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Sample records for affects electron transport

  1. Simulation of runaway electrons, transport affected by J-TEXT resonant magnetic perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Z. H.; Wang, X. H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Sun, X. F.; Xu, T.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-09-01

    The topology of a magnetic field and transport properties of runaway electrons can be changed by a resonant magnetic perturbation field. The J-TEXT magnetic topology can be effectively altered via static resonant magnetic perturbation (SRMP) and dynamic resonant magnetic perturbation (DRMP). This paper studies the effect of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on the confinement of runaway electrons via simulating their drift orbits in the magnetic perturbation field and calculating the orbit losses for different runaway initial energies and different runaway electrons, initial locations. The model adopted is based on Hamiltonian guiding center equations for runaway electrons, and the J-TEXT magnetic turbulences and RMP are taken into account. The simulation indicates that the loss rate of runaway electrons is sensitive to the radial position of electrons. The loss of energetic runaway beam is dominated by the shrinkage of the confinement region. Outside the shrinkage region of the runaway electrons are lost rapidly. Inside the shrinkage region the runaway beam is confined very well and is less sensitive to the magnetic perturbation. The experimental result on the response of runaway transport to the application RMP indicates that the loss of runaway electrons is dominated by the shrinkage of the confinement region, other than the external magnetic perturbation.

  2. Biological Electron Transport Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Dwaine O.; Pasternak, Gavril; Kaufman, Frank

    1970-01-01

    The solid-state electrical conductivities of a number of ferredoxin model compounds are reported. For one of these compounds, (KFeS2)n, an electron transfer rate for a 25 Å unit is shown to be at least 1 × 108 electrons sec-1. The rate becomes proportionally larger for smaller molecular units. This rapid rate is consistant with a short pipe model for electron transport between two reaction sites. Some of the factors leading to this rapid transfer rate are considered. PMID:5269247

  3. Electronic transport in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanbo

    This dissertation focuses on the electronic transport properties of graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. Graphene is a novel two-dimensional system in which electron transport is effectively governed by the relativistic quantum theory. We discover a variety of new phenomenon which stem from the "relativistic" nature of the electron dynamics in graphene. An unusual quantum Hall (QH) effect is discovered in graphene at low temperatures and strong magnetic fields. Unlike conventional two-dimensional electron systems, in graphene the observed quantization condition is characterized by half integers rather than integers. Our investigation of the magneto-oscillations in resistance reveals a Berry's phase of pi associated with the electron motion in graphene. The half-integer quantization, as well as the Berry's phase, is attributed to the peculiar topology of the graphene band structure with a linear dispersion relation and vanishing mass near the Dirac point, which can be described by relativistic quantum electrodynamics. This is further confirmed by our measurement of the effective carrier mass, m*, which obeys Einstein's equation: E = m*c*2 where c* ≈ c/300 is the effective speed of light for electrons in graphene. The availability of high magnetic fields up to 45 Tesla allows us to study the magneto-transport in graphene in the extreme quantum limit. Under such condition, we discover new sets of QH states at filling factors nu = 0, +/-1, +/-4, indicating the lifting of the four-fold degeneracy of the previously observed QH states at nu = +/-4(|n|+1/2), where n is the Landau level index. In particular, the presence of the nu = 0, +/-1 QH states indicates that the Landau level at the charge neutral Dirac point splits into four sub-levels, lifting both sublattice and spin degeneracy, thereby potentially indicating a many-body correlation in this LL. The QH effect at nu = +/-4 is investigated in tilted magnetic fields and is attributed to lifting of the n

  4. Methods development for electron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapol, Barry D.

    1992-04-01

    This report consists of two code manuals and an article recently published in the proceedings of the American Nuclear Society Mathematics and Computation Topical Meeting held in Pittsburgh. In these presentations, deterministic calculational methods simulating electron transport in solids are detailed. The first method presented (Section 2) is for the solution of the Spencer-Lewis equation in which electron motion is characterized by continuous slowing down theory and a pathlength formulation. The FN solution to the standard monoenergetic transport equation for electron transport with isotropic scattering in finite media is given in Section 3. For both codes, complete flow charts, operational instructions and sample problems are included. Finally, in Section 4, an application of the multigroup formulation of electron transport in an infinite medium is used to verify an equivalent SN formulation. For this case, anisotropic scattering is also included.

  5. Regimes of suprathermal electron transport

    SciTech Connect

    Glinsky, M.E.

    1995-07-01

    Regimes of the one-dimensional (1-D) transport of suprathermal electrons into a cold background plasma are delineated. A well ordered temporal progression is found through eras where {ital J}{center_dot}{ital E} heating, hot electron--cold electron collisional heating, and diffusive heat flow dominate the cold electron energy equation. Scaling relations for how important quantities such as the width and temperature of the heated layer of cold electrons evolve with time are presented. These scaling relations are extracted from a simple 1-D model of the transport which can be written in dimensionless form with one free parameter. The parameter is shown to be the suprathermal electron velocity divided by the drift velocity of cold electrons which balances the suprathermal current. Special attention is paid to the assumptions which allow the reduction from the collisional Vlasov equation, using a Fokker--Planck collision operator, to this simple model. These model equations are numerically solved and compared to both the scaling relations and a more complete multigroup electron diffusion transport. Implications of the scaling relations on fast ion generation, magnetic field generation, and electric field inhibition of electron transport are examined as they apply to laser heated plasmas. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  6. Electron transport in bipyridinium films.

    PubMed

    Raymo, Françisco M; Alvarado, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Bipyridinium dications are versatile building blocks for the assembly of functional materials. In particular, their reliable electrochemical response has encouraged the design of electroactive films. Diverse and elegant experimental strategies to coat metallic and semiconducting electrodes with bipyridinium compounds have, in fact, emerged over the past two decades. The resulting interfacial assemblies span from a few nanometers to several micrometers in thickness. They incorporate from a single molecular layer to large collections of entangled polymer chains. They transport electrons efficiently from the electrode surface to the film/solution interface and vice versa. Electron self-exchange between and the physical diffusion of the bipyridinium building blocks conspire in defining the charge transport properties of these fascinating electroactive assemblies. Often, the matrix of electron-deficient bipyridinium dications can be exploited to entrap electron-rich analytes. Electrostatic interactions promote the supramolecular association of the guests with the surface-confined host matrix. Furthermore, chromophoric sites can be coupled to the bipyridinium dications to produce photosensitive arrays capable of harvesting light and generating current. Thus, thorough investigations on the fundamental properties of these functional molecule-based materials can lead to promising applications in electroanalysis and solar energy conversion, while contributing to advances in the basic understanding of electron transport in interfacial assemblies.

  7. Electronic Transport in Carbon Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Benzanilla, Alejandro; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G; Roche, Stephan; Cruz Silva, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, transport measurements on individual single-wall nanotubes have played a prominent role in developing our understanding of this novel carbon conductor. These measurements have identified both metallic and semiconducting nanotubes, determined their dominant electronic scattering mechanisms, and elucidated in great detail the properties of their quantized energy spectrum. Recent technological breakthroughs in nanotube device fabrication and electronic measurement have made possible experiments of unprecedented precision that reveal new and surprising phenomena. In this review, we present the fundamental properties of nanotubes side by side with the newest discoveries and also discuss some of the most exciting emerging directions.

  8. Mesoscopic electronics beyond DC transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Carlo, Leonardo

    Since the inception of mesoscopic electronics in the 1980's, direct current (dc) measurements have underpinned experiments in quantum transport. Novel techniques complementing dc transport are becoming paramount to new developments in mesoscopic electronics, particularly as the road is paved toward quantum information processing. This thesis describes seven experiments on GaAs/AlGaAs and graphene nanostructures unified by experimental techniques going beyond traditional dc transport. Firstly, dc current induced by microwave radiation applied to an open chaotic quantum dot is investigated. Asymmetry of mesoscopic fluctuations of induced current in perpendicular magnetic field is established as a tool for separating the quantum photovoltaic effect from classical rectification. A differential charge sensing technique is next developed using integrated quantum point contacts to resolve the spatial distribution of charge inside a double quantum clot. An accurate method for determining interdot tunnel coupling and electron temperature using charge sensing is demonstrated. A two-channel system for detecting current noise in mesoscopic conductors is developed, enabling four experiments where shot noise probes transmission properties not available in dc transport and Johnson noise serves as an electron thermometer. Suppressed shot noise is observed in quantum point contacts at zero parallel magnetic field, associated with the 0.7 structure in conductance. This suppression evolves with increasing field into the shot-noise signature of spin-lifted mode degeneracy. Quantitative agreement is found with a phenomenological model for density-dependent mode splitting. Shot noise measurements of multi-lead quantum-dot structures in the Coulomb blockade regime distill the mechanisms by which Coulomb interaction and quantum indistinguishability correlate electron flow. Gate-controlled sign reversal of noise cross correlation in two capacitively-coupled dots is observed, and shown to

  9. Electron Transport in Hall Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Michael Sean

    Despite high technological maturity and a long flight heritage, computer models of Hall thrusters remain dependent on empirical inputs and a large part of thruster development to date has been heavily experimental in nature. This empirical approach will become increasingly unsustainable as new high-power thrusters tax existing ground test facilities and more exotic thruster designs stretch and strain the boundaries of existing design experience. The fundamental obstacle preventing predictive modeling of Hall thruster plasma properties and channel erosion is the lack of a first-principles description of electron transport across the strong magnetic fields between the cathode and anode. In spite of an abundance of proposed transport mechanisms, accurate assessments of the magnitude of electron current due to any one mechanism are scarce, and comparative studies of their relative influence on a single thruster platform simply do not exist. Lacking a clear idea of what mechanism(s) are primarily responsible for transport, it is understandably difficult for the electric propulsion scientist to focus his or her theoretical and computational tools on the right targets. This work presents a primarily experimental investigation of collisional and turbulent Hall thruster electron transport mechanisms. High-speed imaging of the thruster discharge channel at tens of thousands of frames per second reveals omnipresent rotating regions of elevated light emission, identified with a rotating spoke instability. This turbulent instability has been shown through construction of an azimuthally segmented anode to drive significant cross-field electron current in the discharge channel, and suggestive evidence points to its spatial extent into the thruster near-field plume as well. Electron trajectory simulations in experimentally measured thruster electromagnetic fields indicate that binary collisional transport mechanisms are not significant in the thruster plume, and experiments

  10. Electron transport in granular metals.

    PubMed

    Altland, Alexander; Glazman, Leonid I; Kamenev, Alex

    2004-01-16

    We consider thermodynamic and transport properties of a long granular array with strongly connected grains (intergrain conductance g>1). We find that the system's conductance and differential capacitance exhibits activated behavior, approximately exp([-T(*)/T]. The gap T(*) represents the energy needed to create a long single-electron charge soliton propagating through the array. This scale is parametrically larger than the energy at which conventional perturbation theory breaks down.

  11. Electronic transport in unconventional superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, M.J.

    1998-12-31

    The author investigates the electron transport coefficients in unconventional superconductors at low temperatures, where charge and heat transport are dominated by electron scattering from random lattice defects. He discusses the features of the pairing symmetry, Fermi surface, and excitation spectrum which are reflected in the low temperature heat transport. For temperatures {kappa}{sub B}T {approx_lt} {gamma} {much_lt} {Delta}{sub 0}, where {gamma} is the bandwidth of impurity induced Andreev states, certain eigenvalues become universal, i.e., independent of the impurity concentration and phase shift. Deep in the superconducting phase ({kappa}{sub B}T {approx_lt} {gamma}) the Wiedemann-Franz law, with Sommerfeld`s value of the Lorenz number, is recovered. He compares the results for theoretical models of unconventional superconductivity in high-{Tc} and heavy fermion superconductors with experiment. The findings show that impurities are a sensitive probe of the low-energy excitation spectrum, and that the zero-temperature limit of the transport coefficients provides an important test of the order parameter symmetry.

  12. Terahertz electromodulation spectroscopy of electron transport in GaN

    SciTech Connect

    Engelbrecht, S. G.; Arend, T. R.; Kersting, R.; Zhu, T.; Kappers, M. J.

    2015-03-02

    Time-resolved terahertz (THz) electromodulation spectroscopy is applied to investigate the high-frequency transport of electrons in gallium nitride at different doping concentrations and densities of threading dislocations. At THz frequencies, all structures reveal Drude transport. The analysis of the spectral response provides the fundamental transport properties, such as the electron scattering time and the electrons' conductivity effective mass. We observe the expected impact of ionized-impurity scattering and that scattering at threading dislocations only marginally affects the high-frequency mobility.

  13. Small agricultural impoundments affect pollutant transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-03-01

    Reservoirs created by dams intercept runoff from upslope areas and thus are often sinks for fertilizers and other pollutants that would otherwise flow downstream. Most studies of solute transport through impoundments have focused on large, long-lived systems. However, small impoundments, such as those created for irrigation or livestock watering, are common in agricultural regions, and their total global surface area is comparable to that of large reservoirs. As these small systems mature, the impoundments fill with sediment, creating ecosystems with wetland-like characteristics. Because dams that create these small impoundments are more likely to be degraded, poorly maintained, or removed by their owners, it is important to understand how changes in such systems may affect pollutant transport.

  14. Coupled electron-photon radiation transport

    SciTech Connect

    Lorence, L.; Kensek, R.P.; Valdez, G.D.; Drumm, C.R.; Fan, W.C.; Powell, J.L.

    2000-01-17

    Massively-parallel computers allow detailed 3D radiation transport simulations to be performed to analyze the response of complex systems to radiation. This has been recently been demonstrated with the coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo code, ITS. To enable such calculations, the combinatorial geometry capability of ITS was improved. For greater geometrical flexibility, a version of ITS is under development that can track particles in CAD geometries. Deterministic radiation transport codes that utilize an unstructured spatial mesh are also being devised. For electron transport, the authors are investigating second-order forms of the transport equations which, when discretized, yield symmetric positive definite matrices. A novel parallelization strategy, simultaneously solving for spatial and angular unknowns, has been applied to the even- and odd-parity forms of the transport equation on a 2D unstructured spatial mesh. Another second-order form, the self-adjoint angular flux transport equation, also shows promise for electron transport.

  15. Conditions and processes affecting radionuclide transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Ardyth M.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of unsaturated-zone transport is based on laboratory and field-scale experiments. Fractures provide advective transport pathways. Sorption and matrix diffusion may contribute to retardation of radionuclides. Conversely, sorption onto mobile colloids may enhance radionuclide transport.

  16. Transport experiments with Dirac electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checkelsky, Joseph George

    This thesis presents transport experiments performed on solid state systems in which the behavior of the charge carriers can be described by the Dirac equation. Unlike the massive carriers in a typical material, in these systems the carriers behave like massless fermions with a photon-like dispersion predicted to greatly modify their spin and charge transport properties. The first system studied is graphene, a crystalline monolayer of carbon arranged in a hexagonal lattice. The band structure calculated from the hexagonal lattice has the form of the massless Dirac Hamiltonian. At the charge neutral Dirac point, we find that application of a magnetic field drives a transition to an insulating state. We also study the thermoelectric properties of graphene and find that the states near the Dirac point have a unique response compared to those at higher charge density. The second system is the 3D topological insulator Bi2Se3, where a Dirac-like dispersion for states on the 2D surface of the insulating 3D crystal arises as a result of the topology of the 3D bands and time reversal symmetry. To access the transport properties of the 2D states, we suppress the remnant bulk conduction channel by chemical doping and electrostatic gating. In bulk crystals we find strong quantum corrections to transport at low temperature when the bulk conduction channel is maximally suppressed. In microscopic crystals we are able better to isolate the surface conduction channel properties. We identify in-gap conducting states that have relatively high mobility compared to the bulk and exhibit weak anti-localization, consistent with predictions for protected 2D surface states with strong spin-orbit coupling.

  17. The Electron Transport Chain: An Interactive Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Chris; Choun, James

    2014-01-01

    This activity provides students an interactive demonstration of the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis during aerobic respiration. Students use simple, everyday objects as hydrogen ions and electrons and play the roles of the various proteins embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane to show how this specific process in cellular…

  18. Monte Carlo electron/photon transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.M.; Morel, J.E.; Hughes, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    A review of nonplasma coupled electron/photon transport using Monte Carlo method is presented. Remarks are mainly restricted to linerarized formalisms at electron energies from 1 keV to 1000 MeV. Applications involving pulse-height estimation, transport in external magnetic fields, and optical Cerenkov production are discussed to underscore the importance of this branch of computational physics. Advances in electron multigroup cross-section generation is reported, and its impact on future code development assessed. Progress toward the transformation of MCNP into a generalized neutral/charged-particle Monte Carlo code is described. 48 refs.

  19. Electron transport through single carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, Thomas; Chai, G.; Heinrich, H.; Chow, L.; Schenkel, T.

    2007-08-01

    We report on the transport of energetic electrons through single, well aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). Embedding of CNTs in a protective carbon fiber coating enables the application of focused ion beam based sample preparation techniques for the non-destructive isolation and alignment of individual tubes. Aligned tubes with lengths of 0.7 to 3 mu m allow transport of 300 keV electrons in a transmission electron microscope through their hollow cores at zero degree incident angles and for a misalignment of up to 1 degree.

  20. Electronic Transport in Organic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, W.; Samanta, M. P.; Henderson, J. I.; Kubiak, C. P.; Datta, S.

    1996-03-01

    A systematic theoretical study of the conductance of a class of organic molecules connected between two gold cantact pads will be presented. This class of molecules consists of oligomers of benzene rings linked at their para-positions and terminated with suitable ligand end groups designed to bond to gold substrates. Such molecules are currently being investigated experimentally for use as interconnectors in nanoscale electronic devices (J.Guay et al, J.Am.Chem.Soc., 115,1869, (1993); M.Dorogi et al, Phys. Rev. B52,9071,(1995); D.B.Janes et al, Superlatt. and Microstruc., in press). Analytical and numerical results will be presented illustrating effects of Metal Induced Gap States (MIGS), end group atoms, geometric and molecular structure on the measured conductance.

  1. Theoretical investigations into the electronic structures and electron transport properties of fluorine and carbonyl end-functionalized quarterthiophenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Duan, Yuai; Gao, Hong-Ze; Su, Zhong-Мin; Geng, Yun

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we concentrate on systematic investigation on the fluorination and carbonylation effect on electron transport properties of thiophene-based materials with the aim of seeking and designing electron transport materials. Some relative factors, namely, frontier molecular orbital (FMO), vertical electron affinity (VEA), electron reorganization energy (λele), electron transfer integral (tele), electron drift mobility (μele) and band structures have been calculated and discussed based on density functional theory. The results show that the introduction of fluorine atoms and carbonyl group especially for the latter could effectively increase EA and reduce λele, which is beneficial to the improvement of electron transport performance. Furthermore, these introductions could also affect the tele by changing molecular packing manner and distribution of FMO. Finally, according to our calculation, the 3d system is considered to be a promising electron transport material with small λele, high electron transport ability and good ambient stability.

  2. Theoretical investigations into the electronic structures and electron transport properties of fluorine and carbonyl end-functionalized quarterthiophenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Duan, Yuai; Gao, Hong-Ze; Su, Zhong-Мin; Geng, Yun

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we concentrate on systematic investigation on the fluorination and carbonylation effect on electron transport properties of thiophene-based materials with the aim of seeking and designing electron transport materials. Some relative factors, namely, frontier molecular orbital (FMO), vertical electron affinity (VEA), electron reorganization energy (λele), electron transfer integral (tele), electron drift mobility (μele) and band structures have been calculated and discussed based on density functional theory. The results show that the introduction of fluorine atoms and carbonyl group especially for the latter could effectively increase EA and reduce λele, which is beneficial to the improvement of electron transport performance. Furthermore, these introductions could also affect the tele by changing molecular packing manner and distribution of FMO. Finally, according to our calculation, the 3d system is considered to be a promising electron transport material with small λele, high electron transport ability and good ambient stability. PMID:25909689

  3. Salicylic acid binding of mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase E2 affects mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain components and plays a role in basal defense against tobacco mosaic virus in tomato.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yangwenke; Tian, Miaoying; Zhang, Huan; Li, Xin; Wang, Yu; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Jie; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in plant defense against pathogen invasion. SA-induced viral defense in plants is distinct from the pathways mediating bacterial and fungal defense and involves a specific pathway mediated by mitochondria; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The SA-binding activity of the recombinant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (Slα-kGDH) E2 subunit of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was characterized. The biological role of this binding in plant defenses against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was further investigated via Slα-kGDH E2 silencing and transient overexpression in plants. Slα-kGDH E2 was found to bind SA in two independent assays. SA treatment, as well as Slα-kGDH E2 silencing, increased resistance to TMV. SA did not further enhance TMV defense in Slα-kGDH E2-silenced tomato plants but did reduce TMV susceptibility in Nicotiana benthamiana plants transiently overexpressing Slα-kGDH E2. Furthermore, Slα-kGDH E2-silencing-induced TMV resistance was fully blocked by bongkrekic acid application and alternative oxidase 1a silencing. These results indicated that binding by Slα-kGDH E2 of SA acts upstream of and affects the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which plays an important role in basal defense against TMV. The findings of this study help to elucidate the mechanisms of SA-induced viral defense.

  4. Resistive Plate Chambers: electron transport and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bošnjaković, D.; Petrović, Z. Lj; Dujko, S.

    2014-12-01

    We study the electron transport in gas mixtures used by Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in high energy physics experiments at CERN. Calculations are performed using a multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation. We identify the effects induced by non-conservative nature of electron attachment, including attachment heating of electrons and negative differential conductivity (NDC). NDC was observed only in the bulk component of drift velocity. Using our Monte Carlo technique, we calculate the spatially resolved transport properties in order to investigate the origin of these effects. We also present our microscopic approach to modeling of RPCs which is based on Monte Carlo method. Calculated results for a timing RPC show good agreement with an analytical model and experimental data. Different cross section sets for electron scattering in C2H2F4 are used for comparison and analysis.

  5. Contactless electronic transport in a bio-molecular junction

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Faruque M. Al-Dirini, Feras; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2014-07-28

    Molecular electronics hold promise for next generation ultra-low power, nano-scale integrated electronics. The main challenge in molecular electronics is to make a reliable interface between molecules and metal electrodes. Interfacing metals and molecules detrimentally affects the characteristics of nano-scale molecular electronic devices. It is therefore essential to investigate alternative arrangements such as contact-less tunneling gaps wherever such configurations are feasible. We conduct ab initio density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's functions calculations to investigate the transport properties of a biocompatible glycine molecular junction. By analyzing the localized molecular orbital energy distributions and transmission probabilities in the transport-gap, we find a glycine molecule confined between two gold electrodes, without making a contact, is energetically stable and possesses high tunneling current resembling an excellent ohmic-like interface.

  6. Numerical solution of the electron transport equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Mark

    The electron transport equation has been solved many times for a variety of reasons. The main difficulty in its numerical solution is that it is a very stiff boundary value problem. The most common numerical methods for solving boundary value problems are symmetric collocation methods and shooting methods. Both of these types of methods can only be applied to the electron transport equation if the boundary conditions are altered with unrealistic assumptions because they require too many points to be practical. Further, they result in oscillating and negative solutions, which are physically meaningless for the problem at hand. For these reasons, all numerical methods for this problem to date are a bit unusual because they were designed to try and avoid the problem of extreme stiffness. This dissertation shows that there is no need to introduce spurious boundary conditions or invent other numerical methods for the electron transport equation. Rather, there already exists methods for very stiff boundary value problems within the numerical analysis literature. We demonstrate one such method in which the fast and slow modes of the boundary value problem are essentially decoupled. This allows for an upwind finite difference method to be applied to each mode as is appropriate. This greatly reduces the number of points needed in the mesh, and we demonstrate how this eliminates the need to define new boundary conditions. This method is verified by showing that under certain restrictive assumptions, the electron transport equation has an exact solution that can be written as an integral. We show that the solution from the upwind method agrees with the quadrature evaluation of the exact solution. This serves to verify that the upwind method is properly solving the electron transport equation. Further, it is demonstrated that the output of the upwind method can be used to compute auroral light emissions.

  7. Electron Transport Through Single Fullerene Molecules (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stróżecka, Anna; Muthukumar, Kaliappan; Larsson, J. Andreas; Voigtländer, Bert

    2009-04-01

    Fullerenes show potential for applications in nanotechnology due to the possibility of tuning their properties by doping or functionalization. In particular, the endohedral doping of the hollow carbon cage with metal atoms allows changing the electronic and magnetic properties of the molecule without distorting the geometry of the outer shell. Here we present a low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy study of the vibrational and transport properties of Ce2atC80 metallofullerenes. We observe that electron transport through the endohedral fullerene is strongly mediated by excitation of molecular vibrations, especially the dynamics of encapsulated atoms. We measure the conductance of the single-molecule junction upon contact between the molecule and the STM tip. To determine the role of doping atoms we compare the results obtained for the endohedrally doped species with those for a hollow fullerene. Analysis shows that localization of electron density on encapsulated atoms hinders the conduction process through the fullerene.

  8. Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Photoinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Thomas; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja Krieger

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms and isolated photosystems are of interest for technical applications. In nature, photosynthetic electron transport has to work efficiently in contrasting environments such as shade and full sunlight at noon. Photosynthetic electron transport is regulated on many levels, starting with the energy transfer processes in antenna and ending with how reducing power is ultimately partitioned. This review starts by explaining how light energy can be dissipated or distributed by the various mechanisms of non-photochemical quenching, including thermal dissipation and state transitions, and how these processes influence photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII). Furthermore, we will highlight the importance of the various alternative electron transport pathways, including the use of oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor and cyclic flow around photosystem I (PSI), the latter which seem particularly relevant to preventing photoinhibition of photosystem I. The control of excitation pressure in combination with the partitioning of reducing power influences the light-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species in PSII and in PSI, which may be a very important consideration to any artificial photosynthetic system or technical device using photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24678670

  9. The effect of electron-electron interaction induced dephasing on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect

    Kahnoj, Sina Soleimani; Touski, Shoeib Babaee; Pourfath, Mahdi E-mail: pourfath@iue.tuwien.ac.at

    2014-09-08

    The effect of dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction on electronic transport in graphene nanoribbons is theoretically investigated. In the presence of disorder in graphene nanoribbons, wavefunction of electrons can set up standing waves along the channel and the conductance exponentially decreases with the ribbon's length. Employing the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism along with an accurate model for describing the dephasing induced by electron-electron interaction, we show that this kind of interaction prevents localization and transport of electrons remains in the diffusive regime where the conductance is inversely proportional to the ribbon's length.

  10. Electron ripple injection concept for transport control

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, W.; Ono, M.; Hwang, Y.S.

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments in many devices have provided firm evidence that the edge radial electric field profile differs between L- and H-modes, and that these fields can greatly modify transport in tokamak plasmas. A nonintrusive method for inducing radial electric field based on electron ripple injection is being developed by the CDX-U group. This technique utilizes a pair of special coils to create a local magnetic field ripple to trap the electrons at the edge of the plasma. The trapped electrons then drift into the plasma due to the [del]B drift. An ECH power is applied to accelerate electrons to sufficient perpendicular energy to penetrate into the plasma. Application of ECH power to the trapped electrons should provide the desired 20 A of electron current with electrons of a few keV of energy and v[perpendicular]/v[parallel] [much gt] 1. A controlled experiment to investigate the physics of ECH aided ripple injection has been designed on CDX-U. With the set of ripple coils designed for CDX-U, a ripple fraction of [delta] ([double bond] [del]B/B[sub av]) [approximately] 5% is attainable. At this ripple fraction, electrons are trapped if v[perpendicular]/v[parallel] [much gt] 1> (2[delta])[sup [minus][1/2

  11. Self-consistent electron transport in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Gatto, R.; Chavdarovski, I.

    2007-09-15

    Electron particle, momentum, and energy fluxes in axisymmetric toroidal devices are derived from a version of the action-angle collision operator that includes both diffusion and drag in action-space [D. A. Hitchcock, R. D. Hazeltine, and S. M. Mahajan, Phys. Fluids 26, 2603 (1983); H. E. Mynick, J. Plasma Phys. 39, 303 (1988)]. A general result of the theory is that any contribution to transport originating directly from the toroidal frequency of the particle motion is constrained to be zero when the electron temperature is equal to the ion temperature. In particular, this constraint applies to those components of the particle and energy fluxes that are proportional to the magnetic shear, independent of the underlying turbulence and of whether the particles are trapped or untrapped. All the total fluxes describing collisionless transport of passing electrons in steady-state magnetic turbulence contain contributions proportional to the conventional thermodynamic drives, which are always outward, and contributions proportional to the magnetic shear, which have both magnitude and sign dependent on the ion-electron temperature ratio. The turbulent generalization of Ohm's law includes a hyper-resistive term, which flattens the current density profile on a fast time scale, and a turbulent electric field, which can have both signs depending on the electron-ion temperature ratio.

  12. Single-molecule junctions beyond electronic transport.

    PubMed

    Aradhya, Sriharsha V; Venkataraman, Latha

    2013-06-01

    The idea of using individual molecules as active electronic components provided the impetus to develop a variety of experimental platforms to probe their electronic transport properties. Among these, single-molecule junctions in a metal-molecule-metal motif have contributed significantly to our fundamental understanding of the principles required to realize molecular-scale electronic components from resistive wires to reversible switches. The success of these techniques and the growing interest of other disciplines in single-molecule-level characterization are prompting new approaches to investigate metal-molecule-metal junctions with multiple probes. Going beyond electronic transport characterization, these new studies are highlighting both the fundamental and applied aspects of mechanical, optical and thermoelectric properties at the atomic and molecular scales. Furthermore, experimental demonstrations of quantum interference and manipulation of electronic and nuclear spins in single-molecule circuits are heralding new device concepts with no classical analogues. In this Review, we present the emerging methods being used to interrogate multiple properties in single molecule-based devices, detail how these measurements have advanced our understanding of the structure-function relationships in molecular junctions, and discuss the potential for future research and applications.

  13. Electronic transport in smectic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyanovskaya, I.; Singer, K. D.; Twieg, R. J.; Sukhomlinova, L.; Gettwert, V.

    2002-04-01

    Time-of-flight measurements of transient photoconductivity have revealed bipolar electronic transport in phenylnaphthalene and biphenyl liquid crystals (LC), which exhibit several smectic mesophases. In the phenylnaphthalene LC, the hole mobility is significantly higher than the electron mobility and exhibits different temperature and phase behavior. Electron mobility in the range ~10-5 cm2/V s is temperature activated and remains continuous at the phase transitions. However, hole mobility is nearly temperature independent within the smectic phases, but is very sensitive to smectic order, 10-3 cm2/V s in the smectic-B (Sm-B) and 10-4 cm2/V s in the smectic-A (Sm-A) mesophases. The different behavior for holes and electron transport is due to differing transport mechanisms. The electron mobility is apparently controlled by rate-limiting multiple shallow trapping by impurities, but hole mobility is not. To explain the lack of temperature dependence for hole mobility within the smectic phases we consider two possible polaron transport mechanisms. The first mechanism is based on the hopping of Holstein small polarons in the nonadiabatic limit. The polaron binding energy and transfer integral values, obtained from the model fit, turned out to be sensitive to the molecular order in smectic mesophases. A second possible scenario for temperature-independent hole mobility involves the competion between two different polaron mechanisms involving so-called nearly small molecular polarons and small lattice polarons. Although the extracted transfer integrals and binding energies are reasonable and consistent with the model assumptions, the limited temperature range of the various phases makes it difficult to distinguish between any of the models. In the biphenyl LCs both electron and hole mobilities exhibit temperature activated behavior in the range of 10-5 cm2/V s without sensitivity to the molecular order. The dominating transport mechanism is considered as multiple trapping

  14. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, M. L. de; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L. Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; Moura, F. A. B. F. de; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-16

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  15. Electronic transport in methylated fragments of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, M. L.; Oliveira, J. I. N.; Lima Neto, J. X.; Gomes, C. E. M.; Fulco, U. L.; Albuquerque, E. L.; Freire, V. N.; Caetano, E. W. S.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of methylated deoxyribonucleic-acid (DNA) strands, a biological system in which methyl groups are added to DNA (a major epigenetic modification in gene expression), sandwiched between two metallic platinum electrodes. Our theoretical simulations apply an effective Hamiltonian based on a tight-binding model to obtain current-voltage curves related to the non-methylated/methylated DNA strands. The results suggest potential applications in the development of novel biosensors for molecular diagnostics.

  16. Electron transport fluxes in potato plateau regime

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    Electron transport fluxes in the potato plateau regime are calculated from the solutions of the drift kinetic equation and fluid equations. It is found that the bootstrap current density remains finite in the region close to the magnetic axis, although it decreases with increasing collision frequency. This finite amount of the bootstrap current in the relatively collisional regime is important in modeling tokamak startup with 100{percent} bootstrap current. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Electron ripple injection concept for transport control

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, W.; Ono, M.; Hwang, Y.S.

    1992-10-01

    Recent experiments in many devices have provided firm evidence that the edge radial electric field profile differs between L- and H-modes, and that these fields can greatly modify transport in tokamak plasmas. A nonintrusive method for inducing radial electric field based on electron ripple injection is being developed by the CDX-U group. This technique utilizes a pair of special coils to create a local magnetic field ripple to trap the electrons at the edge of the plasma. The trapped electrons then drift into the plasma due to the {del}B drift. An ECH power is applied to accelerate electrons to sufficient perpendicular energy to penetrate into the plasma. Application of ECH power to the trapped electrons should provide the desired 20 A of electron current with electrons of a few keV of energy and v{perpendicular}/v{parallel} {much_gt} 1. A controlled experiment to investigate the physics of ECH aided ripple injection has been designed on CDX-U. With the set of ripple coils designed for CDX-U, a ripple fraction of {delta} ({double_bond} {del}B/B{sub av}) {approximately} 5% is attainable. At this ripple fraction, electrons are trapped if v{perpendicular}/v{parallel} {much_gt} 1> (2{delta}){sup {minus}{1/2}} {approx}3. A resonant cavity box was fabricated for efficient heating of the trapped electrons. It is also capable of measuring the effect of the field ripple in conjunction with trapped electrons. Some preliminary results are given.

  18. Transport of electrons in monolithic hot electron Si transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berz, F.

    1986-12-01

    The transport of electrons across the base of monolithic hot electron transistors is studied using a simplified model. The base is assumed to be limited by abrupt barriers and no account is taken of backscattering from the collector region. The collisions in the base are considered to be of only one type which represents an average between interactions with optical and acoustic phonons. A fundamental part in the analysis is played by the function PEX( i, x), ( i = 1, 2, …) which gives the total probability of exit into the collector of an electron whose ith collision occurs at a point of abscissa x within the base. The function PEX( i, x) is determined iteratively for decreasing values of i, using the theorem of compound probabilities, and from there the transport factor α across the base is derived. Programs have been written to this effect, and the results are illustrated by means of examples which demonstrate the effect on the transport factor α of the various parameters of the device, and show some comparisons with a previous theory[4].

  19. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Changbiao

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically transported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron`s relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  20. Electron transport parameters in NF3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisovskiy, V.; Yegorenkov, V.; Ogloblina, P.; Booth, J.-P.; Martins, S.; Landry, K.; Douai, D.; Cassagne, V.

    2014-03-01

    We present electron transport parameters (the first Townsend coefficient, the dissociative attachment coefficient, the fraction of electron energy lost by collisions with NF3 molecules, the average and characteristic electron energy, the electron mobility and the drift velocity) in NF3 gas calculated from published elastic and inelastic electron-NF3 collision cross-sections using the BOLSIG+ code. Calculations were performed for the combined RB (Rescigno 1995 Phys. Rev. E 52 329, Boesten et al 1996 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 29 5475) momentum-transfer cross-section, as well as for the JB (Joucoski and Bettega 2002 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 35 783) momentum-transfer cross-section. In addition, we have measured the radio frequency (rf) breakdown curves for various inter-electrode gaps and rfs, and from these we have determined the electron drift velocity in NF3 from the location of the turning point in these curves. These drift velocity values are in satisfactory agreement with those calculated by the BOLSIG+ code employing the JB momentum-transfer cross-section.

  1. Electronic transport in graphene-based heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, J. Y.; Avsar, A.; Balakrishnan, J.; Taychatanapat, T.; O'Farrell, E. C. T.; Eda, G.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Koon, G. K. W.; Özyilmaz, B.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.

    2014-05-05

    While boron nitride (BN) substrates have been utilized to achieve high electronic mobilities in graphene field effect transistors, it is unclear how other layered two dimensional (2D) crystals influence the electronic performance of graphene. In this Letter, we study the surface morphology of 2D BN, gallium selenide (GaSe), and transition metal dichalcogenides (tungsten disulfide (WS{sub 2}) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2})) crystals and their influence on graphene's electronic quality. Atomic force microscopy analysis shows that these crystals have improved surface roughness (root mean square value of only ∼0.1 nm) compared to conventional SiO{sub 2} substrate. While our results confirm that graphene devices exhibit very high electronic mobility (μ) on BN substrates, graphene devices on WS{sub 2} substrates (G/WS{sub 2}) are equally promising for high quality electronic transport (μ ∼ 38 000 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature), followed by G/MoS{sub 2} (μ ∼ 10 000 cm{sup 2}/V s) and G/GaSe (μ ∼ 2200 cm{sup 2}/V s). However, we observe a significant asymmetry in electron and hole conduction in G/WS{sub 2} and G/MoS{sub 2} heterostructures, most likely due to the presence of sulphur vacancies in the substrate crystals. GaSe crystals are observed to degrade over time even under ambient conditions, leading to a large hysteresis in graphene transport making it a less suitable substrate.

  2. Electron Transport in Short Peptide Single Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jing; Brisendine, Joseph; Ng, Fay; Nuckolls, Colin; Koder, Ronald; Venkarataman, Latha

    We present a study of the electron transport through a series of short peptides using scanning tunneling microscope-based break junction method. Our work is motivated by the need to gain a better understanding of how various levels of protein structure contribute to the remarkable capacity of proteins to transport charge in biophysical processes such as respiration and photosynthesis. We focus here on short mono, di and tri-peptides, and probe their conductance when bound to gold electrodes in a native buffer environment. We first show that these peptides can bind to gold through amine, carboxyl, thiol and methyl-sulfide termini. We then focus on two systems (glycine and alanine) and show that their conductance decays faster than alkanes terminated by the same linkers. Importantly, our results show that the peptide bond is less conductive than a sigma carbon-carbon bond. This work was supported in part by NSF-DMR 1507440.

  3. Electronic transport in benzodifuran single-molecule transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, An; Li, Hui; Chen, Songjie; Liu, Shi-Xia; Decurtins, Silvio; Bai, Meilin; Hou, Shimin; Liao, Jianhui

    2015-04-01

    Benzodifuran (BDF) single-molecule transistors have been fabricated in electromigration break junctions for electronic measurements. The inelastic electron tunneling spectrum validates that the BDF molecule is the pathway of charge transport. The gating effect is analyzed in the framework of a single-level tunneling model combined with transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS). The analysis reveals that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the thiol-terminated BDF molecule dominates the charge transport through Au-BDF-Au junctions. Moreover, the energy shift of the HOMO caused by the gate voltage is the main reason for conductance modulation. In contrast, the electronic coupling between the BDF molecule and the gold electrodes, which significantly affects the low-bias junction conductance, is only influenced slightly by the applied gate voltage. These findings will help in the design of future molecular electronic devices.Benzodifuran (BDF) single-molecule transistors have been fabricated in electromigration break junctions for electronic measurements. The inelastic electron tunneling spectrum validates that the BDF molecule is the pathway of charge transport. The gating effect is analyzed in the framework of a single-level tunneling model combined with transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS). The analysis reveals that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the thiol-terminated BDF molecule dominates the charge transport through Au-BDF-Au junctions. Moreover, the energy shift of the HOMO caused by the gate voltage is the main reason for conductance modulation. In contrast, the electronic coupling between the BDF molecule and the gold electrodes, which significantly affects the low-bias junction conductance, is only influenced slightly by the applied gate voltage. These findings will help in the design of future molecular electronic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The fabrication procedure for BDF single

  4. Electronic transport properties of silicon clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Yukihito

    2016-02-01

    The electronic transport properties of silicon clusters were examined via theoretical calculations using the first-principles method. Additionally, p-type doping and n-type doping were analyzed by calculating conductance and current of boron- and phosphorus-doped silicon clusters. The p-type doping and n-type doping provided a new transmission peak at an energy level around the Fermi level to increase conductance. Furthermore, simultaneous boron and phosphorus doping resulted in noticeable rectifying characteristics, with the current drive in forward bias being three times higher than that in the reverse bias. A p-n junction was achieved even on a molecular scale.

  5. Inelastic electron transport in granular arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Altland, A.; Glazman, L.I.; Kamenev, A.; Meyer, J.S. . E-mail: jmeyer@mps.ohio-state.edu

    2006-11-15

    Transport properties of granular systems are governed by Coulomb blockade effects caused by the discreteness of the electron charge. We show that, in the limit of vanishing mean level spacing on the grains, the low-temperature behavior of 1d and 2d arrays is insulating at any inter-grain coupling (characterized by a dimensionless conductance g). In 2d and g >> 1, there is a sharp Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover to the conducting phase at a certain temperature, T {sub BKT}. These results are obtained by applying an instanton analysis to map the conventional 'phase' description of granular arrays onto the dual 'charge' representation.

  6. Inelastic electron transport in granular arrays.

    SciTech Connect

    Altland, A.; Glazman, L. I.; Kamenev, A.; Meyer, J. S.; Materials Science Division; Univ. zu Koln; Univ. Minnesota; Ohio State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Transport properties of granular systems are governed by Coulomb blockade effects caused by the discreteness of the electron charge. We show that, in the limit of vanishing mean level spacing on the grains, the low-temperature behavior of 1d and 2d arrays is insulating at any inter-grain coupling (characterized by a dimensionless conductance g). In 2d and g 1, there is a sharp Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover to the conducting phase at a certain temperature, T{sub BKT}. These results are obtained by applying an instanton analysis to map the conventional 'phase' description of granular arrays onto the dual 'charge' representation.

  7. Electron heat transport down steep temperature gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Matte, J.P.; Virmont, J.

    1982-12-27

    Electron heat transport is studied by numerically solving the Fokker-Planck equation, with a spherical harmonic representation of the distribution function. The first two terms (f/sub 0/, f/sub 1/) suffice, even in steep temperature gradients. Deviations from the Spitzer-Haerm law appear for lambda/L/sub T/ ((mean free path)/(temperature gradient length))> or approx. =0.01, as a result of non-Maxwellian f/sub 0/. For lambda/L/sub T/> or approx. =1, the heat flux is (1/3) of the free-streaming value. In intermediate cases, a harmonic law describes well the hottest part of the plasma.

  8. Electronic transport properties of (fluorinated) metal phthalocyanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadlallah, M. M.; Eckern, U.; Romero, A. H.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic and transport properties of the metal phthalocyanine (MPc) and F16MPc (M = Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ag) families of molecules in contact with S-Au wires are investigated by density functional theory within the local density approximation, including local electronic correlations on the central metal atom. The magnetic moments are found to be considerably modified under fluorination. In addition, they do not depend exclusively on the configuration of the outer electronic shell of the central metal atom (as in isolated MPc and F16MPc) but also on the interaction with the leads. Good agreement between the calculated conductance and experimental results is obtained. For M = Ag, a high spin filter efficiency and conductance is observed, giving rise to a potentially high sensitivity for chemical sensor applications.

  9. Conditioner for a helically transported electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Changbiao.

    1992-05-01

    The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically transported electron beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the electron's relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.

  10. Status of electron transport in MCNP{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, H.G.

    1995-09-01

    In recent years, an ongoing project within the radiation transport group (XTM) at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been the implementation and validation of an electron transport capability in the Monte Carlo code NICNP. In this paper the authors document the continuous-energy electron transport methods currently in use in MCNP, and describes a recent improvement of the energy-loss straggling algorithm. MCNP also supports electron transport calculations in a multigroup mode.

  11. Electronic transport of recrystallized freestanding graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhengqing John; Daniels, Colin; Hong, Sung Ju; Park, Yung Woo; Meunier, Vincent; Drndić, Marija; Johnson, A T Charlie

    2015-01-01

    The use of graphene and other two-dimensional materials in next-generation electronics is hampered by the significant damage caused by conventional lithographic processing techniques employed in device fabrication. To reduce the density of defects and increase mobility, Joule heating is often used since it facilitates lattice reconstruction and promotes self-repair. Despite its importance, an atomistic understanding of the structural and electronic enhancements in graphene devices enabled by current annealing is still lacking. To provide a deeper understanding of these mechanisms, atomic recrystallization and electronic transport in graphene nanoribbon (GNR) devices are investigated using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. GNR devices with widths below 10 nm are defined and electrically measured in situ within the sample chamber of an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. Immediately after patterning, we observe few-layer polycrystalline GNRs with irregular sp(2)-bonded edges. Continued structural recrystallization toward a sharp, faceted edge is promoted by increasing application of Joule heat. Monte Carlo-based annealing simulations reveal that this is a result of concentrated local currents at lattice defects, which in turn promotes restructuring of unfavorable edge structures toward an atomically sharp state. We establish that intrinsic conductance doubles to 2.7 e(2)/h during the recrystallization process following an almost 3-fold reduction in device width, which is attributed to improved device crystallinity. In addition to the observation of consistent edge bonding in patterned GNRs, we further motivate the use of bonded bilayer GNRs for future nanoelectronic components by demonstrating how electronic structure can be tailored by an appropriate modification of the relative twist angle of the bonded bilayer.

