayer Devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1992-10-01</p> <p>Mesoscopic Systems With Open Boundaries Using the Multidimensional Time - Dependent Schr • dinger Equation ," J. Appl. Phys. 69 (10), pp. 7153-7158 (1991...Conference on Computational Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado, June 11-15, 1990. " Approaches to <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Semiconductor...Work in the three years of the grant was aimed at both improving and generalizing the full band Monte Carlo approach and at developing numerical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AAS...200.4904L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AAS...200.4904L"><span>Radio Studies of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Acceleration and <span class="hlt">Transport</span> During Solar Flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, J.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p>At centimeter wavelengths solar flare radiation is dominated by incoherent gyrosynchrotron emissions from 10 keV to several MeV <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Due to unique sensitivity of the gyrosynchrotron radiation to <span class="hlt">electron</span> momentum distribution and ambient magnetic field, the radio observations at these wavelengths can provide important clues to the evolution of high-energy <span class="hlt">electrons</span> residing in the flaring loops. In this talk I review some of recent progress made primarily using the Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA) to understand acceleration, trapping, and precipitation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> during solar flares. These works are extensions of the traditional, correlative studies of temporal and spatial morphologies of radio bursts versus those of other flare radiations (X-rays, UV/EUV, and Hα ) to exploit the multi-frequencies of the OVSA. The results demonstrate additional advantages of radio observations as a flare diagnostic tool when both spatial and spectral resolutions are available, and provide a major initiative in building the Frequency-Agile Radio Telescope (FASR). This work has been supported by NASA grant NAG5-10891. The OVSA is supported by NSF grant AST-9987366 to New Jersey Institute of Technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Nanot..21j5104C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010Nanot..21j5104C"><span>Multi-walled carbon nanotubes <span class="hlt">affect</span> drug <span class="hlt">transport</span> across cell membrane in rat astrocytes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Xiao; Schluesener, Hermann J.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>The impact of carbon nanotubes on the cell membrane is an aspect of particular importance and interest in the study of carbon nanotubes' interactions with living systems. One of the many functions of the cell membrane is to execute substance <span class="hlt">transport</span> into and out of the cell. We investigated the influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of several compounds across in the cell membrane of rat astrocytes using flow cytometry. These compounds are fluorescein diacetate, carboxyfluorescein diacetate, rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin, which are prosubstrate/substrates of multidrug <span class="hlt">transporter</span> proteins. Results showed that MWCNTs significantly inhibited cellular uptake of doxorubicin but not the other drugs and the mode of loading made a significant difference in doxorubicin uptake. Retention of fluorescein, carboxyfluorescein and rhodamine 123 was remarkably higher in MWCNT-exposed cells after an efflux period. A kinetics study also demonstrated slower efflux of intracellular fluorescein and rhodamine 123. Data presented in this paper suggest that MWCNTs could <span class="hlt">affect</span> drug <span class="hlt">transport</span> across cell membranes. The implications of the findings are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22413317','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22413317"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> transfer activation of a second water channel for proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> in [FeFe]-hydrogenase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sode, Olaseni; Voth, Gregory A.</p> <p>2014-12-14</p> <p>Hydrogenase enzymes are important because they can reversibly catalyze the production of molecular hydrogen. Proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanisms have been previously studied in residue pathways that lead to the active site of the enzyme via residues Cys299 and Ser319. The importance of this pathway and these residues has been previously exhibited through site-specific mutations, which were shown to interrupt the enzyme activity. It has been shown recently that a separate water channel (WC2) is coupled with <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> to the active site of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase. The water-mediated proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanisms of the enzyme in different <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states have been studied using the multistate empirical valence bond reactive molecular dynamics method, in order to understand any role WC2 may have in facilitating the residue pathway in bringing an additional proton to the enzyme active site. In a single <span class="hlt">electronic</span> state A{sup 2−}, a water wire was formed through which protons can be <span class="hlt">transported</span> with a low free energy barrier. The remaining <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states were shown, however, to be highly unfavorable to proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> in WC2. A double amino acid substitution is predicted to obstruct proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> state A{sup 2-} by closing a cavity that could otherwise fill with water near the proximal Fe of the active site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492756','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492756"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> characterization of silicon wafers by spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng</p> <p>2015-09-28</p> <p>Spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric (PCR) imaging technique is developed to characterize the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of silicon wafers. Based on a nonlinear PCR theory, simulations are performed to investigate the effects of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameters (the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity) on the steady-state PCR intensity profiles. The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameters of an n-type silicon wafer are simultaneously determined by fitting the measured steady-state PCR intensity profiles to the three-dimensional nonlinear PCR model. The determined <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameters are in good agreement with the results obtained by the conventional modulated PCR technique with multiple pump beam radii.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720010060','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720010060"><span>Low-energy <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> with the method of discrete ordinates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bartine, D. E.; Alsmiller, R. G., Jr.; Mynatt, F. R.; Engle, W. W., Jr.; Barish, J.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The one-dimensional discrete ordinates code ANISN was adapted to <span class="hlt">transport</span> low energy (a few MeV) <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Calculated results obtained with ANISN were compared with experimental data for transmitted <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy and angular distribution data for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> normally incident on aluminum slabs of various thicknesses. The calculated and experimental results are in good agreement for a thin slab (0.2 of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> range), but not for the thicker slabs (0.6 of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> range). Calculated results obtained with ANISN were also compared with results obtained using Monte Carlo methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22472123','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22472123"><span>Kinetics of vertical <span class="hlt">transport</span> and localization of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in strained semiconductor supperlattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gerchikov, L. G. Mamaev, Yu. A.; Yashin, Yu. P.</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>The kinetics of vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a semiconductor superlattice is considered taking into account partial localization of <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. The time dependences of photoemission currents from samples based on a strained semiconductor superlattice calculated by numerically solving the kinetic equation are in good agreement with experimental data. Comparison of the theory with experiment makes it possible to determine the characteristic <span class="hlt">electron</span> localization and thermoactivation times, the diffusion length, and losses of photoelectrons in the superlattice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhPl...17e6101L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhPl...17e6101L"><span>Internal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> barrier due to neoclassical ambipolarity in the Helically Symmetric Experimenta)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lore, J.; Guttenfelder, W.; Briesemeister, A.; Anderson, D. T.; Anderson, F. S. B.; Deng, C. B.; Likin, K. M.; Spong, D. A.; Talmadge, J. N.; Zhai, K.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> cyclotron heated plasmas in the Helically Symmetric Experiment (HSX) feature strongly peaked <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature profiles; central temperatures are 2.5 keV with 100 kW injected power. These measurements, coupled with neoclassical predictions of large "<span class="hlt">electron</span> root" radial electric fields with strong radial shear, are evidence of a neoclassically driven thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barrier. Neoclassical <span class="hlt">transport</span> quantities are calculated using the PENTA code [D. A. Spong, Phys. Plasmas 12, 056114 (2005)], in which momentum is conserved and parallel flow is included. Unlike a conventional stellarator, which exhibits strong flow damping in all directions on a flux surface, quasisymmetric stellarators are free to rotate in the direction of symmetry, and the effect of momentum conservation in neoclassical calculations may therefore be significant. Momentum conservation is shown to modify the neoclassical ion flux and ambipolar ion root radial electric fields in the quasisymmetric configuration. The effect is much smaller in a HSX configuration where the symmetry is spoiled. In addition to neoclassical <span class="hlt">transport</span>, a model of trapped <span class="hlt">electron</span> mode turbulence is used to calculate the turbulent-driven <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal diffusivity. Turbulent <span class="hlt">transport</span> quenching due to the neoclassically predicted radial electric field profile is needed in predictive <span class="hlt">transport</span> simulations to reproduce the peaking of the measured <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature profile [Guttenfelder et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 215002 (2008)].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26167431','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26167431"><span>Enhanced radial <span class="hlt">transport</span> and energization of radiation belt <span class="hlt">electrons</span> due to drift orbit bifurcations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ukhorskiy, A Y; Sitnov, M I; Millan, R M; Kress, B T; Smith, D C</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>[1]Relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> intensities in Earth's outer radiation belt can vary by multiple orders of magnitude on the time scales ranging from minutes to days. One fundamental process contributing to dynamic variability of radiation belt intensities is the radial <span class="hlt">transport</span> of relativistic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> across their drift shells. In this paper we analyze the properties of three-dimensional radial <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a global magnetic field model driven by variations in the solar wind dynamic pressure. We use a test particle approach which captures anomalous effects such as drift orbit bifurcations. We show that the bifurcations lead to an order of magnitude increase in radial <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates and enhance the energization at large equatorial pitch angles. Even at quiet time fluctuations in dynamic pressure, radial <span class="hlt">transport</span> at large pitch angles exhibits strong deviations from the diffusion approximation. The radial <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates are much lower at small pitch angle values which results in a better agreement with the diffusion approximation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93t5408R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93t5408R"><span>Fluctuating-bias controlled <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in molecular junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ridley, Michael; MacKinnon, Angus; Kantorovich, Lev</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We consider the problem of <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a multiterminal molecular junction in the presence of a stochastic bias, which can also be used to describe <span class="hlt">transport</span> through fluctuating molecular energy levels. To describe these effects, we first make a simple extension of our previous work [Phys. Rev. B 91, 125433 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.125433] to show that the problem of tunneling through noisy energy levels can be mapped onto the problem of a noisy driving bias, which appears in the Kadanoff-Baym equations for this system in an analogous manner to the driving term in the Langevin equation for a classical circuit. This formalism uses the nonequilibrium Green's function method to obtain analytically closed formulas for <span class="hlt">transport</span> quantities within the wide-band limit approximation for an arbitrary time-dependent bias and it is automatically partition free. We obtain exact closed formulas for both the colored and white noise-averaged current at all times. In the long-time limit, these formulas possess a Landauer-Büttiker-type structure which enables the extraction of an effective transmission coefficient for the <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Expanding the Fermi function into a series of simple poles, we find an exact formal relation between the parameters which characterize the bias fluctuations and the poles of the Fermi function. This enables us to describe the effect of the temperature and the strength of the fluctuations on the averaged current which we interpret as a quantum analog to the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We use these results to convincingly refute some recent results on the multistability of the current through a fluctuating level, simultaneously verifying that our formalism satisfies some well-known theorems on the asymptotic current. Finally, we present numerical results for the current through a molecular chain which demonstrate a transition from nonlinear to linear I -V characteristics as the strength of fluctuations is increased, as well as a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004MPLB...18..847R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004MPLB...18..847R"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Thermopower in Aperiodic DNA Sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roche, Stephan; Maciá, Enrique</p> <p></p> <p>A detailed study of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of synthetic and genomic DNA sequences is reported. Genomic sequences of the Chromosome 22, λ-bacteriophage, and D1s80 genes of Human and Pygmy chimpanzee are considered in this work, and compared with both periodic and quasiperiodic (Fibonacci) sequences of nucleotides. Charge transfer efficiency is compared for all these different sequences, and large variations in charge transfer efficiency, stemming from sequence-dependent effects, are reported. In addition, basic characteristics of tunneling currents, including contact effects, are described. Finally, the thermoelectric power of nucleobases connected in between metallic contacts at different temperatures is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4756276','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4756276"><span>Distribution and dynamics of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> complexes in cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes☆</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Lu-Ning</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The cyanobacterial thylakoid membrane represents a system that can carry out both oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration simultaneously. The organization, interactions and mobility of components of these two <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways are indispensable to the biosynthesis of thylakoid membrane modules and the optimization of bioenergetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow in response to environmental changes. These are of fundamental importance to the metabolic robustness and plasticity of cyanobacteria. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the distribution and dynamics of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> components in cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes. Global understanding of the principles that govern the dynamic regulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways in nature will provide a framework for the design and synthetic engineering of new bioenergetic machinery to improve photosynthesis and biofuel production. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Conrad Mullineaux. PMID:26619924</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4348...39M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4348...39M"><span>Spin-polarized <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and emission from strained superlattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mamaev, Yuri A.; Subashiev, Arsen V.; Yashin, Yuri P.; Ambrajei, Anton N.; Roschansky, Alexander V.</p> <p>2000-02-01</p> <p>We report the results on polarized <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission from a new strained wide-gap AlxInyGa1-x-yAs/AlzGa1- zAs SL with tunable position of polarization maximum. These SL's were optimized to have a minimal conduction-band offset which comes from the band line-up between the semiconductor layers of the SL. The In layer content was chosen to give minimal conduction-band offset with large strain splitting of the V-band. Simultaneous changing of Al content in both SL layers provides variation of the structure band gap. We demonstrate that tuning of the SL to the excitation energy can be achieved without loss of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> polarization. The polarization of up to 84% was measured at room temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4348...39M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001SPIE.4348...39M"><span>Spin-polarized <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and emission from strained superlattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mamaev, Yuri A.; Subashiev, Arsen V.; Yashin, Yuri P.; Ambrajei, Anton N.; Roschansky, Alexander V.</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>We report the results on polarized <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission from a new strained wide-gap AlxInyGa1-x-yAs/AlzGa1- zAs SL with tunable position of polarization maximum. These SL's were optimized to have a minimal conduction-band offset which comes from the band line-up between the semiconductor layers of the SL. The In layer content was chosen to give minimal conduction-band offset with large strain splitting of the V-band. Simultaneous changing of Al content in both SL layers provides variation of the structure band gap. We demonstrate that tuning of the SL to the excitation energy can be achieved without loss of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> polarization. The polarization of up to 84% was measured at room temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPhCS.100e2060A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPhCS.100e2060A"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in double-strand DNA segments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Albuquerque, E. L.; Mauriz, P. W.; Moreira, D. A.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>We report in this work a numerical study of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> density of states in π-stacked arrays of DNA double-strand segments made up from the nucleotides guanine G, adenine A, cytosine C and thymine T. In order to reveal the relevance of the underlying correlations in the nucleotides distribution, we compare the results for a genomic DNA sequence, considering a segment of the first sequenced human chromosome 22 (Ch 22), with those of two artificial sequences forming a Rudin-Shapiro (RS) as well as a Fibonacci (FB) polyGC quasiperiodic sequences. Our theoretical method uses an <span class="hlt">electronic</span> tight-binding Hamiltonian suitable to describe the DNA segments modeled by the quasiperiodic chains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JEMat..46.2340P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JEMat..46.2340P"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Parameters Study for Transition Metal-Doped Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon via Acoustical Phonon Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pandya, Ankur; Jha, Prafulla K.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameters such as <span class="hlt">electron</span> effective mass, Fermi velocity of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> and <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility are calculated for transition metal [manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co)]-doped armchair graphene nanoribbon (aGNR) via polar acoustical phonon [piezoelectric (PZ)] scattering and acoustical deformation potential (ADP) scattering under a high electric field and different doping concentrations. Moreover, the effect of dopant site on these <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameters is also investigated. It is observed that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> effective mass is reduced significantly in doped aGNR in comparison to pure GNR. It is observed that the net <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility contributed by both ADP and PZ mechanisms for Mn-doped aGNR as well as Co-doped aGNR varies in similar fashion as semiconductors wherein the net <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility (ADP + PZ) for Mn-doped aGNR is greater than that for the Co-doped graphene nanoribbon. Moreover, it is found that there is no impact of variation in dopant site on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameters considered in this study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Electronic+books%22&pg=2&id=EJ1036156','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Electronic+books%22&pg=2&id=EJ1036156"><span>Factors that <span class="hlt">Affect</span> Emergent Literacy Development When Engaging with <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> Books</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Salmon, Lynda G.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article reviews extant literature with the purpose of identifying factors that <span class="hlt">affect</span> the potential efficacy of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> books to support literacy development during early childhood. Selection criteria include experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies from peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013 with a target population…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486492','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486492"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a Hall thruster by axial–radial fully kinetic particle simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cho, Shinatora Kubota, Kenichi; Funaki, Ikkoh; Watanabe, Hiroki; Iihara, Shigeyasu; Fuchigami, Kenji; Uematsu, Kazuo</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across a magnetic field in a magnetic-layer-type Hall thruster was numerically investigated for the future predictive modeling of Hall thrusters. The discharge of a 1-kW-class magnetic-layer-type Hall thruster designed for high-specific-impulse operation was modeled using an r-z two-dimensional fully kinetic particle code with and without artificial <span class="hlt">electron</span>-diffusion models. The thruster performance results showed that both <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> models captured the experimental result within discrepancies less than 20% in thrust and discharge current for all the simulated operation conditions. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> cross-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism of the so-called anomalous diffusion was self-consistently observed in the simulation without artificial diffusion models; the effective <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility was two orders of magnitude higher than the value obtained using the classical diffusion theory. To account for the self-consistently observed anomalous <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the oscillation of plasma properties was speculated. It was suggested that the enhanced random-walk diffusion due to the velocity oscillation of low-frequency <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow could explain the observed anomalous diffusion within an order of magnitude. The dominant oscillation mode of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow velocity was found to be 20 kHz, which was coupled to electrostatic oscillation excited by global ionization instability.