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Sample records for affects female sexual

  1. Daily affect and female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek

    2014-12-01

    The specific affective experiences related to changes in various aspects of female sexual function have received little attention as most prior studies have focused instead on the role of clinical mood and anxiety disorders and their influence on sexual dysfunction. We sought to understand the transaction between daily affect and female sexual function in effort to provide a more nuanced understanding of the interplay between affective and sexual experiences. The present study used a 2-week daily diary approach to examine same-day and temporal relations between positive and negative affect states and sexual function in young women. We examined the unique relations between positive (i.e., joviality, serenity, self-assurance) and negative (i.e., fear, sadness, hostility) affects and female sexual response (i.e., desire, subjective arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasmic function, and sexual pain) while controlling for higher order sexual distress, depression, and anxiety, as well as age effects and daily menstruation. Analyses revealed different aspects of both positive and negative affects to be independently related to sexual response indices. Specifically, results indicated that joviality was related to same-day sexual desire and predicted increased desire the following day. This latter relation was partially mediated by sexual activity. Further, greater sexual desire predicted next-day calmness, which was partially mediated by sexual activity. Notably, fear was related to same-day subjective arousal, lubrication, orgasmic function, and vaginal pain, whereas poorer orgasmic function predicted greater next-day sadness. These findings describe the manner in which changes in affect correspond to variations in female sexual function, thus highlighting the inextricability of mental and sexual health. Further, these findings may offer insight into the progression of normative levels of affect and sexual function as they develop into comorbid depression, anxiety, and

  2. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  3. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality.

  4. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Shuster, Stephen M; Briggs, William R; Dennis, Patricia A

    2013-03-05

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov(♂)(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov(♀)(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak.

  5. How multiple mating by females affects sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Stephen M.; Briggs, William R.; Dennis, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple mating by females is widely thought to encourage post-mating sexual selection and enhance female fitness. We show that whether polyandrous mating has these effects depends on two conditions. Condition 1 is the pattern of sperm utilization by females; specifically, whether, among females, male mating number, m (i.e. the number of times a male mates with one or more females) covaries with male offspring number, o. Polyandrous mating enhances sexual selection only when males who are successful at multiple mating also sire most or all of each of their mates' offspring, i.e. only when Cov♂(m,o), is positive. Condition 2 is the pattern of female reproductive life-history; specifically, whether female mating number, m, covaries with female offspring number, o. Only semelparity does not erode sexual selection, whereas iteroparity (i.e. when Cov♀(m,o), is positive) always increases the variance in offspring numbers among females, which always decreases the intensity of sexual selection on males. To document the covariance between mating number and offspring number for each sex, it is necessary to assign progeny to all parents, as well as identify mating and non-mating individuals. To document significant fitness gains by females through iteroparity, it is necessary to determine the relative magnitudes of male as well as female contributions to the total variance in relative fitness. We show how such data can be collected, how often they are collected, and we explain the circumstances in which selection favouring multiple mating by females can be strong or weak. PMID:23339237

  6. Cognitive-Affective Dimensions of Female Orgasm: The Role of Automatic Thoughts and Affect During Sexual Activity.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Inês M; Laan, Ellen T M; Nobre, Pedro J

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive-affective factors contribute to female sexual dysfunctions, defined as clinically significant difficulties in the ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure. Automatic thoughts and affect presented during sexual activity are acknowledged as maintenance factors for these difficulties. However, there is a lack of studies on the influence of these cognitive-affective dimensions regarding female orgasm. To assess the role of automatic thoughts and affect during sexual activity in predicting female orgasm occurrence and to investigate the mediator role of these variables in the relation between sexual activity and orgasm occurrence. Nine hundred twenty-six sexually active heterosexual premenopausal women reported on frequency of sexual activities and frequency of orgasm occurrence, cognitive factors, and social desirability. Participants completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire-Automatic Thoughts Subscale, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the Socially Desirable Response Set. Multiple linear regressions and mediation analyses were performed, controlling for the effect of covariates such as social desirability, sociodemographic and medical characteristics, and relationship factors. The main outcome measurement was orgasm frequency as predicted and mediated by automatic thoughts and affect experienced during sexual activities. The presence of failure thoughts and lack of erotic thoughts during sexual activity significantly and negatively predicted female orgasm, whereas positive affect experienced during sexual activity significantly and positively predicted female orgasm. Moreover, negative automatic thoughts and positive affect during sexual activity were found to mediate the relation between sexual activity and female orgasm occurrence. These data suggest that the cognitive aspects of sexual involvement are critical to enhancing female orgasm experience and can aid the development of strategies that contemplate the central role

  7. Evidence that sex chromosome genes affect sexual differentiation of female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Grgurevic, Neza; Büdefeld, Tomaz; Spanic, Tanja; Tobet, Stuart A; Majdic, Gregor

    2012-05-01

    Female receptivity including the immobile hormone-dependent lordosis posture is essential for successful reproduction in rodents. It is well documented that lordosis is organized during the perinatal period when the actions of androgens decrease the males' ability to display this behavior in adulthood. Conversely the absence of androgens, and the presence of low levels of prepubertal estrogens, preserve circuitry that regulates this behavior in females. The current study set out to determine whether sex chromosomal genes are involved in the differentiation of this behavior. An agonadal mouse model was used to test this hypothesis. The SF-1 gene (Nr5a1) is required for development of gonads and adrenal glands, and knockout mice are consequently not exposed to endogenous gonadal steroids. Thus contributions of sex chromosome genes can be disassociated from the actions of estrogens. Use of this model reveals a direct genetic contribution from sex chromosomes in the display of lordosis and other female-typical sexual behavior patterns. It is likely that the concentrations of gonadal steroids present during normal male development modify the actions of sex chromosome genes on the potential to display female sexual behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  9. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    PubMed Central

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Philipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (ARISA) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem. PMID:20961376

  10. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment.

  11. Managing female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Buster, John E

    2013-10-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acquired resistance affects male sexual display and female choice in guppies

    PubMed Central

    pez, S. L

    1998-01-01

    Is resistance to parasites related to the expression of male secondary sex characters? Handicap models predict a positive relationship, proposing that males displaying extravagant sex characters may be honestly signalling their resistance to females. However, no current evidence addresses whether individual changes in immunity (acquired resistance) are reflected in sexual traits. In this experiment I use guppies to compare male orange colour, sigmoid display and female preferences for individual males, before and after a primary challenge infection of males. Challenge infections were terminated chemically and fish were given ten days' recovery time before proceeding with the second measurements. The degree of acquired resistance was quantified a posteriori, by exposing males to a secondary infection. Sigmoid display rates and female preference for males differed for males of different resistance groups after challenge infection only. This difference was due to resistant males displaying more than non-resistant ones. No differences were detected in male orange colour, but this may be because colour needs a longer time than ten days to be recovered and adjusted. The results show that the level of acquired resistance affects sexual display and attractiveness in guppies. They suggest that once an effective immunity is built up by a male, he can afford to incur higher costs for sexual characteristics, whereas a male that lacks the ability to build up effective resistance cannot. These costs probably consist of higher energy expenditure and/or higher circulating levels of testosterone, which may be needed to increase display. Priming and effective establishment of an individual's resistance to parasitic infection could eventually result in a higher availability of resources for sexual functions.

  13. Host plant affects the sexual attractiveness of the female white-spotted longicorn beetle, Anoplophora malasiaca

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Hiroe; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao

    2016-01-01

    Anoplophora malasiaca (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is a serious pest that destroys various landscape and crop trees in Japan. We evaluated the precopulatory responses of three different A. malasiaca populations collected from mandarin orange, willow and blueberry trees. Most of the males accepted mates from within the same host plant population as well as females from the willow and blueberry populations. However, significant number of males from the blueberry and willow populations rejected females from the mandarin orange population immediately after touching them with their antennae. Because all three of the female populations produced contact sex pheromones on their elytra, the females of the mandarin orange population were predicted to possess extra chemicals that repelled the males of the other two populations. β-Elemene was identified as a key component that was only found in mandarin orange-fed females and induced a rejection response in willow-fed males. Our results represent the first example of a female-acquired repellent against conspecific males of different host plant populations, indicating that the host plant greatly affects the female’s sexual attractiveness. PMID:27412452

  14. Acute withdrawal but not long-term withdrawal from methamphetamine affects sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Rachel B; Ornelas, Laura C; Romero, Jordan; Memos, Nicoletta; Scheible, Matthew; Avila, Alfred; Schumacher, Abby; Navarro, April; Zimmermann, Karen; Cuenod, Bethany A; Frohardt, Russell J; Guarraci, Fay A

    2013-02-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the long-term effects of repeated methamphetamine (MA) exposure on sexual motivation in female rats tested after a period of drug abstinence. In Experiment 1, female subjects received three injections of MA (1.0mg/kg/day, every other day) or saline and were tested for paced mating behavior (where females could control the receipt of sexual stimulation from one male rat) 21 days after their last injection. In Experiment 2, female subjects received 12 consecutive injections of MA (1.0mg/kg/day) or saline and were tested for mate choice (where females could control the receipt of sexual stimulation from two male rats simultaneously) 6 days after their last injection. Experiment 3 was identical to Experiment 2 except that female subjects received no baseline mating test and were tested for mate choice 24h and 6 days after their last injection. Open field tests were conducted in each experiment to measure locomotor activity after repeated exposure to MA. Although repeated MA exposure increased locomotor activity, mating behavior was not facilitated after either a short (6 days) or long (21 days) period of drug abstinence. Nevertheless, sexual behavior was disrupted during the 24h acute withdrawal period. Therefore, although the present study found no evidence of cross-sensitization between female sexual behavior and MA after either a short or a long period of drug abstinence, sexual behavior in sexually naïve female rats is sensitive to the depressive state associated with acute withdrawal from MA. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that MA acts differently from other psychomotor stimulants, and that the effects of MA withdrawal on sexual behavior differ between male and female rats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exposure to methylphenidate during peri-adolescence affects endocrine functioning and sexual behavior in female Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Guarraci, Fay A; Holifield, Caroline; Morales-Valenzuela, Jessica; Greene, Kasera; Brown, Jeanette; Lopez, Rebecca; Crandall, Christina; Gibbs, Nicole; Vela, Rebekah; Delgado, Melissa Y; Frohardt, Russell J

    2016-03-01

    The present study was designed to test the effects of methylphenidate (MPH) exposure on the maturation of endocrine functioning and sexual behavior. Female rat pups received either MPH (2.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline twice daily between postnatal days 20-35. This period of exposure represents the time just prior to puberty as well as puberty onset. Approximately five weeks after the last injection of MPH or saline, female subjects were hormone-primed and tested during their first sexual experience. Subjects were given the choice to interact with a sexually active male or a sexually receptive female rat (i.e., the partner-preference test). The partner-preference paradigm allows us to assess multiple aspects of female sexual behavior. MPH exposure during peri-adolescence delayed puberty and, when mated for the first time, affected sexual behavior (e.g., increased time spent with the male stimulus and decreased the likelihood of leaving after mounts) during the test of partner preference. When monitoring estrous cyclicity, female subjects treated with MPH during peri-adolescence frequently experienced irregular estrous cycles. The results of the present study suggest that chronic exposure to a therapeutic dose of MPH around the onset of puberty alters long-term endocrine functioning, but with hormone priming, increases sensitivity to sexual stimuli.

  16. Affective and Autonomic Responses to Erotic Images: Evidence of Disgust-Based Mechanisms in Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder.

    PubMed

    DePesa, Natasha S; Cassisi, Jeffrey E

    2017-09-01

    Disgust has recently been implicated in the development and maintenance of female sexual dysfunction, yet most empirical studies have been conducted with a sexually healthy sample. The current study contributes to the literature by expanding the application of a disgust model of sexual functioning to a clinically relevant sample of women with low sexual desire/arousal and accompanying sexual distress. Young women (mean age = 19.12 years) with psychometrically defined sexual dysfunction (i.e., female sexual interest/arousal disorder [FSIAD] group) and a healthy control group were compared in their affective (i.e., facial electromyography [EMG] and self-report) and autonomic (i.e., heart rate and electrodermal activity) responses to disgusting, erotic, positive, and neutral images. Significant differences were predicted in responses to erotic images only. Specifically, it was hypothesized that the FSIAD group would display affective and autonomic responses consistent with a disgust response, while responses from the control group would align with a general appetitive response. Results largely supported study hypotheses. The FSIAD group displayed significantly greater negative facial affect, reported more subjective disgust, and recorded greater heart rate deceleration than the control group in response to erotic stimuli. Greater subjective disgust response corresponded with more sexual avoidance behavior. Planned follow-up analyses explored correlates of subjective disgust responses.

  17. Male accessory gland proteins affect differentially female sexual receptivity and remating in closely related Drosophila species.

    PubMed

    Denis, Béatrice; Claisse, Gaëlle; Le Rouzic, Arnaud; Wicker-Thomas, Claude; Lepennetier, Gildas; Joly, Dominique

    2017-05-01

    In sexual species, mating success depends on the male's capacity to find sexual partners and on female receptivity to mating. Mating is under evolutionary constraints to prevent interspecific mating and to maximize the reproductive success of both sexes. In Drosophila melanogaster, female receptivity to mating is mainly controlled by Sex peptide (SP, i.e. Acp70A) produced by the male accessory glands with other proteins (Acps). The transfer of SP during copulation dramatically reduces female receptivity to mating and prevents remating with other males. To date, female postmating responses are well-known in D. melanogaster but have been barely investigated in closely-related species or strains exhibiting different mating systems (monoandrous versus polyandrous). Here, we describe the diversity of mating systems in two strains of D. melanogaster and the three species of the yakuba complex. Remating delay and sexual receptivity were measured in cross-experiments following SP orthologs or Acp injections within females. Interestingly, we discovered strong differences between the two strains of D. melanogaster as well as among the three species of the yakuba complex. These results suggest that reproductive behavior is under the control of complex sexual interactions between the sexes and evolves rapidly, even among closely-related species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor

    PubMed Central

    Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J.

    2012-01-01

    In many species of animals, individuals advertise their quality with sexual signals to obtain mates. Chemical signals such as volatile pheromones are species specific, and their primary purpose is to influence mate choice by carrying information about the phenotypic and genetic quality of the sender. The deleterious effects of consanguineous mating on individual quality are generally known, whereas the effect of inbreeding on sexual signalling is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex. Females were more attracted to the odours produced by outbred males than the odours produced by inbred males, suggesting that inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of male sexual signalling. However, we did not find any difference between the attractiveness of inbred and outbred female odours, which may indicate that the quality of females is either irrelevant for T. molitor males or quality is not revealed through female odours. PMID:22237501

  19. Inbreeding affects sexual signalling in males but not females of Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Kangassalo, Katariina; Rantala, Markus J

    2012-06-23

    In many species of animals, individuals advertise their quality with sexual signals to obtain mates. Chemical signals such as volatile pheromones are species specific, and their primary purpose is to influence mate choice by carrying information about the phenotypic and genetic quality of the sender. The deleterious effects of consanguineous mating on individual quality are generally known, whereas the effect of inbreeding on sexual signalling is poorly understood. Here, we tested whether inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of sexual signalling in the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, by testing the preferences for odours of inbred and outbred (control) individuals of the opposite sex. Females were more attracted to the odours produced by outbred males than the odours produced by inbred males, suggesting that inbreeding reduces the attractiveness of male sexual signalling. However, we did not find any difference between the attractiveness of inbred and outbred female odours, which may indicate that the quality of females is either irrelevant for T. molitor males or quality is not revealed through female odours.

  20. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions.

  1. Female Sexuality: An Enigma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniluk, Judith

    1991-01-01

    Describes constructions of sexuality that have occurred within social context in which language, culture, and behavior interact to reinforce male power. Against backdrop of these patriarchal examples of female sexual expression and experience, discusses difficulties of female clients. Addresses critical counseling concerns in terms of contextual…

  2. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  3. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  4. Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Reviriego, C

    2014-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment.