  12. Transport of the plasma sheet electrons to the geostationary distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganushkina, N. Y.; Amariutei, O. A.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">The <span class="hlt">transport</span> and acceleration of low-energy <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (50-250 keV) from the plasma sheet to the geostationary orbit were investigated. Two moderate storm events, which occurred on 6-7 November 1997 and 12-14 June 2005, were modeled using the Inner Magnetosphere Particle <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Acceleration model (IMPTAM) with the boundary set at 10 RE in the plasma sheet. The output of the IMPTAM was compared to the observed <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes in four energy ranges (50-225 keV) measured by the Synchronous Orbit Particle Analyzer instrument onboard the Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft. It was found that the large-scale convection in combination with substorm-associated impulsive fields is the drivers of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of plasma sheet <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from 10 RE to geostationary orbit at 6.6 RE during storm times. The addition of radial diffusion had no significant influence on the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes. At the same time, the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes are one (two) order(s) smaller than the observed ones for 50-150 keV (150-225 keV) <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, respectively, most likely due to inaccuracy of <span class="hlt">electron</span> boundary conditions. The loss processes due to wave-particle interactions were not considered. The choice of the large-scale convection electric field model used in simulations did not have a significant influence on the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes, since there is not much difference between the equipotential contours given by the Volland-Stern and the Boyle et al. (1997) models at distances from 10 to 6.6 RE in the plasma sheet. Using the TS05 model for the background magnetic field instead of the T96 model resulted in larger deviations of the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes from the observed ones due to specific features of the TS05 model. The increase in the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes can be as large as two orders of magnitude when substorm-associated electromagnetic fields were taken into account. The obtained model distribution of low-energy <span class="hlt">electron</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM44A..08G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMSM44A..08G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of the plasma sheet <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to the geostationary distances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ganushkina, N. Y.; Amariutei, O. A.; Shprits, Y.; Liemohn, M. W.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">transport</span> and acceleration of low energy <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (10-250 keV) from the plasma sheet to the geostationary orbit were investigated. Two moderate storm events, which occurred on November 6-7, 1997 and June 12-14, 2005, were modeled using the Inner Magnetosphere Particle <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Acceleration model (IMPTAM) with the boundary set at 10 RE in the plasma sheet. The output of the IMPTAM model was compared to the observed <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes in four energy ranges measured onboard the LANL spacecraft by the SOPA instrument. It was found that the large-scale convection in combination with substorm-associated impulsive fields are the drivers of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of plasma sheet <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from 10 RE to geostationary orbit at 6.6 RE during storm times. The addition of radial diffusion had no significant influence on the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes. At the same time, comparison between the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes and observed ones showed two orders of difference most likely due to inaccuracy of <span class="hlt">electron</span> boundary conditions and omission of the important loss processes due to wave-particle interactions. This did not allow us to accuractly reproduce the dynamics of 150-225 keV <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes. The choice of the large-scale convection electric field model used in simulations did not significantly influence on the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes, since there is not much difference between the equipotential contours given by the Volland-Stern and Boyle et al. [1997] models at the distances from 10 to 6.6 RE in the plasma sheet. Using the TS05 model for the background magnetic field instead of the T96 model resulted in larger deviations of the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes from the observed ones due to specific features of the TS05 model. The increase in the modeled <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes can be as large as three orders of magnitude when substorm-associated electromagnetic fields were taken into account. The obtained model distribution of low energy <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes can be used as an input to the radiation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014Nanot..25l0201D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014Nanot..25l0201D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion age <span class="hlt">transport</span>: developing devices beyond <span class="hlt">electronics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demming, Anna</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>There is more to current devices than conventional <span class="hlt">electronics</span>. Increasingly research into the controlled movement of ions and molecules is enabling a range of new technologies. For example, as Weihua Guan, Sylvia Xin Li and Mark Reed at Yale University explain, 'It offers a unique opportunity to integrate wet ionics with dry <span class="hlt">electronics</span> seamlessly'. In this issue they provide an overview of voltage-gated ion and molecule <span class="hlt">transport</span> in engineered nanochannels. They cover the theory governing these systems and fabrication techniques, as well as applications, including biological and chemical analysis, and energy conversion [1]. Studying the movement of particles in nanochannels is not new. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> of materials in rock pores led Klinkenberg to describe an analogy between diffusion and electrical conductivity in porous rocks back in 1951 [2]. And already in 1940, Harold Abramson and Manuel Gorin noted that 'When an electric current is applied across the living human skin, the skin may be considered to act like a system of pores through which transfer of substances like ragweed pollen extract may be achieved both by electrophoretic and by diffusion phenomena' [3]. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in living systems through pore structures on a much smaller scale has attracted a great deal of research in recent years as well. The selective <span class="hlt">transport</span> of ions and small organic molecules across the cell membrane facilitates a number of functions including communication between cells, nerve conduction and signal transmission. Understanding these processes may benefit a wide range of potential applications such as selective separation, biochemical sensing, and controlled release and drug delivery processes. In Germany researchers have successfully demonstrated controlled ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> through nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes [4]. The polymer nanobrushes swell and shrink in response to changes in temperature, thus opening and closing the nanopore passage to ionic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanot..25l0201D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Nanot..25l0201D"><span id="translatedtitle">Ion age <span class="hlt">transport</span>: developing devices beyond <span class="hlt">electronics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demming, Anna</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>There is more to current devices than conventional <span class="hlt">electronics</span>. Increasingly research into the controlled movement of ions and molecules is enabling a range of new technologies. For example, as Weihua Guan, Sylvia Xin Li and Mark Reed at Yale University explain, 'It offers a unique opportunity to integrate wet ionics with dry <span class="hlt">electronics</span> seamlessly'. In this issue they provide an overview of voltage-gated ion and molecule <span class="hlt">transport</span> in engineered nanochannels. They cover the theory governing these systems and fabrication techniques, as well as applications, including biological and chemical analysis, and energy conversion [1]. Studying the movement of particles in nanochannels is not new. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> of materials in rock pores led Klinkenberg to describe an analogy between diffusion and electrical conductivity in porous rocks back in 1951 [2]. And already in 1940, Harold Abramson and Manuel Gorin noted that 'When an electric current is applied across the living human skin, the skin may be considered to act like a system of pores through which transfer of substances like ragweed pollen extract may be achieved both by electrophoretic and by diffusion phenomena' [3]. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in living systems through pore structures on a much smaller scale has attracted a great deal of research in recent years as well. The selective <span class="hlt">transport</span> of ions and small organic molecules across the cell membrane facilitates a number of functions including communication between cells, nerve conduction and signal transmission. Understanding these processes may benefit a wide range of potential applications such as selective separation, biochemical sensing, and controlled release and drug delivery processes. In Germany researchers have successfully demonstrated controlled ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> through nanopores functionalized with amine-terminated polymer brushes [4]. The polymer nanobrushes swell and shrink in response to changes in temperature, thus opening and closing the nanopore passage to ionic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..91s5124M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvB..91s5124M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and dynamics in correlated heterostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazza, G.; Amaricci, A.; Capone, M.; Fabrizio, M.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>We investigate by means of the time-dependent Gutzwiller approximation the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a strongly correlated slab subject to Hubbard repulsion and connected with to two metallic leads kept at a different electrochemical potential. We focus on the real-time evolution of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties after the slab is connected to the leads and consider both metallic and Mott insulating slabs. When the correlated slab is metallic, the system relaxes to a steady state that sustains a finite current. The zero-bias conductance is finite and independent of the degree of correlations within the slab as long as the system remains metallic. On the other hand, when the slab is in a Mott insulating state, the external bias leads to currents that are exponentially activated by charge tunneling across the Mott-Hubbard gap, consistent with the Landau-Zener dielectric breakdown scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5821413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5821413"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Cu deficiency on photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Droppa, M.; Terry, N.; Horvath, G.</p> <p>1984-04-01</p> <p>The role of copper (Cu) in photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> was explored by using Cu deficiency in sugar beet as an experimental approach. Copper influenced <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at two sites in addition to plastocyanin. Under mild deficiency (0.84 nmol of Cu per cm/sup 2/ of leaf area), <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> between the two photosystems (PS) is inhibited but not <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> within PS I or PS II measured separately. The chlorophyll/plastoquinone ratio was normal in Cu-deficient plants. However, the breakpoint in the Arrhenius plot of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> was shifted towards a higher temperature. It is concluded that Cu is necessary to maintain the appropriate membrane fluidity to ensure the mobility of plastoquinone molecules to transfer <span class="hlt">electrons</span> between the two photosystems. Under severe deficiency (0.22 nmol of Cu per cm/sup 2/ of leaf area) both PS II and PS I <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transports</span> were inhibited and to the same extent. PS II <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> activity could not be restored by adding artifical <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors. Polypeptides with M/sub r/s of 28,000 and 13,500 were missing in Cu-deficient chloroplast membranes. In PS II particles prepared from normal chloroplasts of spinach, 2 atoms of Cu per reaction center are present. We conclude that Cu influences PS II <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> either directly, by participation in <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer as a constituent of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> carrier, or indirectly, via the polypeptide composition of the membrane in the PS II complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415682','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415682"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> scattering and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in liquid argon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boyle, G. J.; Cocks, D. G.; White, R. D.; McEachran, R. P.</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">transport</span> of excess <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in liquid argon driven out of equilibrium by an applied electric field is revisited using a multi-term solution of Boltzmann’s equation together with ab initio liquid phase cross-sections calculated using the Dirac-Fock scattering equations. The calculation of liquid phase cross-sections extends previous treatments to consider multipole polarisabilities and a non-local treatment of exchange, while the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-argon potential is validated through comparison of the calculated gas phase cross-sections with experiment. The results presented highlight the inadequacy of local treatments of exchange that are commonly used in liquid and cluster phase cross-section calculations. The multi-term Boltzmann equation framework accounting for coherent scattering enables the inclusion of the full anisotropy in the differential cross-section arising from the interaction and the structure factor, without an a priori assumption of quasi-isotropy in the velocity distribution function. The model, which contains no free parameters and accounts for both coherent scattering and liquid phase screening effects, was found to reproduce well the experimental drift velocities and characteristic energies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5421E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93k5421E"><span id="translatedtitle">Vibrationally dependent <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> interactions in resonant <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through single-molecule junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erpenbeck, A.; Härtle, R.; Bockstedte, M.; Thoss, M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We investigate the role of <span class="hlt">electronic</span>-vibrational coupling in resonant <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through single-molecule junctions, taking into account that the corresponding coupling strengths may depend on the charge and excitation state of the molecular bridge. Within an effective-model Hamiltonian approach for a molecule with multiple <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states, this requires to extend the commonly used model and include vibrationally dependent <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> interaction. We use Born-Markov master equation methods and consider selected models to exemplify the effect of the additional interaction on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics of a single-molecule junction. In particular, we show that it has a significant influence on local cooling and heating mechanisms, it may result in negative differential resistance, and it may cause pronounced asymmetries in the conductance map of a single-molecule junction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...76...12F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...76...12F"><span id="translatedtitle">Time dependent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chiral edge channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We study time dependent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> along the chiral edge channels of the quantum Hall regime, focusing on the role of Coulomb interaction. In the low frequency regime, the a.c. conductance can be derived from a lumped element description of the circuit. At higher frequencies, the propagation equations of the Coulomb coupled edge channels need to be solved. As a consequence of the interchannel coupling, a charge pulse emitted in a given channel fractionalized in several pulses. In particular, Coulomb interaction between channels leads to the fractionalization of a charge pulse emitted in a given channel in several pulses. We finally study how the Coulomb interaction, and in particular the fractionalization process, <span class="hlt">affects</span> the propagation of a single <span class="hlt">electron</span> in the circuit. All the above-mentioned topics are illustrated by experimental realizations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...82..129F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...82..129F"><span id="translatedtitle">Reprint of : Time dependent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chiral edge channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fève, G.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We study time dependent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> along the chiral edge channels of the quantum Hall regime, focusing on the role of Coulomb interaction. In the low frequency regime, the a.c. conductance can be derived from a lumped element description of the circuit. At higher frequencies, the propagation equations of the Coulomb coupled edge channels need to be solved. As a consequence of the interchannel coupling, a charge pulse emitted in a given channel fractionalized in several pulses. In particular, Coulomb interaction between channels leads to the fractionalization of a charge pulse emitted in a given channel in several pulses. We finally study how the Coulomb interaction, and in particular the fractionalization process, <span class="hlt">affects</span> the propagation of a single <span class="hlt">electron</span> in the circuit. All the above-mentioned topics are illustrated by experimental realizations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1012258','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1012258"><span id="translatedtitle">Designing a beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> system for RHIC's <span class="hlt">electron</span> lens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gu, X.; Pikin, A.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Raparia, D.</p> <p>2011-03-28</p> <p>We designed two <span class="hlt">electron</span> lenses to apply head-on beam-beam compensation for RHIC; they will be installed near IP10. The <span class="hlt">electron</span>-beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> system is an important subsystem of the entire <span class="hlt">electron</span>-lens system. <span class="hlt">Electrons</span> are <span class="hlt">transported</span> from the <span class="hlt">electron</span> gun to the main solenoid and further to the collector. The system must allow for changes of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam size inside the superconducting magnet, and for changes of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> position by 5 mm in the horizontal- and vertical-planes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981717','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/981717"><span id="translatedtitle">Transition in <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in a Cylindrical Hall Thruster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>J.B. Parker, Y. Raitses, and N.J. Fisch</p> <p>2010-06-02</p> <p>Through the use of high-speed camera and Langmuir probe measurements in a cylindrical Hall thruster, we report the discovery of a rotating spoke of increased plasma density and light emission which correlates with increased <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across the magnetic field. As cathode <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission is increased, a sharp transition occurs where the spoke disappears and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> decreases. This suggests that a significant fraction of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> current might be directed through the spoke.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21466909','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21466909"><span id="translatedtitle">Transition in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a cylindrical Hall thruster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Parker, J. B.; Raitses, Y.; Fisch, N. J.</p> <p>2010-08-30</p> <p>Through the use of high-speed camera and Langmuir probe measurements in a cylindrical Hall thruster, we report the discovery of a rotating spoke of increased plasma density and light emission which correlates with increased <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across the magnetic field. As cathode <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission is increased, a sharp transition occurs where the spoke disappears and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> decreases. This suggests that a significant fraction of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> current might be directed through the spoke.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27315525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27315525"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> and Ionic <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Dynamics in Organolead Halide Perovskites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Dehui; Wu, Hao; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wang, Gongming; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng</p> <p>2016-07-26</p> <p>Ion migration has been postulated as the underlying mechanism responsible for the hysteresis in organolead halide perovskite devices. However, the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> dynamics and how they impact each other in organolead halide perovskites remain elusive to date. Here we report a systematic investigation of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> dynamics in organolead halide perovskite microplate crystals and thin films using temperature-dependent transient response measurements. Our study reveals that thermally activated ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conduction coexist in perovskite devices. The extracted activation energies suggest that the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is easier, but ions migrate harder in microplates than in thin films, demonstrating that the crystalline quality and grain boundaries can fundamentally modify <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> in perovskites. These findings offer valuable insight on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> dynamics in organolead halide perovskites, which is critical for optimizing perovskite devices with reduced hysteresis and improved stability and efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6353196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6353196"><span id="translatedtitle">The induction of microsomal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> enzymes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waterman, M R; Estabrook, R W</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Liver endoplasmic reticulum contains as NADPH-dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> complex where the family of hemeproteins, termed cytochrome P-450, serve as catalysts for the oxidation of a variety of different organic chemicals. The content and inventory of the types of cytochrome P-450 is readily modified following in vivo treatment of animals with 'inducing agents' such as barbiturates, steroids and polycyclic hydrocarbons. Recent studies have applied the methods of molecular biology to evaluate changes in the transcription and translation of genomic information occurring concomitant with the initiation of synthesis of various types of cytochrome P-450. The ability to isolate unique cytochrome P-450 proteins and to prepare specific antibodies now permits the study of in vitro translation of mRNA and the preparation of specific cDNAs. The present review summarizes the historic background leading to current concepts of cytochrome P-450 induction and describes recent advances in our knowledge of the regulation of cytochrome P-450 synthesis in the liver. PMID:6353196</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......206C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhDT.......206C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> theory in magnetic nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choy, Tat-Sang</p> <p></p> <p>Magnetic nanostructure has been a new trend because of its application in making magnetic sensors, magnetic memories, and magnetic reading heads in hard disks drives. Although a variety of nanostructures have been realized in experiments in recent years by innovative sample growth techniques, the theoretical study of these devices remain a challenge. On one hand, atomic scale modeling is often required for studying the magnetic nanostructures; on the other, these structures often have a dimension on the order of one micrometer, which makes the calculation numerically intensive. In this work, we have studied the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> theory in magnetic nanostructures, with special attention to the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) structure. We have developed a model that includes the details of the band structure and disorder, both of which are both important in obtaining the conductivity. We have also developed an efficient algorithm to compute the conductivity in magnetic nanostructures. The model and the algorithm are general and can be applied to complicated structures. We have applied the theory to current-perpendicular-to-plane GMR structures and the results agree with experiments. Finally, we have searched for the atomic configuration with the highest GMR using the simulated annealing algorithm. This method is computationally intensive because we have to compute the GMR for 103 to 104 configurations. However it is still very efficient because the number of steps it takes to find the maximum is much smaller than the number of all possible GMR structures. We found that ultra-thin NiCu superlattices have surprisingly large GMR even at the moderate disorder in experiments. This finding may be useful in improving the GMR technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828162"><span id="translatedtitle">Reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> effects on NADH formation and metmyoglobin reduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belskie, K M; Van Buiten, C B; Ramanathan, R; Mancini, R A</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The objective was to determine if NADH generated via reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow in beef mitochondria can be used for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-mediated reduction and metmyoglobin reductase pathways. Beef mitochondria were isolated from bovine hearts (n=5) and reacted with combinations of succinate, NAD, and mitochondrial inhibitors to measure oxygen consumption and NADH formation. Mitochondria and metmyoglobin were reacted with succinate, NAD, and mitochondrial inhibitors to measure <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-mediated metmyoglobin reduction and metmyoglobin reductase activity. Addition of succinate and NAD increased oxygen consumption, NADH formation, <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-mediated metmyoglobin reduction, and reductase activity (p<0.05). Addition of antimycin A prevented <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow beyond complex III, therefore, decreasing oxygen consumption and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-mediated metmyoglobin reduction. Addition of rotenone prevented reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow, increased oxygen consumption, increased <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-mediated metmyoglobin reduction, and decreased NADH formation. Succinate and NAD can generate NADH in bovine tissue postmortem via reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow and this NADH can be used by both <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-mediated and metmyoglobin reductase pathways. PMID:25828162</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828162"><span id="translatedtitle">Reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> effects on NADH formation and metmyoglobin reduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Belskie, K M; Van Buiten, C B; Ramanathan, R; Mancini, R A</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The objective was to determine if NADH generated via reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow in beef mitochondria can be used for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-mediated reduction and metmyoglobin reductase pathways. Beef mitochondria were isolated from bovine hearts (n=5) and reacted with combinations of succinate, NAD, and mitochondrial inhibitors to measure oxygen consumption and NADH formation. Mitochondria and metmyoglobin were reacted with succinate, NAD, and mitochondrial inhibitors to measure <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-mediated metmyoglobin reduction and metmyoglobin reductase activity. Addition of succinate and NAD increased oxygen consumption, NADH formation, <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-mediated metmyoglobin reduction, and reductase activity (p<0.05). Addition of antimycin A prevented <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow beyond complex III, therefore, decreasing oxygen consumption and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-mediated metmyoglobin reduction. Addition of rotenone prevented reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow, increased oxygen consumption, increased <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-mediated metmyoglobin reduction, and decreased NADH formation. Succinate and NAD can generate NADH in bovine tissue postmortem via reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow and this NADH can be used by both <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>-mediated and metmyoglobin reductase pathways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25255961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25255961"><span id="translatedtitle">Basic concepts of quantum interference and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in single-molecule <span class="hlt">electronics</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lambert, C J</p> <p>2015-02-21</p> <p>This tutorial outlines the basic theoretical concepts and tools which underpin the fundamentals of phase-coherent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through single molecules. The key quantity of interest is the transmission coefficient T(E), which yields the electrical conductance, current-voltage relations, the thermopower S and the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of single-molecule devices. Since T(E) is strongly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by quantum interference (QI), three manifestations of QI in single-molecules are discussed, namely Mach-Zehnder interferometry, Breit-Wigner resonances and Fano resonances. A simple MATLAB code is provided, which allows the novice reader to explore QI in multi-branched structures described by a tight-binding (Hückel) Hamiltonian. More generally, the strengths and limitations of materials-specific <span class="hlt">transport</span> modelling based on density functional theory are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611733','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26611733"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermally activated long range <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in living biofilms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yates, Matthew D; Golden, Joel P; Roy, Jared; Strycharz-Glaven, Sarah M; Tsoi, Stanislav; Erickson, Jeffrey S; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y; Calabrese Barton, Scott; Tender, Leonard M</p> <p>2015-12-28</p> <p>Microbial biofilms grown utilizing electrodes as metabolic <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors or donors are a new class of biomaterials with distinct <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties. Here we report that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through living electrode-grown Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms is a thermally activated process with incoherent redox conductivity. The temperature dependency of this process is consistent with <span class="hlt">electron</span>-transfer reactions involving hemes of c-type cytochromes known to play important roles in G. sulfurreducens extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. While incoherent redox conductivity is ubiquitous in biological systems at molecular-length scales, it is unprecedented over distances it appears to occur through living G. sulfurreducens biofilms, which can exceed 100 microns in thickness. PMID:26611733</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7214E..16C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7214E..16C"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrafast <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in low dimensional semiconductor nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Choi, Hyunyong; Norris, Theodore B.; Faist, Jérôme; Capasso, Federico</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Ultrafast time-resolved pump-probe measurements are used to study low energy excitations and dynamics of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in various semiconductor nanostructures. In quantum cascade lasers, we observe ultrafast gain recovery dynamics due to <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the structures. In particular, the nature of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> had been addressed by using ultrafast optical techniques. Sub-picosecond resonant tunneling injection from the quantum cascade laser injector ground state into the upper lasing state was found to be incoherent due to strong dephasing in the active subband. We also observed the strong coupling of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> to the intra-cavity photon density, which we term "photon-driven <span class="hlt">transport</span>". Note that this invited paper reviews the details of our recent observations (H. Choi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 100, 167401, 2008 and H. Choi, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 122114 (2008)).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011PhyE...43.1655S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2011PhyE...43.1655S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics in silicon nanotube field-effect transistors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shan, Guangcun; Wang, Yu; Huang, Wei</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The successful synthesis of silicon nanotubes (SiNTs) has been reported, making these nanostructures a new novel candidate for future nanodevices. By self-consistently solving the Poisson equations using the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism, we investigate the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and the role of gate bias in <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the drive current of single-walled silicon nanotube (SW-SiNT) field-effect transistors (FETs). By comparison of a SW-CNT FET, it is found that the SW-SiNT with a high- k HfO gate oxide is a promising candidate for nanotube transistor with better performance. The results discussed here would serve as a versatile and powerful guideline for future experimental studies of SW-SiNT-based transistor with the purpose of exploring device application for nanoelectronics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..461..310Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyA..461..310Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetic theory of <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes in partially ionized reactive plasma, II: <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhdanov, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. A.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>The previously obtained in (Zhdanov and Stepanenko, 2016) general <span class="hlt">transport</span> equations for partially ionized reactive plasma are employed for analysis of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in molecular and atomic plasmas. We account for both elastic and inelastic interaction channels of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> with atoms and molecules of plasma and also the processes of <span class="hlt">electron</span> impact ionization of neutral particles and three-body ion-<span class="hlt">electron</span> recombination. The system of scalar <span class="hlt">transport</span> equations for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is discussed and the expressions for non-equilibrium corrections to <span class="hlt">electron</span> ionization and recombination rates and the diagonal part of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> pressure tensor are derived. Special attention is paid to analysis of <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy relaxation during collisions with plasma particles having internal degrees of freedom and the expression for the <span class="hlt">electron</span> coefficient of inelastic energy losses is deduced. We also derive the expressions for <span class="hlt">electron</span> vector and tensorial <span class="hlt">transport</span> fluxes and the corresponding <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients for partially ionized reactive plasma, which represent a generalization of the well-known results obtained by Devoto (1967). The results of numerical evaluation of contribution from <span class="hlt">electron</span> inelastic collisions with neutral particles to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties are presented for a series of molecular and atomic gases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1637..127B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1637..127B"><span id="translatedtitle">Spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> in tilted <span class="hlt">electron</span> vortex beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Basu, Banasri; Chowdhury, Debashree</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In this paper we have enlightened the spin related issues of tilted <span class="hlt">Electron</span> vortex beams. We have shown that in the skyrmionic model of <span class="hlt">electron</span> we can have the spin Hall current considering the tilted type of <span class="hlt">electron</span> vortex beam. We have considered the monopole charge of the tilted vortex as time dependent and through the time variation of the monopole charge we can explain the spin Hall effect of <span class="hlt">electron</span> vortex beams. Besides, with an external magnetic field we can have a spin filter configuration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390771','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22390771"><span id="translatedtitle">Spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> in tilted <span class="hlt">electron</span> vortex beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Basu, Banasri; Chowdhury, Debashree</p> <p>2014-12-10</p> <p>In this paper we have enlightened the spin related issues of tilted <span class="hlt">Electron</span> vortex beams. We have shown that in the skyrmionic model of <span class="hlt">electron</span> we can have the spin Hall current considering the tilted type of <span class="hlt">electron</span> vortex beam. We have considered the monopole charge of the tilted vortex as time dependent and through the time variation of the monopole charge we can explain the spin Hall effect of <span class="hlt">electron</span> vortex beams. Besides, with an external magnetic field we can have a spin filter configuration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27604288','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27604288"><span id="translatedtitle">Tuning anisotropic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of phosphorene via substitutional doping.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Caixia; Xia, Congxin; Fang, Lizhen; Wang, Tianxing; Liu, Yufang</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Using first-principles calculations, we studied the anisotropic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of pristine and X-doped phosphorene (X = B, Al, Ga, C, Si, Ge, N, As, O, S, and Se atoms). The results show that doping different elements can induce obviously different <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics. Moreover, isovalent doping maintains semiconducting characteristics and anisotropic <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties, while group IV and VI atoms doping can induce metal properties. Meanwhile, Al and Ga substituting P decrease the anisotropic behaviors of <span class="hlt">transport</span>, and other atom doping still preserves anisotropic characteristics. Interestingly, obvious negative differential resistance behaviors can be observed in C, Si, Ge, O, S, and Se-doped phosphorene.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014PhRvB..90g5412Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014PhRvB..90g5412Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-nuclear <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> channels in hollow molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in inorganic semiconductors and metals occurs through delocalized bands formed by overlapping <span class="hlt">electron</span> orbitals. Strong correlation of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> wave functions with the ionic cores couples the <span class="hlt">electron</span> and lattice motions, leading to efficient interaction and scattering that degrades coherent charge <span class="hlt">transport</span>. By contrast, unoccupied <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states at energies near the vacuum level with diffuse molecular orbitals may form nearly-free-<span class="hlt">electron</span> bands with density maxima in non-nuclear interstitial voids, which are subject to weaker <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interaction. The position of such bands typically above the frontier orbitals, however, renders them unstable with respect to <span class="hlt">electronic</span> interband relaxation and therefore unsuitable for charge <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Through <span class="hlt">electronic</span>-structure calculations, we engineer stable, non-nuclear, nearly-free-<span class="hlt">electron</span> conduction channels in low-dimensional molecular materials by tailoring their electrostatic and polarization potentials. We propose quantum structures of graphane-derived Janus molecular sheets with spatially isolated conducting and insulating regions that potentially exhibit emergent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties, as a paradigm for molecular-scale non-nuclear charge conductors; we also describe tuning of their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties by application of external fields and calculate their <span class="hlt">electron</span>-acoustic-phonon interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26498190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26498190"><span id="translatedtitle">Photosynthetic, respiratory and extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways in cyanobacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lea-Smith, David J; Bombelli, Paolo; Vasudevan, Ravendran; Howe, Christopher J</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Cyanobacteria have evolved elaborate <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways to carry out photosynthesis and respiration, and to dissipate excess energy in order to limit cellular damage. Our understanding of the complexity of these systems and their role in allowing cyanobacteria to cope with varying environmental conditions is rapidly improving, but many questions remain. We summarize current knowledge of cyanobacterial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways, including the possible roles of alternative pathways in photoprotection. We describe extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, which is as yet poorly understood. Biological photovoltaic devices, which measure <span class="hlt">electron</span> output from cells, and which have been proposed as possible means of renewable energy generation, may be valuable tools in understanding cyanobacterial <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer pathways, and enhanced understanding of <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer may allow improvements in the efficiency of power output. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Conrad Mullineaux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26498190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26498190"><span id="translatedtitle">Photosynthetic, respiratory and extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways in cyanobacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lea-Smith, David J; Bombelli, Paolo; Vasudevan, Ravendran; Howe, Christopher J</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Cyanobacteria have evolved elaborate <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways to carry out photosynthesis and respiration, and to dissipate excess energy in order to limit cellular damage. Our understanding of the complexity of these systems and their role in allowing cyanobacteria to cope with varying environmental conditions is rapidly improving, but many questions remain. We summarize current knowledge of cyanobacterial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways, including the possible roles of alternative pathways in photoprotection. We describe extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, which is as yet poorly understood. Biological photovoltaic devices, which measure <span class="hlt">electron</span> output from cells, and which have been proposed as possible means of renewable energy generation, may be valuable tools in understanding cyanobacterial <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer pathways, and enhanced understanding of <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer may allow improvements in the efficiency of power output. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Conrad Mullineaux. PMID:26498190</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...81..131M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...81..131M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ballistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in wrinkled superlattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mitran, T. L.; Nemnes, G. A.; Ion, L.; Dragoman, Daniela</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Inspired by the problem of elastic wave scattering on wrinkled interfaces, we studied the scattering of ballistic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> on a wrinkled potential energy region. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission coefficient depends on both wrinkle amplitude and periodicity, having different behaviors for positive and negative scattering potential energies. For scattering on potential barriers, minibands appear in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission, as in superlattices, whereas for scattering on periodic potential wells the transmission coefficient has a more complex form. Besides suggesting that tuning of <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission is possible by modifying the scattering potential via voltages on wrinkled gate electrodes, our results emphasize the analogies between ballistic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and elastic waves even in scattering problems on non-typical configurations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10155522','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10155522"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> generation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a turbulent, magnetized plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stoneking, W.R.</p> <p>1994-05-01</p> <p>The nature of fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> generation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed field pinch (RFP) is investigated using two <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy analyzer (EEA) probes and a thermocouple calorimeter. The parallel velocity distribution of the fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> population is well fit by a drifted Maxwellian distribution with temperature of about 100 eV and drift velocity of about 2 {times} 10{sup 6} m/s. Cross-calibration of the EEA with the calorimeter provides a measurement of the fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> perpendicular temperature of 30 eV, much lower than the parallel temperature, and is evidence that the kinetic dynamo mechanism (KDT) is not operative in MST. The fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> current is found to match to the parallel current at the edge, and the fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> density is about 4 {times} 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}3} independent of the ratio of the applied toroidal electric field to the critical electric field for runaways. First time measurements of magnetic fluctuation induced particle <span class="hlt">transport</span> are reported. By correlating <span class="hlt">electron</span> current fluctuations with radial magnetic fluctuations the <span class="hlt">transported</span> flux of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is found to be negligible outside r/a{approximately}0.9, but rises the level of the expected total particle losses inside r/a{approximately}0.85. A comparison of the measured diffusion coefficient is made with the ausilinear stochastic diffusion coefficient. Evidence exists that the reduction of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> is due to the presence of a radial ambipolar electric field of magnitude 500 V/m, that acts to equilibrate the ion and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates. The convective energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> associated with the measured particle <span class="hlt">transport</span> is large enough to account for the observed magnetic fluctuation induced energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> in MST.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1222139','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1222139"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-nuclear <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Channels in Hollow Molecules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zhao, Jin; Petek, Hrvoje</p> <p>2014-08-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in inorganic semiconductors and metals occurs through delocalized bands formed by overlapping <span class="hlt">electron</span> orbitals. Strong correlation of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> wave functions with the ionic cores couples the <span class="hlt">electron</span> and lattice motions, leading to efficient interaction and scattering that degrades coherent charge <span class="hlt">transport</span>. By contrast, unoccupied <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states at energies near the vacuum level with diffuse molecular orbitals may form nearly-free-<span class="hlt">electron</span> bands with density maxima in non-nuclear interstitial voids, which are subject to weaker <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interaction. The position of such bands typically above the frontier orbitals, however, renders them unstable with respect to <span class="hlt">electronic</span> interband relaxation and therefore unsuitable for charge <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Through <span class="hlt">electronic</span>-structure calculations, we engineer stable, non-nuclear, nearly-free-<span class="hlt">electron</span> conduction channels in low-dimensional molecular materials by tailoring their electrostatic and polarization potentials. We propose quantum structures of graphane-derived Janus molecular sheets with spatially isolated conducting and insulating regions that potentially exhibit emergent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties, as a paradigm for molecular-scale non-nuclear charge conductors; we also describe tuning of their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties by application of external fields and calculate their electron–acoustic-phonon interaction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7047441','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7047441"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and lasing in microstructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lax, M.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>We consider the interaction of hot carriers with hot phonons in a quantum well. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> is considered in the transverse direction and tunneling through the well barriers. Time-dependent <span class="hlt">transport</span> effects down to the femto-second regime are included, as are strong and/or microwave fields, with negative resistance effects. Resonant tunneling assisted by phonon relaxation and infra-red radiation will be explored. The limitations on transmission of information due to partition noise, as influenced by the design of semiconductor feedback lasers will be considered. The use of light scattering and decision theory to detect shell-like aerosols is examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993470','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/993470"><span id="translatedtitle">RHIC <span class="hlt">electron</span> lens beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> system design considerations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gu, X.; Pikin, A.; Okamura, M.; Fischer, W.; Luo, Y.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Jain, A.; Raparia, D.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>To apply head-on beam-beam compensation for RHIC, two <span class="hlt">electron</span> lenses are designed and will be installed at IP10. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> system is one of important subsystem, which is used to <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam from <span class="hlt">electron</span> gun side to collector side. This system should be able to change beam size inside superconducting magnet and control beam position with 5 mm in horizontal and vertical plane. Some other design considerations for this beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> system are also reported in this paper. The head-on beam-beam effect is one of important nonlinear source in storage ring and linear colliders, which have limited the luminosity improvement of many colliders, such as SppS, Tevatron and RHIC. In order to enhance the performance of colliders, beam-beam effects can be compensated with direct space charge compensation, indirect space charge compensation or betatron phase cancellation scheme. Like other colliders, indirect space charge compensation scheme (<span class="hlt">Electron</span> Lens) was also proposed for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam-beam compensation at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The two similar <span class="hlt">electron</span> lenses are located in IR10 between the DX magnets. One RHIC <span class="hlt">electron</span> lens consists of one DC <span class="hlt">electron</span> gun, one superconducting magnet, one <span class="hlt">electron</span> collector and beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175579','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4175579"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy-filtered cold <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at room temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bhadrachalam, Pradeep; Subramanian, Ramkumar; Ray, Vishva; Ma, Liang-Chieh; Wang, Weichao; Kim, Jiyoung; Cho, Kyeongjae; Koh, Seong Jin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Fermi-Dirac <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal excitation is an intrinsic phenomenon that limits functionality of various <span class="hlt">electron</span> systems. Efforts to manipulate <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal excitation have been successful when the entire system is cooled to cryogenic temperatures, typically <1 K. Here we show that <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal excitation can be effectively suppressed at room temperature, and energy-suppressed <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, whose energy distribution corresponds to an effective <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature of ~45 K, can be <span class="hlt">transported</span> throughout device components without external cooling. This is accomplished using a discrete level of a quantum well, which filters out thermally excited <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and permits only energy-suppressed <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to participate in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. The quantum well (~2 nm of Cr2O3) is formed between source (Cr) and tunnelling barrier (SiO2) in a double-barrier-tunnelling-junction structure having a quantum dot as the central island. Cold <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is detected from extremely narrow differential conductance peaks in <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunnelling through CdSe quantum dots, with full widths at half maximum of only ~15 mV at room temperature. PMID:25204839</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24835748"><span id="translatedtitle">Computer modeling of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chloroplasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tikhonov, Alexander N; Vershubskii, Alexey V</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Photosynthesis is one of the most important biological processes in biosphere, which provides production of organic substances from atmospheric CO2 and water at expense of solar energy. In this review, we contemplate computer models of oxygenic photosynthesis in the context of feedback regulation of photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chloroplasts, the energy-transducing organelles of the plant cell. We start with a brief overview of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes in chloroplasts coupled to ATP synthesis and consider basic regulatory mechanisms of oxygenic photosynthesis. General approaches to computer simulation of photosynthetic processes are considered, including the random walk models of plastoquinone diffusion in thylakoid membranes and deterministic approach to modeling <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chloroplasts based on the mass action law. Then we focus on a kinetic model of oxygenic photosynthesis that includes key stages of the linear <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, alternative pathways of <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer around photosystem I (PSI), transmembrane proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> and ATP synthesis in chloroplasts. This model includes different regulatory processes: pH-dependent control of the intersystem <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, down-regulation of photosystem II (PSII) activity (non-photochemical quenching), the light-induced activation of the Bassham-Benson-Calvin (BBC) cycle. The model correctly describes pH-dependent feedback control of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chloroplasts and adequately reproduces a variety of experimental data on induction events observed under different experimental conditions in intact chloroplasts (variations of CO2 and O2 concentrations in atmosphere), including a complex kinetics of P700 (primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> donor in PSI) photooxidation, CO2 consumption in the BBC cycle, and photorespiration. Finally, we describe diffusion-controlled photosynthetic processes in chloroplasts within the framework of the model that takes into account complex architecture of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166966','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1166966"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Amplification in Diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Muller, Erik</p> <p>2015-01-05</p> <p>The development of the Diamond Amplified Photocathode (DAP) has produced significant results under our previous HEP funded efforts both on the fabrication of working devices and the understanding of the underlying physics governing its performance. The results presented here substantiate the use of diamond as both a secondary <span class="hlt">electron</span> amplifier for high-brightness, high-average-current <span class="hlt">electron</span> sources and as a photon and particle detector in harsh radiation environments. Very high average current densities (>10A/cm2) have been <span class="hlt">transported</span> through diamond material. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> has been measured as a function of incident photon energy and found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. Measurements of the charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> for photon energies near the carbon K-edge (290 eV for sp3 bonded carbon) have provided insight into carrier loss due to diffusion; modeling of this aspect of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> is underway. The response of diamond to nanosecond x-ray pulses has been measured; in this regime the charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> is as expected. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> emission from hydrogenated diamond has been measured using both <span class="hlt">electron</span> and x-ray generated carriers; a gain of 178 has been observed for <span class="hlt">electron</span>-generated carriers. The energy spectrum of the emitted <span class="hlt">electrons</span> has been measured, providing insight into the <span class="hlt">electron</span> affinity and ultimately the thermal emittance. The origin of charge trapping in diamond has been investigated for both bulk and surface trapping</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6118876','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6118876"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in one-dimensional plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wienke, B.R.</p> <p>1983-11-01</p> <p>A one-dimensional, multigroup, discrete ordinates technique for computing <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy deposition in plasmas is detailed. The Fokker-Planck collision operator is employed in the continuous approximation and electric fields (considered external) are included in the equation. Bremsstrahlung processes are not treated. Comparisons with analytic and Monte Carlo results are given. Fits to deposition profiles and energy scaling are proposed and discussed for monoenergetic and Maxwellian sources in the range, 0 to 150 keV, with and without uniform fields. The techniques employed to track <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are generally useful in situations where the background plasma temperature is an order of magnitude smaller than the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy and collective plasma effects are negligible. We have used the approach successfully in laser pellet implosion applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182804','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10182804"><span id="translatedtitle">Conditioner for a helically <span class="hlt">transported</span> <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, C.</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the <span class="hlt">electron`s</span> relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...83..246L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyE...83..246L"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a helical nanotube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Yong-Long; Du, Long; Jiang, Hua; Kang, Guang-Zhen; Zong, Hong-Shi</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The quantum dynamics of carriers bound to helical tube surfaces is investigated in a thin-layer quantization scheme. By numerically solving the open-boundary Schrödinger equation in curvilinear coordinates, geometric effect on the coherent transmission spectra is analysed in the case of single propagating mode as well as multimode. It is shown that, the coiling endows the helical nanotube with different <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties from a bent cylindrical surface. Fano resonance appears as a purely geometric effect in the conductance, the corresponding energy of quasibound state is obviously influenced by the torsion and length of the nanotube. We also find new plateaus in the conductance. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> of double-degenerate mode in this geometry is reminiscent of the Zeeman coupling between the magnetic field and spin angular momentum in quasi-one-dimensional structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100003174','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100003174"><span id="translatedtitle">A Deterministic <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Code for Space Environment <span class="hlt">Electrons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamczyk, Anne M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A deterministic computational procedure has been developed to describe <span class="hlt">transport</span> of space environment <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in various shield media. This code is an upgrade and extension of an earlier <span class="hlt">electron</span> code. Whereas the former code was formulated on the basis of parametric functions derived from limited laboratory data, the present code utilizes well established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes. The shield material specification has been made more general, as have the pertinent cross sections. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach has been used in the <span class="hlt">transport</span> formalism. Comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20736510','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20736510"><span id="translatedtitle">Neoclassical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in tokamaks with neutral-beam injection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Helander, P.; Akers, R.J.</p> <p>2005-04-15</p> <p>The collisional interaction between neutral-beam ions and bulk plasma <span class="hlt">electrons</span> leads to convective <span class="hlt">transport</span> of particles and energy similar to the well-known Ware pinch. These <span class="hlt">transport</span> fluxes are calculated, and it is found that the particle flux is outward when the neutral beams are in the same direction as the plasma current and inward otherwise, while the opposite holds for the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span>. This effectively shifts the neutral-beam fueling profile approximately one fast-ion banana width outward during coinjection and inward during counterinjection, and could help to explain why very different plasma behavior is sometimes observed when the direction of the plasma current is reversed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EPJD...69..193S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EPJD...69..193S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of secondary <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and reactive species in ion tracks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Surdutovich, Eugene; Solov'yov, Andrey V.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">transport</span> of reactive species brought about by ions traversing tissue-like medium is analysed analytically. Secondary <span class="hlt">electrons</span> ejected by ions are capable of ionizing other molecules; the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of these generations of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is studied using the random walk approximation until these <span class="hlt">electrons</span> remain ballistic. Then, the distribution of solvated <span class="hlt">electrons</span> produced as a result of interaction of low-energy <span class="hlt">electrons</span> with water molecules is obtained. The radial distribution of energy loss by ions and secondary <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to the medium yields the initial radial dose distribution, which can be used as initial conditions for the predicted shock waves. The formation, diffusion, and chemical evolution of hydroxyl radicals in liquid water are studied as well. COST Action Nano-IBCT: Nano-scale Processes Behind Ion-Beam Cancer Therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3684773','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3684773"><span id="translatedtitle">Tau phosphorylation <span class="hlt">affects</span> its axonal <span class="hlt">transport</span> and degradation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rodríguez-Martín, Teresa; Cuchillo-Ibáñez, Inmaculada; Noble, Wendy; Nyenya, Fanon; Anderton, Brian H.; Hanger, Diane P.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Phosphorylated forms of microtubule-associated protein tau accumulate in neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the effects of specific phosphorylated tau residues on its function, wild type or phosphomutant tau was expressed in cells. Elevated tau phosphorylation decreased its microtubule binding and bundling, and increased the number of motile tau particles, without <span class="hlt">affecting</span> axonal <span class="hlt">transport</span> kinetics. In contrast, reducing tau phosphorylation enhanced the amount of tau bound to microtubules and inhibited axonal <span class="hlt">transport</span> of tau. To determine whether differential tau clearance is responsible for the increase in phosphomimic tau, we inhibited autophagy in neurons which resulted in a 3-fold accumulation of phosphomimic tau compared with wild type tau, and endogenous tau was unaffected. In autophagy-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but not in neurons, proteasomal degradation of phosphomutant tau was also reduced compared with wild type tau. Therefore, autophagic and proteasomal pathways are involved in tau degradation, with autophagy appearing to be the primary route for clearing phosphorylated tau in neurons. Defective autophagy might contribute to the accumulaton of tau in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23601672</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26456173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26456173"><span id="translatedtitle">Catalytic photoinduced <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across a lipid bilayer mediated by a membrane-soluble <span class="hlt">electron</span> relay.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Limburg, B; Bouwman, E; Bonnet, S</p> <p>2015-12-14</p> <p>Unidirectional photocatalytic <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer from a hydrophilic <span class="hlt">electron</span> donor encapsulated in the interior of a liposome, to a hydrophilic <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptor on the other side of the membrane, has been achieved using the simple membrane-soluble <span class="hlt">electron</span> relay 1-methoxy-N-methylphenazinium (MMP(+)). The total amount of photoproduct (>140 nmol) exceeds the number of moles of MMP(+) present (125 nmol), thus showing that the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is catalytic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007000&hterms=whistler&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwhistler','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007000&hterms=whistler&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dwhistler"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> Trapping and Charge <span class="hlt">Transport</span> by Large Amplitude Whistlers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kellogg, P. J.; Cattell, C. A.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.; Wilson, L. B., III</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Trapping of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> by magnetospheric whistlers is investigated using data from the Waves experiment on Wind and the S/WAVES experiment on STEREO. Waveforms often show a characteristic distortion which is shown to be due to <span class="hlt">electrons</span> trapped in the potential of the electrostatic part of oblique whistlers. The density of trapped <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is significant, comparable to that of the unperturbed whistler. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of these trapped <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to new regions can generate potentials of several kilovolts, Trapping and the associated potentials may play an important role in the acceleration of Earth's radiation belt <span class="hlt">electrons</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100031095','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100031095"><span id="translatedtitle">A Deterministic Computational Procedure for Space Environment <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nealy, John E.; Chang, C. K.; Norman, Ryan B.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.; Adamcyk, Anne M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A deterministic computational procedure for describing the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in condensed media is formulated to simulate the effects and exposures from spectral distributions typical of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> trapped in planetary magnetic fields. The primary purpose for developing the procedure is to provide a means of rapidly performing numerous repetitive <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations essential for <span class="hlt">electron</span> radiation exposure assessments for complex space structures. The present code utilizes well-established theoretical representations to describe the relevant interactions and <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes. A combined mean free path and average trajectory approach is used in the <span class="hlt">transport</span> formalism. For typical space environment spectra, several favorable comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations are made which have indicated that accuracy is not compromised at the expense of the computational speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.453..581Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.453..581Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through nuclear pasta in magnetized neutron stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yakovlev, D. G.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We present a simple model for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a possible layer of exotic nuclear clusters (in the so-called nuclear pasta layer) between the crust and liquid core of a strongly magnetized neutron star. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> there can be strongly anisotropic and gyrotropic. The anisotropy is produced by different <span class="hlt">electron</span> effective collision frequencies along and across local symmetry axis in domains of exotic ordered nuclear clusters and by complicated effects of the magnetic field. We also calculate averaged kinetic coefficients in case local domains are freely oriented. Possible applications of the obtained results and open problems are outlined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/192562','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/192562"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> with standard discrete ordinates codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Drumm, C.R.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>A method is described for generating <span class="hlt">electron</span> cross sections that are compatible with standard discrete ordinates codes without modification. There are many advantages of using an established discrete ordinates solver, e.g. immediately available adjoint capability. Coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> capability is needed for many applications, including the modeling of the response of <span class="hlt">electronics</span> components to space and man-made radiation environments. The cross sections have been successfully used in the DORT, TWODANT and TORT discrete ordinates codes. The cross sections are shown to provide accurate and efficient solutions to certain multidimensional electronphoton <span class="hlt">transport</span> problems.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/460773','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/460773"><span id="translatedtitle">Treating <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in MCNP{sup trademark}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hughes, H.G.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and other charged particles is fundamentally different from that of neutrons and photons. A neutron, in aluminum slowing down from 0.5 MeV to 0.0625 MeV will have about 30 collisions; a photon will have fewer than ten. An <span class="hlt">electron</span> with the same energy loss will undergo 10{sup 5} individual interactions. This great increase in computational complexity makes a single- collision Monte Carlo approach to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> unfeasible for many situations of practical interest. Considerable theoretical work has been done to develop a variety of analytic and semi-analytic multiple-scattering theories for the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of charged particles. The theories used in the algorithms in MCNP are the Goudsmit-Saunderson theory for angular deflections, the Landau an theory of energy-loss fluctuations, and the Blunck-Leisegang enhancements of the Landau theory. In order to follow an <span class="hlt">electron</span> through a significant energy loss, it is necessary to break the <span class="hlt">electron`s</span> path into many steps. These steps are chosen to be long enough to encompass many collisions (so that multiple-scattering theories are valid) but short enough that the mean energy loss in any one step is small (for the approximations in the multiple-scattering theories). The energy loss and angular deflection of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> during each step can then be sampled from probability distributions based on the appropriate multiple- scattering theories. This subsumption of the effects of many individual collisions into single steps that are sampled probabilistically constitutes the ``condensed history`` Monte Carlo method. This method is exemplified in the ETRAN series of <span class="hlt">electron</span>/photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> codes. The ETRAN codes are also the basis for the Integrated TIGER Series, a system of general-purpose, application-oriented <span class="hlt">electron</span>/photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> codes. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> physics in MCNP is similar to that of the Integrated TIGER Series.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20895137','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20895137"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical study of particle <span class="hlt">transport</span> in <span class="hlt">electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barriers in TCV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fable, E.; Sauter, O.; Marinoni, A.; Zucca, C.</p> <p>2006-11-30</p> <p>Previous results from the analysis of fully non inductively sustained <span class="hlt">electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barriers (eITBs) in TCV show that a strong coupling exists between <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature and density profiles inside the barrier. A phenomenology that is completely different from the standard L-mode is observed . New experimental results assess transient phases to calculate particle convection and diffusion coefficients, allowing also to discuss the role of neoclassical <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Gyrokinetic and gyrofluid analysis of steady-state eITBs provide tools to understand the mechanism that drive the observed density peaking in advanced scenarios with internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barriers and dominant <span class="hlt">electron</span> heating.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyB..500..165L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyB..500..165L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in ultranarrow zigzag graphene nanoribbons with edge disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y. L.; Xu, G. L.; Zhang, X. W.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>We investigate the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of ultranarrow zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) with edge vacancies by using recursive Green's function method. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> gaps are observed when the vacancies are distributed uniformly on both sides. In addition, ZGNRs with symmetrical structure have much larger <span class="hlt">transport</span> gaps than the asymmetrical ones. This phenomenon results from the different band structures between them. We also calculate the conductance of ZGNRs with edge vacancies distributed randomly. It shows that <span class="hlt">transport</span> gaps decrease exponentially with the increasing of ZGNRs width because the symmetry of structure is broken by the random edge vacancies. Localization analysis reveals that the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> channels around Fermi energy are blockaded so that they are not responsible for <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117m3302H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117m3302H"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in hydrocarbon gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hasegawa, H.; Date, H.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The drift velocity and the effective ionization coefficient of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the organic gases, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CH3OH, C2H5OH, C6H6, and C6H5CH3, have been measured over relatively wide ranges of density-reduced electric fields (E/N) at room temperature (around 300 K). The drift velocity was measured, based on the arrival-time spectra of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> by using a double-shutter drift tube over the E/N range from 300 to 2800 Td, and the effective ionization coefficient (α - η) was determined by the steady-state Townsend method from 150 to 3000 Td. Whenever possible, these parameters were compared with those available in the literature. It has been shown that the swarm parameters for these gases have specific tendencies, depending on their molecular configurations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7160788','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7160788"><span id="translatedtitle">Conditioner for a helically <span class="hlt">transported</span> <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, C.</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>The kinetic theory is developed to investigate a conditioner for a helically imported <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam. Linear expressions for axial velocity spread are derived. Numerical simulation is used to check the theoretical results and examine nonlinear aspects of the conditioning process. The results show that in the linear regime the action of the beam conditioner on a pulsed beam mainly depends on the phase at which the beam enters the conditioner and depends only slightly on the operating wavelength. In the nonlinear regime, however, the action of the conditioner strongly depends on the operating wavelength and only slightly upon the entrance phase. For a properly chosen operating wavelength, a little less than the <span class="hlt">electron</span>'s relativistic cyclotron wavelength, the conditioner can decrease the axial velocity spread of a pulsed beam down to less than one-third of its initial value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464403','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4464403"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface excitations in the modelling of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> for <span class="hlt">electron</span>-beam-induced deposition experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Valentí, Roser; Werner, Wolfgang S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summary The aim of the present overview article is to raise awareness of an essential aspect that is usually not accounted for in the modelling of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> for focused-<span class="hlt">electron</span>-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) of nanostructures: Surface excitations are on the one hand responsible for a sizeable fraction of the intensity in reflection-<span class="hlt">electron</span>-energy-loss spectra for primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> energies of up to a few kiloelectronvolts and, on the other hand, they play a key role in the emission of secondary <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from solids, regardless of the primary energy. In this overview work we present a general perspective of recent works on the subject of surface excitations and on low-energy <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, highlighting the most relevant aspects for the modelling of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in FEBID simulations. PMID:26171301</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22399378','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22399378"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in hydrocarbon gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hasegawa, H.; Date, H.</p> <p>2015-04-07</p> <p>The drift velocity and the effective ionization coefficient of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the organic gases, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, CH{sub 3}OH, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 6}H{sub 5}CH{sub 3}, have been measured over relatively wide ranges of density-reduced electric fields (E/N) at room temperature (around 300 K). The drift velocity was measured, based on the arrival-time spectra of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> by using a double-shutter drift tube over the E/N range from 300 to 2800 Td, and the effective ionization coefficient (α − η) was determined by the steady-state Townsend method from 150 to 3000 Td. Whenever possible, these parameters were compared with those available in the literature. It has been shown that the swarm parameters for these gases have specific tendencies, depending on their molecular configurations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25258073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25258073"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for global <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transportation</span> into the jovian inner magnetosphere.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshioka, K; Murakami, G; Yamazaki, A; Tsuchiya, F; Kimura, T; Kagitani, M; Sakanoi, T; Uemizu, K; Kasaba, Y; Yoshikawa, I; Fujimoto, M</p> <p>2014-09-26</p> <p>Jupiter's magnetosphere is a strong particle accelerator that contains ultrarelativistic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in its inner part. They are thought to be accelerated by whistler-mode waves excited by anisotropic hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (>10 kiloelectron volts) injected from the outer magnetosphere. However, <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in the inner magnetosphere is not well understood. By analyzing the extreme ultraviolet line emission from the inner magnetosphere, we show evidence for global inward <span class="hlt">transport</span> of flux tubes containing hot plasma. High-spectral-resolution scanning observations of the Io plasma torus in the inner magnetosphere enable us to generate radial profiles of the hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> fraction. It gradually decreases with decreasing radial distance, despite the short collisional time scale that should thermalize them rapidly. This indicates a fast and continuous resupply of hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> responsible for exciting the whistler-mode waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25258073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25258073"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for global <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transportation</span> into the jovian inner magnetosphere.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yoshioka, K; Murakami, G; Yamazaki, A; Tsuchiya, F; Kimura, T; Kagitani, M; Sakanoi, T; Uemizu, K; Kasaba, Y; Yoshikawa, I; Fujimoto, M</p> <p>2014-09-26</p> <p>Jupiter's magnetosphere is a strong particle accelerator that contains ultrarelativistic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in its inner part. They are thought to be accelerated by whistler-mode waves excited by anisotropic hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (>10 kiloelectron volts) injected from the outer magnetosphere. However, <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in the inner magnetosphere is not well understood. By analyzing the extreme ultraviolet line emission from the inner magnetosphere, we show evidence for global inward <span class="hlt">transport</span> of flux tubes containing hot plasma. High-spectral-resolution scanning observations of the Io plasma torus in the inner magnetosphere enable us to generate radial profiles of the hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> fraction. It gradually decreases with decreasing radial distance, despite the short collisional time scale that should thermalize them rapidly. This indicates a fast and continuous resupply of hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> responsible for exciting the whistler-mode waves. PMID:25258073</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Sci...345.1581Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Sci...345.1581Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for global <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transportation</span> into the jovian inner magnetosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kimura, T.; Kagitani, M.; Sakanoi, T.; Uemizu, K.; Kasaba, Y.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Jupiter’s magnetosphere is a strong particle accelerator that contains ultrarelativistic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in its inner part. They are thought to be accelerated by whistler-mode waves excited by anisotropic hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (>10 kiloelectron volts) injected from the outer magnetosphere. However, <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in the inner magnetosphere is not well understood. By analyzing the extreme ultraviolet line emission from the inner magnetosphere, we show evidence for global inward <span class="hlt">transport</span> of flux tubes containing hot plasma. High-spectral-resolution scanning observations of the Io plasma torus in the inner magnetosphere enable us to generate radial profiles of the hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> fraction. It gradually decreases with decreasing radial distance, despite the short collisional time scale that should thermalize them rapidly. This indicates a fast and continuous resupply of hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> responsible for exciting the whistler-mode waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26648018','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26648018"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of PSi@MoS2 nanocables.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Cuicui; Zhang, Guiling; Shang, Yan; Yang, Zhao-Di; Sun, Xiaojun</p> <p>2016-02-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> structures and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of prototype MoS2 nanotube (15, 0) nanocables, including undoped PSi@MoS2 and B- and P-doped PSi@MoS2 (where PSi refers to polysilane), are investigated using the density functional theory (DFT) and the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) methods. It is found that <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of two-probe systems by sandwiching finite long nanocables between two Au electrodes are basically in agreement with the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structures of their corresponding infinitely long systems. Encapsulating undoped and doped PSi nanowires inside the MoS2 nanotubes could not significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties. B-doping and P-doping upon PSi play different roles in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties. B-doping may exert constructive and destructive effects on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> depending on its position and applied bias direction, while P-doping displays a negligible effect. In addition, we found that bi-doping by two adjacent B atoms could slightly enhance the conductivity. These results could offer some clues for conducting experiments to achieve nanoelectronic devices with intrinsic <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of MoS2 nanotubes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21981519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21981519"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissipationless <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in photon-dressed nanostructures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kibis, O V</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>It is shown that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> coupling to photons in field-dressed nanostructures can result in the ground <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon state with a nonzero electric current. Since the current is associated with the ground state, it flows without the Joule heating of the nanostructure and is nondissipative. Such a dissipationless <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> can be realized in strongly coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon systems with the broken time-reversal symmetry--particularly, in quantum rings and chiral nanostructures dressed by circularly polarized photons. PMID:21981519</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956571','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/956571"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of dephasing on DNA sequencing via transverse <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zwolak, Michael; Krems, Matt; Pershin, Yuriy V; Di Ventra, Massimiliano</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We study theoretically the effects of dephasing on DNA sequencing in a nanopore via transverse <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. To do this, we couple classical molecular dynamics simulations with <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations using scattering theory. Previous studies, which did not include dephasing, have shown that by measuring the transverse current of a particular base multiple times, one can get distributions of currents for each base that are distinguishable. We introduce a dephasing parameter into <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations to simulate the effects of the ions and other fluctuations. These effects lower the overall magnitude of the current, but have little effect on the current distributions themselves. The results of this work further implicate that distinguishing DNA bases via transverse <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> has potential as a sequencing tool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/625983','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/625983"><span id="translatedtitle">Status of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in MCNP{trademark}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hughes, H.G.</p> <p>1997-10-01</p> <p>The latest version of MCNP, the Los Alamos Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">transport</span> code, has now been officially released. A variety of new features are available in MCNP4B. Among these are differential operator perturbations, cross section plotting capabilities, enhanced diagnostics for <span class="hlt">transport</span> in repeated structures and lattices, improved efficiency in distributed memory multiprocessing, corrected particle lifetime and lifespan estimators, and expanded software quality assurance procedures and testing, including testing of the multigroup Boltzmann Fokker Planck capability. New and improved cross section sets in the form of ENDF/B-VI evaluations have also been recently released and can be used in MCNP4B. Perhaps most significant for the interests of this special session, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> algorithm has been improved, especially in the collisional energy loss straggling and the angular deflection treatments. In this paper, I shall concentrate on a fairly complete documentation of the current status of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> methods in MCNP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26266491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26266491"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron-Transport</span> Properties of Few-Layer Black Phosphorus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Yuehua; Dai, Jun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We perform the first-principles computational study of the effect of number of stacking layers and stacking style of the few-layer black phosphorus (BPs) on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties, including <span class="hlt">transport</span> gap, current-voltage (i-v) relation, and differential conductance. Our computation is based on the nonequilibrium Green's function approach combined with density functional theory calculations. Specifically, we compute <span class="hlt">electron-transport</span> properties of monolayer BP, bilayer BP, and trilayer BP as well as bilayer BPs with AB-, AA-, or AC-stacking. We find that the stacking number has greater influence on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> gap than the stacking type. Conversely, the stacking type has greater influence on i-v curve and differential conductance than on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> gap. This study offers useful guidance for determining the number of stacking layers and the stacking style of few-layer BP sheets in future experimental measurements and for potential applications in nanoelectronic devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4835580','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4835580"><span id="translatedtitle">Mitochondrial ROS Produced via Reverse <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Extend Animal Lifespan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scialò, Filippo; Sriram, Ashwin; Fernández-Ayala, Daniel; Gubina, Nina; Lõhmus, Madis; Nelson, Glyn; Logan, Angela; Cooper, Helen M.; Navas, Plácido; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Murphy, Michael P.; Sanz, Alberto</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been considered a cause of aging. However, recent studies have implicated ROS as essential secondary messengers. Here we show that the site of ROS production significantly contributes to their apparent dual nature. We report that ROS increase with age as mitochondrial function deteriorates. However, we also demonstrate that increasing ROS production specifically through respiratory complex I reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> extends Drosophila lifespan. Reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rescued pathogenesis induced by severe oxidative stress, highlighting the importance of the site of ROS production in signaling. Furthermore, preventing ubiquinone reduction, through knockdown of PINK1, shortens lifespan and accelerates aging; phenotypes that are rescued by increasing reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. These results illustrate that the source of a ROS signal is vital in determining its effects on cellular physiology and establish that manipulation of ubiquinone redox state is a valid strategy to delay aging. PMID:27076081</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27076081','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27076081"><span id="translatedtitle">Mitochondrial ROS Produced via Reverse <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Extend Animal Lifespan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scialò, Filippo; Sriram, Ashwin; Fernández-Ayala, Daniel; Gubina, Nina; Lõhmus, Madis; Nelson, Glyn; Logan, Angela; Cooper, Helen M; Navas, Plácido; Enríquez, Jose Antonio; Murphy, Michael P; Sanz, Alberto</p> <p>2016-04-12</p> <p>Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has long been considered a cause of aging. However, recent studies have implicated ROS as essential secondary messengers. Here we show that the site of ROS production significantly contributes to their apparent dual nature. We report that ROS increase with age as mitochondrial function deteriorates. However, we also demonstrate that increasing ROS production specifically through respiratory complex I reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> extends Drosophila lifespan. Reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rescued pathogenesis induced by severe oxidative stress, highlighting the importance of the site of ROS production in signaling. Furthermore, preventing ubiquinone reduction, through knockdown of PINK1, shortens lifespan and accelerates aging; phenotypes that are rescued by increasing reverse <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. These results illustrate that the source of a ROS signal is vital in determining its effects on cellular physiology and establish that manipulation of ubiquinone redox state is a valid strategy to delay aging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1087711','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1087711"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress in Simulating Turbulent <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Thermal <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in NSTX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guttenfelder, Walter; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; Bell, R. E.; Hammett, G. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Peterson, J. L.; Nevins, W. M.; Candy, J.; Yuh, H.</p> <p>2013-07-17</p> <p>Nonlinear simulations based on multiple NSTX discharge scenarios have progressed to help differentiate unique instability mechanisms and to validate with experimental turbulence and <span class="hlt">transport</span> data. First nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing (MT) turbulence in a high-beta NSTX H-mode discharge predict experimental levels of <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> that are dominated by magnetic flutter and increase with collisionality, roughly consistent with energy confinement times in dimensionless collisionality scaling experiments. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> temperature gradient (ETG) simulations predict significant <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> in some low and high beta discharges when ion scales are suppressed by E x B shear. Although the predicted <span class="hlt">transport</span> in H-modes is insensitive to variation in collisionality (inconsistent with confinement scaling), it is sensitive to variations in other parameters, particularly density gradient stabilization. In reversed shear (RS) Lmode discharges that exhibit <span class="hlt">electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barriers, ETG <span class="hlt">transport</span> has also been shown to be suppressed nonlinearly by strong negative magnetic shear, s<<0. In many high beta plasmas, instabilities which exhibit a stiff beta dependence characteristic of kinetic ballooning modes (KBM) are sometimes found in the core region. However, they do not have a distinct finite beta threshold, instead transitioning gradually to a trapped <span class="hlt">electron</span> mode (TEM) as beta is reduced to zero. Nonlinear simulations of this "hybrid" TEM/KBM predict significant <span class="hlt">transport</span> in all channels, with substantial contributions from compressional magnetic perturbations. As multiple instabilities are often unstable simultaneously in the same plasma discharge, even on the same flux surface, unique parametric dependencies are discussed which may be useful for distinguishing the different mechanisms experimentally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22419910','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22419910"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherently driven, ultrafast <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon dynamics in <span class="hlt">transport</span> junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Szekely, Joshua E.; Seideman, Tamar</p> <p>2014-07-28</p> <p>Although the vast majority of studies of <span class="hlt">transport</span> via molecular-scale heterojunctions have been conducted in the (static) energy domain, experiments are currently beginning to apply time domain approaches to the nanoscale <span class="hlt">transport</span> problem, combining spatial with temporal resolution. It is thus an opportune time for theory to develop models to explore both new phenomena in, and new potential applications of, time-domain, coherently driven molecular <span class="hlt">electronics</span>. In this work, we study the interaction of a molecular phonon with an <span class="hlt">electronic</span> wavepacket transmitted via a conductance junction within a time-domain model that treats the <span class="hlt">electron</span> and phonon on equal footing and spans the weak to strong <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon coupling strengths. We explore interference between two coherent energy pathways in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> subspace, thus complementing previous studies of coherent phenomena in conduction junctions, where the stationary framework was used to study interference between spatial pathways. Our model provides new insights into phase decoherence and population relaxation within the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> subspace, which have been conventionally treated by density matrix approaches that often rely on phenomenological parameters. Although the specific case of a <span class="hlt">transport</span> junction is explored, our results are general, applying also to other instances of coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......455S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......455S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> Properties of III-N Hot <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Transistors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Suntrup, Donald J., III</p> <p></p> <p>Unipolar hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> transistors (HETs) represent a tantalizing alternative to established bipolar transistor technologies. During device operation <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are injected over a large emitter barrier into the base where they travel along the device axis with very high velocity. Upon arrival at the collector barrier, high-energy <span class="hlt">electrons</span> pass over the barrier and contribute to collector current while low-energy <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are quantum mechanically reflected back into the base. Designing the base with thickness equal to or less than the hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> mean free path serves to minimize scattering events and thus enable quasi-ballistic operation. Large current gain is achieved by increasing the ratio of transmitted to reflected <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Although III-N HETs have undergone substantial development in recent years, there remain ample opportunities to improve key device metrics. In order to engineer improved device performance, a deeper understanding of the operative <span class="hlt">transport</span> physics is needed. Fortunately, the HET provides fertile ground for studying several prominent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> phenomena. In this thesis we present results from several studies that use the III-N HET as both emitter and analyzer of hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> momentum states. The first provides a measurement of the hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> mean free path and the momentum relaxation rate in GaN; the second relies on a new technique called <span class="hlt">electron</span> injection spectroscopy to investigate the effects of barrier height inhomogeneity in the emitter. To supplement our analysis we develop a comprehensive theory of coherent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> that allows us to model the transfer characteristics of complex heterojunctions. Such a model provides a theoretical touchstone with which to compare our experimental results. While these studies are of potential interest in their own right, we interpret the results with an eye toward improving next-generation device performance.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930018584','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930018584"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in quantum well devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Miller, D. R.; Gullapalli, K. K.; Reddy, V. R.; Neikirk, D. P.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Double barrier resonant tunneling diodes (DBRTD) have received much attention as possible terahertz devices. Despite impressive experimental results, the specifics of the device physics (i.e., how the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> propagate through the structure) are only qualitatively understood. Therefore, better <span class="hlt">transport</span> models are warranted if this technology is to mature. In this paper, the Lattice Wigner function is used to explain the important <span class="hlt">transport</span> issues associated with DBRTD device behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037249','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70037249"><span id="translatedtitle">Seismic reflection characteristics of naturally-induced subsidence <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">transportation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Miller, R.D.; Xia, J.; Steeples, D.W.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>High-resolution seismic reflections have been used effectively to investigate sinkholes formed from the dissolution of a bedded salt unit found throughout most of Central Kansas. Surface subsidence can have devastating effects on <span class="hlt">transportation</span> structures. Roads, rails, bridges, and pipelines can even be dramatically <span class="hlt">affected</span> by minor ground instability. Areas susceptible to surface subsidence can put public safety at risk. Subsurface expressions significantly larger than surface depressions are consistently observed on seismic images recorded over sinkholes in Kansas. Until subsidence reaches the ground surface, failure appears to be controlled by compressional forces evidenced by faults with reverse orientation. Once a surface depression forms or dissolution of the salt slows or stops, subsidence structures are consistent with a tensional stress environment with prevalent normal faults. Detecting areas of rapid subsidence potential, prior to surface failure, is the ultimate goal of any geotechnical survey where the ground surface is susceptible to settling. Seismic reflection images have helped correlate active subsidence to dormant paleofeatures, project horizontal growth of active sinkholes based on subsurface structures, and appraise the risk of catastrophic failure. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21557606','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21557606"><span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in dual-nanostructured lead telluride.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>He, J Q; Sootsman, J R; Xu, L Q; Girard, S N; Zheng, J C; Kanatzidis, M G; Dravid, V P</p> <p>2011-06-15</p> <p>The Pb- and Sb- dual nanostructured PbTe system exhibits anomalous <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior wherein the carrier mobility first increases and then decreases with increase in temperature. By combining in situ transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy observations and theoretical calculations based on energy filtering of charge carriers, we propose a plausible mechanism of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> based on interphase potential that is mediated by interdiffusion between coexisting Pb and Sb precipitates. These findings promise new strategies to enhance thermoelectric figure of merit via dual and multinanostructuring of miscible precipitates. PMID:21557606</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMM...117...16V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PMM...117...16V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in polycrystalline samples of icosahedral phases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vekilov, Yu. Kh.; Chernikov, M. A.; Dolinichek, Ya.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The low-temperature <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in polycrystals of quasicrystalline phases with an icosahedral structure has been analyzed within the model of the granular <span class="hlt">electronic</span> system. In this model, the grains (drops) of a metallic icosahedral phase are surrounded by extended defects and grain boundaries, which create an insulating environment. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in this model is determined by the size quantization of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states inside metallic grains, by intergranular tunneling, and by electrostatic barriers. Depending on the temperature and structural state of the system, the hopping conductivity with variable lengths of jumps in the Efros-Shklovskii or Mott regime is observed with predominantly elastic cotunneling. In the case of strong intergranular coupling, the system passes into the metallic regime with the exponential temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......167C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT.......167C"><span id="translatedtitle">Non equilibrium <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in multilayered nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cruz-Rojas, Jesus</p> <p></p> <p>Recent advances in strongly correlated materials have produced systems with novel and interesting properties like high Tc superconductors, Mott insulators and others. These novel properties have sparked an interest in industry as well as in academia as new devices are being developed. One such kind of device that can be fabricated is a heterostructure, in which layers of different compounds are stacked in a single direction. Modern deposition techniques like <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam epitaxy, in which atomic layers of different materials are deposited one at a time creating the device, are capable of fabricating heterostructures with atomic precision. We propose a technique to study heterostructures composed of strongly correlated materials out of equilibrium. By using the Keldysh Green's function formalism in the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) framework the properties of a multilayered device are analyzed. The system is composed of infinite dimensional 2D lattices, stacked in the z direction. The first and last planes are then connected to a bulk reservoir, and several metallic planes are used to connect the bulk reservoir to the barrier region. The barrier region is the system of interest, also known as the device. The device is composed of a number of planes where the system correlations have been turned on. The correlations are then model by using the Falicov-Kimball Hamiltonian. The device is then connected to the bulk once again from the opposite side using metallic planes creating a symmetric system. In order to study the non equilibrium properties of the device a linear vector potential A(t) = A0 + tE is turned on a long time in the past for a unit of time and then turned off. This in turn will create a current in the bulk, in effect current biasing the device, as opposed to a voltage bias in which opposite sides of the device are held to a different potential. In this document we will explain the importance of the subject, we will derive and develop the algorithm</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1132770','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1132770"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Amplification in Diamond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Muller, Erik M.; Ben-Zvi, Ilan</p> <p>2013-03-31</p> <p>As a successful completion of this award, my group has demonstrated world-leading <span class="hlt">electron</span> gain from diamond for use in a diamond-amplified photocathode. Also, using high-resolution photoemission measurements we were able to uncover exciting new physics of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission mechanisms from hydrogen terminated diamond. Our work, through the continued support of HEP, has resulted in a greater understanding of the diamond material science, including current limits, charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> modeling, and spatial uniformity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261776','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22261776"><span id="translatedtitle">Origin of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of lithium phthalocyanine iodine crystal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Koike, Noritake; Oda, Masato; Shinozuka, Yuzo</p> <p>2013-12-04</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structures of Lithium Phthalocyanine Iodine are investigated using density functional theory. Comparing the band structures of several model crystals, the metallic conductivity of highly doped LiPcI{sub x} can be explained by the band of doped iodine. These results reveal that there is a new mechanism for <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of doped organic semiconductors that the dopant band plays the main role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6444373','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6444373"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-stream approach to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and thermalization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stamnes, K.</p> <p>1981-04-01</p> <p>An explicit solution to the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and energy degradation problem is presented in the two-stream approximation. The validity of this simple approach is discussed, and it is shown that it can be extended to high <span class="hlt">electron</span> energies (appropriate for applications to auroras) provided the coupling between the two streams, described by the backscatter ratio, is correctly estimated. A simple formula for the backscatter ratio which can be used at all energies is derived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25j5201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25j5201L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of Lorentz plasma with collision and magnetic field effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lv, Chong; Wan, Feng; Jia, Mo-Ran; Li, Zi-Liang; Sang, Hai-Bo; Xie, Bai-Song</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> transverse <span class="hlt">transport</span> of Lorentz plasma with collision and magnetic field effects is studied by solving the Boltzmann equation for different <span class="hlt">electron</span> density distributions. For the Maxwellian distribution, it is shown that <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients decrease as Ω increases, Ω is the ratio of an electron’s magneto-cyclotron frequency to plasma collision frequency. It means that the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are possible to be highly collimated by a strong magnetic field. For the quasi-monoenergetic distribution with different widths, it is found that the <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients decrease greatly as ɛ¯ decreases. In particular when the width approaches to zero the transverse <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients are hardly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the magnetic field and the minimal one is obtained. Results imply that the strong magnetic field and quasi-monoenergetic distribution are both beneficial to reduce the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> transverse <span class="hlt">transport</span>. This study is also helpful to understand the relevant problems of plasma <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the background of the inertial confinement fusion. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475026 and 11305010) and the NSAF of China (Grant No. U1530153).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3869256','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3869256"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> during <span class="hlt">electron</span>-beam-induced deposition of nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary We present a numerical investigation of energy and charge distributions during <span class="hlt">electron</span>-beam-induced growth of tungsten nanostructures on SiO2 substrates by using a Monte Carlo simulation of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. This study gives a quantitative insight into the deposition of energy and charge in the substrate and in the already existing metallic nanostructures in the presence of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam. We analyze <span class="hlt">electron</span> trajectories, inelastic mean free paths, and the distribution of backscattered <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in different compositions and at different depths of the deposit. We find that, while in the early stages of the nanostructure growth a significant fraction of <span class="hlt">electron</span> trajectories still interacts with the substrate, when the nanostructure becomes thicker the <span class="hlt">transport</span> takes place almost exclusively in the nanostructure. In particular, a larger deposit density leads to enhanced <span class="hlt">electron</span> backscattering. This work shows how mesoscopic radiation-<span class="hlt">transport</span> techniques can contribute to a model that addresses the multi-scale nature of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-beam-induced deposition (EBID) process. Furthermore, similar simulations can help to understand the role that is played by backscattered <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and emitted secondary <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the change of structural properties of nanostructured materials during post-growth <span class="hlt">electron</span>-beam treatments. PMID:24367747</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PSST...23a5012C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PSST...23a5012C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in magnetrons by a posteriori Monte Carlo simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Costin, C.; Minea, T. M.; Popa, G.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across magnetic barriers is crucial in all magnetized plasmas. It governs not only the plasma parameters in the volume, but also the fluxes of charged particles towards the electrodes and walls. It is particularly important in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) reactors, influencing the quality of the deposited thin films, since this type of discharge is characterized by an increased ionization fraction of the sputtered material. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> coefficients of <span class="hlt">electron</span> clouds released both from the cathode and from several locations in the discharge volume are calculated for a HiPIMS discharge with pre-ionization operated in argon at 0.67 Pa and for very short pulses (few µs) using the a posteriori Monte Carlo simulation technique. For this type of discharge <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is characterized by strong temporal and spatial dependence. Both drift velocity and diffusion coefficient depend on the releasing position of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> cloud. They exhibit minimum values at the centre of the race-track for the secondary <span class="hlt">electrons</span> released from the cathode. The diffusion coefficient of the same <span class="hlt">electrons</span> increases from 2 to 4 times when the cathode voltage is doubled, in the first 1.5 µs of the pulse. These parameters are discussed with respect to empirical Bohm diffusion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4957113','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4957113"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic defect correlations dominate activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in SrTiO3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Snijders, Paul C.; Şen, Cengiz; McConnell, Michael P.; Ma, Ying-Zhong; May, Andrew F.; Herklotz, Andreas; Wong, Anthony T.; Ward, T. Zac</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) is a critically important material for the study of emergent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> phases in complex oxides, as well as for the development of applications based on their heterostructures. Despite the large body of knowledge on STO, there are still many uncertainties regarding the role of defects in the properties of STO, including their influence on ferroelectricity in bulk STO and ferromagnetism in STO-based heterostructures. We present a detailed analysis of the decay of persistent photoconductivity in STO single crystals with defect concentrations that are relatively low but significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties. The results show that photo-activated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> cannot be described by a superposition of the properties due to independent point defects as current models suggest but is, instead, governed by defect complexes that interact through dynamic correlations. These results emphasize the importance of defect correlations for activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of semiconducting and insulating perovskite oxides. PMID:27443503</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27443503','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27443503"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic defect correlations dominate activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in SrTiO3.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Snijders, Paul C; Şen, Cengiz; McConnell, Michael P; Ma, Ying-Zhong; May, Andrew F; Herklotz, Andreas; Wong, Anthony T; Ward, T Zac</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) is a critically important material for the study of emergent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> phases in complex oxides, as well as for the development of applications based on their heterostructures. Despite the large body of knowledge on STO, there are still many uncertainties regarding the role of defects in the properties of STO, including their influence on ferroelectricity in bulk STO and ferromagnetism in STO-based heterostructures. We present a detailed analysis of the decay of persistent photoconductivity in STO single crystals with defect concentrations that are relatively low but significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties. The results show that photo-activated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> cannot be described by a superposition of the properties due to independent point defects as current models suggest but is, instead, governed by defect complexes that interact through dynamic correlations. These results emphasize the importance of defect correlations for activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of semiconducting and insulating perovskite oxides. PMID:27443503</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23976990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23976990"><span id="translatedtitle">Photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system promotes synthesis of Au-nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shabnam, Nisha; Pardha-Saradhi, P</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this communication, a novel, green, efficient and economically viable light mediated protocol for generation of Au-nanoparticles using most vital organelle, chloroplasts, of the plant system is portrayed. Thylakoids/chloroplasts isolated from Potamogeton nodosus (an aquatic plant) and Spinacia oleracea (a terrestrial plant) turned Au³⁺ solutions purple in presence of light of 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ photon flux density (PFD) and the purple coloration intensified with time. UV-Vis spectra of these purple colored solutions showed absorption peak at ∼545 nm which is known to arise due to surface plasmon oscillations specific to Au-nanoparticles. However, thylakoids/chloroplasts did not alter color of Au³⁺ solutions in dark. These results clearly demonstrated that photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> can reduce Au³⁺ to Au⁰ which nucleate to form Au-nanoparticles in presence of light. Transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopic studies revealed that Au-nanoparticles generated by light driven photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system of thylakoids/chloroplasts were in range of 5-20 nm. Selected area <span class="hlt">electron</span> diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction indicated crystalline nature of these nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray confirmed that these nanoparticles were composed of Au. To confirm the potential of light driven photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in generation of Au-nanoparticles, thylakoids/chloroplasts were tested for their efficacy to generate Au-nanoparticles in presence of light of PFD ranging from 60 to 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The capacity of thylakoids/chloroplasts to generate Au-nanoparticles increased remarkably with increase in PFD, which further clearly demonstrated potential of light driven photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in reduction of Au³⁺ to Au⁰ to form nanoparticles. The light driven donation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to metal ions by thylakoids/chloroplasts can be exploited for large scale production of nanoparticles. PMID:23976990</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23976990','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23976990"><span id="translatedtitle">Photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system promotes synthesis of Au-nanoparticles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shabnam, Nisha; Pardha-Saradhi, P</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this communication, a novel, green, efficient and economically viable light mediated protocol for generation of Au-nanoparticles using most vital organelle, chloroplasts, of the plant system is portrayed. Thylakoids/chloroplasts isolated from Potamogeton nodosus (an aquatic plant) and Spinacia oleracea (a terrestrial plant) turned Au³⁺ solutions purple in presence of light of 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹ photon flux density (PFD) and the purple coloration intensified with time. UV-Vis spectra of these purple colored solutions showed absorption peak at ∼545 nm which is known to arise due to surface plasmon oscillations specific to Au-nanoparticles. However, thylakoids/chloroplasts did not alter color of Au³⁺ solutions in dark. These results clearly demonstrated that photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> can reduce Au³⁺ to Au⁰ which nucleate to form Au-nanoparticles in presence of light. Transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopic studies revealed that Au-nanoparticles generated by light driven photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system of thylakoids/chloroplasts were in range of 5-20 nm. Selected area <span class="hlt">electron</span> diffraction and powder X-ray diffraction indicated crystalline nature of these nanoparticles. Energy dispersive X-ray confirmed that these nanoparticles were composed of Au. To confirm the potential of light driven photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in generation of Au-nanoparticles, thylakoids/chloroplasts were tested for their efficacy to generate Au-nanoparticles in presence of light of PFD ranging from 60 to 600 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The capacity of thylakoids/chloroplasts to generate Au-nanoparticles increased remarkably with increase in PFD, which further clearly demonstrated potential of light driven photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in reduction of Au³⁺ to Au⁰ to form nanoparticles. The light driven donation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to metal ions by thylakoids/chloroplasts can be exploited for large scale production of nanoparticles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1124191','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1124191"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> Experiments on 2D Correlated <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Physics in Semiconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tsui, Daniel</p> <p>2014-03-24</p> <p>This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the 2D <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated <span class="hlt">electron</span> physics in the dilute density limit, where the <span class="hlt">electron</span> potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6431141','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6431141"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> and magnetic curvature driven modes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Coppi, B.; Tang, W.M.</p> <p>1984-10-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficient for anomalous <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal conduction is constructed on the basis of the so-called Principle of Profile Consistency. It is assumed that the relevant modes in plasma where a substantial fraction of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> population is magnetically trapped produce magnetic reconnection at a microscopic level and are driven by the combined effects of the plasma pressure gradient and the magnetic field curvature. Consequently, the scaling for the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy confinement time exhibits a strongly favorable dependence on the radius of magnetic curvature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/238813','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/238813"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a helical undulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jeong, Y.U.; Lee, B.C.; Kim, S.K.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>Lossless <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> through the undulator is essential for CW operation of the FELs driven by recirculating electrostatic accelerators. We calculate the <span class="hlt">transport</span> ratio of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam in a helical undulator by using a 3-D simulation code and compare the results with the experimental results. The energy and the current of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam are 400 keV and 2 A, respectively. The 3-D distribution of the magnetic field of a practical permanent-magnet helical undulator is measured and is used in the calculations. The major parameters of the undutlator are : period = 32 mm, number of periods = 20, number of periods in adiabatic region = 3.5, magnetic field strength = 1.3 kG. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> ratio is very sensitive to the injection condition of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam such as the emittance, the diameter, the divergence, etc.. The injection motion is varied in the experiments by changing the e-gun voltage or the field strength of the focusing magnet located at the entrance of the undulator. It is confirmed experimentally and with simulations that most of the beam loss occurs at the adiabatic region of the undulator regardless of the length of the adiabatic region The effect of axial guiding magnetic field on the beam finish is investigated. According to the simulations, the increase of the strength of axial magnetic field from 0 to 1 kG results in the increase of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> ratio from 15 % to 95%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013FML.....640013S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013FML.....640013S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ELECTRONIC</span> AND <span class="hlt">TRANSPORT</span> PROPERTIES OF THERMOELECTRIC Ru2Si3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, David J.; Parker, David</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We report calculations of the doping and temperature dependent thermopower of Ru2Si3 based on Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span> theory and the first principles <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure. We find that the performance reported to date can be significantly improved by optimization of the doping level and that ultimately n-type should have higher ZT than p-type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PNAS...8911126S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992PNAS...8911126S"><span id="translatedtitle">Requirement for Coenzyme Q in Plasma Membrane <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, I. L.; Sun, E. E.; Crane, F. L.; Morre, D. J.; Lindgren, A.; Low, H.</p> <p>1992-12-01</p> <p>Coenzyme Q is required in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system of rat hepatocyte and human erythrocyte plasma membranes. Extraction of coenzyme Q from the membrane decreases NADH dehydrogenase and NADH:oxygen oxidoreductase activity. Addition of coenzyme Q to the extracted membrane restores the activity. Partial restoration of activity is also found with α-tocopherylquinone, but not with vitamin K_1. Analogs of coenzyme Q inhibit NADH dehydrogenase and oxidase activity and the inhibition is reversed by added coenzyme Q. Ferricyanide reduction by transmembrane <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from HeLa cells is inhibited by coenzyme Q analogs and restored with added coenzyme Q10. Reduction of external ferricyanide and diferric transferrin by HeLa cells is accompanied by proton release from the cells. Inhibition of the reduction by coenzyme Q analogs also inhibits the proton release, and coenzyme Q10 restores the proton release activity. Trans-plasma membrane <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> stimulates growth of serum-deficient cells, and added coenzyme Q10 increases growth of HeLa (human adenocarcinoma) and BALB/3T3 (mouse fibroblast) cells. The evidence is consistent with a function for coenzyme Q in a trans-plasma membrane <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system which influences cell growth.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/503654','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/503654"><span id="translatedtitle">Neoclassical <span class="hlt">electron</span> and ion <span class="hlt">transport</span> in toroidally rotating plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sugama, H.; Horton, W.</p> <p>1997-06-01</p> <p>Neoclassical <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and ions are investigated in detail for toroidally rotating axisymmetric plasmas with large flow velocities on the order of the ion thermal speed. The Onsager relations for the flow-dependent neoclassical <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients are derived from the symmetry properties of the drift kinetic equation with the self-adjoint collision operator. The complete neoclassical <span class="hlt">transport</span> matrix with the Onsager symmetry is obtained for the rotating plasma consisting of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and single-species ions in the Pfirsch{endash}Schl{umlt u}ter and banana regimes. It is found that the inward banana fluxes of particles and toroidal momentum are driven by the parallel electric field, which are phenomena coupled through the Onsager symmetric off-diagonal coefficients to the parallel currents caused by the radial thermodynamic forces conjugate to the inward fluxes, respectively. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989ApJ...344..973M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989ApJ...344..973M"><span id="translatedtitle">Relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and bremsstrahlung production in solar flares</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Miller, James A.; Ramaty, Reuven</p> <p>1989-09-01</p> <p>A Monte Carlo simulation of ultrarelativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in solar flare magnetic loops has been developed. It includes Coulomb, synchrotron, and bremsstrahlung energy losses; pitch-angle scattering by Alfven and whistler turbulence in the coronal region of the loop; and magnetic mirroring in the converging magnetic flux tubes beneath the transition region. Depth distributions, time profiles, energy spectra, and angular distributions of the resulting bremsstrahlung emission are calculated. It is found that both the preferential detection of solar flares with greater than 10 MeV emission near the limb of the sun and the observation of ultrarelativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> bremsstrahlung from flares on the disk are consequences of the loop <span class="hlt">transport</span> model. The declining portions of the observed time profiles of greater than 10 MeV emission from solar flares can also be accounted for, and it is proposed that these portions are determined by <span class="hlt">transport</span> and not acceleration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5086915','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5086915"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy-filtered <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Structures for Low-power Low-noise 2-D <span class="hlt">Electronics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pan, Xuan; Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In addition to cryogenic techniques, energy filtering has the potential to achieve high-performance low-noise 2-D <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems. Assemblies based on graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been demonstrated to exhibit interesting <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties, including resonant tunnelling. In this paper, we investigate GQDs based structures with the goal of producing energy filters for next generation lower-power lower-noise 2-D <span class="hlt">electronic</span> systems. We evaluate the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the proposed GQD device structures to demonstrate <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy filtering and the ability to control the position and magnitude of the energy passband by appropriate device dimensioning. We also show that the signal-to-thermal noise ratio performance of the proposed nanoscale device can be modified according to device geometry. The tunability of two-dimensional GQD structures indicates a promising route for the design of <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy filters to produce low-power and low-noise <span class="hlt">electronics</span>. PMID:27796343</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120a4302N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAP...120a4302N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanisms in polymer-carbon sphere composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nieves, Cesar A.; Ramos, Idalia; Pinto, Nicholas J.; Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A set of uniform carbon microspheres (CSs) whose diameters have the order of 0.125 μm to 10 μm was prepared from aqueous sucrose solution by means of hydrothermal carbonization of sugar molecules. A pressed pellet was composed by mixing CSs with polyethylene oxide (PEO). Electrical characterization of the pellet was carried out showing Ohmic current-voltage characteristics and temperature-dependent conductivity in the range of 80 K <T <300 K . The conductivity reached a maximum value of 0.24 S /cm at 258 K . The dependence of conductivity on temperature was theoretically analyzed to determine predominating mechanisms of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. It was shown that thermally induced <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling between adjacent spheres may take on an important part in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the CS/PEO composites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006ApPhL..89z2102T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006ApPhL..89z2102T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in naphthylamine-based organic compounds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tse, S. C.; Kwok, K. C.; So, S. K.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Two naphthylamine-based hole <span class="hlt">transporters</span>, namely, N ,N'-diphenyl-N ,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'diamine (NPB) and 4,4',4″-tris(n-(2-naphthyl)-n-phenyl-amino)-triphenylamine (2TNATA), were found to possess <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> (ET) abilities. From time-of-flight measurements, values of <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobilities for NPB and 2TNATA are (6-9)×10-4 and (1-3)×10-4cm2/Vs, respectively, under an applied electric field range of 0.04-0.8MV/cm at 290K. An organic light-emitting diode that employed NPB as the ET material was demonstrated. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> conducting mechanism of NPB and 2TNATA in relation to the Marcus theory [Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 599 (1993)] from quantum chemistry will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARC15015E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARC15015E"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> experiments on osmium-adatom-decorated graphene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elias, Jamie; Henriksen, Erik</p> <p></p> <p>Monolayer graphene is theoretically predicted to inherit a spin-orbit coupling from a dilute coating of certain transition metal adatoms. To explore these predictions we have constructed a cryogenic probe capable of in situ thermal annealing of graphene followed immediately by <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements and controlled deposition of sub-monolayer coatings of most any metal. Previously a light coating of indium on graphene was investigated, and found to transfer <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to graphene and reduce the mobility although no evidence of an induced spin-orbit coupling was seen. We are now depositing osmium and tungsten on graphene devices. Our initial results show an unexpected hole-doping and a sizable increase in resistance of the sample. We will report our progress on characterizing these samples by <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006110','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4006110"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">TRANSPORTER</span> POLYMORPHISMS <span class="hlt">AFFECT</span> NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY, DISEASES, AND PHARMACOTHERAPY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sissung, Tristan M.; Troutman, Sarah M.; Campbell, Tessa J; Pressler, Heather M.; Sung, Hyeyoung; Bates, Susan E.; Figg, William D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Drug <span class="hlt">transporters</span> mediate the movement of endobiotics and xenobiotics across biological membranes in multiple organs and in most tissues. As such, they are involved in physiology, development of disease, drug pharmacokinetics, and ultimately the clinical response to myriad medications. Genetic variants in <span class="hlt">transporters</span> cause population-specific differences in drug <span class="hlt">transport</span> and are responsible for considerable inter-individual variation in physiology and pharmacotherapy. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad overview of how inherited variants in <span class="hlt">transporters</span> are associated with disease etiology, disease state, and the pharmacological treatment of diseases. Given that there are thousands of published papers related to the interplay between <span class="hlt">transporter</span> genetics and medicine, this review will provide examples that exemplify the broader focus of the literature. PMID:22284781</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARU26001D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARU26001D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> in nanoscale systems: hydrodynamics, turbulence, and local <span class="hlt">electron</span> heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>di Ventra, Massimiliano</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Transport</span> in nanoscale systems is usually described as an open-boundary scattering problem. This picture, however, says nothing about the dynamical onset of steady states, their microscopic nature, or their dependence on initial conditions [1]. In order to address these issues, I will first describe the dynamical many-particle state via an effective quantum hydrodynamic theory [2]. This approach allows us to predict a series of novel phenomena like turbulence of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> liquid [2], local <span class="hlt">electron</span> heating in nanostructures [3], and the effect of <span class="hlt">electron</span> viscosity on resistance [4]. I will provide both analytical results and numerical examples of first-principles <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics in nanostructures using the above approach. I will also discuss possible experimental tests of our predictions. Work supported in part by NSF and DOE. [1] N. Bushong, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, ``Approach to steady-state <span class="hlt">transport</span> in nanoscale systems'' Nano Letters, 5 2569 (2005); M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov, ``<span class="hlt">Transport</span> in nanoscale systems: the microcanonical versus grand-canonical picture,'' J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004). [2] R. D'Agosta and M. Di Ventra, ``Hydrodynamic approach to <span class="hlt">transport</span> and turbulence in nanoscale conductors,'' cond-mat/05123326; J. Phys. Cond. Matt., in press. [3] R. D'Agosta, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, ``Local <span class="hlt">electron</span> heating in nanoscale conductors,'' cond-mat/0605312; Nano Letters, in press. [4] N. Sai, M. Zwolak, G. Vignale and M. Di Ventra, ``Dynamical corrections to the DFT-LDA <span class="hlt">electron</span> conductance in nanoscale systems,'' Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 186810 (2005).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117o4504R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117o4504R"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in van der Waals heterostructures with graphene layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Dubinov, A. A.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We propose and analyze an analytical model for the self-consistent description of the vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in van der Waals graphene-layer (GL) heterostructures with the GLs separated by the barriers layers. The top and bottom GLs serve as the structure emitter and collector. The vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in such structures is associated with the propagation of the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> thermionically emitted from GLs above the inter-GL barriers. The model under consideration describes the processes of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermionic emission from and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> capture to GLs. It accounts for the nonuniformity of the self-consistent electric field governed by the Poisson equation which accounts for the variation of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> population in GLs. The model takes also under consideration the cooling of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the emitter layer due to the Peltier effect. We find the spatial distributions of the electric field and potential with the high-electric-field domain near the emitter GL in the GL heterostructures with different numbers of GLs. Using the obtained spatial distributions of the electric field, we calculate the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate that the Peltier cooling of the two-dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas in the emitter GL can strongly <span class="hlt">affect</span> the current-voltage characteristics resulting in their saturation. The obtained results can be important for the optimization of the hot-<span class="hlt">electron</span> bolometric terahertz detectors and different devices based on GL heterostructures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402879','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402879"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in van der Waals heterostructures with graphene layers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ryzhii, V.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, M.; Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Dubinov, A. A.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.</p> <p>2015-04-21</p> <p>We propose and analyze an analytical model for the self-consistent description of the vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in van der Waals graphene-layer (GL) heterostructures with the GLs separated by the barriers layers. The top and bottom GLs serve as the structure emitter and collector. The vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in such structures is associated with the propagation of the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> thermionically emitted from GLs above the inter-GL barriers. The model under consideration describes the processes of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermionic emission from and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> capture to GLs. It accounts for the nonuniformity of the self-consistent electric field governed by the Poisson equation which accounts for the variation of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> population in GLs. The model takes also under consideration the cooling of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the emitter layer due to the Peltier effect. We find the spatial distributions of the electric field and potential with the high-electric-field domain near the emitter GL in the GL heterostructures with different numbers of GLs. Using the obtained spatial distributions of the electric field, we calculate the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate that the Peltier cooling of the two-dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas in the emitter GL can strongly <span class="hlt">affect</span> the current-voltage characteristics resulting in their saturation. The obtained results can be important for the optimization of the hot-<span class="hlt">electron</span> bolometric terahertz detectors and different devices based on GL heterostructures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9746E..0GT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SPIE.9746E..0GT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrafast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene and magnetic nanostructures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turchinovich, Dmitry</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Ultrafast terahertz spectroscopy is an ideal tool for observation of dynamics of charge, lattice and spin in solids on the most elementary timescale: in the regime ωτ ~ 1, where ω is the electromagnetic wave oscillation frequency, and τ is the characteristic timescale at which the fundamental phenomena in the three subsystems comprising the solid occur. In this paper two case studies will be discussed. (i) Ultrafast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene. We will show, that the free-carrier conductivity of graphene in arbitrary ultrafast, (sub-)picosecond electric fields is defined by the thermodynamic balance maintained within the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure of graphene acting as thermalized <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas. Within this simple thermodynamic picture, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas quasi-instantaneously increases its temperature by absorbing the energy of driving ultrafast electric field, and at the same time cools down via a time-retarded, few picosecond-long process of phonon emission. The asymmetry in <span class="hlt">electron</span> heating and cooling dynamics leads to heat accumulation in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> population of graphene, concomitantly lowering the chemical potential for hotter <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, and thereby reducing the intraband conductivity of graphene - an effect crucially important for understanding of ultrafast graphene transistors and photodetectors. (ii) We will also discuss the fundamental observation of spin-controlled <span class="hlt">electron</span> conduction of Fermilevel <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in ferromagnetic metals, and will directly quantify the Mott picture of conduction in ferromagnets - the effect directly employed in modern magnetic sensor technologies such as giant magnetoresistance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980JChPh..72.2763S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980JChPh..72.2763S"><span id="translatedtitle">General theory of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in molecular crystals. I. Local linear <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon coupling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Silbey, R.; Munn, R. W.</p> <p>1980-02-01</p> <p>An improved general theory of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in molecular crystals with local linear <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon coupling is presented. It is valid for arbitrary <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and phonon bandwidths and for arbitrary <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon coupling strength, yielding small-polaron theory for narrow <span class="hlt">electronic</span> bands and strong coupling, and semiconductor theory for wide <span class="hlt">electronic</span> bands and weak coupling. Detailed results are derived for <span class="hlt">electronic</span> excitations fully clothed with phonons and having a bandwidth no larger than the phonon frequency; the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and phonon densities of states are taken as Gaussian for simplicity. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on temperature and on the other parameters is analyzed thoroughly. The calculated behavior provides a rational interpretation of observed trends in the magnitude and temperature dependence of charge-carrier drift mobilities in molecular crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1096488','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1096488"><span id="translatedtitle">LDRD project 151362 : low energy <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kensek, Ronald Patrick; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Magyar, Rudolph J.; Bondi, Robert James; Crawford, Martin James</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>At sufficiently high energies, the wavelengths of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and photons are short enough to only interact with one atom at time, leading to the popular %E2%80%9Cindependent-atom approximation%E2%80%9D. We attempted to incorporate atomic structure in the generation of cross sections (which embody the modeled physics) to improve <span class="hlt">transport</span> at lower energies. We document our successes and failures. This was a three-year LDRD project. The core team consisted of a radiation-<span class="hlt">transport</span> expert, a solid-state physicist, and two DFT experts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B54D..01N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B54D..01N"><span id="translatedtitle">Extracellular <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> (EET): Metal Cycling in Extreme Places</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nealson, K. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, or EET, is the process whereby bacteria either donate <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to an <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptor (usually insoluble), or take up <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from and <span class="hlt">electron</span> donor (usually insoluble) that is located outside the cell. Iron cycling is inherently linked to EET, as both reduced iron (<span class="hlt">electron</span> donors), and oxidized iron (<span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors) can be found as insoluble minerals, and require specialized molecular machines to accomplish these extracellular geobiological reactions. Bacteria in the group Shewanella are able to catalyze EET in both directions, and are involved with a number of different iron conversions, but are not good role models for extreme conditions - to our knowledge there are no shewanellae that are tolerant to extremes of temperature or pH, the two usual. This being said, when cells are energy starved via limitation for <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors, they respond by turning on the system(s) for EET. Thus, in this presentation the known mechanism(s) of EET will be discussed, along with recent findings and reports of EET-capable organisms from a variety of extreme environments. From these data, I put forward the hypothesis that there are many microbes (many of them from extreme environments) that will be resistant to cultivation by "standard microbiological methods", yet lend themselves well to cultivation via electrochemical methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27m5302S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27m5302S"><span id="translatedtitle">Geometric effects in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of deformed nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santos, Fernando; Fumeron, Sébastien; Berche, Bertrand; Moraes, Fernando</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Quasi-two-dimensional systems may exibit curvature, which adds three-dimensional influence to their internal properties. As shown by da Costa (1981 Phys. Rev. A 23 1982-7), charged particles moving on a curved surface experience a curvature-dependent potential which greatly influence their dynamics. In this paper, we study the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> in deformed nanotubes. The one-<span class="hlt">electron</span> Schrödinger equation with open boundary conditions is solved numerically with a flexible MAPLE code made available as supplementary data. We find that the curvature of the deformations indeed has strong effects on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics, suggesting its use in the design of nanotube-based <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22051363','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22051363"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatially resolved study of primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in magnetic cusps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hubble, Aimee A.; Foster, John E.</p> <p>2012-01-15</p> <p>Spatially resolved primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> current density profiles were measured using a planar Langmuir probe in the region above a magnetic cusp in a small ion thruster discharge chamber. The probe current maps obtained were used to study the <span class="hlt">electron</span> collection mechanics in the cusp region in the limit of zero gas flow and no plasma production, and they allowed for the visualization of primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the cusp. Attenuation coefficients and loss widths were calculated as a function of probe distance above the anode at various operating conditions. Finally, the collection mechanics between two magnetic cusps were studied and compared. It was found that primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> collection was dominated by the upstream magnet ring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/3847','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/3847"><span id="translatedtitle">The macro response Monte Carlo method for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Svatos, M M</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>The main goal of this thesis was to prove the feasibility of basing <span class="hlt">electron</span> depth dose calculations in a phantom on first-principles single scatter physics, in an amount of time that is equal to or better than current <span class="hlt">electron</span> Monte Carlo methods. The Macro Response Monte Carlo (MRMC) method achieves run times that are on the order of conventional <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> methods such as condensed history, with the potential to be much faster. This is possible because MRMC is a Local-to-Global method, meaning the problem is broken down into two separate <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations. The first stage is a local, in this case, single scatter calculation, which generates probability distribution functions (PDFs) to describe the <span class="hlt">electron</span>'s energy, position and trajectory after leaving the local geometry, a small sphere or "kugel" A number of local kugel calculations were run for calcium and carbon, creating a library of kugel data sets over a range of incident energies (0.25 MeV - 8 MeV) and sizes (0.025 cm to 0.1 cm in radius). The second <span class="hlt">transport</span> stage is a global calculation, where steps that conform to the size of the kugels in the library are taken through the global geometry. For each step, the appropriate PDFs from the MRMC library are sampled to determine the <span class="hlt">electron</span>'s new energy, position and trajectory. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> is immediately advanced to the end of the step and then chooses another kugel to sample, which continues until <span class="hlt">transport</span> is completed. The MRMC global stepping code was benchmarked as a series of subroutines inside of the Peregrine Monte Carlo code. It was compared to Peregrine's class II condensed history <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> package, EGS4, and MCNP for depth dose in simple phantoms having density inhomogeneities. Since the kugels completed in the library were of relatively small size, the zoning of the phantoms was scaled down from a clinical size, so that the energy deposition algorithms for spreading dose across 5-10 zones per kugel could be tested. Most</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/503467','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/503467"><span id="translatedtitle">Fabrication and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> studies of single nanocrystal systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Klein, D L</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>Semiconductor and metallic nanocrystals exhibit interesting <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior as a result of electrostatic and quantum mechanical confinement effects. These effects can be studied to learn about the nature of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states in these systems. This thesis describes several techniques for the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> study of nanocrystals. The primary focus is the development of novel methods to attach leads to prefabricated nanocrystals. This is because, while nanocrystals can be readily synthesized from a variety of materials with excellent size control, means to make electrical contact to these nanocrystals are limited. The first approach that will be described uses scanning probe microscopy to first image and then electrically probe surfaces. It is found that <span class="hlt">electronic</span> investigations of nanocrystals by this technique are complicated by tip-sample interactions and environmental factors such as salvation and capillary forces. Next, an atomic force microscope technique for the catalytic patterning of the surface of a self assembled monolayer is described. In principle, this nano-fabrication technique can be used to create <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices which are based upon complex arrangements of nanocrystals. Finally, the fabrication and electrical characterization of a nanocrystal-based single <span class="hlt">electron</span> transistor is presented. This device is fabricated using a hybrid scheme which combines <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam lithography and wet chemistry to bind single nanocrystals in tunneling contact between closely spaced metallic leads. In these devices, both Au and CdSe nanocrystals show Coulomb blockade effects with characteristic energies of several tens of meV. Additional structure is seen the <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior of CdSe nanocrystals as a result of its <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218426','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22218426"><span id="translatedtitle">Turbulent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in edge pedestal by <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Singh, R.; Jhang, Hogun; Diamond, P. H.</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>We present a model for turbulent <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> at the edge pedestal in high (H)-mode plasmas based on <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence. A quasi-linear analysis of electrostatic toroidal ETG modes shows that both turbulent <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal diffusivity and hyper-resistivity exhibits the Ohkawa scaling in which the radial correlation length of turbulence becomes the order of <span class="hlt">electron</span> skin depth. Combination of the Ohkawa scales and the plasma current dependence results in a novel confinement scaling inside the pedestal region. It is also shown that ETG turbulence induces a thermoelectric pinch, which may accelerate the density pedestal formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.2989R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.2989R"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar flare accelerated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the turbulent solar wind</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reid, Hamish; Kontar, Eduard</p> <p></p> <p>Solar flare accelerated <span class="hlt">electron</span> beams can become unstable during <span class="hlt">transport</span> from the Sun to the Earth, producing plasma waves in the turbulent inner heliosphere. We simulate solar <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam propagation to the Earth in the weak turbulent regime taking into account the self-consistent generation of plasma waves. Induced plasma waves interact with the density fluctuations from low frequency MHD turbulence present in the background plasma. These fluctuations act to suppress the generation of waves, most acutely when fluctuations have large amplitudes or small wavelengths. The reduction of plasma wave generation alters the wave distribution which changes <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Assuming an observed 5/3 Kolmogorov-type power density spectra of fluctuations, we investigate the energy spectra of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam near the Earth. We find the presence of turbulence in the background plasma alters the spectral index below the break energy of the double power-law formed at 1AU. From an initial single power-law <span class="hlt">electron</span> distribution, we find a range of spectra below the break energy, with higher levels of turbulence corresponding to a higher spectral index.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20860240','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20860240"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlocal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in magnetized plasmas with arbitrary atomic number</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bennaceur-Doumaz, D.; Bendib, A.</p> <p>2006-09-15</p> <p>The numerical solution of the steady-state <span class="hlt">electron</span> Fokker-Planck equation perturbed with respect to a global equilibrium is presented in magnetized plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. The magnetic field is assumed to be constant and the <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> collisions are described by the Landau collision operator. The solution is derived in the Fourier space and in the framework of the diffusive approximation which captures the spatial nonlocal effects. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients are deduced and used to close a complete set of nonlocal <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluid equations. This work improves the results of A. Bendib et al. [Phys. Plasmas 9, 1555 (2002)] and of A. V. Brantov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 10, 4633 (2003)] restricted to the local and nonlocal high-Z plasma approximations, respectively. The influence of the magnetic field on the nonlocal effects is discussed. We propose also accurate numerical fits of the relevant <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients with respect to the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L and the atomic number Z, where L is the typical scale length and {lambda}{sub ei} is the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-ion mean-free-path.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARL31012D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..MARL31012D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Tunneling in Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dirks, Travis; Mason, Nadya</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Carbon nanotubes remain a fertile ground for the exploration of interacting one-dimensional (1D) physics and Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid theory. Much is still unknown about the factors that influence the <span class="hlt">transport</span> and tunneling properties of interacting 1D systems such as nanotubes. We report on experiments that use techniques such as multiple contacts on long nanotubes and tunable tunnel barriers to determine how the manifestations of <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> interactions, such as the zero-bias anomaly, depend on the length and defect strength in nanotubes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108j3502C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.108j3502C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> in organic single-crystal microbelt for conformal <span class="hlt">electronics</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cui, Nan; Tong, Yanhong; Tang, Qingxin; Liu, Yichun</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We showed the advantages of flexible rubrene organic single-crystal microbelts in high-performance devices and circuits towards conformal <span class="hlt">electronics</span>. The anisotropic <span class="hlt">transport</span> based on the only one organic microbelt was studied by a "cross-channel" method, and the rubrene microbelt showed the highest mobility up to 26 cm2/V s in the length direction. Based on an individual rubrene microbelt, the organic single-crystal circuit with good adherence on a pearl ball and the gain as high as 18 was realized. These results present great potential for applications of organic single-crystal belts in the next-generation conformal <span class="hlt">electronics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1175/ofr20161175.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1175/ofr20161175.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Benthic processes <span class="hlt">affecting</span> contaminant <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.</p> <p>2016-09-30</p> <p>Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially <span class="hlt">affect</span> contaminant <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...711381B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...711381B"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoscale <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at the surface of a topological insulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bauer, Sebastian; Bobisch, Christian A.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The use of three-dimensional topological insulators for disruptive technologies critically depends on the dissipationless <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> at the surface, because of the suppression of backscattering at defects. However, in real devices, defects are unavoidable and scattering at angles other than 180° is allowed for such materials. Until now, this has been studied indirectly by bulk measurements and by the analysis of the local density of states in close vicinity to defect sites. Here, we directly measure the nanoscale voltage drop caused by the scattering at step edges, which occurs if a lateral current flows along a three-dimensional topological insulator. The experiments were performed using scanning tunnelling potentiometry for thin Bi2Se3 films. So far, the observed voltage drops are small because of large contributions of the bulk to the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. However, for the use of ideal topological insulating thin films in devices, these contributions would play a significant role.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4844676','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4844676"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoscale <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at the surface of a topological insulator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bauer, Sebastian; Bobisch, Christian A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The use of three-dimensional topological insulators for disruptive technologies critically depends on the dissipationless <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> at the surface, because of the suppression of backscattering at defects. However, in real devices, defects are unavoidable and scattering at angles other than 180° is allowed for such materials. Until now, this has been studied indirectly by bulk measurements and by the analysis of the local density of states in close vicinity to defect sites. Here, we directly measure the nanoscale voltage drop caused by the scattering at step edges, which occurs if a lateral current flows along a three-dimensional topological insulator. The experiments were performed using scanning tunnelling potentiometry for thin Bi2Se3 films. So far, the observed voltage drops are small because of large contributions of the bulk to the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. However, for the use of ideal topological insulating thin films in devices, these contributions would play a significant role. PMID:27098939</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21537874','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21537874"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> from stochastic fields in gyrokinetic simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, E.; Nevins, W. M.; Candy, J.; Hatch, D.; Terry, P.; Guttenfelder, W.</p> <p>2011-05-15</p> <p>GYRO is used to examine the perturbed magnetic field structure generated by electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations of the CYCLONE base case as {beta}{sub e} is varied from 0.1% to 0.7%, as investigated by J. Candy [Phys. Plasmas 12, 072307 (2005)]. Poincare surface of section plots obtained from integrating the self-consistent magnetic field demonstrates widespread stochasticity for all nonzero values of {beta}{sub e}. Despite widespread stochasticity of the perturbed magnetic fields, no significant increase in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is observed. The magnetic diffusion, d{sub m}[A. B. Rechester and M. N. Rosenbluth, Phys. Rev. Lett 40, 38 (1978)], is used to quantify the degree of stochasticity and related to the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> for hundreds of time slices in each simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5551451','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5551451"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-point model for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in EBT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chiu, S.C.; Guest, G.E.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in EBT is simulated by a two-point model corresponding to the central plasma and the edge. The central plasma is assumed to obey neoclassical collisionless <span class="hlt">transport</span>. The edge plasma is assumed turbulent and modeled by Bohm diffusion. The steady-state temperatures and densities in both regions are obtained as functions of neutral influx and microwave power. It is found that as the neutral influx decreases and power increases, the edge density decreases while the core density increases. We conclude that if ring instability is responsible for the T-M mode transition, and if stability is correlated with cold <span class="hlt">electron</span> density at the edge, it will depend sensitively on ambient gas pressure and microwave power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARA22005M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARA22005M"><span id="translatedtitle">Ab Initio <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> Relaxation Times and <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Noble Metals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mustafa, Jamal I.; Bernardi, Marco; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.</p> <p></p> <p>Relaxation times employed to study <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in metals are typically assumed to be constants and obtained empirically using the Drude model. Here, we employ ab initio calculations to compute the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon relaxation times of Cu, Ag, and Au, and find that they vary significantly on the Fermi surface, spanning ~15 -45 fs. We compute room temperature resistivities in excellent agreement with experiment by combining GW bandstructures, Wannier-interpolated band velocities, and ab initio relaxation times. Our calculations are compared to other approximations used for the relaxation times. Additionally, an importance sampling scheme is introduced to speed up the convergence of resistivity and <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations by sampling directly points on the Fermi surface. This work was supported by NSF Grant No. DMR15-1508412 and U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Computational resources have been provided by DOE at LBNL's NERSC facility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhPl...18e6111W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhPl...18e6111W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> from stochastic fields in gyrokinetic simulationsa)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, E.; Nevins, W. M.; Candy, J.; Hatch, D.; Terry, P.; Guttenfelder, W.</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>GYRO is used to examine the perturbed magnetic field structure generated by electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations of the CYCLONE base case as βe is varied from 0.1% to 0.7%, as investigated by J. Candy [Phys. Plasmas 12, 072307 (2005)]. Poincare surface of section plots obtained from integrating the self-consistent magnetic field demonstrates widespread stochasticity for all nonzero values of βe. Despite widespread stochasticity of the perturbed magnetic fields, no significant increase in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is observed. The magnetic diffusion, dm [A. B. Rechester and M. N. Rosenbluth, Phys. Rev. Lett 40, 38 (1978)], is used to quantify the degree of stochasticity and related to the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> for hundreds of time slices in each simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114f3304H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...114f3304H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electron</span> beams with initial transverse-longitudinal correlation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harris, J. R.; Lewellen, J. W.; Poole, B. R.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>When an <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam whose current varies in time is extracted from a DC gun, the competition between the time-dependent space charge force and the time-independent focusing force will cause a correlation between radius, divergence, current, and position along the beam. This correlation will determine the beam's configuration in trace space, and together with the design of the downstream <span class="hlt">transport</span> system, will determine the quality of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> solutions that can be obtained, including the amplitude of the mismatch oscillations occurring in each slice of the beam. Recent simulations of a simplified diode with Pierce-type focusing operating at nonrelativistic voltages indicated that the radius and divergence of beams extracted from such guns can be approximated to high accuracy as linear functions of current. Here, we consider the impact of this dependence on the beam configuration in trace space and investigate the implications for matching and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of such correlated beams in uniform linear focusing channels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/532581','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/532581"><span id="translatedtitle">Status of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in MCNP{trademark}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hughes, H.G.</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>The latest version of MCNP, the Los Alamos Monte Carlo <span class="hlt">transport</span> code, has now been officially released. MCNP4B has been sent to the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC), in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, which is responsible for the further distribution of the code within the US. International distribution of MCNP is done by the Nuclear Energy Agency (ECD/NEA), in Paris, France. Readers with access to the World-Wide-Web should consult the MCNP distribution site http://www-xdiv.lanl.gov/XTM/mcnp/about.html for specific information about contacting RSICC and OECD/NEA. A variety of new features are available in MCNP4B. Among these are differential operator perturbations, cross-section plotting capabilities, enhanced diagnostics for <span class="hlt">transport</span> in repeated structures and lattices, improved efficiency in distributed-memory multiprocessing, corrected particle lifetime and lifespan estimators, and expanded software quality assurance procedures and testing, including testing of the multigroup Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck capability. New and improved cross section sets in the form of ENDF/B-VI evaluations have also been recently released and can be used in MCNP4B. Perhaps most significant for the interests of this special session, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> algorithm has been improved, especially in the collisional energy-loss straggling and the angular-deflection treatments. In this paper, the author concentrates on a fairly complete documentation of the current status of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> methods in MCNP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016168','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70016168"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetically influenced terms for solute <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> by heterogeneous and homogeneous classical reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bahr, J.M.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>This paper extends a four-step derivation procedure, previously presented for cases of <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> by surface reactions, to <span class="hlt">transport</span> problems involving homogeneous reactions. Derivations for these classes of reactions are used to illustrate the manner in which mathematical differences between reaction classes are reflected in the mathematical derivation procedures required to identify kinetically influenced terms. Simulation results for a case of <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> by a single solution phase complexation reaction and for a case of <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> by a precipitation-dissolution reaction are used to demonstrate the nature of departures from equilibrium-controlled <span class="hlt">transport</span> as well as the use of kinetically influenced terms in determining criteria for the applicability of the local equilibrium assumption. A final derivation for a multireaction problem demonstrates the application of the generalized procedure to a case of <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> by reactions of several classes. -from Author</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6409230','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6409230"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> fission product <span class="hlt">transport</span> in severe LMFBR accidents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wichner, R.P.; Jolley, R.L.; Gat, U.; Rodgers, B.R.</p> <p>1984-10-01</p> <p>This study was performed as a part of a larger evaluation effort on LMFBR accident, source-term estimation. Purpose was to provide basic chemical information regarding fission product, sodium coolant, and structural material interactions required to perform estimation of fission product <span class="hlt">transport</span> under LMFBR accident conditions. Emphasis was placed on conditions within the reactor vessel; containment vessel conditions are discussed only briefly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415564','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415564"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-impact vibrational excitation in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through gaseous tetrahydrofuran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duque, H. V.; Do, T. P. T.; Konovalov, D. A.; White, R. D.; Brunger, M. J. E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au; Jones, D. B. E-mail: darryl.jones@flinders.edu.au</p> <p>2015-03-28</p> <p>In this paper, we report newly derived integral cross sections (ICSs) for <span class="hlt">electron</span> impact vibrational excitation of tetrahydrofuran (THF) at intermediate impact energies. These cross sections extend the currently available data from 20 to 50 eV. Further, they indicate that the previously recommended THF ICS set [Garland et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 062712 (2013)] underestimated the strength of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-impact vibrational excitation processes. Thus, that recommended vibrational cross section set is revised to address those deficiencies. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> swarm <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties were calculated with the amended vibrational cross section set, to quantify the role of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-driven vibrational excitation in describing the macroscopic swarm phenomena. Here, significant differences of up to 17% in the <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients were observed between the calculations performed using the original and revised cross section sets for vibrational excitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......149T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhDT.......149T"><span id="translatedtitle">Charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> and injection in amorphous organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tse, Shing Chi</p> <p></p> <p>This thesis presents how we use various measuring techniques to study the charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> and injection in organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> materials. Understanding charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> and injection properties in organic solids is of vital importance for improving performance characteristics of organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices, including organic-light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), and field effect transistors (OFETs). The charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of amorphous organic materials, commonly used in organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices, are investigated by the means of carrier mobility measurements. Transient electroluminescence (EL) technique was used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transporting</span> material--- tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3). The results are in excellent agreement with independent time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. Then, the effect of dopants on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> was also examined. TOF technique was also used to examine the effects of tertiary-butyl (t-Bu) substitutions on anthracene derivatives (ADN). All ADN compounds were found to be ambipolar. As the degree of t-Bu substitution increases, the carrier mobilities decrease progressively. The reduction of carrier mobilities with increasing t-butylation can be attributed to a decrease in the charge-transfer integral or the wavefunction overlap. In addition, from TOF measurements, two naphthylamine-based hole <span class="hlt">transporters</span>, namely, N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-naphthyl)(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'diamine (NPB) and 4,4',4"-tris(n-(2-naphthyl)-n-phenyl-amino)-triphenylamine (2TNATA) were found to possess <span class="hlt">electron-transporting</span> (ET) abilities. An organic light-emitting diode that employed NPB as the ET material was demonstrated. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> conducting mechanism of NPB and 2TNATA in relation to the hopping model will be discussed. Furthermore, the ET property of NPB applied in OLEDs will also be examined. Besides transient EL and TOF techniques, we also use dark-injection space-charge-limited current</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486307','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486307"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in VO{sub 2}—Experimentally calibrated Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span> modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kinaci, Alper; Rosenmann, Daniel; Chan, Maria K. Y. E-mail: mchan@anl.gov; Kado, Motohisa; Ling, Chen; Zhu, Gaohua; Banerjee, Debasish E-mail: mchan@anl.gov</p> <p>2015-12-28</p> <p>Materials that undergo metal-insulator transitions (MITs) are under intense study, because the transition is scientifically fascinating and technologically promising for various applications. Among these materials, VO{sub 2} has served as a prototype due to its favorable transition temperature. While the physical underpinnings of the transition have been heavily investigated experimentally and computationally, quantitative modeling of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the two phases has yet to be undertaken. In this work, we establish a density-functional-theory (DFT)-based approach with Hubbard U correction (DFT + U) to model <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in VO{sub 2} in the semiconducting and metallic regimes, focusing on band <span class="hlt">transport</span> using the Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span> equations. We synthesized high quality VO{sub 2} films and measured the <span class="hlt">transport</span> quantities across the transition, in order to calibrate the free parameters in the model. We find that the experimental calibration of the Hubbard correction term can efficiently and adequately model the metallic and semiconducting phases, allowing for further computational design of MIT materials for desirable <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760016988','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760016988"><span id="translatedtitle">Technology assessment of future intercity passenger transporation systems. Volume 2: Identification of issues <span class="hlt">affecting</span> intercity <span class="hlt">transportation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Papers on major issues and trends that <span class="hlt">affect</span> the future of intercity <span class="hlt">transportation</span> are presented. Specific areas covered include: political, social, technological, institutional, and economic mechanisms, the workings of which determine how future intercity transporation technologies will evolve and be put into service; the major issues of intercity <span class="hlt">transportation</span> from the point of view of reform, including candidate transporation technologies; and technical analysis of trends <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the evolution of intercity <span class="hlt">transportation</span> technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28C5301Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28C5301Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear thermoelectric <span class="hlt">transport</span> in single-molecule junctions: the effect of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this paper, we theoretically analyze steady-state thermoelectric <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a single-molecule junction with a vibrating bridge. The thermally induced charge current in the system is explored using a nonequilibrium Green function formalism. We study the combined effects of Coulomb interactions between charge carriers on the bridge and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interactions on the thermocurrent beyond the linear response regime. It is shown that <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibron interactions may significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> both the magnitude and the direction of the thermocurrent, and vibrational signatures may appear.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1175/ofr20161175.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2016/1175/ofr20161175.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Benthic processes <span class="hlt">affecting</span> contaminant <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.</p> <p>2016-09-30</p> <p>Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially <span class="hlt">affect</span> contaminant <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E5983J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E5983J"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy level control: toward an efficient hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Xiao; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Tai-Huei; He, Xingdao; Sun, Weifu</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Highly efficient hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the `excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot <span class="hlt">electron</span>/hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099864','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25099864"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy level control: toward an efficient hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jin, Xiao; Li, Qinghua; Li, Yue; Chen, Zihan; Wei, Tai-Huei; He, Xingdao; Sun, Weifu</p> <p>2014-08-07</p> <p>Highly efficient hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> represents one of the most important properties required for applications in photovoltaic devices. Whereas the fabrication of efficient hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> capture and lost-cost devices remains a technological challenge, regulating the energy level of acceptor-donor system through the incorporation of foreign ions using the solution-processed technique is one of the most promising strategies to overcome this obstacle. Here we present a versatile acceptor-donor system by incorporating MoO3:Eu nanophosphors, which reduces both the 'excess' energy offset between the conduction band of acceptor and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of donor, and that between the valence band and highest occupied molecular orbital. Strikingly, the hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer time has been shortened. This work demonstrates that suitable energy level alignment can be tuned to gain the higher hot <span class="hlt">electron</span>/hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> efficiency in a simple approach without the need for complicated architectures. This work builds up the foundation of engineering building blocks for third-generation solar cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/527895','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/527895"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> with standard discrete ordinates codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Drumm, C.R.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>A method is described for generating <span class="hlt">electron</span> cross sections that are comparable with standard discrete ordinates codes without modification. There are many advantages of using an established discrete ordinates solver, e.g. immediately available adjoint capability. Coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> capability is needed for many applications, including the modeling of the response of <span class="hlt">electronics</span> components to space and man-made radiation environments. The cross sections have been successfully used in the DORT, TWODANT and TORT discrete ordinates codes. The cross sections are shown to provide accurate and efficient solutions to certain multidimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> problems. The key to the method is a simultaneous solution of the continuous-slowing-down (CSD) portion and elastic-scattering portion of the scattering source by the Goudsmit-Saunderson theory. The resulting multigroup-Legendre cross sections are much smaller than the true scattering cross sections that they represent. Under certain conditions, the cross sections are guaranteed positive and converge with a low-order Legendre expansion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/562079','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/562079"><span id="translatedtitle">Multidimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> with standard discrete ordinates codes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Drumm, C.R.</p> <p>1997-09-01</p> <p>A method is described for generating <span class="hlt">electron</span> cross sections that are compatible with standard discrete ordinates codes without modification. There are many advantages to using an established discrete ordinates solver, e.g., immediately available adjoint capability. Coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> capability is needed for many applications, including the modeling of the response of <span class="hlt">electronics</span> components to space and synthetic radiation environments. The cross sections have been successfully used in the DORT, TWODANT, and TORT discrete ordinates codes. The cross sections are shown to provide accurate and efficient solutions to certain multidimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> problems. The key to the method is a simultaneous solution of the continuous-slowing-down and elastic-scattering portions of the scattering source by the Goudsmit-Saunderson theory. The resulting multigroup-Legendre cross sections are much smaller than the true scattering cross sections that they represent. Under certain conditions, the cross sections are guaranteed positive and converge with a low-order Legendre expansion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24132041','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24132041"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a quantum dot assisted by cavity photons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar</p> <p>2013-11-20</p> <p>We investigate transient <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> through a single quantum dot controlled by a plunger gate. The dot is embedded in a finite wire with length Lx assumed to lie along the x-direction with a parabolic confinement in the y-direction. The quantum wire, originally with hard-wall confinement at its ends, ±Lx/2, is weakly coupled at t = 0 to left and right leads acting as external <span class="hlt">electron</span> reservoirs. The central system, the dot and the finite wire, is strongly coupled to a single cavity photon mode. A non-Markovian density-matrix formalism is employed to take into account the full <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon interaction in the transient regime. In the absence of a photon cavity, a resonant current peak can be found by tuning the plunger-gate voltage to lift a many-body state of the system into the source-drain bias window. In the presence of an x-polarized photon field, additional side peaks can be found due to photon-assisted <span class="hlt">transport</span>. By appropriately tuning the plunger-gate voltage, the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the left lead are allowed to undergo coherent inelastic scattering to a two-photon state above the bias window if initially one photon was present in the cavity. However, this photon-assisted feature is suppressed in the case of a y-polarized photon field due to the anisotropy of our system caused by its geometry. PMID:24132041</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144l4105R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JChPh.144l4105R"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of tunnelling times for quantum <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rudge, Samuel L.; Kosov, Daniel S.