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880052987&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DNeutralization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880052987&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DNeutralization"><span>Energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> by energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> released during solar flares. II - Current filamentation and plasma heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Winglee, R. M.; Dulk, G. A.; Pritchett, P. L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional electrostatic particle simulations are performed in order to investigate energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> associated with the propagation of energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> through a flaring flux tube. Results indicate that as the energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> flow outward, a return current of ambient plasma <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is drawn inward (to maintain quasi-neutrality) which can be spatially separate from the primary current carried by the energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Return current <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are shown to accumulate on either side of the acceleration region of the energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, and depletions of ambient plasma <span class="hlt">electrons</span> develop in the return current regions. Plasma ions accelerate across the field lines to produce current closure or charge neutralization, achieving energies comparable to those of the energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92g5405L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..92g5405L"><span>Electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> limited by <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon coupling from Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span> equation: An ab initio study of Si, Al, and MoS2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Wu</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>We demonstrate the ab initio electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculation limited by <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon coupling by using the full solution of the Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span> equation (BTE), which applies equally to metals and semiconductors. Numerical issues are emphasized in this work. We show that the simple linear interpolation of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon coupling matrix elements from a relatively coarse grid to an extremely fine grid can ease the calculational burden, which makes the calculation feasible in practice. For the Brillouin zone (BZ) integration of the transition probabilities involving one δ function, the Gaussian smearing method with a physical choice of locally adaptive broadening parameters is employed. We validate the calculation in the cases of n -type Si and Al. The calculated conductivity and mobility are in good agreement with experiments. In the metal case we also demonstrate that the Gaussian smearing method with locally adaptive broadening parameters works excellently for the BZ integration with double δ functions involved in the Eliashberg spectral function and its <span class="hlt">transport</span> variant. The simpler implementation is the advantage of the Gaussian smearing method over the tetrahedron method. The accuracy of the relaxation time approximation and the approximation made by Allen [Phys. Rev. B 17, 3725 (1978), 10.1103/PhysRevB.17.3725] has been examined by comparing with the exact solution of BTE. We also apply our method to n -type monolayer MoS2, for which a mobility of 150 cm2 v-1 s-1 is obtained at room temperature. Moreover, the mean free paths are less than 9 nm, indicating that in the presence of grain boundaries the mobilities should not be effectively <span class="hlt">affected</span> if the grain boundary size is tens of nanometers or larger. The ab initio approach demonstrated in this paper can be directly applied to other materials without the need for any a priori knowledge about the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon scattering processes, and can be straightforwardly extended to study cases with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1149158','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1149158"><span>Structure and function of subsurface microbial communities <span class="hlt">affecting</span> radionuclide <span class="hlt">transport</span> and bioimmobilization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kostka, Joel E.; Prakash, Om; Green, Stefan J.; Akob, Denise; Jasrotia, Puja; Kerkhof, Lee; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Sheth, Mili; Keller, Martin; Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Elkins, James G.; Stucki, Joseph W.</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Our objectives were to: 1) isolate and characterize novel anaerobic prokaryotes from subsurface environments exposed to high levels of mixed contaminants (U(VI), nitrate, sulfate), 2) elucidate the diversity and distribution of metabolically active metal- and nitrate-reducing prokaryotes in subsurface sediments, and 3) determine the biotic and abiotic mechanisms linking <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes (nitrate, Fe(III), and sulfate reduction) to radionuclide reduction and immobilization. Mechanisms of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and U(VI) transformation were examined under near in situ conditions in sediment microcosms and in field investigations. Field sampling was conducted at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center (ORFRC), in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The ORFRC subsurface is exposed to mixed contamination predominated by uranium and nitrate. In short, we effectively addressed all 3 stated objectives of the project. In particular, we isolated and characterized a large number of novel anaerobes with a high bioremediation potential that can be used as model organisms, and we are now able to quantify the function of subsurface sedimentary microbial communities in situ using state-of-the-art gene expression methods (molecular proxies).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25105780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25105780"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> conduction properties of indium tin oxide: single-particle and many-body <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Juhn-Jong; Li, Zhi-Qing</p> <p>2014-08-27</p> <p>Indium tin oxide (Sn-doped In2O3-δ or ITO) is a very interesting and technologically important transparent conducting oxide. This class of material has been extensively investigated for decades, with research efforts mostly focusing on the application aspects. The fundamental issues of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conduction properties of ITO from room temperature down to liquid-helium temperatures have rarely been addressed thus far. Studies of the electrical-<span class="hlt">transport</span> properties over a wide range of temperature are essential to unravelling the underlying <span class="hlt">electronic</span> dynamics and microscopic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> parameters. In this topical review, we show that one can learn rich physics in ITO material, including the semi-classical Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the quantum-interference <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, as well as the many-body Coulomb <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> interaction effects in the presence of disorder and inhomogeneity (granularity). To fully reveal the numerous avenues and unique opportunities that the ITO material has provided for fundamental condensed matter physics research, we demonstrate a variety of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in different forms of ITO structures, including homogeneous polycrystalline thin and thick films, homogeneous single-crystalline nanowires and inhomogeneous ultrathin films. In this manner, we not only address new physics phenomena that can arise in ITO but also illustrate the versatility of the stable ITO material forms for potential technological applications. We emphasize that, microscopically, the novel and rich <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conduction properties of ITO originate from the inherited robust free-<span class="hlt">electron</span>-like energy bandstructure and low-carrier concentration (as compared with that in typical metals) characteristics of this class of material. Furthermore, a low carrier concentration leads to slow <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon relaxation, which in turn causes the experimentally observed (i) a small residual resistance ratio, (ii) a linear <span class="hlt">electron</span> diffusion thermoelectric power in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23322278','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23322278"><span>Tuning the photodriven <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> within the columnar perylenediimide stacks by changing the π-extent of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Supur, Mustafa; Fukuzumi, Shunichi</p> <p>2013-02-21</p> <p>Photodriven <span class="hlt">electron-transport</span> properties of the self-assemblies of N,N'-di(2-(trimethylammoniumiodide)ethylene)perylenediimide stacks (TAIPDI)(n) with three <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors, disodium 4,4'-bis(2-sulfonatostyryl)biphenyl (BSSBP, stilbene-420), sodium 9,10-dimethoxyanthracene-2-sulfonate (DANS) and disodium 6-amino-1,3-naphthalenedisulfonate (ANADS) have been studied in water. These <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors vary in their π-extent to adjust the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> coupling and the distance with the PDI stacks. Possessing the largest π-extent, BSSBP has strong π-π interactions as well as ionic interactions with (TAIPDI)(n). Instead of π-stacking with TAIPDI planes, DANS and ANADS, with a relatively small π-extent, are embedded in the side chains of TAIPDIs via ionic interactions, resulting in a distance increment from the aromatic TAIPDI cores. After excitation, the BSSBP-(TAIPDI)(n) system exhibits fast charge separation (0.70 ps) and relatively slow charge recombination (485 ps) due to intermolecular <span class="hlt">electron</span> delocalization along the TAIPDI stacks. On the other hand, charge separation in DANS-(TAIPDI)(n) and ANADS-(TAIPDI)(n) occurs within 1.5 and 1.6 ns, respectively, calculated from the quenching of singlet excited states. The lifetimes of charge-separated states are determined to be 44 and 96 μs, at least 10(5) times slower than that of BSSBP-(TAIPDI)(n) due to remarkably improved <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> throughout the (TAIPDI)(n).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA51A4085G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA51A4085G"><span>Excitations From Impact: The <span class="hlt">Affect</span> of CMEs on Venus' Mysterious Oxygen Green Line and Ionospheric <span class="hlt">Electrons</span>. An Auroral Process?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gray, C.; Chanover, N.; Slanger, T. G.; Molaverdikhani, K.; Häusler, B.; Tellmann, S.; Peter, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Observations of nightglow (upper atmospheric emission from atoms and molecules on the nightside of a planet) allow for a multifaceted study of planetary atmospheres. Information on winds, chemistry, and solar effects is gained by observing temporal and spatial variation in nightglow intensity. One of the brightest nightglow features on Earth is the OI (1S-1D) 557.7 nm line (oxygen green line). This emission is primarily due to photodissociation/<span class="hlt">transport</span> but is also seen in the aurora as <span class="hlt">electron</span> precipitation. Unlike Earth, the Venusian green line is highly temporally variable. The chemistry and mechanisms responsible are still unknown. We observe the Venusian nightglow before and after solar flares, which produce large amounts of EUV emission, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) impacts, which inject a large number of higher energy charged particles in the the Venusian atmosphere. We consistently detect green line emission after large charged particles injections from CMEs. However we do not detect the OI (1D) red line at 630.0 nm, which is quenched below 150 km. We propose that the Venusian green line is an auroral-type emission due to <span class="hlt">electron</span> precipitation and is occurring deep in the atmosphere, near 125 km. To investigate how CMEs and solar flares <span class="hlt">affect</span> the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy, flux, and density in the Venusian nightside atmosphere, we compare data taken by ASPERA and ELS onboard Venus Express (VEX) before and after solar storms. We find that both <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy and flux increase after CMEs, but only flux increases after solar flares. Additionally, the V1 ionospheric layer at 125 km increases in <span class="hlt">electron</span> density while the V2 at 150 km decreases in density after CMEs but not after solar flares. We model the nightside Venusian ionosphere using the observed <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy and fluxes from VEX in an effort to constrain the chemical processes and mechanisms responsible for green line emission. We will present the results of our ground-based observations and modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..DPPTP6019R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..DPPTP6019R"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> model in DIII-D discharges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rafiq, T.; Pankin, A. Y.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A. H.; Halpern, F. D.; Callen, J. D.</p> <p>2008-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> in tokamak plasmas is investigated with predictive integrated modeling simulations using a choice of different <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> models. Two models for <span class="hlt">transport</span> driven by <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Temperature Gradient (ETG) modes are considered: (1) the ETG part of the GLF23 <span class="hlt">transport</span> model; and (2) the Horton model for the the electromagnetic part of the ETG anomalous <span class="hlt">transport</span> [1]. These models are combined with the paleoclassical model [2] for <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span>. ASTRA predictive simulation results obtained using these models are compared with one another and compared with experimental data from DIII-D H-mode discharges in an effort to discriminate among the models. It is found that the electromagnetic limit of the Horton model is important near the magnetic axis where the ETG mode in the GLF23 model is below threshold. The paleoclassical model is found to be needed to produce the observed edge pedestal in the DIII-D simulations. [1] W. Horton, B. G. Hong, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Fluids 31, 2971 (1988). [2] J. D. Callen, Nucl. Fusion 45, 1120 (2005).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391741','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391741"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of one dimensional lithium nanowire using density functional theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thakur, Anil; Kumar, Arun; Chandel, Surjeet; Ahluwalia, P. K.</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>Single nanowire electrode devices are a unique platform for studying as energy storage devices. Lithium nanowire is of much importance in lithium ion batteries and therefore has received a great deal of attention in past few years. In this paper we investigated structural and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Li nanowire using density functional theory (DFT) with SIESTA code. <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Li nanowire are investigated theoretically. The calculations are performed in two steps: first an optimized geometry for Li nanowire is obtained using DFT calculations, and then the <span class="hlt">transport</span> relations are obtained using NEGF approach. SIESTA and TranSIESTA simulation codes are used in the calculations correspondingly. The electrodes are chosen to be the same as the central region where <span class="hlt">transport</span> is studied, eliminating current quantization effects due to contacts and focusing the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> study to the intrinsic structure of the material. By varying chemical potential in the electrode regions, an I-V curve is traced which is in agreement with the predicted behavior. Agreement of bulk properties of Li with experimental values make the study of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in lithium nanowires interesting because they are promising candidates as bridging pieces in nanoelectronics. Transmission coefficient and V-I characteristic of Li nano wire indicates that Li nanowire can be used as an electrode device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AcAau.105..476B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AcAau.105..476B"><span>A deterministic computational model for the two dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> and photon <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Badavi, Francis F.; Nealy, John E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A deterministic (non-statistical) two dimensional (2D) computational model describing the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and photon typical of space radiation environment in various shield media is described. The 2D formalism is casted into a code which is an extension of a previously developed one dimensional (1D) deterministic <span class="hlt">electron</span> and photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> code. The goal of both 1D and 2D codes is to satisfy engineering design applications (i.e. rapid analysis) while maintaining an accurate physics based representation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> in space environment. Both 1D and 2D <span class="hlt">transport</span> codes have utilized established theoretical representations to describe the relevant collisional and radiative interactions and <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes. In the 2D version, the shield material specifications are made more general as having the pertinent cross sections. In the 2D model, the specification of the computational field is in terms of a distance of traverse z along an axial direction as well as a variable distribution of deflection (i.e. polar) angles θ where -π/2<θ<π/2, and corresponding symmetry is assumed for the range of azimuth angles (0<φ<2π). In the <span class="hlt">transport</span> formalism, a combined mean-free-path and average trajectory approach is used. For candidate shielding materials, using the trapped <span class="hlt">electron</span> radiation environments at low Earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous orbit (GEO) and Jupiter moon Europa, verification of the 2D formalism vs. 1D and an existing Monte Carlo code are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1661h0031T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1661h0031T"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of one dimensional lithium nanowire using density functional theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thakur, Anil; Kumar, Arun; Chandel, Surjeet; Ahluwalia, P. K.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Single nanowire electrode devices are a unique platform for studying as energy storage devices. Lithium nanowire is of much importance in lithium ion batteries and therefore has received a great deal of attention in past few years. In this paper we investigated structural and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Li nanowire using density functional theory (DFT) with SIESTA code. <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Li nanowire are investigated theoretically. The calculations are performed in two steps: first an optimized geometry for Li nanowire is obtained using DFT calculations, and then the <span class="hlt">transport</span> relations are obtained using NEGF approach. SIESTA and TranSIESTA simulation codes are used in the calculations correspondingly. The electrodes are chosen to be the same as the central region where <span class="hlt">transport</span> is studied, eliminating current quantization effects due to contacts and focusing the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> study to the intrinsic structure of the material. By varying chemical potential in the electrode regions, an I-V curve is traced which is in agreement with the predicted behavior. Agreement of bulk properties of Li with experimental values make the study of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in lithium nanowires interesting because they are promising candidates as bridging pieces in nanoelectronics. Transmission coefficient and V-I characteristic of Li nano wire indicates that Li nanowire can be used as an electrode device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CP....485..125I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017CP....485..125I"><span>State-specific <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of partially ionized flows of <span class="hlt">electronically</span> excited atomic gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>State-to-state approach for theoretical study of <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in atomic gases with excited <span class="hlt">electronic</span> degrees of freedom of both neutral and ionized species is developed. The dependence of atomic radius on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> configuration of excited atoms is taken into account in the <span class="hlt">transport</span> algorithm. Different cutoff criteria for increasing atomic radius are discussed and the limits of applicability for these criteria are evaluated. The validity of a Slater-like model for the calculation of state-resolved <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients in neutral and ionized atomic gases is shown. For ionized flows, a method of evaluation for effective cross-sections of resonant charge-transfer collisions is suggested. Accurate kinetic theory algorithms for modelling the state-specific <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties are applied for the prediction of <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients in shock heated flows. Based on the numerical observations, different distributions over <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states behind the shock front are considered. For the Boltzmann-like distributions at temperatures greater than 14,000 K, an important effect of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> excitation on the partial thermal conductivity and viscosity coefficients is found for both neutral and ionized atomic gases: increasing radius of excited atoms causes a strong decrease in these <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients. Similarly, the presence of <span class="hlt">electronically</span> excited states with increased atomic radii leads to reduced diffusion coefficients. Nevertheless the overall impact of increasing effective cross-sections on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties just behind the shock front under hypersonic reentry conditions is found to be minor since the populations of high-lying <span class="hlt">electronic</span> energy levels behind the shock waves are low.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARC19006R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARC19006R"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Raman signatures of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-doped SmNiO3 thin films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramadoss, Koushik; Mandal, Nirajan; Zhou, You; Chen, Yong; Ramanathan, Shriram</p> <p></p> <p>We report low temperature <span class="hlt">transport</span> and Raman spectroscopy measurements of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-doped SmNiO3 (SNO) thin films. It has been shown that pristine SNO films can be doped with <span class="hlt">electrons</span> using hydrogen. Our <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements indicate a Coulomb interaction dominated variable range hopping (VRH) for <span class="hlt">electron</span>-doped samples whereas the pristine films show a Mott type VRH mechanism at low temperatures. The <span class="hlt">electron</span>-doped samples display a strong localization which can be correlated with the high spin state of Ni2+ ions. The spatial Raman map shows a remarkable shift of about 167 cm-1 with <span class="hlt">electron</span> doping thus serving as a spectroscopic tool to investigate hydrogen in our films. Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25050525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25050525"><span>Centimeter-long <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in marine sediments via conductive minerals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malvankar, Nikhil S; King, Gary M; Lovley, Derek R</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Centimeter-long <span class="hlt">electron</span> conduction through marine sediments, in which <span class="hlt">electrons</span> derived from sulfide in anoxic sediments are <span class="hlt">transported</span> to oxygen in surficial sediments, may have an important influence on sediment geochemistry. Filamentous bacteria have been proposed to mediate the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, but the filament conductivity could not be verified and other mechanisms are possible. Surprisingly, previous investigations have never actually measured the sediment conductivity or its basic physical properties. Here we report direct measurements that demonstrate centimeter-long <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow through marine sediments, with conductivities sufficient to account for previously estimated <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes. Conductivity was lost for oxidized sediments, which contrasts with the previously described increase in the conductivity of microbial biofilms upon oxidation. Adding pyrite to the sediments significantly enhanced the conductivity. These results suggest that the role of conductive minerals, which are more commonly found in sediments than centimeter-long microbial filaments, need to be considered when modeling marine sediment biogeochemistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412929','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412929"><span>Theoretical study of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a graphene-silicene bilayer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berdiyorov, G. R.; Bahlouli, H.; Peeters, F. M.</p> <p>2015-06-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a graphene-silicene bilayer system are studied using density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Depending on the energy of the <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, the transmission can be larger in this system as compared to the sum of the transmissions of separated graphene and silicene monolayers. This effect is related to the increased <span class="hlt">electron</span> density of states in the bilayer sample. At some energies, the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states become localized in one of the layers, resulting in the suppression of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission. The effect of an applied voltage on the transmission becomes more pronounced in the layered sample as compared to graphene due to the larger variation of the electrostatic potential profile. Our findings will be useful when creating hybrid nanoscale devices where enhanced <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties will be desirable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......183C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......183C"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> and Ionic <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Carbon Nanotubes and Other Nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, Di</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis describes several experiments based on carbon nanotube nanofludic devices and field-effect transistors. The first experiment detected ion and molecule translocation through one single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) that spans a barrier between two fluid reservoirs. The electrical ionic current is measured. Translocation of small single stranded DNA oligomers is marked by large transient increases in current through the tube and confirmed by a PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis. Carbon nanotubes simplify the construction of nanopores, permit new types of electrical measurement, and open new avenues for control of DNA translocation. The second experiment constructed devices in which the interior of a single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET) acts as a nanofluidic channel that connects two fluid reservoirs, permitting measurement of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties of the SWCNT as it is wetted by an analyte. Wetting of the inside of the SWCNT by water turns the transistor on, while wetting of the outside has little effect. This finding may provide a new method to investigate water behavior at nanoscale. This also opens a new avenue for building sensors in which the SWCNT functions as an <span class="hlt">electronic</span> detector. This thesis also presents some experiments that related to nanofabrication, such as construction of FET with tin sulfide (SnS) quantum ribbon. This work demonstrates the application of solution processed IV-VI semiconductor nanostructures in nanoscale devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6601907','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6601907"><span>Hollow-fiber membranes for photosensitized <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wamser, C.C.; Otvos, J.W.; Calvin, M.