  5. [Female sexual dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Luria, Mijal

    2009-09-01

    Female sexual problems are common, frequently overlooked and have a significant impact on the lives of women. Research in the last decade has brought to the understanding and recognition of a number of standpoints, mainly the broad range of normative function. In 2003, the American Urological Association Foundation convened an international committee of experts in the field of women's sexuality, to reconsider the existing definitions of women's sexual dysfunction. Based on the circular response cycle developed by Basson, the group emphasized motivations that might move a woman from being sexually "neutral" to making a decision to be sexual with her partner, as a normative alternative to the need for spontaneous sexual desire as the trigger for sexual behavior. Etiology may stem from medical as well as psychological factors, thus assessment must include a complete evaluation. Treatment includes psycho-education, improvement of interpersonal communication, cognitive behavioral treatment and elucidation and treatment of medical problems, if necessary. Several pharmacological treatments are under investigation, with modest results and uncertainties about their long term safety. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the current diagnostic and therapeutic understandings and directions.

  6. Flibanserin and Female Sexual Desire.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice.

  7. The Prevalence and Correlates of Physical and Sexual Violence Affecting Female Sex Workers in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Berger, Blair O; Grosso, Ashley; Adams, Darrin; Ketende, Sosthenes; Sithole, Bhekie; Mabuza, Xolile S; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo J; Baral, Stefan

    2016-02-12

    Female sex workers (FSW) have a heightened vulnerability to violence and negative sexual/reproductive health outcomes. Limited research has examined how experiencing physical and sexual violence (PSV) mediates risk for poor health outcomes among FSW in Swaziland. The present analyses aim to contribute to literature linking violence with poor health outcomes, high-risk behaviors, and reduced health service-seeking among FSW. Data were analyzed from a cross-sectional study conducted in Swaziland between July and September 2011 with 325 adult women who reported exchanging sex for money, goods, or favors in the last 12 months, recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between PSV and ancillary violence/abuse exposures, risk behaviors, and sexual/reproductive and mental health outcomes. PSV was conceptualized as either ever having been beaten up as a result of selling sex or ever being forced to have sex since the age of 18, or both. Prevalence of PSV in this sample was 59.0% in crude estimation, and 48.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]:[39.2,57.6]) with RDS weighting. Separate RDS-weighted estimates of being beaten up as a result of sex work and ever being forced to have sex were 32.4% (95%CI=[24.4,40.4]) and 33.1% (95%CI =[25.0,41.2%]), respectively. Experiencing PSV was associated with being blackmailed (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]= 1.93, 95%CI= [1.07,3.52]), non-injection drug use in the last 12 months (aOR= 1.84, 95%CI= [1.02,3.33]), and feeling afraid to seek health services as a result of selling sex (aOR = 1.74, 95%CI= [1.01,2.99]). Given these findings, violence prevention strategies should be prioritized in programs that address Swazi FSW health, empowerment, and safety.

  8. [Female child sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Enyedy, Andrea; Csorba, Roland

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse is 12-13% worldwide (18% by girls, 8% by boys). The exact knowledge of sexual abuse and the spread of the adequate medical diagnosis is an essential medical, social and national requirement. In our present study we examine the medical diagnosis of female child sexual abuse. Selective literature research in the available international and domestic databases. Majority of children assessed for suspected sexual abuse have normal genital and anal findings. Contrary to popular belief, the majority of child sexual abuse is a chronic multiple event, caused by a family member. The task of the medical staff is difficult and various, due to the diagnostic challenges of child sexual abuse. The difficulties of the medical diagnosis, evaluation and therapy, the complexity of the legal proceedings and prosecution, the isolation of the profession and the victim and the issue treated like a taboo subject often lead to failure. The physicians dealing with children have suboptimal knowledge of child sexual abuse, the characteristics of victims and perpetretors, the medical diagnosis and therapy of sexual abuse and the rehabilitation of victims. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(23): 910-917.

  9. Female sexual dysfunction: Assessment.

    PubMed

    Sharma, J B; Kalra, Bharti

    2016-05-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common complex clinical condition, with multiple etiologies, association and pathophysiologic correlations. This review includes the definition, etiology, and diagnosis of FSD. It calls for a bio psychosocial approach to FSD management, which incorporates, but is not limited to, only the psychological aspects of FSD.

  10. [Female sexual dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith

    2010-03-01

    Sexual medicine has become an integrated part of womens' health care. Physicians need therefore communication skills to talk about sexuality with their female patients and a knowledge about models of human sexuality, about classification systems, and diagnostic and therapeutic concepts and processes. The diagnostic reaches from a clear description of the sexual problem to an exploration of the conditioning factors. These can be differentiated into biological factors, intraindividual and interpersonal psychological factors and sociocultural factors. These factors can become effective as predisposing, precipitating and maintaining factors. The therapeutic process is based on several steps. The basic step consists in psychoeducation and basic counselling. Therapy usually includes the combination of pharmacologic intervention (hormones, PDE5) and specific psychotherapeutic techniques (sensate focus, cognitive techniques, couple counselling).

  11. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  12. Yoga in female sexual functions.

    PubMed

    Dhikav, Vikas; Karmarkar, Girish; Gupta, Richa; Verma, Myank; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Supriya; Anand, Kuljeet S

    2010-02-01

    Yoga is a popular form of complementary and alternative therapy. It is practiced both in developing and developed countries. Female sexual dysfunctions are common and do not always get adequate clinical attention. Pharmacotherapies for treating female sexual dysfunctions are available but suffer from drawbacks such as poor compliance, low efficacy, and side effects. Many patients and yoga protagonists claim that it is useful in improving sexual functions and treating sexual disorders. To establish the effect yoga can have on female sexual functions. We recruited 40 females (age range 22-55 years, average age 34.7 +/- 8.49 years) who were enrolled in a yoga camp and were given a standardized questionnaire named Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) before and after the 12 weeks session of yoga. FSFI scores. It was found that after the completion of yoga sessions; the sexual functions scores were significantly improved (P < 0.0001). The improvement occurred in all six domains of FSFI (i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain). The improvement was more in older women (age > 45 years) compared with younger women (age < 45 years). Yoga appears to be an effective method of improving all domains of sexual functions in women as studied by FSFI.

  13. Sexual competition affects biomass partitioning, carbon-nutrient balance, Cd allocation and ultrastructure of Populus cathayana females and males exposed to Cd stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Duan, Baoli; Xu, Gang; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2016-11-01

    Although increasing attention has been paid to plant adaptation to soil heavy metal contamination, competition and neighbor effects have been largely overlooked, especially in dioecious plants. In this study, we investigated growth as well as biochemical and ultrastructural responses of Populus cathayana Rehder females and males to cadmium (Cd) stress under different sexual competition patterns. The results showed that competition significantly affects biomass partitioning, photosynthetic capacity, leaf and root ultrastructure, Cd accumulation, the contents of polyphenols, and structural and nonstructural carbohydrates. Compared with single-sex cultivation, plants of opposite sexes exposed to sexual competition accumulated more Cd in tissues and their growth was more strongly inhibited, indicating enhanced Cd toxicity under sexual competition. Under intrasexual competition, females showed greater Cd accumulation, more serious damage at the ultrastructural level and greater reduction in physiological activity than under intersexual competition, while males performed better under intrasexual competition than under intersexual competition. Males improved the female microenvironment by greater Cd uptake and lower resource consumption under intersexual competition. These results demonstrate that the sex of neighbor plants and competition affect sexual differences in growth and in key physiological processes under Cd stress. The asymmetry of sexual competition highlighted here might regulate population structure, and spatial segregation and phytoremediation potential of both sexes in P. cathayana growing in heavy metal-contaminated soils. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Postpartum female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Abdool, Zeelha; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H

    2009-08-01

    Although many women experience sexual problems in the postpartum period, research in this subject is under-explored. Embarrassment and preoccupation with the newborn are some of the reasons why many women do not seek help. Furthermore, there is a lack of professional awareness and expertise and recognition that a prerequisite in the definition of sexual dysfunction is that it must cause distress to the individual (not her partner). Sexual dysfunction is classified as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and pain. However, in the postpartum period the most common disorder appears to be that of sexual pain as a consequence of perineal trauma. Health care workers need to be made aware of this silent affliction as sexual morbidity can have a detrimental effect on a women's quality of life impacting on her social, physical and emotional well-being.

  15. Neonatal exposure to estradiol decreases hypothalamic allopregnanolone concentrations and alters agonistic and sexual but not affective behavior in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Berretti, R; Santoru, F; Locci, A; Sogliano, C; Calza, A; Choleris, E; Porcu, P; Concas, A

    2014-02-01

    Exposure of developing female rats to estradiol during the perinatal period induced long-lasting dysregulation of gonadal axis and decreased cerebrocortical and plasma concentrations of allopregnanolone. We have now examined the effects of neonatal estradiol administration in female rats on hypothalamic allopregnanolone concentrations and on exploratory, affective, agonistic and sexual behaviors as well as social learning. A single administration of β-estradiol 3-benzoate (EB, 10μg) on the day of birth resulted in a delay of vaginal opening, acyclicity and ovarian failure. These alterations were associated with a significant decrease in the concentrations of allopregnanolone in the hypothalamus at 21 and 60days, but not at 7days, after birth. Neonatal administration of EB also increased agonistic behaviors in adult rats, such as dominant behaviors and following of an ovariectomized intruder, while living attacks unaffected. EB-treated rats showed also an increase in anogenital investigation, associated with a drastic reduction in spontaneous and induced female sexual behaviors (receptivity and proceptivity). In contrast, neonatal administration of EB did not affect locomotor activity, anxiety- and mood-related behaviors, the social transmission of flavor preferences, and seizures sensitivity. These effects of estradiol suggest that it plays a major role in regulation of both the abundance of allopregnanolone and the expression of agonistic and sexual behaviors, while failing to influence affective behaviors and social learning. Thus, the pronounced and persistent decrease in hypothalamic allopregnanolone concentration may be related to the manifestation of agonistic and sexual behaviors.

  16. Female adolescent sexuality. Promoting healthy sexual development.

    PubMed

    Blythe, M J; Rosenthal, S L

    2000-03-01

    Health care providers must recognize the specific challenges and rewards of providing services for adolescents. Quality care begins with the establishment of trust, respect, and confidentiality between the health care provider and the adolescent. Data suggest that the normal age for beginning puberty is decreasing, which has important clinical, educational, and social implications. The health care provider should be aware of the broad range of potential sexual behaviors involving adolescents, as well as the teen's acceptance of such behaviors, often dictated by age, gender, culture, and education. When providing gynecologic care to adolescent girls, the physician should not only provide contraception and screen for sexually transmitted diseases but should contribute to the development of the patient's sexual health. Especially when providing care for the younger teen, the health care provider must focus on involving a member of the family or another significant adult to provide needed support and guidance. Anticipatory guidance for parents should focus on assessing their parenting styles and promoting supervision. Although parents should strive to maintain open communication with their adolescents, they may not accurately estimate the sexual activity of and the sexual risk for their teenage children. Parents need to be encouraged to consider the implications of their own sexual behaviors. The provider should attempt to foster a comfortable environment in which youth may seek help and support for appropriate medical care while reserving the right to disclose their sexual identity when ready. Health care professionals cannot exclude heterosexual behavior on the basis that a young woman self-identifies as homosexual. Her reported sexual behaviors may not indicate her sexual orientation. Self-definition of sexual orientation is a dynamic process including factors such as fantasies, desires, and behaviors. Self-definition of sexual identity is affected by individual

  17. Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  18. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Female sexual function and response.

    PubMed

    Arcos, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Although female sexual dysfunction is a problem with low priority, it can have a profound impact on quality of life. In women, the cycle of sexual response begins in the brain, where a memory, an image, a scent, music, or a fantasy acts as a trigger to prompt sexual arousal. Thus, the brain is really the key and starting place for treatment of sexual dysfunction. Decreased libido, altered arousal, inability to achieve orgasm, and dyspareunia are the four broad types of sexual dysfunction in women. Decreased libido, thought to be related to androgenic hormones, results in delayed or altered arousal, decreased vaginal lubrication and dilation, delayed or absent orgasm, and pain or dyspareunia, which can lead to an aversion to sexual experiences.

  20. [Female sexuality and parenthood].

    PubMed

    Colson, M-H

    2014-10-01

    From the child conception to the early years of life, couples generally present less sexual activity. Parenthood constraints are a burden for the couple's relationships. Generally, persistent sexual difficulties six months after delivery, despite those generated by depression or altered health raise the question of an alteration in the quality of the couple's relationships and lack of satisfaction of the mother with her partner's involvement in family life. Numerous parameters can be implied, especially with persistent trouble of desire, such as fatigue, body image problems and libido lessening of the partner due to modifications of his status. Women who presented sexual difficulties before pregnancy remain the same. In all cases, appropriate information can avoid the intimacy's difficulties and contribute to maintain pleasure and intimacy even when vaginal penetration remains difficult.

  1. Female sexual dysfunction: anatomy, physiology, evaluation and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Berman, J R; Berman, L A; Werbin, T J; Goldstein, I

    1999-11-01

    It has been estimated that up to 76% of women, depending upon their age, have complaints of sexual dysfunction, including decreased libido, vaginal dryness, pain with intercourse, decreased genital sensation and difficulty or inability to achieve orgasm. Female sexual dysfunction is a significant problem that affects the quality of life of many women. This review addresses the etiologies and incidence of female sexual complaints, as well as new findings in the evaluation and treatment of female sexual dysfunction.

  2. Sexual maturation of female Saguinus oedipus oedipus

    SciTech Connect

    Tardif, S.D.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an examination of the process of female sexual maturation in the cotton-top tamarin, Saguinus oedipus oedipus, a South-American primate of the family, Callitrichidae. Two types of questions are addressed. The first question is whether the type of social grouping in which a young female lives affects the rate of her sexual maturation. Specifically, is there a difference between the maturation rate of a female housed with a strange adult male and a female housed with her natal group (i.e., her parents and various siblings). Second, the effect of sexual maturation on various social interactions is examined. Specifically are male-female interactions in mated pairs and mother-daughter interactions in natal groups changed by the sexual maturation of the young females. The mother's presence was not related to the daughter's maturation age. However, whether the natal group, as a whole, inhibited maturation, or unrelated males accelerated maturation, or both, remains unknown. Most of the behavioral interactions involving maturing females were unchanged by maturation. There was some indication that certain behaviors were affected by maturation, but only if a strange unrelated male was present.

  3. Hypnotherapy and Female Sexual Inadequacy

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Daniel

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741

  4. Attention bias for sexual words in female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Beard, Courtney; Amir, Nader

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive models suggest that attention processes maintain sexual dysfunction. However, few published studies have examined attention bias, and even fewer have studied female participants with sexual dysfunction. Using the Female Sexual Function Index, the authors classified undergraduates as experiencing sexual dysfunction (n = 28) or not (n = 28). The authors assessed whether participants showed attention bias for sexual words using a modified dot-probe task. As expected, female participants with sexual dysfunction showed an attention bias to sexual words, whereas control participants did not. The authors discuss implications for models of sexual dysfunction and clinical intervention.