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the tunnelling time is the time taken for an <span class="hlt">electron</span> to tunnel out of a system after it has tunnelled in. We define the tunnelling time distribution for quantum processes in a dissipative environment and develop a practical approach for calculating it, where the environment is described by the general Markovian master equation. We illustrate the theory by using the rate equation to compute the tunnelling time distribution for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a molecular junction. The tunnelling time distribution is exponential, which indicates that Markovian quantum tunnelling is a Poissonian statistical process. The tunnelling time distribution is used not only to study the quantum statistics of tunnelling along the average electric current but also to analyse extreme quantum events where an <span class="hlt">electron</span> jumps against the applied voltage bias. The average tunnelling time shows distinctly different temperature dependence for p- and n-type molecular junctions and therefore provides a sensitive tool to probe the alignment of molecular orbitals relative to the electrode Fermi energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26838371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26838371"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene by electromagnetic dressing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kristinsson, K; Kibis, O V; Morina, S; Shelykh, I A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We demonstrated theoretically that the renormalization of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy spectrum near the Dirac point of graphene by a strong high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field) drastically depends on polarization of the field. Namely, linear polarization results in an anisotropic gapless energy spectrum, whereas circular polarization leads to an isotropic gapped one. As a consequence, the stationary (dc) <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene strongly depends on parameters of the dressing field: A circularly polarized field monotonically decreases the isotropic conductivity of graphene, whereas a linearly polarized one results in both giant anisotropy of conductivity (which can reach thousands of percents) and the oscillating behavior of the conductivity as a function of the field intensity. Since the predicted phenomena can be observed in a graphene layer irradiated by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave, the elaborated theory opens a substantially new way to control <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties of graphene with light. PMID:26838371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4738282','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4738282"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene by electromagnetic dressing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kristinsson, K.; Kibis, O. V.; Morina, S.; Shelykh, I. A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We demonstrated theoretically that the renormalization of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy spectrum near the Dirac point of graphene by a strong high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field) drastically depends on polarization of the field. Namely, linear polarization results in an anisotropic gapless energy spectrum, whereas circular polarization leads to an isotropic gapped one. As a consequence, the stationary (dc) <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene strongly depends on parameters of the dressing field: A circularly polarized field monotonically decreases the isotropic conductivity of graphene, whereas a linearly polarized one results in both giant anisotropy of conductivity (which can reach thousands of percents) and the oscillating behavior of the conductivity as a function of the field intensity. Since the predicted phenomena can be observed in a graphene layer irradiated by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave, the elaborated theory opens a substantially new way to control <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties of graphene with light. PMID:26838371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PPCF...51l4035P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PPCF...51l4035P"><span id="translatedtitle">Fast-<span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in cylindrically laser-compressed matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perez, F.; Koenig, M.; Batani, D.; Baton, S. D.; Beg, F. N.; Benedetti, C.; Brambrink, E.; Chawla, S.; Dorchies, F.; Fourment, C.; Galimberti, M.; Gizzi, L. A.; Heathcote, R.; Higginson, D. P.; Hulin, S.; Jafer, R.; Koester, P.; Labate, L.; Lancaster, K.; Mac Kinnon, A. J.; McPhee, A. G.; Nazarov, W.; Nicolai, P.; Pasley, J.; Ravasio, A.; Richetta, M.; Santos, J. J.; Sgattoni, A.; Spindloe, C.; Vauzour, B.; Volpe, L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Experimental and theoretical results of relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in cylindrically compressed matter are presented. This experiment, which is a part of the HiPER roadmap, was achieved on the VULCAN laser facility (UK) using four long pulses beams (~4 × 50 J, 1 ns, at 0.53 µm) to compress a hollow plastic cylinder filled with plastic foam of three different densities (0.1, 0.3 and 1 g cm-3). 2D simulations predict a density of 2-5 g cm-3 and a plasma temperature up to 100 eV at maximum compression. A short pulse (10 ps, 160 J) beam generated fast <span class="hlt">electrons</span> that propagate through the compressed matter by irradiating a nickel foil at an intensity of 5 × 1018 W cm-2. X-ray spectrometer and imagers were implemented in order to estimate the compressed plasma conditions and to infer the hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> characteristics. Results are discussed and compared with simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...620082K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...620082K"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene by electromagnetic dressing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kristinsson, K.; Kibis, O. V.; Morina, S.; Shelykh, I. A.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>We demonstrated theoretically that the renormalization of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy spectrum near the Dirac point of graphene by a strong high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field) drastically depends on polarization of the field. Namely, linear polarization results in an anisotropic gapless energy spectrum, whereas circular polarization leads to an isotropic gapped one. As a consequence, the stationary (dc) <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene strongly depends on parameters of the dressing field: A circularly polarized field monotonically decreases the isotropic conductivity of graphene, whereas a linearly polarized one results in both giant anisotropy of conductivity (which can reach thousands of percents) and the oscillating behavior of the conductivity as a function of the field intensity. Since the predicted phenomena can be observed in a graphene layer irradiated by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave, the elaborated theory opens a substantially new way to control <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties of graphene with light.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26838371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26838371"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene by electromagnetic dressing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kristinsson, K; Kibis, O V; Morina, S; Shelykh, I A</p> <p>2016-02-03</p> <p>We demonstrated theoretically that the renormalization of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy spectrum near the Dirac point of graphene by a strong high-frequency electromagnetic field (dressing field) drastically depends on polarization of the field. Namely, linear polarization results in an anisotropic gapless energy spectrum, whereas circular polarization leads to an isotropic gapped one. As a consequence, the stationary (dc) <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene strongly depends on parameters of the dressing field: A circularly polarized field monotonically decreases the isotropic conductivity of graphene, whereas a linearly polarized one results in both giant anisotropy of conductivity (which can reach thousands of percents) and the oscillating behavior of the conductivity as a function of the field intensity. Since the predicted phenomena can be observed in a graphene layer irradiated by a monochromatic electromagnetic wave, the elaborated theory opens a substantially new way to control <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties of graphene with light.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999PhDT.......165H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1999PhDT.......165H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and dephasing in semiconductor quantum dots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huibers, Andrew Gerrit A.</p> <p></p> <p>At low temperatures, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in semiconductors can be phase coherent over distances exceeding tens of microns and are sufficiently monochromatic that a variety of interesting quantum interference phenomena can be observed and manipulated. This work discusses <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements through cavities (quantum dots) formed by laterally confining <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the two-dimensional sub-band of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction. Metal gates fabricated using e-beam lithography enable fine control of the cavity shape as well as the leads which connect the dot cavity to source and drain reservoirs. Quantum dots can be modeled by treating the devices as chaotic scatterers. Predictions of this theoretical description are found to be in good quantitative agreement with experimental measurements of full conductance distributions at different temperatures. Weak localization, the suppression of conductance due to phase-coherent backscattering at zero magnetic field, is used to measure dephasing times in the system. Mechanisms responsible for dephasing, including <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> scattering and Nyquist phase relaxation, are investigated by studying the loss of phase coherence as a function of temperature. Coupling of external microwave fields to the device is also studied to shed light on the unexpected saturation of dephasing that is observed below an <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature of 100 mK. The effect of external fields in the present experiment is explained in terms of Joule heating from an ac bias.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21506911','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21506911"><span id="translatedtitle">Energetic <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> In An Inhomogeneous Plasma Medium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Das, Amita</p> <p>2010-11-23</p> <p>A review of the work carried out at IPR on energetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through an inhomogeneous plasma medium is presented in this article. A Generalized <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Magnetohydrodynamic (G-EMHD) fluid model has been developed and employed for such studies. Novel observations such as (i) the trapping of <span class="hlt">electron</span> current pulse structure in a high density plasma region, (ii) the formation of sharp magnetic field shock structures at the inhomogeneous plasma density layer (iii) and intense energy dissipation at the shock layer even in the collisionless limit are reported. The intense energy dissipation of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> current pulse at the shock layer provides a mechanism whereby highly energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> which are essentially collision-less can also successfully deposit their energy in a local region of the plasma. This is specially attractive as it opens up the possibility of heating a localized region of an overdense plasma (where lasers cannot penetrate) by highly energetic collision-less <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. A direct application of this mechanism to Fast Ignition (FT) experiments is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16314149','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16314149"><span id="translatedtitle">The antiepileptic drug phenytoin <span class="hlt">affects</span> sodium <span class="hlt">transport</span> in toad epithelium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suwalsky, Mario; Mennickent, Sigrid; Norris, Beryl; Cárdenas, Hernan</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The effects of phenytoin on isolated Pleurodema thaul toad skin were investigated. Low (micromolar) concentrations of the antiepileptic agent applied to the outside surface of the toad epithelium increased the electrical parameters (short-circuit current and potential difference) by over 40%, reflecting stimulation of Na(+) <span class="hlt">transport</span>, whereas higher (millimolar concentrations, outside and inside surface) decreased both electric parameters, the effect being greater at the inside surface (40% and 80% decrease, respectively). The amiloride test showed that the stimulatory effect was accompanied by an increase and the inhibitory effect by a decrease in the sodium electromotive force (ENa). It is concluded that the drug interaction with membrane lipid bilayers might result in a distortion of the lipid-protein interface contributing to disturbance of Na(+) epithelial channel activity. After applying the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase blocker ouabain and replacing the Na(+) ions in the outer Ringer's solution by choline, it was concluded that both active and passive <span class="hlt">transport</span> are involved in sodium absorption, although active <span class="hlt">transport</span> predominates. PMID:16314149</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25146689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25146689"><span id="translatedtitle">Effective light absorption and absolute <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates in the coral Pocillopora damicornis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Szabó, Milán; Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Tamburic, Bojan; Larkum, Anthony W D; Schreiber, Ulrich; Suggett, David J; Kühl, Michael; Ralph, Peter J</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry has been widely used to estimate the relative photosynthetic efficiency of corals. However, both the optical properties of intact corals as well as past technical constrains to PAM fluorometers have prevented calculations of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> turnover rate of PSII. We used a new Multi-colour PAM (MC-PAM) in parallel with light microsensors to determine for the first time the wavelength-specific effective absorption cross-section of PSII photochemistry, σII(λ), and thus PAM-based absolute <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates of the coral photosymbiont Symbiodinium both in culture and in hospite in the coral Pocillopora damicornis. In both cases, σII of Symbiodinium was highest in the blue spectral region and showed a progressive decrease towards red wavelengths. Absolute values for σII at 440 nm were up to 1.5-times higher in culture than in hospite. Scalar irradiance within the living coral tissue was reduced by 20% in the blue when compared to the incident downwelling irradiance. Absolute <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates of P. damicornis at 440 nm revealed a maximum PSII turnover rate of ca. 250 <span class="hlt">electrons</span> PSII(-1) s(-1), consistent with one PSII turnover for every 4 photons absorbed by PSII; this likely reflects the limiting steps in <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer between PSII and PSI. Our results show that optical properties of the coral host strongly <span class="hlt">affect</span> light use efficiency of Symbiodinium. Therefore, relative <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates do not reflect the productivity rates (or indeed how the photosynthesis-light response is parameterised). Here we provide a non-invasive approach to estimate absolute <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates in corals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..MARA22008B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003APS..MARA22008B"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissipative <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through double quantum dots irradiated with microwaves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brandes, Tobias; Aguado, Ramon; Platero, Gloria</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>Double quantum dots in the strong Coulomb blockade regime are realizations of two-level systems defined from two tunnel--splitted ground states, which are separated by a large energy gap from the remaining many--particle states. The interactions between <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and bosonic degrees of freedom (photons, phonons) in these systems can be tested and manipulated in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> experiments [1]. Monochromatic classical radiation (AC fields, microwaves) gives rise to various non-linear effects such as photo-sidebands or dynamical localization (coherent supression of tunneling) that show up in the time-averaged, stationary <span class="hlt">electronic</span> current [2]. On the other hand, quantum noise of a dissipative environment strongly influences the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of coupled quantum dots [3,4]. In this contribution, we quantitatively investigate the combined influence of a classical, monochromatic time-dependent AC field and a dissipative boson environment on the non-linear <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a double quantum dot. We develop a Floquet-like theory [5] that takes into account the effect of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> reservoirs (leads) and can be numerically evaluated for arbitrary strong AC fields and arbitrary boson environment. In limiting cases we reproduce previous analytical results (polaron tunneling, Tien-Gordon formula). [1] T. Fujisawa, T. H. Oosterkamp, W. G. van der Wiel, B. W. Broer, R. Aguado, S. Tarucha, and L. P. Kouwenhoven, Science 282, 932 (1998); R. H. Blick, D. Pfannkuche, R. J. Haug, K. v. Klitzing, and K. Eberl, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4032 (1998). [2] T. H. Stoof, Yu. V. Nazarov, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1050 (1996). [3] T. Brandes, B. Kramer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3021 (1999); T. Brandes, F. Renzoni, R. H. Blick, Phys. Rev. B 64, 035319 (2001); T. Brandes, T. Vorrath, Phys. Rev. B 66, 075341 (2002). [4] R. Aguado and L. P. Kouwenhoven, Phys. Rev. Lett, 84, 1986 (2000). [5] M. Grifoni, P. Hänggi, Phys. Rep. 304, 229 (1998).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012asim.book..119Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012asim.book..119Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of Individual Nanostructures with Atomic Precision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qin, Shengyong; Li, An-Ping</p> <p></p> <p>Accessing individual nanostructures with atomic precision is an important process in the bottom-up fabrication and characterization of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> nanodevices. Local electrical contacts, namely nanoelectrodes, are often fabricated by using top-down lithography and chemical etching techniques. These processes however lack atomic precision and introduce the possibility of contamination. Here, we review recent reports on the application of a field-induced emission process in the fabrication of local contacts onto individual nanowires and nanotubes with atomic spatial precision. In this method, gold nanoislands are deposited onto nanostructures precisely by using a scanning tunneling microscope tip, which provides a clean and controllable process to ensure both electrically conductive and mechanically reliable contacts. The applicability of the technique has been demonstrated in a wide variety of nanostructures, including silicide atomic wires, carbon nanotubes, and copper nanowires. These local contacts bridge the nanostructures and the <span class="hlt">transport</span> probes, allowing for the measurements of both electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> and scanning tunneling microscopy on the same nanostructures in situ. The direct correlation between <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties and atomic structures can be explored on individual nanostructures at the unprecedented atomic level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040753','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1040753"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of individual nanostructures with atomic precision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qin, Shengyong; Li, An-Ping</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Accessing individual nanostructures with atomic precision is an important process in the bottom-up fabrication and characterization of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> nanodevices. Local electrical contacts, namely nanoelectrodes, are often fabricated by using top-down lithography and chemical etching techniques. These processes however lack atomic precision and introduce the possibility of contamination. Here, we review recent reports on the application of a field-induced emission process in the fabrication of local contacts onto individual nanowires and nanotubes with atomic spatial precision. In this method, gold nanoislands are deposited onto nanostructures precisely by using a scanning tunneling microscope tip, which provides a clean and controllable process to ensure both electrically conductive and mechanically reliable contacts. The applicability of the technique has been demonstrated in a wide variety of nanostructures, including silicide atomic wires, carbon nanotubes, and copper nanowires. These local contacts bridge the nanostructures and the <span class="hlt">transport</span> probes, allowing for the measurements of both electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> and scanning tunneling microscopy on the same nanostructures in situ. The direct correlation between <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties and atomic structures can be explored on individual nanostructures at the unprecedented atomic level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0141.pdf','DOE-RDACC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/documents/fullText/ACC0141.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Helium, Iron and <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Particle <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Energy <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Studies on the TFTR Tokamak</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/fieldedsearch.html">DOE R&D Accomplishments Database</a></p> <p>Synakowski, E. J.; Efthimion, P. C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B. C.; Tang, W. M.; Grek, B.; Hill, K. W.; Hulse, R. A.; Johnson, D .W.; Mansfield, D. K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Park, H. K.; Ramsey, A. T.; Redi, M. H.; Scott, S. D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M. C. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Kissick, M. W. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States))</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Results from helium, iron, and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> on TFTR in L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power are presented. They are compared to results from thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> analysis based on power balance. Particle diffusivities and thermal conductivities are radially hollow and larger than neoclassical values, except possibly near the magnetic axis. The ion channel dominates over the <span class="hlt">electron</span> channel in both particle and thermal diffusion. A peaked helium profile, supported by inward convection that is stronger than predicted by neoclassical theory, is measured in the Supershot The helium profile shape is consistent with predictions from quasilinear electrostatic drift-wave theory. While the perturbative particle diffusion coefficients of all three species are similar in the Supershot, differences are found in the L-Mode. Quasilinear theory calculations of the ratios of impurity diffusivities are in good accord with measurements. Theory estimates indicate that the ion heat flux should be larger than the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux, consistent with power balance analysis. However, theoretical values of the ratio of the ion to <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux can be more than a factor of three larger than experimental values. A correlation between helium diffusion and ion thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> is observed and has favorable implications for sustained ignition of a tokamak fusion reactor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10141674','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10141674"><span id="translatedtitle">Helium, iron and <span class="hlt">electron</span> particle <span class="hlt">transport</span> and energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> studies on the TFTR tokamak</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Synakowski, E.J.; Efthimion, P.C.; Rewoldt, G.; Stratton, B.C.; Tang, W.M.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Hulse, R.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Mansfield, D.K.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Redi, M.H.; Scott, S.D.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Kissick, M.W.</p> <p>1993-03-01</p> <p>Results from helium, iron, and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> on TFTR in L-mode and Supershot deuterium plasmas with the same toroidal field, plasma current, and neutral beam heating power are presented. They are compared to results from thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> analysis based on power balance. Particle diffusivities and thermal conductivities are radially hollow and larger than neoclassical values, except possibly near the magnetic axis. The ion channel dominates over the <span class="hlt">electron</span> channel in both particle and thermal diffusion. A peaked helium profile, supported by inward convection that is stronger than predicted by neoclassical theory, is measured in the Supershot The helium profile shape is consistent with predictions from quasilinear electrostatic drift-wave theory. While the perturbative particle diffusion coefficients of all three species are similar in the Supershot, differences are found in the L-Mode. Quasilinear theory calculations of the ratios of impurity diffusivities are in good accord with measurements. Theory estimates indicate that the ion heat flux should be larger than the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux, consistent with power balance analysis. However, theoretical values of the ratio of the ion to <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux can be more than a factor of three larger than experimental values. A correlation between helium diffusion and ion thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> is observed and has favorable implications for sustained ignition of a tokamak fusion reactor.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6021161','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6021161"><span id="translatedtitle">Regulation of cyclic photophosphorylation during ferredoxin-mediated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Effect of DCMU and the NADPH/NADP/sup +/ ratio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hosler, J.P.; Yocum, C.F.</p> <p>1987-04-01</p> <p>Addition of ferredoxin to isolated thylakoid membranes reconstitutes <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from water to NADP and to O/sub 2/ (the Mehler reaction). This <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow is coupled to ATP synthesis, and both cyclic and noncyclic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> drive photophosphorylation. Under conditions where the NADPH/NADP/sup +/ ratio is varied, as is the amount of ATP synthesis due to cyclic activity is also varied, as is the amount of cyclic activity which is sensitive to antimycin A. Partial inhibition of photosystem II activity with DCMU (which <span class="hlt">affects</span> reduction of <span class="hlt">electron</span> carriers of the interphotosystem chain) also <span class="hlt">affects</span> the level of cyclic activity. The results of these experiments indicate that two modes of cyclic <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer activity, which differ in their antimycin A sensitivity, can operate in the thylakoid membrane. Regulation of these activities can occur at the level of ferredoxin and is governed by the NADPH/NADP ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT........73D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015PhDT........73D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in nanoscale junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dhungana, Kamal B.</p> <p></p> <p>Understanding the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure and the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of nanoscale materials are pivotal for designing future nano-scale <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices. Nanoscale materials could be individual or groups of molecules, nanotubes, semiconducting quantum dots, and biomolecules. Among these several alternatives, organic molecules are very promising and the field of molecular <span class="hlt">electronics</span> has progressed significantly over the past few decades. Despite these progresses, it has not yet been possible to achieve atomic level control at the metal-molecule interface during a conductance measurement, which hinders the progress in this field. The lack of atomic level information of the interface also makes it much harder for theorist to interpret the experimental results. To identify the junction configuration that possibly exists during the experimental measurement of conductance in molecular junction, we created an ensemble of Ruthanium-bis(terpyridine) molecular devices, and studied the <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior in these molecular junctions. This helps us identifying the junction geometry that yields the experimentally measured current-voltage characteristics. Today's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices mostly ignore the spin effect of an <span class="hlt">electron</span>. The inclusion of spin effect of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> on solid-state transistor allows us to build more efficient <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices; this also alleviates the problem of huge heat dissipation in the nanoscale <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices. Different materials have been utilized to build three terminals spin transistor since its inception in 1950. In search of suitable candidates for the molecular spin transistor, we have recently designed a spin-valve transistor based on an organometallic molecule; a large amplification (320 %) in tunnel magneto-resistance (TMR) is found to occur at an experimentally accessible gate field. This suggests that the organic molecules can be utilized for making the next generation three terminal spintronic devices. Similarly, we have designed a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412974','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412974"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> and hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> in ambipolar, thin film pentacene transistors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Saudari, Sangameshwar R.; Kagan, Cherie R.</p> <p>2015-01-21</p> <p>Solution-processed, ambipolar, thin-film pentacene field-effect transistors were employed to study both <span class="hlt">electron</span> and hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> simultaneously in a single, organic solid-state device. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> and hole mobilities were extracted from the respective unipolar saturation regimes and show thermally activated behavior and gate voltage dependence. We fit the gate voltage dependent saturation mobility to a power law to extract the characteristic Meyer-Neldel (MN) energy, a measure of the width of the exponential distribution of localized states extending into the energy gap of the organic semiconductor. The MN energy is ∼78 and ∼28 meV for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and holes, respectively, which reflects a greater density of localized tail states for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> than holes. This is consistent with the lower measured <span class="hlt">electron</span> than hole mobility. For holes, the well-behaved linear regime allows for four-point probe measurement of the contact resistance independent mobility and separate characterization of the width of the localized density of states, yielding a consistent MN energy of 28 meV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26994750','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26994750"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal difference in brain serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span>; this relationship is modified by serotonin-<span class="hlt">transporter</span>-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> fluctuations in both patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder had higher serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder changed their serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal <span class="hlt">Affective</span> Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26994750','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26994750"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal difference in brain serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span>; this relationship is modified by serotonin-<span class="hlt">transporter</span>-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> fluctuations in both patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder had higher serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder changed their serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal <span class="hlt">Affective</span> Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin <span class="hlt">transporter</span> levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to <span class="hlt">affective</span> disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video_abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4791957','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4791957"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoscale <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Measurements of Immobilized Cytochrome P450 Proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bostick, Christopher D.; Flora, Darcy R.; Gannett, Peter M.; Tracy, Timothy S.; Lederman, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Gold nanopillars, functionalized with an organic self-assembled monolayer, can be used to measure the electrical conductance properties of immobilized proteins without aggregation. Measurements of the conductance of nanopillars with cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) proteins using conducting probe atomic force microscopy demonstrate that a correlation exists between the energy barrier height between hopping sites and CYP2C9 metabolic activity. Measurements performed as a function of tip force indicate that, when subjected to a large force, the protein is more stable in the presence of a substrate. This agrees with the hypothesis that substrate entry into the active site helps to stabilize the enzyme. The relative distance between hopping sites also increases with increasing force, possibly because protein functional groups responsible for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> depend on the structure of the protein. The inhibitor sulfaphenazole, in addition to the previously studied aniline, increased the barrier height for <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer and thereby makes CYP2C9 reduction more difficult and inhibits metabolism. This suggests that P450 Type II binders may decrease the ease of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes in the enzyme, in addition to occupying the active site. PMID:25804257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3552782','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3552782"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a GaPSb film</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We have performed <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements on a gallium phosphide antimonide (GaPSb) film grown on GaAs. At low temperatures (T), <span class="hlt">transport</span> is governed by three-dimensional Mott variable range hopping (VRH) due to strong localization. Therefore, electron–<span class="hlt">electron</span> interactions are not significant in GaPSb. With increasing T, the coexistence of VRH conduction and the activated behavior with a gap of 20 meV is found. The fact that the measured gap is comparable to the thermal broadening at room temperature (approximately 25 meV) demonstrates that <span class="hlt">electrons</span> can be thermally activated in an intrinsic GaPSb film. Moreover, the observed carrier density dependence on temperature also supports the coexistence of VRH and the activated behavior. It is shown that the carriers are delocalized either with increasing temperature or magnetic field in GaPSb. Our new experimental results provide important information regarding GaPSb which may well lay the foundation for possible GaPSb-based device applications such as in high-<span class="hlt">electron</span>-mobility transistor and heterojunction bipolar transistors. PMID:23173952</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2806741','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2806741"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrokinesis is a microbial behavior that requires extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harris, H. W.; El-Naggar, M. Y.; Bretschger, O.; Ward, M. J.; Romine, M. F.; Obraztsova, A. Y.; Nealson, K. H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We report a previously undescribed bacterial behavior termed electrokinesis. This behavior was initially observed as a dramatic increase in cell swimming speed during reduction of solid MnO2 particles by the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. The same behavioral response was observed when cells were exposed to small positive applied potentials at the working electrode of a microelectrochemical cell and could be tuned by adjusting the potential on the working electrode. Electrokinesis was found to be different from both chemotaxis and galvanotaxis but was absent in mutants defective in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> to solid metal oxides. Using in situ video microscopy and cell tracking algorithms, we have quantified the response for different strains of Shewanella and shown that the response correlates with current-generating capacity in microbial fuel cells. The electrokinetic response was only exhibited by a subpopulation of cells closest to the MnO2 particles or electrodes. In contrast, the addition of 1 mM 9,10-anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic acid, a soluble <span class="hlt">electron</span> shuttle, led to increases in motility in the entire population. Electrokinesis is defined as a behavioral response that requires functional extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and that is observed as an increase in cell swimming speeds and lengthened paths of motion that occur in the proximity of a redox active mineral surface or the working electrode of an electrochemical cell. PMID:20018675</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MART16001N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010APS..MART16001N"><span id="translatedtitle">Multiscale modelling of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> in organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nelson, Jenny</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>Charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> in disordered organic semiconductors is controlled by a complex combination of phenomena that span a range of length and time scales. As a result, it is difficult to rationalize charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in terms of material parameters. Until now, efforts to improve charge mobilities in molecular semiconductors have proceeded largely by trial and error rather than through systematic design. However, recent developments have enabled the first predictive simulation studies of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> in disordered organic semiconductors. In this presentation we will show how a set of computational methods, namely molecular modelling methods to simulate molecular packing, quantum chemical calculations of charge transfer rates, and Monte Carlo simulations of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> can be used to reproduce experimental charge mobilities with few or no fitting parameters. Using case studies, we will show how such simulations can explain the relative values of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and hole mobility and the effects of grain size, side chains and polymer molecular weight on charge mobility. Although currently applied to material systems of relatively high symmetry or well defined structure, this approach can be developed to address more complex systems such as multicomponent solids and conjugated polymers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036575','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1036575"><span id="translatedtitle">Contacting nanowires and nanotubes with atomic precision for <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Qin, Shengyong; Hellstrom, Sondra L; Bao, Zhenan; Boyanov, Boyan; Li, An-Ping</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Making contacts to nanostructures with atomic precision is an important process in the bottom-up fabrication and characterization of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> nanodevices. Existing contacting techniques use top-down lithography and chemical etching, but lack atomic precision and introduce the possibility of contamination. Here, we report that a field-induced emission process can be used to make local contacts onto individual nanowires and nanotubes with atomic spatial precision. The gold nano-islands are deposited onto nanostructures precisely by using a scanning tunneling microscope tip, which provides a clean and controllable method to ensure both electrically conductive and mechanically reliable contacts. To demonstrate the wide applicability of the technique, nano-contacts are fabricated on silicide atomic wires, carbon nanotubes, and copper nanowires. The electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements are performed in situ by utilizing the nanocontacts to bridge the nanostructures to the <span class="hlt">transport</span> probes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JMMM..240..117F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JMMM..240..117F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> properties and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure of epitaxial tunnel junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Freyss, M.; Papanikolaou, N.; Bellini, V.; Zeller, R.; Dederichs, P. H.; Turek, I.</p> <p>2002-02-01</p> <p>We present ab initio calculations for the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> ground-state and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of epitaxial Fe/semiconductor/Fe (0 0 1) tunnel junctions. The ground state properties are determined by the ab initio Screened KKR Green's function method and the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties by a Green's function formulation of the Landauer-Büttiker formalism. We focus on tunnel junctions with a semiconducting ZnSe barrier and compare them to results for junctions with Si and GaAs barriers. We comment on the presence of metal-induced gap states (MIGS) in the semiconductor, the spin polarization of which strongly depends on the nature of the barrier. We investigate furthermore the influence of one atomic layer at the interface of a non-magnetic metal (Cu, Ag, Al) and of a magnetic 3d transition metal.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5197113','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5197113"><span id="translatedtitle">Conservative differencing of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> Fokker-Planck <span class="hlt">transport</span> equation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Langdon, A.B.</p> <p>1981-01-12</p> <p>We need to extend the applicability and improve the accuracy of kinetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> codes. In this paper, special attention is given to modelling of e-e collisions, including the dominant contributions arising from anisotropy. The electric field and spatial gradient terms are also considered. I construct finite-difference analogues to the Fokker-Planck integral-differential collision operator, which conserve the particle number, momentum and energy integrals (sums) regardless of the coarseness of the velocity zoning. Such properties are usually desirable, but are especially useful, for example, when there are spatial regions and/or time intervals in which the plasma is cool, so that the collision operator acts rapidly and the velocity distribution is poorly resolved, yet it is crucial that gross conservation properties be respected in hydro-<span class="hlt">transport</span> applications, such as in the LASNEX code. Some points are raised concerning spatial differencing and time integration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19805232"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrogen is a preferred intermediate in the energy-conserving <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain of Methanosarcina barkeri.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kulkarni, Gargi; Kridelbaugh, Donna M; Guss, Adam M; Metcalf, William W</p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>Methanogens use an unusual energy-conserving <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain that involves reduction of a limited number of <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors to methane gas. Previous biochemical studies suggested that the proton-pumping F(420)H(2) dehydrogenase (Fpo) plays a crucial role in this process during growth on methanol. However, Methanosarcina barkeri Delta fpo mutants constructed in this study display no measurable phenotype on this substrate, indicating that Fpo plays a minor role, if any. In contrast, Delta frh mutants lacking the cytoplasmic F(420)-reducing hydrogenase (Frh) are severely <span class="hlt">affected</span> in their ability to grow and make methane from methanol, and double Delta fpo/Delta frh mutants are completely unable to use this substrate. These data suggest that the preferred <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain involves production of hydrogen gas in the cytoplasm, which then diffuses out of the cell, where it is reoxidized with transfer of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> into the energy-conserving <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain. This hydrogen-cycling metabolism leads directly to production of a proton motive force that can be used by the cell for ATP synthesis. Nevertheless, M. barkeri does have the flexibility to use the Fpo-dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain when needed, as shown by the poor growth of the Delta frh mutant. Our data suggest that the rapid enzymatic turnover of hydrogenases may allow a competitive advantage via faster growth rates in this freshwater organism. The mutant analysis also confirms the proposed role of Frh in growth on hydrogen/carbon dioxide and suggests that either Frh or Fpo is needed for aceticlastic growth of M. barkeri.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270371','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26270371"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> and Quantum <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Properties of Atomically Identified Si Point Defects in Graphene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro; Zhou, Wu; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos</p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>We report high-resolution scanning transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy images displaying a range of inclusions of isolated silicon atoms at the edges and inner zones of graphene layers. Whereas the incorporation of Si atoms to a graphene armchair edge involves no reconstruction of the neighboring carbon atoms, the inclusion of a Si atom to a zigzag graphene edge entails the formation of five-membered carbon rings. In all the observed atomic edge terminations, a Si atom is found bridging two C atoms in a 2-fold coordinated configuration. The atomic-scale observations are underpinned by first-principles calculations of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the structural anomalies. Experimental estimations of Si-doped graphene band gaps realized by means of <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements may be <span class="hlt">affected</span> by a low doping rate of 2-fold coordinated Si atoms at the graphene edges, and 4-fold coordinated at inner zones due to the apparition of mobility gaps. PMID:26270371</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/971443','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/971443"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrokinesis is a microbial behavior that requires extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harris, Howard W.; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Bretschger, Orianna; Ward, Melissa J.; Romine, Margaret F.; Obraztsova, Anna; Nealson, Kenneth H.</p> <p>2010-01-05</p> <p>Shewanella species are widespread in nature, enjoying a cosmopolitan distribution in marine,freshwater, sedimentary and soil environments (1), and have attracted considerable attention in recent years because of their ability to reduce an extensive number of different <span class="hlt">electron</span> 3 acceptors, including the solid (oxy)hydroxides of iron and manganese, such as Fe(OH)3 and MnO2, using one or more proposed mechanisms of extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> (EET) (2, 3). The EET ability of Shewanella species is consistent with their ability to generate electric current in microbial fuel cells in the absence of exogenous <span class="hlt">electron</span> shuttles (4). Various strategies of extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer have been proposed in metal-reducing microbes, including naturally-occurring (2) or biogenic (5-7) soluble mediators that ‘shuttle’ <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from cells to acceptors, as well as direct transfer using multiheme cytochromes located on the cell exterior (8) and transfer via conductive nanowires (9-11). S. oneidensis MR-1 features several proteins that are involved with the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to the exterior of the cell where they play an important role with regard to the reduction of solid <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors such as metal oxides. These include two outer-membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes (MtrC and OmcA), a membrane spanning protein (MtrB), and two periplasmic multi-heme c-type cytochromes (MtrA and CymA). Deletion of the genes encoding any of these proteins leads to phenotypes that are greatly inhibited with regard to metal-oxide reduction and current production in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) (12, 13). The mutation of genes that code for proteins involved in the movement of cytochromes to the outer membrane also results in loss of metal-reducing phenotypes (13). The shewanellae are highly motile, by virtue of a single polar flagellum, and individual S. oneidensis MR-1 cells have been tracked swimming at speeds of up to, and sometimes over, 100 μm/sec, although the average</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.........6B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.........6B"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanoscale <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and ions in water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boynton, Paul Christopher</p> <p></p> <p>The following dissertation discusses the theoretical study of water on the nanoscale, often involved with essential biological molecules such as DNA and proteins. First I introduce the study of water on the nanoscale and how experimentalists approach confinement with nanopores and nanogaps. Then I discuss the theoretical method we choose for understanding this important biological medium on the molecular level, namely classical molecular dynamics. This leads into <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanisms that utilize water on the nanoscale, in our case <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span>. On the scale of mere nanometers or less <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in water enters the tunneling regime, requiring the use of a quantum treatment. In addition, I discuss the importance of water in ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> and its known effects on biological phenomena such as ion selectivity. Water also has great influence over DNA and proteins, which are both introduced in the context of nanopore sequencing. Several techniques for nanopore sequencing are examined and the importance of protein sequencing is explained. In Chapter 2, we study the effect of volumetric constraints on the structure and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of distilled water in a nanopore with embedded electrodes. Combining classical molecular dynamics simulations with quantum scattering theory, we show that the structural motifs water assumes inside the pore can be probed directly by tunneling. In Chapter 3, we propose an improvement to the original sequencing by tunneling method, in which N pairs of electrodes are built in series along a synthetic nanochannel. Each current time series for each nucleobase is cross-correlated together, reducing noise in the signals. We show using random sampling of data from classical molecular dynamics, that indeed the sequencing error is significantly reduced as the number of pairs of electrodes, N, increases. In Chapter 4, we propose a new technique for de novo protein sequencing that involves translocating a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3986668','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3986668"><span id="translatedtitle">Inverted organic photovoltaic device with a new <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We demonstrate that there is a new solution-processed <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer, lithium-doped zinc oxide (LZO), with high-performance inverted organic photovoltaic device. The device exhibits a fill factor of 68.58%, an open circuit voltage of 0.86 V, a short-circuit current density of −9.35 cm/mA2 along with 5.49% power conversion efficiency. In addition, we studied the performance of blend ratio dependence on inverted organic photovoltaics. Our device also demonstrates a long stability shelf life over 4 weeks in air. PMID:24674457</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MARX23001T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016APS..MARX23001T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal and <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Inorganic and Organic Thermoelectric Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Zhiting</p> <p></p> <p>In this talk, we will first talk about first-principles calculations of phonon and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in inorganic thermoelectric materials. We will start with rocksalt PbTe and PbSe, and move on to wurtzite ZnO. We will emphasize the strategies to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. Then we apply first-principles calculations to organic thermoelectric materials. The thermoelectric properties of doped polypyrrole (PPy) will be discussed. In addition, we will cover the chain confinement effects observed in amorphous polymer thin films using molecular dynamics simulations, which highlights the fundamental difference in heat conduction between crystalline polymers and amorphous polymers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1253733-structural-control-mixed-ionic-electronic-transport-conducting-polymers','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1253733-structural-control-mixed-ionic-electronic-transport-conducting-polymers"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural control of mixed ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in conducting polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Collins, Brian A.; Sessolo, Michele; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Strakosas, Xenofon; Tassone, Christopher; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Malliaras, George G.</p> <p>2016-04-19</p> <p>Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, has been utilized for over two decades as a stable, solution-processable hole conductor. While its hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties have been the subject of intense investigation, recent work has turned to PEDOT:PSS as a mixed ionic/<span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductor in applications including bioelectronics, energy storage and management, and soft robotics. Conducting polymers can efficiently <span class="hlt">transport</span> both holes and ions when sufficiently hydrated, however, little is known about the role of morphology on mixed conduction. Here, we show that bulk ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> mobilities are simultaneously <span class="hlt">affected</span> by processing-induced changes in nano- and meso-scale structure in PEDOT:PSS films. Wemore » quantify domain composition, and find that domain purification on addition of dispersion co-solvents limits ion mobility, even while <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductivity improves. We show that an optimal morphology allows for the balanced ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> that is critical for prototypical mixed conductor devices. As a result, these findings may pave the way for the rational design of polymeric materials and processing routes to enhance devices reliant on mixed conduction.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...711287R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCo...711287R"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural control of mixed ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in conducting polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Collins, Brian A.; Sessolo, Michele; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Strakosas, Xenofon; Tassone, Christopher; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Malliaras, George G.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, has been utilized for over two decades as a stable, solution-processable hole conductor. While its hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties have been the subject of intense investigation, recent work has turned to PEDOT:PSS as a mixed ionic/<span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductor in applications including bioelectronics, energy storage and management, and soft robotics. Conducting polymers can efficiently <span class="hlt">transport</span> both holes and ions when sufficiently hydrated, however, little is known about the role of morphology on mixed conduction. Here, we show that bulk ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> mobilities are simultaneously <span class="hlt">affected</span> by processing-induced changes in nano- and meso-scale structure in PEDOT:PSS films. We quantify domain composition, and find that domain purification on addition of dispersion co-solvents limits ion mobility, even while <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductivity improves. We show that an optimal morphology allows for the balanced ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> that is critical for prototypical mixed conductor devices. These findings may pave the way for the rational design of polymeric materials and processing routes to enhance devices reliant on mixed conduction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4838877','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4838877"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural control of mixed ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in conducting polymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Collins, Brian A.; Sessolo, Michele; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Strakosas, Xenofon; Tassone, Christopher; Delongchamp, Dean M.; Malliaras, George G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS, has been utilized for over two decades as a stable, solution-processable hole conductor. While its hole <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties have been the subject of intense investigation, recent work has turned to PEDOT:PSS as a mixed ionic/<span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductor in applications including bioelectronics, energy storage and management, and soft robotics. Conducting polymers can efficiently <span class="hlt">transport</span> both holes and ions when sufficiently hydrated, however, little is known about the role of morphology on mixed conduction. Here, we show that bulk ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> mobilities are simultaneously <span class="hlt">affected</span> by processing-induced changes in nano- and meso-scale structure in PEDOT:PSS films. We quantify domain composition, and find that domain purification on addition of dispersion co-solvents limits ion mobility, even while <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conductivity improves. We show that an optimal morphology allows for the balanced ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> that is critical for prototypical mixed conductor devices. These findings may pave the way for the rational design of polymeric materials and processing routes to enhance devices reliant on mixed conduction. PMID:27090156</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3896775','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3896775"><span id="translatedtitle">Orthogonally modulated molecular <span class="hlt">transport</span> junctions for resettable <span class="hlt">electronic</span> logic gates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Meng, Fanben; Hervault, Yves-Marie; Shao, Qi; Hu, Benhui; Norel, Lucie; Rigaut, Stéphane; Chen, Xiaodong</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Individual molecules have been demonstrated to exhibit promising applications as functional components in the fabrication of computing nanocircuits. Based on their advantage in chemical tailorability, many molecular devices with advanced <span class="hlt">electronic</span> functions have been developed, which can be further modulated by the introduction of external stimuli. Here, orthogonally modulated molecular <span class="hlt">transport</span> junctions are achieved via chemically fabricated nanogaps functionalized with dithienylethene units bearing organometallic ruthenium fragments. The addressable and stepwise control of molecular isomerization can be repeatedly and reversibly completed with a judicious use of the orthogonal optical and electrochemical stimuli to reach the controllable switching of conductivity between two distinct states. These photo-/electro-cooperative nanodevices can be applied as resettable <span class="hlt">electronic</span> logic gates for Boolean computing, such as a two-input OR and a three-input AND-OR. The proof-of-concept of such logic gates demonstrates the possibility to develop multifunctional molecular devices by rational chemical design. PMID:24394717</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SeScT..31f5012Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SeScT..31f5012Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Analytical band Monte Carlo analysis of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in silicene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yeoh, K. H.; Ong, D. S.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Yong, T. K.; Lim, S. K.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>An analytical band Monte Carlo (AMC) with linear energy band dispersion has been developed to study the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in suspended silicene and silicene on aluminium oxide (Al2O3) substrate. We have calibrated our model against the full band Monte Carlo (FMC) results by matching the velocity-field curve. Using this model, we discover that the collective effects of charge impurity scattering and surface optical phonon scattering can degrade the <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility down to about 400 cm2 V-1 s-1 and thereafter it is less sensitive to the changes of charge impurity in the substrate and surface optical phonon. We also found that further reduction of mobility to ˜100 cm2 V-1 s-1 as experimentally demonstrated by Tao et al (2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 227) can only be explained by the renormalization of Fermi velocity due to interaction with Al2O3 substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006JPhy4.133..405K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006JPhy4.133..405K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Behaviour of fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in solid targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koenig, M.; Baton, S. D.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Fuchs, J.; Loupias, B.; Guillou, P.; Batani, D.; Morace, A.; Piazza, D.; Kodama, R.; Norimatsu, T.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Rousseaux, C.</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>One of the main issues of the fast ignitor scheme is the role of fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the solid fuel heating. Recent experiments used a new target scheme based on the use of cone to guide the PW laser and enhance the <span class="hlt">electron</span> production. In this context it is fundamental to understand the physics underlying this new target scheme. We report here recent and preliminary results of ultra-intense laser pulse interaction with three layer targets in presence of the cone or without. Experiments have been performed at LULI with the 100 TW laser facility, at intensities up to 3 1019 W/cm2. Several diagnostics have been implemented (2D Kα imaging, Kα spectroscopy and rear side imaging, protons emission) to quantify the cone effect.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25307017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25307017"><span id="translatedtitle">Semiconducting black phosphorus: synthesis, <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Han; Du, Yuchen; Deng, Yexin; Ye, Peide D</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Phosphorus is one of the most abundant elements preserved in earth, and it comprises a fraction of ∼0.1% of the earth crust. In general, phosphorus has several allotropes, and the two most commonly seen allotropes, i.e. white and red phosphorus, are widely used in explosives and safety matches. In addition, black phosphorus, though rarely mentioned, is a layered semiconductor and has great potential in optical and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> applications. Remarkably, this layered material can be reduced to one single atomic layer in the vertical direction owing to the van der Waals structure, and is known as phosphorene, in which the physical properties can be tremendously different from its bulk counterpart. In this review article, we trace back to the research history on black phosphorus of over 100 years from the synthesis to material properties, and extend the topic from black phosphorus to phosphorene. The physical and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties are highlighted for further applications in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and optoelectronics devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.717a2043O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.717a2043O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> estimated from <span class="hlt">electron</span> spectra using <span class="hlt">electron</span> spectrometer in LFEX laser target experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozaki, T.; Hata, M.; Matsuo, K.; Kojima, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Fujioka, S.; Sakagami, H.; Sunahara, A.; Nagatomo, H.; Johzaki, T.; Yogo, A.; Morace, A.; Zhang, Z.; Shiraga, H.; Sakata, S.; Nagai, T.; Abe, Y.; Lee, S.; Nakai, M.; Nishimura, H.; Azechi, H.; FIREX Group; GXII-LFEX Group</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> which are generated from targets irradiated by a high-intense laser are measured by two <span class="hlt">electron</span> spectrometers (ESMs). However, total <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy observed by the ESM is only less than 1%. Hot <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are confined by self-fields due to the huge current. When an external magnetic field of several hundred Tesla is applied during the laser irradiation on targets, the ESM signals always increase. In the simulation, the same result can be obtained. The reason is that the Alfvén limit can be mitigated due to the external longitudinal magnetic field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........31O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........31O"><span id="translatedtitle">Essays on alternative energy policies <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the US <span class="hlt">transportation</span> sector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Rear, Eric G.</p> <p></p> <p>This dissertation encompasses three essays evaluating the impacts of different policies targeting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, fuel demands, etc. of the <span class="hlt">transportation</span> sector. Though there are some similarities across the three chapters, each essay stands alone as an independent work. The 2010 US EPA MARKAL model is used in each essay to evaluate policy effects. Essay 1 focuses on the recent increases in Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and the implications of a "rebound effect." These increases are compared to a carbon tax generating similar reductions in system-wide emissions. As anticipated, the largest reductions in fuel use by light-duty vehicles (LDV) and emissions are achieved under CAFE. Consideration of the rebound effect does little to distort CAFE benefits. Our work validates many economists' belief that a carbon tax is a more efficient approach. However, because the tax takes advantage of cheaper abatement opportunities in other sectors, reductions in <span class="hlt">transportation</span> emissions will be much lower than what we observe with CAFE. Essay 2 compares CAFE increases with what some economists suggest would be a much more "efficient" alternative -- a system-wide oil tax internalizing some environmental externalities. Because oil taxes are likely to be implemented in addition to CAFE standards, we consider a combined policy case reflecting this. Our supplementary analysis approximates the appropriate tax rates to produce similar reductions in oil demands as CAFE (CAFE-equivalent tax rates). We discover that taxes result in greater and more cost-effective reductions in system-wide emissions and net oil imports than CAFE. The current fuel tax system is compared to three versions of a national vehicle miles traveled (VMT) tax charged to all LDVs in Essay 3. VMT taxes directly charge motorists for each mile driven and help to correct the problem of eroding tax revenues given the failure of today's fuel taxes to adjust with inflation. Results</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhDT........97G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993PhDT........97G"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-Range Superexchange in <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gruschus, James Michael</p> <p></p> <p> cytochrome c, as well as plastocyanin, cytochrome b _5, and cytochrome c peroxidase. The surfaces reveal important clues as to which conformations of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> protein complexes actually give rise to <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer, a subject of broad biological interest.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6202181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6202181"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a steep temperature gradient</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rogers, J.H.; De Groot, J.S.; Abou-Assaleh, Z.; Matte, J.P.; Johnston, T.W.; Rosen, M.D.</p> <p>1989-04-01</p> <p>Temporal and spatial measurements of <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> are made in the University of California Davis AURORA device (J. H. Rogers, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis, 1987). In AURORA, a microwave pulse heats a region of underdense, collisional, plasma (n/n/sub cr/ approx. <1, where n/sub cr/ = 1.8 x 10/sup 10/ cm/sup -3/ is the critical density, T/sub e//sub 0/ approx. =0.15 eV, and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> scattering mean free path lambda/sub perpendicular/approx. >2 cm). In this region, strong thermal heating (T/sub c/ approx. <0.7 eV) as well as suprathermal heating (T/sub h/approx. =3 eV) is observed. The strong heating results in a steep temperature gradient that violates the approximations of classical heat diffusion theory (L/sub T//lambda/sub perpendicular/approx. >3 for thermal <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, where L/sub T/ = T/sub c/(partialT/sub c//partialz)/sup -1/ is the cold <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature scale length. The time evolution of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature profile is measured using Langmuir probes. The measured relaxation of the temperature gradient after the microwave pulse is compared to calculations using the Fokker--Planck International code (Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1936 (1982)) and the multigroup, flux-limited, target design code LASNEX (Comm. Plasma Phys. 2, 51 (1975)). The <span class="hlt">electron</span> distribution function at the end of the microwave pulse is used as initial conditions for both codes. The Fokker--Planck calculations are found to agree very well with the measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16542818','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16542818"><span id="translatedtitle">The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine <span class="hlt">affects</span> sodium <span class="hlt">transport</span> in toad epithelium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suwalsky, Mario; Mennickent, Sigrid; Norris, Beryl; Cardenas, Hernán</p> <p>2006-09-01</p> <p>The present work investigates the effects of the antiepileptic drug carbamazepine (CBZ) on sodium <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the isolated skin of the toad Pleurodema thaul. A submaximal concentration of the drug (0.2 mM) applied to the outer surface of the epithelium increased the electrical parameters short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (PD) by over 28%, whereas only a higher concentration (1 mM) induced over a 45% decrease in these parameters when applied to the inner surface. The amiloride test showed that the outer surface stimulatory effect was accompanied by an increase and the inner surface inhibitory effect by a decrease in the sodium electromotive force (ENa). Exploration of these effects of CBZ on the outer surface showed that 0.2 mM increased net Na+ (22Na) influx by 20% and 0.6 mM CBZ decreased Na+ mucosa-serosa flux by 19%, a result in agreement with the finding that higher concentrations of CBZ applied to the inner surface not only decreased ENa but also sodium conductance (GNa). PMID:16542818</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4734416','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4734416"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> coupling and electrostatic potential on charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> in carbon-based molecular <span class="hlt">electronic</span> junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Molecular junctions consisting of 2–20 nm thick layers of organic oligomers oriented between a conducting carbon substrate and a carbon/gold top contact have proven to be reproducible and reliable, and will soon enter commercial production in audio processing circuits. The covalent, conjugated bond between one or both sp2-hybridized carbon contacts and an aromatic molecular layer is distinct from the more common metal/molecule or silicon/molecule structures in many reported molecular junctions. Theoretical observations based on density functional theory are presented here, which model carbon-based molecular junctions as single molecules and oligomers between fragments of graphene. <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> coupling between the molecules and the contacts is demonstrated by the formation of hybrid orbitals in the model structure, which have significant <span class="hlt">electron</span> density on both the graphene and the molecule. The energies of such hybrid orbitals correlate with tunneling barriers determined experimentally, and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> coupling between the two graphene fragments in the model correlates with experimentally observed attenuation of <span class="hlt">transport</span> with molecular layer thickness. <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> coupling is <span class="hlt">affected</span> significantly by the dihedral angle between the planes of the graphene and the molecular π-systems, but is absent only when the two planes are orthogonal. Coupling also results in partial charge transfer between the graphene contacts and the molecular layer, which results in a shift in electrostatic potential which <span class="hlt">affects</span> the observed tunneling barrier. Although the degree of partial charge transfer is difficult to calculate accurately, it does provide a basis for the “vacuum level shift” observed in many experiments, including <span class="hlt">transport</span> and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of molecular layers on conductors. PMID:26925350</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/763897','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/763897"><span id="translatedtitle">Interfacial Charge <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Organic <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> Materials: the Key to a New <span class="hlt">Electronics</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Smith, D.L.; Campbell, I.H.; Davids, P.S.; Heller, C.M.; Laurich, B.K.; Crone, B.K.; Saxena, A.; Bishop, A.R.; Ferraris, J.P.; Yu, Z.G.</p> <p>1999-06-04</p> <p>This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The primary aim of this project is to obtain a basic scientific understanding of electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes at interfaces that contain an organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> material. Because of their processing advantages and the tunability of their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties, organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> materials are revolutionizing major technological areas such as information display. We completed an investigation of the fundamental <span class="hlt">electronic</span> excitation energies in the prototype conjugated polymer MEH-PPV. We completed a combined theoretical/experimental study of the energy relation between charged excitations in a conjugated polymer and the metal at a polymer/metal interface. We developed a theoretical model that explains injection currents at polymer/metal interfaces. We have made electrical measurements on devices fabricated using the conjugated polymer MEH-PPV a nd a series of metals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24096938','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24096938"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical investigation of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure and quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the graphene-C(111) diamond surface system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Selli, Daniele; Baburin, Igor; Leoni, Stefano; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David; Seifert, Gotthard</p> <p>2013-10-30</p> <p>We investigate the interaction of a graphene monolayer with the C(111) diamond surface using ab initio density functional theory. To accommodate the lattice mismatch between graphene and diamond, the overlayer deforms into a wavy structure that binds strongly to the diamond substrate. The detached ridges of the wavy graphene overlayer behave <span class="hlt">electronically</span> as free-standing polyacetylene chains with delocalized π <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, separated by regions containing only sp(3) carbon atoms covalently bonded to the (111) diamond surface. We performed quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations for different geometries of the system to study how the buckling of the graphene layer and the associated bonding to the diamond substrate <span class="hlt">affect</span> the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties. The system displays high carrier mobility along the ridges and a wide <span class="hlt">transport</span> gap in the direction normal to the ridges. These intriguing, strongly anisotropic <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties qualify the hybrid graphene-diamond system as a viable candidate for <span class="hlt">electronic</span> nanodevices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86o5406K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86o5406K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through single endohedral Ce@C82 metallofullerenes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kaneko, Satoshi; Wang, Lu; Luo, Guangfu; Lu, Jing; Nagase, Shigeru; Sato, Satoru; Yamada, Michio; Slanina, Zdenek; Akasaka, Takeshi; Kiguchi, Manabu</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a single endohedral Ce@C82 metallofullerene bridging between metal electrodes was investigated with experimental (break junction) as well as theoretical (density functional theory coupled with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism) techniques. The single Ce@C82 molecule junction showing a high and fixed conductance value was fabricated by direct binding of the metallofullerene to Ag electrodes. The junction had a conductance of 0.28(±0.05)G0 (G0 = 2e2/h), which was much larger than that of single molecule junctions having anchoring groups (<0.01G0), but only half that of the single C60 molecule junction of 0.5G0. The unexpected reduced conductance of the single Ce@C82 molecule junction compared with that of the single C60 molecule junction was supported by the ab initio quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations and was explained in terms of the localization of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the C82 cage. In the case of the Au electrodes, the single Ce@C82 molecule junction was not formed by the break junction technique because the Ce@C82 molecule could not be trapped in the large Au nanogap, which was formed just after breaking the Au contacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/477761','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/477761"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in coupled double quantum wells and wires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harff, N.E.; Simmons, J.A.; Lyo, S.K.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>Due to inter-quantum well tunneling, coupled double quantum wells (DQWs) contain an extra degree of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> freedom in the growth direction, giving rise to new <span class="hlt">transport</span> phenomena not found in single <span class="hlt">electron</span> layers. This report describes work done on coupled DQWs subject to inplane magnetic fields B{sub {parallel}}, and is based on the lead author`s doctoral thesis, successfully defended at Oregon State University on March 4, 1997. First, the conductance of closely coupled DQWs in B{sub {parallel}} is studied. B{sub {parallel}}-induced distortions in the dispersion, the density of states, and the Fermi surface are described both theoretically and experimentally, with particular attention paid to the dispersion anticrossing and resulting partial energy gap. Measurements of giant distortions in the effective mass are found to agree with theoretical calculations. Second, the Landau level spectra of coupled DQWs in tilted magnetic fields is studied. The magnetoresistance oscillations show complex beating as Landau levels from the two Fermi surface components cross the Fermi level. A third set of oscillations resulting from magnetic breakdown is observed. A semiclassical calculation of the Landau level spectra is then performed, and shown to agree exceptionally well with the data. Finally, quantum wires and quantum point contacts formed in DQW structures are investigated. Anticrossings of the one-dimensional DQW dispersion curves are predicted to have interesting <span class="hlt">transport</span> effects in these devices. Difficulties in sample fabrication have to date prevented experimental verification. However, recently developed techniques to overcome these difficulties are described.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787905','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/787905"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulations of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Laser Hot Spots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>S. Brunner; E. Valeo</p> <p>2001-08-30</p> <p>Simulations of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> are carried out by solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the diffusive approximation. The system of a single laser hot spot, with open boundary conditions, is systematically studied by performing a scan over a wide range of the two relevant parameters: (1) Ratio of the stopping length over the width of the hot spot. (2) Relative importance of the heating through inverse Bremsstrahlung compared to the thermalization through self-collisions. As for uniform illumination [J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30 (1988) 1665], the bulk of the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) present a super-Gaussian dependence. However, as a result of spatial <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the tails are observed to be well represented by a Maxwellian. A similar dependence of the distributions is also found for multiple hot spot systems. For its relevance with respect to stimulated Raman scattering, the linear Landau damping of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> plasma wave is estimated for such VD Fs. Finally, the nonlinear Fokker-Planck simulations of the single laser hot spot system are also compared to the results obtained with the linear non-local hydrodynamic approach [A.V. Brantov et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 2742], thus providing a quantitative limit to the latter method: The hydrodynamic approach presents more than 10% inaccuracy in the presence of temperature variations of the order delta T/T greater than or equal to 1%, and similar levels of deformation of the Gaussian shape of the Maxwellian background.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPCM...24p4209Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JPCM...24p4209Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of single molecular junctions under mechanical modulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhou, Jianfeng; Guo, Cunlan; Xu, Bingqian</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> behaviors of single molecular junctions are very sensitive to the atomic scale molecule-metal electrode contact interfaces, which have been difficult to control. We used a modified scanning probe microscope-break junction technique (SPM-BJT) to control the dynamics of the contacts and simultaneously monitor both the conductance and force. First, by fitting the measured data into a modified multiple tunneling barrier model, the static contact resistances, corresponding to the different contact conformations of single alkanedithiol and alkanediamine molecular junctions, were identified. Second, the changes of contact decay constant were measured under mechanical extensions of the molecular junctions, which helped to classify the different single molecular conductance sets into specific microscopic conformations of the molecule-electrode contacts. Third, by monitoring the changes of force and contact decay constant with the mechanical extensions, the changes of conductance were found to be caused by the changes of contact bond length and by the atomic reorganizations near the contact bond. This study provides a new insight into the understanding of the influences of contact conformations, especially the effect of changes of dynamic contact conformation on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through single molecular junctions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047362','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047362"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Materials: Synthesis, Properties and Device Performance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cosimbescu, Lelia; Wang, Liang; Helm, Monte L.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>We report the design, synthesis and characterization, thermal and photophysical properties of two silane based <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> materials, dibenzo[b,d]thiophen-2-yltriphenylsilane (Si{phi}87) and (dibenzo[b,d]thiophen-2-yl)diphenylsilane (Si{phi}88) and their performance in blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The utility of these materials in blue OLEDs with iridium (III) bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C']picolinate (Firpic) as the phosphorescent emitter was demonstrated. Using the silane Si{phi}87 as the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> material (ETm) an EQE of 18.2% was obtained, with a power efficiency of 24.3 lm/W (5.8V at 1mA/cm{sup 2}), in a heterostructure. When Si{phi}88 is used, the EQE is 18.5% with a power efficiency of 26.0 lm/W (5.5V at 1mA/cm{sup 2}).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DMP.Q1094S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DMP.Q1094S"><span id="translatedtitle">Computing Rydberg <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Rates via Classical Periodic Orbits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sattari, Sulimon; Mitchell, Kevin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of chaotic atomic systems may be computable from classical periodic orbits. This technique allows for replacing a Monte Carlo simulation launching millions of orbits with a sum over tens or hundreds of properly chosen periodic orbits. A firm grasp of the structure of the periodic orbits is required to obtain accurate <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates. We apply a technique called homotopic lobe dynamics (HLD) to understand the structure of periodic orbits to compute the ionization rate of a hydrogen atom in strong parallel electric and magnetic fields. HLD uses information encoded in the intersections of stable and unstable manifolds of a few orbits to compute all relevant periodic orbits in the system. The ionization rate computed from periodic orbits using HLD converges exponentially to the true value as a function of the highest period used. We then use periodic orbit continuation to accurately compute the ionization rate when the field strengths are varied. The ability to use periodic orbits in a mixed phase space could allow for studying <span class="hlt">transport</span> in even more complex few body systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21120514','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21120514"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> analysis in Tokamak a Configuration Variable</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Asp, E.; Porte, L.; Alberti, S.; Karpushov, A.; Martin, Y.; Sauter, O.; Turri, G.; Kim, J.-H.; Horton, W.</p> <p>2008-08-15</p> <p>A Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) [G. Tonetti, A. Heym, F. Hofmann et al., in Proceedings of the 16th Symposium on Fusion Technology, London, U.K., edited by R. Hemsworth (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), p. 587] plasma with high power density (up to 8 MW/m{sup 3}) core deposited <span class="hlt">electron</span> cyclotron resonance heating at significant plasma densities ({<=}7x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) is analyzed for the <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span>. The discharge distinguishes itself as it has four distinct high confinement mode (H-mode) phases. An Ohmic H-mode with type III edge localized modes (ELMs), which turns into a type I ELMy H-mode when the ECRH is switched on. The ELMs then vanish, which gives rise to a quasistationary ELM-free H-mode. This ELM-free phase can be divided into two, one without magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and one with. The MHD mode in the latter case causes the confinement to drop by {approx}15%. For all four phases both large-scale trapped <span class="hlt">electron</span> (TEM) and ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes and small-scale <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient (ETG) modes are analyzed. The analytical TEM formulas have difficulty in explaining both the magnitude and the radial profile of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal flux. Collisionality governs the drive of the TEM, which for the discharge in question implies it can be driven by either the temperature or density gradient. The TEM response function is derived and it is shown to be relatively small and to have sharp resonances in its energy dependence. The ETG turbulence, predicted by the Institute for Fusion Studies <span class="hlt">electron</span> gyrofluid code, is on the other hand driven solely by the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient. Both trapped and passing <span class="hlt">electrons</span> add to the ETG instability and turbulent thermal flux. For easy comparison of the results of the above approaches and also with the Weiland model, a dimensionless error measure, the so-called average relative variance is introduced. According to this method the ETG model explains 70% of the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007PhDT.......202W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2007PhDT.......202W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Spin-dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in nanoscale samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Yaguang</p> <p></p> <p>In this thesis, we describe the research in which we use metallic nanoparticles to explore spin-dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at nanometer scale. Nanoscale samples were fabricated by using a state of the art <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam lithography and shadow evaporation technique. We have investigated spin relaxation and decoherence in metallic grains as a function of bias voltage and magnetic field at low temperatures (down to ˜30mK). At low temperatures, the discrete energy levels within a metallic nanoparticle provides a new means to study the physics of the spin-polarized <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling. We describe measurements of spin-polarized tunneling via discrete energy levels of single Aluminum grain. Spin polarized current saturates quickly as a function of bias voltage, which demonstrates that the ground state and the lowest excited states carry spin polarized current. The ratio of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-spin relaxation time (T1) to the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon relaxation rate is in quantitative agreement with the Elliot-Yafet scaling, an evidence that spin-relaxation in Al grains is driven by the spin-orbit interaction. The spin-relaxation time of the low-lying excited states is T1 ≈ 0.7 mus and 0.1 mus in two samples, showing that <span class="hlt">electron</span> spin in a metallic grain could be a potential candidate for quantum information research. We also present measurements of mesoscopic resistance fluctuations in cobalt nanoparticles at low temperature and study how the fluctuations with bias voltage, bias fingerprints, respond to magnetization-reversal processes. Bias fingerprints rearrange when domains are nucleated or annihilated. The domain wall causes an <span class="hlt">electron</span> wave function-phase shift of ˜5 pi. The phase shift is not caused by the Aharonov-Bohm effect; we explain how it arises from the mistracking effect, where <span class="hlt">electron</span> spins lag in orientation with respect to the moments inside the domain wall. The dephasing length at low temperatures is only 30 nm, which is attributed to the large magnetocrystalline</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7282798','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7282798"><span id="translatedtitle">Modified formula of nonlocal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a laser-produced plasma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Xu, Y. ); He, X.T. China Center of Advanced Science Technology , P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 )</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>A nonlocal heat-<span class="hlt">transport</span> formula for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is derived to include the terms associated with the electrostatic potential and [partial derivative]/[partial derivative][ital v]([ital f][sub 0],[ital f][sub 1]) in the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation. Then the FP equation for a strongly inhomogeneous plasma is solved. It is found that the behavior of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal conductivity at a large temperature gradient is considerably <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the electrostatic field, and the thermal conductivity [kappa]/[kappa][sub SH] for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> scales as 1/[ital k] in a large temperature gradient [ital k] when there exists a non-negligible electrostatic field, where [kappa][sub SH] is the Spitzer-Haerm heat coefficient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23385304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23385304"><span id="translatedtitle">Nanogap structures: combining enhanced Raman spectroscopy and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Natelson, Douglas; Li, Yajing; Herzog, Joseph B</p> <p>2013-04-21</p> <p>Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an experimental tool for accessing vibrational and chemical information, down to the single molecule level. SERS typically relies on plasmon excitations in metal nanostructures to concentrate the incident radiation and to provide an enhanced photon density of states to couple emitted radiation to the far field. Many common SERS platforms involve metal nanoparticles to generate the required electromagnetic enhancements. Here we concentrate on an alternative approach, in which the relevant plasmon excitations are supported at a truly nanoscale gap between extended electrodes, rather than discrete subwavelength nanoparticles. The ability to fabricate precise gaps on demand, and in some cases to tune the gap size in situ, combined with the additional capability of simultaneous <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements of the nanogap, provides access to information not previously available in standard SERS. We summarize the rich plasmonic physics at work in these extended systems and highlight the recent state of the art including tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) and the application of mechanical break junctions and electromigrated junctions. We describe in detail how we have performed in situ gap-enhanced Raman measurements of molecular-scale junctions while simultaneously subjecting these structures to <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. These extended electrode structures allow us to study the pumping of vibrational modes by the flow of tunneling <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, as well as the shifting of vibrational energies due to the applied bias. These experiments extend SERS into a tool for examining fundamental processes of dissipation, and provide insight into the mechanisms behind SERS spectral diffusion. We conclude with a brief discussion of future directions. PMID:23385304</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........26F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhDT........26F"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-term approximation to the Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span> equation for <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy distribution functions in nitrogen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Yue</p> <p></p> <p>Plasma is currently a hot topic and it has many significant applications due to its composition of both positively and negatively charged particles. The energy distribution function is important in plasma science since it characterizes the ability of the plasma to <span class="hlt">affect</span> chemical reactions, <span class="hlt">affect</span> physical outcomes, and drive various applications. The Boltzmann <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Equation is an important kinetic equation that provides an accurate basis for characterizing the distribution function---both in energy and space. This dissertation research proposes a multi-term approximation to solve the Boltzmann <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Equation by treating the relaxation process using an expansion of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> distribution function in Legendre polynomials. The elastic and 29 inelastic cross sections for <span class="hlt">electron</span> collisions with nitrogen molecules (N2) and singly ionized nitrogen molecules ( N+2 ) have been used in this application of the Boltzmann <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Equation. Different numerical methods have been considered to compare the results. The numerical methods discussed in this thesis are the implicit time-independent method, the time-dependent Euler method, the time-dependent Runge-Kutta method, and finally the implicit time-dependent relaxation method by generating the 4-way grid with a matrix solver. The results show that the implicit time-dependent relaxation method is the most accurate and stable method for obtaining reliable results. The results were observed to match with the published experimental data rather well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344444','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21344444"><span id="translatedtitle">Do Unpolarized <span class="hlt">Electrons</span> <span class="hlt">Affect</span> the Polarization of a Stored Beam?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rathmann, Frank</p> <p>2009-08-04</p> <p>We present a short overview of the PAX physics case for polarized antiprotons. In order to progress towards a stored polarized antiproton beam, it is crucial to understand the interaction of polarized protons with unpolarized <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Therefore investigations that address in particular the contributions of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to the polarization buildup of a stored proton beam are presented here in more detail. The measurement of the depolarizing p-vectore cross section settled a long-standing controversy about the role of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the polarization buildup of a stored beam by spin-filtering. Instead of studying the buildup of polarization in an initially unpolarized beam, here the inverse situation was investigated by observation of the depolarization of an initially polarized beam. For the first time, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> cooler have been used as a target to study their depolarizing effect on a 49.3 MeV proton beam orbiting in COSY. The foreseen spin-filtering experiments at COSY-Juelich and at the AD of CERN are briefly discussed as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EL.....9935003N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EL.....9935003N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in Ar/H2 mixtures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikitović, Ž.; Stojanović, V.; Petrović, Z. Lj.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>In this work we present <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in Ar/H2 mixtures for the conditions used in plasma-assisted technologies for semiconductor production, i.e., in moderate and very high E/N. We used a two-term numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation at the lowest E/N (E is the electric field; N is the gas density) and correspondingly at the lowest mean energies. We also use the Monte Carlo simulation technique at moderate and high E/N. We show that a good agreement with experimental data exists for low and moderate E/N and that based on the tests for pure H2 and Ar we can model properly the swarm properties at high E/N. For the conditions of very high electric fields runaway peaks develop in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy distribution function and appreciable contribution of backscattered high-energy <span class="hlt">electrons</span> produces additional emission of Hα emission close to the anode (made of stainless steel). Results are obtained for abundances of H2 from 1% to 30%, which are necessary in kinetic models for this mixture in a number of applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012APS..MARH13012H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012APS..MARH13012H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> in C60 fullerene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hueso, Luis Eduardo; Gobbi, Marco; Bedoya-Pinto, Amilcar; Golmar, Federico; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Felix</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Carbon-based molecular materials are interesting for spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> application mainly due to their small sources of spin relaxation [1]. However, spin coherence lengths reported in many molecular films do not exceed a few tens of nanometers [2]. In this work we will present results showing how hot spin-polarized <span class="hlt">electrons</span> injected well above the Fermi level in C60 fullerene films travel coherently for hundreds of nanometers. We fabricated hot-<span class="hlt">electron</span> vertical transistors, in which the current created across an Al/Al2O3 junction is polarized by a metallic Co/Cu/Py spin valve trilayer and subsequently injected in the molecular thin film. This geometry allows us to determine the energy level alignment at each interface between different materials. Moreover, the collector magnetocurrent excess 85%, even for C60 films thicknesses of 300 nm. We believe these results show the importance of hot spin-polarized <span class="hlt">electron</span> injection and propagation in molecular materials. [1] V. Dediu, L.E. Hueso, I. Bergenti, C. Taliani, Nature Mater. 