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Commercially available cellulose acetate hollow fiber membranes have been investigated for possible use in artificial photosynthesis solar energy schemes. The function of the membrane is to contain the photosensitizer and to separate the oxidized and reduced species which result from photosensitized <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer reactions on each side of the membrane wall. Membranes were successfully modified by a process of soaking in a THF solution saturated with porphyrin, followed by a water rinse. This procedure gives dark purple fibers which contain up to 30 mM zinc tetraphenylporphyrin in the fiber walls. A plumbing system has been developed to allow flow of a solution through the inner channels of a 24-fiber bundle while it is immersed in a separate outer solution. Preliminary studies indicate that the fibers are somewhat permeable to both EDTA and dimethyl viologen, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> donor and acceptor molecules, respectively. Preliminary photochemical studies on cut-up pieces of the treated fiber indicate that it does photosensitize a reaction between EDTA and dimethyl viologen in aqueous solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MAR.S1260R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MAR.S1260R"><span>Dependence of magnetic field and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of Mn4 Single-molecule magnet in a Single-<span class="hlt">Electron</span> Transistor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, Alvar; Singh, Simranjeet; Haque, Firoze; Del Barco, Enrique; Nguyen, Tu; Christou, George</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Dependence of magnetic field and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of Mn4 Single-molecule magnet in a Single-<span class="hlt">Electron</span> Transistor A. Rodriguez, S. Singh, F. Haque and E. del Barco Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, Florida 32816 USA T. Nguyen and G. Christou Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 USA Abstract We have performed single-<span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements on a series of Mn-based low-nuclearity single-molecule magnets (SMM) observing Coulomb blockade. SMMs with well isolated and low ground spin states, i.e. S = 9/2 (Mn4) and S = 6 (Mn3) were chosen for these studies, such that the ground spin multiplet does not mix with levels of other excited spin states for the magnetic fields (H = 0-8 T) employed in the experiments. Different functionalization groups were employed to change the mechanical, geometrical and <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics of the molecules when deposited from liquid solution on the transistors. Electromigration-broken three-terminal single-<span class="hlt">electron</span> transistors were used. Results obtained at temperatures down to 240 mK and in the presence of high magnetic fields will be shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......173C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999PhDT.......173C"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the nanostructured titanium dioxide electrodes in the application of solar cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cao, Fei</p> <p></p> <p>The high efficiency of dye sensitized nanostructured TiO 2 photoelectrochemical solar cells underlines the high charge transfer efficiency at the semiconductor/dye interface and the ability of the nanometer sized TiO2 particle network in intimate contact with the electrolyte to <span class="hlt">transport</span> the injected <span class="hlt">electrons</span> without significant losses. The operating mechanisms of these photoelectrochemical systems are reviewed. The focus of this dissertation is the photoelectrical properties of nanostructured TiO 2 films and the associated charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> process. Transient techniques, both in the time domain and frequency domain were used to probe the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the TiO2 electrodes. The conductivity of nanostructured TiO2 thin films increases several orders of magnitude under illumination yet the conductivity is very low in the dark, illustrating the fact that the conductivity is strongly dependent on the trapped charges in these films. Due to the lack of a strong electrical field, charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> only becomes efficient after the build up of a concentration gradient to drive the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> process, resulting in slow photocurrent and photovoltage transients in the photoelectrochemical cells. The open circuit photovoltages follow the conventional diode equation. This can be understood in terms of the Fermi level at the TiO2/tin oxide contact. The injection of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> leads to the increase of the Fermi level at the contact. The time constants obtained follow a simple power law relationship with the light intensity reflecting the kinetics of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the nanostructured electrodes. The essential features of the nonsteady state response can be described by a diffusion model where the <span class="hlt">electron</span> diffusion coefficient is dependent on light intensity. The lack of <span class="hlt">electron</span> migration can be rationalized by the fact that any electrical field in the porous electrodes may be neutralized by the mobile ions in the electrolyte.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1862257','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1862257"><span>Activity of erdosteine on mucociliary <span class="hlt">transport</span> in patients <span class="hlt">affected</span> by chronic bronchitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Olivieri, D; Del Donno, M; Casalini, A; D'Ippolito, R; Fregnan, G B</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The influence of erdosteine (a mucomodulator endowed with mucolytic and antioxidant properties) on human mucociliary <span class="hlt">transport</span> (MCT) was investigated in a double-blind placebo controlled study. Sixteen former smokers <span class="hlt">affected</span> by chronic bronchitis, preselected for their mucociliary responsiveness to an inhaled beta 2-agonist, were divided into two groups (matched by number, sex, age and FEV1%) and orally treated with placebo or erdosteine (300 mg t.i.d.) for 8 days. Their MCT was assessed by the bronchofiberscopy technique just before starting the treatment and at the end of the treatment. The pretreatment mucus <span class="hlt">transport</span> velocity in these patients was significantly decreased with respect to healthy subjects. The erdosteine treatment induced a significant improvement of MCT while placebo was inactive (mean % variation +/- SE against their baseline values being +60.4 +/- 18.4 and -3.0 +/- 5.9, respectively). This peculiar activity of erdosteine on mucus <span class="hlt">transport</span> may be of clinical usefulness in chronic bronchitic patients and it can be added to beta 2-agonist to restore the decreased MCT.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22264075','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22264075"><span>Quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> through disordered 1D wires: Conductance via localized and delocalized <span class="hlt">electrons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gopar, Víctor A.</p> <p>2014-01-14</p> <p>Coherent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through disordered systems, like quantum wires, is a topic of fundamental and practical interest. In particular, the exponential localization of <span class="hlt">electron</span> wave functions-Anderson localization-due to the presence of disorder has been widely studied. In fact, Anderson localization, is not an phenomenon exclusive to <span class="hlt">electrons</span> but it has been observed in microwave and acoustic experiments, photonic materials, cold atoms, etc. Nowadays, many properties of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of quantum wires have been successfully described within a scaling approach to Anderson localization. On the other hand, anomalous localization or delocalization is, in relation to the Anderson problem, a less studied phenomenon. Although one can find signatures of anomalous localization in very different systems in nature. In the problem of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, a source of delocalization may come from symmetries present in the system and particular disorder configurations, like the so-called Lévy-type disorder. We have developed a theoretical model to describe the statistical properties of <span class="hlt">transport</span> when <span class="hlt">electron</span> wave functions are delocalized. In particular, we show that only two physical parameters determine the complete conductance distribution.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..435...15D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyA..435...15D"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in disordered chains with saturable nonlinearity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>dos Santos, J. L. L.; Nguyen, Ba Phi; de Moura, F. A. B. F.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>In this work we study numerically the dynamics of an initially localized wave packet in one-dimensional disordered chains with saturable nonlinearity. By using the generalized discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we calculate two different physical quantities as a function of time, which are the participation number and the mean square displacement from the excitation site. From detailed numerical analysis, we find that the saturable nonlinearity can promote a sub-diffusive spreading of the wave packet even in the presence of diagonal disorder for a long time. In addition, we also investigate the effect of the saturated nonlinearity for initial times of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> evolution thus showing the possibility of mobile breather-like modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19278211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19278211"><span><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> on the nanoscale: ballistic transmission and Ohm's law.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Homoth, J; Wenderoth, M; Druga, T; Winking, L; Ulbrich, R G; Bobisch, C A; Weyers, B; Bannani, A; Zubkov, E; Bernhart, A M; Kaspers, M R; Möller, R</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>If a current of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> flows through a normal conductor (in contrast to a superconductor), it is impeded by local scattering at defects as well as phonon scattering. Both effects contribute to the voltage drop observed for a macroscopic complex system as described by Ohm's law. Although this concept is well established, it has not yet been measured around individual defects on the atomic scale. We have measured the voltage drop at a monatomic step in real space by restricting the current to a surface layer. For the Si(111)-( [see text]3 x [see text]3)-Ag surface a monotonous transition with a width below 1 nm was found. A numerical analysis of the data maps the current flow through the complex network and the interplay between defect-free terraces and monatomic steps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21199273','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21199273"><span>Transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy and electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> investigations performed on the same single-walled carbon nanotube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Philipp, G.; Burghard, M.; Roth, S.</p> <p>1998-08-11</p> <p>Electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements and high resolution transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy performed on the same (rope of) single-walled carbon nanotube(s) (SWCNTs) allow to establish links between structural and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties of the tubes. The tubes are deposited on <span class="hlt">electron</span> transparent ultrathin Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-membranes bearing Cr/AuPd-electrodes defined by <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam lithography. TEM-micrographs of the setup reveal mostly ropes consisting of 2-3 tubes which also appear on a scanning force microscope image of the same area. A current-voltage trace of the ropes at 4.2 K is also presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EL.....61..674H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EL.....61..674H"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> signatures of correlated disorder in a two-dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heinzel, T.; Jäggi, R.; Ribeiro, E.; Waldkirch, M. v.; Ensslin, K.; Ulloa, S. E.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.; Petroff, P. M.</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>We report <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements on two-dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gases in a Ga[Al]As heterostructure with an embedded layer of InAs self-assembled quantum dots. At high InAs dot densities, pronounced Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak magnetoresistance oscillations are observed, which indicate short-range ordering of the potential landscape formed by the charged dots and the strain fields. The presence of these oscillations coincides with the observation of a metal-insulator transition, and a maximum in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility as a function of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> density. Within a model based on correlated disorder, we establish a relation between these effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22408372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22408372"><span>Influence of oblique magnetic field on <span class="hlt">electron</span> cross-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a Hall effect thruster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miedzik, Jan; Daniłko, Dariusz; Barral, Serge</p> <p>2015-04-15</p> <p>The effects of the inclination of the magnetic field with respect to the channel walls in a Hall effect thruster are numerically studied with the use of a one-dimensional quasi-neutral Particle-In-Cell model with guiding center approximation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> motion along magnetic lines. Parametric studies suggest that the incidence angle strongly influences <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across the magnetic field. In ion-focusing magnetic topologies, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> collide predominantly on the side of the magnetic flux tube closer to the anode, thus increasing the <span class="hlt">electron</span> cross-field drift. The opposite effect is observed in ion-defocussing topology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EML.....8..429M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EML.....8..429M"><span>Preparation and characterization of oxadiazole based <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> thin films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mahajan, Aman; Aulakh, Ramanpreet Kaur; Bedi, R. K.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>To study the effect of aggregation of the 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) molecule in solid state, thin films of PBD have been prepared by the thermal evaporation technique onto glass and quartz substrates under different experimental conditions. These films have been studied for their structural, optical and electrical properties. AFM investigations of the films revealed that the films were smooth, dense and crack free with RMS roughness of 11-14 nm. XRD measurements indicate that films deposited on quartz are more crystalline than films deposited on glass substrate. Both absorption and reflectance spectra over the wavelength range 200-800 nm have been recorded to find optical parameters, namely, absorption, extinction coefficient, refractive index and dielectric constants. The inter-band transition energies are found to lie within the range 3.45-3.49 eV. Optical studies of the films indicate that PBD molecules preferred J-aggregation. A prominent single emission peak in the range of 370-390 nm has been observed which confirms that the fluorescent property of this molecule is not quenched in the thin film state. The electrical conductivity results for the evaporated films exhibited semiconductor behaviour within the investigated field and temperature range. The nature of the substrate is found to be a useful tool to modify the film morphology and for enhancing the charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> within the films.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20163088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20163088"><span>Fuel-mix, fuel efficiency, and <span class="hlt">transport</span> demand <span class="hlt">affect</span> prospects for biofuels in northern Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bright, Ryan M; Strømman, Anders Hammer</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the road <span class="hlt">transport</span> sector represents a difficult mitigation challenge due to a multitude of intricate factors, namely the dependency on liquid energy carriers and infrastructure lock-in. For this reason, low-carbon renewable energy carriers, particularly second generation biofuels, are often seen as a prominent candidate for realizing reduced emissions and lowered oil dependency over the medium- and long-term horizons. However, the overarching question is whether advanced biofuels can be an environmentally effective mitigation strategy in the face of increasing consumption and resource constraints. Here we develop both biofuel production and road <span class="hlt">transport</span> consumption scenarios for northern Europe-a region with a vast surplus of forest bioenergy resources-to assess the potential role that forest-based biofuels may play over the medium- and long-term time horizons using an environmentally extended, multiregion input-output model. Through scenarios, we explore how evolving vehicle technologies and consumption patterns will <span class="hlt">affect</span> the mitigation opportunities afforded by any future supply of forest biofuels. We find that in a scenario involving ambitious biofuel targets, the size of the GHG mitigation wedge attributed to the market supply of biofuels is severely reduced under business-as-usual growth in consumption in the road <span class="hlt">transport</span> sector. Our results indicate that climate policies targeting the road <span class="hlt">transport</span> sector which give high emphases to reducing demand (volume), accelerating the deployment of more fuel-efficient vehicles, and promoting altered consumption patterns (structure) can be significantly more effective than those with single emphasis on expanded biofuel supply.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvL..96j5007G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhRvL..96j5007G"><span>Analysis of Bifurcation Phenomena in the <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Internal <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Barrier in the Large Helical Device</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García, J.; Yamazaki, K.; Dies, J.; Izquierdo, J.</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barrier (eITB) formation in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is studied with the <span class="hlt">transport</span> code TOTAL and a GyroBohm-like model. The reduction of anomalous <span class="hlt">transport</span> by the E×B shear has been introduced by means of the factor [1+(τωE×B)γ]-1. Simulation results show a clear critical transition between plasma regimes with rather flat <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature profiles (non-eITB) to a steeped one (with eITB) when average density is low enough. With the aim of studying the eITB formation as a phase transition phenomenon, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> average density is taken as the control parameter and the E×B shearing rate as the order parameter. Results show how the eITB formation in LHD is compatible with a continuum phase transition with critical exponent β=0.40.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830020581','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830020581"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Paracoccus Halodenitrificans and the Role of Ubiquinone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hochstein, L. I.; Cronin, S. E.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The membrane-bound NADH oxidase of Paracoccus halodenitrificans was inhibited by dicoumarol, 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO), and exposure to ultraviolet light (at 366 nm). When the membranes were extracted with n-pentane, NADH oxidase activity was lost. Partial restoration was achieved by adding the ubiquinone fraction extracted from the membranes. Succinate oxidation was not inhibited by dicoumarol or HQNO but was <span class="hlt">affected</span> by ultraviolet irradiation or n-pentane extraction. However, the addition of the ubiquinone fraction to the n-pentane-extracted membranes did not restore enzyme activity. These observations suggested the reducing equivalents from succinate entered the respiratory chain on the oxygen side of the HQNO-sensitive site and probably did not proceed through a quinone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JPhy1...1..837L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JPhy1...1..837L"><span>Linear <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in dense plasmas. II. Finite degeneracy contributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Léger, D.; Deutsch, C.</p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p>The formalism described in the first paper in this series is hereafter specialized to a thorough investigation of finite degeneracy contributions to thermoelectronic and mechanical <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients, conveniently expressed as reduced quantities. Temperature corrections are systematically discussed through the analytical properties of the jellium dielectric function. The Thomas-Fermi one appears as a paradigm of regular behavior at q=2k_F while the Lindhard and its T-dependent extension head a singular class characterized by diverging derivatives. Specific methods are developed for these important cases. Results are presented in terms of analytic expansions in the degeneracy parameter α, and exact expressions for the above-mentioned corrections are derived up to order α2. Finally we display a number of numerical results pertaining to fully ionized proton-helium binary mixtures of Astrophysical interest. The connection of the present formalism and its numerical outputs with other previous treatments is also carefully examined. Le formalisme exposé et détaillé dans le premier article de cette série est ici appliqué à la détermination des contributions de dégénérescence partielle aux coefficients de <span class="hlt">transport</span> thermoélectroniques et mécanique (viscosité), coefficients préalablement exprimés sous forme d'expressions réduites. Les corrections de température finie sont systématiquement analysées en relation avec les propriétés analytiques de la fonction diélectrique du jellium. Alors que celle de Thomas-Fermi fournit l'exemple type de fonction parfaitement régulière en q=2k_F, celle de Lindhard et sa généralisation à T finie sont au contraire caractérisées par des dérivées divergentes en ce point. Des méthodes spécifiques sont développées pour traiter correctement ces cas importants. Nos résultats sont présentés sous forme de développements analytiques en puissance du paramètre de dégénérescence α, et des expressions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4463002','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4463002"><span>Microbial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and energy conservation – the foundation for optimizing bioelectrochemical systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kracke, Frauke; Vassilev, Igor; Krömer, Jens O.