  5. Determinants of female sexual orgasms

    PubMed Central

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Background The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. Objective This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner’s sexual techniques. Design In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18–54 years in 1971 (N=2,152), 18–74 years in 1992 (N=2,250), 18–81 years in 1999 (N=1,496), 18–74 years in 2007 (N=2,590), and 18–79 years in 2015 (N=2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18–70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Results Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner’s orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner’s good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. Conclusion The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender

  6. Determinants of female sexual orgasms.

    PubMed

    Kontula, Osmo; Miettinen, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    The pursuit of sexual pleasure is a key motivating factor in sexual activity. Many things can stand in the way of sexual orgasms and enjoyment, particularly among women. These are essential issues of sexual well-being and gender equality. This study presents long-term trends and determinants of female orgasms in Finland. The aim is to analyze the roles of factors such as the personal importance of orgasms, sexual desire, masturbation, clitoral and vaginal stimulation, sexual self-esteem, communication with partner, and partner's sexual techniques. In Finland, five national sex surveys that are based on random samples from the central population register have been conducted. They are representative of the total population within the age range of 18-54 years in 1971 (N=2,152), 18-74 years in 1992 (N=2,250), 18-81 years in 1999 (N=1,496), 18-74 years in 2007 (N=2,590), and 18-79 years in 2015 (N=2,150). Another dataset of 2,049 women in the age group of 18-70 years was collected in 2015 via a national Internet panel. Contrary to expectations, women did not have orgasms that are more frequent by increasing their experience and practice of masturbation, or by experimenting with different partners in their lifetime. The keys to their more frequent orgasms lay in mental and relationship factors. These factors and capacities included orgasm importance, sexual desire, sexual self-esteem, and openness of sexual communication with partners. Women valued their partner's orgasm more than their own. In addition, positive determinants were the ability to concentrate, mutual sexual initiations, and partner's good sexual techniques. A relationship that felt good and worked well emotionally, and where sex was approached openly and appreciatively, promoted orgasms. The findings indicate that women differ greatly from one another in terms of their tendency and capacity to experience orgasms. The improvements in gender equality and sexual education since the 1970s have not helped women

  7. Methamphetamine enhances sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Winland, Carissa; Haycox, Charles; Bolton, Jessica L; Jampana, Sumith; Oakley, Benjamin J; Ford, Brittany; Ornelas, Laura; Burbey, Alexandra; Marquette, Amber; Frohardt, Russell J; Guarraci, Fay A

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of methamphetamine (MA) on sexual behavior in female rats. In Experiment 1, ovariectomized, hormone-primed rats were injected with MA (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline prior to a test for mate choice wherein females could mate with two males simultaneously. Female rats treated with saline returned to their preferred mate faster after receiving intromissions and visited their preferred mate at a higher rate than their non-preferred mate. In contrast, MA-treated female rats spent a similar amount of time with their preferred and non-preferred mate and failed to return to their preferred mate faster than to their non-preferred mate following intromissions. Two weeks later, the females received the same drug treatment but were tested for partner preference wherein females could spend time near a male or female stimulus rat. All subjects spent more time near the male stimulus than the female stimulus. However, the MA-treated rats visited the male stimulus more frequently and spent less time near the female stimulus than the saline-treated rats. Similar to Experiment 1, female rats in Experiment 2 were tested for mate choice and then two weeks later tested for partner preference; however, females received three daily injections of MA (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Females treated chronically with MA returned to both males faster following intromissions than females treated with saline, independent of preference (i.e., preferred mate and non-preferred mate). Furthermore, MA-treated rats were more likely to leave either male (i.e., preferred or non-preferred mate) than saline-treated rats after receiving sexual stimulation. Although MA-treated subjects spent more time near the male stimulus than the female stimulus, they spent less time near either when compared to saline-treated subjects. The present results demonstrate that MA affects sexual behavior in female rats partly by increasing locomotion and partly by directly affecting sexual

  8. The evolution of the female sexual response concept: treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Duisin, Dragana; Barisić, Jasmina

    2013-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions have been the most prevalent group of sexual disorders and include a large number of populations of both sexes.The research of sexual behavior and treatment of women with sexual distress arises many questions related to differences in sexual response of men and women. The conceptualization of this response in modern sexology has changed over time.The objective of our paper was to present the changes and evolution of the female's sexual response concept in a summarized and integrated way, to analyze the expanded and revised definitions of the female sexual response as well as implications and recommendations of new approaches to diagnostics and treatment according to the established changes.The lack of adequate empirical basis of the female sexual response model is a critical question in the literature dealing with this issue. Some articles report that linear models demonstrate more correctly and precisely the sexual response of women with normal sexual functions in relation to women with sexual dysfunction. Modification of this model later resulted in a circular model which more adequately presented the sexual response of women with sexual function disorder than of women with normal sexual function.The nonlinear model of female sexual response constructed by Basson incorporates the value of emotional intimacy, sexual stimulus and satisfaction with the relationship. Female functioning is significantly affected by multiple psychosocial factors such as satisfaction with the relationship, self-image, earlier negative sexual experience, etc. Newly revised, expanded definitions of female sexual dysfunction try to contribute to new knowledge about a highly contextual nature of woman's sexuality so as to enhance clinical treatment of dysfunctions.The definitions emphasize the evaluation of the context of women's problematic sexual experiences.

  9. Drug consumption among sexual offenders against females.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2008-02-01

    This article aims to evaluate the role of drug consumption among sexual offenders against females. Three groups of participants (N = 133) comprising sexual offenders against girls, pubertal females, and women were examined with reference to history of drug and/or alcohol use, impulsivity level, sexual addiction, and recidivism risk. Sexual offenders against women were found to have significantly more difficulties with drug use, higher impulsivity level, and to be younger than the sexual offenders against girls and pubertal females. The combination of drug consumption and higher level of impulsivity may contribute to sexual aggression against adult females.

  10. Multidimensional Sexual Perfectionism and Female Sexual Function: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    PubMed

    Stoeber, Joachim; Harvey, Laura N

    2016-11-01

    perfectionism contributes to women's negative sexual self-concept and female sexual dysfunction.

  11. Intrasexual competition in females: evidence for sexual selection?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In spite of recent interest in sexual selection in females, debate exists over whether traits that influence female–female competition are sexually selected. This review uses female–female aggressive behavior as a model behavioral trait for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms promoting intrasexual competition, focusing especially on sexual selection. I employ a broad definition of sexual selection, whereby traits that influence competition for mates are sexually selected, whereas those that directly influence fecundity or offspring survival are naturally selected. Drawing examples from across animal taxa, including humans, I examine 4 predictions about female intrasexual competition based on the abundance of resources, the availability of males, and the direct or indirect benefits those males provide. These patterns reveal a key sex difference in sexual selection: Although females may compete for the number of mates, they appear to compete more so for access to high-quality mates that provide direct and indirect (genetic) benefits. As is the case in males, intrasexual selection in females also includes competition for essential resources required for access to mates. If mate quality affects the magnitude of mating success, then restricting sexual selection to competition for quantity of mates may ignore important components of fitness in females and underestimate the role of sexual selection in shaping female phenotype. In the future, understanding sex differences in sexual selection will require further exploration of the extent of mutual intrasexual competition and the incorporation of quality of mating success into the study of sexual selection in both sexes. PMID:22479137

  12. Low temperature dormancy affects the quantity and quality of the female sexual attractiveness pheromone in red-sided garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2009-10-01

    Low temperature dormancy is a necessary requirement of the annual cycle of most nonmigratory, temperate vertebrates. The red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, overwinters in communal dens during its prolonged winter dormancy (8 mo), and upon emergence, reproductive behavior of both sexes is maximal. Previous work on this species showed that male courtship behavior is maximally induced after simulated low temperature dormancy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether low temperature dormancy affects the pheromone profiles of individual female red-sided garter snakes. We collected females in the fall at den sites in Manitoba, Canada, and extracted pheromones from individuals at three different time points: fall (field), winter (lab), and spring (lab). Total skin lipid and pheromone fraction masses increased from fall to spring, and pheromone profiles were distinctly different in the fall and spring. Pheromone profiles became dominated by the long-chain, unsaturated methyl ketone components of the blend by the time snakes emerged in the spring. Further, the amounts of both saturated and unsaturated components increased from fall to spring, suggesting significant sex pheromone synthesis was induced by low temperature dormancy.

  13. Factors influencing fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sarah; Heckard, Danyeal; Hassell, James; Uphouse, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, produces sexual side effects with low sexual desire being the most prevalent effect in females. In few studies have preclinical models for such antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction been fruitful. In the current manuscript, the effects of fluoxetine on multiple measures of female sexual motivation and sexual receptivity were examined. Ovariectomized, Fischer rats were primed with 10 μg estradiol benzoate and 500 μg progesterone. Partner preference, active investigation of the male, and measures of sexual behavior were examined after injection with 15 mg/kg fluoxetine. Factors (pretesting for sexual behavior, size of the test arena, non-contact time with a male) that differ among experiments designed to study antidepressant-induced female rat sexual dysfunction were studied. The male preference ratio was not affected by fluoxetine treatment but active investigation of the male was reduced; lordosis behavior was inhibited and pretesting for sexual receptivity amplified fluoxetine's inhibition; size of the testing arena or non-contact experience with the male had no effect. Regardless of test condition, when given the opportunity to escape from the male, fluoxetine-treated females displayed escape behavior. Measures of male preference and active investigation, but not lordosis behavior, appeared to be affected by fluoxetine's impact on activity. The collective data provided a behavioral profile of fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction. These findings reinforce the value of multiple measures when attempting to model antidepressant-induced female sexual dysfunction. PMID:22835821

  14. Female sexuality, regulation and resistance.

    PubMed

    Khanna, R; Price, J

    1994-06-01

    India was the context for this discussion of female sexuality, rigid social norms, women's strategies for resistance, the evolution of norms from colonial India, prostitution, myths, and self-help women's activities. Sexuality is a changing set of ideas, and women have contributed to the redefinition. The biological view without consideration of the sociocultural and historical influences proscribes what is deviant and may be used to reinforce patriarchy and colonialism. Management and control of sexuality has been influenced by class, religion, caste, and ethnicity. During the colonial period, women's sexuality and treatment was challenged by the missionaries. The abolishment of "sati" as a traditional practice was used by the British to expand their rule and control over a wider regional area. Attempts were also made to regulate prostitution as means of protecting the health of the British army. The law requiring registration, examination, and commitment for treatment of prostitutes was not adhered to by the women involved. The notion of mothers as irresponsible came into being about 1900, and encouraged abandonment of traditional child- rearing ways for the Western standard of health and hygiene, and lifestyle. In Bengal, motherhood and mother qoddesses became the symbol of the liberation movement. The maternal role could be strengthened through education. The notion of mother and nationhood was supported by the women's movement in Great Britain and the US through positive eugenics ideas of quality race, which supported the ruling elite of British and Indians. Thus, the high class women were to be protected from early marriage, and encouraged to produce children fit to govern; the poor were to be protected from prostitution and overpopulation. Post colonial ideas about sexuality reflected a number of influences both from within and outside India. Health was a focus, and program targets were those who were outside the norm: women with too many children

  15. The impact of stroke on female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Lever, Sandra; Pryor, Julie

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of stroke on female sexuality from the perspective of women who have had a stroke. A descriptive qualitative study. Nine female stroke survivors living in metropolitan and surrounding districts of Sydney, Australia took part in semi-structured conversational interviews. The mean length of time from stroke onset to interview was around 6 years and 2 months (range 1 year, 2 months to 15 years, 9 months). The interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. The transcripts were systematically analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The women experienced many and varied bodily alterations as a consequence of stroke which impacted negatively on their sexuality. These bodily alterations impacted on female sexuality in two ways: one was as an assault on the female sense of self and the other was by limiting possibilities for enacting female sexuality. Stroke impacts on female sexuality through bodily alterations and their consequences and because sexuality is important to female stroke survivors, it should be addressed as part of person-centred rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Sexuality is about much more than just "having sex" and is important to female stroke survivors. Stroke impacts on female sexuality through bodily alterations and their consequences. Understanding the impact of stroke on female sexuality is a step towards more person-centred rehabilitation.

  16. Arriving at the diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Latif, Erin Z; Diamond, Michael P

    2013-10-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions include a group of sexual complaints and disorders affecting women of all ages, and stemming from a heterogeneous array of etiologies and contributing factors. The classification system for sexual dysfunctions in the woman has evolved from a linear categorization of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders to one that is more complex and overlapping. Personal distress is a key factor in defining a sexual problem as a dysfunction. The recently released Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, edition 5, collapses former definitions of female sexual disorders and moves away from the older linear model of diagnostic categories. Physicians should be open to discussing sexual problems with women, and may make use of validated questionnaires in the office setting. Evaluation tools available for assessing sexual function in the woman are in use in the research setting, as are physiological measures of assessment. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Female sexual dysfunction: definition, classification, and debates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Hui; Lin, Yen-Chin; Chiu, Li-Hsuan; Chu, Yuan-Hsiang; Ruan, Fang-Fu; Liu, Wei-Min; Wang, Peng-Hui

    2013-03-01

    Sexual dysfunction refers to difficulties that occur during the sexual response cycle that prevent the individual from experiencing satisfaction from sexual activity. It is relatively difficult to estimate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), because the definition and diagnostic criteria are still controversial and under development. These difficulties reveal our insufficient understanding of the basis of FSD. This review was conducted in an effort to deal with this complicated clinical issue, by examining the most updated clinical criteria of FSD under the context of a redefined female sexual response model.

  18. Male-Female Sexuality: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janice

    This annotated bibliography contains over 500 sources on the historical and contemporary development and expression of male and female sexuality. There are 68 topic headings which provide easy access for subject areas. A major portion of the bibliography is devoted to contemporary male-female sexuality. These materials consist of research findings…

  19. African female sexuality and the heterosexual form.

    PubMed

    Mcfadden, P

    1994-03-01

    All women find sexuality problematical, especially women living in countries that were colonized or colonized others. The stereotype of repressed sexuality in Victorian England found its antithesis in the stereotype of promiscuous African sexuality which had to be "civilized" and controlled through religion and repression. Colonizing nations have seen the discourse on sexuality move from the private to the public domain, while Africa maintains its silence on the subject. Sexuality is a difficult topic because it embraces the most intimate and individual of our human emotions, thus, it is difficult even to voice sexual preferences to a lifetime partner. In addition, especially in Africa, sexuality is a very gender-specific social construct. Africans foster heterosexuality through socialization from early childhood and discourage any sign of sexual stimulation in their children. After teaching that humans are "naturally" heterosexual, Africans teach their children that marriage is essential for the moral uprightness of society, although most Africans are, in fact, raised in many types of alternative families. Critique of the heterosexual form is literally nonexistent in African feminist genre because African sexuality is really male sexuality. When people assert that an African culture exists, they really mean that patriarchal constructs about maleness and femaleness pervade the continent. Women are not expected to experience sexual satisfaction, and, indeed, the practice of female genital mutilation assures that they will never experience sexual pleasure. This practice assures that female sexuality exists only through men. It represents a misogynist point of view about the female body and is equally repulsive whether it takes the form of "excision" of a part of the clitoris or removal of all of the external genitalia. This practice controls female sexuality by depriving women of the opportunity to masturbate or to engage in homosexual relations. The resulting option

  20. Latent structures of female sexual functioning.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Vieira, Armando Luís; Nobre, Pedro

    2012-08-01

    For the last three decades, male and female sexual responses have been conceptualized as similar, based on separated and sequential phases as proposed by the models of Masters and Johnson (1966) and Kaplan (1979) model. However, there is a growing debate around the need to conceptualize female sexual response and the classification of sexual dysfunction in women, in view of the upcoming editions of the DSM and ICD. The aim of this study was to test, using structural equation modeling, five conceptual, alternative models of female sexual function, using a sample of women with sexual difficulties and a sample of women without sexual problems. A total of 1993 Portuguese women participated in the study and completed a modified version of the Female Sexual Function Index. Findings suggested a four-factor solution as the model that best fit the data regarding women presenting sexual difficulties: (1) desire/arousal; (2) lubrication; (3) orgasm; (4) pain/vaginismus. In relation to sexually healthy women, the best model was a five-factor solution comprising of (1) desire; (2) arousal; (3) lubrication; (4) orgasm; and (5) pain/vaginismus. Discriminant validity between factors was supported, suggesting that these dimensions measure distinct phenomena. Model fit to the data significantly decreased in both samples, as models began to successively consider greater levels of overlap among phases of sexual function, towards a single-factor solution. By suggesting the overlap between pain and vaginismus, results partially support the new classification that is currently being discussed regarding DSM-5. Additionally, results on the relationship between sexual desire and arousal were inconclusive as sexually healthy women were better characterized by a five-factor model that considered the structural independence among these factors, whereas women with sexual difficulties better fit with a four-factor model merging sexual desire and subjective sexual arousal.