8, 707 (2009) [2] M. Gobbi, F. Golmar, R. Llopis, F. Casanova, L.E. Hueso, Adv. Mater. 23, 1609 (2011)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JFuE...32..203G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JFuE...32..203G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Heat Diffusion Across Stochastic Magnetic Field <span class="hlt">Affected</span> by Magnitude of Perturbed Magnetic Field in Tokomak</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Hong</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> heat diffusion across stochastic magnetic fields is studied numerically in order to find out how the magnitude of perturbed magnetic field <span class="hlt">affect</span> the enhanced heat conductivity and its radial profile in tokomak plasma physics. For these purposes, non-local stochastic magnetic fields are chosen as research objects in our simulation work. From our numerical results, we can find that the effects of the perturbed magnetic field magnitude are dominated parameter on the enhance <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> conductivity wherever the magnetic field is single island or full stochastic field. Also, a theoretical analysis is provided and compared with numerical results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6292238','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6292238"><span id="translatedtitle">Sites of inhibition of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in macrophage-injured neoplastic cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Granger, D L; Lehninger, A L</p> <p>1982-11-01</p> <p>Previous work has shown that injury of neoplastic cells by cytotoxic macrophages (CM) in cell culture is accompanied by inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. We have investigated the nature of this inhibition by studying mitochondrial respiration in CM-injured leukemia L1210 cells permeabilized with digitonin. CM-induced injury <span class="hlt">affects</span> the mitochondrial respiratory chain proper. Complex I (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) and complex II (succinate-coenzyme Q reductase) are markedly inhibited. In addition a minor inhibition of cytochrome oxidase was found. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from alpha-glycerophosphate through the respiratory chain to oxygen is unaffected and permeabilized CM-injured L1210 cells oxidizing this substrate exhibit acceptor control. However, glycerophosphate shuttle activity was found not to occur within CM-injured or uninjured L1210 cells in culture hence, alpha-glycerophosphate is apparently unavailable for mitochondrial oxidation in the intact cell. It is concluded that the failure of respiration of intact neoplastic cells injured by CM is caused by the nearly complete inhibition of complexes I and II of the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain. The time courses of CM-induced <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> inhibition and arrest of L1210 cell division are examined and the possible relationship between these phenomena is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22475073','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22475073"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in the persuasion process: cognitive and <span class="hlt">affective</span> responses to antidrug narratives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Smita C; Greene, Kathryn</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study examined <span class="hlt">transportation</span> effects of first- and third-person narratives as well as the role of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in the persuasion process. In particular, the authors evaluated the role of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in <span class="hlt">affecting</span> cognitive and <span class="hlt">affective</span> responses. Last, they addressed the relation between (a) cognitive and <span class="hlt">affective</span> responses and (b) antidrug expectancies. Participants were 500 undergraduate students at a large northern university in the United Kingdom who were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 conditions: first- or third-person narratives on cocaine use. The results demonstrated that there was no difference between first- and third-person narratives in terms of <span class="hlt">transportation</span>. However, overall, greater <span class="hlt">transportation</span> was associated with more favorable cognitive responses, and more favorable cognitive response was associated with stronger anticocaine expectancies. In terms of <span class="hlt">affective</span> responses, results indicated the mediating role of sadness and contentment in the association between <span class="hlt">transportation</span> and anticocaine expectancies. In particular, increased <span class="hlt">transportation</span> was associated with greater sadness and lower contentment. Lower sadness and contentment were associated with stronger anticocaine expectancies. Important theoretical and empirical implications are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22262617','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22262617"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron-electron</span> interaction, weak localization and spin valve effect in vertical-<span class="hlt">transport</span> graphene devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Long, Mingsheng; Gong, Youpin; Wei, Xiangfei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Jianbao; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yufen; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Liwei; Liu, Guangtong</p> <p>2014-04-14</p> <p>We fabricated a vertical structure device, in which graphene is sandwiched between two asymmetric ferromagnetic electrodes. The measurements of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> were performed across the combined channels containing the vertical and horizontal components. The presence of <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> interaction (EEI) was found not only at low temperatures but also at moderate temperatures up to ∼120 K, and EEI dominates over weak localization (WL) with and without applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the sample plane. Moreover, spin valve effect was observed when magnetic filed is swept at the direction parallel to the sample surface. We attribute the EEI and WL surviving at a relatively high temperature to the effective suppress of phonon scattering in the vertical device structure. The findings open a way for studying quantum correlation at relatively high temperature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107o3504B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApPhL.107o3504B"><span id="translatedtitle">Density-dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and precise modeling of GaN high <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility transistors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bajaj, Sanyam; Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in AlGaN/GaN high <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 107 cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 1011 cm-2. An optical phonon emission-based <span class="hlt">electron</span> velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the <span class="hlt">electron</span> velocity with strong <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482256','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22482256"><span id="translatedtitle">Density-dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and precise modeling of GaN high <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility transistors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bajaj, Sanyam Shoron, Omor F.; Park, Pil Sung; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Akyol, Fatih; Hung, Ting-Hsiang; Reza, Shahed; Chumbes, Eduardo M.; Khurgin, Jacob; Rajan, Siddharth</p> <p>2015-10-12</p> <p>We report on the direct measurement of two-dimensional sheet charge density dependence of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in AlGaN/GaN high <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility transistors (HEMTs). Pulsed IV measurements established increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> velocities with decreasing sheet charge densities, resulting in saturation velocity of 1.9 × 10{sup 7 }cm/s at a low sheet charge density of 7.8 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}. An optical phonon emission-based <span class="hlt">electron</span> velocity model for GaN is also presented. It accommodates stimulated longitudinal optical (LO) phonon emission which clamps the <span class="hlt">electron</span> velocity with strong <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interaction and long LO phonon lifetime in GaN. A comparison with the measured density-dependent saturation velocity shows that it captures the dependence rather well. Finally, the experimental result is applied in TCAD-based device simulator to predict DC and small signal characteristics of a reported GaN HEMT. Good agreement between the simulated and reported experimental results validated the measurement presented in this report and established accurate modeling of GaN HEMTs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12535543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12535543"><span id="translatedtitle">On the application of quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> theory to <span class="hlt">electron</span> sources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jensen, Kevin L</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> sources (e.g., field emitter arrays, wide band-gap (WBG) semiconductor materials and coatings, carbon nanotubes, etc.) seek to exploit ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> within the vacuum after emission from microfabricated structures. Regardless of kind, all sources strive to minimize the barrier to <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission by engineering material properties (work function/<span class="hlt">electron</span> affinity) or physical geometry (field enhancement) of the cathode. The unique capabilities of cold cathodes, such as instant ON/OFF performance, high brightness, high current density, large transconductance to capacitance ratio, cold emission, small size and/or low voltage operation characteristics, commend their use in several advanced devices when physical size, weight, power consumption, beam current, and pulse repletion frequency are important, e.g., RF power amplifier such as traveling wave tubes (TWTs) for radar and communications, electrodynamic tethers for satellite deboost/reboost, and electric propulsion systems such as Hall thrusters for small satellites. The theoretical program described herein is directed towards models to evaluate emission current from <span class="hlt">electron</span> sources (in particular, emission from WBG and Spindt-type field emitter) in order to assess their utility, capabilities and performance characteristics. Modeling efforts particularly include: band bending, non-linear and resonant (Poole-Frenkel) potentials, the extension of one-dimensional theory to multi-dimensional structures, and emission site statistics due to variations in geometry and the presence of adsorbates. Two particular methodologies, namely, the modified Airy approach and metal-semiconductor statistical hyperbolic/ellipsoidal model, are described in detail in their present stage of development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1728b0669B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1728b0669B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of doping on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in polyfluorene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bajpai, Manisha; Srivastava, Ritu; Dhar, Ravindra; Tiwari, R. S.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of pure and DMC doped polyfluorne (PF) films have been studied at various doping concentrations. Pure films show space charge limited conduction with field and temperature dependent mobility. The J-V characteristics of doped PF were ohmic at low voltages due to thermally released carriers from dopant states. At higher voltages the current density increases nonlinearly due to field dependent mobility and carrier concentration thereby filling of tail states of HOMO of the host. The conductivity of doped fims were analyzed using the Unified Gaussian Disorder Model (UGDM). The carrier concentration obtained from the fitting show a non-linear dependence on doping concentration which may be due to a combined effect of thermally activated carrier generation and increased carrier mobility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARC26001B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARC26001B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Simulations of 4-Terminal Crossed Graphene Nanoribbons Devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brandimarte, Pedro; Papior, Nick R.; Engelund, Mads; Garcia-Lekue, Aran; Frederiksen, Thomas; Sánchez-Portal, Daniel</p> <p></p> <p>Recently, it has been reported theoretically a current switching mechanism by voltage control in a system made by two perpendicular 14-armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). In order to investigate the possibilities of using crossed GNRs as ON/OFF devices, we have studied their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties as function structural parameters determining the crossing. Our calculations were performed with TranSIESTA code, which has been recently generalized to consider N >= 1 arbitrarily distributed electrodes at finite bias. We find that the transmission along each individual GNR and among them strongly depends on the stacking. For a 60° rotation angle, the lattice matching in the crossing region provokes a strong scattering effect that translates into an increased interlayer transmission. FP7 FET-ICT PAMS-project (European Commission, contract 610446), MINECO (Grant MAT2013-46593-C6-2-P) and Basque Dep. de Educación, UPV/EHU (Grant IT-756-13).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492133"><span id="translatedtitle">Conformation dependent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a DNA double-helix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kundu, Sourav Karmakar, S. N.</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>We present a tight-binding study of conformation dependent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of DNA double-helix including its helical symmetry. We have studied the changes in the localization properties of DNA as we alter the number of stacked bases within every pitch of the double-helix keeping fixed the total number of nitrogen bases within the DNA molecule. We take three DNA sequences, two of them are periodic and one is random and observe that in all the cases localization length increases as we increase the radius of DNA double-helix i.e., number of nucleobases within a pitch. We have also investigated the effect of backbone energetic on the I-V response of the system and found that in presence of helical symmetry, depending on the interplay of conformal variation and disorder, DNA can be found in either metallic, semiconducting and insulating phases, as observed experimentally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApPhL..87w3509G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005ApPhL..87w3509G"><span id="translatedtitle">Device structure for <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through individual molecules using nanoelectrodes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghosh, Subhasis; Halimun, Henny; Mahapatro, Ajit Kumar; Choi, Jaewon; Lodha, Saurabh; Janes, David</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>We present a simple and reliable method for making electrical contacts to small organic molecules with thiol endgroups. Nanometer-scale gaps between metallic electrodes have been fabricated by passing a large current through a lithographically-patterned Au-line with appropriate thickness. Under appropriate conditions, the passage of current breaks the Au-line, creating two opposite facing electrodes separated by a gap comparable to the length of small organic molecules. Current-voltage characteristics have been measured both before and after deposition of short organic molecules. The resistance of single 1,4-benzenedithiol and 1,4-bezenedimethanedithiol molecules were found to be 9MΩ and 26MΩ, respectively. The experimental results indicate strong <span class="hlt">electronic</span> coupling to the contacts and are discussed using a relatively simple model of mesoscopic <span class="hlt">transport</span>. The use of electrodes formed on an insulating surface by lithography and electromigration provides a stable structure suitable for integrated circuit applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1009202','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1009202"><span id="translatedtitle">Hot <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Generation and <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Using K(alpha) Emission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Akli, K U; Stephens, R B; Key, M H; Bartal, T; Beg, F N; Chawla, S; Chen, C D; Fedosejevs, R; Freeman, R R; Friesen, H; Giraldez, E; Green, J S; Hey, D S; Higginson, D P; Hund, J; Jarrott, L C; Kemp, G E; King, J A; Kryger, A; Lancaster, K; LePape, S; Link, A; Ma, T; Mackinnon, A J; MacPhee, A G; McLean, H S; Murphy, C; Norreys, P A; Ovchinnikov, V; Patel, P K; Ping, Y; Sawada, H; Schumacher, D; Theobald, W; Tsui, Y Y; Van Woerkom, L D; Wei, M S; Westover, B; Yabuuchi, T</p> <p>2009-10-15</p> <p>We have conducted experiments on both the Vulcan and Titan laser facilities to study hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> generation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the context of fast ignition. Cu wires attached to Al cones were used to investigate the effect on coupling efficiency of plasma surround and the pre-formed plasma inside the cone. We found that with thin cones 15% of laser energy is coupled to the 40{micro}m diameter wire emulating a 40{micro}m fast ignition spot. Thick cone walls, simulating plasma in fast ignition, reduce coupling by x4. An increase of prepulse level inside the cone by a factor of 50 reduces coupling by a factor of 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJB...89..191Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EPJB...89..191Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a quinone-based molecular switch</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zheng, Ya-Peng; Bian, Bao-An; Yuan, Pei-Pei</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>In this paper, we carried out first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function to investigate the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a quinone-based molecule sandwiched between two Au electrodes. The molecular switch can be reversibly switched between the reduced hydroquinone (HQ) and oxidized quinone (Q) states via redox reactions. The switching behavior of two forms is analyzed through their I- V curves, transmission spectra and molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian at zero bias. Then we discuss the transmission spectra of the HQ and Q forms at different bias, and explain the oscillation of current according to the transmission eigenstates of LUMO energy level for Q form. The results suggest that this kind of a quinone-based molecule is usable as one of the good candidates for redox-controlled molecular switches.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.F5008Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.F5008Q"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> measurement of strain effects on spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> in silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qing, Lan; Tinkey, Holly; Appelbaum, Ian</p> <p></p> <p>Spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> in silicon is limited by the Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation mechanism, which is driven by scattering between degenerate conduction band valleys. Mechanical strain along a valley axis partially breaks this degeneracy, and will ultimately quench intervalley spin relaxation for transitions between states on orthogonal axes. Using a custom-designed and constructed strain probe, we study the effects of uniaxial compressive strain along the < 100 > direction on ballistic tunnel junction devices used to inject spin-polarized <span class="hlt">electrons</span> into silicon. The effects of strain-induced valley splitting will be presented and compared to our theoretical model. This work is supported by the Office of Naval Research under Contract No. N000141410317, the National Science Foundation under Contract No. ECCS-1231855, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency under Contract No. HDTRA1-13-1-0013, and the Maryland NanoCenter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/984468','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/984468"><span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Due to Multiple High Frequency Beam Ion Driven Alfven Eigenmode</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gorelenkov, N. N.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Boozer, A.; Delgardo-Aparicio, L.; Fredrickson, E.; Kaye, S.; White, R.</p> <p>2010-07-13</p> <p>We report on the simulations of recently observed correlations of the core <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> with the sub-thermal ion cyclotron frequency instabilities in low aspect ratio plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). In order to model the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of the guiding center code ORBIT is employed. A spectrum of test functions of multiple core localized Global shear Alfven Eigenmode (GAE) instabilities based on a previously developed theory and experimental observations is used to examine the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties. The simulations exhibit thermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> induced by <span class="hlt">electron</span> drift orbit stochasticity in the presence of multiple core localized GAE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004JSMEC..47..977K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004JSMEC..47..977K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between Microtubule Network Structure and Intracellular <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Cultured Endothelial Cells <span class="hlt">Affected</span> by Shear Stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kudo, Susumu; Ikezawa, Kenji; Ikeda, Mariko; Tanishita, Kazuo</p> <p></p> <p>Endothelial cells (ECs) that line the inner surface of blood vessels are barriers to the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of various substances into or from vessel walls, and are continuously exposed to shear stress induced by blood flow in vivo. Shear stress <span class="hlt">affects</span> the cytoskeleton (e.g., microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments), and <span class="hlt">affects</span> the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of macromolecules. Here, the relationship between the microtubule network structure and this <span class="hlt">transport</span> process for albumin uptake within cultured aortic endothelial cells <span class="hlt">affected</span> by shear stress was studied. Based on fluorescent images of albumin uptake obtained by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), both the microtubule network and albumin uptake in ECs were disrupted by colchicine and were <span class="hlt">affected</span> by shear stress loading.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......167B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PhDT.......167B"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of ionic <span class="hlt">transport</span> in polymer and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in disordered selenium and ceramic materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bandyopadhyay, Subhasish</p> <p></p> <p>In this thesis, the properties of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conduction in vanadium (donor) and scandium (acceptor) doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 ceramics, amorphous Selenium and ionic conduction in polyester polyol based polyurethane have been investigated. The leakage current of bulk vanadium (donor) and scandium (acceptor) doped Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 ceramics structures measured using gold electrical contacts have been characterized and analyzed. Vanadium doping reduces the ohmic leakage current that dominates the <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics up to 5 kV/cm. The Arrhenius activation energy is 0.18, 0.20 and 0.23 eV for 1, 2 and 4 at % V-doped samples, respectively. Above this field, the current-voltage characteristics exhibit discontinuous current transitions associated with trap filling by <span class="hlt">electronic</span> carriers. At higher fields, trap controlled space charge limited conduction (SCLC) is observed with an effective mobility of 4+/-1x10-7 cm2/V s, characteristic of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> process that involves quasi equilibrium between conduction in the band and trapping. In contrast, the leakage current of Sc-doped samples increases with impurity concentration and exhibits a 0.60 eV activation energy. In this case, the limiting current conduction mechanism is the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of holes over the electrostatic barrier at grain boundaries. Comparison of these results to those on similarly-doped homoepitaxial SrTiO3 thin-films deposited on single-crystal and bicrystal substrates helped to identify the characteristics of <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the bulk and across grain boundaries for this class of materials. Electrical, thermal and Li <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties have been measured for polyester polyol and isocyanate-based polyurethanes doped with Lithium trifluoromethanesulfonimide (LiTFSI) and Lithium perchlorate (LiClO4) Electrical conductivities are estimated at 10-5--10-6 S/cm near 300 K. The conductivities show Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher (VTF) behavior over a wide temperature ranges. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) shows</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1271865-dynamic-defect-correlations-dominate-activated-electronic-transport-srtio3','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1271865-dynamic-defect-correlations-dominate-activated-electronic-transport-srtio3"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic defect correlations dominate activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in SrTiO3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Snijders, Paul C.; Sen, Cengiz; McConnell, Michael P.; Ma, Ying-Zhong; May, Andrew F.; Herklotz, Andreas; Wong, Anthony T.; Ward, Thomas Zac</p> <p>2016-07-22</p> <p>Strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) is a critically important material for the study of emergent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> phases in complex oxides, as well as for the development of applications based on their heterostructures. Despite the large body of knowledge on STO, there are still many uncertainties regarding the role of defects in the properties of STO, including their influence on ferroelectricity in bulk STO and ferromagnetism in STO-based heterostructures. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the decay of persistent photoconductivity in STO single crystals with defect concentrations that are relatively low but significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> their <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties. The resultsmore » show that photo-activated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> cannot be described by a superposition of the properties due to independent point defects as current models suggest but is, instead, governed by defect complexes that interact through dynamic correlations. In conclusion, these results emphasize the importance of defect correlations for activated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of semiconducting and insulating perovskite oxides.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PPCF...58e5002K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PPCF...58e5002K"><span id="translatedtitle">Simple predictive <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> models applied to sawtoothing plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, D.; Merle, A.; Sauter, O.; Goodman, T. P.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this work, we introduce two simple <span class="hlt">transport</span> models to evaluate the time evolution of <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature and density profiles during sawtooth cycles (i.e. over a sawtooth period time-scale). Since the aim of these simulations is to estimate reliable profiles within a short calculation time, two simplified ad-hoc models have been developed. The goal for these models is to rely on a few easy-to-check free parameters, such as the confinement time scaling factor and the profiles’ averaged scale-lengths. Due to the simplicity and short calculation time of the models, it is expected that these models can also be applied to real-time <span class="hlt">transport</span> simulations. We show that it works well for Ohmic and EC heated L- and H-mode plasmas. The differences between these models are discussed and we show that their predictive capabilities are similar. Thus only one model is used to reproduce with simulations the results of sawtooth control experiments on the TCV tokamak. For the sawtooth pacing, the calculated time delays between the EC power off and sawtooth crash time agree well with the experimental results. The map of possible locking range is also well reproduced by the simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493896','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22493896"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in molecular junctions with graphene as protecting layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hüser, Falco; Solomon, Gemma C.</p> <p>2015-12-07</p> <p>We present ab initio <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations for molecular junctions that include graphene as a protecting layer between a single molecule and gold electrodes. This vertical setup has recently gained significant interest in experiment for the design of particularly stable and reproducible devices. We observe that the signals from the molecule in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> transmission are overlayed by the signatures of the graphene sheet, thus raising the need for a reinterpretation of the transmission. On the other hand, we see that our results are stable with respect to various defects in the graphene. For weakly physiosorbed molecules, no signs of interaction with the graphene are evident, so the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties are determined by offresonant tunnelling between the gold leads across an extended structure that includes the molecule itself and the additional graphene layer. Compared with pure gold electrodes, calculated conductances are about one order of magnitude lower due to the increased tunnelling distance. Relative differences upon changing the end group and the length of the molecule on the other hand, are similar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143u4302H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.143u4302H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in molecular junctions with graphene as protecting layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hüser, Falco; Solomon, Gemma C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present ab initio <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations for molecular junctions that include graphene as a protecting layer between a single molecule and gold electrodes. This vertical setup has recently gained significant interest in experiment for the design of particularly stable and reproducible devices. We observe that the signals from the molecule in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> transmission are overlayed by the signatures of the graphene sheet, thus raising the need for a reinterpretation of the transmission. On the other hand, we see that our results are stable with respect to various defects in the graphene. For weakly physiosorbed molecules, no signs of interaction with the graphene are evident, so the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties are determined by offresonant tunnelling between the gold leads across an extended structure that includes the molecule itself and the additional graphene layer. Compared with pure gold electrodes, calculated conductances are about one order of magnitude lower due to the increased tunnelling distance. Relative differences upon changing the end group and the length of the molecule on the other hand, are similar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6227286','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6227286"><span id="translatedtitle">Action of the antitumor and antispermatogenic agent lonidamine on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Floridi, A; Lehninger, A L</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>The effect of lonidamine, an antispermatogenic and antitumor drug, on the oxygen consumption, ATPase activity, and redox state of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> carriers of Ehrlich ascites tumor mitochondria has been studied. Lonidamine inhibits ADP- and uncoupler-stimulated respiration on various NAD- and FAD-linked substrates, but does not <span class="hlt">affect</span> state 4 respiration. Experiments to determine its site of action showed that lonidamine does not significantly inhibit <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow through cytochrome oxidase. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> flow through site 2, the ubiquinone-cytochrome b-cytochrome c1 complex, also was unaffected by lonidamine, which failed to inhibit the oxidation of duroquinol. Moreover, inhibition of <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow through site 2 was also excluded because of the inability of the N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine bypass to relieve the lonidamine inhibition of the oxidation of pyruvate + malate. The F0F1ATPase activity and vectorial H+ ejection are also unaffected by lonidamine. The inhibition of succinate oxidation by lonidamine was found to take place at a point between succinate and iron-sulfur center S3. Spectroscopic experiments demonstrated that lonidamine inhibits the reduction of mitochondrial NAD+ by pyruvate + malate and other NAD-linked substrates in the transition from state 1 to state 4. However, lonidamine does not inhibit reduction of added NAD+ by submitochondrial vesicles or by soluble purified NAD-linked dehydrogenases. These observations, together with other evidence, suggest that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in tumor mitochondria is inhibited by lonidamine at the dehydrogenase-coenzyme level, particularly when the <span class="hlt">electron</span> carriers are in a relatively oxidized state and/or when the inner membrane-matrix compartment is in the condensed state. The action of lonidamine in several respects resembles the selective inhibition of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in tumor cells produced by cytotoxic macrophages (D. L. Granger and A. L. Lehninger (1982) J. Cell Biol. 95, 527).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ChPhL..24.1042O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ChPhL..24.1042O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Molecular Junction Based on C20 Cages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ouyang, Fang-Ping; Xu, Hui</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Choosing closed-ended armchair (5, 5) single-wall carbon nanotubes (CCNTs) as electrodes, we investigate the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties across an all-carbon molecular junction consisting of C20 molecules suspended between two semi-infinite carbon nanotubes. It is shown that the conductances are quite sensitive to the number of C20 molecules between electrodes for both configuration CF1 and double-bonded models: the conductances of C20 dimers are markedly smaller than those of monomers. The physics is that incident <span class="hlt">electrons</span> easily pass the C20 molecules and are predominantly scattered at the C20-C20 junctions. Moreover, we study the doping effect of such molecular junction by doping nitrogen atoms substitutionally. The bonding property of the molecular junction with configuration CF1 has been analysed by calculating the Mulliken atomic charges. Our results have revealed that the C atoms in N-doped junctions are more ionic than those in pure-carbon ones, leading to the fact that N-doped junctions have relatively large conductance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15328348','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15328348"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen tolerance and coupling of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campian, Jian Li; Qian, Mingwei; Gao, Xueshan; Eaton, John W</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>Oxygen is critical to aerobic metabolism, but excessive oxygen (hyperoxia) causes cell injury and death. An oxygen-tolerant strain of HeLa cells, which proliferates even under 80% O2, termed "HeLa-80," was derived from wild-type HeLa cells ("HeLa-20") by selection for resistance to stepwise increases of oxygen partial pressure. Surprisingly, antioxidant defenses and susceptibility to oxidant-mediated killing do not differ between these two strains of HeLa cells. However, under both 20 and 80% O2, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is significantly (approximately 2-fold) less in HeLa-80 cells. In both cell lines the source of ROS is evidently mitochondrial. Although HeLa-80 cells consume oxygen at the same rate as HeLa-20 cells, they consume less glucose and produce less lactic acid. Most importantly, the oxygen-tolerant HeLa-80 cells have significantly higher cytochrome c oxidase activity (approximately 2-fold), which may act to deplete upstream <span class="hlt">electron</span>-rich intermediates responsible for ROS generation. Indeed, preferential inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by treatment with n-methyl protoporphyrin (which selectively diminishes synthesis of heme a in cytochrome c oxidase) enhances ROS production and abrogates the oxygen tolerance of the HeLa-80 cells. Thus, it appears that the remarkable oxygen tolerance of these cells derives from tighter coupling of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain. PMID:15328348</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/100296','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/100296"><span id="translatedtitle">Multigroup Boltzmann Fokker Planck <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> capability in MCNP{sup trademark}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adams, K.J.; Hart, M.</p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>The MCNP code system has a robust multigroup <span class="hlt">transport</span> capability which includes a multigroup Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (MGBFP) <span class="hlt">transport</span> algorithm to perform coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon or other coupled charged and neutral particle <span class="hlt">transport</span> in either a forward or adjoint mode. This paper will discuss this capability and compare code results with other <span class="hlt">transport</span> codes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5590089','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5590089"><span id="translatedtitle">Flash spectroscopic characterization of photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in isolated heterocysts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Houchins, J.P.; Hind, G.</p> <p>1983-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> was studied in heterocysts of the filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena 7120 using spectral and kinetic analysis of absorbance transients elicited by single turnover flashes. Consistent photosynthetic turnovers were observed only in the presence of an exogenous source of reductant; therefore measurements were routinely made under a gas phase containing H2. Prominent absorbance changes corresponding to the oxidation of cytochrome c (554 nm) and the reduction of cytochrome b563 (563 nm) were observed. Under the most reducing conditions (99% H2/1% O2) cytochrome b563 was partially reduced between flashes in a slow, dark reaction. At 10-15% O2, the slow, dark reduction of cytochrome b563 was eliminated. Cytochrome turnover ceased entirely at high O2 concentrations (30%) but was restored by the addition of 25 microM KCN, demonstrating an interaction between the photosynthetic and respiratory <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer chains. Strobilurin A slowed the re-reduction of cytochrome c and eliminated the appearance of reduced cytochrome b563 by blocking <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer between reduced plastoquinone and the cytochrome b/f complex. Inhibition at a second site was apparent with 2-(n-heptyl)-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, which blocked the reoxidation of cytochrome b563 but had little effect on cytochrome c relaxation. In uncoupled heterocysts, the rates of cytochrome c re-reduction and cytochrome b563 reduction were equal. Additional unassigned absorbance changes at 475 nm, 515 nm, and 572 nm were partially characterized. No absorbance change corresponding to an electrochromic shift was observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PlPhR..42..713G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PlPhR..42..713G"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam formation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a gas-filled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-optical system with a plasma emitter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grishkov, A. A.; Kornilov, S. Yu.; Rempe, N. G.; Shidlovskiy, S. V.; Shklyaev, V. A.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The results of computer simulations of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-optical system of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> gun with a plasma emitter are presented. The simulations are performed using the KOBRA3-INP, XOOPIC, and ANSYS codes. The results describe the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam formation and <span class="hlt">transport</span>. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> trajectories are analyzed. The mechanisms of gas influence on the energy inhomogeneity of the beam and its current in the regions of beam primary formation, acceleration, and <span class="hlt">transport</span> are described. Recommendations for optimizing the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-optical system with a plasma emitter are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22218181','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22218181"><span id="translatedtitle">Biochar pyrolyzed at two temperatures <span class="hlt">affects</span> Escherichia coli <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a sandy soil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bolster, Carl H; Abit, Sergio M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The incorporation of biochar into soils has been proposed as a means to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. An added environmental benefit is that biochar has also been shown to increase soil retention of nutrients, heavy metals, and pesticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether biochar amendments <span class="hlt">affect</span> the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of Escherichia coli through a water-saturated soil. We looked at the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of three E. coli isolates through 10-cm columns packed with a fine sandy soil amended with 2 or 10% (w/w) poultry litter biochar pyrolyzed at 350 or 700°C. For all three isolates, mixing the high-temperature biochar at a rate of 2% into the soil had no impact on <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior. When added at a rate of 10%, a reduction of five orders of magnitude in the amount of E. coli <span class="hlt">transported</span> through the soil was observed for two of the isolates, and a 60% reduction was observed for the third isolate. Mixing the low-temperature biochar into the soil resulted in enhanced <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the soil for two of the isolates, whereas no significant differences in <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior were observed between the low-temperature and high-temperature biochar amendments for one isolate. Our results show that the addition of biochar can <span class="hlt">affect</span> the retention and <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior of E. coli and that biochar application rate, biochar pyrolysis temperature, and bacterial surface characteristics were important factors determining the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of E. coli through our test soil. PMID:22218181</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109o2904O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109o2904O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and dielectric breakdown in silicon nitride using a charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogden, Sean P.; Lu, Toh-Ming; Plawsky, Joel L.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Silicon nitride is an important material used in the <span class="hlt">electronics</span> industry. As such, the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and reliability of these materials are important to study and understand. We report on a charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> model to predict leakage current and failure trends based on previously published data for a stoichiometric silicon nitride dielectric. Failure occurs when the defect density increases to a critical value of approximately 6 × 1025 traps/m3. The model's parameters are determined using voltage ramp data only, and yet, the model is also able to predict constant voltage stress failure over a time scale ranging from minutes to months. The successful fit of the model to the experimental data validates our assumption that the dominant defect in the dielectric is the Si dangling bond, located approximately 2.2 eV below the conduction band. A comparison with previous SiCOH simulations shows SiN and SiCOH have similar defect-related material properties. It is also speculated that, based on the estimated parameter values of 2.75 eV for the defect formation activation energy, the materials' TDDB wear-out are caused by broken Si-H bonds, resulting in Si dangling bond defects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9756345','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9756345"><span id="translatedtitle">Pulse exposure of cultured rat neurons to aluminum-maltol <span class="hlt">affected</span> the axonal <span class="hlt">transport</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kashiwagi, Y; Nakamura, Y; Miyamae, Y; Hashimoto, R; Takeda, M</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>Although chronic aluminum neurotoxicity has been well established, the mechanism of the toxicity has not been elucidated yet. In order to simplify the study of the aluminum neurotoxicity, we employed the pulse exposure of cultured rat cortical neurons to 250 microM aluminum-maltol for 1 h at the early stage (6 h after plating), which resulted in abnormal distribution of neurofilament L (NFL) and fast axonal <span class="hlt">transported</span> proteins, whereas the axonal <span class="hlt">transport</span> of tubulin, actin, and clathrin were not impaired. Otherwise, the pulse exposure of neurons at the late stage (4 days after plating) to the same concentration of aluminum-maltol did not <span class="hlt">affect</span> the cell morphology and the distribution of NFL. The pulse exposure of cultured neurons to aluminum-maltol at the early stage might <span class="hlt">affect</span> the axonal <span class="hlt">transport</span> system of NFL and fast axonal <span class="hlt">transported</span> proteins. PMID:9756345</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..359..153B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApSS..359..153B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Ti3C2 MXene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berdiyorov, G. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>MXenes are found to be promising electrode materials for energy storage applications. Recent theoretical and experimental studies indicate the possibility of using these novel low dimensional materials for metal-ion batteries. Herein, we use density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism to study the effect of lithium and sodium ion adsorption on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the MXene, Ti3C2. Oxygen, hydroxyl and fluorine terminated species are considered and the obtained results are compared with the ones for the pristine MXene. We found that the ion adsorption results in reduced <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the pristine MXene: depending on the type of the ions and the bias voltage, the current in the system can be reduced by more than 30%. On the other hand, <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the oxygen terminated sample can be improved by the ion adsorption: for both types of ions the current in the system can be increased by more than a factor of 4. However, the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is less <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the ions in fluorinated and hydroxylated samples. These two samples show enhanced <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> as compared to the pristine MXene. The obtained results are explained in terms of <span class="hlt">electron</span> localization in the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93s5401K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93s5401K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristic lengths for three-carrier <span class="hlt">transport</span> with spin-flip and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-hole recombination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krcmar, Maja; Saslow, Wayne M.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The exact solution of the linearized, steady-state <span class="hlt">transport</span> equation for three-carrier systems, such as can occur for semiconductors and ionic conductors, is constructed starting from the near-equilibrium entropy-production requirements of irreversible thermodynamics. Three characteristic modes are found, one associated with electrostatic screening (which is often neglected), and two modes associated with diffusion and "reactions." For a spintronics model with up and down <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and unpolarized holes, the "reactions" are spin-flip and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-hole recombination. We discuss how the variations in carrier density, diffusivity, recombination rate, and spin relaxation time <span class="hlt">affect</span> the characteristic lengths. We apply these modes to study spin-polarized surface photoabsorption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26799596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26799596"><span id="translatedtitle">Stacking Fault Enriching the <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Properties of Few-Layer Phosphorenes and Black Phosphorus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lei, Shuangying; Wang, Han; Huang, Lan; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai</p> <p>2016-02-10</p> <p>Interface engineering is critical for enriching the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of two-dimensional materials. Here, we identify a new stacking, named Aδ, in few-layer phosphorenes (FLPs) and black phosphorus (BP) based on first-principles calculation. With its low formation energy, the Aδ stacking could exist in FLPs and BP as a stacking fault. The presence of the Aδ stacking fault induces a direct to indirect transition of the band gap in FLPs. It also <span class="hlt">affects</span> the carrier mobilities by significantly increasing the carrier effective masses. More importantly, the Aδ stacking enables the fabrication of a whole spectrum of lateral junctions with all the type-I, II, and III alignments simply through the manipulation of the van der Waals stacking without resorting to any chemical modification. This is achieved by the widely tunable <span class="hlt">electron</span> affinity and ionization potential of FLPs and BP with the Aδ stacking. PMID:26799596</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26799596','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26799596"><span id="translatedtitle">Stacking Fault Enriching the <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Properties of Few-Layer Phosphorenes and Black Phosphorus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lei, Shuangying; Wang, Han; Huang, Lan; Sun, Yi-Yang; Zhang, Shengbai</p> <p>2016-02-10</p> <p>Interface engineering is critical for enriching the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of two-dimensional materials. Here, we identify a new stacking, named Aδ, in few-layer phosphorenes (FLPs) and black phosphorus (BP) based on first-principles calculation. With its low formation energy, the Aδ stacking could exist in FLPs and BP as a stacking fault. The presence of the Aδ stacking fault induces a direct to indirect transition of the band gap in FLPs. It also <span class="hlt">affects</span> the carrier mobilities by significantly increasing the carrier effective masses. More importantly, the Aδ stacking enables the fabrication of a whole spectrum of lateral junctions with all the type-I, II, and III alignments simply through the manipulation of the van der Waals stacking without resorting to any chemical modification. This is achieved by the widely tunable <span class="hlt">electron</span> affinity and ionization potential of FLPs and BP with the Aδ stacking.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PPCF...57i5004G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PPCF...57i5004G"><span id="translatedtitle">Spontaneous versus induced hydrogen and deuterium helical shaped plasmas with <span class="hlt">electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barriers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gobbin, M.; Franz, P.; Auriemma, F.; Lorenzini, R.; Marrelli, L.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barriers (eITBs) in high current plasmas with helical equilibria of the reversed field pinch experiment RFX-mod are analyzed and characterized in detail thanks to a high time resolution double filter diagnostic for the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature spatial profile determination. The large amount of data provided by this diagnostic has required the development of dedicated algorithms and the identification of suitable parameters, reported and described in this paper, in order to perform automatic statistical studies. These numerical tools have been used to examine the effect of three dimensional (3D) magnetic fields applied by the RFX-mod 192 active coils in deuterium and hydrogen discharges with the aim to improve the sustainment and control of helical equilibria with eITBs. It is shown that 3D fields partially increase the occurring of helical states but with only a moderate effect on the eITBs duration; moreover, they have a different impact on the confinement properties in hydrogen and deuterium discharges. Numerical simulations, by the Hamiltonian guiding center code ORBIT, investigate the effect of magnetic topology in plasmas with and without the application of 3D fields on deuterium and hydrogen test ions <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Results from numerical studies are in agreement with estimates of the particle confinement times showing that particle <span class="hlt">transport</span> is reduced in deuterium plasmas but not significantly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the application of helical boundary conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874817"><span id="translatedtitle">Facilities, breed and experience <span class="hlt">affect</span> ease of sheep handling: the livestock <span class="hlt">transporter</span>'s perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock <span class="hlt">transporter</span>. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock <span class="hlt">transporters</span> discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. <span class="hlt">Transporters</span> demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock <span class="hlt">transporters</span> strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and <span class="hlt">transport</span>) and breed. <span class="hlt">Transporters</span> also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874817','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25874817"><span id="translatedtitle">Facilities, breed and experience <span class="hlt">affect</span> ease of sheep handling: the livestock <span class="hlt">transporter</span>'s perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burnard, C L; Pitchford, W S; Hocking Edwards, J E; Hazel, S J</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>An understanding of the perceived importance of a variety of factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the ease of handling of sheep and the interactions between these factors is valuable in improving profitability and welfare of the livestock. Many factors may contribute to animal behaviour during handling, and traditionally these factors have been assessed in isolation under experimental conditions. A human social component to this phenomenon also exists. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the importance of a variety of factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> ease of handling, and the interactions between these from the perspective of the livestock <span class="hlt">transporter</span>. Qualitative interviews were used to investigate the factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> sheep behaviour during handling. Interview transcripts underwent thematic analysis. Livestock <span class="hlt">transporters</span> discussed the effects of attitudes and behaviours towards sheep, helpers, facilities, distractions, environment, dogs and a variety of sheep factors including breed, preparation, experience and sex on sheep behaviour during handling. <span class="hlt">Transporters</span> demonstrated care and empathy and stated that patience and experience were key factors determining how a person might deal with difficult sheep. Livestock <span class="hlt">transporters</span> strongly believed facilities (ramps and yards) had the greatest impact, followed by sheep experience (naivety of the sheep to handling and <span class="hlt">transport</span>) and breed. <span class="hlt">Transporters</span> also discussed the effects of distractions, time of day, weather, dogs, other people, sheep preparation, body condition and sheep sex on ease of handling. The concept of individual sheep temperament was indirectly expressed. PMID:25874817</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017486','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70017486"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupling of hydrologic <span class="hlt">transport</span> and chemical reactions in a stream <span class="hlt">affected</span> by acid mine drainage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kimball, B.A.; Broshears, R.E.; Bencala, K.E.; McKnight, Diane M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Experiments in St. Kevin Gulch, an acid mine drainage stream, examined the coupling of hydrologic <span class="hlt">transport</span> to chemical reactions <span class="hlt">affecting</span> metal concentrations. Injection of LiCl as a conservative tracer was used to determine discharge and residence time along a 1497-m reach. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of metals downstream from inflows of acidic, metal-rich water was evaluated based on synoptic samples of metal concentrations and the hydrologic characteristics of the stream. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of SO4 and Mn was generally conservative, but in the subreaches most <span class="hlt">affected</span> by acidic inflows, <span class="hlt">transport</span> was reactive. Both 0.1-??m filtered and particulate Fe were reactive over most of the stream reach. Filtered Al partitioned to the particulate phase in response to high instream concentrations. Simulations that accounted for the removal of SO4, Mn, Fe, and Al with first-order reactions reproduced the steady-state profiles. The calculated rate constants for net removal used in the simulations embody several processes that occur on a stream-reach scale. The comparison between rates of hydrologie <span class="hlt">transport</span> and chemical reactions indicates that reactions are only important over short distances in the stream near the acidic inflows, where reactions occur on a comparable time scale with hydrologic <span class="hlt">transport</span> and thus <span class="hlt">affect</span> metal concentrations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JAP....83.3207B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JAP....83.3207B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across metal/discotic liquid crystal interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boden, N.; Bushby, R. J.; Clements, J.; Movaghar, B.</p> <p>1998-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across micron thick films of columnar hexagonal discotic liquid crystal phases homeotropically aligned between metal electrode surfaces has been studied both experimentally and theoretically. These molecules are unique in their combination of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> along individual molecular columns with liquidlike self-organization. Typical of organic insulators, a high resistance Ohmic regime is evident at fields of less than 0.05 MV cm-1, due to a low concentration of chemical impurities (n<109cm-3), and a space-charge injection regime at higher fields. Breakdown fields are reasonably high: in hexakis(hexyloxy)triphenylene they reach ˜5 MV cm-1 at room temperature. Our results show that triphenylene-based discotics form an excellent class of highly ordered optically transparent insulators. At high temperatures and high fields the current is injection controlled and exhibits typical tunneling and space charge limited, nonlinear I-V characteristics. Dramatic jumps in injection currents are observed at phase transitions. The change at the crystalline to liquid crystalline phase transition is mainly due to more efficient "wetting" of the electrode surface in the liquid crystalline phase, whilst at the liquid crystalline to isotropic phase transition it arises from the enhancement in the molecular mobility. The concepts of semiconducting gaps, band mobilities, and carrier injection rates are extended to these new materials. The experimental observations are interpreted in a framework which takes into account the important role played by liquidlike dynamics in establishing the microscopic structural order in, what is, otherwise a highly anisotropic and weakly bonded "molecular crystal."</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT........72B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT........72B"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlinear quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> in low-dimensional <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrios, Andres Javier</p> <p></p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes in low-dimensional semiconductors requires a rigorous quantum mechanical treatment. However, a full-fledged quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> theory of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (or holes) in semiconductors of small scale, applicable in the presence of external fields of arbitrary strength, is still not available. In the literature, different approaches have been proposed, including: (a) the semiclassical Boltzmann equation, (b) perturbation theory based on Keldysh's Green functions, and (c) the Quantum Boltzmann Equation (QBE), previously derived by Van Vliet and coworkers, applicable in the realm of Kubo's Linear Response Theory (LRT). In the present work, we follow the method originally proposed by Van Wet in LRT. The Hamiltonian in this approach is of the form: H = H 0(E, B) + lambdaV, where H0 contains the externally applied fields, and lambdaV includes many-body interactions. This Hamiltonian differs from the LRT Hamiltonian, H = H0 - AF(t) + lambdaV, which contains the external field in the field-response part, -AF(t). For the nonlinear problem, the eigenfunctions of the system Hamiltonian, H0(E, B), include the external fields without any limitation on strength. In Part A of this dissertation, both the diagonal and nondiagonal Master equations are obtained after applying projection operators to the von Neumann equation for the density operator in the interaction picture, and taking the Van Hove limit, (lambda → 0, t → infinity, so that (lambda2 t)n remains finite). Similarly, the many-body current operator J is obtained from the Heisenberg equation of motion. In Part B, the Quantum Boltzmann Equation is obtained in the occupation-number representation for an <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas, interacting with phonons or impurities. On the one-body level, the current operator obtained in Part A leads to the Generalized Calecki current for electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary strength. Furthermore, in this part, the LRT results for the current and conductance are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Nanot..27H5503P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016Nanot..27H5503P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface trap mediated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in biofunctionalized silicon nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puppo, F.; Traversa, F. L.; Di Ventra, M.; De Micheli, G.; Carrara, S.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Silicon nanowires (SiNWs), fabricated via a top-down approach and then functionalized with biological probes, are used for electrically-based sensing of breast tumor markers. The SiNWs, featuring memristive-like behavior in bare conditions, show, in the presence of biomarkers, modified hysteresis and, more importantly, a voltage memory component, namely a voltage gap. The voltage gap is demonstrated to be a novel and powerful parameter of detection thanks to its high-resolution dependence on charges in proximity of the wire. This unique approach of sensing has never been studied and adopted before. Here, we propose a physical model of the surface <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Schottky barrier SiNW biosensors, aiming at reproducing and understanding the voltage gap based behavior. The implemented model describes well the experimental I–V characteristics of the device. It also links the modification of the voltage gap to the changing concentration of antigens by showing the decrease of this parameter in response to increasing concentrations of the molecules that are detected with femtomolar resolution in real human samples. Both experiments and simulations highlight the predominant role of the dynamic recombination of the nanowire surface states, with the incoming external charges from bio-species, in the appearance and modification of the voltage gap. Finally, thanks to its compactness, and strict correlation with the physics of the nanodevice, this model can be used to describe and predict the I–V characteristics in other nanostructured devices, for different than antibody-based sensing as well as <span class="hlt">electronic</span> applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27418560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27418560"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface trap mediated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in biofunctionalized silicon nanowires.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Puppo, F; Traversa, F L; Ventra, M Di; Micheli, G De; Carrara, S</p> <p>2016-08-26</p> <p>Silicon nanowires (SiNWs), fabricated via a top-down approach and then functionalized with biological probes, are used for electrically-based sensing of breast tumor markers. The SiNWs, featuring memristive-like behavior in bare conditions, show, in the presence of biomarkers, modified hysteresis and, more importantly, a voltage memory component, namely a voltage gap. The voltage gap is demonstrated to be a novel and powerful parameter of detection thanks to its high-resolution dependence on charges in proximity of the wire. This unique approach of sensing has never been studied and adopted before. Here, we propose a physical model of the surface <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Schottky barrier SiNW biosensors, aiming at reproducing and understanding the voltage gap based behavior. The implemented model describes well the experimental I-V characteristics of the device. It also links the modification of the voltage gap to the changing concentration of antigens by showing the decrease of this parameter in response to increasing concentrations of the molecules that are detected with femtomolar resolution in real human samples. Both experiments and simulations highlight the predominant role of the dynamic recombination of the nanowire surface states, with the incoming external charges from bio-species, in the appearance and modification of the voltage gap. Finally, thanks to its compactness, and strict correlation with the physics of the nanodevice, this model can be used to describe and predict the I-V characteristics in other nanostructured devices, for different than antibody-based sensing as well as <span class="hlt">electronic</span> applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27H5503P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Nanot..27H5503P"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface trap mediated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in biofunctionalized silicon nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Puppo, F.; Traversa, F. L.; Di Ventra, M.; De Micheli, G.; Carrara, S.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Silicon nanowires (SiNWs), fabricated via a top-down approach and then functionalized with biological probes, are used for electrically-based sensing of breast tumor markers. The SiNWs, featuring memristive-like behavior in bare conditions, show, in the presence of biomarkers, modified hysteresis and, more importantly, a voltage memory component, namely a voltage gap. The voltage gap is demonstrated to be a novel and powerful parameter of detection thanks to its high-resolution dependence on charges in proximity of the wire. This unique approach of sensing has never been studied and adopted before. Here, we propose a physical model of the surface <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Schottky barrier SiNW biosensors, aiming at reproducing and understanding the voltage gap based behavior. The implemented model describes well the experimental I-V characteristics of the device. It also links the modification of the voltage gap to the changing concentration of antigens by showing the decrease of this parameter in response to increasing concentrations of the molecules that are detected with femtomolar resolution in real human samples. Both experiments and simulations highlight the predominant role of the dynamic recombination of the nanowire surface states, with the incoming external charges from bio-species, in the appearance and modification of the voltage gap. Finally, thanks to its compactness, and strict correlation with the physics of the nanodevice, this model can be used to describe and predict the I-V characteristics in other nanostructured devices, for different than antibody-based sensing as well as <span class="hlt">electronic</span> applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22341856','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22341856"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in gamma ray exposed nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gehlawat, Devender Chauhan, R.P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Graphical abstract: A sharp decline in the I–V characteristics of Cu (and Cd) nanowires was experimentally observed after the gamma ray exposure of nanowires. Irradiation induced transformations in the granular properties and the resonance state of electron–phonon coupling beyond a particular value of external field may be accountable for observed shape of I–V characteristics in gamma ray exposed nanowires. - Highlights: • Cu and Cd nanowires were synthesized by technique of electrodeposition in templates. • The nanowires were exposed to different doses of gamma ray photons. • A sharp decline in the current in I–V characteristics (IVC) was observed. • Structural deviation in terms of granular orientations was also analysed. • The electron–phonon coupling may be responsible for observed sharp decline in IVC. - Abstract: One dimensional nanostructures provide the most restricted and narrow channel for the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of charge carriers and therefore 1D structures preserve their significance from the viewpoint of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices. The net radiation effect on nanomaterials is expected to be more (due to their increased reactivity and lesser bulk volume) than their bulk counterparts. Radiation often modifies the structure and simultaneously the other physical properties of materials. In this manner, the irradiation phenomenon could be counted as a strong criterion to induce changes in the structural and electrical properties of nanowires. We have studied the effect of gamma rays on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> flow through Cu and Cd nanowires by plotting their I–V characteristics (IVC). The IVC of gamma ray exposed nanowires was found to be a combination of the linear and nonlinear regions and a decreasing pattern in the electrical conductivity (calculated from the linear portion of IVC) was observed as we increased the dose of gamma rays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27418560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27418560"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface trap mediated <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in biofunctionalized silicon nanowires.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Puppo, F; Traversa, F L; Ventra, M Di; Micheli, G De; Carrara, S</p> <p>2016-08-26</p> <p>Silicon nanowires (SiNWs), fabricated via a top-down approach and then functionalized with biological probes, are used for electrically-based sensing of breast tumor markers. The SiNWs, featuring memristive-like behavior in bare conditions, show, in the presence of biomarkers, modified hysteresis and, more importantly, a voltage memory component, namely a voltage gap. The voltage gap is demonstrated to be a novel and powerful parameter of detection thanks to its high-resolution dependence on charges in proximity of the wire. This unique approach of sensing has never been studied and adopted before. Here, we propose a physical model of the surface <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Schottky barrier SiNW biosensors, aiming at reproducing and understanding the voltage gap based behavior. The implemented model describes well the experimental I-V characteristics of the device. It also links the modification of the voltage gap to the changing concentration of antigens by showing the decrease of this parameter in response to increasing concentrations of the molecules that are detected with femtomolar resolution in real human samples. Both experiments and simulations highlight the predominant role of the dynamic recombination of the nanowire surface states, with the incoming external charges from bio-species, in the appearance and modification of the voltage gap. Finally, thanks to its compactness, and strict correlation with the physics of the nanodevice, this model can be used to describe and predict the I-V characteristics in other nanostructured devices, for different than antibody-based sensing as well as <span class="hlt">electronic</span> applications. PMID:27418560</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627049F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...627049F"><span id="translatedtitle">Defect engineering of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through cuprous oxide interlayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fadlallah, Mohamed M.; Eckern, Ulrich; Schwingenschlögl, Udo</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through Au–(Cu2O)n–Au junctions is investigated using first-principles calculations and the nonequilibrium Green’s function method. The effect of varying the thickness (i.e., n) is studied as well as that of point defects and anion substitution. For all Cu2O thicknesses the conductance is more enhanced by bulk-like (in contrast to near-interface) defects, with the exception of O vacancies and Cl substitutional defects. A similar transmission behavior results from Cu deficiency and N substitution, as well as from Cl substitution and N interstitials for thick Cu2O junctions. In agreement with recent experimental observations, it is found that N and Cl doping enhances the conductance. A Frenkel defect, i.e., a superposition of an O interstitial and O substitutional defect, leads to a remarkably high conductance. From the analysis of the defect formation energies, Cu vacancies are found to be particularly stable, in agreement with earlier experimental and theoretical work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6067021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6067021"><span id="translatedtitle">Considerations of beta and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in internal dose calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bolch, W.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>Ionizing radiation has broad uses in modern science and medicine. These uses often require the calculation of energy deposition in the irradiated media and, usually, the medium of interest is the human body. Energy deposition from radioactive sources within the human body and the effects of such deposition are considered in the field of internal dosimetry. In July of 1988, a three-year research project was initiated by the Nuclear Engineering Department at Texas A M University under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The main thrust of the research was to consider, for the first time, the detailed spatial <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and beta particles in the estimation of average organ doses under the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. At the present time (December of 1990), research activities are continuing within five areas. Several are new initiatives begun within the second or third year of the current contract period. They include: (1) development of small-scale dosimetry; (2) development of a differential volume phantom; (3) development of a dosimetric bone model; (4) assessment of the new ICRP lung model; and (5) studies into the mechanisms of DNA damage. A progress report is given for each of these tasks within the Comprehensive Report. In each use, preliminary results are very encouraging and plans for further research are detailed within this document. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4891735','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4891735"><span id="translatedtitle">Defect engineering of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through cuprous oxide interlayers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fadlallah, Mohamed M.; Eckern, Ulrich; Schwingenschlögl, Udo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through Au–(Cu2O)n–Au junctions is investigated using first-principles calculations and the nonequilibrium Green’s function method. The effect of varying the thickness (i.e., n) is studied as well as that of point defects and anion substitution. For all Cu2O thicknesses the conductance is more enhanced by bulk-like (in contrast to near-interface) defects, with the exception of O vacancies and Cl substitutional defects. A similar transmission behavior results from Cu deficiency and N substitution, as well as from Cl substitution and N interstitials for thick Cu2O junctions. In agreement with recent experimental observations, it is found that N and Cl doping enhances the conductance. A Frenkel defect, i.e., a superposition of an O interstitial and O substitutional defect, leads to a remarkably high conductance. From the analysis of the defect formation energies, Cu vacancies are found to be particularly stable, in agreement with earlier experimental and theoretical work. PMID:27256905</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1200859-electronic-transport-two-dimensional-high-dielectric-constant-nanosystems','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1200859-electronic-transport-two-dimensional-high-dielectric-constant-nanosystems"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.</p> <p>2015-04-10</p> <p>There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screeningmore » length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........42Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhDT........42Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of N-type semiconductor nanocrystalline solids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yu, Dong</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>A bottleneck limiting the widespread applications of semiconductor nanocrystalline solids on optoelectronic devices such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting devices and quantum dots lasers is their poor conductivity. In this thesis, we show that the conductivity of thin films of CdSe nanocrystals is increased by many orders of magnitude when n-doped either by potassium or electrochemistry. Around half-filling of the first <span class="hlt">electronic</span> shell, a peak in the conductivity is observed indicating shell to shell <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Introducing conjugated ligands between nanocrystals increases the conductivities to ˜10-2 S cm. NaOH treatment of the thin films leads to a large carrier mobility and a semiconductor nanocrystals field effect transistor is produced. The temperature and electrical field dependent conductivity of n-type CdSe nanocrystal thin films is then investigated. The low field conductivity follows exp(-(T*/T)-1/2 ) and high field conductivity follows exp(-(E*/ E)-1/2). The complete behavior is very well described by the variable range hopping theory with a Coulomb gap. Finally, n-type colloidal CdSe nanocrystalline solids show large positive magnetoresistance at low temperatures (0.3K--4K). We attempted to dope Manganese (II) ions in nanocrystals, which might show interesting negative magnetoresistance. However, they still show similar positive magnetoresistance probably due to the difficulty of Mn doping. At ˜0.3K the resistance is increased by ˜150% at 10 Tesla.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6067078','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6067078"><span id="translatedtitle">Considerations of beta and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in internal dose calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bolch, W.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>Ionizing radiation has broad uses in modern science and medicine. These uses often require the calculation of energy deposition in the irradiated media and, usually, the medium of interest is the human body. Energy deposition from radioactive sources within the human body and the effects of such deposition are considered in the field of internal dosimetry. In July of 1988, a three-year research project was initiated by the Nuclear Engineering Department at Texas A M University under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The main thrust of the research was to consider, for the first time, the detailed spatial <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electron</span> and beta particles in the estimation of average organ doses under the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) schema. At the present time (December of 1990), research activities are continuing within five areas. Several are new initiatives begun within the second or third year of the current contract period. They include: (1) development of small-scale dosimetry; (2) development of a differential volume phantom; (3) development of a dosimetric bone model; (4) assessment of the new ICRP lung model; and (5) studies into the mechanisms of DNA damage. A progress report is given for each of these tasks within the Comprehensive Report. In each case, preliminary results are very encouraging and plans for further research are detailed within this document.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E9667O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E9667O"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1200859','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1200859"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.</p> <p>2015-04-10</p> <p>There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990071231','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990071231"><span id="translatedtitle">Inner Magnetospheric Superthermal <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span>: Photoelectron and Plasma Sheet <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Kozyra, J. U.; Moore, T. E.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Two time-dependent kinetic models of superthermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> are combined to conduct global calculations of the nonthermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> distribution function throughout the inner magnetosphere. It is shown that the energy range of validity for this combined model extends down to the superthermal-thermal intersection at a few eV, allowing for the calculation of the en- tire distribution function and thus an accurate heating rate to the thermal plasma. Because of the linearity of the formulas, the source terms are separated to calculate the distributions from the various populations, namely photoelectrons (PEs) and plasma sheet <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (PSEs). These distributions are discussed in detail, examining the processes responsible for their formation in the various regions of the inner magnetosphere. It is shown that convection, corotation, and Coulomb collisions are the dominant processes in the formation of the PE distribution function and that PSEs are dominated by the interplay between the drift terms. Of note is that the PEs propagate around the nightside in a narrow channel at the edge of the plasmasphere as Coulomb collisions reduce the fluxes inside of this and convection compresses the flux tubes inward. These distributions are then recombined to show the development of the total superthermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> distribution function in the inner magnetosphere and their influence on the thermal plasma. PEs usually dominate the dayside heating, with integral energy fluxes to the ionosphere reaching 10(exp 10) eV/sq cm/s in the plasmasphere, while heating from the PSEs typically does not exceed 10(exp 8) eV/sq cm/s. On the nightside, the inner plasmasphere is usually unheated by superthermal <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. A feature of these combined spectra is that the distribution often has upward slopes with energy, particularly at the crossover from PE to PSE dominance, indicating that instabilities are possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185679-defect-mediated-transport-electronic-irradiation-effect-individual-domains-cvd-grown-monolayer-mos2','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1185679-defect-mediated-transport-electronic-irradiation-effect-individual-domains-cvd-grown-monolayer-mos2"><span id="translatedtitle">Defect-mediated <span class="hlt">transport</span> and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> irradiation effect in individual domains of CVD-grown monolayer MoS2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Durand, Corentin; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Fowlkes, Jason; Najmaei, Sina; Lou, Jun; Li, An -Ping</p> <p>2015-01-16</p> <p>We study the electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of atomically thin individual crystalline grains of MoS2 with four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy. The monolayer MoS2 domains are synthesized by chemical vapor deposition on SiO2/Si substrate. Temperature dependent measurements on conductance and mobility show that <span class="hlt">transport</span> is dominated by an <span class="hlt">electron</span> charge trapping and thermal release process with very low carrier density and mobility. The effects of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> irradiation are examined by exposing the film to <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam in the scanning <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscope in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. The irradiation process is found to significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> the mobility and the carrier density of themore » material, with the conductance showing a peculiar time-dependent relaxation behavior. It is suggested that the presence of defects in active MoS2 layer and dielectric layer create charge trapping sites, and a multiple trapping and thermal release process dictates the <span class="hlt">transport</span> and mobility characteristics. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam irradiation promotes the formation of defects and impact the electrical properties of MoS2. Finally, our study reveals the important roles of defects and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam irradiation effects in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties of atomic layers of MoS2.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/319673','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/319673"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> in improved confinement discharges in DIII-D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stallard, B.W.; Greenfield, C.M.; Staebler, G.M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>In DIII-D tokamak plasmas with an internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barrier (ITB), the comparison of gyrokinetic linear stability (GKS) predictions with experiments in both low and strong negative magnetic shear plasmas provide improved understanding for <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> within the plasma. Within a limited region just inside the ITB, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient (ETG) modes appear to control the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient and, consequently, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span>. The increase in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient with more strongly negative magnetic shear is consistent with the increase in the ETG mode marginal gradient. Closer to the magnetic axis the T{sub e} profile flattens and the ETG modes are predicted to be stable. With additional core <span class="hlt">electron</span> heating, FIR scattering measurements near the axis show the presence of high k fluctuations (12 cm{sup {minus}1}), rotating in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> diamagnetic drift direction. This turbulence could impact <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and possibly also ion <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Thermal diffusivities for <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, and to a lesser degree ions, increase. The ETG mode can exist at this wavenumber, but it is computed to be robustly stable near the axis. Consequently, in the plasmas the authors have examined, calculations of drift wave linear stability do not explain the observed <span class="hlt">transport</span> near the axis in plasmas with or without additional <span class="hlt">electron</span> heating, and there are probably other processes controlling <span class="hlt">transport</span> in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080544','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080544"><span id="translatedtitle">Oocyte aging-induced Neuronatin (NNAT) hypermethylation <span class="hlt">affects</span> oocyte quality by impairing glucose <span class="hlt">transport</span> in porcine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gao, Ying-Ying; Chen, Li; Wang, Tao; Nie, Zheng-Wen; Zhang, Xia; Miao, Yi-Liang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>DNA methylation plays important roles in regulating many physiological behaviors; however, few studies were focused on the changes of DNA methylation during oocyte aging. Early studies showed that some imprinted genes’ DNA methylation had been changed in aged mouse oocytes. In this study, we used porcine oocytes to test the hypothesis that oocyte aging would alter DNA methylation pattern of genes and disturb their expression in age oocytes, which <span class="hlt">affected</span> the developmental potential of oocytes. We compared several different types of genes and found that the expression and DNA methylation of Neuronatin (NNAT) were disturbed in aged oocytes significantly. Additional experiments demonstrated that glucose <span class="hlt">transport</span> was impaired in aged oocytes and injection of NNAT antibody into fresh oocytes led to the same effects on glucose <span class="hlt">transport</span>. These results suggest that the expression of NNAT was declined by elevating DNA methylation, which <span class="hlt">affected</span> oocyte quality by decreasing the ability of glucose <span class="hlt">transport</span> in aged oocytes. PMID:27782163</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=adobe&pg=3&id=EJ1068668','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=adobe&pg=3&id=EJ1068668"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Adobe Flash Animations of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Chain to Teach and Learn Biochemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Teaching the subject of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "<span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22037505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22037505"><span id="translatedtitle">Connexin-deficiency <span class="hlt">affects</span> expression levels of glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transporters</span> within the cerebrum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Unger, Tina; Bette, Stefanie; Zhang, Jiong; Theis, Martin; Engele, Jürgen</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transporter</span> subtypes, GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1 clear the bulk of extracellular glutamate and are severely dysregulated in various acute and chronic brain diseases. Despite the previous identification of several extracellular factors modulating glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transporter</span> expression, our knowledge of the regulatory network controlling glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transport</span> in health and disease still remains incomplete. In studies with cultured cortical astrocytes, we previously obtained evidence that glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transporter</span> expression is also <span class="hlt">affected</span> by gap junctions/connexins. To assess whether gap junctions would likewise control the in vivo expression of glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transporters</span>, we have now assessed their expression levels in brains of conditional Cx43 knockout mice, total Cx30 knockouts, as well as Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts. We found that either knocking out Cx30, Cx43, or both increases GLT-1/EAAT-2 protein levels in the cerebral cortex to a similar extent. By contrast, GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels maximally increased in cerebral cortices of Cx30/Cx43 double knockouts, implying that gap junctions differentially <span class="hlt">affect</span> the expression of GLT-1/EAAT-2 and GLAST/EAAT-1. Quantitative PCR analysis further revealed that increases in glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transporter</span> expression are brought about by transcriptional and translational/posttranslational processes. Moreover, GLT-1/EAAT-2- and GLAST/EAAT-1 protein levels remained unchanged in the hippocampi of Cx43/Cx30 double knockouts when compared to Cx43fl/fl controls, indicating brain region-specific effects of gap junctions on glial glutamate <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Since astrocytic gap junction coupling is <span class="hlt">affected</span> in various forms of brain injuries, our findings point to gap junctions/connexins as important regulators of glial glutamate turnover in the diseased cerebral cortex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015193','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015193"><span id="translatedtitle">DIRECT COMPARISON OF KINETIC AND LOCAL EQUILIBRIUM FORMULATIONS FOR SOLUTE <span class="hlt">TRANSPORT</span> <span class="hlt">AFFECTED</span> BY SURFACE REACTIONS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bahr, Jean M.; Rubin, Jacob</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Modeling <span class="hlt">transport</span> of reacting solutes in porous media often requires a choice between models based on the local equilibrium assumption (LEA) and models involving reaction kinetics. Direct comparison of the mathematical formulations for these two types of <span class="hlt">transport</span> models can aid in this choice. For cases of <span class="hlt">transport</span> <span class="hlt">affected</span> by surface reaction, such a comparison is made possible by a new derivation procedure. This procedure yields a kinetics-based formulation that is the sum of the LEA formulation and one or more kinetically influenced terms. The dimensionless form of the new kinetics-based formulation facilitates identification of critical parameter groupings which control the approach to <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior consistent with LEA model predictions. Results of numerical experiments demonstrate that criteria for LEA applicability can be expressed conveniently in terms of these parameter groupings. The derivation procedure is demonstrated for examples of surface reactions including first-order reversible sorption, Langmuir-type kinetics and binary, homovalent ion exchange.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatPh..12..499J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatPh..12..499J"><span id="translatedtitle">Visualizing fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> into laser-compressed high-density fast-ignition targets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jarrott, L. C.; Wei, M. S.; McGuffey, C.; Solodov, A. A.; Theobald, W.; Qiao, B.; Stoeckl, C.; Betti, R.; Chen, H.; Delettrez, J.; Döppner, T.; Giraldez, E. M.; Glebov, V. Y.; Habara, H.; Iwawaki, T.; Key, M. H.; Luo, R. W.; Marshall, F. J.; McLean, H. S.; Mileham, C.; Patel, P. K.; Santos, J. J.; Sawada, H.; Stephens, R. B.; Yabuuchi, T.; Beg, F. N.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Recent progress in kilojoule-scale high-intensity lasers has opened up new areas of research in radiography, laboratory astrophysics, high-energy-density physics, and fast-ignition (FI) laser fusion. FI requires efficient heating of pre-compressed high-density fuel by an intense relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam produced from laser-matter interaction. Understanding the details of <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam generation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> is crucial for FI. Here we report on the first visualization of fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> spatial energy deposition in a laser-compressed cone-in-shell FI target, facilitated by doping the shell with copper and imaging the K-shell radiation. Multi-scale simulations accompanying the experiments clearly show the location of fast <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and reveal key parameters <span class="hlt">affecting</span> energy coupling. The approach provides a more direct way to infer energy coupling and guide experimental designs that significantly improve the laser-to-core coupling to 7%. Our findings lay the groundwork for further improving efficiency, with 15% energy coupling predicted in FI experiments using an existing megajoule-scale laser driver.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10407069','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10407069"><span id="translatedtitle">Mutations in the white gene of Drosophila melanogaster <span class="hlt">affecting</span> ABC <span class="hlt">transporters</span> that determine eye colouration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mackenzie, S M; Brooker, M R; Gill, T R; Cox, G B; Howells, A J; Ewart, G D</p> <p>1999-07-15</p> <p>The white, brown and scarlet genes of Drosophila melanogaster encode proteins which <span class="hlt">transport</span> guanine or tryptophan (precursors of the red and brown eye colour pigments) and belong to the ABC <span class="hlt">transporter</span> superfamily. Current models envisage that the white and brown gene products interact to form a guanine specific <span class="hlt">transporter</span>, while white and scarlet gene products interact to form a tryptophan <span class="hlt">transporter</span>. In this study, we report the nucleotide sequence of the coding regions of five white alleles isolated from flies with partially pigmented eyes. In all cases, single amino acid changes were identified, highlighting residues with roles in structure and/or function of the <span class="hlt">transporters</span>. Mutations in w(cf) (G589E) and w(sat) (F590G) occur at the extracellular end of predicted transmembrane helix 5 and correlate with a major decrease in red pigments in the eyes, while brown pigments are near wild-type levels. Therefore, those residues have a more significant role in the guanine <span class="hlt">transporter</span> than the tryptophan <span class="hlt">transporter</span>. Mutations identified in w(crr) (H298N) and w(101) (G243S) <span class="hlt">affect</span> amino acids which are highly conserved among the ABC <span class="hlt">transporter</span> superfamily within the nucleotide binding domain. Both cause substantial and similar decreases of red and brown pigments indicating that both tryptophan and guanine <span class="hlt">transport</span> are impaired. The mutation identified in w(Et87) alters an amino acid within an intracellular loop between transmembrane helices 2 and 3 of the predicted structure. Red and brown pigments are reduced to very low levels by this mutation indicating this loop region is important for the function of both guanine and tryptophan <span class="hlt">transporters</span>. PMID:10407069</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title41-vol3-sec102-118-65.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title41-vol3-sec102-118-65.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">41 CFR 102-118.65 - Can my agency receive <span class="hlt">electronic</span> billing for payment of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> services?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">electronic</span> billing for payment of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> services? 102-118.65 Section 102-118.65 Public Contracts and... <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services § 102-118.65 Can my agency receive <span class="hlt">electronic</span> billing for payment of <span class="hlt">transportation</span>... to use <span class="hlt">electronic</span> billing for the procurement and billing of <span class="hlt">transportation</span> services....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/411733','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/411733"><span id="translatedtitle">Multigroup Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> capability in MCNP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adams, K.J.; Hart, M.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The MCNP code system has a robust multigroup <span class="hlt">transport</span> capability that includes a Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (MGBFP) <span class="hlt">transport</span> algorithm to perform coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon or other coupled charged and neutral particle <span class="hlt">transport</span> in either a forward or adjoint mode. This paper discusses this capability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014NJPh...16g3014T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014NJPh...16g3014T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A reduced model for relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> in solids and dense plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Touati, M.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph; Santos, J. J.; Gremillet, L.