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Microbial electrochemical techniques describe a variety of emerging technologies that use electrode–bacteria interactions for biotechnology applications including the production of electricity, waste and wastewater treatment, bioremediation and the production of valuable products. Central in each application is the ability of the microbial catalyst to interact with external <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors and/or donors and its metabolic properties that enable the combination of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and carbon metabolism. And here also lies the key challenge. A wide range of microbes has been discovered to be able to exchange <span class="hlt">electrons</span> with solid surfaces or mediators but only a few have been studied in depth. Especially <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer mechanisms from cathodes towards the microbial organism are poorly understood but are essential for many applications such as microbial electrosynthesis. We analyze the different <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chains that nature offers for organisms such as metal respiring bacteria and acetogens, but also standard biotechnological organisms currently used in bio-production. Special focus lies on the essential connection of redox and energy metabolism, which is often ignored when studying bioelectrochemical systems. The possibility of extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> exchange at different points in each organism is discussed regarding required redox potentials and effect on cellular redox and energy levels. Key compounds such as <span class="hlt">electron</span> carriers (e.g., cytochromes, ferredoxin, quinones, flavins) are identified and analyzed regarding their possible role in electrode–microbe interactions. This work summarizes our current knowledge on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes and uses a theoretical approach to predict the impact of different modes of transfer on the energy metabolism. As such it adds an important piece of fundamental understanding of microbial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> possibilities to the research community and will help to optimize and advance bioelectrochemical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26124754','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26124754"><span>Microbial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and energy conservation - the foundation for optimizing bioelectrochemical systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kracke, Frauke; Vassilev, Igor; Krömer, Jens O</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Microbial electrochemical techniques describe a variety of emerging technologies that use electrode-bacteria interactions for biotechnology applications including the production of electricity, waste and wastewater treatment, bioremediation and the production of valuable products. Central in each application is the ability of the microbial catalyst to interact with external <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors and/or donors and its metabolic properties that enable the combination of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and carbon metabolism. And here also lies the key challenge. A wide range of microbes has been discovered to be able to exchange <span class="hlt">electrons</span> with solid surfaces or mediators but only a few have been studied in depth. Especially <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer mechanisms from cathodes towards the microbial organism are poorly understood but are essential for many applications such as microbial electrosynthesis. We analyze the different <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chains that nature offers for organisms such as metal respiring bacteria and acetogens, but also standard biotechnological organisms currently used in bio-production. Special focus lies on the essential connection of redox and energy metabolism, which is often ignored when studying bioelectrochemical systems. The possibility of extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> exchange at different points in each organism is discussed regarding required redox potentials and effect on cellular redox and energy levels. Key compounds such as <span class="hlt">electron</span> carriers (e.g., cytochromes, ferredoxin, quinones, flavins) are identified and analyzed regarding their possible role in electrode-microbe interactions. This work summarizes our current knowledge on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes and uses a theoretical approach to predict the impact of different modes of transfer on the energy metabolism. As such it adds an important piece of fundamental understanding of microbial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> possibilities to the research community and will help to optimize and advance bioelectrochemical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhR...669....1C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhR...669....1C"><span>Single-<span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene-like nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiu, Kuei-Lin; Xu, Yang</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional (2D) materials for their versatile band structures and strictly 2D nature have attracted considerable attention over the past decade. Graphene is a robust material for spintronics owing to its weak spin-orbit and hyperfine interactions, while monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) possess a Zeeman effect-like band splitting in which the spin and valley degrees of freedom are nondegenerate. The surface states of topological insulators (TIs) exhibit a spin-momentum locking that opens up the possibility of controlling the spin degree of freedom in the absence of an external magnetic field. Nanostructures made of these materials are also viable for use in quantum computing applications involving the superposition and entanglement of individual charge and spin quanta. In this article, we review a selection of <span class="hlt">transport</span> studies addressing the confinement and manipulation of charges in nanostructures fabricated from various 2D materials. We supply the entry-level knowledge for this field by first introducing the fundamental properties of 2D bulk materials followed by the theoretical background relevant to the physics of nanostructures. Subsequently, a historical review of experimental development in this field is presented, from the early demonstration of graphene nanodevices on SiO2 substrate to more recent progress in utilizing hexagonal boron nitride to reduce substrate disorder. In the second part of this article, we extend our discussion to TMDs and TI nanostructures. We aim to outline the current challenges and suggest how future work will be geared towards developing spin qubits in 2D materials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28230222','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28230222"><span>Conceptual density functional theory for <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in mesoscopic systems.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bueno, Paulo R; Miranda, David A</p> <p>2017-02-22</p> <p>Molecular and supramolecular systems are essentially mesoscopic in character. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> self-exchange, in the case of energy fluctuations, or <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer/<span class="hlt">transport</span>, in the case of the presence of an externally driven electrochemical potential, between mesoscopic sites is energetically driven in such a manner where the electrochemical capacitance (C[small mu, Greek, macron]) is fundamental. Thus, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer/<span class="hlt">transport</span> through channels connecting two distinct energetic (ΔE[small mu, Greek, macron]) and spatially separated mesoscopic sites is capacitively modulated. Remarkably, the relationship between the quantum conductance (G) and the standard electrochemical rate constant (kr), which is indispensable to understanding the physical and chemical characteristics governing <span class="hlt">electron</span> exchange in molecular scale systems, was revealed to be related to C[small mu, Greek, macron], that is, C[small mu, Greek, macron] = G/kr. Accordingly, C[small mu, Greek, macron] is the proportional missing term that controls the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer/<span class="hlt">transport</span> in mesoscopic systems in a wide-range, and equally it can be understood from first principles density functional quantum mechanical approaches. Indeed the differences in energy between states is calculated (or experimentally accessed) throughout the electrochemical capacitance as ΔE[small mu, Greek, macron] = β/C[small mu, Greek, macron], and thus constitutes the driving force for G and/or kr, where β is only a proportional constant that includes the square of the unit <span class="hlt">electron</span> charge times the square of the number of <span class="hlt">electron</span> particles interchanged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10714274','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10714274"><span>Bioflavonoid effects on the mitochondrial respiratory <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain and cytochrome c redox state.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moini, H; Arroyo, A; Vaya, J; Packer, L</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The polyphenolic structure common to flavonoids enables them to donate <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and exert antioxidant activity. Since the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain consists of a series of redox intermediates, the effect of flavonoids in a complex mixture of polyphenols, as well as related pure flavonoids, was evaluated on the rat liver mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain. A French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), a complex mixture of polyphenols and related pure flavonoids, was able to reduce cytochrome c reversibly, possibly by donation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to the iron of the heme group; the donated <span class="hlt">electrons</span> can be utilized by cytochrome c oxidase. Among single flavonoids tested, (-)-epicatechin gallate had the greatest ability to reduce cytochrome c. In addition, PBE competitively inhibited <span class="hlt">electron</span> chain activity in both whole mitochondria and submitochondrial particles. A 3.5-fold increase in the apparent Km value for succinate was calculated from reciprocal plots. Among the flavonoids tested, taxifolin and (-)-epicatechin gallate showed minor inhibitory effects, while (+/-)-catechin and (+)-epicatechin were ineffective. Activities of NADH-ubiquinone, succinate-ubiquinone, and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductases were inhibited by low concentrations of PBE to a similar extent. However, inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase activity required 4-fold higher PBE concentrations. These results suggest that flavonoids reduce cytochrome c and that PBE inhibits <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain activity mainly through NADH-ubiquinone, succinate-ubiquinone, and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1345509','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1345509"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> temperature critical gradient and <span class="hlt">transport</span> stiffness in DIII-D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, Sterling P.; Petty, Clinton C.; White, Anne E.; Holland, Christopher; Bravenec, Ronald; Austin, Max E.; Zeng, Lei; Meneghini, Orso</p> <p>2015-07-06</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy flux has been probed as a function of <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient on the DIII-D tokamak, in a continuing effort to validate turbulent <span class="hlt">transport</span> models. In the scan of gradient, a critical <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient has been found in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat fluxes and stiffness at various radii in L-mode plasmas. The TGLF reduced turbulent <span class="hlt">transport</span> model [G.M. Staebler et al, Phys. Plasmas 14, 055909 (2007)] and full gyrokinetic GYRO model [J. Candy and R.E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] recover the general trend of increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy flux with increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient scale length, but they do not predict the absolute level of <span class="hlt">transport</span> at all radii and gradients. Comparing the experimental observations of incremental (heat pulse) diffusivity and stiffness to the models’ reveals that TGLF reproduces the trends in increasing diffusivity and stiffness with increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient scale length with a critical gradient behavior. Furthermore, the critical gradient of TGLF is found to have a dependence on q<sub>95</sub>, contrary to the independence of the experimental critical gradient from q<sub>95</sub>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1345509-electron-temperature-critical-gradient-transport-stiffness-diii','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1345509-electron-temperature-critical-gradient-transport-stiffness-diii"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> temperature critical gradient and <span class="hlt">transport</span> stiffness in DIII-D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Smith, Sterling P.; Petty, Clinton C.; White, Anne E.; ...</p> <p>2015-07-06</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy flux has been probed as a function of <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient on the DIII-D tokamak, in a continuing effort to validate turbulent <span class="hlt">transport</span> models. In the scan of gradient, a critical <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient has been found in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat fluxes and stiffness at various radii in L-mode plasmas. The TGLF reduced turbulent <span class="hlt">transport</span> model [G.M. Staebler et al, Phys. Plasmas 14, 055909 (2007)] and full gyrokinetic GYRO model [J. Candy and R.E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] recover the general trend of increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy flux with increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient scale length,more » but they do not predict the absolute level of <span class="hlt">transport</span> at all radii and gradients. Comparing the experimental observations of incremental (heat pulse) diffusivity and stiffness to the models’ reveals that TGLF reproduces the trends in increasing diffusivity and stiffness with increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient scale length with a critical gradient behavior. Furthermore, the critical gradient of TGLF is found to have a dependence on q95, contrary to the independence of the experimental critical gradient from q95.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21867317','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21867317"><span>Effect of the plasma-generated magnetic field on relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nicolaï, Ph; Feugeas, J-L; Regan, C; Olazabal-Loumé, M; Breil, J; Dubroca, B; Morreeuw, J-P; Tikhonchuk, V</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>In the fast-ignition scheme, relativistic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> energy from the laser deposition zone to the dense part of the target where the fusion reactions can be ignited. The magnetic fields and <span class="hlt">electron</span> collisions play an important role in the collimation or defocusing of this <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam. Detailed description of these effects requires large-scale kinetic calculations and is limited to short time intervals. In this paper, a reduced kinetic model of fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> coupled to the radiation hydrodynamic code is presented. It opens the possibility to carry on hybrid simulations in a time scale of tens of picoseconds or more. It is shown with this code that plasma-generated magnetic fields induced by noncollinear temperature and density gradients may strongly modify <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a time scale of a few picoseconds. These fields tend to defocus the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam, reducing the coupling efficiency to the target. This effect, that was not seen before in shorter time simulations, has to be accounted for in any ignition design using <span class="hlt">electrons</span> as a driver.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1056728','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1056728"><span>High-Temperature Sensitivity and Its Acclimation for Photosynthetic <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Reactions of Desert Succulents 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chetti, Mahadev B.; Nobel, Park S.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increases in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60°C. Whole chain <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> averaged 3°C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3°C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30°C/20°C, treatment at 50°C caused these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30°C/20°C to 45°C/35°C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3°C to 8°C for the three <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45°C/35°C plants treated at 60°C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plant so far reported. PMID:16665562</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16665562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16665562"><span>High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions of desert succulents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chetti, M B; Nobel, P S</p> <p>1987-08-01</p> <p>Photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increases in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60 degrees C. Whole chain <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> averaged 3 degrees C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3 degrees C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30 degrees C/20 degrees C, treatment at 50 degrees C caused these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30 degrees C/20 degrees C to 45 degrees C/35 degrees C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3 degrees C to 8 degrees C for the three <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45 degrees C/35 degrees C plants treated at 60 degrees C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plant so far reported.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25608276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25608276"><span>Correlation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and photocatalysis of nanocrystalline clusters studied by Monte-Carlo continuity random walking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Baoshun; Li, Ziqiang; Zhao, Xiujian</p> <p>2015-02-21</p> <p>In this research, Monte-Carlo Continuity Random Walking (MC-RW) model was used to study the relation between <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and photocatalysis of nano-crystalline (nc) clusters. The effects of defect energy disorder, spatial disorder of material structure, <span class="hlt">electron</span> density, and interfacial transfer/recombination on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and the photocatalysis were studied. Photocatalytic activity is defined as 1/τ from a statistical viewpoint with τ being the <span class="hlt">electron</span> average lifetime. Based on the MC-RW simulation, a clear physical and chemical "picture" was given for the photocatalytic kinetic analysis of nc-clusters. It is shown that the increase of defect energy disorder and material spatial structural disorder, such as the decrease of defect trap number, the increase of crystallinity, the increase of particle size, and the increase of inter-particle connection, can enhance photocatalytic activity through increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> ability. The increase of <span class="hlt">electron</span> density increases the <span class="hlt">electron</span> Fermi level, which decreases the activation energy for <span class="hlt">electron</span> de-trapping from traps to extending states, and correspondingly increases <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> ability and photocatalytic activity. Reducing recombination of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and holes can increase <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the increase of <span class="hlt">electron</span> density and then increases the photocatalytic activity. In addition to the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the increase of probability for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to undergo photocatalysis can increase photocatalytic activity through the increase of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> interfacial transfer speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2825979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2825979"><span>Proton stoichiometry of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in rodent tumor mitoplasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferreira, J; Reynafarje, B; Costa, L E; Lehninger, A L</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>The mechanistic vectorial H+/O translocation ratios characteristic of energy-conserving sites 2 + 3 and site 3 of the respiratory chain of two tumor cell lines were determined using succinate and ferrocytochrome c, respectively, as <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors. The measurements were carried out on mitoplasts in order to allow ferrocytochrome c free access to its binding site on the inner mitochondrial membrane. The tumor cell lines used were Ehrlich ascites tumor and the AS30-D ascites tumor. K+ was used as charge-compensating cation in the presence of valinomycin. The O2 uptake rate measurements were made with a fast-responding membrane-less electrode whose response time was closely matched with that of a pH electrode. The rates of O2 uptake and H+ ejection during the apparent zero-order rate phase of respiration, analyzed by computer, were extrapolated to zero time. The observed H+/O ratios for succinate oxidation in both tumors exceeded 7 and approached 8 and the H+/O ratios for the cytochrome oxidase reaction closely approached 4.0, in agreement with data or normal mitochondria. However, the rates of H+ back decay in the tumor mitochondria are relatively high and may influence the net efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation under intracellular conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......123P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......123P"><span>Temperature-dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in quantum dot photovoltaics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Padilla, Derek J.</p> <p></p> <p>Quantum dot photovoltaics have attracted much interest from researchers in recent years. They have the potential to address both costs and efficiencies of solar cells while simultaneously demonstrating novel physics. Thin-film devices inherently require less material than bulk crystalline silicon, and solution deposition removes the high energy used in fabrication processes. The ease of bandgap tunability in quantum dots through size control allows for simple graded bandgap structures, which is one method of breaking beyond the Shockley-Queisser limit. Power output can also be increased through the process of multiple exciton generation, whereby more than one <span class="hlt">electron</span> participates in conduction after the absorption of a single photon. In this dissertation work, quantum dot photovoltaics are examined through a range of temperatures. Exploring the current-voltage-temperature parameter space provides insight into the dominant conduction mechanisms within these materials, which is largely not agreed upon. Beginning with PbS quantum dots, changes in device structure are examined by varying the capping ligand and nanoparticle size. This leads similar studies of new, germanium quantum dot devices. Through this understanding, further optimization of device structure can lead to enhanced device performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086022','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086022"><span>Effects of parallel <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics on plasma blob <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Umansky, Maxim V.</p> <p>2012-08-15</p> <p>The 3D effects on sheath connected plasma blobs that result from parallel <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics are studied by allowing for the variation of blob density and potential along the magnetic field line and using collisional Ohm's law to model the parallel current density. The parallel current density from linear sheath theory, typically used in the 2D model, is implemented as parallel boundary conditions. This model includes electrostatic 3D effects, such as resistive drift waves and blob spinning, while retaining all of the fundamental 2D physics of sheath connected plasma blobs. If the growth time of unstable drift waves is comparable to the 2D advection time scale of the blob, then the blob's density gradient will be depleted resulting in a much more diffusive blob with little radial motion. Furthermore, blob profiles that are initially varying along the field line drive the potential to a Boltzmann relation that spins the blob and thereby acts as an addition sink of the 2D potential. Basic dimensionless parameters are presented to estimate the relative importance of these two 3D effects. The deviation of blob dynamics from that predicted by 2D theory in the appropriate limits of these parameters is demonstrated by a direct comparison of 2D and 3D seeded blob simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=207228','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=207228"><span>Metronidazole activation and isolation of Clostridium acetobutylicum <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> genes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Santangelo, J D; Jones, D T; Woods, D R</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>An Escherichia coli F19 recA, nitrate reductase-deficient mutant was constructed by transposon mutagenesis and shown to be resistant to metronidazole. This mutant was a most suitable host for the isolation of Clostridium acetobutylicum genes on recombinant plasmids, which activated metronidazole and rendered the E. coli F19 strain sensitive to metronidazole. Twenty-five E. coli F19 clones containing different recombinant plasmids were isolated and classified into five groups on the basis of their sensitivity to metronidazole. The clones were tested for nitrate reductase, pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and hydrogenase activities. DNA hybridization and restriction endonuclease mapping revealed that four of the C. acetobutylicum insert DNA fragments on recombinant plasmids were linked in an 11.1-kb chromosomal fragment. DNA sequencing and amino acid homology studies indicated that this DNA fragment contained a flavodoxin gene which encoded a protein of 160 amino acids that activated metronidazole and made the E. coli F19 mutant very sensitive to metronidazole. The flavodoxin and hydrogenase genes which are involved in <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer systems were linked on the 11.1-kb DNA fragment from C. acetobutylicum. Images PMID:1991710</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25631449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25631449"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">electron</span> correlations on <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of iron at Earth's core conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Peng; Cohen, R E; Haule, K</p> <p>2015-01-29</p> <p>Earth's magnetic field has been thought to arise from thermal convection of molten iron alloy in the outer core, but recent density functional theory calculations have suggested that the conductivity of iron is too high to support thermal convection, resulting in the investigation of chemically driven convection. These calculations for resistivity were based on <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon scattering. Here we apply self-consistent density functional theory plus dynamical mean-field theory (DFT + DMFT) to iron and find that at high temperatures <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> scattering is comparable to the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon scattering, bringing theory into agreement with experiments and solving the <span class="hlt">transport</span> problem in Earth's core. The conventional thermal dynamo picture is safe. We find that <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> scattering of d <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is important at high temperatures in transition metals, in contrast to textbook analyses since Mott, and that 4s <span class="hlt">electron</span> contributions to <span class="hlt">transport</span> are negligible, in contrast to numerous models used for over fifty years. The DFT+DMFT method should be applicable to other high-temperature systems where <span class="hlt">electron</span> correlations are important.