  1. Body satisfaction and sexual health in Dutch female university students.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Talens, Jona G; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2013-01-01

    Studies in the field of body image have primarily addressed its negative aspects, such as body dissatisfaction. The present study focused instead on women who are satisfied with their bodies and on how body satisfaction relates to sexual health. A sample of 319 Dutch female university students completed an online survey that included items about body image evaluation, body image investment, overweight preoccupation, body image affect during sexual activity, sexual frequency, sexual functioning, and sexual self-esteem. We found that the level of body dissatisfaction was minimal in our sample. The majority reported neutral or mildly positive body evaluations, and in 30% of the sample these evaluations were clearly positive. Comparisons between women who reported positive versus neutral body evaluations showed that the body-satisfied women had lower body mass indexes (BMIs) and reported less body image investment, less overweight preoccupation, and less body self-consciousness during sexual activity. With regard to sexual health, they reported higher sexual self-esteem and better sexual functioning. Furthermore, we found that body image self-consciousness was negatively associated with sexual functioning, sexual self-esteem, and frequency of sexual activity with a partner. Body satisfaction did not account for a portion of the relationship of body self-consciousness during sexual activity with sexual health.

  2. FEMALE SEXUALITY, NATIONALISM AND LARGE GROUP IDENTITY.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu

    2015-12-01

    Nationalist movements are emerging today everywhere in the world. Many of them display a high level of aggression and a negative attitude toward sexuality and especially female sexuality. Along with this, erotic fiction with a sadomasochistic orientation has achieved great success and has hundreds of millions of readers in the world. This collective fantasy allows some integration of aggression in sexual life while questioning liberal morality and its equality in gender roles and conservative morality and its idea of control over passion. Both phenomena may represent different responses to the appearance of a new female sexuality threatening the social structure we know.

  3. The Physiology of Female Sexual Function and the Pathophysiology of Female Sexual Dysfunction (Committee 13A).

    PubMed

    Levin, Roy J; Both, Stephanie; Georgiadis, Janniko; Kukkonen, Tuuli; Park, Kwangsung; Yang, Claire C

    2016-05-01

    The article consists of six sections written by separate authors that review female genital anatomy, the physiology of female sexual function, and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction but excluding hormonal aspects. To review the physiology of female sexual function and the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction especially since 2010 and to make specific recommendations according to the Oxford Centre for evidence based medicine (2009) "levels of evidence" wherever relevant. Recommendations were made for particular studies to be undertaken especially in controversial aspects in all six sections of the reviewed topics. Despite numerous laboratory assessments of female sexual function, genital assessments alone appear insufficient to characterise fully the complete sexual response. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antidepressant-Induced Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Tierney; Rullo, Jordan; Faubion, Stephanie

    2016-09-01

    Because 1 in 6 women in the United States takes antidepressants and a substantial proportion of patients report some disturbance of sexual function while taking these medications, it is a near certainty that the practicing clinician will need to know how to assess and manage antidepressant-related female sexual dysfunction. Adverse sexual effects can be complex because there are several potentially overlapping etiologies, including sexual dysfunction associated with the underlying mood disorder. As such, careful assessment of sexual function at the premedication visit followed by monitoring at subsequent visits is critical. Treatment of adverse sexual effects can be pharmacological (dose reduction, drug discontinuation or switching, augmentation, or using medications with lower adverse effect profiles), behavioral (exercising before sexual activity, scheduling sexual activity, vibratory stimulation, psychotherapy), complementary and integrative (acupuncture, nutraceuticals), or some combination of these modalities. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Future Targets for Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Melissa; Yoon, Hana; Goldstein, Irwin

    2016-08-01

    Female sexual function reflects a dynamic interplay of central and peripheral nervous, vascular, and endocrine systems. The primary challenge in the development of novel treatments for female sexual dysfunction is the identification and targeted modulation of excitatory sexual circuits using pharmacologic treatments that facilitate the synthesis, release, and/or receptor binding of neurochemicals, peptides, and hormones that promote female sexual function. To develop an evidence-based state-of-the-art consensus report that critically integrates current knowledge of the therapeutic potential for known molecular and cellular targets to facilitate the physiologic processes underlying female sexual function. State-of-the-art review representing the opinions of international experts developed in a consensus process during a 1-year period. Expert opinion was established by grading the evidence-based medical literature, intensive internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Scientific investigation is urgently needed to expand knowledge and foster development of future treatments that maintain genital tissue integrity, enhance genital physiologic responsiveness, and optimize positive subjective appraisal of internal and external sexual cues. This article critically condenses the current knowledge of therapeutic manipulation of molecular and cellular targets within biological systems responsible for female sexual physiologic function. Future treatment targets include pharmacologic modulation of emotional learning circuits, restoration of normal tactile sensation, growth factor therapy, gene therapy, stem cell-based therapies, and regenerative medicine. Concurrent use of centrally and peripherally acting therapies could optimize treatment response. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacology of serotonin and female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Uphouse, Lynda

    2014-06-01

    In this review, first a historical perspective of serotonin's (5-HT) involvement in female sexual behavior is presented. Then an overview of studies implicating 5-HT is presented. The effect of drugs that increase or decrease CNS levels of 5-HT is reviewed. Evidence is presented that drugs which increase 5-HT have negative effects on female sexual behavior while a decrease in 5-HT is associated with facilitation of sexual behavior. Studies with compounds that act on 5-HT₁, 5-HT₂ or 5-HT₃ receptors are discussed. Most evidence indicates that 5-HT₁A receptor agonists inhibit sexual behavior while 5-HT₂ or 5-HT₃ receptors may exert a positive influence. There is substantial evidence to support a role for 5-HT in the modulation of female consummatory sexual behavior, but studies on the role of 5-HT in other elements of female sexual behavior (e.g. desire, motivation, sexual appetite) are few. Future studies should be directed at determining if these additional components of female sexual behavior are also modulated by 5-HT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PHARMACOLOGY OF SEROTONIN AND FEMALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Uphouse, Lynda

    2014-01-01

    In this review, first a historical perspective of serotonin’s (5-HT) involvement in female sexual behavior is presented. Then an overview of studies implicating 5-HT is presented. The effect of drugs that increase or decrease CNS levels of 5-HT is reviewed. Evidence is presented that drugs which increase 5-HT have negative effects on female sexual behavior while a decrease in 5-HT is associated with facilitation of sexual behavior. Studies with compounds that act on 5-HT1, 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptors are discussed. Most evidence indicates that 5-HT1A receptor agonists inhibit sexual behavior while 5-HT2 or 5-HT3 receptors may exert a positive influence. There is substantial evidence to support a role for 5-HT in the modulation of female consummatory sexual behavior, but studies on the role of 5-HT in other elements of female sexual behavior (e.g. desire, motivation, sexual appetite) are few. Future studies should be directed at determining if these additional components of female sexual behavior are also modulated by 5-HT. PMID:24239784

  8. Group sexual offending by juvenile females.

    PubMed

    Wijkman, Miriam; Weerman, Frank; Bijleveld, Catrien; Hendriks, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This study examined all group sexual offending cases in the Netherlands between 1995 and 2009 (n = 26) in which at least one juvenile female offender (n = 35) had been adjudicated. Information from court files showed that the majority of juvenile female group sexual offenders have (inter)personal problems and (sexual) abuse experiences. The aims of the offender groups in committing the offense could be categorized in three themes: harassing the victim, sexual gratification, and taking revenge. The reasons why juvenile female offenders participated in a group could be categorized into group dynamics versus instrumental reasons. The findings are contrasted with findings on juvenile male group sexual offenders. Implications of the findings for research and treatment are discussed.

  9. [Female sexual dysfunction: Drug treatment options].

    PubMed

    Alcántara Montero, A; Sánchez Carnerero, C I

    2016-01-01

    Many women will likely experience a sexual problem in their lifetime. Female sexual dysfunction is a broad term used to describe 3 categories of disorders of a multifactorial nature. Effective, but limited pharmacotherapeutic options exist to address female sexual dysfunction. The FDA recently approved the first agent for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women. Off-label use of hormonal therapies, particularly oestrogen and testosterone, are the most widely employed for female sexual dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Other drugs currently under investigation include phosphodiesterase inhibitors and agents that modulate dopamine or melanocortin receptors. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual partner preference in female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L

    2002-02-01

    Whether animals ever exhibit a preference for same-sex sexual partners is a subject of debate. Japanese macaques represent excellent models for examining issues related to sexual preference in animals because females, in certain populations, routinely engage in both heterosexual and homosexual behavior over the course of their life spans. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques is a sexual behavior, not a sociosexual one. Additional evidence indicates that female Japanese macaques do not engage in homosexual behavior simply because acceptable male mates are unavailable or unmotivated to copulate. Patterns of sexual partner choice by female Japanese macaques that are the focus of intersexual competition indicate that females of this species choose same-sex sexual partners even when they are simultaneously presented with a motivated, opposite-sex alternative. Thus, in some populations of Japanese macaques, females prefer certain same-sex sexual partners relative to certain male mates, and vice versa. Taken together, this evidence suggests that female Japanese macaques are best characterized as bisexual in orientation, not preferentially homosexual or preferentially heterosexual.

  11. Female sexual responses using signal processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Javad; Rafiee, Mohammad A; Michaelsen, Diane

    2009-11-01

    An automatic algorithm for processing vaginal photoplethysmograph signals could benefit researchers investigating sexual behaviors by standardizing interlaboratory methods. Female sexual response does not co-vary consistently in the self-report and physiological domains, making the advancement of measurements difficult. Automatic processing algorithms would increase analysis efficiency. Vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) is a method used to measure female sexual responses. However, VPA are problematic because of the movement artifacts that impinge on the signal. This article suggests a real-time approach for automatic artifact detection of VPA signals. The stochastic changes (artifacts) of VPA are characterized mathematically in this research, and a method is presented to automatically extract the frequency of interest from VPA based on the autocorrelation function and wavelet analysis. Additionally, a calculation is presented for the vaginal blood flow change rate (VBFCR) during female sexual arousal using VPA signals. The primary aim is to investigate the experimental VPA measures based on theoretical techniques. Particularly, the goal is to introduce an automatic monitoring system for female sexual behaviors, which may be helpful for experts of female sexuality. The methods in the research are divided into experimental and theoretical parts. The VPA in twenty women was measured by a common vaginal photoplethysmography system in two conditions. Each subject was tested watching a neutral video followed by an erotic video. For theoretical analysis, an approach was applied based on wavelet transform to process the VPA. Introduction of an automatic and real-time monitoring system for female sexual behaviors, automatic movement artifact detection, VBFCR, first application of wavelet transform, and correlogram in VPA analysis. The natural and significant frequency information of VPA signals was extracted to automatically detect movement artifacts and to investigate the

  12. Collapsin response mediator protein 4 affects the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the sexually dimorphic nucleus in female mice.

    PubMed

    Iwakura, Takashi; Sakoh, Miyuki; Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Yamashita, Naoya; Ohtani, Akiko; Tsuda, Mumeko C; Ogawa, Sonoko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Nishihara, Masugi; Shiga, Takashi; Goshima, Yoshio; Kato, Tomohiro; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko

    2013-07-01

    In the sexually dimorphic anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus, females have a greater number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) and kisspeptin-immunoreactive (kisspeptin-ir) neurons than males. In this study, we used proteomics analysis and gene-deficient mice to identify proteins that regulate the number of TH-ir and kisspeptin-ir neurons in the AVPV. Analysis of protein expressions in the rat AVPV on postnatal day 1 (PD1; the early phase of sex differentiation) using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-MS identified collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) as a protein exhibiting sexually dimorphic expression. Interestingly, this sexually differential expressions of CRMP4 protein and mRNA in the AVPV was not detected on PD6. Prenatal testosterone exposure canceled the sexual difference in the expression of Crmp4 mRNA in the rat AVPV. Next, we used CRMP4-knockout (CRMP4-KO) mice to determine the in vivo function of CRMP4 in the AVPV. Crmp4 knockout did not change the number of kisspeptin-ir neurons in the adult AVPV in either sex. However, the number of TH-ir neurons was increased in the AVPV of adult female CRMP4-KO mice as compared with the adult female wild-type mice. During development, no significant difference in the number of TH-ir neurons was detected between sexes or genotypes on embryonic day 15, but a female-specific increase in TH-ir neurons was observed in CRMP4-KO mice on PD1, when the sex difference was not yet apparent in wild-type mice. These results indicate that CRMP4 regulates the number of TH-ir cell number in the female AVPV.

  13. Evaluation and Management of Female Victims of Sexual Assault.

    PubMed

    Vrees, Roxanne A

    2017-01-01

    Sexual assault is characterized by any sexual contact or behavior that occurs without explicit consent. Classifications vary based on the status of the perpetrator's relationship to the victim (eg, stranger, acquaintance) and characteristics of the victim herself (eg, child, elder adult, mentally disabled adult). Regardless of the classification, sexual assault is a significant individual as well as public health issue affecting women of all ages. While the majority of sexual assault cases are not initially reported to law enforcement, the best available data suggest the lifetime prevalence of sexual assault in the United States is approximately 20% among adult women. With such a significant proportion of women affected by sexual assault, women's health care providers in both ambulatory and emergency care settings play key roles in the evaluation, management, and advocacy of these victims. Establishing standard protocols based on state laws and on victim-centered practices to avoid revictimization of the patient is critical. The primary goals of care include the assessment and treatment of physical injuries, psychological assessment and support, pregnancy assessment and prevention, and therapy for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. In addition, evidentiary collection is a critical component of the sexual assault evaluation and subsequent legal proceedings. This report focuses specifically on the immediate evaluation and management of adult female victims of sexual assault. Best practices include the utility of the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner and Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner programs, as well as standardized treatment protocols.

  14. Ivermectin reduces sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, N; Bernardi, M M; Spinosa, H S

    2014-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM) is an antiparasitic drug that is widely used in domestic animals. In mammals, IVM acts as a γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonist. This neurotransmitter plays an important role in the regulation of female sexual behavior. The present study investigated the effects of therapeutic (0.2 mg/kg) and high (1.0 mg/kg) IVM doses on female sexual behavior in physiological and pharmacological conditions. Female rats in estrus or treated with estradiol valerate to induce sexual behavior 24 h before the experiments were used. Ivermectin was administered 15 min before the sexual observations. The number of lordosis events in 10 mounts was recorded to calculate the lordosis quotient. The intensity of lordosis (0 [no lordosis], 1 [low lordosis], 2 [normal lordosis] and 3 [exaggerated lordosis]) was scored. In estrus and hormonal treated female rats, both IVM doses decreased the intensity of the lordosis reflex and the percentage of females that presented high levels of lordosis (exaggerated lordosis). However, the number of females that presented lordosis was unaltered. We conclude that in both hormonal conditions, 0.2mg/kg IVM treatment reduced female sexual behavior and the execution of the lordosis reflex. The present results may be useful for avoiding the side effects of this drug in veterinary practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F; Clarke, Dave E; Lomax, Terri C

    2008-08-01

    Blanchard's (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616-623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234 transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online or a paper questionnaire. The results showed that, overall, transsexuals tended to place more importance on partner's physical attractiveness and reported higher scores on Blanchard's Core Autogynephilia Scale than biological females. In addition, transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored significantly higher on Attraction to Feminine Males, Core Autogynephilia, Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy, Fetishism, Preference for Younger Partners, Interest in Uncommitted Sex, Importance of Partner Physical Attractiveness, and Attraction to Transgender Fiction than other transsexuals and biological females. In accordance with Blanchard's theory, autogynephilia measures were positively correlated to Sexual Attraction to Females among transsexuals. In contrast to Blanchard's theory, however, those transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored higher on average on Sexual Attraction to Males than those classified as non-autogynephilic, and no transsexuals classified as autogynephilic reported asexuality.

  16. Female Sexual Dysfunction: Is It a Treatable Disease?

    PubMed

    Houman, Justin; Feng, Tom; Eilber, Karyn S; Anger, Jennifer T

    2016-04-01

    Female sexual dysfunction affects approximately 40% of women (Sexual problems and distress in United States women: prevalence and correlates; Shifren et al., Obstet Gynecol, 112(5): 970-978, 2008). Due to its multi-factorial etiology, a wide variety of treatments are available that address specific symptoms, but no treatment exists that treats the overall disorder. Significant strides have recently been made in an effort to treat the plethora of symptoms associated with this disorder. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of recent research on the available treatments for female sexual dysfunction. We discuss novel agents such as flibanserin, as well as various mechanical devices and hormonal treatments aimed at the specific subtypes of female sexual dysfunction.