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>A hybrid reduced model for relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> based on the angular moments of the relativistic kinetic equation with a special closure is presented. It takes into account collective effects with the self-generated electromagnetic fields as well as collisional effects with the slowing down of the relativistic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> by plasmons, bound and free <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and their angular scattering on both ions and <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. This model allows for fast computations of relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> while describing their energy distribution evolution. Despite the loss of information concerning the angular distribution of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam, the model reproduces analytical estimates in the academic case of a monodirectional and monoenergetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam propagating through a warm and dense plasma and hybrid particle-in-cell simulation results in a realistic laser-generated <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> case.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3572443','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3572443"><span id="translatedtitle">Hot <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a strongly correlated transition-metal oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rana, Kumari Gaurav; Yajima, Takeaki; Parui, Subir; Kemper, Alexander F.; Devereaux, Thomas P.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Hwang, Harold Y.; Banerjee, Tamalika</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Oxide heterointerfaces are ideal for investigating strong correlation effects to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, relevant for oxide-<span class="hlt">electronics</span>. Using hot-<span class="hlt">electrons</span>, we probe <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> perpendicular to the La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO)- Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) interface and find the characteristic hot-<span class="hlt">electron</span> attenuation length in LSMO to be 1.48 ± 0.10 unit cells (u.c.) at −1.9 V, increasing to 2.02 ± 0.16 u.c. at −1.3 V at room temperature. Theoretical analysis of this energy dispersion reveals the dominance of <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> and polaron scattering. Direct visualization of the local <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> shows different transmission at the terraces and at the step-edges. PMID:23429420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26574382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26574382"><span id="translatedtitle">Proton Dynamics on Goethite Nanoparticles and Coupling to <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zarzycki, Piotr; Smith, Dayle M; Rosso, Kevin M</p> <p>2015-04-14</p> <p>The surface chemistry of metal oxide particles is governed by the charge that develops at the interface with aqueous solution. Mineral transformation, biogeochemical reactions, remediation, and sorption dynamics are profoundly <span class="hlt">affected</span> in response. Here we report implementation of replica-exchange constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations that use classical molecular dynamics for exploring configurational space and Metropolis Monte Carlo walking through protonation space with a simulated annealing escape route from metastable configurations. By examining the archetypal metal oxide, goethite (α-FeOOH), we find that electrostatic potential gradients spontaneously arise between intersecting low-index crystal faces and across explicitly treated oxide nanoparticles at a magnitude exceeding the Johnson-Nyquist voltage fluctuation. Fluctuations in adsorbed proton density continuously repolarize the surface potential bias between edge-sharing crystal faces, at a rate slower than the reported <span class="hlt">electron</span>-polaron hopping rate in goethite interiors. This suggests that these spontaneous surface potential fluctuations will control the net movement of charge carriers in the lattice. PMID:26574382</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1096262','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1096262"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the presence of electric and magnetic fields.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fan, Wesley C.; Drumm, Clifton Russell; Pautz, Shawn D.; Turner, C. David</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>This report describes the theoretical background on modeling <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the presence of electric and magnetic fields by incorporating the effects of the Lorentz force on <span class="hlt">electron</span> motion into the Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span> equation. Electromagnetic fields alter the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy and trajectory continuously, and these effects can be characterized mathematically by differential operators in terms of <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy and direction. Numerical solution techniques, based on the discrete-ordinates and finite-element methods, are developed and implemented in an existing radiation <span class="hlt">transport</span> code, SCEPTRE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811113','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811113"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreased vesicular monoamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span> 2 (VMAT2) and dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span> (DAT) function in knockout mice <span class="hlt">affects</span> aging of dopaminergic systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hall, F. S.; Itokawa, K.; Schmitt, A.; Moessner, R.; Sora, I.; Lesch, K. P.; Uhl, G. R.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dopamine (DA) is accumulated and compartmentalized by the dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span> (DAT; SLC3A6) and the vesicular monoamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span> 2 (VMAT2; SLC18A2). These <span class="hlt">transporters</span> work at the plasma and vesicular membranes of dopaminergic neurons, respectively, and thus regulate levels of DA in neuronal compartments that include the extravesicular cytoplasmic compartment. DA in this compartment has been hypothesized to contribute to oxidative damage that can reduce the function of dopaminergic neurons in aging brains and may contribute to reductions in dopaminergic neurochemical markers, locomotor behavior and responses to dopaminergic drugs that are found in aged animals. The studies reported here examined aged mice with heterozygous deletions of VMAT2 or of DAT, which each reduce <span class="hlt">transporter</span> expression to about 50% of levels found in wild-type (WT) mice. Aged mice displayed reduced locomotor responses under a variety of circumstances, including in response to locomotor stimulants, as well as changes in monoamine levels and metabolites in a regionally dependent manner. Several effects of aging were more pronounced in heterozygous VMAT2 knockout (KO) mice, including aging induced reductions in locomotion and reduced locomotor responses to cocaine. By contrast, some effects of aging were reduced or not observed in heterozygous DAT KO mice. These findings support the idea that altered DAT and VMAT2 expression <span class="hlt">affect</span> age-related changes in dopaminergic function. These effects are most likely mediated by alterations in DA compartmentalization, and might be hypothesized to be more exacerbated by other factors that <span class="hlt">affect</span> the metabolism of cytosolic DA. PMID:23978383</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23698325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23698325"><span id="translatedtitle">Stepping stones in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from cells to electrodes in Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonanni, Pablo Sebastián; Massazza, Diego; Busalmen, Juan Pablo</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Geobacter sulfurreducens bacteria grow on biofilms and have the particular ability of using polarized electrodes as the final <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptor of their respiratory chain. In these biofilms, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are <span class="hlt">transported</span> through distances of more than 50 μm before reaching the electrode. The way in which <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are <span class="hlt">transported</span> across the biofilm matrix through such large distances remains under intense discussion. None of the two mechanisms proposed for explaining the process, <span class="hlt">electron</span> hopping through outer membrane cytochromes and metallic like conduction through conductive PilA filaments, can account for all the experimental evidence collected so far. Aiming at providing new elements for understanding the basis for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, in this perspective article we present a modelled structure of Geobacter pilus. Its analysis in combination with already existing experimental evidence gives support to the proposal of the "stepping stone" mechanism, in which the combined action of pili and cytochromes allows long range <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the biofilm. PMID:23698325</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4600454','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4600454"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychostimulants <span class="hlt">affect</span> dopamine transmission through both dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-dependent and independent mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-mediated reverse <span class="hlt">transport</span> and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>, non-dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further <span class="hlt">affect</span> the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26209364"><span id="translatedtitle">Psychostimulants <span class="hlt">affect</span> dopamine transmission through both dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-dependent and independent mechanisms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>dela Peña, Ike; Gevorkiana, Ruzanna; Shi, Wei-Xing</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The precise mechanisms by which cocaine and amphetamine-like psychostimulants exert their reinforcing effects are not yet fully defined. It is widely believed, however, that these drugs produce their effects by enhancing dopamine neurotransmission in the brain, especially in limbic areas such as the nucleus accumbens, by inducing dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-mediated reverse <span class="hlt">transport</span> and/or blocking dopamine reuptake though the dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>. Here, we present the evidence that aside from dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>, non-dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-mediated mechanisms also participate in psychostimulant-induced dopamine release and contribute to the behavioral effects of these drugs, such as locomotor activation and reward. Accordingly, psychostimulants could increase norepinephrine release in the prefrontal cortex, the latter then alters the firing pattern of dopamine neurons resulting in changes in action potential-dependent dopamine release. These alterations would further <span class="hlt">affect</span> the temporal pattern of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, thereby modifying information processing in that area. Hence, a synaptic input to a nucleus accumbens neuron may be enhanced or inhibited by dopamine depending on its temporal relationship to dopamine release. Specific temporal patterns of dopamine release may also be required for certain forms of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens. Together, these effects induced by psychostimulants, mediated through a non-dopamine <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-mediated mechanism involving norepinephrine and the prefrontal cortex, may also contribute importantly to the reinforcing properties of these drugs. PMID:26209364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7252688','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7252688"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlocal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the presence of high-intensity laser irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Epperlein, E.M.; Short, R.W. )</p> <p>1994-08-01</p> <p>We investigate <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a plasma heated by spatially modulated laser irradiation. When the heating rate is greater than the <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> collision rate, the thermal conductivity is reduced by a factor of 3 to 4 from the Spitzer-Haerm [Phys. Rev. 89, 977 (1953)] value for [ital K][lambda][sub [ital e</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412279V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412279V"><span id="translatedtitle">Probabilities of adverse weather <span class="hlt">affecting</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Europe: climatology and scenarios up to the 2050s</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vajda, A.; Tuomenvirta, H.; Jokinen, P.; Luomaranta, A.; Makkonen, L.; Tikanmäki, M.; Groenemeijer, P.; Saarikivi, P.; Michaelides, S.; Papadakis, M.; Tymvios, F.; Athanasatos, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>This paper provides the first comprehensive climatology of the adverse and extreme weather events <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the European <span class="hlt">transport</span> system by estimating the frequency (or probability) of phenomena for the present climate (1971-2000) and an overview of the projected changes in some of these extremes in the future climate until the 2050s. The research was carried out within the framework of the EWENT Project that addresses the European Union (EU) policies and strategies related to climate change, with a particular focus on extreme weather impacts on the EU <span class="hlt">transportation</span> system. This project is funded by the Seventh Framework Programme (<span class="hlt">Transports</span>, call ID FPT7-TPT-2008-RTD-1). The analyzed phenomena are wind, snow, blizzards, heavy precipitation, cold spells and heat waves. In addition, reduced visibility conditions determined by fog and dust events, small-scale phenomena <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the <span class="hlt">transport</span> system, such as thunderstorms, lightning, large hail and tornadoes and events damaging infrastructure of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> system, have been considered. Frequency and probability analysis of past and present ex¬tremes were performed using observational and atmospheric reanalysis data. Future changes in the probability of severe events were assessed based on six regional climate model simulations produced in the FP6 ENSEMBLES project (http://www.ensembles-eu.org/). To facilitate the assessment of impacts and consequences of extreme phenomena on a continental level, the WP2 Deliverable introduces a regionalization of the European extreme phenomena, defining the climate zones with similarities in extreme phenomena. The projected changes as well as large natural variability in weather extremes on the <span class="hlt">transportation</span> network will have impacts of both signs. The decline of extreme cold and snowfall over most of the continent implies a positive impact on road, rail, inland water and air <span class="hlt">transportation</span>, e.g., by reducing snow removal. However, even with a general decreasing trend in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27420809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27420809"><span id="translatedtitle">Competition of static magnetic and dynamic photon forces in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a quantum dot.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rauf Abdullah, Nzar; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar</p> <p>2016-09-21</p> <p>We investigate theoretically the balance of the static magnetic and the dynamical photon forces in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a quantum dot in a photon cavity with a single photon mode. The quantum dot system is connected to external leads and the total system is exposed to a static perpendicular magnetic field. We explore the <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics through the system by tuning the ratio, [Formula: see text], between the photon energy, [Formula: see text], and the cyclotron energy, [Formula: see text]. Enhancement in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> with increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon coupling is observed when [Formula: see text]. In this case the photon field dominates and stretches the <span class="hlt">electron</span> charge distribution in the quantum dot, extending it towards the contact area for the leads. Suppression in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is found when [Formula: see text], as the external magnetic field causes circular confinement of the charge density around the dot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25680580','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25680580"><span id="translatedtitle">Induction events and short-term regulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chloroplasts: an overview.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tikhonov, Alexander N</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Regulation of photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at different levels of structural and functional organization of photosynthetic apparatus provides efficient performance of oxygenic photosynthesis in plants. This review begins with a brief overview of the chloroplast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain. Then two noninvasive biophysical methods (measurements of slow induction of chlorophyll a fluorescence and EPR signals of oxidized P700 centers) are exemplified to illustrate the possibility of monitoring induction events in chloroplasts in vivo and in situ. Induction events in chloroplasts are considered and briefly discussed in the context of short-term mechanisms of the following regulatory processes: (i) pH-dependent control of the intersystem <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>; (ii) the light-induced activation of the Calvin-Benson cycle; (iii) optimization of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> due to fitting alternative pathways of <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow and partitioning light energy between photosystems I and II; and (iv) the light-induced remodeling of photosynthetic apparatus and thylakoid membranes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27420809','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27420809"><span id="translatedtitle">Competition of static magnetic and dynamic photon forces in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a quantum dot.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rauf Abdullah, Nzar; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar</p> <p>2016-09-21</p> <p>We investigate theoretically the balance of the static magnetic and the dynamical photon forces in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a quantum dot in a photon cavity with a single photon mode. The quantum dot system is connected to external leads and the total system is exposed to a static perpendicular magnetic field. We explore the <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics through the system by tuning the ratio, [Formula: see text], between the photon energy, [Formula: see text], and the cyclotron energy, [Formula: see text]. Enhancement in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> with increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon coupling is observed when [Formula: see text]. In this case the photon field dominates and stretches the <span class="hlt">electron</span> charge distribution in the quantum dot, extending it towards the contact area for the leads. Suppression in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is found when [Formula: see text], as the external magnetic field causes circular confinement of the charge density around the dot. PMID:27420809</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.142p1101M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JChPh.142p1101M"><span id="translatedtitle">Communication: Microsecond dynamics of the protein and water <span class="hlt">affect</span> <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer in a bacterial bc1 complex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Cross-membrane <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> between cofactors localized in proteins of mitochondrial respiration and bacterial photosynthesis is the source of all biological energy. The statistics and dynamics of nuclear fluctuations in these protein/membrane/water heterogeneous systems are critical for their energetic efficiency. The results of 13 μs of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-bound bc1 bacterial complex are analyzed here. The reaction is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by a broad spectrum of nuclear modes, with the slowest dynamics in the range of time-scales ˜0.1-1.6 μs contributing half of the reaction reorganization energy. Two reorganization energies are required to describe protein <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer due to dynamical arrest of protein conformations on the observation window. This mechanistic distinction allows significant lowering of activation barriers for reactions in proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415692','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22415692"><span id="translatedtitle">Communication: Microsecond dynamics of the protein and water <span class="hlt">affect</span> <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer in a bacterial bc{sub 1} complex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.</p> <p>2015-04-28</p> <p>Cross-membrane <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> between cofactors localized in proteins of mitochondrial respiration and bacterial photosynthesis is the source of all biological energy. The statistics and dynamics of nuclear fluctuations in these protein/membrane/water heterogeneous systems are critical for their energetic efficiency. The results of 13 μs of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-bound bc{sub 1} bacterial complex are analyzed here. The reaction is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by a broad spectrum of nuclear modes, with the slowest dynamics in the range of time-scales ∼0.1-1.6 μs contributing half of the reaction reorganization energy. Two reorganization energies are required to describe protein <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer due to dynamical arrest of protein conformations on the observation window. This mechanistic distinction allows significant lowering of activation barriers for reactions in proteins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4538862','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4538862"><span id="translatedtitle">Mode-selective vibrational modulation of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> in organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bakulin, Artem A.; Lovrincic, Robert; Yu, Xi; Selig, Oleg; Bakker, Huib J.; Rezus, Yves L. A.; Nayak, Pabitra K.; Fonari, Alexandr; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Cahen, David</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The soft character of organic materials leads to strong coupling between molecular, nuclear and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> dynamics. This coupling opens the way to influence charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> in organic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices by exciting molecular vibrational motions. However, despite encouraging theoretical predictions, experimental realization of such approach has remained elusive. Here we demonstrate experimentally that photoconductivity in a model organic optoelectronic device can be modulated by the selective excitation of molecular vibrations. Using an ultrafast infrared laser source to create a coherent superposition of vibrational motions in a pentacene/C60 photoresistor, we observe that excitation of certain modes in the 1,500–1,700 cm−1 region leads to photocurrent enhancement. Excited vibrations <span class="hlt">affect</span> predominantly trapped carriers. The effect depends on the nature of the vibration and its mode-specific character can be well described by the vibrational modulation of intermolecular <span class="hlt">electronic</span> couplings. This presents a new tool for studying electron–phonon coupling and charge dynamics in (bio)molecular materials. PMID:26246039</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5988U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5988U"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil water repellency <span class="hlt">affects</span> production and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of CO2 and CH4 in soil</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Urbanek, Emilia; Qassem, Khalid</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Soil moisture is known to be vital in controlling both the production and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of C gases in soil. Water availability regulates the decomposition rates of soil organic matter by the microorganisms, while the proportion of water/air filled pores controls the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of gases within the soil and at the soil-atmosphere interface. Many experimental studies and process models looking at soil C gas fluxes assume that soil water is uniformly distributed and soil is easily wettable. Most soils, however, exhibit some degree of soil water repellency (i.e. hydrophobicity) and do not wet spontaneously when dry or moderately moist. They have restricted infiltration and conductivity of water, which also results in extremely heterogeneous soil water distribution. This is a world-wide occurring phenomenon which is particularly common under permanent vegetation e.g. forest, grass and shrub vegetation. This study investigates the effect of soil water repellency on microbial respiration, CO2 <span class="hlt">transport</span> within the soil and C gas fluxes between the soil and the atmosphere. The results from the field monitoring and laboratory experiments show that soil water repellency results in non-uniform water distribution in the soil which <span class="hlt">affects</span> the CO2 and CH4 gas fluxes. The main conclusion from the study is that water repellency not only <span class="hlt">affects</span> the water relations in the soil, but has also a great impact on greenhouse gas production and <span class="hlt">transport</span> and therefore should be included as an important parameter during the sites monitoring and modelling of gas fluxes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/211608','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/211608"><span id="translatedtitle">Conceptual study of <span class="hlt">electron</span> ripple injection for tokamak <span class="hlt">transport</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Choe, W.; Ono, M.; Chang, C.S.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>A non-intrusive method for inducing radial electric field based on <span class="hlt">electron</span> ripple injection is under development by the Princeton CDX-U group. The radial electric field is known to play an important role in the L-H and H-VH mode transition according to the recent theoretical and experimental research. It is therefore important to develop a non-intrusive tool to control the radial electric field profile in tokamak plasmas. The present technique utilizes externally-applied local magnetic ripple fields to trap <span class="hlt">electrons</span> at the edge, allowing them to penetrate towards the plasma center via {gradient}B and curvature drifts, causing the flux surfaces to charge up negatively. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> cyclotron resonance heating is utilized to increase the trapped population and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> drift velocity by raising the perpendicular energy of trapped <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. In order to quantify the effects of cyclotron resonance heating on <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, the temperature anisotropy of resonant <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in a tokamak plasma is calculated. For the calculation of anisotropic temperatures, energy moments of the bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation with a bi-Maxwellian distribution function for heated <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are solved, assuming a moderate wave power and a constant quasilinear diffusion coefficient. Simulation using a guiding-center orbit model have been performed to understand the behavior of suprathermal <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the presence of ripple fields. Examples for CDX-U and ITER parameters are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SeScT..31k5004B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016SeScT..31k5004B"><span id="translatedtitle">Monte Carlo study of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in monolayer silicene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Borowik, Piotr; Thobel, Jean-Luc; Adamowicz, Leszek</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> mobility and diffusion coefficients in monolayer silicene are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations using simplified band structure with linear energy bands. Results demonstrate reasonable agreement with the full-band Monte Carlo method in low applied electric field conditions. Negative differential resistivity is observed and an explanation of the origin of this effect is proposed. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> mobility and diffusion coefficients are studied in low applied electric field conditions. We demonstrate that a comparison of these parameter values can provide a good check that the calculation is correct. Low-field mobility in silicene exhibits {T}-3 temperature dependence for nondegenerate <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas conditions and {T}-1 for higher <span class="hlt">electron</span> concentrations, when degenerate conditions are imposed. It is demonstrated that to explain the relation between mobility and temperature in nondegenerate <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas the linearity of the band structure has to be taken into account. It is also found that <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> scattering only slightly modifies low-field <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility in degenerate <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021284&hterms=Energy+Solar+Wind&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DEnergy%2B%252B%2BSolar%2B%252B%2BWind','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960021284&hterms=Energy+Solar+Wind&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DEnergy%2B%252B%2BSolar%2B%252B%2BWind"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the solar wind: Ulysses observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scime, Earl; Gary, S. Peter; Phillips, J. L.; Corniileau-Wehrlin, N.; Solomon, J.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux in the solar wind has been measured by the Ulysses solar wind plasma experiment in the ecliptic from 1 to 5 AU and out of the ecliptic during the recently completed pass over the solar south pole and the ongoing pass over the solar north pole. Although the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux contains only a fraction of the kinetic energy of the solar wind. the available energy is sufficient to account for the non-adiabatic expansion of the solar wind <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. The Ulysses measurements indicate that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux is actively dissipated in the solar wind. The exact mechanism or mechanisms is unknown. but a model based on the whistler heat flux instability predicts radial gradients for the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux in good agreement with the data. We will present measurements of the correlation between wave activity measured by the unified radio and plasma experiment (URAP) and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux throughout the Ulysses mission. The goal is to determine if whistler waves are a good candidate for the observed <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux dissipation. The latitudinal gradients of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux. wave activity. and <span class="hlt">electron</span> pressure will be discussed in light of the changes in the magnetic field geometry from equator to poles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JaJAP..40.7072F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JaJAP..40.7072F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> across Magnetic Filter in Negative Hydrogen Ion Source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fukano, Azusa; Ogasawara, Masatada</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Profiles of <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature and number density in a negative-ion source are investigated theoretically. Spatial dependence over the magnetic filter region is obtained using the equations of <span class="hlt">electron</span> flux and <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux that include the effect of interference of forces by the density gradient and temperature gradient. Due to the effect of the magnetic filter, temperature and density of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> decrease from the source chamber to the extraction chamber, and the decrease depends on the magnitude of the magnetic flux. The effect of the magnetic filter on the production and destruction rates of the negative hydrogen ion is examined. The reaction rate for the dissociative attachment reaction which produces the negative hydrogen ion increases with the decrease of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature. However, the production rate per one vibrationally excited hydrogen molecule decreases with the decrease of <span class="hlt">electron</span> density. On the other hand, the destruction probability of the negative ion by the <span class="hlt">electron</span> detachment reaction decreases significantly by the decrease of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> density and temperature. The magnetic filter does not enhance the production of the negative hydrogen ion, but it reduces the destruction of the negative ion because of the decrease of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> density.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.103d1603W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApPhL.103d1603W"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">electron</span> induced hydrogenation of graphene on its electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Woo, Sung Oh; Teizer, Winfried</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We report a deterioration of the electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a graphene field effect transistor due to energetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> irradiation on a stack of Poly Methyl Methacrylate (PMMA) on graphene (PMMA/graphene bilayer). Prior to <span class="hlt">electron</span> irradiation, we observed that the PMMA layer on graphene does not deteriorate the carrier <span class="hlt">transport</span> of graphene but improves its electrical properties instead. As a result of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> irradiation on the PMMA/graphene bilayer, the Raman "D" band appears after removal of PMMA. We argue that the degradation of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior originates from the binding of hydrogen generated during the PMMA backbone secession process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MPLB...2750175L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MPLB...2750175L"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in a Nanostructure Modulated by the Magnetic Field and the δ-DOPING</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, Jian-Duo; Xu, Bin; Zheng, Wei</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>We theoretically investigate the effect of the δ-doping on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a magnetic nanostructure, which can be experimentally realized by depositing one ferromagnetic stripe on the top of a semiconductor heterostructure. We find that the position and the strength of the δ-doping as well as the distance between the two magnetic fields play an important role on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties such as the transmission probability, the conductance and the spin polarization. These interesting results may be very helpful for analyzing the spin-dependent <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> and making the new types of the spintronic devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22285428','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22285428"><span id="translatedtitle">Tumor cell death induced by the inhibition of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>: The effect of 3-hydroxybakuchiol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jaña, Fabián; Faini, Francesca; Lapier, Michel; Pavani, Mario; Kemmerling, Ulrike; Morello, Antonio; Maya, Juan Diego; Jara, José; Parra, Eduardo; Ferreira, Jorge</p> <p>2013-10-15</p> <p>Changes in mitochondrial ATP synthesis can <span class="hlt">affect</span> the function of tumor cells due to the dependence of the first step of glycolysis on mitochondrial ATP. The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system is responsible for the synthesis of approximately 90% of the ATP in normal cells and up to 50% in most glycolytic cancers; therefore, inhibition of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain (ETC) emerges as an attractive therapeutic target. We studied the effect of a lipophilic isoprenylated catechol, 3-hydroxybakuchiol (3-OHbk), a putative ETC inhibitor isolated from Psoralea glandulosa. 3-OHbk exerted cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects on the TA3/Ha mouse mammary adenocarcinoma cell line and induced a decrease in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, the activation of caspase-3, the opening of the mitochondrial permeability <span class="hlt">transport</span> pore (MPTP) and nuclear DNA fragmentation. Additionally, 3-OHbk inhibited oxygen consumption, an effect that was completely reversed by succinate (an <span class="hlt">electron</span> donor for Complex II) and duroquinol (<span class="hlt">electron</span> donor for Complex III), suggesting that 3-OHbk disrupted the <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow at the level of Complex I. The inhibition of OXPHOS did not increase the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) but caused a large decrease in the intracellular ATP level. ETC inhibitors have been shown to induce cell death through necrosis and apoptosis by increasing ROS generation. Nevertheless, we demonstrated that 3-OHbk inhibited the ETC and induced apoptosis through an interaction with Complex I. By delivering <span class="hlt">electrons</span> directly to Complex III with duroquinol, cell death was almost completely abrogated. These results suggest that 3-OHbk has antitumor activity resulting from interactions with the ETC, a system that is already deficient in cancer cells. - Highlights: • We studied the anticancer activity of a natural compound, 3-OHbk, on TA3/Ha cells. • 3-OHbk inhibited mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow by interacting with Complex I. • Complex I inhibition did</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...728..133T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...728..133T"><span id="translatedtitle">What Causes Scatter-free <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of Non-relativistic Solar <span class="hlt">Electrons</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tan, Lun C.; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Shao, Xi; Wang, Linghua</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>We have examined the cause of the scatter-free <span class="hlt">transport</span> of non-relativistic solar <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> scatter-free <span class="hlt">transport</span> events are compared with the diffusive <span class="hlt">transport</span> event. The emphasis of our examination is on the energy dependence of <span class="hlt">electron</span> angular distributions and the steepening of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) power spectral densities (PSDs). Near and above the proton gyrofrequency, the effects of both R-mode (whistler) and L-mode (electromagnetic ion cyclotron, EMIC) waves need to be taken into account separately. The PSD spectral steepening due to the EMIC wave damping by solar-wind thermal ions becomes essential. In a fast-rise-fast-decay impulsive <span class="hlt">electron</span> event we have observed such steepening, which significantly reduces PSD levels at frequencies above the proton gyrofrequency. The spectral steepening thus produced favors the occurrence of scatter-free <span class="hlt">transport</span> of low-energy <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Consequently, within the Wind/3D Plasma and Energetic Particle Instrument/Silicon Semiconductor Telescope measured energy range (~25-500 keV), there appears to be an <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy window, across which the scatter-free <span class="hlt">transport</span> of lower energy <span class="hlt">electrons</span> would change to the diffusive <span class="hlt">transport</span> of higher energy <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. We have observed such a change and found it is correlated with the occurrence of broken power-law spectra of <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Thus the connection between the transition from diffusive to scatter-free <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and the concurrent transition from high to low IMF PSD levels with corresponding breaks in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> power-law energy spectrum and PSD spectrum has been recognized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoPhC.203..268R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CoPhC.203..268R"><span id="translatedtitle">METHES: A Monte Carlo collision code for the simulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in low temperature plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rabie, M.; Franck, C. M.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We present a freely available MATLAB code for the simulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in arbitrary gas mixtures in the presence of uniform electric fields. For steady-state <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the program provides the <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients, reaction rates and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy distribution function. The program uses established Monte Carlo techniques and is compatible with the <span class="hlt">electron</span> scattering cross section files from the open-access Plasma Data Exchange Project LXCat. The code is written in object-oriented design, allowing the tracing and visualization of the spatiotemporal evolution of <span class="hlt">electron</span> swarms and the temporal development of the mean energy and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> number due to attachment and/or ionization processes. We benchmark our code with well-known model gases as well as the real gases argon, N2, O2, CF4, SF6 and mixtures of N2 and O2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13O..05F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H13O..05F"><span id="translatedtitle">Interacting Physical and Biological Processes <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Nutrient <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Through Human Dominated Landscapes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finlay, J. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Human activities increasingly dominate biogeochemical cycles of limiting nutrients on Earth. Urban and agricultural landscapes represent the largest sources of excess nutrients that drive water quality degradation. The physical structure of both urban and agricultural watersheds has been extensively modified, and these changes have large impacts on water and nutrient <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Despite strong physical controls over nutrient <span class="hlt">transport</span> in human dominated landscapes, biological processes play important roles in determining the fates of both nitrogen and phosphorus. This talk uses examples from research in urban and agricultural watersheds in the Midwestern USA to illustrate interactions of physical and biological controls over nutrient cycles that have shifted nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) sources and cycling in unexpected ways in response to management changes. In urban watersheds, efforts to improve water quality have been hindered by legacy sources of phosphorus added to storm water through <span class="hlt">transport</span> to drainage systems by vegetation. Similarly, reductions in field erosion in agricultural watersheds have not led to major reductions in phosphorus <span class="hlt">transport</span>, because of continued release of biological sources of P. Where management of phosphorus has been most effective in reducing eutrophication of lakes, decreases in N removal processes have led to long term increases in N concentration and <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Together, these examples show important roles for biological processes <span class="hlt">affecting</span> nutrient movement in highly modified landscapes. Consideration of the downstream physical and biological responses of management changes are thus critical toward identification of actions that will most effectively reduce excess nutrients watersheds and coastal zones.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/367109','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/367109"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> ripple injection concept for tokamak <span class="hlt">transport</span> control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Choe, W.; Ono, M.; Chang, C.S.</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>A non-intrusive method for inducing a radial electric field ({ital E}{sub {ital r}}) based on <span class="hlt">electron</span> ripple injection (ERI) is under development by the Princeton CDX-U group. Since {ital E}{sub {ital r}} is known to play an important role in the L-H and H-VH mode transition, it is therefore important to develop a non-intrusive tool to control the {ital E}{sub {ital r}} profile in tokamak plasmas. The present technique utilizes externally-applied local magnetic ripple fields to trap <span class="hlt">electrons</span> at the edge, allowing them to penetrate towards the plasma center via {nabla}{ital B} and curvature drifts, causing the flux surfaces to charge up negatively. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) is utilized to increase the trapped population and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> drift velocity by raising the perpendicular energy of trapped <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. The temperature anisotropy of resonant <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in a tokamak plasma is calculated in order to investigate effects of ECRH on <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Simulations using a guiding-center orbit model have been performed to understand the behavior of suprathermal <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the presence of ripple fields. Examples for CDX-U and ITER are given. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030098','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030098"><span id="translatedtitle">Ambipolar <span class="hlt">transport</span> via trapped-<span class="hlt">electron</span> whistler instability along open magnetic field lines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Zehua; Tang, Xian-Zhu</p> <p>2012-09-28</p> <p>An open field line plasma is bounded by a chamber wall which intercepts the magnetic field. Steady state requires an upstream plasma source balancing the particle loss to the boundary. In cases where the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> have a long mean free path, ambipolarity in parallel <span class="hlt">transport</span> critically depends on collisionless detrapping of the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> via wave-particle interaction. The trapped-<span class="hlt">electron</span> whistler instability, whose nonlinear saturation produces a spectrum of whistler waves that is responsible for the <span class="hlt">electron</span> detrapping flux, is shown to be an unusually robust kinetic instability, which is essential to the universality of the ambipolar constraint in plasma <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004PPCF...46A..71I&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004PPCF...46A..71I&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Cold pulse experiments in plasma with an <span class="hlt">electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barrier on LHD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Inagaki, S.; Ida, K.; Tamura, N.; Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Sudo, S.; Ohkubo, K.; LHD Experimental Group</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Transient <span class="hlt">transport</span> experiments are performed in LHD plasma with <span class="hlt">electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barrier (e-ITB). Evidence for a reduction of <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat diffusivity inside the ITB is observed from cold and heat pulse propagations. The observed enhancement of the cold pulse peak is explained by the temperature dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat diffusivity. The heat diffusivity inside the ITB decreases with an increase in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature in LHD. A preliminary version of this study was presented in the 29th EPS Conf. on Plasma Phys. and Control. Fusion (Montreux, Switzerland, 17 21 June 2002) [1].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20698372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20698372"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">electron</span> collisions on <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients induced by the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption in plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bendib, A.; Tahraoui, A.; Bendib, K.; Mohammed El Hadj, K.; Hueller, S.</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients of fully ionized plasmas under the influence of a high-frequency electric field are derived solving numerically the <span class="hlt">electron</span> Fokker-Planck equation using a perturbation method, parametrized as a function of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> mean-free-path {lambda}{sub ei} compared to the spatial scales L. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions of the inverse bremsstrahlung heating are considered. <span class="hlt">Electron-electron</span> collision terms are kept in the analysis, which allows us to consider with sufficient accuracy to describe plasmas with arbitrary atomic number Z. Practical numerical fits of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients are proposed as functions of Z and the collisionality parameter {lambda}{sub ei}/L.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410515K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1410515K"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in Understanding Sorption and <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Processes <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karapanagioti, H. K.; Werner, D.; Werth, C.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The results of a call for a special issue that is now in press by the Journal of Contaminant Hydrology will be presented. This special issue is edited by the authors and is entitled "Sorption and <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Processes <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> the Fate of Environmental Pollutants in the Subsurface". A short abstract of each paper will be presented along with the most interesting results. Nine papers were accepted. Pollutants studied include: biocolloids, metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, micropollutants (PAHs, PCBs), pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D). Findings presented in the papers include a modified batch reactor system to study equilibrium-reactive <span class="hlt">transport</span> problems of metals. Column studies along with theoretical approximations evaluate the combined effects of grain size and pore water velocity on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> in water saturated porous media of three biocolloids. A polluted sediment remediation method is evaluated considering site-specific conditions through monitoring results and modelling. A field study points to glogging and also sorption as mechanisms <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the effectiveness of sub-surface flow constructed wetlands. A new isotherm model combining modified traditionally used isotherms is proposed that can be used to simulate pH-dependent metal adsorption. Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) demonstrate ability to predict slight isotope shifts into the groundwater due to sorption. Possible modifications that improve the reliability of kinetic models and parameter values during the evaluation of experiments that assess the sorption of pesticides on soils are tested. Challenges in selecting groundwater pollutant fate and <span class="hlt">transport</span> models that account for the effect of grain-scale sorption rate limitations are evaluated based on experimental results and are discussed based on the Damköhler number. Finally, a thorough review paper presents the impact of mineral micropores on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> and fate of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3847209','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3847209"><span id="translatedtitle">Methane <span class="hlt">transport</span> and emissions from soil as <span class="hlt">affected</span> by water table and vascular plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background The important greenhouse gas (GHG) methane is produced naturally in anaerobic wetland soils. By <span class="hlt">affecting</span> the production, oxidation and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of methane to the atmosphere, plants have a major influence upon the quantities emitted by wetlands. Different species and functional plant groups have been shown to <span class="hlt">affect</span> these processes differently, but our knowledge about how these effects are influenced by abiotic factors such as water regime and temperature remains limited. Here we present a mesocosm experiment comparing eight plant species for their effects on internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> and overall emissions of methane under contrasting hydrological conditions. To quantify how much methane was <span class="hlt">transported</span> internally through plants (the chimney effect), we blocked diffusion from the soil surface with an agar seal. Results We found that graminoids caused higher methane emissions than forbs, although the emissions from mesocosms with different species were either lower than or comparable to those from control mesocosms with no plant (i.e. bare soil). Species with a relatively greater root volume and a larger biomass exhibited a larger chimney effect, though overall methane emissions were negatively related to plant biomass. Emissions were also reduced by lowering the water table. Conclusions We conclude that plant species (and functional groups) vary in the degree to which they <span class="hlt">transport</span> methane to the atmosphere. However, a plant with a high capacity to <span class="hlt">transport</span> methane does not necessarily emit more methane, as it may also cause more rhizosphere oxidation of methane. A shift in plant species composition from graminoids to forbs and/or from low to high productive species may lead to reduction of methane emissions. PMID:24010540</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/574650','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/574650"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the solar wind: Ulysses observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scime, E.E.; Gary, S.P.; Phillips, J.L.; Balogh, A.; Lengyel-Frey, D.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>Previous analysis suggests that the whistler heat flux instability is responsible for the regulation of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux of the solar wind. For an interval of quiescent solar wind during the in-ecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission, the plasma wave data in the whistler frequency regime are compared to the predictions of the whistler heat flux instability model. The data is well constrained by the predicted upper bound on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux and a clear correlation between wave activity and <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux dissipation is observed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21163474','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21163474"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the solar wind: Ulysses observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Scime, Earl E.; Gary, S. Peter; Phillips, John L.; Balogh, Andre; Lengyel-Frey, Denise</p> <p>1996-07-20</p> <p>Previous analysis suggests that the whistler heat flux instability is responsible for the regulation of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux of the solar wind. For an interval of quiescent solar wind during the in-ecliptic phase of the Ulysses mission, the plasma wave data in the whistler frequency regime are compared to the predictions of the whistler heat flux instability model. The data is well constrained by the predicted upper bound on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux and a clear correlation between wave activity and <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat flux dissipation is observed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AnGeo..27.2173U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AnGeo..27.2173U"><span id="translatedtitle">Radial <span class="hlt">transport</span> of radiation belt <span class="hlt">electrons</span> due to stormtime Pc5 waves</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sitnov, M. I.; Takahashi, K.; Anderson, B. J.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>During geomagnetic storms relativistic <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes in the outer radiation belt exhibit dynamic variability over multiple orders of magnitude. This requires radial <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> across their drift shells and implies violation of their third adiabatic invariant. Radial <span class="hlt">transport</span> is induced by the interaction of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> drift motion with electric and magnetic field fluctuations in the ULF frequency range. It was previously shown that solar-wind driven ULF waves have long azimuthal wave lengths and thus can violate the third invariant of trapped <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the process of resonant interaction with their gradient-curvature motion. However, the amplitude of solar-wind driven ULF waves rapidly decreases with decreasing L. It is therefore not clear what mechanisms are responsible for fast <span class="hlt">transport</span> rates observed inside the geosynchronous orbit. In this paper we investigate wether stormtime Pc5 waves can contribute to this process. Stormtime Pc5s have short azimuthal wave lengths and therefore cannot exhibit resonance with the the <span class="hlt">electron</span> drift motion. However we show that stormtime Pc5s can cause localized random scattering of <span class="hlt">electron</span> drift motion that violates the third invariant. According to our results <span class="hlt">electron</span> interaction with stormtime Pc5s can produce rapid radial <span class="hlt">transport</span> even as low as L≃4. Numerical simulations show that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> can exhibit large deviations from radial diffusion. The diffusion approximation is not valid for individual storms but only applies to the statistically averaged response of the outer belt to stormtime Pc5 waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title41-vol3-sec102-118-80.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title41-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title41-vol3-sec102-118-80.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">41 CFR 102-118.80 - Who is responsible for keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records? 102-118.80 Section 102-118.80... <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> and <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services § 102-118.80 Who is responsible for keeping my agency's <span class="hlt">electronic</span> commerce <span class="hlt">transportation</span> billing records? Your agency's internal financial regulations will...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117x5503W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117x5503W"><span id="translatedtitle">Color stable white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with red emissive <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wook Kim, Jin; Yoo, Seung Il; Sung Kang, Jin; Eun Lee, Song; Kwan Kim, Young; Hwa Yu, Hyeong; Turak, Ayse; Young Kim, Woo</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We analyzed the performance of multi-emissive white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) in relation to various red emitting sites of hole and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layers (HTL and ETL). The shift of the recombination zone producing stable white emission in PHOLEDs was utilized as luminance was increased with red emission in its <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer. Multi-emissive white PHOLEDs including the red light emitting <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer yielded maximum external quantum efficiency of 17.4% with CIE color coordinates (-0.030, +0.001) shifting only from 1000 to 10 000 cd/m2. Additionally, we observed a reduction of energy loss in the white PHOLED via Ir(piq)3 as phosphorescent red dopant in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23176467','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23176467"><span id="translatedtitle">A long way to the electrode: how do Geobacter cells <span class="hlt">transport</span> their <span class="hlt">electrons</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonanni, Pablo Sebastián; Schrott, Germán David; Busalmen, Juan Pablo</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The mechanism of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms is a topic under intense study and debate. Although some proteins were found to be essential for current production, the specific role that each one plays in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> to the electrode remains to be elucidated and a consensus on the mechanism of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> has not been reached. In the present paper, to understand the state of the art in the topic, <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from inside of the cell to the electrode in Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms is analysed, reviewing genetic studies, biofilm conductivity assays and electrochemical and spectro-electrochemical experiments. Furthermore, crucial data still required to achieve a deeper understanding are highlighted. PMID:23176467</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490743','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22490743"><span id="translatedtitle">Color stable white phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes with red emissive <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wook Kim, Jin; Yoo, Seung Il; Sung Kang, Jin; Eun Lee, Song; Kwan Kim, Young; Hwa Yu, Hyeong; Turak, Ayse; Young Kim, Woo</p> <p>2015-06-28</p> <p>We analyzed the performance of multi-emissive white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) in relation to various red emitting sites of hole and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layers (HTL and ETL). The shift of the recombination zone producing stable white emission in PHOLEDs was utilized as luminance was increased with red emission in its <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer. Multi-emissive white PHOLEDs including the red light emitting <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer yielded maximum external quantum efficiency of 17.4% with CIE color coordinates (−0.030, +0.001) shifting only from 1000 to 10 000 cd/m{sup 2}. Additionally, we observed a reduction of energy loss in the white PHOLED via Ir(piq){sub 3} as phosphorescent red dopant in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1206544','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1206544"><span id="translatedtitle">Ultrafast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across nano gaps in nanowire circuits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Potma, Eric O.</p> <p>2015-07-31</p> <p>In this Program we aim for a closer look at <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer through single molecules. To achieve this, we use ultrafast laser pulses to time stamp an <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling event in a molecule that is connected between two metallic electrodes, while reading out the <span class="hlt">electron</span> current. A key aspect of this project is the use of metallic substrates with plasmonic activity to efficiently manipulate the tunneling probability. The first Phase of this program is concerned with developing highly sensitive tools for the ultrafast optical manipulation of tethered molecules through the evanescent surface field of plasmonic substrates. The second Phase of the program aims to use these tools for exercising control over the <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling probability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1061446','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1061446"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> Beam <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Advanced Plasma Wave Accelerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, Ronald L</p> <p>2013-01-31</p> <p>The primary goal of this grant was to develop a diagnostic for relativistic plasma wave accelerators based on injecting a low energy <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam (5-50keV) perpendicular to the plasma wave and observing the distortion of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam's cross section due to the plasma wave's electrostatic fields. The amount of distortion would be proportional to the plasma wave amplitude, and is the basis for the diagnostic. The beat-wave scheme for producing plasma waves, using two CO2 laser beam, was modeled using a leap-frog integration scheme to solve the equations of motion. Single <span class="hlt">electron</span> trajectories and corresponding phase space diagrams were generated in order to study and understand the details of the interaction dynamics. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam was simulated by combining thousands of single <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, whose initial positions and momenta were selected by random number generators. The model was extended by including the interactions of the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> with the CO2 laser fields of the beat wave, superimposed with the plasma wave fields. The results of the model were used to guide the design and construction of a small laboratory experiment that may be used to test the diagnostic idea.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPSCP...1a6012E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JPSCP...1a6012E"><span id="translatedtitle">First-Principles Study on Dynamic <span class="hlt">Electron-Transport</span> Property through Low Dimensional System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Egami, Yoshiyuki; Hirose, Kikuji</p> <p></p> <p>We present an investigation of <span class="hlt">electron-transport</span> in a low-dimensional system using a time-dependent first-principles simulator. The response time for the peaks in the transmission curve of a molecular chain system is discussed. Two types of resonant-tunneling channels with different responses to changes in the conformation are observed. It is found that one of the channels plays a minor role in the contribution to the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> because of its poor response.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/828197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/828197"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> Cross-field <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in a Low Power Cylindrical Hall Thruster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch</p> <p>2004-06-24</p> <p>Conventional annular Hall thrusters become inefficient when scaled to low power. Cylindrical Hall thrusters, which have lower surface-to-volume ratio, are therefore more promising for scaling down. They presently exhibit performance comparable with conventional annular Hall thrusters. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> cross-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a 2.6 cm miniaturized cylindrical Hall thruster (100 W power level) has been studied through the analysis of experimental data and Monte Carlo simulations of <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics in the thruster channel. The numerical model takes into account elastic and inelastic <span class="hlt">electron</span> collisions with atoms, <span class="hlt">electron</span>-wall collisions, including secondary <span class="hlt">electron</span> emission, and Bohm diffusion. We show that in order to explain the observed discharge current, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> anomalous collision frequency {nu}{sub B} has to be on the order of the Bohm value, {nu}{sub B} {approx} {omega}{sub c}/16. The contribution of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-wall collisions to cross-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> is found to be insignificant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86c5444W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhRvB..86c5444W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of azobenzene monolayer junctions as molecular switches</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yan; Cheng, Hai-Ping</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>We investigate from first principles the change in <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a two-dimensional azobenzene monolayer sandwiched between two Au electrodes that undergoes molecular switching. We focus on <span class="hlt">transport</span> differences between a chemisorbed and physisorbed top monolayer-electrode contact. The conductance of the monolayer junction with a chemisorbed top contact is higher in the trans configuration, in agreement with the previous theoretical predictions of one-dimensional single-molecule junctions. However, with a physisorbed top contact, the ON state, with larger conductance, is associated with the cis configuration due to a reduced effective tunneling pathway, which successfully explains recent experimental measurements on azobenzene monolayer junctions. A simple model is developed to explain <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission across subsystems in the molecular junction. We also discuss the effects of monolayer packing density, molecule tilt angle, and contact geometry on the calculated transmission functions. In particular, we find that a tip-like contact with chemisorption significantly <span class="hlt">affects</span> the electric current through the cis monolayer, leading to highly asymmetric current-voltage characteristics as well as large negative differential resistance behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21376011','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21376011"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways during anaerobiosis in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hemschemeier, Anja; Happe, Thomas</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Oxygenic photosynthesis uses light as energy source to generate an oxidant powerful enough to oxidize water into oxygen, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and protons. Upon linear <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> extracted from water are used to reduce NADP(+) to NADPH. The oxygen molecule has been integrated into the cellular metabolism, both as the most efficient <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptor during respiratory <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and as oxidant and/or "substrate" in a number of biosynthetic pathways. Though photosynthesis of higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria produces oxygen, there are conditions under which this type of photosynthesis operates under hypoxic or anaerobic conditions. In the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this condition is induced by sulfur deficiency, and it results in the production of molecular hydrogen. Research on this biotechnologically relevant phenomenon has contributed largely to new insights into additional pathways of photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, which extend the former concept of linear <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow by far. This review summarizes the recent knowledge about various <span class="hlt">electron</span> sources and sinks of oxygenic photosynthesis besides water and NADP(+) in the context of their contribution to hydrogen photoproduction by C. reinhardtii. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Chloroplasts. PMID:21376011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93d5421O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93d5421O"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-space method for first-principles <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations: Self-energy terms of electrodes for large systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ono, Tomoya; Tsukamoto, Shigeru</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We present a fast and stable numerical technique to obtain the self-energy terms of electrodes for first-principles <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations. Although first-principles calculations based on the real-space finite-difference method are advantageous for execution on massively parallel computers, large-scale <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations are hampered by the computational cost and numerical instability of the computation of the self-energy terms. Using the orthogonal complement vectors of the space spanned by the generalized Bloch waves that actually contribute to <span class="hlt">transport</span> phenomena, the computational accuracy of <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties is significantly improved with a moderate computational cost. To demonstrate the efficiency of the present technique, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a Stone-Wales (SW) defect in graphene and silicene are examined. The resonance scattering of the SW defect is observed in the conductance spectrum of silicene since the σ* state of silicene lies near the Fermi energy. In addition, we found that one conduction channel is sensitive to a defect near the Fermi energy, while the other channel is hardly <span class="hlt">affected</span>. This characteristic behavior of the conduction channels is interpreted in terms of the bonding network between the bilattices of the honeycomb structure in the formation of the SW defect. The present technique enables us to distinguish the different behaviors of the two conduction channels in graphene and silicene owing to its excellent accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020041462','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020041462"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of Space Environment <span class="hlt">Electrons</span>: A Simplified Rapid-Analysis Computational Procedure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nealy, John E.; Anderson, Brooke M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Katz, Robert; Chang, C. K.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A computational procedure for describing <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in condensed media has been formulated for application to effects and exposures from spectral distributions typical of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> trapped in planetary magnetic fields. The procedure is based on earlier parameterizations established from numerous <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam experiments. New parameterizations have been derived that logically extend the domain of application to low molecular weight (high hydrogen content) materials and higher energies (approximately 50 MeV). The production and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of high energy photons (bremsstrahlung) generated in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes have also been modeled using tabulated values of photon production cross sections. A primary purpose for developing the procedure has been to provide a means for rapidly performing numerous repetitive calculations essential for <span class="hlt">electron</span> radiation exposure assessments for complex space structures. Several favorable comparisons have been made with previous calculations for typical space environment spectra, which have indicated that accuracy has not been substantially compromised at the expense of computational speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-09/pdf/2012-19584.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-08-09/pdf/2012-19584.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 47692 - Notice of <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services' Transition From Paper to <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> Fare Media Comments...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-08-09</p> <p>... Office of the Secretary of <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Notice of <span class="hlt">Transportation</span> Services' Transition From Paper to... transitioning, or have already transitioned, to <span class="hlt">electronic</span> fare media, compelling the shift from a paper based... participating Federal employees via a paper voucher process. In addition to a growing number of...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1054624','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1054624"><span id="translatedtitle">Hormone Action on Transmembrane <span class="hlt">Electron</span> and H+ <span class="hlt">Transport</span> 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Böttger, Michael; Hilgendorf, Frank</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A possible involvement of two different systems in proton translocation was investigated by simultaneous measurement of transmembrane <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow and proton secretion in a pH-stat combined with a redoxstat. The pH gradient between cytoplasm and apoplast is probably maintained by an H+ -pumping ATPase and by a second proton extrusion system, which seems to be linked to a redox chain with NAD(P)H as <span class="hlt">electron</span> donor. Indole acetic acid inhibits both e− and H+ efflux, but only if the `<span class="hlt">electron</span> draw' from the outside is not too high. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> draw depends on the hexacyanoferrate level at the plasmalemma surface and on the Ca2+ concentration. The inhibiting effect of auxin on e− and H+ efflux in the presence of hexacyanoferrate can be only detected at low levels of bivalent cations and of the artificial <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptor. The inhibition of e− and H+ efflux by auxin requires high oxygen levels. The influence of auxin on both e− and H+ transfer disappears below 2 kilopascals O2, a level which does not influence respiration. Ethanol and fusicoccin do not increase the e− flux, probably because the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer from the plasma membrane to HCF III is the limiting step. If <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer is reduced by IAA pretreatment, ethanol increases e− flux. Fusicoccin decreases e− and increases H+ efflux if the rates have been lowered previously by indole acetic acid pretreatment. This effect depends on high oxygen levels and is reversible by lowering oxygen pressure. Auxin and Ca2+ change e− flow and H+ ejection in a 1:1 ratio. PMID:16666028</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21403192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21403192"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of magnetic field and disorders on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene nanoribbons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, S Bala; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G; Liang, Gengchiau</p> <p>2010-09-22</p> <p>We developed a unified mesoscopic <span class="hlt">transport</span> model for graphene nanoribbons, which combines the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism with the real-space π-orbital model. Based on this model, we probe the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> under a magnetic field, in order to obtain insights into the various signature Hall effects in disordered armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNR). In the presence of a uniform perpendicular magnetic field (B[Symbol: see text]-field), a perfect AGNR shows three distinct spatial current profiles at equilibrium, depending on its width. Under nonequilibrium conditions (i.e. in the presence of an applied bias), the net <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow is restricted to the edges and occurs in opposite directions depending on whether the Fermi level lies within the valence or conduction band. For <span class="hlt">electrons</span> at an energy level below the conduction window, the B[Symbol: see text]-field gives rise to local <span class="hlt">electron</span> flux circulation, although the global flux is zero. Our study also reveals the suppression of <span class="hlt">electron</span> backscattering as a result of the edge <span class="hlt">transport</span> which is induced by the B[Symbol: see text]-field. This phenomenon can potentially mitigate the undesired effects of disorder, such as bulk and edge vacancies, on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of AGNR. Lastly, we show that the effect of [Formula: see text]-field on <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is less significant in the multimode compared to the single-mode <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21694120','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21694120"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span>, magnetic and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of rare-earth monopnictides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duan, Chun-Gang; Sabirianov, R F; Mei, W N; Dowben, P A; Jaswal, S S; Tsymbal, E Y</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structures and magnetic properties of many rare-earth monopnictides are reviewed in this article. Possible candidate materials for spintronics devices from the rare-earth monopnictide family, i.e. high polarization (nominally half-metallic) ferromagnets and antiferromagnets, are identified. We attempt to provide a unified picture of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties of these strongly correlated systems. The relative merits of several ab initio theoretical methods, useful in the study of the rare-earth monopnictides, are discussed. We present our current understanding of the possible half-metallicity, semiconductor-metal transitions, and magnetic orderings in the rare-earth monopnictides. Finally, we propose some potential strategies to improve the magnetic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties of these candidate materials for spintronics devices. PMID:21694120</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030065832&hterms=Europium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DEuropium','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030065832&hterms=Europium&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DEuropium"><span id="translatedtitle">Vertical <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> through PbS-EuS Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wrotek, S.; Dybko, K.; Morawski, A.; Makosa, A.; Wosinski, T.; Figielski, T.; Tkaczyk, Z.; Lusakowska, E.; Story, T.; Sipatov, A. Yu</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Temperature dependence of current-voltage I-V characteristics and resistivity is studied in ferromagnetic PbS-EuS semiconductor tunnel structures grown on n-PbS (100) substrates. For the structures with a single (2-4 nm thick) ferromagnetic EuS <span class="hlt">electron</span> barrier we observe strongly non-linear I-V characteristics with an effective tunneling barrier height of 0.3-0.7 eV. The experimentally observed non-monotonic temperature dependence of the (normal to the plane of the structure) electrical resistance of these structures is discussed in terms of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling mechanism taking into account the temperature dependent shift of the band offsets at the EuS-PbS heterointerface as well as the exchange splitting of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states at the bottom of the conduction band of EuS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Electronic+books%22&pg=2&id=EJ1036156','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Electronic+books%22&pg=2&id=EJ1036156"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors that <span class="hlt">Affect</span> Emergent Literacy Development When Engaging with <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> Books</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Salmon, Lynda G.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This article reviews extant literature with the purpose of identifying factors that <span class="hlt">affect</span> the potential efficacy of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> books to support literacy development during early childhood. Selection criteria include experimental, quasi-experimental, and observational studies from peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013 with a target population…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23729379','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23729379"><span id="translatedtitle">Conformation-controlled <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in single-molecule junctions containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene) derivatives.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Le-Jia; Yong, Ai; Zhou, Kai-Ge; Tan, Lin; Ye, Jian; Wu, Guo-Ping; Xu, Zhu-Guo; Zhang, Hao-Li</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Understanding the relationships between the molecular structure and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics of single-molecule junctions is of fundamental and technological importance for future molecular <span class="hlt">electronics</span>. Herein, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on the single-molecule conductance of a series of oligo(phenylene ethynylene) (OPE) molecular wires, which consist of two phenyl-ethynyl-phenyl π units with different dihedral angles. The molecular conductance was studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM)-based break-junction techniques under different conditions, including variable temperature and bias potential, which suggested that a coherent tunneling mechanism takes place in the OPE molecular wires with a length of 2.5 nm. The conductance of OPE molecular junctions are strongly <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the coupling strength between the two π systems, which can be tuned by controlling their intramolecular conformation. A cos(2)θ dependence was revealed between the molecular conductance and dihedral angles between the two conjugated units. Theoretical investigations on the basis of density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) gave consistent results with the experimental observations and provided insights into the conformation-dominated molecular conductance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12164','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12164"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> from rate measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reynafarje, B; Brand, M D; Lehninger, A L</p> <p>1976-12-10</p> <p>The mitochondrial H+/site ratio (i.e. the number of protons ejected per pair of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> traversing each of the energy-conserving sites of the respiratory chain) has been evaluated employing a new experimental approach. In this method the rates of oxygen uptake and H+ ejection were measured simultaneously during the initial period of respiration evoked by addition of succinate to aerobic, rotenone-inhibited, de-energized mitochondria. Either K+, in the presence of valinomycin, or Ca2+, was used as mobile cation to dissipate the membrane potential and allow quantitative H+ ejection into the medium. The H+/site ratio observed with this method in the absence of precautions to inhibit the uptake of phosphate was close to 2.0, in agreement with values obtained using the oxygen pulse technique (Mitchell, P. and Moyle, J. (1967) Biochem. J. 105, 1147-1162). However, when phosphate movements were eliminated either by inhibition of the phosphate-hydroxide antiporter with N-ethylamaleimide or by depleting the mitochondria of their endogenous phosphate content, H+/site ratios close to 4.0 were consistently observed. This ratio was independent of the concentration of succinate, of mitochondrial protein, of pH between 6 and 8, and of ionic composition of the medium, provided that sufficient K+ (plus valinomycin) or Ca2+ were present. Specific inhibitors of the hydrolysis of endogenous ATP or <span class="hlt">transport</span> of other ions (adenine nucleotides, tricarboxylates, HCO3-, etc.) were shown not to <span class="hlt">affect</span> the observed H+/site ratio. Furthermore, the replacement of succinate by alpha-glycerol phosphate, a substrate which is oxidized on the outer surface of the inner membrane and thus does not need to enter the matrix, gave the same H+/site ratios as did succinate. It is concluded that the H+/site ratio of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, when phosphate movements are eliminated, may be close to 4.0.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARY33006B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..MARY33006B"><span id="translatedtitle">On time-dependent counting statistics of mesoscopic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belzig, Wolfgang</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Full counting statistics (FCS) has emerged as a key concept to understand quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> in mesoscopic systems like heterostructures, quantum wires, and quantum dots. The knowlegde of the FCS not only enables to predict all measurable zero-frequency quantities accessible via charge detection, but also allows to identify the elementary <span class="hlt">transport</span> events and the correlations between them. We demonstrate this concept for a standard quantum point contact between normal and/or superconducting leads under dc- and ac-bias. [M. Vanevic, Yu. V. Nazarov, W. Belzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 076601 (2007)] Finally we address the question, how these concepts can be applied to time-resolved current measurements. [A. Bednorz and W. Belzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 206803 (2008)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24236731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24236731"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen fixation and respiratory <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the cyanobacterium Cyanothece under different light/dark cycles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabouille, Sophie; Van de Waal, Dedmer B; Matthijs, Hans C P; Huisman, Jef</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Incompatibility of nitrogen fixation and oxygen production compels unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria to perform photosynthesis during daytime and restrict nitrogen fixation to nighttime. The marine diazotroph Cyanothece BG 043511 was grown in continuous culture under three light/dark regimes (16L : 8D, 12L : 12D, and 8L : 16D h); we monitored nitrogen fixation and potential photosynthetic efficiency simultaneously online to reveal how their temporal separation is <span class="hlt">affected</span> by different LD regimes. An increase in nitrogen fixation rate at night coincided with a rise in pulse-amplitude modulated fluorescence, indicating that the enhanced respiratory <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> to fuel diazotrophy <span class="hlt">affects</span> the oxidation state of the plastoquinone pool. This may offer an alternative approach to assess instantaneous nitrogen fixation activity. Regardless of photoperiod, the maximum rate of nitrogen fixation was conserved at about 20 h after the onset of the light. Consequently, nitrogen fixation rates peaked at different moments in the dark: relatively early in the 16L : 8D cycle, at midnight in 12L : 12D, and relatively late in 8L : 16D. Under 16L : 8D, nitrogen fixation extended into the light, demonstrating the functional plasticity of nitrogen fixation in Cyanothece. Highest daily amounts of nitrogen fixed were obtained in 12L : 12D, which is consistent with the natural LD cycle of subtropical latitudes in which Cyanothece thrives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93t5404L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhRvB..93t5404L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> and phonon drag in thermoelectric <span class="hlt">transport</span> through coherent molecular conductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lü, Jing-Tao; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Hedegârd, Per; Brandbyge, Mads</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We study thermoelectric <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a coherent molecular conductor connected to two <span class="hlt">electron</span> and two phonon baths using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. We focus on the mutual drag between <span class="hlt">electron</span> and phonon <span class="hlt">transport</span> as a result of `momentum' transfer, which happens only when there are at least two phonon degrees of freedom. After deriving expressions for the linear drag coefficients, obeying the Onsager relation, we further investigate their effect on nonequilibrium <span class="hlt">transport</span>. We show that the drag effect is closely related to two other phenomena: (1) adiabatic charge pumping through a coherent conductor; (2) the current-induced nonconservative and effective magnetic forces on phonons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/46558','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/46558"><span id="translatedtitle">Adjoint <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> Monte Carlo calculations with ITS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lorence, L.J.; Kensek, R.P.; Halbleib, J.A.; Morel, J.E.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>A general adjoint coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon Monte Carlo code for solving the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation has recently been created. It is a modified version of ITS 3.0, a coupled electronphoton Monte Carlo code that has world-wide distribution. The applicability of the new code to radiation-interaction problems of the type found in space environments is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22413317','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22413317"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> transfer activation of a second water channel for proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> in [FeFe]-hydrogenase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sode, Olaseni; Voth, Gregory A.</p> <p>2014-12-14</p> <p>Hydrogenase enzymes are important because they can reversibly catalyze the production of molecular hydrogen. Proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanisms have been previously studied in residue pathways that lead to the active site of the enzyme via residues Cys299 and Ser319. The importance of this pathway and these residues has been previously exhibited through site-specific mutations, which were shown to interrupt the enzyme activity. It has been shown recently that a separate water channel (WC2) is coupled with <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> to the active site of the [FeFe]-hydrogenase. The water-mediated proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanisms of the enzyme in different <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states have been studied using the multistate empirical valence bond reactive molecular dynamics method, in order to understand any role WC2 may have in facilitating the residue pathway in bringing an additional proton to the enzyme active site. In a single <span class="hlt">electronic</span> state A{sup 2−}, a water wire was formed through which protons can be <span class="hlt">transported</span> with a low free energy barrier. The remaining <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states were shown, however, to be highly unfavorable to proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> in WC2. A double amino acid substitution is predicted to obstruct proton <span class="hlt">transport</span> in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> state A{sup 2-} by closing a cavity that could otherwise fill with water near the proximal Fe of the active site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006NucFu..46..133I&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2006NucFu..46..133I&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of transient <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> in LHD helical and JT-60U tokamak plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Inagaki, S.; Takenaga, H.; Ida, K.; Isayama, A.; Tamura, N.; Takizuka, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Kamada, Y.; Kubo, S.; Miura, Y.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Sudo, S.; Ohkubo, K.; LHD Experimental Group; JT-60 Team</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Transient <span class="hlt">transport</span> experiments are performed in plasmas with and without internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barriers (ITB) on LHD and JT-60U. The dependence of χe on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature, Te, and on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient, ∇Te, is analysed with an empirical non-linear heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> model. In plasmas without an ITB, two different types of non-linearity of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> are observed from cold/heat pulse propagation: the χe depends on Te and ∇Te in JT-60U, while the ∇Te dependence is weak in LHD. Inside the ITB region, there is none or weak ∇Te dependence both in LHD and JT-60U. Growth of the cold pulse driven by the negative Te dependence of χe is observed inside the ITB region (LHD) and near the boundary of the ITB region (JT-60U).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492756','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22492756"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> characterization of silicon wafers by spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng</p> <p>2015-09-28</p> <p>Spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric (PCR) imaging technique is developed to characterize the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of silicon wafers. Based on a nonlinear PCR theory, simulations are performed to investigate the effects of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameters (the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity) on the steady-state PCR intensity profiles. The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameters of an n-type silicon wafer are simultaneously determined by fitting the measured steady-state PCR intensity profiles to the three-dimensional nonlinear PCR model. The determined <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameters are in good agreement with the results obtained by the conventional modulated PCR technique with multiple pump beam radii.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1065345','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1065345"><span id="translatedtitle">Local Pathways in Coherent <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> through Iron Porphyrin Complexes: A Challenge for First-Principles <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Herrmann, C.; Solomon, G.C.; Ratner, Mark A.</p> <p>2010-12-09</p> <p>We investigate the coherent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a selection of iron porphyrin complexes in their low-spin and high-spin states, binding the system to metallic electrodes with three different substitution patterns. We use a study of the local transmission through the complexes and their molecular orbitals to show the role of the various components of the molecular structure in mediating <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. While there are energies where the metal center and the axial ligands participate in <span class="hlt">transport</span>, in the off-resonant energy range, these components simply form a scaffold, and the <span class="hlt">transport</span> is dominated by transmission through the porphyrin macrocyle alone. This is still true when going from the low-spin to the high-spin state, except that now, an additional iron-centered MO contributes to <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the formerly off-resonant region. It is found that while the choice of the exchange-correlation functional can strongly influence the quantitative results, our qualitative conclusions hold irrespective of the functional employed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109e2901I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApPhL.109e2901I"><span id="translatedtitle">The charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism and <span class="hlt">electron</span> trap nature in thermal oxide on silicon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Islamov, Damir R.; Gritsenko, Vladimir A.; Perevalov, Timofey V.; Orlov, Oleg M.; Krasnikov, Gennady Ya.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism of <span class="hlt">electron</span> via traps in amorphous SiO2 has been studied. <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is limited by phonon-assisted tunneling between traps. Thermal and optical trap energies Wt=1.6 eV, Wopt=3.2 eV, respectively, were determined. Charge flowing leads to oxygen vacancies generation, and the leakage current increases due to the increase of charge trap density. Long-time annealing at high temperatures decreased the leakage current to initial values due to oxygen vacancies recombination with interstitial oxygen. It is found that the oxygen vacancies act as <span class="hlt">electron</span> traps in SiO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22472123','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22472123"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetics of vertical <span class="hlt">transport</span> and localization of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in strained semiconductor supperlattices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gerchikov, L. G. Mamaev, Yu. A.; Yashin, Yu. P.