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23137318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23137318"><span>Interplay of <span class="hlt">electron</span> hopping and bounded diffusion during charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> in redox polymer electrodes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Akhoury, Abhinav; Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan</p> <p>2013-01-10</p> <p>Redox polymer electrodes (RPEs) have been prepared both by attachment of random copolymers of hydroxybutyl methacrylate and vinylferrocene (poly(HBMA-co-VF)) to carbon substrates by grafting either "to" or "from" the substrate surfaces, and by impregnation of porous carbon substrates with redox polymer gels of similar composition. An observed linear dependence of peak current on the square root of the applied voltage scan rate in cyclic voltammetry (CV) led to the conclusion that the rate controlling step in the redox process was the diffusive transfer of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> through the redox polymer layer. The variation in the peak current with increasing concentration of the redox species in the polymer indicated that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> transitioned from bounded diffusion to <span class="hlt">electron</span> hopping. A modified form of the Blauch-Saveant equation for apparent diffusivity of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> through a polymer film indicated that bounded diffusion was the dominant mechanism of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in RPEs with un-cross-linked polymer chains at low concentrations of the redox species, but, as the concentration of the redox species increased, <span class="hlt">electron</span> hopping became more dominant, and was the primary mode of <span class="hlt">electron</span> diffusion above a certain concentration level of redox species. In the cross-linked polymer gels, bounded diffusion was limited because of the restricted mobility of the polymer chains. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> hopping was the primary mode of <span class="hlt">electron</span> diffusion in such systems at all concentrations of the redox species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SuMi...69..144K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SuMi...69..144K"><span>Non-equilibrium normal and critical <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in strontium-doped bismuthate cuprates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwang-Hua, Chu Rainer</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Critical dynamical transitional phases of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> liquids driven by an initial electric field in a microscopic confined environment at low temperature regime could occur after we investigated by adopting the verified theory of absolute reactions. The critical temperatures related to the nearly frictionless <span class="hlt">transport</span> of many condensed <span class="hlt">electrons</span> might be directly relevant to the dynamical transition at low-temperature regime in amorphous materials, say (Bi2-xSrx)2CuO6, after selecting specific activation energies and activation volumes. We also address the normal-state high-temperature <span class="hlt">transport</span> issue.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013257','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013257"><span>An Enhanced Nonlinear Critical Gradient for <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Turbulent <span class="hlt">Transport</span> due to Reversed Magnetic Shear</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peterson, J. L.; Hammet, G. W.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Yuh, H. Y.; Candy, J.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.</p> <p>2011-05-11</p> <p>The first nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of <span class="hlt">electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barriers (e-ITBs) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment show that reversed magnetic shear can suppress thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> by increasing the nonlinear critical gradient for <span class="hlt">electron</span>-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence to three times its linear critical value. An interesting feature of this turbulence is non- linearly driven off-midplane radial streamers. This work reinforces the experimental observation that magnetic shear is likely an effective way of triggering and sustaining e-ITBs in magnetic fusion devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptMa..39...21Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OptMa..39...21Y"><span>Efficiency enhancement of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using mixed <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoo, Seung Il; Yoon, Ju-An; Kim, Nam Ho; Kim, Jin Wook; Lee, Ho Won; Kim, Young Kwan; He, Gufeng; Kim, Woo Young</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) using mixed <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer (ETL) were fabricated with the device structure of ITO/NPB/mCP:Firpic-8%/TPBi:BCP or TPBi:3TPYMB/Liq/Al to observe mixed ETL's influence on their electrical and optical characteristics. OLED device with mixed ETL of TPBi with BCP or 3TPYMB significantly improved its current efficiency to 30.4 and 34.2 cd/A comparing to 19.8 cd/A of single ETL with BCP only. We examined mixed ETL's capability of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and triplet exciton confinement enhancing phosphorescent OLED's luminance and luminous efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MART43010V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MART43010V"><span>Long range <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in microbial nanowires bridging an electrode and scanned probe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veazey, Joshua; Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Walsh, Kathy; Sun, Jiebing; Zhang, Pengpeng; Reguera, Gemma; Tessmer, Stuart</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The filament-like appendages known as pili, expressed by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, are believed to act as electrically conductive nanowires. Previously, we used scanning tunneling microscopy to study the local density of states at different positions along the wire. However, the long range <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer believed to occur in this protein has not been directly observed. Here we discuss a system for verifying long range <span class="hlt">transport</span> using a scanning probe technique. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> at distances of more than a few nanometers would require a novel biological <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer process. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (MCB-1021948) and the Michigan State University Foundation (Strategic Partnership Grant).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.D1002H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.D1002H"><span>Density Functional Study of the <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> Properties of Waved Graphene Nanoribbons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hammouri, Mahmoud; Vasiliev, Igor</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>First principles ab initio calculations are employed to study the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of waved graphene nanoribbons. Our calculations are performed using the SIESTA and TRANSIESTA density functional <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure codes. We find that the band gaps of graphene nanoribbons with symmetrical edges change very slightly with the increasing compression, whereas the band gaps of nanoribbons with asymmetrical edges change significantly. The computed IV-characteristics of the waved graphene nanoribbons with different compression ratios reveal the effect of compression on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of graphene nanoribbons. Supported by NMSU GREG Award and by NSF CHE-1112388.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048934"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Non-Invasive Position Detection of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Beams from Laser-Plasma Accelerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Osterhoff, Jens; Sokollik, Thomas; Nakamura, Kei; Bakeman, Michael; Weingartner, R; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; DeSantis, Stefano; Byrd, John; Gruner, F; Leemans, Wim</p> <p>2011-07-20</p> <p>The controlled imaging and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of ultra-relativistic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from laser-plasma accelerators is of crucial importance to further use of these beams, e.g. in high peak-brightness light sources. We present our plans to realize beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> with miniature permanent quadrupole magnets from the <span class="hlt">electron</span> source through our THUNDER undulator. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of beam imaging by investigating the generated XUV-photon flux. In addition, first experimental findings of utilizing cavity-based monitors for non-invasive beam-position measurements in a noisy electromagnetic laser-plasma environment are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1278404','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1278404"><span>Photons, <span class="hlt">Electrons</span> and Positrons <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in 3D by Monte Carlo Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Version 04 FOTELP-2014 is a new compact general purpose version of the previous FOTELP-2K6 code designed to simulate the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of photons, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and positrons through three-dimensional material and sources geometry by Monte Carlo techniques, using subroutine package PENGEOM from the PENELOPE code under Linux-based and Windows OS. This new version includes routine ELMAG for <span class="hlt">electron</span> and positron <span class="hlt">transport</span> simulation in electric and magnetic fields, RESUME option and routine TIMER for obtaining starting random number and for measuring the time of simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyB..464...77Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhyB..464...77Y"><span>Effect of spin-flip scattering on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through double quantum dots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Fu-Bin; Huang, Rui; Cheng, Yan</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We systematically investigate the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through double quantum dots (DQD) with particular emphasis on the spin-flip scattering of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> in the DQD. By means of the slave-boson mean-field approximation, we calculate the linear conductance and the transmission in the Kondo regime at zero temperature. The obtained results show that both the linear conductance and transmission probability are quite sensitive to the spin-flip strength when the DQD structure is changed among the serial, parallel and T-shaped. It is suggested that such a theoretical model can be used to study the physical phenomenon related to the spin manipulation <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApPhA.123...47W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApPhA.123...47W"><span>Characterization of asymmetric <span class="hlt">electron</span> and hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a high-mobility semiconducting polymer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Liguo; Wang, Xinliang; Liu, Mengli; Cheng, Lingfei</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electron</span> and hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in a high-mobility n-type copolymer poly{[ N, N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diy1]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-dithiophene)}[P(NDI2OD-T2), PolyeraActivInk™ N2200] are investigated. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility is observed to be more than two orders of magnitude higher than the hole mobility. The thickness-dependent current density versus voltage ( J- V) characteristics of N2200 <span class="hlt">electron</span>-only and hole-only devices cannot be well described using the conventional mobility model. However, the thickness-dependent and temperature-dependent J- V characteristics of N2200 <span class="hlt">electron</span>-only and hole-only devices can be accurately described using our recently introduced improved mobility model only with a single set of parameters. Within the improved model, the mobility depends on three important physical quantities: the temperature, carrier density, and electric field. For the semiconducting polymer studied, we find the width of the Gaussian density of states σ = 0.082 eV and the lattice constant a = 0.8 nm for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, while the width of the Gaussian density of states σ = 0.11 eV and the lattice constant a = 0.8 nm for hole <span class="hlt">transport</span>. It is clear that hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> exhibits a significantly stronger disorder than <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. This is also reflected in the lower hole mobility, as compared to the <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1208777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1208777"><span>Proton Dynamics on Goethite Nanoparticles and Coupling to <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Smith, Dayle MA; Rosso, Kevin M.</p> <p>2015-04-14</p> <p>The surface chemistry of metal oxide particles is governed by the charge that develops at the interface with aqueous solution. Mineral transformation, biogeochemical reactions, remediation, and sorption dynamics are profoundly <span class="hlt">affected</span> in response. Here we report implementation of replica-exchange constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations that use classical molecular dynamics for exploring configurational space and Metropolis Monte Carlo walking through protonation space with a simulated annealing escape route from metastable configurations. By examining the archetypal metal oxide, goethite (α-FeOOH), we find that electrostatic potential gradients spontaneously arise between intersecting low-index crystal faces and across explicitly treated oxide nanoparticles at a magnitude exceeding the Johnson–Nyquist voltage fluctuation. Fluctuations in adsorbed proton density continuously repolarize the surface potential bias between edge-sharing crystal faces, at a rate slower than the reported electron–polaron hopping rate in goethite interiors. This suggests that these spontaneous surface potential fluctuations will control the net movement of charge carriers in the lattice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1086894','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1086894"><span>Studies on <span class="hlt">Electron-Transport</span> Reactions of Photosynthesis in Plastome Mutants of Oenothera</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fork, David C.; Heber, Ulrich W.</p> <p>1968-01-01</p> <p>Fluorescence characteristics and light-induced absorbance changes of 5 plastome mutants of Oenothera, all having a defect in photosynthesis, were investigated to localize the site of the block in their photosynthetic mechanism and to relate mutational changes in the plastome to specific biochemical events in photosynthesis. In 4 of the mutants examined photosystem 2 was largely, or completely, nonfunctional. Excitation of system 2 did not cause reduction of oxidized cytochrome f in these mutants. The system-2 dependent absorbance change at 518 mμ seen in normal leaves was absent in the mutants. Moreover, the mutants had a high initial fluorescence in the presence and in the absence of 3- (3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, which did not change during illumination, indicating that the reaction centers of system 2 were <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the mutations. Photosystem 1 functioned normally. A fifth mutant had an impaired photosystem 1. Even high intensity far-red light did not lead to an accumulation of oxidized cytochrome f as was seen in normal plants. Photosystem 2 was functioning, as evidenced by the fast reduction of the primary system-2 oxidant, and by the characteristics of the 518-mμ absorbance change. Because 1 of the 2 photosystems is functional in all mutants, and because they all have the enzymes of the photosynthetic carbon cycle, it appears that the effect of the mutation is specific. The results suggest that the plastome controls reactions within the <span class="hlt">electron-transport</span> chain of photosynthesis. PMID:16656813</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...121i5303S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JAP...121i5303S"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Al-Cu co-doped ZnO thin films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Serin, T.; Atilgan, A.; Kara, I.; Yildiz, A.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>To investigate the influence of varying Al content on structural, optical, and electrical properties of ZnO thin films, Al-Cu co-doped ZnO thin films with fixed Cu content at 1 wt. % and different Al contents (1, 3, and 5 wt. %) were successfully synthesized on glass substrates using a sol-gel process. The results indicated that the varying Al content <span class="hlt">affects</span> not only the grain size and band gap but also the electrical conductivity of the films, and a linear relationship was found between the band gap and strain values of the films. The temperature-dependent electrical conductivity data of the films demonstrated that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> was mainly controlled by the grain boundaries at intermediate and high temperatures, whereas it was governed by Mott-variable range hopping at low temperatures. Additionally, 3 wt. % Al content improved the electrical conductivity of Al-Cu co-doped ZnO by lowering the trap density and enhancing the hopping probability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12489779','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12489779"><span>The aerobic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system of Eikenella corrodens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jaramillo, Rubén D; Barraza, Beatriz C; Polo, Alma; Sará, Martín; Contreras, Martha; Escamilla, J Edgardo</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>The respiratory system of the fastidious beta-proteobacterium Eikenella corrodens grown with limited oxygen was studied. Membranes showed the highest oxidase activity with ascorbate plus N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) or succinate and the lowest activity with NADH and formate. The presence of a bc1-type complex was suggested by the inhibition exerted by 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HOQNO), myxothiazol, and antimycin A on respiration with succinate and by the effect of the latter two inhibitors on the succinate-reduced difference spectra. Respiration with succinate or ascorbate-TMPD was abolished by low KCN concentrations, suggesting the presence of a KCN-sensitive terminal oxidase. Cytochromes b and c were spectroscopically detected after reduction with physiological or artificial <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors, whereas type a and d cytochromes were not detected. The CO difference spectrum of membranes reduced by dithionite and its photodissociation spectrum (77 K) suggested the presence of a single CO compound that had the spectral features of a cytochrome o-like pigment. High-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of membrane haems confirmed the presence of haem B; in contrast, haems A and O were not detected. Peroxidase staining of membrane type c cytochromes using SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of five bands with apparent molecular masses of 44, 33, 30, 26, and 14 kDa. Based on our results, a tentative scheme of the respiratory chain in E. corrodens, comprising (i) dehydrogenases for succinate, NADH, and formate, (ii) a ubiquinone, (iii) a cytochrome bc1, and (iv) a type-cbb' cytochrome c oxidase, is proposed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..GECMW6038P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..GECMW6038P"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in mercury vapor: magnetic field effects, dimer induced NDC and multi-term analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petrovic, Zoran; Miric, Jasmina; Simonovic, Ilija; Dujko, Sasa</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>A multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation and Monte Carlo simulation technique are used to investigate <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in varying configurations of electric and magnetic fields in mercury vapor. Using different sets of cross sections for <span class="hlt">electron</span> scattering in mercury as an input in our Boltzmann and Monte Carlo codes, we have calculated data for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> as a function of reduced electric and magnetic fields. A multitude of kinetic phenomena in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> has been observed and discussed using physical arguments. In particular, we discuss two important phenomena: (1) for certain values of electric and magnetic field, we find regions where swarm mean energy increases with increasing magnetic field for a fixed electric field, and (2) the occurrence of negative differential conductivity (NDC) for higher pressures and temperatures. In particular, NDC is induced by the presence of mercury dimers. The measured drift velocities agree very well with our Monte Carlo results only if the superelastic collisions are included in our calculations. Spatially-resolved <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties are calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation technique in order to understand these phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ARPC...66..263N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ARPC...66..263N"><span>Spintronics and Chirality: Spin Selectivity in <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Through Chiral Molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naaman, Ron; Waldeck, David H.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recent experiments have demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission yield through chiral molecules depends on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> spin orientation. This phenomenon has been termed the chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect, and it provides a challenge to theory and promise for organic molecule-based spintronic devices. This article reviews recent developments in our understanding of CISS. Different theoretical models have been used to describe the effect; however, they all presume an unusually large spin-orbit coupling in chiral molecules for the effect to display the magnitudes seen in experiments. A simplified model for an <span class="hlt">electron</span>'s <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a chiral potential suggests that these large couplings can be manifested. Techniques for measuring spin-selective <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through molecules are overviewed, and some examples of recent experiments are described. Finally, we present results obtained by studying several systems, and we describe the possible application of the CISS effect for memory devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93s5422N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93s5422N"><span>Single-<span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in InAs nanowire quantum dots formed by crystal phase engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nilsson, Malin; Namazi, Luna; Lehmann, Sebastian; Leijnse, Martin; Dick, Kimberly A.; Thelander, Claes</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We report electrical characterization of quantum dots formed by introducing pairs of thin wurtzite (WZ) segments in zinc blende (ZB) InAs nanowires. Regular Coulomb oscillations are observed over a wide gate voltage span, indicating that WZ segments create significant barriers for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. We find a direct correlation of <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties with quantum dot length and corresponding growth time of the enclosed ZB segment. The correlation is made possible by using a method to extract lengths of nanowire crystal phase segments directly from scanning <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy images, and with support from transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscope images of typical nanowires. From experiments on controlled filling of nearly empty dots with <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, up to the point where Coulomb oscillations can no longer be resolved, we estimate a lower bound for the ZB-WZ conduction-band offset of 95 meV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25622190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25622190"><span>Spintronics and chirality: spin selectivity in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through chiral molecules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naaman, Ron; Waldeck, David H</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recent experiments have demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission yield through chiral molecules depends on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> spin orientation. This phenomenon has been termed the chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect, and it provides a challenge to theory and promise for organic molecule-based spintronic devices. This article reviews recent developments in our understanding of CISS. Different theoretical models have been used to describe the effect; however, they all presume an unusually large spin-orbit coupling in chiral molecules for the effect to display the magnitudes seen in experiments. A simplified model for an <span class="hlt">electron</span>'s <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a chiral potential suggests that these large couplings can be manifested. Techniques for measuring spin-selective <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through molecules are overviewed, and some examples of recent experiments are described. Finally, we present results obtained by studying several systems, and we describe the possible application of the CISS effect for memory devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DPPTP8074D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DPPTP8074D"><span>Fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature, MHD and <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements on NSTX using a multi-energy SXR array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Finkenthal, M.; Bell, R.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Leblanc, B.; Sabbagh, S.</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>A compact multi-energy soft X-ray array has been developed for fast (<=0.1 ms) time and space-resolved <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature, MHD and <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature is obtained by modeling the slope of the continuum radiation from ratios of the Abel inverted radial emissivity profiles in three energy ranges [1]. The applicability of this diagnostic technique to radio frequency <span class="hlt">electron</span> heating and current drive experiments, perturbative <span class="hlt">electron</span> and impurity <span class="hlt">transport</span> studies, as well as an analysis of the impact of several types of MHD activity such as NTMs, RWMs, ELMs and Fishbones will be discussed. This work supported by U.S. DoE Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03073 DoE and grant No. DE-FG02-99ER5452 at The Johns Hopkins University. [1] L. F. Delgado-Aparicio, et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion, 49, 1245 (2007).