  17. [How does summer affect sexual desire?].

    PubMed

    Kontula, Osmo; Väisälä, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Sexual desire involves many different things such as sexual thoughts and images, excitement, expectation and orgasm. Mood has a strong association with sexual desire. Fatigue and depression in particular cause lack of sexual desire. By affecting the state of alertness and energy in humans, sunlight may increase sexual activity.

  18. Female sexuality in Nairobi: flawed or favoured?

    PubMed

    Spronk, Rachel

    2005-05-01

    Studies of female sexuality in Africa tend to adopt an instrumental approach, many times problematizing sexual conduct in relation to HIV infection and/or reproduction. This study aimed to explore sexuality as a relational concept. Using interviews and participant observation, the paper shows how sexuality becomes a point of self-identification for young professional women in Nairobi between 20 and 30 years-old. These women form a group who implicitly and explicitly criticize conventional gender roles through the overt pursuit of sexual pleasure as recognition of their womanhood. This aspect of the feminine sense of self is at odds with normative notions of femininity. To avoid criticism for being 'un-proper', women adopt a deferential attitude towards men. The focus on upwardly mobile professional women and their experiments with new types of heterosexual relations in dating provides insight into both sexuality and gender.

  19. Female sexual dysfunction among Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Elshimi, Esam; Morad, Wesam; Mohamad, Noha Ezzat; Shebl, Nashwa; Waked, Imam

    2014-03-01

    Chronic hepatitis C is associated with many extrahepatic manifestations that impact and impair the quality of life. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has a high prevalence in Egypt and carries with the diagnosis many social impacts and stigmatization correlates that further impair social function. This might negatively impact patients and their sexual function. Sexuality and sexual function have not been studied well in patients with HCV, especially in women. To investigate sexual dysfunction in Egyptian women with chronic hepatitis C. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scores of patients with hepatitis C, both total and for individual domains, were compared with those of controls. The self-administered FSFI questionnaire was completed by 112 sexually active female patients with chronic hepatitis C without liver cirrhosis prior to initiation of therapy by pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Their results were compared to those of 225 age- and socioeconomic class-matched sexually active healthy females. Significantly more patients than controls had questionnaire scores below the threshold of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) (79% vs. 21%, P < 0.05), and the mean total score for the patients was significantly lower than that for controls (19.54 ± 6.2 vs. 28.43 ± 4.9 P < 0.001). The patients' scores in all domains of the questionnaire were significantly lower than those of the controls. Chronic hepatitis C negatively impacts female sexual function, affecting all domains of the sex cycle; this warrants further studies and needs to be addressed as part of a comprehensive therapy plan to improve patients' quality of life. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Prevalence of female sexual dysfunction among Indian fertile females

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vineet V.; Nanda, Sakshi; Vyas, Bhumika; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh; Saini, Suwa Ram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is described as difficulty experienced by a female during any stage of a normal sexual activity including physical pleasure, desire, arousal, or orgasm. There are various factors responsible for FSD including psychological status of a person, gynecological or medical problems, long use of certain drugs, and social beliefs. Objectives: To study the prevalence and various factors associated with FSD. Materials and Methods: Study Design - This study design was a cross-sectional observational study conducted at Tertiary Care Centre, in Ahmedabad from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample Size - One hundred and fifty-three fertile females in reproductive age group (20–47 years) were included in the study. Written and informed consent was obtained from all the females. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Various associated factors such as gynecological or psychological problems were also studied. Exclusion - Infertile patients were excluded from the study. Results: The prevalence of FSD was 55.55% among 153 fertile females. FSD was more prevalent in the age group of 26–30 years and with duration of marriage >16 years. FSD was also more common in females with middle education and those belonging to upper middle socioeconomic status. Psychological stress was significantly associated with FSD. Conclusion: It is right of every female to lead healthy sexual life as it is key to happiness in marriage. Females with FSD can be managed with proper counseling and treating the underlying etiology. PMID:28096637

  1. Testosterone Affects Neural Gene Expression Differently in Male and Female Juncos: A Role for Hormones in Mediating Sexual Dimorphism and Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark P.; Rosvall, Kimberly A.; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Ziegenfus, Charles; Tang, Haixu; Colbourne, John K.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes. PMID:23613935

  2. Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Harano, T

    2015-02-01

    Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating.

  3. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  4. Gardnerella Vaginalis Infection and Sexual Contact in Female Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study found that the incidence of Gardnerella vaginalis infection was not more common in 191 female children who had other evidence of sexual contact than in 144 female children evaluated for possible sexual abuse but with no evidence of sexual contact found or in 31 female children with no suspected sexual contact. (Author/DB)

  5. Sexual desire disorder in female healthcare personnel in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Gurdeep Singh; Gill, Jesjeet Singh; Sidi, Hatta; Gurpreet, Kaur; Jambunathan, Stephen Thevanathan; Suffee, Nusrat J

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for female sexual desire disorder (FSDD) among healthcare personnel at selected healthcare facilities in Malaysia. Two hundred and one female healthcare workers from three large tertiary hospitals were selected by stratified random sampling to participate in this cross-sectional study. Validated questionnaires were used to assess depression, anxiety, and sexual function in women and erectile dysfunction (ED) in their partners. The prevalence of FSDD was 18.9%. Women with low sexual desire were more likely to have higher educational attainment (OR = 3.06; 95% CI; 1.22-7.66), lower frequency of sexual intercourse (OR = 12.81; 95% CI; 4.43-37.83), two or more children (OR = 3.05; 95% CI; 1.02-9.09), duration of marriage of 20 years or more (OR = 2.62; 95% CI; 1.27-5.40), and a spouse with ED (OR = 2.86; 95% CI; 1.08-7.56). FSDD is common among female healthcare personnel in Malaysia, affecting nearly one in five women. The implication of low sexual desire is important in terms of contributing to a meaningful sexual relationship, and indirectly affects the quality of life of the healthcare personnel. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. [Female sexual function and chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Bronner, Gila

    2006-02-01

    Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a multifactorial set of conditions associated with multiple anatomical, physiological, biological, medical and psychological factors that can have major impact on self-esteem, quality of life, mood and relationships. Studies indicate that FSD is commonly seen in women who report a low level of satisfaction with partner relationship and in women with male partners who have erectile dysfunction. This complexity of FSD is augmented by the presence of chronic disease. Negative sexual effects are widely reported in studies of women with chronic diseases (such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, cancer, spinal cord injury, lupus, rheumatic diseases, Parkinson's disease, fibromyalgia and chronic pain) as compared to a general healthy female population. Physical problems, emotional problems and partnership difficulties arising from disease-related stress contribute to less active and less enjoyable sex life. Chronic pain, fatigue, low self-esteem as well as use of medications might reduce sexual function. These effects of chronic diseases on female sexual function still remain largely unstudied. The study by Manor and Zohar published in this issue of Harefuah draws our attention to the sexual dysfunction of women with breast cancer and examines their needs for information regarding their sexual function. In the absence of definite treatment evidence, psychological counseling, improved vaginal lubrication, low dose of hormonal therapy can be used to relieve FSD. Physicians must consider integrating diagnosis of their female patients' sexual needs and dysfunction, especially women with chronic diseases. Patients' education and counseling may contribute to a better quality of life in spite of their chronic disease.

  7. Female sexual offenders in the educational system: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Solis, O Lizette; Benedek, Elissa P

    2012-01-01

    Female sexual offenders comprise the minority of sexual offenders in the criminal justice system. However, empirical research reveals that sexual offenses against adolescents by females are a bigger problem than previously thought, particularly in the educational system. The authors review some of the data in the criminal justice system as well as in empirical research studies about female sexual offenders, with a specific focus on females who commit sexual crimes against students who are minors.

  8. Pain Reduces Sexual Motivation in Female But Not Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Leja, Alison; Foxen-Craft, Emily; Chan, Lindsey; MacIntyre, Leigh C.; Niaki, Tina; Chen, Mengsha; Mapplebeck, Josiane C.S.; Tabry, Vanessa; Topham, Lucas; Sukosd, Melissa; Binik, Yitzchak M.; Pfaus, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is often associated with sexual dysfunction, suggesting that pain can reduce libido. We find that inflammatory pain reduces sexual motivation, measured via mounting behavior and/or proximity in a paced mating paradigm, in female but not male laboratory mice. Pain was produced by injection of inflammogens zymosan A (0.5 mg/ml) or λ-carrageenan (2%) into genital or nongenital (hind paw, tail, cheek) regions. Sexual behavior was significantly reduced in female mice experiencing pain (in all combinations); male mice similarly treated displayed unimpeded sexual motivation. Pain-induced reductions in female sexual behavior were observed in the absence of sex differences in pain-related behavior, and could be rescued by the analgesic, pregabalin, and the libido-enhancing drugs, apomorphine and melanotan-II. These findings suggest that the well known context sensitivity of the human female libido can be explained by evolutionary rather than sociocultural factors, as female mice can be similarly affected. PMID:24760835

  9. Female sexual function and pelvic floor disorders

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Victoria L.; Cundiff, Geoffrey; Chang, Howard H.; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Sexual function is an important dimension of adult life and yet very little is known about the relationships between female sexuality and chronic health conditions, including pelvic floor disorders. Our goal was to investigate the hypothesis that pelvic floor disorders are associated with female sexual problems, independent of other related factors. Methods The study population included 301 adult women seeking outpatient gynecologic and urogynecologic care. Pelvic floor disorders were assessed with the Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory-20 (PFDI) and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination. Sexual function was assessed with the Personal Experiences Questionnaire. Using ordinal regression analysis, we identified characteristics and conditions associated with decreased libido, infrequent orgasm, decreased arousal, and dyspareunia. Results Sexual function was poorer among 78 women (26%) without a current sexual partner than among 223 with a partner (p<0.01). Among the 223 with a current partner, women with a high PFDI score were significantly more likely to report decreased arousal (p<0.01), infrequent orgasm (p<0.01) and increased dyspareunia (p<0.01). A similar pattern was observed for the urinary, colorectal-anal, and prolapse scales of the PFDI, although some associations were marginally significant. Stage III–IV prolapse was significantly associated with infrequent orgasm (p=0.02), but other sexual complaints were not more common with increasing prolapse stage. Conclusion Pelvic floor symptoms are significantly associated with reduced sexual arousal, infrequent orgasm, and dyspareunia. Clinicians who care for women with pelvic floor disorders should be aware of this association and should specifically address sexual concerns with women seeking treatment of incontinence and prolapse. PMID:18448734

  10. Psychosocial pathways to sexual dysfunction among female inmates.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Although health surveys on sexual issues during incarceration have shown that women report having engaged in sexual activities while in prison, studies on sexual functioning in female inmates have been largely dismissed. This study aimed to assess sexual functioning among incarcerated women and determine the psychometric and sociodemographic features that are possibly related to the risk of sexual dysfunction. This was a cross-sectional study conducted inside a penitentiary for women in São Paulo, Brazil. From June 2006 to June 2010, 315 inmates convicted of robbery or homicide were recruited. High risk of female sexual dysfunction (HRFSD) was measured using the Female Sexual Function Index and participants were also evaluated for alcohol and drug misuse, impulsiveness, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial features. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were utilized to analyze the data. Among the participants, 253 (80.32 %) met the criteria for HRFSD. Older age, total time of imprisonment, and depressive symptoms were related to a higher risk, while the status of being married, being Black, having sexual relations with other inmates, and receiving conjugal visits were associated with a lower risk. As only 110 (34.92 %) inmates admitted to having sexual relationships inside prison, we evaluated this sub-sample separately. For this sub-sample, 61 (55.45 %) women met the criteria for HRFSD and the main factors associated with this risk were total time of imprisonment and depressive symptoms. Incarcerated women are uniquely vulnerable because they often have histories of deprivation and violence stemming from multiple sources and experience considerable psychological symptoms as a consequence of imprisonment. With the affected population rarely receiving psychosocial management for sexual dysfunction, service delivery efforts should be intensified to target this high-risk population.

  11. Sex therapy for female sexual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction About 45% of women suffer from some form of sexual dysfunction. Despite its high prevalence, there are few studies that have systematically evaluated sex therapy in comparison with other interventions. Objective Review randomized clinical trials that present psychotherapeutic interventions for female sexual dysfunctions. Method Through a search in three databases (Medline, Web of Science and PsycInfo), 1419 references were found. After an analysis of the abstracts, twenty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria and composed this review. Results Sex therapy, as proposed by Masters and Johnson and Heiman and LoPiccolo, is still the most commonly used form of therapy for sexual dysfunctions; although it has shown results, the results do not consistently support that this is the best alternative in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions. Conclusion There is a lack of systematic study of many female sexual dysfunctions. Orgasmic disorder and sexual pain (vaginismus and dyspaurenia) are the most extensively studied disorders and those in which sex therapy seems to have better outcomes. PMID:24066697

  12. Sex parties: female teen sexual experimentation.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a sex party as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved sex acts without vaginal intercourse. Data were collected through 22 semistructured interviews with female adolescents, ages 15-18. All the participants knew of sex parties, however, only a subgroup of these adolescents actually participated in activities loosely defined by teens as sex parties. Alcohol was common at these parties, but female teens asserted that they consumed alcohol willingly to relax, as opposed to being coerced to do so. Some teens expressed regret following participation in a sex party, although none reported sexual coercion or abuse.

  13. Female sexual function and pelvic floor disorders.

    PubMed

    Handa, Victoria L; Cundiff, Geoffrey; Chang, Howard H; Helzlsouer, Kathy J

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that pelvic floor disorders are associated with female sexual problems, independently of other related factors. The study population included 301 adult women seeking outpatient gynecologic and urogynecologic care. Pelvic floor disorders were assessed with the Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory-20 (PFDI-20) and the pelvic organ prolapse quantification examination. Sexual function was assessed with the Personal Experiences Questionnaire. Using ordinal regression analysis, we identified characteristics and conditions associated with decreased libido, infrequent orgasm, decreased arousal, and dyspareunia. Sexual function was poorer among 78 women (26%) without a current sexual partner than among 223 with a partner (P<.01). Among the 223 with a current partner, women with a high Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory score were significantly more likely to report decreased arousal (P<.01), infrequent orgasm (P<.01), and increased dyspareunia (P<.01). A similar pattern was observed for the urinary, colorectal-anal, and prolapse scales of the Pelvic Floor Disorders Inventory, although some associations were marginally significant. Stage III-IV prolapse was significantly associated with infrequent orgasm (P=.02), but other sexual complaints were not more common with increasing prolapse stage. Pelvic floor symptoms are significantly associated with reduced sexual arousal, infrequent orgasm, and dyspareunia. We conclude that sexual function is worse in women with symptomatic prolapse but not in women with asymptomatic prolapse. II.