</p> <p>2015-08-15</p> <p>The kinetics of vertical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a semiconductor superlattice is considered taking into account partial localization of <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. The time dependences of photoemission currents from samples based on a strained semiconductor superlattice calculated by numerically solving the kinetic equation are in good agreement with experimental data. Comparison of the theory with experiment makes it possible to determine the characteristic <span class="hlt">electron</span> localization and thermoactivation times, the diffusion length, and losses of photoelectrons in the superlattice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20719414','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20719414"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel freestanding nanotube devices for combining TEM and <span class="hlt">electron</span> diffraction with Raman and <span class="hlt">Transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Meyer, Jannik C.; Obergfell, Dirk; Roth, Siegmar; Paillet, Matthieu; Sauvajol, Jean-Louis; Neumann, Anita; Duesberg, Georg</p> <p>2005-09-27</p> <p>A versatile procedure for combining high-resolution transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy (TEM) and <span class="hlt">electron</span> diffraction with Raman spectroscopy and <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements on the very same nanotube is presented. For this we prepare free-standing structures on the corner of a substrate by <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam lithography and an etching process. Further, this procedure makes possible a TEM quality control of nanotubes grown directly on the substrate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2077090','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2077090"><span id="translatedtitle">Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids <span class="hlt">Affect</span> Electrolyte <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells: Dependence on Cyclooxygenase and Cell Polarity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nüsing, Rolf M.; Schweer, Horst; Fleming, Ingrid; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Wegmann, Markus</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We investigated the effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) on ion <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the polarized renal distal tubular cell line, MDCK C7. Of the four EET regioisomers (5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET) studied, only apical, but not basolateral, application of 5,6-EET increased short circuit current (Isc) with kinetics similar to those of arachidonic acid. The ion <span class="hlt">transport</span> was blocked by preincubation with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin or with the chloride channel blocker NPPB. Further, both a Cl−-free bath solution and the Ca2+ antagonist verapamil blocked 5,6-EET-induced ion <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Although the presence of the PGE2 receptors EP2, EP3, and EP4 was demonstrated, apically added PGE2 was ineffective and basolaterally added PGE2 caused a different kinetics in ion <span class="hlt">transport</span> compared to 5,6-EET. Moreover, PGE2 sythesis in MDCK C7 cells was unaffected by 5,6-EET treatment. GC/MS/MS analysis of cell supernatants revealed the presence of the biologically inactive 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1 in 5,6-EET-treated cells, but not in control cells. Indomethacin suppressed the formation of 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1. 5,6-epoxy-PGE1 the precursor of 5,6-dihydroxy-PGE1, caused a similar ion <span class="hlt">transport</span> as 5,6-EET. Cytochrome P450 enzymes homolog to human CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2J2 protein were detected immunologically in the MDCK C7 cells. Our findings suggest that 5,6-EET <span class="hlt">affects</span> Cl-<span class="hlt">transport</span> in renal distal tubular cells independent of PGE2 but by a mechanism, dependent on its conversion to 5,6-epoxy-PGE1 by cyclooxygenase. We suggest a role for this P450 epoxygenase product in the regulation of electrolyte <span class="hlt">transport</span>, especially as a saluretic compound acting from the luminal side of tubular cells in the mammalian kidney. PMID:17494091</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004MPLB...18..847R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004MPLB...18..847R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Thermopower in Aperiodic DNA Sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Roche, Stephan; Maciá, Enrique</p> <p></p> <p>A detailed study of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of synthetic and genomic DNA sequences is reported. Genomic sequences of the Chromosome 22, λ-bacteriophage, and D1s80 genes of Human and Pygmy chimpanzee are considered in this work, and compared with both periodic and quasiperiodic (Fibonacci) sequences of nucleotides. Charge transfer efficiency is compared for all these different sequences, and large variations in charge transfer efficiency, stemming from sequence-dependent effects, are reported. In addition, basic characteristics of tunneling currents, including contact effects, are described. Finally, the thermoelectric power of nucleobases connected in between metallic contacts at different temperatures is presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93t5408R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93t5408R"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluctuating-bias controlled <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in molecular junctions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ridley, Michael; MacKinnon, Angus; Kantorovich, Lev</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We consider the problem of <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a multiterminal molecular junction in the presence of a stochastic bias, which can also be used to describe <span class="hlt">transport</span> through fluctuating molecular energy levels. To describe these effects, we first make a simple extension of our previous work [Phys. Rev. B 91, 125433 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.125433] to show that the problem of tunneling through noisy energy levels can be mapped onto the problem of a noisy driving bias, which appears in the Kadanoff-Baym equations for this system in an analogous manner to the driving term in the Langevin equation for a classical circuit. This formalism uses the nonequilibrium Green's function method to obtain analytically closed formulas for <span class="hlt">transport</span> quantities within the wide-band limit approximation for an arbitrary time-dependent bias and it is automatically partition free. We obtain exact closed formulas for both the colored and white noise-averaged current at all times. In the long-time limit, these formulas possess a Landauer-Büttiker-type structure which enables the extraction of an effective transmission coefficient for the <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Expanding the Fermi function into a series of simple poles, we find an exact formal relation between the parameters which characterize the bias fluctuations and the poles of the Fermi function. This enables us to describe the effect of the temperature and the strength of the fluctuations on the averaged current which we interpret as a quantum analog to the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We use these results to convincingly refute some recent results on the multistability of the current through a fluctuating level, simultaneously verifying that our formalism satisfies some well-known theorems on the asymptotic current. Finally, we present numerical results for the current through a molecular chain which demonstrate a transition from nonlinear to linear I -V characteristics as the strength of fluctuations is increased, as well as a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93x5415G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93x5415G"><span id="translatedtitle">Inelastic vibrational signals in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across graphene nanoconstrictions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels; Stokbro, Kurt; Brandbyge, Mads</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We present calculations of the inelastic vibrational signals in the electrical current through a graphene nanoconstriction. We find that the inelastic signals are only present when the Fermi-level position is tuned to <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission resonances, thus, providing a fingerprint which can link an <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission resonance to originate from the nanoconstriction. The calculations are based on a novel first-principles method which includes the phonon broadening due to coupling with phonons in the electrodes. We find that the signals are modified due to the strong coupling to the electrodes, however, still remain as robust fingerprints of the vibrations in the nanoconstriction. We investigate the effect of including the full self-consistent potential drop due to finite bias and gate doping on the calculations and find this to be of minor importance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4756276','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4756276"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution and dynamics of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> complexes in cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes☆</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Lu-Ning</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The cyanobacterial thylakoid membrane represents a system that can carry out both oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration simultaneously. The organization, interactions and mobility of components of these two <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways are indispensable to the biosynthesis of thylakoid membrane modules and the optimization of bioenergetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow in response to environmental changes. These are of fundamental importance to the metabolic robustness and plasticity of cyanobacteria. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the distribution and dynamics of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> components in cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes. Global understanding of the principles that govern the dynamic regulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways in nature will provide a framework for the design and synthetic engineering of new bioenergetic machinery to improve photosynthesis and biofuel production. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Conrad Mullineaux. PMID:26619924</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26619924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26619924"><span id="translatedtitle">Distribution and dynamics of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> complexes in cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Lu-Ning</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The cyanobacterial thylakoid membrane represents a system that can carry out both oxygenic photosynthesis and respiration simultaneously. The organization, interactions and mobility of components of these two <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways are indispensable to the biosynthesis of thylakoid membrane modules and the optimization of bioenergetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow in response to environmental changes. These are of fundamental importance to the metabolic robustness and plasticity of cyanobacteria. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the distribution and dynamics of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> components in cyanobacterial thylakoid membranes. Global understanding of the principles that govern the dynamic regulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> pathways in nature will provide a framework for the design and synthetic engineering of new bioenergetic machinery to improve photosynthesis and biofuel production. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Organization and dynamics of bioenergetic systems in bacteria, edited by Conrad Mullineaux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7091775','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7091775"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonlocal heat <span class="hlt">transport</span> by non-Maxwellian <span class="hlt">electrons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Swartz, K.; Short, R.W.</p> <p>1984-03-30</p> <p>The generalization of the Spitzer-Harm solution to steep density and temperature gradients requires the computation of the appropriate non-Maxwellian isotropic part of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> distribution. We develop analytic solutions for a steady state, high-Z plasma, employing the diffusion approximation. Applications of our solution include computation of the resulting heat flux, thermal smoothing of transverse temperature perturbations, and modification of linear heat flow instabilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25432970','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25432970"><span id="translatedtitle">Defective copper <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the copt5 mutant <span class="hlt">affects</span> cadmium tolerance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carrió-Seguí, Angela; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Sanz, Amparo; Peñarrubia, Lola</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Cadmium toxicity interferes with essential metal homeostasis, which is a problem for both plant nutrition and the consumption of healthy food by humans. Copper uptake is performed by the members of the Arabidopsis high affinity copper <span class="hlt">transporter</span> (COPT) family. One of the members, COPT5, is involved in copper recycling from the vacuole toward the cytosolic compartment. We show herein that copt5 mutants are more sensitive to cadmium stress than wild-type plants, as indicated by reduced growth. Exacerbated cadmium toxicity in copt5 mutants is due specifically to altered copper traffic through the COPT5 <span class="hlt">transporter</span>. Three different processes which have been shown to <span class="hlt">affect</span> cadmium tolerance are altered in copt5 mutants. First, ethylene biosynthesis diminishes under copper deficiency and, in the presence of cadmium, ethylene production diminishes further. Copper deficiency responses are also attenuated under cadmium treatment. Remarkably, while copt5 roots present higher oxidative stress toxicity symptoms than controls, aerial copt5 parts display lower oxidative stress, as seen by reduced cadmium delivery to shoots. Taken together, these results demonstrate that copper <span class="hlt">transport</span> plays a key role in cadmium resistance, and suggest that oxidative stress triggers an NADPH oxidase-mediated signaling pathway, which contributes to cadmium translocation and basal plant resistance. The slightly lower cadmium levels that reach aerial parts in the copt5 mutants, irrespective of the copper content in the media, suggest a new biotechnological approach to minimize toxic cadmium entry into food chains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486492','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486492"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a Hall thruster by axial–radial fully kinetic particle simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cho, Shinatora Kubota, Kenichi; Funaki, Ikkoh; Watanabe, Hiroki; Iihara, Shigeyasu; Fuchigami, Kenji; Uematsu, Kazuo</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across a magnetic field in a magnetic-layer-type Hall thruster was numerically investigated for the future predictive modeling of Hall thrusters. The discharge of a 1-kW-class magnetic-layer-type Hall thruster designed for high-specific-impulse operation was modeled using an r-z two-dimensional fully kinetic particle code with and without artificial <span class="hlt">electron</span>-diffusion models. The thruster performance results showed that both <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> models captured the experimental result within discrepancies less than 20% in thrust and discharge current for all the simulated operation conditions. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> cross-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism of the so-called anomalous diffusion was self-consistently observed in the simulation without artificial diffusion models; the effective <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility was two orders of magnitude higher than the value obtained using the classical diffusion theory. To account for the self-consistently observed anomalous <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the oscillation of plasma properties was speculated. It was suggested that the enhanced random-walk diffusion due to the velocity oscillation of low-frequency <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow could explain the observed anomalous diffusion within an order of magnitude. The dominant oscillation mode of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow velocity was found to be 20 kHz, which was coupled to electrostatic oscillation excited by global ionization instability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880052987&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DNeutralization','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880052987&hterms=Neutralization&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DNeutralization"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> by energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> released during solar flares. II - Current filamentation and plasma heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Winglee, R. M.; Dulk, G. A.; Pritchett, P. L.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Two-dimensional electrostatic particle simulations are performed in order to investigate energy <span class="hlt">transport</span> associated with the propagation of energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> through a flaring flux tube. Results indicate that as the energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> flow outward, a return current of ambient plasma <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is drawn inward (to maintain quasi-neutrality) which can be spatially separate from the primary current carried by the energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. Return current <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are shown to accumulate on either side of the acceleration region of the energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, and depletions of ambient plasma <span class="hlt">electrons</span> develop in the return current regions. Plasma ions accelerate across the field lines to produce current closure or charge neutralization, achieving energies comparable to those of the energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25105780','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25105780"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> conduction properties of indium tin oxide: single-particle and many-body <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Juhn-Jong; Li, Zhi-Qing</p> <p>2014-08-27</p> <p>Indium tin oxide (Sn-doped In2O3-δ or ITO) is a very interesting and technologically important transparent conducting oxide. This class of material has been extensively investigated for decades, with research efforts mostly focusing on the application aspects. The fundamental issues of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conduction properties of ITO from room temperature down to liquid-helium temperatures have rarely been addressed thus far. Studies of the electrical-<span class="hlt">transport</span> properties over a wide range of temperature are essential to unravelling the underlying <span class="hlt">electronic</span> dynamics and microscopic <span class="hlt">electronic</span> parameters. In this topical review, we show that one can learn rich physics in ITO material, including the semi-classical Boltzmann <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the quantum-interference <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, as well as the many-body Coulomb <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> interaction effects in the presence of disorder and inhomogeneity (granularity). To fully reveal the numerous avenues and unique opportunities that the ITO material has provided for fundamental condensed matter physics research, we demonstrate a variety of charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in different forms of ITO structures, including homogeneous polycrystalline thin and thick films, homogeneous single-crystalline nanowires and inhomogeneous ultrathin films. In this manner, we not only address new physics phenomena that can arise in ITO but also illustrate the versatility of the stable ITO material forms for potential technological applications. We emphasize that, microscopically, the novel and rich <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conduction properties of ITO originate from the inherited robust free-<span class="hlt">electron</span>-like energy bandstructure and low-carrier concentration (as compared with that in typical metals) characteristics of this class of material. Furthermore, a low carrier concentration leads to slow <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon relaxation, which in turn causes the experimentally observed (i) a small residual resistance ratio, (ii) a linear <span class="hlt">electron</span> diffusion thermoelectric power in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3396541','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3396541"><span id="translatedtitle">Control of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> routes through redox-regulated redistribution of respiratory complexes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Lu-Ning; Bryan, Samantha J.; Huang, Fang; Yu, Jianfeng; Nixon, Peter J.; Rich, Peter R.; Mullineaux, Conrad W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In cyanobacteria, respiratory <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> takes place in close proximity to photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, because the complexes required for both processes are located within the thylakoid membranes. The balance of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> routes is crucial for cell physiology, yet the factors that control the predominance of particular pathways are poorly understood. Here we use a combination of tagging with green fluorescent protein and confocal fluorescence microscopy in live cells of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to investigate the distribution on submicron scales of two key respiratory <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors, type-I NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDH-1) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). When cells are grown under low light, both complexes are concentrated in discrete patches in the thylakoid membranes, about 100–300 nm in diameter and containing tens to hundreds of complexes. Exposure to moderate light leads to redistribution of both NDH-1 and SDH such that they become evenly distributed within the thylakoid membranes. The effects of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> inhibitors indicate that redistribution of respiratory complexes is triggered by changes in the redox state of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> carrier close to plastoquinone. Redistribution does not depend on de novo protein synthesis, and it is accompanied by a major increase in the probability that respiratory <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are transferred to photosystem I rather than to a terminal oxidase. These results indicate that the distribution of complexes on the scale of 100–300 nm controls the partitioning of reducing power and that redistribution of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> complexes on these scales is a physiological mechanism to regulate the pathways of <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow. PMID:22733774</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1327459','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1327459"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across glycerol monooleate bilayer lipid membranes facilitated by magnesium etiochlorin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feldberg, S W; Armen, G H; Bell, J A; Chang, C K; Wang, C B</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> across biological membranes is believed to play an important role in many biophenomena. Although there have been many examples of systems which may be <span class="hlt">transporting</span> <span class="hlt">electrons</span> across Mueller-Rudin bilayer lipid membranes (blm), none has been well characterized. The system we describe here comprises a glycerol monooleate blm containing a magnesium etiochlorin (Mg-C) separating two aqueous phases each containing ferricyanide, ferrocyanide, KCl, and a platinum electrode. The E0s for the Mg-C+/Mg-C and ferri-/ferrocyanide couples are 0.22 and 0.24 V vs. SCE. Thus the MG-C+/Mb-C system is easily poised by the ferri-/ferrocyanide system. When the potentials of the ferri-/ferrocyanide couples are different on each side of the blm we show that the open-circuit membrane potential nearly equals the difference between the redox potentials. This is unequivocal evidence that <span class="hlt">electrons</span> are being transferred across the blm from one aqueous phase to the other. On the basis of these experiments we deduce that <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is the major charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism. When redox potentials are the same on each side of the blm, the conductance of the membrane can be greater than 10(-3) S/cm2. The conductance is proportional to the second power of the concentration of Mg-C in the membrane-forming mixture. A number of additional experiments are described which attempt to elucidate the mechanism of <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer. We believe that our data are consistent with the idea of an <span class="hlt">electron</span>-hopping mechanism in which the transmembrane <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> occurs by a series of second-order <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfers between membrane-bound <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors (Mg-C) and acceptors (Mg-C+). Alternative explanations are presented. PMID:7213929</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20163088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20163088"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuel-mix, fuel efficiency, and <span class="hlt">transport</span> demand <span class="hlt">affect</span> prospects for biofuels in northern Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bright, Ryan M; Strømman, Anders Hammer</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the road <span class="hlt">transport</span> sector represents a difficult mitigation challenge due to a multitude of intricate factors, namely the dependency on liquid energy carriers and infrastructure lock-in. For this reason, low-carbon renewable energy carriers, particularly second generation biofuels, are often seen as a prominent candidate for realizing reduced emissions and lowered oil dependency over the medium- and long-term horizons. However, the overarching question is whether advanced biofuels can be an environmentally effective mitigation strategy in the face of increasing consumption and resource constraints. Here we develop both biofuel production and road <span class="hlt">transport</span> consumption scenarios for northern Europe-a region with a vast surplus of forest bioenergy resources-to assess the potential role that forest-based biofuels may play over the medium- and long-term time horizons using an environmentally extended, multiregion input-output model. Through scenarios, we explore how evolving vehicle technologies and consumption patterns will <span class="hlt">affect</span> the mitigation opportunities afforded by any future supply of forest biofuels. We find that in a scenario involving ambitious biofuel targets, the size of the GHG mitigation wedge attributed to the market supply of biofuels is severely reduced under business-as-usual growth in consumption in the road <span class="hlt">transport</span> sector. Our results indicate that climate policies targeting the road <span class="hlt">transport</span> sector which give high emphases to reducing demand (volume), accelerating the deployment of more fuel-efficient vehicles, and promoting altered consumption patterns (structure) can be significantly more effective than those with single emphasis on expanded biofuel supply. PMID:20163088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20163088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20163088"><span id="translatedtitle">Fuel-mix, fuel efficiency, and <span class="hlt">transport</span> demand <span class="hlt">affect</span> prospects for biofuels in northern Europe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bright, Ryan M; Strømman, Anders Hammer</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>Rising greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the road <span class="hlt">transport</span> sector represents a difficult mitigation challenge due to a multitude of intricate factors, namely the dependency on liquid energy carriers and infrastructure lock-in. For this reason, low-carbon renewable energy carriers, particularly second generation biofuels, are often seen as a prominent candidate for realizing reduced emissions and lowered oil dependency over the medium- and long-term horizons. However, the overarching question is whether advanced biofuels can be an environmentally effective mitigation strategy in the face of increasing consumption and resource constraints. Here we develop both biofuel production and road <span class="hlt">transport</span> consumption scenarios for northern Europe-a region with a vast surplus of forest bioenergy resources-to assess the potential role that forest-based biofuels may play over the medium- and long-term time horizons using an environmentally extended, multiregion input-output model. Through scenarios, we explore how evolving vehicle technologies and consumption patterns will <span class="hlt">affect</span> the mitigation opportunities afforded by any future supply of forest biofuels. We find that in a scenario involving ambitious biofuel targets, the size of the GHG mitigation wedge attributed to the market supply of biofuels is severely reduced under business-as-usual growth in consumption in the road <span class="hlt">transport</span> sector. Our results indicate that climate policies targeting the road <span class="hlt">transport</span> sector which give high emphases to reducing demand (volume), accelerating the deployment of more fuel-efficient vehicles, and promoting altered consumption patterns (structure) can be significantly more effective than those with single emphasis on expanded biofuel supply.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391741','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22391741"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of one dimensional lithium nanowire using density functional theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thakur, Anil; Kumar, Arun; Chandel, Surjeet; Ahluwalia, P. K.</p> <p>2015-05-15</p> <p>Single nanowire electrode devices are a unique platform for studying as energy storage devices. Lithium nanowire is of much importance in lithium ion batteries and therefore has received a great deal of attention in past few years. In this paper we investigated structural and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Li nanowire using density functional theory (DFT) with SIESTA code. <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Li nanowire are investigated theoretically. The calculations are performed in two steps: first an optimized geometry for Li nanowire is obtained using DFT calculations, and then the <span class="hlt">transport</span> relations are obtained using NEGF approach. SIESTA and TranSIESTA simulation codes are used in the calculations correspondingly. The electrodes are chosen to be the same as the central region where <span class="hlt">transport</span> is studied, eliminating current quantization effects due to contacts and focusing the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> study to the intrinsic structure of the material. By varying chemical potential in the electrode regions, an I-V curve is traced which is in agreement with the predicted behavior. Agreement of bulk properties of Li with experimental values make the study of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in lithium nanowires interesting because they are promising candidates as bridging pieces in nanoelectronics. Transmission coefficient and V-I characteristic of Li nano wire indicates that Li nanowire can be used as an electrode device.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25050525','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25050525"><span id="translatedtitle">Centimeter-long <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in marine sediments via conductive minerals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malvankar, Nikhil S; King, Gary M; Lovley, Derek R</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Centimeter-long <span class="hlt">electron</span> conduction through marine sediments, in which <span class="hlt">electrons</span> derived from sulfide in anoxic sediments are <span class="hlt">transported</span> to oxygen in surficial sediments, may have an important influence on sediment geochemistry. Filamentous bacteria have been proposed to mediate the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, but the filament conductivity could not be verified and other mechanisms are possible. Surprisingly, previous investigations have never actually measured the sediment conductivity or its basic physical properties. Here we report direct measurements that demonstrate centimeter-long <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow through marine sediments, with conductivities sufficient to account for previously estimated <span class="hlt">electron</span> fluxes. Conductivity was lost for oxidized sediments, which contrasts with the previously described increase in the conductivity of microbial biofilms upon oxidation. Adding pyrite to the sediments significantly enhanced the conductivity. These results suggest that the role of conductive minerals, which are more commonly found in sediments than centimeter-long microbial filaments, need to be considered when modeling marine sediment biogeochemistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19778138','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19778138"><span id="translatedtitle">Vibration-induced inelastic effects in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through multisite molecular bridges.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zimbovskaya, Natalya A; Kuklja, Maija M</p> <p>2009-09-21</p> <p>We theoretically analyzed inelastic effects in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through molecular junctions originating from <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibron interactions. The molecular bridge was simulated by a periodical chain of identical hydrogenlike atoms with the nearest neighbors interaction thus providing a set of energy states for the <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling. To avoid difficulties inevitably arising when advanced computational techniques are employed to study inelastic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through multilevel bridges, we propose and develop a semiphenomenological approach. The latter is based on Buttiker's dephasing model within the scattering matrix formalism. We apply the proposed approach to describe features associated with <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy transfer to vibrational phonons that appear in the second derivative of the current in the junction with respect to the bias voltage. In the particular case of a single level bridge our results agree with those obtained by proper calculations carried out within the nonequilibrium Green's functions method indicating the usefulness of the suggested approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117v5101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAP...117v5101B"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical study of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a graphene-silicene bilayer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berdiyorov, G. R.; Bahlouli, H.; Peeters, F. M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a graphene-silicene bilayer system are studied using density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Depending on the energy of the <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, the transmission can be larger in this system as compared to the sum of the transmissions of separated graphene and silicene monolayers. This effect is related to the increased <span class="hlt">electron</span> density of states in the bilayer sample. At some energies, the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states become localized in one of the layers, resulting in the suppression of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission. The effect of an applied voltage on the transmission becomes more pronounced in the layered sample as compared to graphene due to the larger variation of the electrostatic potential profile. Our findings will be useful when creating hybrid nanoscale devices where enhanced <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties will be desirable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412929','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22412929"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical study of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a graphene-silicene bilayer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berdiyorov, G. R.; Bahlouli, H.; Peeters, F. M.</p> <p>2015-06-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a graphene-silicene bilayer system are studied using density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Depending on the energy of the <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, the transmission can be larger in this system as compared to the sum of the transmissions of separated graphene and silicene monolayers. This effect is related to the increased <span class="hlt">electron</span> density of states in the bilayer sample. At some energies, the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states become localized in one of the layers, resulting in the suppression of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission. The effect of an applied voltage on the transmission becomes more pronounced in the layered sample as compared to graphene due to the larger variation of the electrostatic potential profile. Our findings will be useful when creating hybrid nanoscale devices where enhanced <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties will be desirable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012APS..MAR.S1260R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012APS..MAR.S1260R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Dependence of magnetic field and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of Mn4 Single-molecule magnet in a Single-<span class="hlt">Electron</span> Transistor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rodriguez, Alvar; Singh, Simranjeet; Haque, Firoze; Del Barco, Enrique; Nguyen, Tu; Christou, George</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Dependence of magnetic field and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of Mn4 Single-molecule magnet in a Single-<span class="hlt">Electron</span> Transistor A. Rodriguez, S. Singh, F. Haque and E. del Barco Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, Florida 32816 USA T. Nguyen and G. Christou Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 USA Abstract We have performed single-<span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements on a series of Mn-based low-nuclearity single-molecule magnets (SMM) observing Coulomb blockade. SMMs with well isolated and low ground spin states, i.e. S = 9/2 (Mn4) and S = 6 (Mn3) were chosen for these studies, such that the ground spin multiplet does not mix with levels of other excited spin states for the magnetic fields (H = 0-8 T) employed in the experiments. Different functionalization groups were employed to change the mechanical, geometrical and <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics of the molecules when deposited from liquid solution on the transistors. Electromigration-broken three-terminal single-<span class="hlt">electron</span> transistors were used. Results obtained at temperatures down to 240 mK and in the presence of high magnetic fields will be shown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BpRL....9..397R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BpRL....9..397R"><span id="translatedtitle">Single-File <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of Classical <span class="hlt">Electrons</span> on the Surface of Liquid Helium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rees, David G.; Kono, Kimitoshi</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electrons</span> trapped on the surface of liquid helium form a model two-dimensional system. Because the <span class="hlt">electron</span> density is low ( 109 cm-2) and the Coulomb interaction between the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is essentially unscreened, the system can be regarded as a classical analogue of the degenerate Fermi gas. <span class="hlt">Electrons</span> on helium have therefore long been used to study many-body <span class="hlt">transport</span> phenomena in two dimensions. Here we review recent experiments investigating the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> on helium through microscopic constrictions formed in microchannel devices. Two constriction geometries are studied; short saddle-point constrictions and long constrictions in which the length greatly exceeds the width. In both cases, the constriction width can be tuned electrostatically so that the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> move in single file. As the width of the short constriction is increased, a periodic suppression of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> current is observed due to pinning for commensurate states of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> lattice. A related phenomenon is observed for the long constriction whereby the quasi-one-dimensional Wigner lattice exhibits reentrant melting as the number of <span class="hlt">electron</span> chains increases. Our results demonstrate that <span class="hlt">electrons</span> on helium are an ideal system in which to study many-body <span class="hlt">transport</span> in the limit of single-file motion. Special Issue Comments: This article presents experimental results on the dynamics of classical <span class="hlt">electrons</span> moving on the surface of liquid helium in narrow channels with constrictions, with a focus on the "quantum wire", i.e. single file, regime. This article is related to the Special Issue articles about advanced statistical properties in single file dynamics34 and the mathematical results on <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics in liquid helium.35</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5837303','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5837303"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Helminthosporium maydis race T toxin on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in susceptible corn mitochondria and prevention of toxin actions by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holden, M.J.; Sze, H. )</p> <p>1989-12-01</p> <p>The effect of Helminthosporium maydis race T toxin on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in susceptible cytoplasmic male-sterile Texas corn (Zea mays L.) mitochondria was investigated, using dichlorophenol indophenol and ferricyanide as <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors. Succinate-dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> was stimulated by the toxin, consistent with the well described increase in membrane permeability induced by the toxin. Malate-dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> was inhibited. This inhibition of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> increased as a function of time of exposure to the toxin. Mitochondria from normal-fertile (N) corn were not <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the toxin. Both the inhibition of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and the increase in ion permeability, such as dissipation of membrane potential and Ca{sup 2+} gradients, induced by the toxin in T corn was prevented by N,N{prime}-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, a hydrophobic carbodiimide. A water-soluble carbodiimide, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide, was ineffective in preventing dissipation of membrane potential by the toxin. These results suggest that the various toxin actions are mediated via interaction of the toxin with one target site, most probably a 13 kilodalton polypeptide unique to T mitochondria. N,N{prime}-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide may confer protection by modifying an amino acid residue in a hydrophobic portion of the target site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22264075','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22264075"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> through disordered 1D wires: Conductance via localized and delocalized <span class="hlt">electrons</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gopar, Víctor A.</p> <p>2014-01-14</p> <p>Coherent <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through disordered systems, like quantum wires, is a topic of fundamental and practical interest. In particular, the exponential localization of <span class="hlt">electron</span> wave functions-Anderson localization-due to the presence of disorder has been widely studied. In fact, Anderson localization, is not an phenomenon exclusive to <span class="hlt">electrons</span> but it has been observed in microwave and acoustic experiments, photonic materials, cold atoms, etc. Nowadays, many properties of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of quantum wires have been successfully described within a scaling approach to Anderson localization. On the other hand, anomalous localization or delocalization is, in relation to the Anderson problem, a less studied phenomenon. Although one can find signatures of anomalous localization in very different systems in nature. In the problem of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, a source of delocalization may come from symmetries present in the system and particular disorder configurations, like the so-called Lévy-type disorder. We have developed a theoretical model to describe the statistical properties of <span class="hlt">transport</span> when <span class="hlt">electron</span> wave functions are delocalized. In particular, we show that only two physical parameters determine the complete conductance distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19278211','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19278211"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> on the nanoscale: ballistic transmission and Ohm's law.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Homoth, J; Wenderoth, M; Druga, T; Winking, L; Ulbrich, R G; Bobisch, C A; Weyers, B; Bannani, A; Zubkov, E; Bernhart, A M; Kaspers, M R; Möller, R</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>If a current of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> flows through a normal conductor (in contrast to a superconductor), it is impeded by local scattering at defects as well as phonon scattering. Both effects contribute to the voltage drop observed for a macroscopic complex system as described by Ohm's law. Although this concept is well established, it has not yet been measured around individual defects on the atomic scale. We have measured the voltage drop at a monatomic step in real space by restricting the current to a surface layer. For the Si(111)-( [see text]3 x [see text]3)-Ag surface a monotonous transition with a width below 1 nm was found. A numerical analysis of the data maps the current flow through the complex network and the interplay between defect-free terraces and monatomic steps.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26508279','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26508279"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of Ir-decorated graphene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Yilin; Xiao, Shudong; Cai, Xinghan; Bao, Wenzhong; Reutt-Robey, Janice; Fuhrer, Michael S</p> <p>2015-10-28</p> <p>Graphene decorated with 5d transitional metal atoms is predicted to exhibit many intriguing properties; for example iridium adatoms are proposed to induce a substantial topological gap in graphene. We extensively investigated the conductivity of single-layer graphene decorated with iridium deposited in ultra-high vacuum at low temperature (7 K) as a function of Ir concentration, carrier density, temperature, and annealing conditions. Our results are consistent with the formation of Ir clusters of ~100 atoms at low temperature, with each cluster donating a single <span class="hlt">electronic</span> charge to graphene. Annealing graphene increases the cluster size, reducing the doping and increasing the mobility. We do not observe any sign of an energy gap induced by spin-orbit coupling, possibly due to the clustering of Ir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......116R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......116R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> structure and quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> in controlled impurity systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryu, Hoon</p> <p></p> <p>Due to a continuous device downscaling, a precise control of dopant placements has become a critical factor to determine device performances. Recent progresses in the Scanning Tunneling Microscope lithography control dopant positions within a few atomic layers and have led experimentalists to propose various prototypes of planar patterned densely phosphorous delta-doping silicon (Si:P) devices. Theoretical understanding of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> properties in such systems based on a realistic modeling approach is critical for potential device designs. Si:P devices are studied with the atomistic tight-binding (TB) approach coupled to charge-potential self-consistent simulations. The dispersion of a 1/4 mono-layer (ML) doped Si:P doping plane is simulated and compared to the previous literatures to validate our methodology. Upon the methodological validation, dispersions of 1/4ML doped ultra-narrow nanowires (NWs) are studied to explain experimentally observed metallic properties. Predicted channel conductances agree well with measured values. Then, a single donor quantum dot device with Si:P NW leads, is modeled to confirm the experimentally realized device is indeed a single atom transistor. Predicted charging energy and gate-control over the channel ground state establish strong connections to the experimental results. Finally, the numerical practicality of the Contact Block Reduction (CBR) method in simulating <span class="hlt">electron</span> resonance tunneling features, is examined using Si:P NWs as examples. Based on a proof of principles on small TB systems, we show the CBR method can be practical on supercomputing clusters, due a better scalability than the one observed from the Recursive Greens Function and Wavefunction algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26650706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26650706"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of ABC <span class="hlt">transport</span> proteins by oil sands process <span class="hlt">affected</span> water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alharbi, Hattan A; Saunders, David M V; Al-Mousa, Ahmed; Alcorn, Jane; Pereira, Alberto S; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of <span class="hlt">transporter</span> proteins is important for detoxification of xenobiotics. For example, ABC <span class="hlt">transporters</span> from the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) subfamily are important for excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites. Effects of chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of relatively fresh oil sands process <span class="hlt">affected</span> water (OSPW) from Base Mine Lake (BML-OSPW) and aged OSPW from Pond 9 (P9-OSPW) on the activity of MRP <span class="hlt">transporters</span> were investigated in vivo by use of Japanese medaka at the fry stage of development. Activities of MRPs were monitored by use of the lipophilic dye calcein, which is <span class="hlt">transported</span> from cells by ABC proteins, including MRPs. To begin to identify chemicals that might inhibit activity of MRPs, BML-OSPW and P9-OSPW were fractionated into acidic, basic, and neutral fractions by use of mixed-mode sorbents. Chemical compositions of fractions were determined by use of ultrahigh resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry in ESI(+) and ESI(-) mode. Greater amounts of calcein were retained in fry exposed to BML-OSPW at concentration equivalents greater than 1× (i.e., full strength). The neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW, but not the acidic fraction, caused greater retention of calcein. Exposure to P9-OSPW did not <span class="hlt">affect</span> the amount of calcein in fry. Neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW contained relatively greater amounts of several oxygen-, sulfur, and nitrogen-containing chemical species that might inhibit MRPs, such as O(+), SO(+), and NO(+) chemical species, although secondary fractionation will be required to conclusively identify the most potent inhibitors. Naphthenic acids (O2(-)), which were dominant in the acidic fraction, did not appear to be the cause of the inhibition. This is the first study to demonstrate that chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of OSPW inhibit activity of this important class of proteins. However, aging of OSPW attenuates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26650706','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26650706"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibition of ABC <span class="hlt">transport</span> proteins by oil sands process <span class="hlt">affected</span> water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alharbi, Hattan A; Saunders, David M V; Al-Mousa, Ahmed; Alcorn, Jane; Pereira, Alberto S; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of <span class="hlt">transporter</span> proteins is important for detoxification of xenobiotics. For example, ABC <span class="hlt">transporters</span> from the multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) subfamily are important for excretion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their metabolites. Effects of chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of relatively fresh oil sands process <span class="hlt">affected</span> water (OSPW) from Base Mine Lake (BML-OSPW) and aged OSPW from Pond 9 (P9-OSPW) on the activity of MRP <span class="hlt">transporters</span> were investigated in vivo by use of Japanese medaka at the fry stage of development. Activities of MRPs were monitored by use of the lipophilic dye calcein, which is <span class="hlt">transported</span> from cells by ABC proteins, including MRPs. To begin to identify chemicals that might inhibit activity of MRPs, BML-OSPW and P9-OSPW were fractionated into acidic, basic, and neutral fractions by use of mixed-mode sorbents. Chemical compositions of fractions were determined by use of ultrahigh resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry in ESI(+) and ESI(-) mode. Greater amounts of calcein were retained in fry exposed to BML-OSPW at concentration equivalents greater than 1× (i.e., full strength). The neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW, but not the acidic fraction, caused greater retention of calcein. Exposure to P9-OSPW did not <span class="hlt">affect</span> the amount of calcein in fry. Neutral and basic fractions of BML-OSPW contained relatively greater amounts of several oxygen-, sulfur, and nitrogen-containing chemical species that might inhibit MRPs, such as O(+), SO(+), and NO(+) chemical species, although secondary fractionation will be required to conclusively identify the most potent inhibitors. Naphthenic acids (O2(-)), which were dominant in the acidic fraction, did not appear to be the cause of the inhibition. This is the first study to demonstrate that chemicals in the water soluble organic fraction of OSPW inhibit activity of this important class of proteins. However, aging of OSPW attenuates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005PhRvB..71o5310F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2005PhRvB..71o5310F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Two-band <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a double quantum well</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fletcher, R.; Tsaousidou, M.; Smith, T.; Coleridge, P. T.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Feng, Y.</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>The carrier densities and mobilities have been measured for the first two populated subbands in a GaAs double quantum well (DQW) as a function of the top gate voltage Vg . The densities and quantum mobilities ( μiq , i=1,2 ) were obtained from the de Haas-Shubnikov oscillations. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> mobilities (μit) were determined from the semiclassical low-field magnetoresistance with intersubband scattering taken into account. At 0.32K the experimental data on both μit and μiq , as a function of Vg , lie on two curves which cross at the resonance point as expected from theoretical considerations. At 1.09K and 4.2K the μit curves no longer cross at resonance, but show a gap. The reason for this is not known. The mobilities have been calculated in the low-temperature limit within the Boltzmann framework by assuming that they are limited by scattering due to ionized impurities located at the outside interfaces. The assumption of short-range scattering is justified by the relatively small value of the ratio μit/μiq that is measured in the present system. The theoretical values obtained for μit and μiq are in reasonable agreement with the experiment for all values of Vg examined. We have also calculated the resistivity and intersubband scattering rates of the DQW as a function of Vg and again find good agreement with measured values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JAP...104b4302M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JAP...104b4302M"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of gallium nitride nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Motayed, Abhishek; Davydov, Albert V.; Mohammad, S. N.; Melngailis, John</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>We report <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires grown using direct reaction of ammonia and gallium vapor. Reliable devices, such as four-terminal resistivity measuring structures and field-effect transistors, were realized by dielectrophoretically aligning the nanowires on an oxidized silicon substrate and subsequently applying standard microfabrication techniques. Room-temperature resistivity in the range of (1.0-6.2)×10-2 Ω cm was obtained for the nanowires with diameters ranging from 200 to 90 nm. Temperature-dependent resistivity and mobility measurements indicated the possible sources for the n-type conductivity and high background charge carrier concentration in these nanowires. Specific contact resistance in the range of 5.0×10-5 Ω cm2 was extracted for Ti/Al/Ti/Au metal contacts to GaN nanowires. Significant reduction in the activation energy of the dopants at low temperatures (<200 K) was observed in the temperature-dependent resistivity measurement of these nanowires, which is linked to the onset of degeneracy. Temperature-dependent field-effect mobility measurements indicated that the ionized impurity scattering is the dominant mechanism in these nanowires at all temperatures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhyE...17..272A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003PhyE...17..272A"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-equilibrium <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in degenerate nitride heterostructures-dynamic screening effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, D. R.; Babiker, M.; Bennett, C. R.; Probert, M. I. J.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>We show how dynamic screening effects on non-equilibrium <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> can be incorporated in the case of <span class="hlt">electronically</span> dense GaN-based quantum wells. The theory is based on the Boltzmann equation, leading to evaluations of the momentum relaxation time and, hence, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility in these heterostructures. We find that both screening and anti-screening effects are manifest as the <span class="hlt">electron</span> density varies. However, anti-screening dominates over a wide range of densities, with screening commencing at densities appropriate for phonon-plasmon coupling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22408372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22408372"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of oblique magnetic field on <span class="hlt">electron</span> cross-field <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a Hall effect thruster</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miedzik, Jan; Daniłko, Dariusz; Barral, Serge</p> <p>2015-04-15</p> <p>The effects of the inclination of the magnetic field with respect to the channel walls in a Hall effect thruster are numerically studied with the use of a one-dimensional quasi-neutral Particle-In-Cell model with guiding center approximation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> motion along magnetic lines. Parametric studies suggest that the incidence angle strongly influences <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across the magnetic field. In ion-focusing magnetic topologies, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> collide predominantly on the side of the magnetic flux tube closer to the anode, thus increasing the <span class="hlt">electron</span> cross-field drift. The opposite effect is observed in ion-defocussing topology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830020581','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830020581"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Paracoccus Halodenitrificans and the Role of Ubiquinone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hochstein, L. I.; Cronin, S. E.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The membrane-bound NADH oxidase of Paracoccus halodenitrificans was inhibited by dicoumarol, 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO), and exposure to ultraviolet light (at 366 nm). When the membranes were extracted with n-pentane, NADH oxidase activity was lost. Partial restoration was achieved by adding the ubiquinone fraction extracted from the membranes. Succinate oxidation was not inhibited by dicoumarol or HQNO but was <span class="hlt">affected</span> by ultraviolet irradiation or n-pentane extraction. However, the addition of the ubiquinone fraction to the n-pentane-extracted membranes did not restore enzyme activity. These observations suggested the reducing equivalents from succinate entered the respiratory chain on the oxygen side of the HQNO-sensitive site and probably did not proceed through a quinone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840063763&hterms=ENZYME+EXTRACTION&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DENZYME%2BEXTRACTION','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840063763&hterms=ENZYME+EXTRACTION&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DENZYME%2BEXTRACTION"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Paracoccus halodenitrificans and the role of Ubiquinone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hochstein, L. I.; Cronin, S. E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The membrane-bound NADH oxidase of Paracoccus halodenitrificans was inhibited by dicoumarol, 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide (HQNO), and exposure to ultraviolet light (at 366 nm). When the membranes were extracted with n-pentane, NADH oxidase activity was lost. Partial restoration was achieved by adding the ubiquinone fraction extracted from the membranes. Succinate oxidation was not inhibited by dicoumarol or HQNO but was <span class="hlt">affected</span> by ultraviolet irradiation or n-pentane extraction. However, the addition of the ubiquinone fraction to the n-pentane-extracted membranes did not restore enzyme activity. These observations suggested the reducing equivalents from succinate entered the respiratory chain on the oxygen side of the HQNO-sensitive site and probably did not proceed through a quinone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11102017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11102017"><span id="translatedtitle">Experimental evidence of electric inhibition in fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> penetration and of electric-field-limited fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in dense matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pisani; Bernardinello; Batani; Antonicci; Martinolli; Koenig; Gremillet; Amiranoff; Baton; Davies; Hall; Scott; Norreys; Djaoui; Rousseaux; Fews; Bandulet; Pepin</p> <p>2000-11-01</p> <p>Fast <span class="hlt">electron</span> generation and propagation were studied in the interaction of a green laser with solids. The experiment, carried out with the LULI TW laser (350 fs, 15 J), used K(alpha) emission from buried fluorescent layers to measure <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Results for conductors (Al) and insulators (plastic) are compared with simulations: in plastic, inhibition in the propagation of fast <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is observed, due to electric fields which become the dominant factor in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. PMID:11102017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.Y8012T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MAR.Y8012T"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Surface Roughness and <span class="hlt">Electron</span>-Phonon Interaction on <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of Ultrathin Epitaxial Copper Films</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Timalsina, Yukta; Horning, Andrew; Spivey, Robert; Lewis, Kim; Wang, Gwo-Ching; Lu, Toh-Ming</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We report effects of surface roughness and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon interaction on <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in ultrathin epitaxial copper films of thickness ranging from 5 nm to 500 nm grown on Si(100) substrates. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the film was examined by measuring the temperature dependent resistivity in the temperature range of 5 K to 300 K. We demonstrate that the temperature independent component of resistivity can be described by the root-mean-square-surface roughness and lateral correlation length with no adjustable parameter, using a recent quasi-classical model developed by Chatterjee and Meyerovich. However, the temperature dependent component of the resistivity can be described using the Bloch-Grüneisen formula with a thickness dependent <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon coupling constant and a thickness dependent Debye temperature. We show that the increase of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon coupling constant with the decrease of film thickness gives rise to an enhancement of the temperature dependent component of the resistivity. This work is supported in part by New York State Foundation of Science, Technology and Innovation through Focus Center-New York.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26538036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26538036"><span id="translatedtitle">Plasmon-Mediated <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Junctions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pal, Partha Pratim; Jiang, Nan; Sonntag, Matthew D; Chiang, Naihao; Foley, Edward T; Hersam, Mark C; Van Duyne, Richard P; Seideman, Tamar</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We combine experiment, theory, and first-principles-based calculations to study the light-induced plasmon-mediated <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics of a molecular-scale junction. The experimental data show a nonlinear increase in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> current perturbation when the focus of a chopped laser beam moves laterally toward the tip-sample junction. To understand this behavior and generalize it, we apply a combined theory of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> nonequilibrium formed upon decoherence of an optically triggered plasmon and first-principles <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations. Our model illustrates that the current via an adsorbed molecular monolayer increases nonlinearly as more energy is pumped into the junction due to the increasing availability of virtual molecular orbital channels for <span class="hlt">transport</span> with higher injection energies. Our results thus illustrate light-triggered, plasmon-enhanced tunneling current in the presence of a molecular linker. PMID:26538036</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyC..525...18Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhyC..525...18Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> anomalies and quantum criticality in <span class="hlt">electron</span>-doped cuprate superconductors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xu; Yu, Heshan; He, Ge; Hu, Wei; Yuan, Jie; Zhu, Beiyi; Jin, Kui</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Superconductivity research is like running a marathon. Three decades after the discovery of high-Tc cuprates, there have been mass data generated from <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements, which bring fruitful information. In this review, we give a brief summary of the intriguing phenomena reported in <span class="hlt">electron</span>-doped cuprates from the aspect of electrical <span class="hlt">transport</span> as well as the complementary thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span>. We attempt to sort out common features of the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-doped family, e.g. the strange metal, negative magnetoresistance, multiple sign reversals of Hall in mixed state, abnormal Nernst signal, complex quantum criticality. Most of them have been challenging the existing theories, nevertheless, a unified diagram certainly helps to approach the nature of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-doped cuprates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23498744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23498744"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> microscopy of flagella, primary cilia, and intraflagellar <span class="hlt">transport</span> in flat-embedded cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rogowski, Michaela; Scholz, Dirk; Geimer, Stefan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Intraflagellar <span class="hlt">transport</span> (IFT) is an evolutionarily highly conserved, microtubule-based, bidirectional <span class="hlt">transport</span> system found in eukaryotic cilia/flagella and is indispensable for their assembly, maintenance, and sensory functions. Powered by two different motor complexes, linear arrays of protein particles, called IFT trains, are <span class="hlt">transported</span> from the base to the tip of the cilium/flagellum and back, carrying axonemal precursors to the tip for assembly and turnover products back to the cell body for recycling. The dynamics of IFT can be visualized using various types of live-cell microscopy techniques, but for analyzing the ultrastructure of IFT trains, transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy is indispensable. The focus of this chapter is to describe the application of the flat embedding technique to Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and monolayers of mammalian culture cells. Such flat embeddings are well suited for the analysis of the ultrastructure of the IFT system by standard <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy and <span class="hlt">electron</span> tomography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JPhy1...1..837L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991JPhy1...1..837L"><span id="translatedtitle">Linear <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in dense plasmas. II. Finite degeneracy contributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Léger, D.; Deutsch, C.</p> <p>1991-06-01</p> <p>The formalism described in the first paper in this series is hereafter specialized to a thorough investigation of finite degeneracy contributions to thermoelectronic and mechanical <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients, conveniently expressed as reduced quantities. Temperature corrections are systematically discussed through the analytical properties of the jellium dielectric function. The Thomas-Fermi one appears as a paradigm of regular behavior at q=2k_F while the Lindhard and its T-dependent extension head a singular class characterized by diverging derivatives. Specific methods are developed for these important cases. Results are presented in terms of analytic expansions in the degeneracy parameter α, and exact expressions for the above-mentioned corrections are derived up to order α2. Finally we display a number of numerical results pertaining to fully ionized proton-helium binary mixtures of Astrophysical interest. The connection of the present formalism and its numerical outputs with other previous treatments is also carefully examined. Le formalisme exposé et détaillé dans le premier article de cette série est ici appliqué à la détermination des contributions de dégénérescence partielle aux coefficients de <span class="hlt">transport</span> thermoélectroniques et mécanique (viscosité), coefficients préalablement exprimés sous forme d'expressions réduites. Les corrections de température finie sont systématiquement analysées en relation avec les propriétés analytiques de la fonction diélectrique du jellium. Alors que celle de Thomas-Fermi fournit l'exemple type de fonction parfaitement régulière en q=2k_F, celle de Lindhard et sa généralisation à T finie sont au contraire caractérisées par des dérivées divergentes en ce point. Des méthodes spécifiques sont développées pour traiter correctement ces cas importants. Nos résultats sont présentés sous forme de développements analytiques en puissance du paramètre de dégénérescence α, et des expressions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4463002','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4463002"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and energy conservation – the foundation for optimizing bioelectrochemical systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kracke, Frauke; Vassilev, Igor; Krömer, Jens O.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Microbial electrochemical techniques describe a variety of emerging technologies that use electrode–bacteria interactions for biotechnology applications including the production of electricity, waste and wastewater treatment, bioremediation and the production of valuable products. Central in each application is the ability of the microbial catalyst to interact with external <span class="hlt">electron</span> acceptors and/or donors and its metabolic properties that enable the combination of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and carbon metabolism. And here also lies the key challenge. A wide range of microbes has been discovered to be able to exchange <span class="hlt">electrons</span> with solid surfaces or mediators but only a few have been studied in depth. Especially <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer mechanisms from cathodes towards the microbial organism are poorly understood but are essential for many applications such as microbial electrosynthesis. We analyze the different <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chains that nature offers for organisms such as metal respiring bacteria and acetogens, but also standard biotechnological organisms currently used in bio-production. Special focus lies on the essential connection of redox and energy metabolism, which is often ignored when studying bioelectrochemical systems. The possibility of extracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> exchange at different points in each organism is discussed regarding required redox potentials and effect on cellular redox and energy levels. Key compounds such as <span class="hlt">electron</span> carriers (e.g., cytochromes, ferredoxin, quinones, flavins) are identified and analyzed regarding their possible role in electrode–microbe interactions. This work summarizes our current knowledge on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> processes and uses a theoretical approach to predict the impact of different modes of transfer on the energy metabolism. As such it adds an important piece of fundamental understanding of microbial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> possibilities to the research community and will help to optimize and advance bioelectrochemical</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NucFu..55h3011S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NucFu..55h3011S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> temperature critical gradient and <span class="hlt">transport</span> stiffness in DIII-D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, S. P.; Petty, C. C.; White, A. E.; Holland, C.; Bravenec, R.; Austin, M. E.; Zeng, L.; Meneghini, O.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>In a continuing effort to validate turbulent <span class="hlt">transport</span> models, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy flux has been probed as a function of <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient on the DIII-D tokamak. In the scan of gradient, a critical <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient has been found in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> heat fluxes and stiffness at various radii in L-mode plasmas. The TGLF reduced turbulent <span class="hlt">transport</span> model (Staebler et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 055909) and full gyrokinetic GYRO model (Candy and Waltz 2003 J. Comput. Phys. 186 545) recover the general trend of increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy flux with increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient scale length, but they do not predict the absolute level of <span class="hlt">transport</span> at all radii and gradients. Comparing the experimental observations of incremental (heat pulse) diffusivity and stiffness to the models’ reveals that TGLF reproduces the trends in increasing diffusivity and stiffness with increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> temperature gradient scale length with a critical gradient behavior. The critical gradient of TGLF is found to have a dependence on q95, contrary to the independence of the experimental critical gradient from q95.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..MARW35007G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005APS..MARW35007G"><span id="translatedtitle">Inelastic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>: IETS, NDR, switching, and hysteresis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Galperin, Michael; Nitzan, Abraham; Ratner, Mark</p> <p>2005-03-01</p> <p>We study the effect of the mutual influence between the phonon and the <span class="hlt">electron</span> subsystems using nonequilibrium Green function (NEGF) formalism at the level of self-consistent Born approximation. Regarding the inelastic spectrum, two types of inelastic contributions are discussed. Features associated with real and virtual energy transfer to phonons are usually observed in the second derivative of the current I with respect to the voltage V. Signatures of resonant tunneling driven by an intermediate molecular ion appear as peaks in the first derivative dI/dV and may show phonon sidebands. The dependence of the observed vibrationally induced lineshapes on the junction characteristics, and the linewidths associated with these features are also discussed. Polaron formation on a molecular wire as a possible mechanism for observed NDR, switching and/or hysteresis in the I/V characteristic of molecular junctions is discussed within a simple mean-field model (self-consistent Hartree approximation). This mechanism differs from earlier proposed mechanisms of charging and conformational change. The polaron model captures the essential physics and provides qualitative correspondence with experimental data. The importance of active redox centers in the molecule is indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086022','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086022"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of parallel <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics on plasma blob <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Umansky, Maxim V.</p> <p>2012-08-15</p> <p>The 3D effects on sheath connected plasma blobs that result from parallel <span class="hlt">electron</span> dynamics are studied by allowing for the variation of blob density and potential along the magnetic field line and using collisional Ohm's law to model the parallel current density. The parallel current density from linear sheath theory, typically used in the 2D model, is implemented as parallel boundary conditions. This model includes electrostatic 3D effects, such as resistive drift waves and blob spinning, while retaining all of the fundamental 2D physics of sheath connected plasma blobs. If the growth time of unstable drift waves is comparable to the 2D advection time scale of the blob, then the blob's density gradient will be depleted resulting in a much more diffusive blob with little radial motion. Furthermore, blob profiles that are initially varying along the field line drive the potential to a Boltzmann relation that spins the blob and thereby acts as an addition sink of the 2D potential. Basic dimensionless parameters are presented to estimate the relative importance of these two 3D effects. The deviation of blob dynamics from that predicted by 2D theory in the appropriate limits of these parameters is demonstrated by a direct comparison of 2D and 3D seeded blob simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARB20005S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARB20005S"><span id="translatedtitle">Coherent <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in InAs nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sourribes, Marion J. L.; Isakov, Ivan; Panfilova, Marina; Ercolani, Daniele; Giazotto, Francesco; Sorba, Lucia; Warburton, Paul A.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Indium arsenide nanowires are of special interest since they exhibit high mobility, strong spin-orbit coupling and form ohmic contacts with metals which make them good candidates for the observation of Majorana fermions in semiconductor/superconductor hybrid systems. InAs nanowires have already been used as Josephson elements in superconducting devices. Here we report our low-temperature experiments on InAs nanowires grown by two methods: (i) gold-catalyzed chemical beam epitaxy on InAs (111) substrates; (ii) catalyst-free molecular beam epitaxy on Si (111) substrates. Contacts to the nanowires are defined by e-beam lithography. Before metallization of the contacts, the nanowire surface is deoxidized by an in situ sputter-cleaning process leading to a specific contact resistance of 9 . 8 ×10-9 Ω .cm2. These highly transparent contacts allowed the observation of proximity-induced superconductivity in InAs nanowires connected with Nb contacts. The critical current was tuned by changing the gate voltage. Both magnetic-field-dependent and gate-voltage-dependent measurements of universal conductance fluctuations were performed to extract information on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> phase coherence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2825979','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2825979"><span id="translatedtitle">Proton stoichiometry of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in rodent tumor mitoplasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ferreira, J; Reynafarje, B; Costa, L E; Lehninger, A L</p> <p>1988-02-01</p> <p>The mechanistic vectorial H+/O translocation ratios characteristic of energy-conserving sites 2 + 3 and site 3 of the respiratory chain of two tumor cell lines were determined using succinate and ferrocytochrome c, respectively, as <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors. The measurements were carried out on mitoplasts in order to allow ferrocytochrome c free access to its binding site on the inner mitochondrial membrane. The tumor cell lines used were Ehrlich ascites tumor and the AS30-D ascites tumor. K+ was used as charge-compensating cation in the presence of valinomycin. The O2 uptake rate measurements were made with a fast-responding membrane-less electrode whose response time was closely matched with that of a pH electrode. The rates of O2 uptake and H+ ejection during the apparent zero-order rate phase of respiration, analyzed by computer, were extrapolated to zero time. The observed H+/O ratios for succinate oxidation in both tumors exceeded 7 and approached 8 and the H+/O ratios for the cytochrome oxidase reaction closely approached 4.0, in agreement with data or normal mitochondria. However, the rates of H+ back decay in the tumor mitochondria are relatively high and may influence the net efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation under intracellular conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARW16011L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..MARW16011L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene structure: from weak to strong localization regimes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lherbier, Aurelien</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Graphene, often named the wonder material for its many fascinating properties, has sparked out intense research activities over the last decade. <span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in graphene became rapidly an important research field because of the early reported extremely high charge carrier mobility which triggered large expectations for nanoelectronic devices. Besides mobilities, graphene samples can exhibit particularly long <span class="hlt">electronic</span> coherence lengths which allow for phase-related quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> phenomena such as the weak and strong localization <span class="hlt">transport</span> regimes. This makes graphene a remarkable playground for fundamental studies of localization theory in low-dimensional systems. In this presentation, using tight-binding models enriched by first principle calculations, and a real-space Kubo-Greenwood method, multiscale simulations of the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in various graphene-based systems will be discussed. Such an approach allows for computing <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of systems containing millions of atoms reaching therefore the experimental sample size. In order to tailor graphene properties, chemical and/or structural modifications are widely used. However, such modifications act as scattering defects and usually deteriorate <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties. Open a band gap while maintaining good mobility is a typical illustration of this dual problem. The influence of various chemical and structural defects will be analyzed. In particular, the consequences of unbalanced sublattice nitrogen doping in graphene and the case of highly defective graphene structures exhibiting strong Anderson insulator behaviors will be examined. Defects being even more detrimental for <span class="hlt">transport</span> in 1D structures, a synthesis method that is free of defects is highly desirable. A solution is provided by a bottom-up chemistry approach where precursor monomers are self-assembled. The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and the potential for nanoelectronics of such defect-free carbon ribbons will also be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...113d3716B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAP...113d3716B"><span id="translatedtitle">Shape-dependent charge and spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> through an <span class="hlt">electron</span> waveguide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ban, Yue; Sherman, E. Ya.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We study <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in nanosized semiconductor waveguides of different shapes. The spin-dependent <span class="hlt">transport</span> through these nonuniform nanostructures is investigated in the presence of spin-orbit coupling of the Rashba and Dresselhaus types. The resulting spin rotation strongly depends on the shape of the waveguide. The crossover from the classical motion to the tunneling regime can be controlled in the waveguide with narrowing by modulating the strength of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1056728','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1056728"><span id="translatedtitle">High-Temperature Sensitivity and Its Acclimation for Photosynthetic <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Reactions of Desert Succulents 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chetti, Mahadev B.; Nobel, Park S.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increases in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60°C. Whole chain <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> averaged 3°C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3°C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30°C/20°C, treatment at 50°C caused these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30°C/20°C to 45°C/35°C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3°C to 8°C for the three <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45°C/35°C plants treated at 60°C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plant so far reported. PMID:16665562</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16665562','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16665562"><span id="translatedtitle">High-temperature sensitivity and its acclimation for photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions of desert succulents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chetti, M B; Nobel, P S</p> <p>1987-08-01</p> <p>Photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions of succulent plants from hot deserts are able to tolerate extremely high temperatures and to acclimate to seasonal increases in temperature. In this study, we report the influence of relatively long, in vivo, high-temperature treatments on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions for two desert succulents, Agave deserti and Opuntia ficus-indica, species which can tolerate 60 degrees C. Whole chain <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> averaged 3 degrees C more sensitive to a 1-hour high-temperature treatment than did PSII (Photosystem II) which in turn averaged 3 degrees C more sensitive than did PSI. For plants maintained at day/night air temperatures of 30 degrees C/20 degrees C, treatment at 50 degrees C caused these reactions to be inhibited an average of 39% during the first hour, an additional 31% during the next 4 hours, and 100% by 12 hours. Upon shifting the plants from 30 degrees C/20 degrees C to 45 degrees C/35 degrees C, the high temperatures where activity was inhibited 50% increased 3 degrees C to 8 degrees C for the three <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions, the half-times for acclimation averaging 5 days for A. deserti and 4 days for O. ficus-indica. For the 45 degrees C/35 degrees C plants treated at 60 degrees C for 1 hour, PSI activity was reduced by 54% for A. deserti and 36% for O. ficus-indica. Acclimation leads to a toleration of very high temperatures without substantial disruption of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> for these desert succulents, facilitating their survival in hot deserts. Indeed, the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> reactions of these species tolerate longer periods at higher temperatures than any other vascular plant so far reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25608276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25608276"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and photocatalysis of nanocrystalline clusters studied by Monte-Carlo continuity random walking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Baoshun; Li, Ziqiang; Zhao, Xiujian</p> <p>2015-02-21</p> <p>In this research, Monte-Carlo Continuity Random Walking (MC-RW) model was used to study the relation between <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and photocatalysis of nano-crystalline (nc) clusters. The effects of defect energy disorder, spatial disorder of material structure, <span class="hlt">electron</span> density, and interfacial transfer/recombination on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and the photocatalysis were studied. Photocatalytic activity is defined as 1/τ from a statistical viewpoint with τ being the <span class="hlt">electron</span> average lifetime. Based on the MC-RW simulation, a clear physical and chemical "picture" was given for the photocatalytic kinetic analysis of nc-clusters. It is shown that the increase of defect energy disorder and material spatial structural disorder, such as the decrease of defect trap number, the increase of crystallinity, the increase of particle size, and the increase of inter-particle connection, can enhance photocatalytic activity through increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> ability. The increase of <span class="hlt">electron</span> density increases the <span class="hlt">electron</span> Fermi level, which decreases the activation energy for <span class="hlt">electron</span> de-trapping from traps to extending states, and correspondingly increases <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> ability and photocatalytic activity. Reducing recombination of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and holes can increase <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the increase of <span class="hlt">electron</span> density and then increases the photocatalytic activity. In addition to the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, the increase of probability for <span class="hlt">electrons</span> to undergo photocatalysis can increase photocatalytic activity through the increase of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> interfacial transfer speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25631449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25631449"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">electron</span> correlations on <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of iron at Earth's core conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Peng; Cohen, R E; Haule, K</p> <p>2015-01-29</p> <p>Earth's magnetic field has been thought to arise from thermal convection of molten iron alloy in the outer core, but recent density functional theory calculations have suggested that the conductivity of iron is too high to support thermal convection, resulting in the investigation of chemically driven convection. These calculations for resistivity were based on <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon scattering. Here we apply self-consistent density functional theory plus dynamical mean-field theory (DFT + DMFT) to iron and find that at high temperatures <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> scattering is comparable to the <span class="hlt">electron</span>-phonon scattering, bringing theory into agreement with experiments and solving the <span class="hlt">transport</span> problem in Earth's core. The conventional thermal dynamo picture is safe. We find that <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> scattering of d <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is important at high temperatures in transition metals, in contrast to textbook analyses since Mott, and that 4s <span class="hlt">electron</span> contributions to <span class="hlt">transport</span> are negligible, in contrast to numerous models used for over fifty years. The DFT+DMFT method should be applicable to other high-temperature systems where <span class="hlt">electron</span> correlations are important.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7092603','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7092603"><span id="translatedtitle">Recommendations for a production discrete-ordinates coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> capability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morel, J.E.; Nelson, W.E.</p> <p>1984-05-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to determine if a production capability for discrete-ordinates coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations should be developed and, if so, to recommend how it should be done. It is concluded that such a capability should be developed. The purpose of this report is to detail reasons for making these conclusions, and further to make specific recommendations regarding the manner in which this dvelopment should be carried out. The discrete ordinates method is a deterministic method originally developed to solve the neutron <span class="hlt">transport</span> equation. For this purpose, it has proven to be an accurate and efficient technique. In particular, it has proven to be much more efficient than Monte Carlo methods in one spatial dimension. All current production methods for coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> calculations are based upon the condensed history method developed by Berger. This method is generally quite expensive for problems of interest to the weapons radiation effects community, even when the problems are limited to one spatial dimension. Thus, routine engineering design calculations involving coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> must often be performed with rather crude and inaccurate methods due to cost constraints. The existence of this global deficiency is the main motivation for developing a discrete-ordinates coupled <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon <span class="hlt">transport</span> capability. It has the potential of being as accurate as Monte Carlo yet efficient enough to be used in routine engineering design calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121503','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16121503"><span id="translatedtitle">Event-based stormwater quality and quantity loadings from elevated urban infrastructure <span class="hlt">affected</span> by <span class="hlt">transportation</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sansalone, John J; Hird, Jonathan P; Cartledge, Frank K; Tittlebaum, Marty E</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Urban-rainfall runoff <span class="hlt">affected</span> by <span class="hlt">transportation</span> is a complex matrix of a very wide gradation of particulate matter (< 1 to > 10 000 microm) and dissolved inorganic and organic constituents. Particulate matter <span class="hlt">transported</span> by rainfall runoff can be a significant vector for many reactive particulate-bound constituents, particularly metal elements. The water quality and hydrology of nine events from a representative elevated section of Interstate 10 (I-10) (eastbound average daily traffic load of 70 400 vehicles) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, were characterized and compared with respect to the passage of each hydrograph. Residence time on the paved concrete surface was less than 30 minutes for all events. Results indicate that event-mean concentrations (EMCs) of particulate matter as total-suspended solids (TSS) (138 to 561 mg/L) and chemical-oxygen demand (COD) (128 to 1440 mg/L) were greater than those found in untreated municipal wastewater from the same service area. Particulate-matter dissolution and COD partitioned as a function of pH, pavement residence time, and organic content. In general, delivery of mass for aggregate indices, such as particulate matter (measured as TSS) and COD mass, were driven by the hydrology of the event, while concentrations of aggregate-constituent measurements, such as total-dissolved solids (TDS), illustrated an exponential-type decline during the rising limb of the hydrograph. Despite the short residence times, wide solids gradation, partitioning, and complexity of the rainfall-runoff chemistry, conductivity and dissolved solids were strongly correlated. Characterization of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> and loads of constituents in urban-rainfall runoff, as a function of hydrology, is a necessary first step when considering treatability, structural or nonstructural controls, and mass trading for discharges from paved infrastructure. PMID:16121503</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24031058','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24031058"><span id="translatedtitle">Lactate kinetics of rainbow trout during graded exercise: do catheters <span class="hlt">affect</span> the cost of <span class="hlt">transport</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teulier, Loïc; Omlin, Teye; Weber, Jean-Michel</p> <p>2013-12-15</p> <p>Changes in lactate kinetics as a function of exercise intensity have never been measured in an ectotherm. Continuous infusion of a tracer is necessary to quantify rates of lactate appearance (Ra) and disposal (Rd), but it requires double catheterization, which could interfere with swimming. Using rainbow trout, our goals were to: (1) determine the potential effects of catheters and blood sampling on metabolic rate (O2), total cost of <span class="hlt">transport</span> (TCOT), net cost of <span class="hlt">transport</span> (NCOT) and critical swimming speed (Ucrit), and (2) monitor changes in lactate fluxes during prolonged, steady-state swimming or graded swimming from rest to Ucrit. This athletic species maintains high baseline lactate fluxes of 24 μmol kg(-1) min(-1) that are only increased at intensities >2.4 body lengths (BL) s(-1) or 85% Ucrit. As the fish reaches Ucrit, Ra is more strongly stimulated (+67% to 40.4 μmol kg(-1) min(-1)) than Rd (+41% to 34.7 μmol kg(-1) min(-1)), causing a fourfold increase in blood lactate concentration. Without this stimulation of Rd during intense swimming, lactate accumulation would double. By contrast, steady-state exercise at 1.7 BL s(-1) increases lactate fluxes to ~30 μmol kg(-1) min(-1), with a trivial mismatch between Ra and Rd that only <span class="hlt">affects</span> blood concentration minimally. Results also show that the catheterizations and blood sampling needed to measure metabolite kinetics in exercising fish have no significant impact on O2 or TCOT. However, these experimental procedures <span class="hlt">affect</span> locomotion energetics by increasing NCOT at high speeds and by decreasing Ucrit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1208777','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1208777"><span id="translatedtitle">Proton Dynamics on Goethite Nanoparticles and Coupling to <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Zarzycki, Piotr P.; Smith, Dayle MA; Rosso, Kevin M.