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21410534','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21410534"><span>Monte Carlo Simulation of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in 4H- and 6H-SiC</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sun, C. C.; You, A. H.; Wong, E. K.</p> <p>2010-07-07</p> <p>The Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties at high electric field region in 4H- and 6H-SiC are presented. This MC model includes two non-parabolic conduction bands. Based on the material parameters, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> scattering rates included polar optical phonon scattering, optical phonon scattering and acoustic phonon scattering are evaluated. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> drift velocity, energy and free flight time are simulated as a function of applied electric field at an impurity concentration of 1x10{sup 18} cm{sup 3} in room temperature. The simulated drift velocity with electric field dependencies is in a good agreement with experimental results found in literature. The saturation velocities for both polytypes are close, but the scattering rates are much more pronounced for 6H-SiC. Our simulation model clearly shows complete <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in 4H- and 6H-SiC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420267','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420267"><span>Impact of carbon nanotube length on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in aligned carbon nanotube networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Jeonyoon; Stein, Itai Y.; Devoe, Mackenzie E.; Lewis, Diana J.; Lachman, Noa; Buschhorn, Samuel T.; Wardle, Brian L.; Kessler, Seth S.</p> <p>2015-02-02</p> <p>Here, we quantify the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) networks as a function of the CNT length, where the electrical conductivities may be tuned by up to 10× with anisotropies exceeding 40%. Testing at elevated temperatures demonstrates that the aligned CNT networks have a negative temperature coefficient of resistance, and application of the fluctuation induced tunneling model leads to an activation energy of ≈14 meV for <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling at the CNT-CNT junctions. Since the tunneling activation energy is shown to be independent of both CNT length and orientation, the variation in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is attributed to the number of CNT-CNT junctions an <span class="hlt">electron</span> must tunnel through during its percolated path, which is proportional to the morphology of the aligned CNT network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...587A..87C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...587A..87C"><span>EUV-driven ionospheres and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> on extrasolar giant planets orbiting active stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chadney, J. M.; Galand, M.; Koskinen, T. T.; Miller, S.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Unruh, Y. C.; Yelle, R. V.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The composition and structure of the upper atmospheres of extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) are <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the high-energy spectrum of their host stars from soft X-rays to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). This emission depends on the activity level of the star, which is primarily determined by its age. In this study, we focus upon EGPs orbiting K- and M-dwarf stars of different ages - ɛ Eridani, AD Leonis, AU Microscopii - and the Sun. X-ray and EUV (XUV) spectra for these stars are constructed using a coronal model. These spectra are used to drive both a thermospheric model and an ionospheric model, providing densities of neutral and ion species. Ionisation - as a result of stellar radiation deposition - is included through photo-ionisation and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-impact processes. The former is calculated by solving the Lambert-Beer law, while the latter is calculated from a supra-thermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> model. We find that EGP ionospheres at all orbital distances considered (0.1-1 AU) and around all stars selected are dominated by the long-lived H+ ion. In addition, planets with upper atmospheres where H2 is not substantially dissociated (at large orbital distances) have a layer in which H3+ is the major ion at the base of the ionosphere. For fast-rotating planets, densities of short-lived H3+ undergo significant diurnal variations, with the maximum value being driven by the stellar X-ray flux. In contrast, densities of longer-lived H+ show very little day/night variability and the magnitude is driven by the level of stellar EUV flux. The H3+ peak in EGPs with upper atmospheres where H2 is dissociated (orbiting close to their star) under strong stellar illumination is pushed to altitudes below the homopause, where this ion is likely to be destroyed through reactions with heavy species (e.g. hydrocarbons, water). The inclusion of secondary ionisation processes produces significantly enhanced ion and <span class="hlt">electron</span> densities at altitudes below the main EUV ionisation peak, as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27696632','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27696632"><span>Ground <span class="hlt">transport</span> stress <span class="hlt">affects</span> bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle: A real-time PCR analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Deng, Lixin; He, Cong; Zhou, Yanwei; Xu, Lifan; Xiong, Huijun</p> <p>2016-10-03</p> <p><span class="hlt">Transport</span> stress syndrome often appears in beef cattle during ground <span class="hlt">transportation</span>, leading to changes in their capacity to digest food due to changes in rumen microbiota. The present study aimed to analyze bacteria before and after cattle <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Eight Xianan beef cattle were <span class="hlt">transported</span> over 1000 km. Rumen fluid and blood were sampled before and after <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Real-time PCR was used to quantify rumen bacteria. Cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) were measured. Cortisol and ACTH were increased on day 1 after <span class="hlt">transportation</span> and decreased by day 3. Cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens), Ruminococcus amylophilus and Prevotella albensis were increased at 6 h and declined by 15 days after <span class="hlt">transport</span>. There was a significant reduction in Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, Prevotella bryantii, Prevotella ruminicola and Anaerovibrio lipolytica after <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Rumen concentration of acetic acid increased after <span class="hlt">transport</span>, while rumen pH and concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were decreased. Body weight decreased by 3 days and increased by 15 days after <span class="hlt">transportation</span>. Using real-time PCR analysis, we detected changes in bacteria in the rumen of beef cattle after <span class="hlt">transport</span>, which might <span class="hlt">affect</span> the growth of cattle after <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/210179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/210179"><span>The K+/site and H+/site stoichiometry of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L</p> <p>1978-09-25</p> <p>Electrode measurements of the average number of H+ ejected and K+ taken up (in the presence of valinomycin) per pair of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> passing the energy-conserving sites of the respiratory chain of rat liver and rat heart mitochondria have given identical values of the H+/site and 5+/site ratios very close to 4 in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide, an inhibitor of interfering respiration-coupled uptake of H+ + H2PO4-. The K+/site uptake ratio of 4 not only shows that inward movement of K+ provides quantitative charge-compensation for the 4 H+ ejected, but also confirms that 4 charges are separated per pair of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> per site. When N-ethylmaleimide is omitted, the H+/site ejection ratio is depressed, because of the interfering secondary uptake of H/+ with H2PO4- on the phosphate carrier, but the K+/site uptake ratio remains at 4.0. Addition of phosphate or acetate, which can carry H+ into respiring mitochondria, further depresses the H+/site ratio, but does not <span class="hlt">affect</span> the K+/site ratio, which remains at 4.0. These and other considerations thus confirm our earlier stoichiometric measurements that the average H+/site ratio is 4.0 and also show that the K+/site uptake ratio can be used as a measure of the intrinsic H+/site ratio, regardless of the presence of phosphate in the medium and without the necessity of adding N-ethylmaleimide or other inhibitors of H+ + H2PO4- <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047203&hterms=Tamas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTamas','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950047203&hterms=Tamas&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DTamas"><span>Non-steady-state <span class="hlt">transport</span> of superthermal <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the plasmasphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khazanov, George V.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Nagy, Andrew F.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Numerical solutions to the time-dependent kinetic equation, which describes the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of superthermal <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the splasmasphere between the two conjugate ionospheres, are presented. The model calculates the distribution function as a function of time, field-aligned distance, energy, and pitch-angle. The processes of refilling, depleting, and establishing steady-state conditions of superthermal <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the plasmasphere are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PhDT.......121S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985PhDT.......121S"><span>a Study of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Small Semiconductor Devices: the Monte Carlo Trajectory Integral Method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Socha, John Bronn</p> <p></p> <p>The first part of this thesis contains a historical perspective on the last five years of research in hot-<span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in semiconductors. This perspective serves two purposes. First, it provides a motivation for the second part of this thesis, which deals with calculating the full velocity distribution function of hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. And second, it points out many of the unsolved theoretical problems that might be solved with the techniques developed in the second part. The second part of this thesis contains a derivation of a new method for calculating velocity distribution functions. This method, the Monte Carlo trajectory integral, is well suited for calculating the time evolution of a distribution function in the presence of complicated scattering mechanisms, like scattering with acoustic and optical phonons, inter-valley scattering, Bragg reflections, and even <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> scattering. This method uses many of the techniques develped for Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations, but unlike other Monte Carlo methods, the Monte Carlo trajectory integral has very good control over the variance of the calculated distribution function across the entire distribution function. Since the Monte Carlo trajectory integral only needs information on the distribution function at previous times, it is well suited to <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> scattering where the distribution function must be known before the scattering rate can be calculated. Finally, this thesis ends with an application of the Monte Carlo trajectory integral to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in SiO(,2) in the presence of electric fields up to 12 MV/cm, and it includes a number of suggestions for applying the Monte Carlo trajectory integral to other experiments in both SiO(,2) and GaAs. The Monte Carlo trajectory integral should be of special interest when super-computers are more common since then there will be the computing resources to include <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> scattering. The high-field distribution functions calculated when</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT........68K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT........68K"><span>Devices using ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> of two dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas in delta doped gallium arsenide high <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility transistor structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kang, Sungmu</p> <p></p> <p>In this thesis, devices using the ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> of two dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas (2DEG) in GaAs High <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Mobility Transistor(HEMT) structure is fabricated and their dc and ac properties are characterized. This study gives insight on operation and applications of modern submicron devices with ever reduced gate length comparable to <span class="hlt">electron</span> mean free path. The ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> is achieved using both temporal and spatial limits in this thesis. In temporal limit, when frequency is higher than the scattering frequency (1/(2pitau)), ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> can be achieved. At room temperature, generally the scattering frequency is around 500 GHz but at cryogenic temperature (≤4K) with high mobility GaAs HEMT structure, the frequency is much lower than 2 GHz. On this temporal ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> regime, effect of contact impedance and different dc mobility on device operation is characterized with the ungated 2DEG of HEMT structure. In this ballistic regime, impedance and responsivity of plasma wave detector are investigated using the gated 2DEG of HEMT at different ac boundary conditions. Plasma wave is generated at asymmetric ac boundary conditions of HEMTs, where source is short to ground and drain is open while rf power is applied to gate. The wave velocity can be tuned by gate bias voltage and induced drain to source voltage(Vds ) shows the resonant peak at odd number of fundamental frequency. Quantitative power coupling to plasma wave detector leads to experimental characterization of resonant response of plasma wave detector as a function of frequency. Because plasma wave resonance is not limited by transit time, the physics learned in this study can be directly converted to room temperature terahertz detection by simply reducing gate length(Lgate) to submicron for the terahertz application such as non destructive test, bio medical analysis, homeland security, defense and space. In same HEMT structure, the dc and rf characterization on device is also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPJO6004K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DPPJO6004K"><span>Relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> through cold and shock-heated carbon samples from aerogel to diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krauland, C. M.; Wei, M.; Zhang, S.; Santos, J.; Nicolai, P.; Theobald, W.; Kim, J.; Forestier-Colleoni, P.; Beg, F.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Understanding the <span class="hlt">transport</span> physics of a relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam in various plasma regimes is crucial for many high-energy-density applications, such as fast heating for advanced ICF schemes and ion sources. Most short pulse laser-matter interaction experiments for <span class="hlt">transport</span> studies have been performed with initially cold targets where the resistivity is far from that in warm dense plasmas. We present three experiments that have been performed on OMEGA EP in order to extend fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and energy coupling studies in pre-assembled plasmas from different carbon samples. Each experiment has used one 4 ns long pulse UV beam (1014 W/cm2) to drive a shockwave through the target and a 10 ps IR beam (1019 W/cm2) to create an <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam moving opposite the shock propagation direction. These shots were compared with initially cold target shots without the UV beam. We fielded three different samples including 340 mg/cc CRF foam, vitreous carbon at 1.4 g/cc, and high density carbon at 3.4 g/cc. <span class="hlt">Electrons</span> were diagnosed via x-ray fluorescence measurements from a buried Cu tracer in the target, as well as bremsstrahlung emission and escaped <span class="hlt">electrons</span> reaching an <span class="hlt">electron</span> spectrometer. Proton radiograph was also performed in the foam shots. Details of each experiment, available data and particle-in-cell simulations will be presented. This work is supported by US DOE NLUF Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002728.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DPPNO3008M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DPPNO3008M"><span>Relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in wire and foil targets driven by intense short pulse lasers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mason, R. J.; Stephens, R. B.; Wei, M.; Freeman, R. R.; Hill, J.; van Woerkom, L. D.</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>We model intense laser driven <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in wires and foils with the new implicit hybrid code e-PLAS. We focus on background plasma heating for Fast Ignitor applications. The model tracks collisional relativistic PIC <span class="hlt">electrons</span> undergoing scatter and drag in a background plasma of colliding cold <span class="hlt">electron</span> and ion Eulerian fluids. Application to 10 μm diameter, 250 μm long, fully ionized carbon wires with an attached cone [Kodama et al. Nature 432 1005 (2004)], exposed to 1 ps, 10^19 W/cm^2 pulses in a 30 μm centered spot, directly calculates resistive Joule heating of the background <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the wire to 1.7 KeV. 150 MG magnetic fields arise at the wire surfaces corresponding to hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow outside the wire and a return <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow just within it. Shorter wires (25 μm) exhibit hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> recycling. Preliminary simulations indicate that reduction of the cone to a 30 μm diameter nail head produces little change in these results. We also report on tapered wires, wires attached to foils, and the modifying effects of pre-plasma on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> into the foils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4780117','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4780117"><span><span class="hlt">Transport</span> in serial spinful multiple-dot systems: The role of <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> interactions and coherences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goldozian, Bahareh; Damtie, Fikeraddis A.; Kiršanskas, Gediminas; Wacker, Andreas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Quantum dots are nanoscopic systems, where carriers are confined in all three spatial directions. Such nanoscopic systems are suitable for fundamental studies of quantum mechanics and are candidates for applications such as quantum information processing. It was also proposed that linear arrangements of quantum dots could be used as quantum cascade laser. In this work we study the impact of <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> interactions on <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a spinful serial triple quantum dot system weakly coupled to two leads. We find that due to <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> scattering processes the <span class="hlt">transport</span> is enabled beyond the common single-particle transmission channels. This shows that the scenario in the serial quantum dots intrinsically deviates from layered structures such as quantum cascade lasers, where the presence of well-defined single-particle resonances between neighboring levels are crucial for device operation. Additionally, we check the validity of the Pauli master equation by comparing it with the first-order von Neumann approach. Here we demonstrate that coherences are of relevance if the energy spacing of the eigenstates is smaller than the lead transition rate multiplied by ħ. PMID:26948933</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhPl...14j2511G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhPl...14j2511G"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> comparison in the Large Helical Device and TJ-II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García, J.; Dies, J.; Castejón, F.; Yamazaki, K.</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the Large Helical Device (LHD) [K. Ida, T. Shimozuma, H. Funaba et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 085003 (2003)] and TJ-II [F. Castejón, V. Tribaldos, I. García-Cortés, E. de la Luna, J. Herranz, I. Pastor, T. Estrada, and TJ-II Team, Nucl. Fusion 42, 271 (2002)] is analyzed by means of the TOTAL [K. Yamazaki and T. Amano, Nucl. Fusion 32, 4 (1992)] and PRETOR-Stellarator [J. Dies, F. Castejon, J. M. Fontdecaba, J. Fontanet, J. Izquierdo, G. Cortes, and C. Alejaldre, Proceedings of the 29th European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, Montreux, 2002, Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 2004, Vol. 26B, P-5.027] plasma simulation codes and assuming a global <span class="hlt">transport</span> model mixing GyroBohm-like drift wave model and other drift wave model with shorter wavelength. The stabilization of the GyroBohm-like model by the E ×B shear has been also taken into account. Results show how such kind of <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> can simulate experimental evidence in both devices, leading to the <span class="hlt">electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barrier (eITB) formation in the LHD and to the so-called "enhanced heat confinement regimes" in TJ-II when <span class="hlt">electron</span> density is low enough. Therefore, two sources for the anomalous <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> can coexist in plasmas with eITB; however, for each device the relative importance of anomalous and neoclassical <span class="hlt">transport</span> can be different.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890037826&hterms=mercurous+halide&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmercurous%2Bhalide','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890037826&hterms=mercurous+halide&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmercurous%2Bhalide"><span>Evaluation of <span class="hlt">transport</span> conditions during physical vapor <span class="hlt">transport</span> growth of opto-<span class="hlt">electronic</span> crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Singh, N. B.; Mazelsky, R.; Glicksman, M. E.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Transport</span> conditions were evaluated during the vapor phase growth of mercurous chloride crystals in a closed tube. Experimentally observed growth rates were much smaller than those calculated by the Hertz-Knudsen (H-K) equation. The Arrhenius behavior of growth rate with the temperature was used to derive the sticking coefficient. A one-dimensional diffusion model was used to calculate the total mass flux and was compared with the condensing flux. It was predicted that growth occurred in the convecto-diffusive range.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121503','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121503"><span>Event-based stormwater quality and quantity loadings from elevated urban infrastructure <span class="hlt">affected</span> by <span class="hlt">transportation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sansalone, John J; Hird, Jonathan P; Cartledge, Frank K; Tittlebaum, Marty E</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Urban-rainfall runoff <span class="hlt">affected</span> by <span class="hlt">transportation</span> is a complex matrix of a very wide gradation of particulate matter (< 1 to > 10 000 microm) and dissolved inorganic and organic constituents. Particulate matter <span class="hlt">transported</span> by rainfall runoff can be a significant vector for many reactive particulate-bound constituents, particularly metal elements. The water quality and hydrology of nine events from a representative elevated section of Interstate 10 (I-10) (eastbound average daily traffic load of 70 400 vehicles) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, were characterized and compared with respect to the passage of each hydrograph. Residence time on the paved concrete surface was less than 30 minutes for all events. Results indicate that event-mean concentrations (EMCs) of particulate matter as total-suspended solids (TSS) (138 to 561 mg/L) and chemical-oxygen demand (COD) (128 to 1440 mg/L) were greater than those found in untreated municipal wastewater from the same service area. Particulate-matter dissolution and COD partitioned as a function of pH, pavement residence time, and organic content. In general, delivery of mass for aggregate indices, such as particulate matter (measured as TSS) and COD mass, were driven by the hydrology of the event, while concentrations of aggregate-constituent measurements, such as total-dissolved solids (TDS), illustrated an exponential-type decline during the rising limb of the hydrograph. Despite the short residence times, wide solids gradation, partitioning, and complexity of the rainfall-runoff chemistry, conductivity and dissolved solids were strongly correlated. Characterization of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> and loads of constituents in urban-rainfall runoff, as a function of hydrology, is a necessary first step when considering treatability, structural or nonstructural controls, and mass trading for discharges from paved infrastructure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4033513','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4033513"><span>Exploring Factors <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Emergency Medical Services Staffs' Decision about <span class="hlt">Transporting</span> Medical Patients to Medical Facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seyedin, Hesam; Jamshidi-Orak, Roohangiz</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Transfer of patients in medical emergency situations is one of the most important missions of emergency medical service (EMS) staffs. So this study was performed to explore <span class="hlt">affecting</span> factors in EMS staffs' decision during <span class="hlt">transporting</span> of patients in medical situations to medical facilities. The participants in this qualitative study consisted of 18 EMS staffs working in prehospital care facilities in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using a content analysis approach. The data analysis revealed the following theme: “degree of perceived risk in EMS staffs and their patients.” This theme consisted of two main categories: (1) patient's condition' and (2) the context of the EMS mission'. The patent's condition category emerged from “physical health statuses,” “socioeconomic statuses,” and “cultural background” subcategories. The context of the EMS mission also emerged from two subcategories of “characteristics of the mission” and EMS staffs characteristics'. EMS system managers can consider adequate technical, informational, financial, educational, and emotional supports to facilitate the decision making of their staffs. Also, development of an effective and user-friendly checklist and scoring system was recommended for quick and easy recognition of patients' needs for <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in a prehospital situation. PMID:24891953</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24891953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24891953"><span>Exploring Factors <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Emergency Medical Services Staffs' Decision about <span class="hlt">Transporting</span> Medical Patients to Medical Facilities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebrahimian, Abbasali; Seyedin, Hesam; Jamshidi-Orak, Roohangiz; Masoumi, Gholamreza</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Transfer of patients in medical emergency situations is one of the most important missions of emergency medical service (EMS) staffs. So this study was performed to explore <span class="hlt">affecting</span> factors in EMS staffs' decision during <span class="hlt">transporting</span> of patients in medical situations to medical facilities. The participants in this qualitative study consisted of 18 EMS staffs working in prehospital care facilities in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using a content analysis approach. The data analysis revealed the following theme: "degree of perceived risk in EMS staffs and their patients." This theme consisted of two main categories: (1) patient's condition' and (2) the context of the EMS mission'. The patent's condition category emerged from "physical health statuses," "socioeconomic statuses," and "cultural background" subcategories. The context of the EMS mission also emerged from two subcategories of "characteristics of the mission" and EMS staffs characteristics'. EMS system managers can consider adequate technical, informational, financial, educational, and emotional supports to facilitate the decision making of their staffs. Also, development of an effective and user-friendly checklist and scoring system was recommended for quick and easy recognition of patients' needs for <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in a prehospital situation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024014','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024014"><span>Factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> pesticide occurrence and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a large Midwestern river basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Crawford, Charles G.