  14. Female sexual function and associated factors during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Corbacioglu Esmer, Aytul; Akca, Aysu; Akbayir, Ozgur; Goksedef, Behiye Pinar Cilesiz; Bakir, Vuslat Lale

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the changes in female sexual function during pregnancy and to identify associated factors among Turkish population using a validated questionnaire. Furthermore, we aimed to examine Turkish pregnant women's beliefs regarding sexual activity and describe their source of information about sexuality during pregnancy. In this cross-sectional study, healthy heterosexual pregnant women who had been living with their partners within the last four weeks were asked to complete two self-administered questionnaires, one of which was Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). A significant association was found between the decrease in intercourse frequency and trimesters, as a decline in frequency was reported by 58.3%, 66.1% and 76.5% of women in each trimester, respectively (P = 0.01). Only the trimester of gestation and employment status were independent factors associated with the decline in sexual intercourse frequency during pregnancy. When the overall FSFI score were compared according to each trimester of pregnancy, there were no statistical significant differences between the first and second trimesters (P = 0.71). The overall FSFI score in the third trimester was found to be significantly lower than the overall scores in the first two trimesters (P < 0.001 for both). In linear regression analysis, overall FSFI scores were adversely affected by only being in the last trimester. 38.7% of women and 36.2% of male partners worried that sexual intercourse may harm the pregnancy. Among the total sample, only 23.8% of women discussed sexuality with the medical staff. The third trimester is the independent variable for both decreased sexual activity frequency and sexual function scores in pregnancy. Counseling about sexuality during pregnancy is not frequent in the clinical setting, but conversations about this topic should happen on a regular basis during prenatal care visits. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and

  15. Perceived and Actual Behavior in Female Sexual Assertiveness: A Within-Couple Analysis in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Yip, Paul S F

    2017-04-21

    Studies in female sexual assertiveness have generally focused on individuals rather than couples, and little research has been conducted in the Chinese context. This study examined perceived and actual female sexual assertiveness at the couple level, and also explored its impact on marital and sexual satisfaction with a representative sample of 770 couples in Hong Kong. The results showed that husbands reported a higher level of acceptance of female sexual assertiveness in both perception and actual behavior; furthermore, couples reported greater congruence in their perception of female sexual initiation than actual behavior. Multiple logistic regressions showed that actual female sexual assertiveness, not the perception of it, affects both spouses' marital and sexual satisfaction. Compared with couples in which neither accepted female sexual initiation in practice, husbands where both spouses accepted this were more likely to be satisfied with the marriage. Husbands who accepted female sexual refusal whilst their wives did not were also more likely to be satisfied with both the marital and sexual relationship. Similarly, wives who did accept female sexual assertiveness but whose husbands did not were more likely to be satisfied with both the marital and sexual relationship.

  16. Sexual Health Care, Sexual Behaviors and Functioning, and Female Genital Cutting: Perspectives From Somali Women Living in the United States.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jennifer Jo; Hunt, Shanda; Finsaas, Megan; Ciesinski, Amanda; Ahmed, Amira; Robinson, Beatrice Bean E

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the sexual values, attitudes, and behaviors of 30 Somali female refugees living in a large metropolitan area of Minnesota by collecting exploratory sexual health information based on the components of the sexual health model-components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality. A Somali-born bilingual interviewer conducted the semistructured interviews in English or Somali; 22 participants chose to be interviewed in Somali. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analyses. Our study findings highlighted a sexually conservative culture that values sexual intimacy, female and male sexual pleasure, and privacy in marriage; vaginal sexual intercourse as the only sanctioned sexual behavior; and the importance of Islamic religion in guiding sexual practices. Findings related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) revealed HIV testing at immigration, mixed attitudes toward condom use, and moderate knowledge about HIV transmission modes. Female genital cutting (FGC) was a pervasive factor affecting sexual functioning in Somali women, with attitudes about the controversial practice in transition. We recommend that health professionals take the initiative to discuss sexual health care and safer sex, sexual behaviors/functioning, and likely challenges to sexual health with Somali women--as they may be unlikely to broach these subjects without permission and considerable encouragement.

  17. Substance use and risky sexual behavior in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Castillo Mezzich, A; Tarter, R E; Giancola, P R; Lu, S; Kirisci, L; Parks, S

    1997-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the etiological pathways towards substance use and risky sexual behavior in female adolescent substance abusers. The study had three aims: (1) to determine the relations between behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization with substance use and risky sexual behavior, (2) to determine whether these relations are mediated by internalizing symptomatology, antisocial behavior, and affiliating with an adult boyfriend; and (3) to determine whether age of menarche moderates the relation between the mediating variables and substance use and risky sexual behavior. Multiple behavioral, psychiatric interview, and self-report measures were used to index behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, childhood victimization, internalizing symptomatology, antisocial behavior, affiliation with adult boyfriends, substance use, and risky sexual behavior in 125 substance abusing female adolescents and 78 controls between the ages of 14-18 years. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the etiological pathways. Results indicated that behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization were related to substance use and risky sexual behavior. Age of menarche was significantly correlated with affiliation with an older boyfriend and risky sexual behavior. Antisocial behavior mediated the associations between behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity and childhood victimization with substance use and risky sexual behavior. Affiliation with an adult boyfriend was directly associated with substance use involvement and accounted for the relationship between chronological age and risky sexual behavior. Finally, late menarche enhanced the association between internalizing symptomatology and substance use involvement. The results highlight the importance of behavioral dysregulation, negative affectivity, and childhood victimization in predicting substance use and risky sexual

  18. Status epilepticus during early development disrupts sexual behavior in adult female rats: recovery with sexual experience.

    PubMed

    Coria-Avila, Genaro Alfonso; Paredes-Ramos, Pedro; Galán, Ricardo; Herrera-Covarrubias, Deissy; López-Meraz, Maria-Leonor

    2014-05-01

    Female sexual behavior is sensitive to stress and diseases. Some studies have shown that status epilepticus (SE) can affect sexual proceptivity and receptivity in female rats and also increases reject responses towards males. However, epidemiologic studies indicate that SE is more frequent in young individuals. Herein, we assessed the effects of SE in infant females on their sexual behavior during adulthood. Thirteen-day-old (P13) rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of lithium chloride (3 mEq/kg). Twenty hours later, at P14, SE was induced by subcutaneous injection of pilocarpine hydrochloride (100 mg/kg s.c.). Control animals were given an equal volume of saline subcutaneously. The animals were weaned at P21 and, later in adulthood, were ovariectomized and hormone-primed with estradiol+progesterone, and their sexual behavior assessed during 4 separate trials of 30 min each with a stud male. Our results indicate that proceptive behaviors (solicitations and hops and darts) were impaired during the first trial, but no alterations were observed for receptivity and attractivity. By trial 3, all SE females displayed normal proceptivity. These results indicate that SE in infancy readily affects proceptivity in a reversible manner. We discuss the role of sexual experience in recovery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physiology of female sexual function: animal models.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Marson, Lesley; Nappi, Rossella; Pfaus, James; Traish, Abdulmaged M; Vardi, Yoram; Goldstein, Irwin

    2004-11-01

    Data concerning the physiology of desire, arousal, and orgasm in women are limited because of ethical constraints. Aim. To gain knowledge of physiology of female sexual function through animal models. To provide state-of-the-art knowledge concerning female sexual function in animal models, representing the opinions of seven experts from five countries developed in a consensus process over a 2-year period. Expert opinion was based on the grading of evidence-based medical literature, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. Sexual desire may be considered as the presence of desire for, and fantasy about, sexual activity. Desire in animals can be inferred from certain appetitive behaviors that occur during copulation and from certain unconditioned copulatory measures. Proceptive behaviors are dependent in part on estrogen, progesterone, and drugs that bind to D1 dopamine receptors, adrenergic receptors, oxytocin receptors, opioid receptors, or gamma-amino butyric acid receptors. Peripheral arousal states are dependent on regulation of genital smooth muscle tone. Multiple neurotransmitters/mediators are involved including adrenergic, and nonadrenergic, noncholinergic agents such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, nitric oxide, neuropeptide Y, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and substance P. Sex steroid hormones, estrogens and androgens, are critical for structure and function of genital tissues including modulation of genital blood flow, lubrication, neurotransmitter function, smooth muscle contractility, mucification, and sex steroid receptor expression in genital tissues. Orgasm may be investigated by urethrogenital (UG) reflex, in which genital stimulation results in rhythmic contractions of striated perineal muscles and contractions of vagina, anus, and uterine smooth muscle. The UG reflex is generated by a multisegmental spinal pattern generator involving the coordination of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic efferents

  20. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    PubMed

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment.

  1. Acculturative Stress and Risky Sexual Behavior: The Roles of Sexual Compulsivity and Negative Affect.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Charles; Garey, Lorra; Sharp, Carla; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Recent syndemic models of sexual health disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities have highlighted the role of discrimination. Yet no previous work has examined how acculturative stress (distress at the transition from one's original culture toward a new culture) associates with sexual HIV-risk behavior (SHRB). Work among other minority populations suggests sexual compulsivity (SC) may contribute to syndemic sexual health disparities as a means of coping with distress. With this in mind, the present study examined whether SC explained the relation between acculturative stress and SHRB. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females within a sample of 758 sexually initiated racial/ethnic minority college students. Among males and females, acculturative stress had an indirect effect on SHRB via SC. As the first study to examine SHRB in relation to acculturative stress, findings provide preliminary evidence that targeting SC among racial/ethnic minorities may help reduce sexual health disparities.

  2. Sexually selected females in the monogamous Western Australian seahorse.

    PubMed

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Moore, Glenn I; Jones, Adam G

    2007-02-22

    Studies of sexual selection in monogamous species have hitherto focused on sexual selection among males. Here, we provide empirical documentation that sexual selection can also act strongly on females in a natural population with a monogamous mating system. In our field-based genetic study of the monogamous Western Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, sexual selection differentials and gradients show that females are under stronger sexual selection than males: mated females are larger than unmated ones, whereas mated and unmated males do not differ in size. In addition, the opportunity for sexual selection (variance in mating success divided by its mean squared) for females is almost three times that for males. These results, which seem to be generated by a combination of a male preference for larger females and a female-biased adult sex ratio, indicate that substantial sexual selection on females is a potentially important but under-appreciated evolutionary phenomenon in monogamous species.

  3. Sexually selected females in the monogamous Western Australian seahorse

    PubMed Central

    Kvarnemo, Charlotta; Moore, Glenn I; Jones, Adam G

    2006-01-01

    Studies of sexual selection in monogamous species have hitherto focused on sexual selection among males. Here, we provide empirical documentation that sexual selection can also act strongly on females in a natural population with a monogamous mating system. In our field-based genetic study of the monogamous Western Australian seahorse, Hippocampus subelongatus, sexual selection differentials and gradients show that females are under stronger sexual selection than males: mated females are larger than unmated ones, whereas mated and unmated males do not differ in size. In addition, the opportunity for sexual selection (variance in mating success divided by its mean squared) for females is almost three times that for males. These results, which seem to be generated by a combination of a male preference for larger females and a female-biased adult sex ratio, indicate that substantial sexual selection on females is a potentially important but under-appreciated evolutionary phenomenon in monogamous species. PMID:17476772

  4. Destruction of the main olfactory epithelium reduces female sexual behavior and olfactory investigation in female mice.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthieu; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2006-05-01

    We studied the contribution of the main olfactory system to mate recognition and sexual behavior in female mice. Female mice received an intranasal irrigation of either a zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) solution to destroy the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) or saline (SAL) to serve as control. ZnSO4-treated female mice were no longer able to reliably distinguish between volatile as well as nonvolatile odors from an intact versus a castrated male. Furthermore, sexual behavior in mating tests with a sexually experienced male was significantly reduced in ZnSO4-treated female mice. Vomeronasal function did not seem to be affected by ZnSO4 treatment: nasal application of male urine induced similar levels of Fos protein in the mitral and granule cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of ZnSO4 as well as SAL-treated female mice. Likewise, soybean agglutinin staining, which stains the axons of vomeronasal neurons projecting to the glomerular layer of the AOB was similar in ZnSO4-treated female mice compared to SAL-treated female mice. By contrast, a significant reduction of Fos in the main olfactory bulb was observed in ZnSO4-treated females in comparison to SAL-treated animals, confirming a substantial destruction of the MOE. These results show that the MOE is primarily involved in the detection and processing of odors that are used to localize and identify the sex and endocrine status of conspecifics. By contrast, both the main and accessory olfactory systems contribute to female sexual receptivity in female mice.

  5. Destruction of the Main Olfactory Epithelium Reduces Female Sexual Behavior and Olfactory Investigation in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Matthieu; Douhard, Quentin; Baum, Michael J.; Bakker, Julie

    2008-01-01

    We studied the contribution of the main olfactory system to mate recognition and sexual behavior in female mice. Female mice received an intranasal irrigation of either a zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) solution to destroy the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) or saline (SAL) to serve as control. ZnSO4-treated female mice were no longer able to reliably distinguish between volatile as well as nonvolatile odors from an intact versus a castrated male. Furthermore, sexual behavior in mating tests with a sexually experienced male was significantly reduced in ZnSO4-treated female mice. Vomeronasal function did not seem to be affected by ZnSO4 treatment: nasal application of male urine induced similar levels of Fos protein in the mitral and granule cells of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) of ZnSO4 as well as SAL-treated female mice. Likewise, soybean agglutinin staining, which stains the axons of vomeronasal neurons projecting to the glomerular layer of the AOB was similar in ZnSO4-treated female mice compared to SAL-treated female mice. By contrast, a significant reduction of Fos in the main olfactory bulb was observed in ZnSO4-treated females in comparison to SAL-treated animals, confirming a substantial destruction of the MOE. These results show that the MOE is primarily involved in the detection and processing of odors that are used to localize and identify the sex and endocrine status of conspecifics. By contrast, both the main and accessory olfactory systems contribute to female sexual receptivity in female mice. PMID:16484502

  6. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking and sexual satisfaction among female African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sales, Jessica M; Smearman, Erica L; Brody, Gene H; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A; Diclemente, Ralph J

    2013-12-01

    Sexuality-related constructs, such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction, have been related to sexual behaviours that place one at risk of adverse consequences, such as sexually transmissible infections, HIV and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors to biological and psychological predispositions, that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescents. Female African Americans aged 14-20 years were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (n=304) were used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS and sexual satisfaction. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability, whereas short serotonin transporter gene allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviours were associated with increased SSS, whereas short serotonin transporter gene allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction, whereas short serotonin transporter gene allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to the number of sex partners, the frequency of vaginal sex and the number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past 6 months. The findings emphasise the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviours, that influence sexuality constructs, which, in turn, are associated with sexual behaviours, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy

  7. Female sexual function, dysfunction, and pregnancy: implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Women's sexual function is a complex and dynamic interplay of variables that involve physical, emotional, and psychosocial states. Sexual dysfunction may occur at any level, and diagnosing such issues begins with careful assessment through a sexual health history. However, discussions about female sexual health and function are often deficient in the primary care setting. This article reviews the published research on female sexual function, sexual dysfunction, and sexual function in pregnancy to gain a better understanding of how these aspects of a woman's life impact the health care services she receives. The evaluation of female sexual function is in need of consistent measurement tools and more dialogue during health care visits. Women's health care practitioners have an opportunity to advance patient satisfaction and overall health by evaluating and communicating with female patients about their sexual function.

  8. Sexual and non-sexual social preferences in male and female white-eyed bulbuls.

    PubMed

    Kabasakal, Bekir; Poláček, Miroslav; Aslan, Aziz; Hoi, Herbert; Erdoğan, Ali; Griggio, Matteo

    2017-07-19

    While the function of ornaments shaped by sexual selection is to attract mates or drive off rivals, these signals may also evolve through social selection, in which the social context affects the fitness of signallers and receivers. Classical 'mate choice' experiments often reveal preferences for ornaments, but few studies have considered whether these are strictly sexual or reflect general social preferences. Indeed, an alternative possibility is that ornaments evolve through 'non-sexual social selection' (hereafter 'social selection'). We examined the role of ornamentation (yellow ventral patch) and familiarity (individuals recognize group mates with which they have had previous interactions) on mate choice (opposite-sex stimuli preference) and social choice (same-sex stimuli preference) in both male and female white-eyed bulbuls (Pycnonotus xanthopygos). In the mate choice test, females preferred unfamiliar males with increased yellow. There were no biologically important differences in male preferences based on familiarity or intensity of patch colour. In the social choice test, females preferred to associate with familiar females. Males preferred to associate with familiar males but also preferred to associate with less ornamented males. Our results suggest that ornamentation and familiarity are important features, playing different roles in males and females, in both social and sexual selection processes.

  9. Childhood sexual abuse, sexual motives, and adolescent sexual risk-taking among males and females receiving child welfare services.