</p> <p>2015-04-14</p> <p>The surface chemistry of metal oxide particles is governed by the charge that develops at the interface with aqueous solution. Mineral transformation, biogeochemical reactions, remediation, and sorption dynamics are profoundly <span class="hlt">affected</span> in response. Here we report implementation of replica-exchange constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations that use classical molecular dynamics for exploring configurational space and Metropolis Monte Carlo walking through protonation space with a simulated annealing escape route from metastable configurations. By examining the archetypal metal oxide, goethite (α-FeOOH), we find that electrostatic potential gradients spontaneously arise between intersecting low-index crystal faces and across explicitly treated oxide nanoparticles at a magnitude exceeding the Johnson–Nyquist voltage fluctuation. Fluctuations in adsorbed proton density continuously repolarize the surface potential bias between edge-sharing crystal faces, at a rate slower than the reported electron–polaron hopping rate in goethite interiors. This suggests that these spontaneous surface potential fluctuations will control the net movement of charge carriers in the lattice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23042941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23042941"><span id="translatedtitle">Aquaporin-9 and urea <span class="hlt">transporter</span>-A gene deletions <span class="hlt">affect</span> urea transmembrane passage in murine hepatocytes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jelen, Sabina; Gena, Patrizia; Lebeck, Janne; Rojek, Aleksandra; Praetorius, Jeppe; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Fenton, Robert A; Nielsen, Søren; Calamita, Giuseppe; Rützler, Michael</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>In mammals, the majority of nitrogen from protein degradation is disposed of as urea. Several studies have partly characterized expression of urea <span class="hlt">transporters</span> (UTs) in hepatocytes, where urea is produced. Nevertheless, the contribution of these proteins to hepatocyte urea permeability (P(urea)) and their role in liver physiology remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to biophysically examine hepatocyte urea <span class="hlt">transport</span>. We hypothesized that the water, glycerol, and urea channel aquaporin-9 (AQP9) is involved in hepatocyte urea release. Stopped-flow light-scattering measurements determined that the urea channel inhibitors phloretin and dimethylurea reduced urea permeability of hepatocyte basolateral membranes by 70 and 40%, respectively. In basolateral membranes isolated from AQP9(-/-) and UT-A1/3(-/-) single-knockout and AQP9(-/-):UT-A1/3(-/-) double-knockout mice, P(urea) was decreased by 30, 40, and 76%, respectively, compared with AQP9(+/-):UT-A1/3(+/-) mice. However, expression analysis by RT-PCR did not identify known UT-A transcripts in liver. High-protein diet followed by 24-h fasting <span class="hlt">affected</span> the concentrations of urea and ammonium ions in AQP9(-/-) mouse liver and plasma without generating an apparent tissue-to-plasma urea gradient. We conclude that AQP9 and unidentified UT-A urea channels constitute primary but redundant urea facilitators in murine hepatocytes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4033513','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4033513"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring Factors <span class="hlt">Affecting</span> Emergency Medical Services Staffs' Decision about <span class="hlt">Transporting</span> Medical Patients to Medical Facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Seyedin, Hesam; Jamshidi-Orak, Roohangiz</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Transfer of patients in medical emergency situations is one of the most important missions of emergency medical service (EMS) staffs. So this study was performed to explore <span class="hlt">affecting</span> factors in EMS staffs' decision during <span class="hlt">transporting</span> of patients in medical situations to medical facilities. The participants in this qualitative study consisted of 18 EMS staffs working in prehospital care facilities in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. The data were analyzed using a content analysis approach. The data analysis revealed the following theme: “degree of perceived risk in EMS staffs and their patients.” This theme consisted of two main categories: (1) patient's condition' and (2) the context of the EMS mission'. The patent's condition category emerged from “physical health statuses,” “socioeconomic statuses,” and “cultural background” subcategories. The context of the EMS mission also emerged from two subcategories of “characteristics of the mission” and EMS staffs characteristics'. EMS system managers can consider adequate technical, informational, financial, educational, and emotional supports to facilitate the decision making of their staffs. Also, development of an effective and user-friendly checklist and scoring system was recommended for quick and easy recognition of patients' needs for <span class="hlt">transportation</span> in a prehospital situation. PMID:24891953</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024014','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024014"><span id="translatedtitle">Factors <span class="hlt">affecting</span> pesticide occurrence and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a large Midwestern river basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Crawford, Charles G.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Several factors <span class="hlt">affect</span> the occurrence and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of pesticides in surface waters of the 29,400 km2 White River Basin in Indiana. A relationship was found between pesticide use and the average annual concentration of that pesticide in the White River, although this relationship varies for different classes of pesticides. About one percent of the mass applied of each of the commonly used agricultural herbicides was <span class="hlt">transported</span> from the basin via the White River. Peak pesticide concentrations were typically highest in late spring or early summer and were associated with periods of runoff following application. Concentrations of diazinon were higher in an urban basin than in two agricultural basins, corresponding to the common use of this insecticide on lawns and gardens in urban areas. Concentrations of atrazine, a corn herbicide widely used in the White River Basin, were higher in an agricultural basin with permeable, well-drained soils, than in an agricultural basin with less permeable, more poorly drained soils. Although use of butylate and cyanazine was comparable in the White River Basin between 1992 and 1994, concentrations in the White River of butylate, which is incorporated into soil, were substantially less than for cyanazine, which is typically applied to the soil surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386283','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386283"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a graphene-based ferromagnetic/normal/ferromagnetic junction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Jiang-chai; Cheng, Shu-guang; Shen, Shun-qing; Sun, Qing-feng</p> <p>2010-01-27</p> <p><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a graphene-based ferromagnetic/normal/ferromagnetic junction is investigated by means of the Landauer-Büttiker formalism and the nonequilibrium Green function technique. For the zigzag edge case, the results show that the conductance is always larger than e(2)/h for the parallel configuration of lead magnetizations, but for the antiparallel configuration the conductance becomes zero because of the band-selective rule. Therefore, a magnetoresistance (MR) plateau emerges with the value 100% when the Fermi energy is located around the Dirac point. In addition, choosing narrower graphene ribbons can yield wider 100% MR plateaus and the length change of the central graphene region does not <span class="hlt">affect</span> the 100% MR plateaus. Although the disorder will reduce the MR plateau, the plateau value can still be kept about 50% even in a large disorder strength case. In addition, when the magnetizations of the left and right leads have a relative angle, the conductance changes as a cosine function of the angle. What is more, for the armchair edge case, the MR is usually small. So, it is more favorable to fabricate a graphene-based spin valve device by using a zigzag edge graphene ribbon. PMID:21386283</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26821701','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26821701"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism of bathocuproine exciton blocking layer in organic photovoltaics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Jeihyun; Park, Soohyung; Lee, Younjoo; Kim, Hyein; Shin, Dongguen; Jeong, Junkyeong; Jeong, Kwangho; Cho, Sang Wan; Lee, Hyunbok; Yi, Yeonjin</p> <p>2016-02-21</p> <p>Efficient exciton management is a key issue to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). It is well known that the insertion of an exciton blocking layer (ExBL) having a large band gap promotes the efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons at the donor-acceptor interface. However, the large band gap induces an energy barrier which disrupts the charge <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Therefore, building an adequate strategy based on the knowledge of the true charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism is necessary. In this study, the true <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism of a bathocuproine (BCP) ExBL in OPVs is comprehensively investigated by in situ ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy, density functional theory calculation, and impedance spectroscopy. The chemical interaction between deposited Al and BCP induces new states within the band gap of BCP, so that <span class="hlt">electrons</span> can <span class="hlt">transport</span> through these new energy levels. Localized trap states are also formed upon the Al-BCP interaction. The activation energy of these traps is estimated with temperature-dependent conductance measurements to be 0.20 eV. The Al-BCP interaction induces both <span class="hlt">transport</span> and trap levels in the energy gap of BCP and their interplay results in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> observed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26650977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26650977"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> and thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> study of sinusoidally corrugated nanowires aiming to improve thermoelectric efficiency.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, K H; Martin, P N; Ravaioli, U</p> <p>2016-01-22</p> <p>Improvement of thermoelectric efficiency has been very challenging in the solid-state industry due to the interplay among <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficients which measure the efficiency. In this work, we modulate the geometry of nanowires to interrupt thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> with causing only a minimal impact on <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties, thereby maximizing the thermoelectric power generation. As it is essential to scrutinize comprehensively both <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> behaviors for nano-scale thermoelectric devices, we investigate the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductance, and the thermal conductivity of sinusoidally corrugated silicon nanowires and eventually look into an enhancement of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit [Formula: see text] from the modulated nanowires over typical straight nanowires. A loss in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> coefficient is calculated with the recursive Green function along with the Landauer formalism, and the thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> is simulated with the molecular dynamics. In contrast to a small influence on the thermopower and the electrical conductance of the geometry-modulated nanowires, a large reduction of the thermal conductivity yields an enhancement of the efficiency by 10% to 35% from the typical nanowires. We find that this approach can be easily extended to various structures and materials as we consider the geometrical modulation as a sole source of perturbation to the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26821701','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26821701"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism of bathocuproine exciton blocking layer in organic photovoltaics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Jeihyun; Park, Soohyung; Lee, Younjoo; Kim, Hyein; Shin, Dongguen; Jeong, Junkyeong; Jeong, Kwangho; Cho, Sang Wan; Lee, Hyunbok; Yi, Yeonjin</p> <p>2016-02-21</p> <p>Efficient exciton management is a key issue to improve the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). It is well known that the insertion of an exciton blocking layer (ExBL) having a large band gap promotes the efficient dissociation of photogenerated excitons at the donor-acceptor interface. However, the large band gap induces an energy barrier which disrupts the charge <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Therefore, building an adequate strategy based on the knowledge of the true charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism is necessary. In this study, the true <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> mechanism of a bathocuproine (BCP) ExBL in OPVs is comprehensively investigated by in situ ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy, inverse photoemission spectroscopy, density functional theory calculation, and impedance spectroscopy. The chemical interaction between deposited Al and BCP induces new states within the band gap of BCP, so that <span class="hlt">electrons</span> can <span class="hlt">transport</span> through these new energy levels. Localized trap states are also formed upon the Al-BCP interaction. The activation energy of these traps is estimated with temperature-dependent conductance measurements to be 0.20 eV. The Al-BCP interaction induces both <span class="hlt">transport</span> and trap levels in the energy gap of BCP and their interplay results in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> observed. PMID:26821701</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SSCom.152.2123C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SSCom.152.2123C"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of partial hydrogenation on <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties in C60 molecular devices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, L. N.; Cao, C.; Wu, X. Z.; Ma, S. S.; Huang, W. R.; Xu, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>By using nonequilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density-function theory, we investigate <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of molecular devices with pristine and partial hydrogenation. The calculated results show that the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of molecular devices can be modulated by partial hydrogenation. Interestingly, our results exhibit negative differential resistance behavior in the case of the imbalance H-adsorption in C60 molecular devices under low bias. However, negative differential resistance behavior cannot be observed in the case of the balance H-adsorption. A mechanism is proposed for the hydrogenation and negative differential resistance behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CPL...658...83L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CPL...658...83L"><span id="translatedtitle">Metallic impurities induced <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in WSe2: First-principle calculations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Hongping; Liu, Shuai; Huang, Songlei; Zhang, Quan; Li, Changsheng; Liu, Xiaojuan; Meng, Jian; Tian, Yi</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Using density functional theory calculations, we have systematically explored the effect of V, Nb and Ta impurities on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of 2H-WSe2. The formation energies elucidate dopants are preferred to substitute W atoms, and the incorporation of Nb into WSe2 is most thermodynamically favorable. The crystal structures almost hold the pristine WSe2 structure-type in spite of with slightly bond relaxation. More importantly, a pronounced <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> behavior has realized in all doped systems, which is mainly triggered by metal impurities. Our calculation suggests chemical doping is an effective way to precisely modulate WSe2 performance for target technological applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1278404','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1278404"><span id="translatedtitle">Photons, <span class="hlt">Electrons</span> and Positrons <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in 3D by Monte Carlo Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Version 04 FOTELP-2014 is a new compact general purpose version of the previous FOTELP-2K6 code designed to simulate the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of photons, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and positrons through three-dimensional material and sources geometry by Monte Carlo techniques, using subroutine package PENGEOM from the PENELOPE code under Linux-based and Windows OS. This new version includes routine ELMAG for <span class="hlt">electron</span> and positron <span class="hlt">transport</span> simulation in electric and magnetic fields, RESUME option and routine TIMER for obtaining starting random number and for measuring the time of simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7206266','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7206266"><span id="translatedtitle">Inhibitory effect of petroleum oil on photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system in the cyanobacterium Anabaena doliolum</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Singh, A.K.; Kumar, H.D. )</p> <p>1991-12-01</p> <p>Virtually nothing is known about the site of action of oil and the mechanism of inhibition of photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, a process responsible for the generation of ATP and NADPH, which are essential for carbon fixation. The present study was an attempt to learn something about these aspects. The influence of diesel on photosynthetic O{sub 2}-evolution, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fixation, and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system has been examined in Anabaena doliolum, a heterocystous cyanobacterium. A. doliolum and other heterocystous cyanobacteria are widely distributed in soil and aquatic ecosystems, and represent an important group of free-living nitrogen fixing microorganisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1278404-photons-electrons-positrons-transport-monte-carlo-techniques','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1278404-photons-electrons-positrons-transport-monte-carlo-techniques"><span id="translatedtitle">Photons, <span class="hlt">Electrons</span> and Positrons <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in 3D by Monte Carlo Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Version 04 FOTELP-2014 is a new compact general purpose version of the previous FOTELP-2K6 code designed to simulate the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of photons, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and positrons through three-dimensional material and sources geometry by Monte Carlo techniques, using subroutine package PENGEOM from the PENELOPE code under Linux-based and Windows OS. This new version includes routine ELMAG for <span class="hlt">electron</span> and positron <span class="hlt">transport</span> simulation in electric and magnetic fields, RESUME option and routine TIMER for obtaining starting random numbermore » and for measuring the time of simulation.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21560019','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21560019"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum mechanical study of the coupling of plasmon excitations to atomic-scale <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Song Peng; Nordlander, Peter; Gao Shiwu</p> <p>2011-02-21</p> <p>The coupling of optical excitation and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a sodium atom in a plasmonic dimer junction is investigated using time-dependent density functional theory. The optical absorption and dynamic conductance is determined as a function of gap size. Surface plasmons are found to couple to atomic-scale <span class="hlt">transport</span> through several different channels including dipolar, multipolar, and charge transfer plasmon modes. These findings provide insight into subnanoscale couplings of plasmons and atoms, a subject of general interest in plasmonics and molecular <span class="hlt">electronics</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MART43010V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..MART43010V"><span id="translatedtitle">Long range <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in microbial nanowires bridging an electrode and scanned probe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veazey, Joshua; Lampa-Pastirk, Sanela; Walsh, Kathy; Sun, Jiebing; Zhang, Pengpeng; Reguera, Gemma; Tessmer, Stuart</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The filament-like appendages known as pili, expressed by the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, are believed to act as electrically conductive nanowires. Previously, we used scanning tunneling microscopy to study the local density of states at different positions along the wire. However, the long range <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer believed to occur in this protein has not been directly observed. Here we discuss a system for verifying long range <span class="hlt">transport</span> using a scanning probe technique. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> at distances of more than a few nanometers would require a novel biological <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer process. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the National Science Foundation (MCB-1021948) and the Michigan State University Foundation (Strategic Partnership Grant).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013257','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1013257"><span id="translatedtitle">An Enhanced Nonlinear Critical Gradient for <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Turbulent <span class="hlt">Transport</span> due to Reversed Magnetic Shear</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peterson, J. L.; Hammet, G. W.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Yuh, H. Y.; Candy, J.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.</p> <p>2011-05-11</p> <p>The first nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of <span class="hlt">electron</span> internal <span class="hlt">transport</span> barriers (e-ITBs) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment show that reversed magnetic shear can suppress thermal <span class="hlt">transport</span> by increasing the nonlinear critical gradient for <span class="hlt">electron</span>-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence to three times its linear critical value. An interesting feature of this turbulence is non- linearly driven off-midplane radial streamers. This work reinforces the experimental observation that magnetic shear is likely an effective way of triggering and sustaining e-ITBs in magnetic fusion devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048934','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048934"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Non-Invasive Position Detection of <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Beams from Laser-Plasma Accelerators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Osterhoff, Jens; Sokollik, Thomas; Nakamura, Kei; Bakeman, Michael; Weingartner, R; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; DeSantis, Stefano; Byrd, John; Gruner, F; Leemans, Wim</p> <p>2011-07-20</p> <p>The controlled imaging and <span class="hlt">transport</span> of ultra-relativistic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from laser-plasma accelerators is of crucial importance to further use of these beams, e.g. in high peak-brightness light sources. We present our plans to realize beam <span class="hlt">transport</span> with miniature permanent quadrupole magnets from the <span class="hlt">electron</span> source through our THUNDER undulator. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of beam imaging by investigating the generated XUV-photon flux. In addition, first experimental findings of utilizing cavity-based monitors for non-invasive beam-position measurements in a noisy electromagnetic laser-plasma environment are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28c5302I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28c5302I"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of point defects on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of silicene nanoribbons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iordanidou, K.; Houssa, M.; van den Broek, B.; Pourtois, G.; Afanas'ev, V. V.; Stesmans, A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We study the impact of various point defects on the structural, <span class="hlt">electronic</span> and ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of armchair silicene nanoribbons, using the density functional theory and the non equilibrium Green’s function method. The effect of a Stone-Wales defect, an interior/edge vacancy and an edge dangling bond is examined. Our results show that structural imperfections can alter the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure (energy band structure and density of states) of the nanoribbons and can either increase or decrease the ballistic current. The dependence of the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties on the position of the defects (sublattice A or B) and on their distance from the contact is also investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28K5301A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPCM...28K5301A"><span id="translatedtitle">Competition of static magnetic and dynamic photon forces in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a quantum dot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We investigate theoretically the balance of the static magnetic and the dynamical photon forces in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a quantum dot in a photon cavity with a single photon mode. The quantum dot system is connected to external leads and the total system is exposed to a static perpendicular magnetic field. We explore the <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics through the system by tuning the ratio, \\hslash {ωγ}/\\hslash {ωc} , between the photon energy, \\hslash {ωγ} , and the cyclotron energy, \\hslash {ωc} . Enhancement in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> with increasing <span class="hlt">electron</span>-photon coupling is observed when \\hslash {ωγ}/\\hslash {ωc}>1 . In this case the photon field dominates and stretches the <span class="hlt">electron</span> charge distribution in the quantum dot, extending it towards the contact area for the leads. Suppression in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is found when \\hslash {ωγ}/\\hslash {ωc}<1 , as the external magnetic field causes circular confinement of the charge density around the dot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...587A..87C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016A%26A...587A..87C"><span id="translatedtitle">EUV-driven ionospheres and <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> on extrasolar giant planets orbiting active stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chadney, J. M.; Galand, M.; Koskinen, T. T.; Miller, S.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Unruh, Y. C.; Yelle, R. V.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>The composition and structure of the upper atmospheres of extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) are <span class="hlt">affected</span> by the high-energy spectrum of their host stars from soft X-rays to the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). This emission depends on the activity level of the star, which is primarily determined by its age. In this study, we focus upon EGPs orbiting K- and M-dwarf stars of different ages - ɛ Eridani, AD Leonis, AU Microscopii - and the Sun. X-ray and EUV (XUV) spectra for these stars are constructed using a coronal model. These spectra are used to drive both a thermospheric model and an ionospheric model, providing densities of neutral and ion species. Ionisation - as a result of stellar radiation deposition - is included through photo-ionisation and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-impact processes. The former is calculated by solving the Lambert-Beer law, while the latter is calculated from a supra-thermal <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> model. We find that EGP ionospheres at all orbital distances considered (0.1-1 AU) and around all stars selected are dominated by the long-lived H+ ion. In addition, planets with upper atmospheres where H2 is not substantially dissociated (at large orbital distances) have a layer in which H3+ is the major ion at the base of the ionosphere. For fast-rotating planets, densities of short-lived H3+ undergo significant diurnal variations, with the maximum value being driven by the stellar X-ray flux. In contrast, densities of longer-lived H+ show very little day/night variability and the magnitude is driven by the level of stellar EUV flux. The H3+ peak in EGPs with upper atmospheres where H2 is dissociated (orbiting close to their star) under strong stellar illumination is pushed to altitudes below the homopause, where this ion is likely to be destroyed through reactions with heavy species (e.g. hydrocarbons, water). The inclusion of secondary ionisation processes produces significantly enhanced ion and <span class="hlt">electron</span> densities at altitudes below the main EUV ionisation peak, as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/210179','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/210179"><span id="translatedtitle">The K+/site and H+/site stoichiometry of mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L</p> <p>1978-09-25</p> <p>Electrode measurements of the average number of H+ ejected and K+ taken up (in the presence of valinomycin) per pair of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> passing the energy-conserving sites of the respiratory chain of rat liver and rat heart mitochondria have given identical values of the H+/site and 5+/site ratios very close to 4 in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide, an inhibitor of interfering respiration-coupled uptake of H+ + H2PO4-. The K+/site uptake ratio of 4 not only shows that inward movement of K+ provides quantitative charge-compensation for the 4 H+ ejected, but also confirms that 4 charges are separated per pair of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> per site. When N-ethylmaleimide is omitted, the H+/site ejection ratio is depressed, because of the interfering secondary uptake of H/+ with H2PO4- on the phosphate carrier, but the K+/site uptake ratio remains at 4.0. Addition of phosphate or acetate, which can carry H+ into respiring mitochondria, further depresses the H+/site ratio, but does not <span class="hlt">affect</span> the K+/site ratio, which remains at 4.0. These and other considerations thus confirm our earlier stoichiometric measurements that the average H+/site ratio is 4.0 and also show that the K+/site uptake ratio can be used as a measure of the intrinsic H+/site ratio, regardless of the presence of phosphate in the medium and without the necessity of adding N-ethylmaleimide or other inhibitors of H+ + H2PO4- <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420267','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22420267"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of carbon nanotube length on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in aligned carbon nanotube networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, Jeonyoon; Stein, Itai Y.; Devoe, Mackenzie E.; Lewis, Diana J.; Lachman, Noa; Buschhorn, Samuel T.; Wardle, Brian L.; Kessler, Seth S.</p> <p>2015-02-02</p> <p>Here, we quantify the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) networks as a function of the CNT length, where the electrical conductivities may be tuned by up to 10× with anisotropies exceeding 40%. Testing at elevated temperatures demonstrates that the aligned CNT networks have a negative temperature coefficient of resistance, and application of the fluctuation induced tunneling model leads to an activation energy of ≈14 meV for <span class="hlt">electron</span> tunneling at the CNT-CNT junctions. Since the tunneling activation energy is shown to be independent of both CNT length and orientation, the variation in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is attributed to the number of CNT-CNT junctions an <span class="hlt">electron</span> must tunnel through during its percolated path, which is proportional to the morphology of the aligned CNT network.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93s5422N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93s5422N"><span id="translatedtitle">Single-<span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in InAs nanowire quantum dots formed by crystal phase engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nilsson, Malin; Namazi, Luna; Lehmann, Sebastian; Leijnse, Martin; Dick, Kimberly A.; Thelander, Claes</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We report electrical characterization of quantum dots formed by introducing pairs of thin wurtzite (WZ) segments in zinc blende (ZB) InAs nanowires. Regular Coulomb oscillations are observed over a wide gate voltage span, indicating that WZ segments create significant barriers for <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. We find a direct correlation of <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties with quantum dot length and corresponding growth time of the enclosed ZB segment. The correlation is made possible by using a method to extract lengths of nanowire crystal phase segments directly from scanning <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy images, and with support from transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscope images of typical nanowires. From experiments on controlled filling of nearly empty dots with <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, up to the point where Coulomb oscillations can no longer be resolved, we estimate a lower bound for the ZB-WZ conduction-band offset of 95 meV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JETPL.tmp...15B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JETPL.tmp...15B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> on liquid helium in a microchannel device near the current threshold</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beysengulov, N. R.; Rees, D. G.; Tayurskii, D. A.; Kono, K.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We study the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of strongly interacting <span class="hlt">electrons</span> on the surface of liquid helium confined in a microchannel geometry, near the current threshold point. The current threshold depends on the electrostatic confinement, created by the microchannel electrodes, and on the electrostatic potential of <span class="hlt">electron</span> system. Depending on the geometry of the microchannel, the current pinch-off can occur at the centre or move to the edges of the microchannel, as confirmed by Finite Element Model calculations. The confining potential dependence of <span class="hlt">electron</span> conductivity above the current threshold point is consistent with a classical charge continuum model. However, we find that below the threshold point <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is suppressed due to charging energy effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARY37009R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..MARY37009R"><span id="translatedtitle">Single-<span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a Mn12 (2-thiophenecarboxylate) single-molecule magnet</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ramsey, Christopher M.; Del Barco, Enrique; Mucciolo, Eduardo; Haque, Firoze; Khondaker, Saiful; Leuenberger, Michael; Mishra, Abhudaya; Christou, George</p> <p>2006-03-01</p> <p>We report single-<span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements on Mn12 based single-molecule magnet, which has been functionalized with 2-thiophenecarboxylate ligands that bind to gold. The self-assembly of these molecules was confirmed by scanning probe microscopy and XPS measurements. Because it is well known that the molecule's environment within the crystal can have a profound influence on the quantum properties of the system, it is important to study the quantum spin dynamics in individual isolated molecules. Single <span class="hlt">electron</span> transistor devices have been prepared for this purpose by <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam lithography and electromigration. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of a single, isolated Mn12(2-thiophenecarboxylate) molecule were measured down to mK temperatures in a 3-D superconducting vector magnet with arbitrary field direction. The data are characteristic of a molecular single-<span class="hlt">electron</span> transistor device where the SMM bridges the gap between two gold nanoelectrodes. Magnetic field and temperature dependence as well as theoretical aspects will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2938420','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2938420"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiology and biochemistry of reduction of azo compounds by Shewanella strains relevant to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gu, Ji-Dong</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Azo dyes are toxic, highly persistent, and ubiquitously distributed in the environments. The large-scale production and application of azo dyes result in serious environmental pollution of water and sediments. Bacterial azo reduction is an important process for removing this group of contaminants. Recent advances in this area of research reveal that azo reduction by Shewanella strains is coupled to the oxidation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors and linked to the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and energy conservation in the cell membrane. Up to date, several key molecular components involved in this reaction have been identified and the primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transportation</span> system has been proposed. These new discoveries on the respiration pathways and <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer for bacterial azo reduction has potential biotechnological implications in cleaning up contaminated sites. PMID:20706834</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25622190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25622190"><span id="translatedtitle">Spintronics and chirality: spin selectivity in <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through chiral molecules.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naaman, Ron; Waldeck, David H</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Recent experiments have demonstrated that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> transmission yield through chiral molecules depends on the <span class="hlt">electron</span> spin orientation. This phenomenon has been termed the chiral-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect, and it provides a challenge to theory and promise for organic molecule-based spintronic devices. This article reviews recent developments in our understanding of CISS. Different theoretical models have been used to describe the effect; however, they all presume an unusually large spin-orbit coupling in chiral molecules for the effect to display the magnitudes seen in experiments. A simplified model for an <span class="hlt">electron</span>'s <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a chiral potential suggests that these large couplings can be manifested. Techniques for measuring spin-selective <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through molecules are overviewed, and some examples of recent experiments are described. Finally, we present results obtained by studying several systems, and we describe the possible application of the CISS effect for memory devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AnRMS..43...63C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AnRMS..43...63C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span>-Structure Theory of Organic Semiconductors: Charge-<span class="hlt">Transport</span> Parameters and Metal/Organic Interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Li, Hong; Winget, Paul; Zhu, Lingyun; Brédas, Jean-Luc</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We focus this review on the theoretical description, at the density functional theory level, of two key processes that are common to <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices based on organic semiconductors (such as organic light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, and solar cells), namely charge <span class="hlt">transport</span> and charge injection from electrodes. By using representative examples of current interest, our main goal is to introduce some of the reliable theoretical methodologies that can best depict these processes. We first discuss the evaluation of the microscopic parameters that determine charge-carrier <span class="hlt">transport</span> in organic molecular crystals, i.e., <span class="hlt">electronic</span> couplings and <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibration couplings. We then examine the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure at interfaces between an organic layer and a metal or conducting oxide electrode, with an emphasis on the work-function modifications induced by the organic layer and on the interfacial energy-level alignments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20706834','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20706834"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiology and biochemistry of reduction of azo compounds by Shewanella strains relevant to <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hong, Yi-Guo; Gu, Ji-Dong</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>Azo dyes are toxic, highly persistent, and ubiquitously distributed in the environments. The large-scale production and application of azo dyes result in serious environmental pollution of water and sediments. Bacterial azo reduction is an important process for removing this group of contaminants. Recent advances in this area of research reveal that azo reduction by Shewanella strains is coupled to the oxidation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors and linked to the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and energy conservation in the cell membrane. Up to date, several key molecular components involved in this reaction have been identified and the primary <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transportation</span> system has been proposed. These new discoveries on the respiration pathways and <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer for bacterial azo reduction has potential biotechnological implications in cleaning up contaminated sites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4168858','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4168858"><span id="translatedtitle">Probing the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> on the reconstructed Au/Ge(001) surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krok, Franciszek; Kaspers, Mark R; Bernhart, Alexander M; Nikiel, Marek; Jany, Benedykt R; Indyka, Paulina; Wojtaszek, Mateusz; Möller, Rolf</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Summary By using scanning tunnelling potentiometry we characterized the lateral variation of the electrochemical potential µec on the gold-induced Ge(001)-c(8 × 2)-Au surface reconstruction while a lateral current flows through the sample. On the reconstruction and across domain boundaries we find that µec shows a constant gradient as a function of the position between the contacts. In addition, nanoscale Au clusters on the surface do not show an <span class="hlt">electronic</span> coupling to the gold-induced surface reconstruction. In combination with high resolution scanning <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy and transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy, we conclude that an additional <span class="hlt">transport</span> channel buried about 2 nm underneath the surface represents a major <span class="hlt">transport</span> channel for <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. PMID:25247129</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19637905','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19637905"><span id="translatedtitle">"Sticky <span class="hlt">electrons</span>" <span class="hlt">transport</span> and interfacial transfer of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the dye-sensitized solar cell.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peter, Laurence</p> <p>2009-11-17</p> <p>Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs, also known as Gratzel cells) mimic the photosynthetic process by using a sensitizer dye to harvest light energy to generate electrical power. Several functional features of these photochemical devices are unusual, and DSC research offers a rewarding arena in which to test new ideas, new materials, and new methodologies. Indeed, one of the most attractive chemical features of the DSC is that the basic concept can be used to construct a range of devices, replacing individual components with alternative materials. Despite two decades of increasing research activity, however, many aspects of the behavior of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the DSC remain puzzling. In this Account, we highlight current understanding of the processes involved in the functioning of the DSC, with particular emphasis on what happens to the <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the mesoporous film following the injection step. The collection of photoinjected <span class="hlt">electrons</span> appears to involve a random walk process in which <span class="hlt">electrons</span> move through the network of interconnected titanium dioxide nanoparticles while undergoing frequent trapping and detrapping. During their passage to the cell contact, <span class="hlt">electrons</span> may be lost by transfer to tri-iodide species in the redox electrolyte that permeates the mesoporous film. Competition between <span class="hlt">electron</span> collection and back <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer determines the performance of a DSC: ideally, all injected <span class="hlt">electrons</span> should be collected without loss. This Account then goes on to survey recent experimental and theoretical progress in the field, placing particular emphasis on issues that need to be resolved before we can gain a clear picture of how the DSC works. Several important questions about the behavior of "sticky" <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, those that undergo multiple trapping and detrapping, in the DSC remain unanswered. The most fundamental of these concerns is the nature of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> traps that appear to dominate the time-dependent photocurrent and photovoltage response of DSCs. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1374M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E1374M"><span id="translatedtitle">Diffusive <span class="hlt">transport</span> of energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the 2004, May 21 solar flare</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Musset, Sophie; Kontar, Eduard; Vilmer, Nicole</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Solar flares are associated with efficient particle acceleration, in particular with the production of energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> which are diagnosed through the X-ray and radio emissions that they produce when interacting with the solar atmosphere. Particle <span class="hlt">transport</span> from the acceleration sites to the radiation sites remains of the challenging topic in the field of high energy solar physics and has an important impact on the interpretation of the particle emissions in the context of acceleration models. In order to address the <span class="hlt">transport</span> of flare associated energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the low corona, we use imaging spectroscopic observations from RHESSI of the 2004 May 21 solar flare which presents together with the usually observed HXR footpoints a well observed coronal non-thermal X-ray source. The number of X-ray emitting energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the coronal source is compared to the number of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> needed to produce the hard X-ray emission in the footpoints and is found twice as large. Such an excess of the number of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the coronal source cannot be explained in the context of the standard model of X-ray emissions in which the dominant <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is collisional. In the present flare, an additional process is needed to explain how energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> can be efficiently trapped in the corona. In the hypothesis of turbulent pitch-angle scattering of hard X-ray producing energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (Kontar et al, 2014), diffusive <span class="hlt">transport</span> can indeed lead to a confinement of energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the coronal source. Based on this assumption, we estimated for the present event the mean-free path of energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> and found a value of 10^8 - 10^9 meters, much smaller than the size of the observed flaring loop itself. This implies that a diffusive <span class="hlt">transport</span> of energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> is dominant in this flare which is in good agreement with the results of a previous study based on the gyrosynchrotron emissions from the energetic <span class="hlt">electrons</span> (Kuznetsov & Kontar, 2015).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhyE...40..462W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhyE...40..462W"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of nitrogen substitutional doping on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of carbon nanotube</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wei, Jianwei; Hu, Huifang; Zeng, Hui; Zhou, Zhipeng; Yang, Weiwei; Peng, Ping</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We have studied the effects of nitrogen substitutional doping on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of single-wall carbon nanotube (8, 0) using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's functions. The results reveal that the nanotube changes from the semiconducting to the quasi-metallic state because of the dopants, and their structures strongly dominate their electrical properties. Our calculations indicate that <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the doped nanotubes are sensitive not only to the concentration of nitrogen atoms but also to their distribution. The doping effects on the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of the carbon nanotube are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1998PhyE....2..381S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1998PhyE....2..381S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Spin-dependent <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a magnetic two-dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smorchkova, I. P.; Kikkawa, J. M.; Samarth, N.; Awschalom, D. D.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>Magneto-<span class="hlt">transport</span> and magneto-optical probes are used to interrogate spin-dependent <span class="hlt">transport</span> in magnetic heterostructures wherein a two dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas (2DEG) is exchange-coupled to local moments. At low temperatures, the significant s-d exchange-enhanced spin splitting in these “magnetic” 2DEGs is responsible for the observation of unusual <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties such as a complete spin polarization of the gas at large Landau level filling factors and a pronounced, non-monotonic background magneto-resistance. Magneto-<span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements of gated samples performed in a parallel field geometry are used to systematically study the variation of the magneto-resistance with sheet concentration, yielding new insights into the dependence of spin <span class="hlt">transport</span> on the Fermi energy of the majority spin carriers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1264756','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1264756"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a Park-Williams strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scholes, P. B.; King, H. K.</p> <p>1965-01-01</p> <p>1. The <span class="hlt">electron-transport</span> mechanism was examined in the `particulate' and `supernatant' fractions of disintegrated cells of a Park–Williams strain of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. 2. Succinate-oxidase activity was found mainly in the `particulate' fraction, and NADH2 oxidase mainly in the `supernatant', which was devoid of cytochromes and menaquinone. 3. The sum of the activities of particles and supernatant fractions, with respect to both succinate oxidase and NADH2 oxidase, was substantially less than that of the crude cell extract from which they were obtained. Full activity was restored on recombining `particles' and `supernatant'. The characteristics of this reassembled system were investigated. 4. The strain of organism (CN2000) examined contained cytochromes corresponding spectroscopically to `a', `b' and `c' types. All three were reduced by succinate, lactate or NADH2; but a portion of the cytochrome b, susceptible to reduction by dithionite, could not be reduced by the substrates. 5. Triton X-100 inhibits oxidation of succinate by particulate fraction; on adding succinate, the reduction of cytochrome b is not <span class="hlt">affected</span> but that of cytochromes a and c is delayed. 6. Irradiation at 360mμ completely destroys menaquinone in the particle fraction. Succinate oxidation is severely decreased; succinate dehydrogenase and NADH2 oxidation are little <span class="hlt">affected</span>. Certain menaquinones will restore succinate oxidation in the irradiated material. 7. On adding succinate to irradiated particulate material cytochrome b is partially reduced at once, but reduction of cytochromes a and c is much delayed. A portion of the cytochrome b remains not reduced, but reduction occurs rapidly on the addition of menaquinone (MK-2). PMID:4286676</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1451..304M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1451..304M"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of vapor <span class="hlt">transport</span> of <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam evaporation based coating system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maiti, Namita; Tak, Atul; Khabade, Yashodhan; Suryawanshi, V. B.; Das, A. K.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The modeling of vapor <span class="hlt">transport</span> of an <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam evaporation based coating system has been carried out in this work. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling has been tailored to analyze the evaporation and deposition of titanium material. Based on the physical model, the model relates the output power of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> gun and the temperature profile on the evaporant surface. The simulated vapor distribution helps in predicting the coating thickness. The experimental results presented here agree with the simulation results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17287526','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17287526"><span id="translatedtitle">Ssh4, Rcr2 and Rcr1 <span class="hlt">affect</span> plasma membrane <span class="hlt">transporter</span> activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kota, Jhansi; Melin-Larsson, Monika; Ljungdahl, Per O; Forsberg, Hanna</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>Nutrient uptake in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a highly regulated process. Cells adjust levels of nutrient <span class="hlt">transporters</span> within the plasma membrane at multiple stages of the secretory and endosomal pathways. In the absence of the ER-membrane-localized chaperone Shr3, amino acid permeases (AAP) inefficiently fold and are largely retained in the ER. Consequently, shr3 null mutants exhibit greatly reduced rates of amino acid uptake due to lower levels of AAPs in their plasma membranes. To further our understanding of mechanisms <span class="hlt">affecting</span> AAP localization, we identified SSH4 and RCR2 as high-copy suppressors of shr3 null mutations. The overexpression of SSH4, RCR2, or the RCR2 homolog RCR1 increases steady-state AAP levels, whereas the genetic inactivation of these genes reduces steady-state AAP levels. Additionally, the overexpression of any of these suppressor genes exerts a positive effect on phosphate and uracil uptake systems. Ssh4 and Rcr2 primarily localize to structures associated with the vacuole; however, Rcr2 also localizes to endosome-like vesicles. Our findings are consistent with a model in which Ssh4, Rcr2, and presumably Rcr1, function within the endosome-vacuole trafficking pathway, where they <span class="hlt">affect</span> events that determine whether plasma membrane proteins are degraded or routed to the plasma membrane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24318920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24318920"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and photophosphorylation by Photosystem I in vivo in plants and cyanobacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fork, D C; Herbert, S K</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Recently, a number of techniques, some of them relatively new and many often used in combination, have given a clearer picture of the dynamic role of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Photosystem I of photosynthesis and of coupled cyclic photophosphorylation. For example, the photoacoustic technique has detected cyclic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in vivo in all the major algal groups and in leaves of higher plants. Spectroscopic measurements of the Photosystem I reaction center and of the changes in light scattering associated with thylakoid membrane energization also indicate that cyclic photophosphorylation occurs in living plants and cyanobacteria, particularly under stressful conditions.In cyanobacteria, the path of cyclic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> has recently been proposed to include an NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, a complex that may also participate in respiratory <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Photosynthesis and respiration may share common <span class="hlt">electron</span> carriers in eukaryotes also. Chlororespiration, the uptake of O2 in the dark by chloroplasts, is inhibited by excitation of Photosystem I, which diverts <span class="hlt">electrons</span> away from the chlororespiratory chain into the photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain. Chlororespiration in N-starved Chlamydomonas increases ten fold over that of the control, perhaps because carbohydrates and NAD(P)H are oxidized and ATP produced by this process.The regulation of energy distribution to the photosystems and of cyclic and non-cyclic phosphorylation via state 1 to state 2 transitions may involve the cytochrome b 6-f complex. An increased demand for ATP lowers the transthylakoid pH gradient, activates the b 6-f complex, stimulates phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll-protein complex of Photosystem II and decreases energy input to Photosystem II upon induction of state 2. The resulting increase in the absorption by Photosystem I favors cyclic <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow and ATP production over linear <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow to NADP and 'poises' the system by slowing down the flow of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT........68K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT........68K"><span id="translatedtitle">Devices using ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> of two dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas in delta doped gallium arsenide high <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility transistor structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kang, Sungmu</p> <p></p> <p>In this thesis, devices using the ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> of two dimensional <span class="hlt">electron</span> gas (2DEG) in GaAs High <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Mobility Transistor(HEMT) structure is fabricated and their dc and ac properties are characterized. This study gives insight on operation and applications of modern submicron devices with ever reduced gate length comparable to <span class="hlt">electron</span> mean free path. The ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> is achieved using both temporal and spatial limits in this thesis. In temporal limit, when frequency is higher than the scattering frequency (1/(2pitau)), ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> can be achieved. At room temperature, generally the scattering frequency is around 500 GHz but at cryogenic temperature (≤4K) with high mobility GaAs HEMT structure, the frequency is much lower than 2 GHz. On this temporal ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> regime, effect of contact impedance and different dc mobility on device operation is characterized with the ungated 2DEG of HEMT structure. In this ballistic regime, impedance and responsivity of plasma wave detector are investigated using the gated 2DEG of HEMT at different ac boundary conditions. Plasma wave is generated at asymmetric ac boundary conditions of HEMTs, where source is short to ground and drain is open while rf power is applied to gate. The wave velocity can be tuned by gate bias voltage and induced drain to source voltage(Vds ) shows the resonant peak at odd number of fundamental frequency. Quantitative power coupling to plasma wave detector leads to experimental characterization of resonant response of plasma wave detector as a function of frequency. Because plasma wave resonance is not limited by transit time, the physics learned in this study can be directly converted to room temperature terahertz detection by simply reducing gate length(Lgate) to submicron for the terahertz application such as non destructive test, bio medical analysis, homeland security, defense and space. In same HEMT structure, the dc and rf characterization on device is also</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4136034','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4136034"><span id="translatedtitle">Switch-Loop Flexibility <span class="hlt">Affects</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> of Large Drugs by the Promiscuous AcrB Multidrug Efflux <span class="hlt">Transporter</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cha, Hi-jea; Müller, Reinke T.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Multidrug efflux <span class="hlt">transporters</span> recognize a variety of structurally unrelated compounds for which the molecular basis is poorly understood. For the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) inner membrane component AcrB of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system from Escherichia coli, drug binding occurs at the access and deep binding pockets. These two binding areas are separated by an 11-amino-acid-residue-containing switch loop whose conformational flexibility is speculated to be essential for drug binding and <span class="hlt">transport</span>. A G616N substitution in the switch loop has a distinct and local effect on the orientation of the loop and on the ability to <span class="hlt">transport</span> larger drugs. Here, we report a distinct phenotypical pattern of drug recognition and <span class="hlt">transport</span> for the G616N variant, indicating that drug substrates with minimal projection areas of >70 Å2 are less well <span class="hlt">transported</span> than other substrates. PMID:24914123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4780117','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4780117"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Transport</span> in serial spinful multiple-dot systems: The role of <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> interactions and coherences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goldozian, Bahareh; Damtie, Fikeraddis A.; Kiršanskas, Gediminas; Wacker, Andreas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Quantum dots are nanoscopic systems, where carriers are confined in all three spatial directions. Such nanoscopic systems are suitable for fundamental studies of quantum mechanics and are candidates for applications such as quantum information processing. It was also proposed that linear arrangements of quantum dots could be used as quantum cascade laser. In this work we study the impact of <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> interactions on <span class="hlt">transport</span> in a spinful serial triple quantum dot system weakly coupled to two leads. We find that due to <span class="hlt">electron-electron</span> scattering processes the <span class="hlt">transport</span> is enabled beyond the common single-particle transmission channels. This shows that the scenario in the serial quantum dots intrinsically deviates from layered structures such as quantum cascade lasers, where the presence of well-defined single-particle resonances between neighboring levels are crucial for device operation. Additionally, we check the validity of the Pauli master equation by comparing it with the first-order von Neumann approach. Here we demonstrate that coherences are of relevance if the energy spacing of the eigenstates is smaller than the lead transition rate multiplied by ħ. PMID:26948933</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25479382','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25479382"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and nonlinear optical properties of substituted aryldimesityl boranes: a DFT study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pandith, Altaf Hussain; Islam, Nasarul</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A comprehensive theoretical study was carried out on a series of aryldimesityl borane (DMB) derivatives using Density Functional theory. Optimized geometries and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> parameters like <span class="hlt">electron</span> affinity, reorganization energy, frontiers molecular contours, polarizability and hyperpolarizability have been calculated by employing B3PW91/6-311++G (d, p) level of theory. Our results show that the Hammett function and geometrical parameters correlates well with the reorganization energies and hyperpolarizability for the series of DMB derivatives studied in this work. The orbital energy study reveals that the <span class="hlt">electron</span> releasing substituents increase the LUMO energies and <span class="hlt">electron</span> withdrawing substituents decrease the LUMO energies, reflecting the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> character of aryldimesityl borane derivatives. From frontier molecular orbitals diagram it is evident that mesityl rings act as the donor, while the phenylene and Boron atom appear as acceptors in these systems. The calculated hyperpolarizability of secondary amine derivative of DMB is 40 times higher than DMB (1). The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> excitation contributions to the hyperpolarizability studied by using TDDFT calculation shows that hyperpolarizability correlates well with dipole moment in ground and excited state and excitation energy in terms of the two-level model. Thus the results of these calculations can be helpful in designing the DMB derivatives for efficient <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and nonlinear optical material by appropriate substitution with <span class="hlt">electron</span> releasing or withdrawing substituents on phenyl ring of DMB system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23695653','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23695653"><span id="translatedtitle">pH-dependent regulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and ATP synthesis in chloroplasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tikhonov, Alexander N</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>This review is focused on pH-dependent mechanisms of regulation of photosynthetic <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and ATP synthesis in chloroplasts. The light-induced acidification of the thylakoid lumen is known to decelerate the plastoquinol oxidation by the cytochrome b 6 f complex, thus impeding the <span class="hlt">electron</span> flow between photosystem II and photosystem I. Acidification of the lumen also triggers the dissipation of excess energy in the light-harvesting antenna of photosystem II, thereby protecting the photosynthetic apparatus against a solar stress. After brief description of structural and functional organization of the chloroplast <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain, our attention is focused on the nature of the rate-limiting step of <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer between photosystem II and photosystem I. In the context of pH-dependent mechanism of photosynthetic control in chloroplasts, the mechanisms of plastoquinol oxidation by the cytochrome b 6 f complex have been considered. The light-induced alkalization of stroma is another factor of pH-dependent regulation of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in chloroplasts. Alkalization of stroma induces activation of the Bassham-Benson-Calvin cycle reactions, thereby promoting efflux of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> from photosystem I to NADP(+). The mechanisms of the light-induced activation of ATP synthase are briefly considered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20005499','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20005499"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a mitochondrial respiratory <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> bioindicator for assessment of aromatic hydrocarbon toxicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tripuranthakam, S.; Duxbury, C.L.; Babu, T.S.; Greenberg, B.M.</p> <p>1999-07-01</p> <p>Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are phototoxic to animals and plants. To monitor the toxicity of PAHs and understand their mechanism(s) of action, it is important to develop rapid and accurate bioindicators of effect. In this study, the authors have analyzed the impact of the anthracene photooxidation product, 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone (1,2-dhATQ), on mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> using a preparation of beef heart mitochondria. Employing both NADH and succinate as <span class="hlt">electron</span> donors, it was found that 1,2-dhATQ inhibited respiratory <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> to cytochrome c. Using reduced DCPIP (2,6 dichlorophenolindophenol) as an <span class="hlt">electron</span> donor, it was found that <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer was also inhibited. This indicated that inhibition was specific to cytochrome bc{sub 1} (ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase). Inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase was very weak, indicating that 1,2-dhATQ primarily targets the cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex. Thus, analysis of the respiratory <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> revealed a specific site of impact for 1,2-dhATQ, and a potential mechanistic basis for toxicity of this compound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H33C1373C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H33C1373C"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding how hydrodynamics <span class="hlt">affects</span> particle <span class="hlt">transport</span> in saturated fractures using modelling and experimental results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cianflone, S.; Lakhian, V.; Dickson, S. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Approximately 35% of Canadians and Americans utilize groundwater for drinking water and as such, it is essential to understand the mechanisms which may jeopardize this resource. Porous media aquifers typically provide significant removal of particulate contaminants (eg. viruses, bacteria); however, fractures in fractured rock aquifers and aquitards often provide pathways for particles to move in greater numbers and speed than in porous media. Thus, understanding flow and <span class="hlt">transport</span> in fractures is important for the preservation and use of groundwater sources. Models based on coupling flow and <span class="hlt">transport</span> equations can be used in understanding <span class="hlt">transport</span> in fractures. Both experiments and simulations have shown that there are inconsistencies in current <span class="hlt">transport</span>, attachment and detachment theory, particularly when particle size is varied. The assumption that hydrodynamic effects do not significantly <span class="hlt">affect</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> of particles is likely untrue. As well, it has been shown that preferential flow paths occur in fractures, but the effects of path specific properties such as fracture geometry have yet to be thoroughly explored. It has been observed that eddies caused by local changes in geometry exist in fractures in the environment and models have demonstrated that such eddies will retard the flow of particles. In this work, two 2D fractures were randomly generated with a mean aperture of approximately 2mm. Finite element software, COMSOL Multiphysics, generated flow fields through the fractures by numerically solving the steady-state Navier-Stokes equation for varied flow rates. Eddies were observed in one of the fractures at both low (~1 m/day) and high (>100 m/day) velocities. A program was written using random walk particle tracking to simulate <span class="hlt">transport</span>. Theories of attachment, detachment and matrix flow are not included in this model in order to isolate hydrodynamic forces. In combination with the modelling procedure, the two fractures were inscribed into pieces of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402780','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22402780"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-optical <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> across a magnetically induced junction on a topological insulator surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Duan, Xiaopeng; Li, Xiaodong; Semenov, Yuriy G.; Kim, Ki Wook</p> <p>2014-12-14</p> <p>Quasi-optical Dirac <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is theoretically analyzed at the magnetic boundaries on a topological insulator (TI) surface. The <span class="hlt">electronic</span> band mismatch induced by the spatially varying magnetization profile can form an effective junction akin to the electrostatic potential step. The transmission/reflection characteristics show a direct dependence on <span class="hlt">electron</span> energy and incident angle with highly asymmetric patterns. The investigation also illustrates a nontrivial anomalous Hall current along the boundary which is further shown by a numerical simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain method. The results provide key design guidelines for prospective quasi-optical devices based on the TI-magnet heterostructures.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17501233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17501233"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of ferroelectricity on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in Pt/BaTiO3/Pt tunnel junctions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Velev, J P; Duan, Chun-Gang; Belashchenko, K D; Jaswal, S S; Tsymbal, E Y</p> <p>2007-03-30</p> <p>Based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrate the impact of the electric polarization on <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs). Using a Pt/BaTiO3/Pt FTJ as a model system, we show that the polarization of the BaTiO3 barrier leads to a substantial drop in the tunneling conductance due to changes in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> structure driven by ferroelectric displacements. We find a sizable change in the transmission probability across the Pt/BaTiO3 interface with polarization reversal, a signature of the electroresistance effect. These results reveal exciting prospects that FTJs offer as resistive switches in nanoscale <span class="hlt">electronic</span> devices. PMID:17501233</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26818090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26818090"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of ultra-thin Ni and Ni-C nanowires.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Leining; Wu, Weikang; Zhou, Yi; Ren, Hongru; Dong, Jichen; Li, Hui</p> <p>2016-02-21</p> <p>The structures and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of ultra-thin Ni and Ni-C nanowires obtained from carbon nanotube (CNT) templates are theoretically investigated. C atoms tend to locate at the central positions of nanowires and are surrounded by Ni atoms. Spin polarization at the Fermi level is not responsible for the spin filtration of these nanowires. Increasing C concentration can improve the resistance of nanowires by abating the number of <span class="hlt">electronic</span> transmission channels and the coupling of <span class="hlt">electron</span> orbitals between Ni atoms. Moreover, with the increase of diameter, the conductance of these nanowires increases as well. This study is helpful for guiding the synthesis of nanowires with desired applications. PMID:26818090</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16090961','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16090961"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in fullerene C20 bridge assisted by molecular vibrations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yamamoto, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Satoshi</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>The effect of molecular vibrations on <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is investigated with the smallest fullerene C20 bridge, utilizing the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function techniques combined with the tight-binding molecular-dynamics method. Large discontinuous steps appear in the differential conductance when the applied bias voltage matches particular vibrational energies. The magnitude of the step is found to vary considerably with the vibrational mode and to depend on the local <span class="hlt">electronic</span> states besides the strength of <span class="hlt">electron</span>-vibration coupling. On the basis of this finding, a novel way to control the molecular motion by adjusting the gate voltage is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.G1346Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MAR.G1346Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Electronic</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Spatial/Temporal Photocurrent in Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Grown by CVD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Zhengfeng; Grassi, Roberto; Freitag, Marcus; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Low, Tony; Zhu, Wenjuan</p> <p></p> <p>We systematically investigate the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in transistors/Hall-bar devices and spatial/temporal photocurrent in photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2 grown by CVD. We found that the maximum photocurrent occurs when laser spot is close to the metal/MoS2 contact and is tunable by the applied drain voltage, which can be explained by the modulation of the local electric field at the Schottky barrier, consistent with predictions from our quantum <span class="hlt">transport</span> simulation. We observed that the maximum photocurrent at drain contact is much larger than the one at source contact, and the DC currents show rectifying behavior. These phenomena can be explained by the different Schottky barrier heights at the two contacts. By measuring Hall-bar device at various temperatures from 100K to 400K, the extracted barrier height at drain contact is about 50mV larger than the one at source contact, consistent with the photocurrent and DC current observations. Photocurrent was measured at various powers and a photoresponsivity of 3.07 mA/W was extracted at low powers. When the power increases above 20uW, the photocurrent starts to saturate. Temporal response of the photocurrent is also dependent on the laser power. These studies of photocurrents and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in CVD MoS2 highlight the importance of the contacts in the <span class="hlt">electronic</span>/optoelectronic devices and reveal the physical mechanism of the photocurrent/<span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in these devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25846233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25846233"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Adobe Flash animations of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain to teach and learn biochemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Teaching the subject of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "<span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2287346','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2287346"><span id="translatedtitle">Arabidopsis PPR40 Connects Abiotic Stress Responses to Mitochondrial <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span>1[W][OA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zsigmond, Laura; Rigó, Gábor; Szarka, András; Székely, Gyöngyi; Ötvös, Krisztina; Darula, Zsuzsanna; Medzihradszky, Katalin F.; Koncz, Csaba; Koncz, Zsuzsa; Szabados, László</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Oxidative respiration produces adenosine triphosphate through the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system controlling the energy supply of plant cells. Here we describe a mitochondrial pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) domain protein, PPR40, which provides a signaling link between mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and regulation of stress and hormonal responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Insertion mutations inactivating PPR40 result in semidwarf growth habit and enhanced sensitivity to salt, abscisic acid, and oxidative stress. Genetic complementation by overexpression of PPR40 complementary DNA restores the ppr40 mutant phenotype to wild type. The PPR40 protein is localized in the mitochondria and found in association with Complex III of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> system. In the ppr40-1 mutant the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through Complex III is strongly reduced, whereas Complex IV is functional, indicating that PPR40 is important for the ubiqinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity of Complex III. Enhanced stress sensitivity of the ppr40-1 mutant is accompanied by accumulation of reactive oxygen species, enhanced lipid peroxidation, higher superoxide dismutase activity, and altered activation of several stress-responsive genes including the alternative oxidase AOX1d. These results suggest a close link between regulation of oxidative respiration and environmental adaptation in Arabidopsis. PMID:18305213</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JPCM...28K5301A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JPCM...28K5301A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Competition of static magnetic and dynamic photon forces in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a quantum dot</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei; Gudmundsson, Vidar</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>We investigate theoretically the balance of the static magnetic and the dynamical photon forces in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through a quantum dot in a photon cavity with a single photon mode. The quantum dot system is connected to external leads and the total system is exposed to a static perpendicular magnetic field. We explore the <span class="hlt">transport</span> characteristics through the system by tuning the ratio, \\hslash {ωγ}/\\hslash {ωc} , between the photon energy, \\hslash {ωγ} , and the cyclotron energy, \\hslash {ωc} . Enhancement in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> with increasing electron–photon coupling is observed when \\hslash {ωγ}/\\hslash {ωc}>1 . In this case the photon field dominates and stretches the <span class="hlt">electron</span> charge distribution in the quantum dot, extending it towards the contact area for the leads. Suppression in the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> is found when \\hslash {ωγ}/\\hslash {ωc}<1 , as the external magnetic field causes circular confinement of the charge density around the dot.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22202683','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22202683"><span id="translatedtitle">Isolating the segment of the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain responsible for mitochondrial damage during cardiac ischemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chen, Qun; Yin, Guotian; Stewart, Sarah; Hu, Ying; Lesnefsky, Edward J.</p> <p>2010-07-09</p> <p>Ischemia damages the mitochondrial <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain (ETC), mediated in part by damage generated by the mitochondria themselves. Mitochondrial damage resulting from ischemia, in turn, leads to cardiac injury during reperfusion. The goal of the present study was to localize the segment of the ETC that produces the ischemic mitochondrial damage. We tested if blockade of the proximal ETC at complex I differed from blockade distal in the chain at cytochrome oxidase. Isolated rabbit hearts were perfused for 15 min followed by 30 min stop-flow ischemia at 37 {sup o}C. Amobarbital (2.5 mM) or azide (5 mM) was used to block proximal (complex I) or distal (cytochrome oxidase) sites in the ETC. Time control hearts were buffer-perfused for 45 min. Subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM) were isolated. Ischemia decreased cytochrome c content in SSM but not in IFM compared to time control. Blockade of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at complex I preserved the cytochrome c content in SSM. In contrast, blockade of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at cytochrome oxidase with azide did not retain cytochrome c in SSM during ischemia. Since blockade of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> at complex III also prevented cytochrome c loss during ischemia, the specific site that elicits mitochondrial damage during ischemia is likely located in the segment between complex III and cytochrome oxidase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4850503','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4850503"><span id="translatedtitle">In Situ Transmission <span class="hlt">Electron</span> Microscopy Modulation of <span class="hlt">Transport</span> in Graphene Nanoribbons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In situ transmission <span class="hlt">electron</span> microscopy (TEM) <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements in nanoscale systems have been previously confined to two-electrode configurations. Here, we use the focused <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam of a TEM to fabricate a three-electrode geometry from a continuous 2D material where the third electrode operates as side gate in a field-effect transistor configuration. Specifically, we demonstrate TEM nanosculpting of freestanding graphene sheets into graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with proximal graphene side gates, together with in situ TEM <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurements of the resulting GNRs, whose conductance is modulated by the side-gate potential. The TEM <span class="hlt">electron</span> beam displaces carbon atoms from the graphene sheet, and its position is controlled with nanometer precision, allowing the fabrication of GNRs of desired width immediately prior to each <span class="hlt">transport</span> measurement. We also model the corresponding electric field profile in this three-terminal geometry. The implementation of an in situ TEM three-terminal platform shown here further extends the use of a TEM for device characterization. This approach can be easily generalized for the investigation of other nanoscale systems (2D materials, nanowires, and single molecules) requiring the correlation of <span class="hlt">transport</span> and atomic structure. PMID:27010816</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25846233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25846233"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Adobe Flash animations of <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain to teach and learn biochemistry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Teplá, Milada; Klímová, Helena</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Teaching the subject of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain is one of the most challenging aspects of the chemistry curriculum at the high school level. This article presents an educational program called "<span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> Chain" which consists of 14 visual animations including a biochemistry quiz. The program was created in the Adobe Flash CS3 Professional animation program and is designed for high school chemistry students. Our goal is to develop educational materials that facilitate the comprehension of this complex subject through dynamic animations which show the course of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain and simultaneously explain its nature. We record the process of the <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> chain, including connections with oxidative phosphorylation, in such a way as to minimize the occurrence of discrepancies in interpretation. The educational program was evaluated in high schools through the administration of a questionnaire, which contained 12 opened-ended items and which required participants to evaluate the graphics of the animations, chemical content, student preferences, and its suitability for high school biochemistry teaching. PMID:25846233</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nms&pg=7&id=EJ758728','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=nms&pg=7&id=EJ758728"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Cytochome c to Monitor <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Inhibition in Beef Heart Submitochondrial Particles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Melin, Amanda D.; Lohmeier-Vogel, Elke M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>We present a two-part undergraduate laboratory exercise. In the first part, <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> in bovine heart submitochondrial particles causing reduction of cytochrome c is monitored at 550 nm. Redox-active dyes have historically been used in most previous undergraduate laboratory exercises of this sort but do not demonstrate respiratory…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093945','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22093945"><span id="translatedtitle">A reflective optical <span class="hlt">transport</span> system for ultraviolet Thomson scattering from <span class="hlt">electron</span> plasma waves on OMEGA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Katz, J.; Boni, R.; Sorce, C.; Follett, R.; Shoup, M. J. III; Froula, D. H.</p> <p>2012-10-15</p> <p>A reflective optical <span class="hlt">transport</span> system has been designed for the OMEGA Thomson-scattering diagnostic. A Schwarzschild objective that uses two concentric spherical mirrors coupled to a Pfund objective provides diffraction-limited imaging across all reflected wavelengths. This enables the operator to perform Thomson-scattering measurements of ultraviolet (0.263 {mu}m) light scattered from <span class="hlt">electron</span> plasma waves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27562440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27562440"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of CO2 on Microbial Denitrification via Inhibiting <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Consumption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wan, Rui; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Li, Mu</p> <p>2016-09-20</p> <p>Increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions have been reported to influence global biogeochemical processes; however, in the literature the effects of CO2 on denitrification have mainly been attributed to the changes it causes in environmental factors, while the direct effects of CO2 on denitrification remain unknown. In this study, increasing CO2 from 0 to 30 000 ppm under constant environmental conditions decreased total nitrogen removal efficiency from 97% to 54%, but increased N2O generation by 240 fold. A subsequent mechanistic study revealed that CO2 damaged the bacterial membrane and directly inhibited the <span class="hlt">transport</span> and consumption of intracellular <span class="hlt">electrons</span> by causing intracellular reactive nitrogen species (RNS) accumulation, suppressing the expression of key <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer proteins (flavoprotein, succinate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c) and the synthesis and activity of key denitrifying enzymes. Further study indicated that the inhibitory effects of CO2 on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> and consumption of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> were caused by the decrease of intracellular iron due to key iron <span class="hlt">transporters</span> (AfuA, FhuC, and FhuD) being down-regulated. Overall, this study suggests that the direct effect of CO2 on denitrifying microbes via inhibition of intracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and consumption is an important reason for its negative influence on denitrification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvX...6c1035G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvX...6c1035G"><span id="translatedtitle">Defect Control of Conventional and Anomalous <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> at Complex Oxide Interfaces</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gunkel, F.; Bell, Chris; Inoue, Hisashi; Kim, Bongju; Swartz, Adrian G.; Merz, Tyler A.; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Harashima, Satoshi; Sato, Hiroki K.; Minohara, Makoto; Hoffmann-Eifert, Susanne; Dittmann, Regina; Hwang, Harold Y.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Using low-temperature electrical measurements, the interrelation between <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, magnetic properties, and ionic defect structure in complex oxide interface systems is investigated, focusing on NdGaO3 /SrTiO3 (100) interfaces. Field-dependent Hall characteristics (2-300 K) are obtained for samples grown at various growth pressures. In addition to multiple <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span>, interfacial magnetism is tracked exploiting the anomalous Hall effect (AHE). These two properties both contribute to a nonlinearity in the field dependence of the Hall resistance, with multiple carrier conduction evident below 30 K and AHE at temperatures ≲10 K . Considering these two sources of nonlinearity, we suggest a phenomenological model capturing the complex field dependence of the Hall characteristics in the low-temperature regime. Our model allows the extraction of the conventional <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameters and a qualitative analysis of the magnetization. The <span class="hlt">electron</span> mobility is found to decrease systematically with increasing growth pressure. This suggests dominant <span class="hlt">electron</span> scattering by acceptor-type strontium vacancies incorporated during growth. The AHE scales with growth pressure. The most pronounced AHE is found at increased growth pressure and, thus, in the most defective, low-mobility samples, indicating a correlation between <span class="hlt">transport</span>, magnetism, and cation defect concentration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27562440','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27562440"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of CO2 on Microbial Denitrification via Inhibiting <span class="hlt">Electron</span> <span class="hlt">Transport</span> and Consumption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wan, Rui; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Li, Mu</p> <p>2016-09-20</p> <p>Increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions have been reported to influence global biogeochemical processes; however, in the literature the effects of CO2 on denitrification have mainly been attributed to the changes it causes in environmental factors, while the direct effects of CO2 on denitrification remain unknown. In this study, increasing CO2 from 0 to 30 000 ppm under constant environmental conditions decreased total nitrogen removal efficiency from 97% to 54%, but increased N2O generation by 240 fold. A subsequent mechanistic study revealed that CO2 damaged the bacterial membrane and directly inhibited the <span class="hlt">transport</span> and consumption of intracellular <span class="hlt">electrons</span> by causing intracellular reactive nitrogen species (RNS) accumulation, suppressing the expression of key <span class="hlt">electron</span> transfer proteins (flavoprotein, succinate dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c) and the synthesis and activity of key denitrifying enzymes. Further study indicated that the inhibitory effects of CO2 on the <span class="hlt">transport</span> and consumption of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> were caused by the decrease of intracellular iron due to key iron <span class="hlt">transporters</span> (AfuA, FhuC, and FhuD) being down-regulated. Overall, this study suggests that the direct effect of CO2 on denitrifying microbes via inhibition of intracellular <span class="hlt">electron</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> and consumption is an important reason for its negative influence on denitrification. PMID:27562440</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27273656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27273656"><span id="translatedtitle">Hexaazatrinaphthylene Derivatives: Efficient <span class="hlt">Electron-Transporting</span> Materials with Tunable Energy Levels for Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Dongbing; Zhu, Zonglong; Kuo, Ming-Yu; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Jen, Alex K-Y</p> <p>2016-07-25</p> <p>Hexaazatrinaphthylene (HATNA) derivatives have been successfully shown to function as efficient <span class="hlt">electron-transporting</span> materials (ETMs) for perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). The cells demonstrate a superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.6 % with negligible hysteresis. This study provides one of the first nonfullerene small-molecule-based ETMs for high-performance p-i-n PVSCs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPS...147....8V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPS...147....8V"><span id="translatedtitle">Theoretical analysis of the role of interfaces in <span class="hlt">transport</span> through oxygen ion and <span class="hlt">electron</span> conducting membranes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Virkar, Anil V.</p> <p></p> <p>This manuscript examines <span class="hlt">transport</span> through oxygen ion and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> conducting membranes including electrode/membrane interfaces by explicitly incorporating both ionic and <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span> through the membranes and across interfaces. Spatial variation of electrochemical potential of oxygen ions, μ, electrochemical potential of <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, μ (or reduced negative electrochemical potential of <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, φ=-μ/e, where e is the <span class="hlt">electronic</span> charge), and chemical potential of molecular oxygen, μ, through membrane and across interfaces are examined as functions of <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of membranes and interfacial regions. The analysis shows that description of <span class="hlt">transport</span> across electrode/membrane interfaces requires two <span class="hlt">transport</span> parameters—one for ions, and the other for <span class="hlt">electrons</span>. The <span class="hlt">transport</span> equations are applied to fuel cells, pressure-driven oxygen separation through mixed ionic-<span class="hlt">electronic</span> conducting (MIEC) membranes, and voltage-driven oxygen separation through predominantly oxygen ion conducting membranes. In fuel cells and MIEC oxygen separation membranes, the μ varies monotonically between the two end values corresponding to those at the two electrodes. Thus, in fuel cells and MIEC oxygen separation membranes, the stability of the membrane is assured as long as the oxygen partial pressure, p, on the fuel side or the permeate side is above the decomposition oxygen partial pressure of the membrane. By contrast, in voltage-driven oxygen separation membranes, μ in the membrane can lie outside of the end values. Thus, in the case of oxygen separation under an applied voltage, the <span class="hlt">transport</span> properties of the material and the interfaces determine membrane stability. Implications of the analysis concerning the applicability of the so-called the three-electrode system under an applied voltage to investigate electrode polarization are presented. It is shown that the use of the three-electrode system for the estimation of electrode kinetics can lead to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARA24006G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..MARA24006G"><span id="translatedtitle">Landauer's formula with finite-time relaxation: Kramers' crossover in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gruss, Daniel; Velizhanin, Kirill; Zwolak, Michael</p> <p></p> <p>Landauer's formula relates the conductance of a region of interest to its transmission probability. It is the standard theoretical tool to examine ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> in nano- and meso-scale junctions and devices. This view of <span class="hlt">transport</span> as transmission necessitates a simplified view of transmission, one occurring through an essentially fixed structure. Starting from a description of <span class="hlt">transport</span> that includes relaxation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the reservoirs, we derive a Landauer-like formula for the steady-state current. We demonstrate that the finite relaxation time gives rise to three regimes of behavior. Weak relaxation within a small region nearby to the junction gives a contact limited current. Strong relaxation also influences the current by localizing <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, distorting their natural dynamics and reducing the current. In an intermediate regime, the standard Landauer view is recovered. This behavior is analogous to Kramers' turnover in chemical reactions. Supported by UMD/CNST Cooperative Research Agreement, Award 70NANB10H193.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...624514G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...624514G"><span id="translatedtitle">Landauer’s formula with finite-time relaxation: Kramers’ crossover in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gruss, Daniel; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Zwolak, Michael</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Landauer’s formula is the standard theoretical tool to examine ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> in nano- and meso-scale junctions, but it necessitates that any variation of the junction with time must be slow compared to characteristic times of the system, e.g., the relaxation time of local excitations. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> through structurally dynamic junctions is, however, increasingly of interest for sensing, harnessing fluctuations, and real-time control. Here, we calculate the steady-state current when relaxation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the reservoirs is present and demonstrate that it gives rise to three regimes of behavior: weak relaxation gives a contact-limited current; strong relaxation localizes <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, distorting their natural dynamics and reducing the current; and in an intermediate regime the Landauer view of the system only is recovered. We also demonstrate that a simple equation of motion emerges, which is suitable for efficiently simulating time-dependent <span class="hlt">transport</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1259467-landauers-formula-finite-time-relaxation-kramers-crossover-electronic-transport','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1259467-landauers-formula-finite-time-relaxation-kramers-crossover-electronic-transport"><span id="translatedtitle">Landauer’s formula with finite-time relaxation: Kramers’ crossover in <span class="hlt">electronic</span> <span class="hlt">transport</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Gruss, Daniel; Velizhanin, Kirill A.; Zwolak, Michael</p> <p>2016-04-20</p> <p>Landauer’s formula is the standard theoretical tool to examine ballistic <span class="hlt">transport</span> in nano- and meso-scale junctions, but it necessitates that any variation of the junction with time must be slow compared to characteristic times of the system, e.g., the relaxation time of local excitations. <span class="hlt">Transport</span> through structurally dynamic junctions is, however, increasingly of interest for sensing, harnessing fluctuations, and real-time control. Here, we calculate the steady-state current when relaxation of <span class="hlt">electrons</span> in the reservoirs is present and demonstrate that it gives rise to three regimes of behavior: weak relaxation gives a contact-limited current; strong relaxation localizes <span class="hlt">electrons</span>, distorting their naturalmore » dynamics and reducing the current; and in an intermediate regime the Landauer view of the system only is recovered. Lastly, we also demonstrate that a simple equation of motion emerges, which is suitable for efficiently simulating time-dependent <span class="hlt">transport</span>.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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