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Several factors <span class="hlt">affect</span> the occurrence and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of pesticides in surface waters of the 29,400 km2 White River Basin in Indiana. A relationship was found between pesticide use and the average annual concentration of that pesticide in the White River, although this relationship varies for different classes of pesticides. About one percent of the mass applied of each of the commonly used agricultural herbicides was <span class="hlt">transported</span> from the basin via the White River. Peak pesticide concentrations were typically highest in late spring or early summer and were associated with periods of runoff following application. Concentrations of diazinon were higher in an urban basin than in two agricultural basins, corresponding to the common use of this insecticide on lawns and gardens in urban areas. Concentrations of atrazine, a corn herbicide widely used in the White River Basin, were higher in an agricultural basin with permeable, well-drained soils, than in an agricultural basin with less permeable, more poorly drained soils. Although use of butylate and cyanazine was comparable in the White River Basin between 1992 and 1994, concentrations in the White River of butylate, which is incorporated into soil, were substantially less than for cyanazine, which is typically applied to the soil surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16038871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16038871"><span>Modulation of photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the absence of terminal <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors: characterization of the rbcL deletion mutant of tobacco.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Mamedov, Fikret; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Vass, Imre; Aro, Eva-Mari</p> <p>2005-08-15</p> <p>Tobacco rbcL deletion mutant, which lacks the key enzyme Rubisco for photosynthetic carbon assimilation, was characterized with respect to thylakoid functional properties and protein composition. The Delta rbcL plants showed an enhanced capacity for dissipation of light energy by non-photochemical quenching which was accompanied by low photochemical quenching and low overall photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rate. Flash-induced fluorescence relaxation and thermoluminescence measurements revealed a slow <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer and decreased redox gap between Q(A) and Q(B), whereas the donor side function of the Photosystem II (PSII) complex was not <span class="hlt">affected</span>. The 77 K fluorescence emission spectrum of Delta rbcL plant thylakoids implied a presence of free light harvesting complexes. Mutant plants also had a low amount of photooxidisible P700 and an increased ratio of PSII to Photosystem I (PSI). On the other hand, an elevated level of plastid terminal oxidase and the lack of F0 'dark rise' in fluorescence measurements suggest an enhanced plastid terminal oxidase-mediated <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow to O2 in Delta rbcL thylakoids. Modified <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer routes together with flexible dissipation of excitation energy through PSII probably have a crucial role in protection of PSI from irreversible protein damage in the Delta rbcL mutant under growth conditions. This protective capacity was rapidly exceeded in Delta rbcL mutant when the light level was elevated resulting in severe degradation of PSI complexes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1343589-hexaazatrinaphthylene-derivatives-efficient-electron-transporting-materials-tunable-energy-levels-inverted-perovskite-solar-cells','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1343589-hexaazatrinaphthylene-derivatives-efficient-electron-transporting-materials-tunable-energy-levels-inverted-perovskite-solar-cells"><span>Hexaazatrinaphthylene derivatives: Efficient <span class="hlt">electron-transporting</span> materials with tunable energy levels for inverted perovskite solar cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Zhao, Dongbing; Zhu, Zonglong; Kuo, Ming -Yu; ...</p> <p>2016-06-08</p> <p>Hexaazatrinaphthylene (HATNA) derivatives have been successfully shown to function as efficient <span class="hlt">electron-transporting</span> materials (ETMs) for perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). The cells demonstrate a superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.6% with negligible hysteresis. Furthermore, this study provides one of the first nonfullerene small-moleculebased ETMs for high-performance p–i–n PVSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dye&pg=7&id=EJ758728','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dye&pg=7&id=EJ758728"><span>Using Cytochome c to Monitor <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Inhibition in Beef Heart Submitochondrial Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Melin, Amanda D.; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We present a two-part undergraduate laboratory exercise. In the first part, <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in bovine heart submitochondrial particles causing reduction of cytochrome c is monitored at 550 nm. Redox-active dyes have historically been used in most previous undergraduate laboratory exercises of this sort but do not demonstrate respiratory…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27283492','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27283492"><span>Biguanides sensitize leukemia cells to ABT-737-induced apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Velez, Juliana; Pan, Rongqing; Lee, Jason T C; Enciso, Leonardo; Suarez, Marta; Duque, Jorge Eduardo; Jaramillo, Daniel; Lopez, Catalina; Morales, Ludis; Bornmann, William; Konopleva, Marina; Krystal, Gerald; Andreeff, Michael; Samudio, Ismael</p> <p>2016-08-09</p> <p>Metformin displays antileukemic effects partly due to activation of AMPK and subsequent inhibition of mTOR signaling. Nevertheless, Metformin also inhibits mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at complex I in an AMPK-independent manner, Here we report that Metformin and rotenone inhibit mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and increase triglyceride levels in leukemia cell lines, suggesting impairment of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). We also report that, like other FAO inhibitors, both agents and the related biguanide, Phenformin, increase sensitivity to apoptosis induction by the bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737 supporting the notion that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> antagonizes activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in leukemia cells. Both biguanides and rotenone induce superoxide generation in leukemia cells, indicating that oxidative damage may sensitize toABT-737 induced apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrate that Metformin sensitizes leukemia cells to the oligomerization of Bak, suggesting that the observed synergy with ABT-737 is mediated, at least in part, by enhanced outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Notably, Phenformin was at least 10-fold more potent than Metformin in abrogating <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and increasing sensitivity to ABT-737, suggesting that this agent may be better suited for targeting hematological malignancies. Taken together, our results suggest that inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism by Metformin or Phenformin is associated with increased leukemia cell susceptibility to induction of intrinsic apoptosis, and provide a rationale for clinical studies exploring the efficacy of combining biguanides with the orally bioavailable derivative of ABT-737, Venetoclax.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARL11003H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARL11003H"><span>Ab initio <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations of molecular wires with <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon couplings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirose, Kenji; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Understanding of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through nanostructures becomes important with the advancement of fabrication process to construct atomic-scale devices. Due to the drastic change of <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties by contact conditions to electrodes in local electric fields, first-principles calculation approaches are indispensable to understand and characterize the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of nanometer-scale molecular devices. Here we study the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of molecular wires between metallic electrodes, especially focusing on the effects of contacts to electrodes and of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interactions. We use an ab initio calculation method based on the scattering waves, which are obtained by the recursion-transfer-matrix (RTM) method, combined with non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method including the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon scatterings. We find that conductance shows exponential behaviors as a function of the length of molecular wires due to tunneling process determined by the HOMO-LUMO energy gap. From the voltage drop behaviors inside the molecular wires, we show that the contact resistances are dominant source for the bias drop and thus are related to local heating. We will present the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon coupling effects at contact on the inelastic scattering and discuss on the local heating and local temperature, comparing them with those of metallic atomic wires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4850503','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4850503"><span>In Situ Transmission <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Microscopy Modulation of <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Graphene Nanoribbons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In situ transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy (TEM) <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements in nanoscale systems have been previously confined to two-electrode configurations. Here, we use the focused <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam of a TEM to fabricate a three-electrode geometry from a continuous 2D material where the third electrode operates as side gate in a field-effect transistor configuration. Specifically, we demonstrate TEM nanosculpting of freestanding graphene sheets into graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with proximal graphene side gates, together with in situ TEM <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements of the resulting GNRs, whose conductance is modulated by the side-gate potential. The TEM <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam displaces carbon atoms from the graphene sheet, and its position is controlled with nanometer precision, allowing the fabrication of GNRs of desired width immediately prior to each <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurement. We also model the corresponding electric field profile in this three-terminal geometry. The implementation of an in situ TEM three-terminal platform shown here further extends the use of a TEM for device characterization. This approach can be easily generalized for the investigation of other nanoscale systems (2D materials, nanowires, and single molecules) requiring the correlation of <span class="hlt">transport</span> and atomic structure. PMID:27010816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22202683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22202683"><span>Isolating the segment of the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain responsible for mitochondrial damage during cardiac ischemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Qun; Yin, Guotian; Stewart, Sarah; Hu, Ying; Lesnefsky, Edward J.</p> <p>2010-07-09</p> <p>Ischemia damages the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain (ETC), mediated in part by damage generated by the mitochondria themselves. Mitochondrial damage resulting from ischemia, in turn, leads to cardiac injury during reperfusion. The goal of the present study was to localize the segment of the ETC that produces the ischemic mitochondrial damage. We tested if blockade of the proximal ETC at complex I differed from blockade distal in the chain at cytochrome oxidase. Isolated rabbit hearts were perfused for 15 min followed by 30 min stop-flow ischemia at 37 {sup o}C. Amobarbital (2.5 mM) or azide (5 mM) was used to block proximal (complex I) or distal (cytochrome oxidase) sites in the ETC. Time control hearts were buffer-perfused for 45 min. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were isolated. Ischemia decreased cytochrome c content in SSM but not in IFM compared to time control. Blockade of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at complex I preserved the cytochrome c content in SSM. In contrast, blockade of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at cytochrome oxidase with azide did not retain cytochrome c in SSM during ischemia. Since blockade of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at complex III also prevented cytochrome c loss during ischemia, the specific site that elicits mitochondrial damage during ischemia is likely located in the segment between complex III and cytochrome oxidase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27273656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27273656"><span>Hexaazatrinaphthylene Derivatives: Efficient <span class="hlt">Electron-Transporting</span> Materials with Tunable Energy Levels for Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Dongbing; Zhu, Zonglong; Kuo, Ming-Yu; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Jen, Alex K-Y</p> <p>2016-07-25</p> <p>Hexaazatrinaphthylene (HATNA) derivatives have been successfully shown to function as efficient <span class="hlt">electron-transporting</span> materials (ETMs) for perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). The cells demonstrate a superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.6 % with negligible hysteresis. This study provides one of the first nonfullerene small-molecule-based ETMs for high-performance p-i-n PVSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26324759','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26324759"><span>Epitaxial 1D <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layers for high-performance perovskite solar cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Han, Gill Sang; Chung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Dong Hoe; Kim, Byeong Jo; Lee, Jin-Wook; Park, Nam-Gyu; Cho, In Sun; Lee, Jung-Kun; Lee, Sangwook; Jung, Hyun Suk</p> <p>2015-10-07</p> <p>We demonstrate high-performance perovskite solar cells with excellent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties using a one-dimensional (1D) <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer (ETL). The 1D array-based ETL is comprised of 1D SnO2 nanowires (NWs) array grown on a F:SnO2 transparent conducting oxide substrate and rutile TiO2 nanoshells epitaxially grown on the surface of the 1D SnO2 NWs. The optimized devices show more than 95% internal quantum yield at 750 nm, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.2%. The high quantum yield is attributed to dramatically enhanced <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the epitaxial TiO2 layer, compared to that in conventional nanoparticle-based mesoporous TiO2 (mp-TiO2) layers. In addition, the open space in the 1D array-based ETL increases the prevalence of uniform TiO2/perovskite junctions, leading to reproducible device performance with a high fill factor. This work offers a method to achieve reproducible, high-efficiency perovskite solar cells with high-speed <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16873123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16873123"><span>Proton-coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer: the mechanistic underpinning for radical <span class="hlt">transport</span> and catalysis in biology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reece, Steven Y; Hodgkiss, Justin M; Stubbe, JoAnne; Nocera, Daniel G</p> <p>2006-08-29</p> <p>Charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> and catalysis in enzymes often rely on amino acid radicals as intermediates. The generation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of these radicals are synonymous with proton-coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer (PCET), which intrinsically is a quantum mechanical effect as both the <span class="hlt">electron</span> and proton tunnel. The caveat to PCET is that proton transfer (PT) is fundamentally limited to short distances relative to <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer (ET). This predicament is resolved in biology by the evolution of enzymes to control PT and ET coordinates on highly different length scales. In doing so, the enzyme imparts exquisite thermodynamic and kinetic controls over radical <span class="hlt">transport</span> and radical-based catalysis at cofactor active sites. This discussion will present model systems containing orthogonal ET and PT pathways, thereby allowing the proton and <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunnelling events to be disentangled. Against this mechanistic backdrop, PCET catalysis of oxygen-oxygen bond activation by mono-oxygenases is captured at biomimetic porphyrin redox platforms. The discussion concludes with the case study of radical-based quantum catalysis in a natural biological enzyme, class I Escherichia coli ribonucleotide reductase. Studies are presented that show the enzyme utilizes both collinear and orthogonal PCET to <span class="hlt">transport</span> charge from an assembled diiron-tyrosyl radical cofactor to the active site over 35A away via an amino acid radical-hopping pathway spanning two protein subunits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25846233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25846233"><span>Using Adobe Flash animations of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain to teach and learn biochemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Teaching the subject of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "<span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26893472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26893472"><span>Promotion of Cyclic <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Around Photosystem I with the Development of C4 Photosynthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Munekage, Yuri Nakajima; Taniguchi, Yukimi Y</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>C4 photosynthesis is present in approximately 7,500 species classified into 19 families, including monocots and eudicots. In the majority of documented cases, a two-celled CO2-concentrating system that uses a metabolic cycle of four-carbon compounds is employed. C4 photosynthesis repeatedly evolved from C3 photosynthesis, possibly driven by the survival advantages it bestows in the hot, often dry, and nutrient-poor soils of the tropics and subtropics. The development of the C4 metabolic cycle greatly increased the ATP demand in chloroplasts during the evolution of malic enzyme-type C4 photosynthesis, and the additional ATP required for C4 metabolism may be produced by the cyclic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> around PSI. Recent studies have revealed the nature of cyclic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and the elevation of its components during C4 evolution. In this review, we discuss the energy requirements of C3 and C4 photosynthesis, the current model of cyclic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> around PSI and how cyclic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is promoted during C4 evolution using studies on the genus Flaveria, which contains a number of closely related C3, C4 and C3-C4 intermediate species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2287346','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2287346"><span>Arabidopsis PPR40 Connects Abiotic Stress Responses to Mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span>1[W][OA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zsigmond, Laura; Rigó, Gábor; Szarka, András; Székely, Gyöngyi; Ötvös, Krisztina; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Koncz, Csaba; Koncz, Zsuzsa; Szabados, László</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Oxidative respiration produces adenosine triphosphate through the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system controlling the energy supply of plant cells. Here we describe a mitochondrial pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) domain protein, PPR40, which provides a signaling link between mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and regulation of stress and hormonal responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Insertion mutations inactivating PPR40 result in semidwarf growth habit and enhanced sensitivity to salt, abscisic acid, and oxidative stress. Genetic complementation by overexpression of PPR40 complementary DNA restores the ppr40 mutant phenotype to wild type. The PPR40 protein is localized in the mitochondria and found in association with Complex III of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system. In the ppr40-1 mutant the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through Complex III is strongly reduced, whereas Complex IV is functional, indicating that PPR40 is important for the ubiqinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity of Complex III. Enhanced stress sensitivity of the ppr40-1 mutant is accompanied by accumulation of reactive oxygen species, enhanced lipid peroxidation, higher superoxide dismutase activity, and altered activation of several stress-responsive genes including the alternative oxidase AOX1d. These results suggest a close link between regulation of oxidative respiration and environmental adaptation in Arabidopsis. PMID:18305213</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5239486','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5239486"><span>Biguanides sensitize leukemia cells to ABT-737-induced apoptosis by inhibiting mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Velez, Juliana; Pan, Rongqing; Lee, Jason T.C.; Enciso, Leonardo; Suarez, Marta; Duque, Jorge Eduardo; Jaramillo, Daniel; Lopez, Catalina; Morales, Ludis; Bornmann, William; Konopleva, Marina; Krystal, Gerald; Andreeff, Michael; Samudio, Ismael</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Metformin displays antileukemic effects partly due to activation of AMPK and subsequent inhibition of mTOR signaling. Nevertheless, Metformin also inhibits mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at complex I in an AMPK-independent manner, Here we report that Metformin and rotenone inhibit mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and increase triglyceride levels in leukemia cell lines, suggesting impairment of fatty acid oxidation (FAO). We also report that, like other FAO inhibitors, both agents and the related biguanide, Phenformin, increase sensitivity to apoptosis induction by the bcl-2 inhibitor ABT-737 supporting the notion that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> antagonizes activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in leukemia cells. Both biguanides and rotenone induce superoxide generation in leukemia cells, indicating that oxidative damage may sensitize toABT-737 induced apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrate that Metformin sensitizes leukemia cells to the oligomerization of Bak, suggesting that the observed synergy with ABT-737 is mediated, at least in part, by enhanced outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Notably, Phenformin was at least 10-fold more potent than Metformin in abrogating <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and increasing sensitivity to ABT-737, suggesting that this agent may be better suited for targeting hematological malignancies. Taken together, our results suggest that inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism by Metformin or Phenformin is associated with increased leukemia cell susceptibility to induction of intrinsic apoptosis, and provide a rationale for clinical studies exploring the efficacy of combining biguanides with the orally bioavailable derivative of ABT-737, Venetoclax. PMID:27283492</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvX...6c1035G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvX...6c1035G"><span>Defect Control of Conventional and Anomalous <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> at Complex Oxide Interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gunkel, F.; Bell, Chris; Inoue, Hisashi; Kim, Bongju; Swartz, Adrian G.; Merz, Tyler A.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Harashima, Satoshi; Sato, Hiroki K.; Minohara, Makoto; Hoffmann-Eifert, Susanne; Dittmann, Regina; Hwang, Harold Y.