    PubMed

    Wekerle, Christine; Goldstein, Abby L; Tanaka, Masako; Tonmyr, Lil

    2017-01-27

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with multiple negative outcomes, including increased risky sexual behavior. To date, the majority of research on the relationship between CSA and risky sex in adolescence has been limited, with a lack of focus on males and youth receiving child welfare services. Participants in the current study were 297 youth (mean age=15.98; SD=1.01, 57.6% female) from the child welfare system who reported being sexually active at the time of the survey. CSA was associated with severity of other types of maltreatment for both genders, and exposure to intimate partner violence for females only. In general, males engaged in more sexual risk behaviors than females. Males with CSA had stronger motives to have sex for: (1) coping, (2) peer approval and (3) partner approval, as compared to non-CSA males; as well as (4) greater motives for partner and peer approval compared to females with CSA. Males with no CSA had stronger sexual motives for enhancement (e.g., feeling pleasure) compared to females with no CSA. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect for coping motives for males: CSA was associated with increased motives to use sex for coping which was associated with increased sexual risk-taking. These findings provide important information regarding the relationship between CSA and sexual risk-taking for child welfare sample and highlight coping with negative affect as a potential mechanism that underlies the CSA-risky sex relationship. It also encourages further consideration of motives for risk and resilience behaviors among youth.

  10. Phenomenological Research and Adolescent Female Sexuality: Discoveries and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…

  11. Phenomenological Research and Adolescent Female Sexuality: Discoveries and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Gabrielle; Higgs, Joy

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents research in female first sexual intercourse in Australia. Previous research in adolescent sexual behavior, particularly issues around first sexual intercourse behavior, has mainly utilized quantitative methodology. Our research adopted a qualitative approach to provide unique insight into adolescent sexual behavior, attitudes,…

  12. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Micevych, Paul E; Meisel, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) activity-the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa. While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans.

  13. Integrating Neural Circuits Controlling Female Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Micevych, Paul E.; Meisel, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus is most often associated with innate behaviors such as is hunger, thirst and sex. While the expression of these behaviors important for survival of the individual or the species is nested within the hypothalamus, the desire (i.e., motivation) for them is centered within the mesolimbic reward circuitry. In this review, we will use female sexual behavior as a model to examine the interaction of these circuits. We will examine the evidence for a hypothalamic circuit that regulates consummatory aspects of reproductive behavior, i.e., lordosis behavior, a measure of sexual receptivity that involves estradiol membrane-initiated signaling in the arcuate nucleus (ARH), activating β-endorphin projections to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), which in turn modulate ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) activity—the common output from the hypothalamus. Estradiol modulates not only a series of neuropeptides, transmitters and receptors but induces dendritic spines that are for estrogenic induction of lordosis behavior. Simultaneously, in the nucleus accumbens of the mesolimbic system, the mating experience produces long term changes in dopamine signaling and structure. Sexual experience sensitizes the response of nucleus accumbens neurons to dopamine signaling through the induction of a long lasting early immediate gene. While estrogen alone increases spines in the ARH, sexual experience increases dendritic spine density in the nucleus accumbens. These two circuits appear to converge onto the medial preoptic area where there is a reciprocal influence of motivational circuits on consummatory behavior and vice versa. While it has not been formally demonstrated in the human, such circuitry is generally highly conserved and thus, understanding the anatomy, neurochemistry and physiology can provide useful insight into the motivation for sexual behavior and other innate behaviors in humans. PMID:28642689

  14. Anatomy and physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction: classification, evaluation and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Berman, J R; Adhikari, S P; Goldstein, I

    2000-07-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a significant age-related, progressive and highly prevalent problem that affects a substantial number of women in the United States. The female sexual response cycle is initiated by neurotransmitter-mediated vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle relaxation resulting in increased pelvic blood flow, vaginal lubrication, and clitoral and labial engorgement. These mechanisms are mediated by a combination of neuromuscular and vasocongestive events. Physiological impairments that interfere with the normal female sexual response bring about complaints associated with diminished sexual arousal, libido, vaginal lubrication, genital sensation, and ability to achieve orgasm. Therapy aimed at restoring hormone levels as well as genital blood flow will be discussed.

  15. Social preferences based on sexual attractiveness: a female strategy to reduce male sexual attention.

    PubMed

    Brask, Josefine B; Croft, Darren P; Thompson, Katharine; Dabelsteen, Torben; Darden, Safi K

    2012-05-07

    Male sexual harassment of females is common across sexually reproducing species and can result in fitness costs to females. We hypothesized that females can reduce unwanted male attention by constructing a social niche where their female associates are more sexually attractive than themselves, thus influencing the decision-making of males to their advantage. We tested this hypothesis in the Trinidadian guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a species with high levels of male sexual harassment. First, we confirmed that non-receptive females were harassed less when they were paired with a more sexually attractive (receptive) female than with another non-receptive female. We then found that, indeed, females exploit this as a strategy to reduce sexual harassment; non-receptive females actively preferred to associate with receptive over non-receptive females. Importantly, when given access only to chemosensory cues, non-receptive females still showed this preference, suggesting that they use information from chemical cues to assess the sexual attractiveness of potential female partners. Receptive females in contrast showed no such preferences. Our results demonstrate that females can decrease male harassment by associating with females that are more sexually attractive than themselves and that they perform active partner choices based on this relative attractiveness. We propose that this strategy is likely to represent an important pathway by which females can construct social niches that influence the decision-making of others to their advantage; in this case, to reduce the sexual harassment they experience.

  16. Sexual responsiveness is condition-dependent in female guppies, but preference functions are not

    PubMed Central

    Syriatowicz, Alexandra; Brooks, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Background Variation in mate choice behaviour among females within a population may influence the strength and form of sexual selection, yet the basis for any such variation is still poorly understood. Condition-dependence may be an important source of variation in female sexual responsiveness and in the preference functions for male display traits that she expresses when choosing. We manipulated food intake of female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), and examined the effect on several measures of condition and various components of mate choice behaviour. Results Diet significantly influenced four measures of female condition: standard length, weight, reproductive status and somatic fat reserves. Diet also significantly affected female sexual responsiveness, but not preference functions: females in good and poor condition prefer the same males. Conclusions Variation in female condition within populations is therefore unlikely to influence the direction of sexual selection imposed by female choice. It may, however, influence the strength of sexual selection due to its effects on female responsiveness. The relative importance of female choice as a sexually selective force may also covary with female condition, however, because low responsiveness may result in sneak copulations being relatively more important as a determinant of the paternity of offspring. Differences among populations in mean condition may also influence geographic differences in the strength of sexual selection. PMID:15117410

  17. Assessment of the Effects of Perineoplasty on Female Sexual Function

    PubMed Central

    İnan, Cihan; Ağır, Meriç Çağrı; Sağır, Fulya Gökdağlı; Özer, Atınç; Özbek, Özlem; Dayanır, Hakan; Uysal, Gökçe Saygı; Uysal, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Background: The scar tissue formed by episiotomy during vaginal delivery, and the related pain, is very frequent. The change in the normal anatomy can cause cosmetic and physiologic problems. It can affect and cause deterioration in sexual functions. Therefore, making the right diagnosis and applying the right surgical procedures are very important. Aims: Our aim was to examine the effect of the perineoplasty operation on the sexual dysfunctions that present due to vaginal delivery. Study Design: Self-controlled study. Methods: Forty patients, who attended our clinic between April 2012 and May 2013, and who were between the ages of 20 and 50 years, were included in the study. The patients had complaints of scar tissue in the perineum and various sexual dysfunctions after vaginal delivery, and they were suitable for perineoplasty. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was applied to the patients before and 6 months after the operation, and the results were compared. Results: After the perineoplasty operation, there was a statistically significant improvement in the patients in the domains of sexual desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction (p<0.005). However, there was no significant improvement in the feeling of pain during sexual intercourse (p=0.184). The mean±SD total FSFI score increased significantly after the operation (p<0.005). Conclusion: The sexual dysfunctions that develop due to perineal damage during vaginal delivery can benefit significantly from the perineoplasty operation if the indications are correct. However, vaginal perineoplasty did not provide an improvement in dyspareunia. PMID:26185713

  18. Assessment of female sexual arousal in forensic populations.

    PubMed

    Knack, Natasha M; Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Meston, Cindy; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-04-01

    Sexual offenses cause significant harm to victims, their families, and society as a whole and thus are an important social concern. While it is commonly assumed that sexual offenses are committed solely by males, research has shown that approximately 5 % of sex crimes in the USA and Canada are committed by females. Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a method to measure male genital arousal, which is commonly used in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders and men with paraphilic sexual interests. Similarly, vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) is a test to measure female genital arousal and is commonly used to assess female sexual dysfunctions. Although VPP is currently the most validated method to measure genital arousal in women, its use with female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests has been almost nonexistent. One explanation for this is that some research has suggested that female genital arousal may not be category-specific, meaning that women will respond to any sexual cues, not just those involving their preferred sexual interests. However, not all research supports this finding. Due to the potential benefits of using VPP in the assessment and treatment of female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests, it is important that further research be done before dismissing the use of VPP in forensic populations. The purpose of this article is to review the current research on VPP and its applicability to female sex offenders and females with paraphilic sexual interests.

  19. Characteristics of Female Solo and Female Co-Offenders and Male Solo Sexual Offenders Against Children.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca; Gillespie, Steven M; Elliott, Ian A; Eldridge, Hilary J

    2017-09-01

    Studies have highlighted differences in the victim choice, offender, and offense characteristics of female and male sexual offenders. However, little is known about how solo and co-offending females differ from solo male sexual offenders. We compared the characteristics of 20 solo and 20 co-offending females (co-offended with a male and/or female accomplice), and 40 male sexual offenders against children. We found that solo female offenders showed the most evidence of personal problems, including depression and sexual dissatisfaction. Compared with male offenders, female co-offenders showed poorer self-management, but better sexual self-regulation. Male offenders had a greater history of offending and showed more evidence of sexual abuse supportive cognitions relative to both solo and co-offending females. These results are consistent with the need for a gender-specific approach to working with sexual offenders and may have implications for understanding the often complex treatment needs of these clients.

  20. Offender and victim characteristics of registered female sexual offenders in Texas: a proposed typology of female sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Donna M; Kercher, Glen

    2004-04-01

    Victim and offender characteristic of all registered adult female sexual offenders in Texas (N = 471) were examined. The most common offenses the females were arrested for were indecency with a child--sexual contact, sexual assault on a child, and aggravated sexual assault on a child. The majority (88%) of the females were Caucasian and the ages ranged from 18 to 77 (M = 32). The results of Hierarchical Loglinear Modeling yielded a complex relationship between offender and victim characteristics; thus, identification of preferred victims is mitigated by more than one variable. Additionally, the employment of cluster analysis yielded 6 types of female sexual offenders. The most common group includes 146 offenders, heterosexual nurturers. They were the least likely to have an arrest for a sexual assault. The victims were males who averaged 12 years of age. The other types of offenders included, noncriminal homosexual offenders, female sexual predators, young adult child exploiters, homosexual criminals, and aggressive homosexual offenders.

  1. Affection Training: An Alternative to Sexual Reorientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Carl V.

    1977-01-01

    The author proposes affection training as an alternative to sexual reorientation for homosexuals. This training emphasizes the expansion of behavioral repertories rather than the sexual preference of an individual. Presented at the annual convention of the Association for Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Francisco, 13 December 1975. (Author)

  2. Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim In the present study, we explored individual differences in women’s cortisol response to sexual arousal in a laboratory setting. We also examined how cortisol response in the laboratory related to a validated measure of sexual arousal functioning in real life. Main Outcome Measures Cortisol levels were measured in saliva via enzyme immunoassay. Subjective arousal was measured by a self-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Methods Subjective and physiological responses to an erotic film were assessed in 30 women. Saliva samples were taken at baseline and following the film. Results The majority of women (N = 20) showed a decrease in cortisol; nine women showed an increase in response to an erotic film. The women who showed an increase in cortisol had lower scores on the Arousal, Desire, and Satisfaction domains of the Female Sexual Function Index. Genital arousal in the laboratory was not related to cortisol change. Conclusions Women who show an increase in cortisol in response to sexual stimuli in the laboratory have lower levels of functioning in certain areas of their sexual life compared with women who show a decrease in cortisol. Stress related to sexual performance may interfere with sexual arousal. PMID:18624961

  3. Nonsteroidal selective androgen receptor modulators enhance female sexual motivation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda; Hwang, Dong Jin; Duke, Charles B; He, Yali; Siddam, Anjaiah; Miller, Duane D; Dalton, James T

    2010-08-01

    Women experience a decline in estrogen and androgen levels after natural or surgically induced menopause, effects that are associated with a loss of sexual desire and bone mineral density. Studies in our laboratories have shown the beneficial effects of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) in the treatment of osteoporosis and muscle wasting in animal models. A series of S-3-(phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide analogs was synthesized to evaluate the effects of B-ring substitutions on in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity, especially female sexual motivation. The androgen receptor (AR) relative binding affinities ranged from 0.1 to 26.5% (relative to dihydrotestosterone) and demonstrated a range of agonist activity at 100 nM. In vivo pharmacologic activity was first assessed by using male rats. Structural modifications to the B-ring significantly affected the selectivity of the SARMs, demonstrating that single-atom substitutions can dramatically and unexpectedly influence activity in androgenic (i.e., prostate) and anabolic (i.e., muscle) tissues. (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(3-fluoro,4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanamide (S-23) displayed full agonist activity in androgenic and anabolic tissues; however, the remaining SARMs were more prostate-sparing, selectively maintaining the size of the levator ani muscle in castrated rats. The partner-preference paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of SARMs on female sexual motivation. With the exception of two four-halo substituted analogs, the SARMs increased sexual motivation in ovariectomized rats, with potency and efficacy comparable with testosterone propionate. These results indicate that the AR is important in regulating female libido given the nonaromatizable nature of SARMs and it could be a superior alternative to steroidal testosterone preparations in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

  4. Nonsteroidal Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators Enhance Female Sexual Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Amanda; Hwang, Dong Jin; Duke, Charles B.; He, Yali; Siddam, Anjaiah; Miller, Duane D.

    2010-01-01

    Women experience a decline in estrogen and androgen levels after natural or surgically induced menopause, effects that are associated with a loss of sexual desire and bone mineral density. Studies in our laboratories have shown the beneficial effects of selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) in the treatment of osteoporosis and muscle wasting in animal models. A series of S-3-(phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-propionamide analogs was synthesized to evaluate the effects of B-ring substitutions on in vitro and in vivo pharmacologic activity, especially female sexual motivation. The androgen receptor (AR) relative binding affinities ranged from 0.1 to 26.5% (relative to dihydrotestosterone) and demonstrated a range of agonist activity at 100 nM. In vivo pharmacologic activity was first assessed by using male rats. Structural modifications to the B-ring significantly affected the selectivity of the SARMs, demonstrating that single-atom substitutions can dramatically and unexpectedly influence activity in androgenic (i.e., prostate) and anabolic (i.e., muscle) tissues. (S)-N-(4-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-3-(3-fluoro,4-chlorophenoxy)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propanamide (S-23) displayed full agonist activity in androgenic and anabolic tissues; however, the remaining SARMs were more prostate-sparing, selectively maintaining the size of the levator ani muscle in castrated rats. The partner-preference paradigm was used to evaluate the effects of SARMs on female sexual motivation. With the exception of two four-halo substituted analogs, the SARMs increased sexual motivation in ovariectomized rats, with potency and efficacy comparable with testosterone propionate. These results indicate that the AR is important in regulating female libido given the nonaromatizable nature of SARMs and it could be a superior alternative to steroidal testosterone preparations in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder. PMID:20444881

  5. Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Britt-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware."

  6. Sexual selection by cryptic female choice on male seminal products - a new bridge between sexual selection and reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, W G; Cordero, C

    1995-12-01

    Selection clearly focuses on differences in reproduction, but studies of reproductive physiology generally have been carried out in a near vacuum of modern evolutionary theory. This lack of contact between the two fields may be about to change. New ideas indicate that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has affected the evolution of products in male semen that influence female reproductive behavior and physiology.