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Using low-temperature electrical measurements, the interrelation between <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, magnetic properties, and ionic defect structure in complex oxide interface systems is investigated, focusing on NdGaO3 /SrTiO3 (100) interfaces. Field-dependent Hall characteristics (2-300 K) are obtained for samples grown at various growth pressures. In addition to multiple <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, interfacial magnetism is tracked exploiting the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). These two properties both contribute to a nonlinearity in the field dependence of the Hall resistance, with multiple carrier conduction evident below 30 K and AHE at temperatures ≲10 K . Considering these two sources of nonlinearity, we suggest a phenomenological model capturing the complex field dependence of the Hall characteristics in the low-temperature regime. Our model allows the extraction of the conventional <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameters and a qualitative analysis of the magnetization. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility is found to decrease systematically with increasing growth pressure. This suggests dominant <span class="hlt">electron</span> scattering by acceptor-type strontium vacancies incorporated during growth. The AHE scales with growth pressure. The most pronounced AHE is found at increased growth pressure and, thus, in the most defective, low-mobility samples, indicating a correlation between <span class="hlt">transport</span>, magnetism, and cation defect concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4136034','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4136034"><span>Switch-Loop Flexibility <span class="hlt">Affects</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of Large Drugs by the Promiscuous AcrB Multidrug Efflux <span class="hlt">Transporter</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cha, Hi-jea; Müller, Reinke T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Multidrug efflux <span class="hlt">transporters</span> recognize a variety of structurally unrelated compounds for which the molecular basis is poorly understood. For the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) inner membrane component AcrB of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system from Escherichia coli, drug binding occurs at the access and deep binding pockets. These two binding areas are separated by an 11-amino-acid-residue-containing switch loop whose conformational flexibility is speculated to be essential for drug binding and <span class="hlt">transport</span>. A G616N substitution in the switch loop has a distinct and local effect on the orientation of the loop and on the ability to <span class="hlt">transport</span> larger drugs. Here, we report a distinct phenotypical pattern of drug recognition and <span class="hlt">transport</span> for the G616N variant, indicating that drug substrates with minimal projection areas of >70 Å2 are less well <span class="hlt">transported</span> than other substrates. PMID:24914123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP34C..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP34C..06M"><span>Monitoring suspended sediment <span class="hlt">transport</span> in an ice-<span class="hlt">affected</span> river using acoustic Doppler current profilers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, S. A.; Ghareh Aghaji Zare, S.; Rennie, C. D.; Ahmari, H.; Seidou, O.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Quantifying sediment budgets and understanding the processes which control fluvial sediment <span class="hlt">transport</span> is paramount to monitoring river geomorphology and ecological habitat. In regions that are subject to freezing there is the added complexity of ice. River ice processes impact flow distribution, water stage and sediment <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Ice processes typically have the largest impact on sediment <span class="hlt">transport</span> and channel morphodynamics when ice jams occur during ice cover formation and breakup. Ice jams may restrict flow and cause local acceleration when released. Additionally, ice can mechanically scour river bed and banks. Under-ice sediment <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements are lacking due to obvious safety and logistical reasons, in addition to a lack of adequate measurement techniques. Since some rivers can be covered in ice during six months of the year, the lack of data in winter months leads to large uncertainty in annual sediment load calculations. To address this problem, acoustic profilers are being used to monitor flow velocity, suspended sediment and ice processes in the Lower Nelson River, Manitoba, Canada. Acoustic profilers are ideal for under-ice sediment flux measurements since they can be operated autonomously and continuously, they do not disturb the flow in the zone of measurement and acoustic backscatter can be related to sediment size and concentration. In March 2012 two upward-facing profilers (1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler, 546 KHz acoustic backscatter profiler) were installed through a hole in the ice on the Nelson River, 50 km downstream of the Limestone Generating Station. Data were recorded for four months, including both stable cover and breakup periods. This paper presents suspended sediment fluxes calculated from the acoustic measurements. Velocity data were used to infer the vertical distribution of sediment sizes and concentrations; this information was then used in the interpretation of the backscattered intensity data. It was found that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3138671','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3138671"><span>Dopamine <span class="hlt">Transporter</span> Gene Variant <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Expression in Human Brain is Associated with Bipolar Disorder</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pinsonneault, Julia K; Han, Dawn D; Burdick, Katherine E; Kataki, Maria; Bertolino, Alessandro; Malhotra, Anil K; Gu, Howard H; Sadee, Wolfgang</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The gene encoding the dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span> (DAT) has been implicated in CNS disorders, but the responsible polymorphisms remain uncertain. To search for regulatory polymorphisms, we measured allelic DAT mRNA expression in substantia nigra of human autopsy brain tissues, using two marker SNPs (rs6347 in exon 9 and rs27072 in the 3′-UTR). Allelic mRNA expression imbalance (AEI), an indicator of cis-acting regulatory polymorphisms, was observed in all tissues heterozygous for either of the two marker SNPs. SNP scanning of the DAT locus with AEI ratios as the phenotype, followed by in vitro molecular genetics studies, demonstrated that rs27072 C>T <span class="hlt">affects</span> mRNA expression and translation. Expression of the minor T allele was dynamically regulated in transfected cell cultures, possibly involving microRNA interactions. Both rs6347 and rs3836790 (intron8 5/6 VNTR) also seemed to <span class="hlt">affect</span> DAT expression, but not the commonly tested 9/10 VNTR in the 3′UTR (rs28363170). All four polymorphisms (rs6347, intron8 5/6 VNTR, rs27072 and 3′UTR 9/10 VNTR) were genotyped in clinical cohorts, representing schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, and controls. Only rs27072 was significantly associated with bipolar disorder (OR=2.1, p=0.03). This result was replicated in a second bipolar/control population (OR=1.65, p=0.01), supporting a critical role for DAT regulation in bipolar disorder. PMID:21525861</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4837356','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4837356"><span>Landauer’s formula with finite-time relaxation: Kramers’ crossover in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gruss, Daniel; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Zwolak, Michael</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Landauer’s formula is the standard theoretical tool to examine ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> in nano- and meso-scale junctions, but it necessitates that any variation of the junction with time must be slow compared to characteristic times of the system, e.g., the relaxation time of local excitations. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> through structurally dynamic junctions is, however, increasingly of interest for sensing, harnessing fluctuations, and real-time control. Here, we calculate the steady-state current when relaxation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the reservoirs is present and demonstrate that it gives rise to three regimes of behavior: weak relaxation gives a contact-limited current; strong relaxation localizes <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, distorting their natural dynamics and reducing the current; and in an intermediate regime the Landauer view of the system only is recovered. We also demonstrate that a simple equation of motion emerges, which is suitable for efficiently simulating time-dependent <span class="hlt">transport</span>. PMID:27094206</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1259467-landauers-formula-finite-time-relaxation-kramers-crossover-electronic-transport','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1259467-landauers-formula-finite-time-relaxation-kramers-crossover-electronic-transport"><span>Landauer’s formula with finite-time relaxation: Kramers’ crossover in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Gruss, Daniel; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Zwolak, Michael</p> <p>2016-04-20</p> <p>Landauer’s formula is the standard theoretical tool to examine ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> in nano- and meso-scale junctions, but it necessitates that any variation of the junction with time must be slow compared to characteristic times of the system, e.g., the relaxation time of local excitations. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> through structurally dynamic junctions is, however, increasingly of interest for sensing, harnessing fluctuations, and real-time control. Here, we calculate the steady-state current when relaxation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the reservoirs is present and demonstrate that it gives rise to three regimes of behavior: weak relaxation gives a contact-limited current; strong relaxation localizes <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, distorting their naturalmore » dynamics and reducing the current; and in an intermediate regime the Landauer view of the system only is recovered. Lastly, we also demonstrate that a simple equation of motion emerges, which is suitable for efficiently simulating time-dependent <span class="hlt">transport</span>.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1259467','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1259467"><span>Landauer’s formula with finite-time relaxation: Kramers’ crossover in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gruss, Daniel; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Zwolak, Michael</p> <p>2016-04-20</p> <p>Landauer’s formula is the standard theoretical tool to examine ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> in nano- and meso-scale junctions, but it necessitates that any variation of the junction with time must be slow compared to characteristic times of the system, e.g., the relaxation time of local excitations. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> through structurally dynamic junctions is, however, increasingly of interest for sensing, harnessing fluctuations, and real-time control. Here, we calculate the steady-state current when relaxation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the reservoirs is present and demonstrate that it gives rise to three regimes of behavior: weak relaxation gives a contact-limited current; strong relaxation localizes <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, distorting their natural dynamics and reducing the current; and in an intermediate regime the Landauer view of the system only is recovered. Lastly, we also demonstrate that a simple equation of motion emerges, which is suitable for efficiently simulating time-dependent <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/926921','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/926921"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> and Hole <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in a Wide Bandgap Organic Phosphine Oxide for Blue Electrophosphorecsence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cai, Xiuyu; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Sapochak, Linda S.; Vecchi, Paul A.; Burrows, Paul E.</p> <p>2008-02-28</p> <p>We report blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) using an ambipolar host, N-(4-diphenylphosphoryl phenyl) carbazole (MPO12), doped with iridium (III) bis[4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C2´]picolinate (FIrpic). The external quantum efficiency and operating voltage is 9.1±0.1% and 4.8 V, respectively, measured at a brightness of 800 cd/m2 with no outcoupling enhancement. By varying the layer structure of the OLEDs, we show that MPO12 is capable of <span class="hlt">transporting</span> both <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and holes, in contrast to previous demonstrations using diphosphine oxides, which only <span class="hlt">transported</span> <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. The improved hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> results in improved device efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/828205','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/828205"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Ion Acceleration in a Low-power Cylindrical Hall Thruster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch</p> <p>2004-06-24</p> <p>Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are therefore more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> cross-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level) has been studied through the analysis of experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations of <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics in the thruster channel. The numerical model takes into account elastic and inelastic <span class="hlt">electron</span> collisions with atoms, <span class="hlt">electron</span>-wall collisions, including secondary <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission, and Bohm diffusion. We show that in order to explain the observed discharge current, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> anomalous collision frequency {nu}{sub B} has to be on the order of the Bohm value, {nu}{sub B} {approx} {omega}{sub c}/16. The contribution of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-wall collisions to cross-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> is found to be insignificant. The plasma density peak observed at the axis of the 2.6 cm cylindrical Hall thruster is likely to be due to the convergent flux of ions, which are born in the annular part of the channel and accelerated towards the thruster axis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94h5124Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..94h5124Z"><span>Spatial interferences in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of heavy-fermion materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Shu-feng; Liu, Yu; Song, Hai-Feng; Yang, Yi-feng</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and the point contact spectroscopy represent major progress in recent heavy-fermion research. Both have revealed important information on the composite nature of the emergent heavy-<span class="hlt">electron</span> quasiparticles. However, a detailed and thorough microscopic understanding of the similarities and differences in the underlying physical processes of these techniques is still lacking. Here we study the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the normal state of the periodic Anderson lattice by using the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function technique. In addition to the well-known Fano interference between the conduction and f -<span class="hlt">electron</span> channels, our results further reveal the effect of spatial interference between different spatial paths at the interface on the differential conductance and their interesting interplay with the band features such as the hybridization gap and the Van Hove singularity. We find that the spatial interference leads to a weighted average in the momentum space for the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and could cause suppression of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> band features under certain circumstances. In particular, it reduces the capability of probing the f -<span class="hlt">electron</span> spectral weight near the edges of the hybridization gap for large interface depending on the Fermi surface of the lead. Our results indicate an intrinsic inefficiency of the point contact spectroscopy in probing the f <span class="hlt">electrons</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJMPB..2741003A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013IJMPB..2741003A"><span><span class="hlt">Electron</span> Optics with Dirac Fermions: <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Monolayer and Bilayer Graphene Through Magnetic Barrier and Their Superlattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agrawal (Garg), Neetu; Ghosh, Sankalpa; Sharma, Manish</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>In this review article we discuss the recent progress in studying ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> for charge carriers in graphene through highly inhomogeneous magnetic field known as magnetic barrier in combination with gate voltage induced electrostatic potential. Starting with cases for a single or double magnetic barrier we also review the progress in understanding <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the superlattices created out of such electromagnetic potential barriers and discuss the possibility of experimental realization of such systems. The emphasis is particularly on the analogy of such <span class="hlt">transport</span> with propagation of light wave through medium with alternating dielectric constant. In that direction we discuss <span class="hlt">electron</span> analogue of optical phenomena like Fabry-Perot resonances, negative refraction, Goos-Hänchen effect, beam collimation in such systems and explain how such analogy is going to be useful for device generation. The resulting modification of band structure of Dirac fermions, the emergence of additional Dirac points was also discussed accompanied by brief section on the interconvertibility of electric and magnetic field for relativistic Dirac fermions. We also discuss the effect of such electromagnetic potential barrier on bilayer graphene (BLG) in a similar framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18570515','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18570515"><span>Exact dynamics of dissipative <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems and quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span>: Hierarchical equations of motion approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Jinshuang; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing</p> <p>2008-06-21</p> <p>A generalized quantum master equation theory that governs the exact, nonperturbative quantum dissipation and quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> is formulated in terms of hierarchically coupled equations of motion for an arbitrary <span class="hlt">electronic</span> system in contact with electrodes under either a stationary or a nonstationary electrochemical potential bias. The theoretical construction starts with the influence functional in path integral, in which the <span class="hlt">electron</span> creation and annihilation operators are Grassmann variables. Time derivatives on the influence functionals are then performed in a hierarchical manner. Both the multiple-frequency dispersion and the non-Markovian reservoir parametrization schemes are considered for the desired hierarchy construction. The resulting hierarchical equations of motion formalism is in principle exact and applicable to arbitrary <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems, including Coulomb interactions, under the influence of arbitrary time-dependent applied bias voltage and external fields. Both the conventional quantum master equation and the real-time diagrammatic formalism of Schon and co-workers can be readily obtained at well defined limits of the present theory. We also show that for a noninteracting <span class="hlt">electron</span> system, the present hierarchical equations of motion formalism terminates at the second tier exactly, and the Landuer-Buttiker <span class="hlt">transport</span> current expression is recovered. The present theory renders an exact and numerically tractable tool to evaluate various transient and stationary quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of many-<span class="hlt">electron</span> systems, together with the involving nonperturbative dissipative dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhD...47Q5203B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPhD...47Q5203B"><span>Boltzmann equation and Monte Carlo studies of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in resistive plate chambers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bošnjaković, D.; Petrović, Z. Lj; White, R. D.; Dujko, S.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>A multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation and Monte Carlo simulation technique are used to investigate <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that are used for timing and triggering purposes in many high energy physics experiments at CERN and elsewhere. Using cross sections for <span class="hlt">electron</span> scattering in C2H2F4, iso-C4H10 and SF6 as an input in our Boltzmann and Monte Carlo codes, we have calculated data for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> as a function of reduced electric field E/N in various C2H2F4/iso-C4H10/SF6 gas mixtures used in RPCs in the ALICE, CMS and ATLAS experiments. Emphasis is placed upon the explicit and implicit effects of non-conservative collisions (e.g. <span class="hlt">electron</span> attachment and/or ionization) on the drift and diffusion. Among many interesting and atypical phenomena induced by the explicit effects of non-conservative collisions, we note the existence of negative differential conductivity (NDC) in the bulk drift velocity component with no indication of any NDC for the flux component in the ALICE timing RPC system. We systematically study the origin and mechanisms for such phenomena as well as the possible physical implications which arise from their explicit inclusion into models of RPCs. Spatially-resolved <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties are calculated using a Monte Carlo simulation technique in order to understand these phenomena.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......274L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT.......274L"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">transport</span> of laser-driven relativistic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in solid materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leblanc, Philippe</p> <p></p> <p>With the ultra intense lasers available today, it is possible to generate very hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> beams in solid density materials. These intense laser-matter interactions result in many applications which include the generation of ultrashort secondary sources of particles and radiation such as ions, neutrons, positrons, x-rays, or even laser-driven hadron therapy. For these applications to become reality, a comprehensive understanding of laser-driven energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> including hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> generation through the various mechanisms of ionization, and their subsequent <span class="hlt">transport</span> in solid density media is required. This study will focus on the characterization of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> effects in solid density targets using the state-of- the-art particle-in-cell code PICLS. A number of simulation results will be presented on the topics of ionization propagation in insulator glass targets, non-equilibrium ionization modeling featuring <span class="hlt">electron</span> impact ionization, and <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam guiding by the self-generated resistive magnetic field. An empirically derived scaling relation for the resistive magnetic in terms of the laser parameters and material properties is presented and used to derive a guiding condition. This condition may prove useful for the design of future laser-matter interaction experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JChPh.128w4703J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JChPh.128w4703J"><span>Exact dynamics of dissipative <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems and quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span>: Hierarchical equations of motion approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Jinshuang; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, Yijing</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>A generalized quantum master equation theory that governs the exact, nonperturbative quantum dissipation and quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> is formulated in terms of hierarchically coupled equations of motion for an arbitrary <span class="hlt">electronic</span> system in contact with electrodes under either a stationary or a nonstationary electrochemical potential bias. The theoretical construction starts with the influence functional in path integral, in which the <span class="hlt">electron</span> creation and annihilation operators are Grassmann variables. Time derivatives on the influence functionals are then performed in a hierarchical manner. Both the multiple-frequency dispersion and the non-Markovian reservoir parametrization schemes are considered for the desired hierarchy construction. The resulting hierarchical equations of motion formalism is in principle exact and applicable to arbitrary <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems, including Coulomb interactions, under the influence of arbitrary time-dependent applied bias voltage and external fields. Both the conventional quantum master equation and the real-time diagrammatic formalism of Schön and co-workers can be readily obtained at well defined limits of the present theory. We also show that for a noninteracting <span class="hlt">electron</span> system, the present hierarchical equations of motion formalism terminates at the second tier exactly, and the Landuer-Büttiker <span class="hlt">transport</span> current expression is recovered. The present theory renders an exact and numerically tractable tool to evaluate various transient and stationary quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of many-<span class="hlt">electron</span> systems, together with the involving nonperturbative dissipative dynamics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......173L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......173L"><span>Bulk and Local <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Optical Properties of Aluminum-doped Zinc Oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Likovich, Edward Michael</p> <p></p> <p>ZnO is a promising transparent conducting oxide (TCO) because its components are naturally abundant and inexpensive; and ZnO can be synthesized by several methods as thin films and nanostructures. Doping ZnO with Al (to for