  7. Female Sexual Dysfunction Among the Wives of Opioid-Dependent Males in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Anvar Abnavi, Marjan; Ahmadi, Jamshid; Hamidian, Sajedeh; Ghaffarpour, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background Opiate abuse in males has significant effects on their sexual functions. In contrast, sexuality in females is a multidimensional issue that can strongly be affected by several factors in their partners. However, only a limited number of studies have assessed the role of males’ opioid dependency in their female partners’ sexual function. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of males’ opioid dependency on their wives’ sexual function compared to the sexual function of the females whose husbands were not opioid dependent. Patients and Methods This study included 340 women who were selected through convenience sampling and divided into a control (females whose husbands were not opioid dependent) and a case group (women whose husbands were opioid dependent). The data were collected through an interview according to the DSM-IV-R criteria for female sexual dysfunctions by a senior female medical student who was one of the researchers. Finally, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 15) and analyzed using the t-test and chi-square test. Results According to the results, the frequency of hypoactive sexual desire disorder and sexual aversion disorder in the control group was significantly higher than that of the case group (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results showed that having an addicted husband could strongly affect some sexual domains in women. It could change the pattern of desire and motivation for sexual contact in females and alter their attitude toward the sexual relationship, thereby causing disturbances in the females’ normal sexual function. PMID:27218067

  8. Social implications of the battle of the sexes: sexual harassment disrupts female sociality and social recognition.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P

    2009-07-22

    Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females.

  9. Developmental trajectories of religiosity, sexual conservatism and sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aalsma, Matthew C; Woodrome, Stacy E; Downs, Sarah M; Hensel, Devon J; Zimet, Gregory D; Orr, Don P; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity.

  10. Developmental Trajectories of Religiosity, Sexual Conservatism and Sexual Behavior among Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aalsma, Matthew C.; Woodrome, Stacy E.; Downs, Sarah M.; Hensel, Devon; Zimet, Gregory D.; Orr, Don P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the role of socio-sexual cognitions and religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior could guide adolescent sexual health efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal data from 328 young women to assess the role of religion and socio-sexual cognitions on sexual behavior accrual (measuring both coital and non-coital sexual behavior). In the final triple conditional trajectory structural equation model, religiosity declined over time and then increased to baseline levels. Additionally, religiosity predicted decreased sexual conservatism and decreased sexual conservatism predicted increased sexual behavior. The final models are indicative of young women's increasing accrual of sexual experience, decreasing sexual conservatism and initial decreasing religiosity. The results of this study suggest that decreased religiosity affects the accrual of sexual experience through decreased sexual conservatism. Effective strategies of sexual health promotion should include an understanding of the complex role of socio-sexual attitudes with religiosity. PMID:24215966

  11. Female Sexual Dysfunction in Presymptomatic Mutation Carriers and Patients with Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kolenc, Matej; Kobal, Jan; Podnar, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Although in Huntington's disease (HD) movement, cognition, and personality are most significantly affected, autonomic dysfunction should not be neglected. In women with HD sexual dysfunction has not been adequately studied yet. To report sexual dysfunction in a systematically studied cohort of female HD patients and compare it with controls of a similar age. In female HD patients and presymptomatic HD mutation carriers, we compared the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire, neurologic assessment using the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) and the Total Functional Capacity (TFC). Of 44 female HD patients and 9 presymptomatic HD mutation carriers, 30 HD patients and 8 HD mutation carriers responded our invitation to complete FFSI questionnaire. Finally, 23 HD women with a partner were compared to 47 controls with a partner. HD patients had more problems with sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm and sexual satisfaction. By contrast, we found no difference in sexual desire and pain. Sexual dysfunction progressed in parallel with the decline in the TFC; severe sexual dysfunction occurred with TFC <7/13. Our study demonstrated a significant impact of HD on female sexual function that progressed with patients' functional decline and impaired patients' quality of life. Sexual dysfunction may be caused by progression of the disease itself, side effects of medication, and comorbidities like depression or dementia.

  12. Selective facilitation of sexual solicitation in the female rat by a melanocortin receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Pfaus, James G; Shadiack, Annette; Van Soest, Tanya; Tse, Maric; Molinoff, Perry

    2004-07-06

    Disorders of sexual desire affect an estimated 30% of women in North America and Europe, with etiologies based on interpersonal, personal, and physiological factors. There are currently no pharmacological agents approved for use in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction. This is due, in part, to a focus on the effects of experimental drugs on reflexive components of sexual behavior, such as lordosis, in animal models. Here we report that PT-141, a peptide analogue of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone that binds to central melanocortin receptors, selectively stimulates solicitational behaviors in the female rat. This occurs without affecting lordosis, pacing, or other sexual behaviors. PT-141 did not cause generalized motor activation, nor did it affect the perception of sexual reward. A selective pharmacological effect on appetitive sexual behavior in female rats has not been reported previously, and indicates that central melanocortin systems are important in the regulation of female sexual desire. Accordingly, PT-141 may be the first identified pharmacological agent with the capability to treat female sexual desire disorders.

  13. Different Equals Less: Female Sexuality in Recent Marriage Manuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael; Shankweiler, Penelope J.

    1971-01-01

    Bestselling marriage manuals were examined to see if changes had occurred in the portrayal of female sexuality. It was found that the woman is still assumed to have less sexual interest and experience than the man, who is ascribed the instrumental role of cultivating his wife's sexuality. (Author)

  14. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  15. [How Does Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction Affekt Female Sexuality?].

    PubMed

    Anding, R; Kirschner-Hermanns, R; Rantell, A; Wiedemann, A

    2016-08-01

    With increasing age many women suffer from lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and female sexual dysfunction. An increasing body of evidence supports an association between the 2 conditions. Especially women with urodynamically proved detrusor hyperactivity suffer from sexual dysfunction and there is some evidence that in patients with stress incontinence sexual health improves after successful surgery.

  16. Effects of parthenogenesis and geographic isolation on female sexual traits in a parasitoid wasp.

    PubMed

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Franco, Padu; Reumer, Barbara M; van Alphen, Jacques J M

    2009-12-01

    Population divergence in sexual traits is affected by different selection pressures, depending on the mode of reproduction. In allopatric sexual populations, aspects of sexual behavior may diverge due to sexual selection. In parthenogenetic populations, loss-of-function mutations in genes involved in sexual functionality may be selectively neutral or favored by selection. We assess to what extent these processes have contributed to divergence in female sexual traits in the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina clavipes in which some populations are infected with parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia bacteria. We find evidence consistent with both hypotheses. Both arrhenotokous males and males derived from thelytokous strains preferred to court females from their own population. This suggests that these populations had already evolved population-specific mating preferences when the latter became parthenogenetic. Thelytokous females did not store sperm efficiently and fertilized very few of their eggs. The nonfertility of thelytokous females was due to mutations in the wasp genome, which must be an effect of mutation accumulation under thelytoky. Divergence in female sexual traits of these two allopatric populations has thus been molded by different forces: independent male/female coevolution while both populations were still sexual, followed by female-only evolution after one population switched to parthenogenesis.

  17. Exploring Female Sexuality: Embracing the Whole Narrative.

    PubMed

    Bass, Tanya M

    Sexuality is inseparable from sexual health and can refer to sex, gender identities, orientation, pleasure, intimacy, expression, and reproduction. While each element of human sexuality is important, all of these components interconnect to make us complete sexual beings. Educators and other human service providers thus require professional preparation to ensure they can meet the needs of their learners, effectively manage programming, and successfully implement strategies that allow individuals to embrace or manage their sexual existence. An inclusive approach to sexual health is best to meet the sexual health needs of all women, while ensuring their agency and control of their own bodies.

  18. The Affectional Component of Sexual Permissiveness: A Factor-Analytic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kathleen M.; Houlihan, John

    1978-01-01

    The Reiss Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale was administered to 51 male and 54 female undergraduates. Factor analysis revealed three major factors: intercourse with affection, kissing with affection, and nonaffectional sexual activity. It is suggested that permissiveness be defined as lack of affection. (Author)

  19. Sexual Experience in Female Rodents: Cellular Mechanisms and Functional Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Meisel, Robert L.; Mullins, Amanda J.

    2007-01-01

    The neurobiology of female sexual behavior has largely focused on mechanisms of hormone action on nerve cells and how these effects translate into the display of copulatory motor patterns. Of equal importance, though less studied, are some of the consequences of engaging in sexual behavior, including the rewarding properties of sexual interactions and how sexual experience alters copulatory efficiency. This review summarizes the effects of sexual experience on reward processes and copulation in female Syrian hamsters. Neural correlates of these sexual interactions include long-term cellular changes in dopamine transmission and postsynaptic signaling pathways related to neuronal plasticity (e.g., dendritic spine formation). Taken together, these studies suggest that sexual experience enhances the reinforcing properties of sexual behavior, which has the coincident outcome of increasing copulatory efficiency in a way that can increase reproductive success. PMID:16978593

  20. Sexual experience in female rodents: cellular mechanisms and functional consequences.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Robert L; Mullins, Amanda J

    2006-12-18

    The neurobiology of female sexual behavior has largely focused on mechanisms of hormone action on nerve cells and how these effects translate into the display of copulatory motor patterns. Of equal importance, though less studied, are some of the consequences of engaging in sexual behavior, including the rewarding properties of sexual interactions and how sexual experience alters copulatory efficiency. This review summarizes the effects of sexual experience on reward processes and copulation in female Syrian hamsters. Neural correlates of these sexual interactions include long-term cellular changes in dopamine transmission and postsynaptic signaling pathways related to neuronal plasticity (e.g., dendritic spine formation). Taken together, these studies suggest that sexual experience enhances the reinforcing properties of sexual behavior, which has the coincident outcome of increasing copulatory efficiency in a way that can increase reproductive success.

  1. [Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the sexual and affective relationships of adult women].

    PubMed

    López, Sílvia; Faro, Concepció; Lopetegui, Lourdes; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Monteagudo, Mònica; Cobo, Jesús; Fernández, María Isabel

    To analyse perceived sexual satisfaction, sexual dysfunction, satisfaction with affective relationships and confidence and communication in existing relationships, related to a past history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and type suffered, among women treated as part of the Catalonian Sexual and Reproductive Health Care Programme (PASSIR). Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A total of 1,013 women over the age of 18 years, who underwent psychological therapy at any of the 24 PASSIR centres, were enrolled. A structured, anonymised, self-administered Sex History Questionnaire adapted from Wyatt (1985) & Dubé et al. (2005), and the Female Sexual Function Index (Rosen, 2000), were used. Statistical analysis was descriptive, bivariate and multivariate. Women who suffered childhood sexual abuse had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction, with lower perceived sexual satisfaction. CSA with penetration or attempted penetration was associated with greater arousal difficulties and greater rejection. Women who experienced CSA were less confident and experienced greater communication difficulties with their partner. It is necessary to identify potential childhood sexual abuse among women who seek therapy due to relationship problems. It is also necessary to continue research into protective factors and therapeutic interventions to alleviate the consequences of CSA in adult life. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Why is impaired sexual function distressing to women? The primacy of pleasure in female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Kyle R; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-03-01

    Recent research has highlighted a complex association between female sexual function and subjective distress regarding sexual activity. These findings are difficult to explain given limited knowledge as to the mechanisms through which impaired sexual function causes distress. The current study assessed whether a number of specific consequences of impaired sexual function, including decreased physical pleasure, disruption of sexual activity, and negative partner responses, mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Eighty-seven women in sexually active relationships reporting impairments in sexual function completed validated self-report measures and daily online assessments of sexual experiences. Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Measure of Sexual Consequences. Results suggested that decreased physical pleasure and disruption of sexual activity, but not partner responses, statistically mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Sexual consequences represent potential maintaining factors of sexual dysfunction that are highly distressing to women. Results are discussed in the context of theoretical models of sexual dysfunction and related treatments. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Sexual swellings advertise female quality in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Domb, L G; Pagel, M

    2001-03-08

    The females of many Old World primate species produce prominent and conspicuous swellings of the perineal skin around the time of ovulation. These sexual swellings have been proposed to increase competition among males for females or to increase the likelihood of a female getting fertilized, by signalling either a female's general reproductive status, or the timing of her ovulation. Here we show that sexual swellings in wild baboons reliably advertise a female's reproductive value over her lifetime, in accordance with a theoretical model of honest signalling. Females with larger swellings attained sexual maturity earlier, produced both more offspring and more surviving offspring per year than females with smaller swellings, and had a higher overall proportion of their offspring survive. Male baboons use the size of the sexual swelling to determine their mating effort, fighting more aggressively to consort females with larger swellings, and spending more time grooming these females. Our results document an unusual case of a sexually selected ornament in females, and show how males, by mating selectively on the basis of the size of the sexual swelling, increase their probability of mating with females more likely to produce surviving offspring.

  4. Male sexually coercive behaviour drives increased swimming efficiency in female guppies.

    PubMed

    Killen, Shaun S; Croft, Darren P; Salin, Karine; Darden, Safi K

    2016-04-01

    Sexual coercion of females by males is widespread across sexually reproducing species. It stems from a conflict of interest over reproduction and exerts selective pressure on both sexes. For females, there is often a significant energetic cost of exposure to male sexually coercive behaviours.Our understanding of the efficiency of female resistance to male sexually coercive behaviour is key to understanding how sexual conflict contributes to population level dynamics and ultimately to the evolution of sexually antagonistic traits.Overlooked within this context are plastic physiological responses of traits within the lifetime of females that could moderate the energetic cost imposed by coercive males. Here, we examined whether conflict over the frequency and timing of mating between male and female guppies Poecilia reticulata can induce changes in swimming performance and aerobic capacity in females as they work to escape harassment by males.Females exposed to higher levels of harassment over a 5-month period used less oxygen to swim at a given speed, but displayed no difference in resting metabolic rate, maximal metabolic rate, maximal sustained swimming speed or aerobic scope compared to females receiving lower levels of harassment.The observed increase in swimming efficiency is at least partially related to differences in swimming mechanics, likely brought on by a training effect of increased activity, as highly harassed females spent less time performing pectoral fin-assisted swimming.Sexual conflict results in sexually antagonistic traits that impose a variety of costs, but our results show that females can reduce costs through phenotypic plasticity. It is also possible that phenotypic plasticity in swimming physiology or mechanics in response to sexual coercion can potentially give females more control over matings and affect which male traits are under selection.

  5. Treatment of Female Sexual Pain Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Al-Abbadey, Miznah; Liossi, Christina; Curran, Natasha; Schoth, Daniel E; Graham, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual pain disorders affect women's sexual and reproductive health and are poorly understood. Although many treatments have been evaluated, there is no one "gold standard" treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate what treatments for female sexual pain have been evaluated in clinical studies and their effectiveness. The search strategy resulted in 65 papers included in this review. The articles were divided into the following categories: medical treatments; surgical treatments; physical therapies; psychological therapies; comparative treatment studies; and miscellaneous and combined treatments. Topical and systemic medical treatments have generally been found to lead to improvements in, but not complete relief of, pain, and side effects are quite common. Surgical procedures have demonstrated very high success rates, although there has been variability in complete relief of pain after surgery, which suggests less invasive treatments should be considered first. Physical therapies and psychological therapies have been shown to be promising treatments, supporting a biopsychosocial approach to sexual pain disorders. Although most of the interventions described have been reported as effective, many women still experience pain. A multidisciplinary team with active patient involvement may be needed to optimize treatment outcome.

  6. The Circle of Female Sexual Desire-Have We Come a Long Way?

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the release of sildenafil (Viagra) two decades ago to treat erectile dysfunction in men, there has been a conversation around whether there is a need for a "female Viagra." Last year's release of flibanserin (Addyi) was hailed by some as an achievement in women's sexual health. But how effective is this drug in affecting women's sexual desire? And are the things being labeled as women's sexual desire problems really problems to be fixed with a drug?

  7. Physical and Sexual Violence Affecting Female Sex Workers in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire: Prevalence, and the Relationship with the Work Environment, HIV, and Access to Health Services.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Carrie E; Grosso, Ashley; Drame, Fatou M; Ketende, Sosthenes; Diouf, Daouda; Ba, Ibrahima; Shannon, Kate; Ezouatchi, Rebecca; Bamba, Amara; Kouame, Abo; Baral, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Violence is a human rights violation, and an important measure in understanding HIV among female sex workers (FSW). However, limited data exist regarding correlates of violence among FSW in Côte d'Ivoire. Characterizing prevalence and determinants of violence and the relationship with structural risks for HIV can inform development and implementation of comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programs. FSW > 18 years were recruited through respondent driven sampling (RDS) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. In total, 466 participants completed a socio-behavioral questionnaire and HIV testing. Prevalence estimates of violence were calculated using crude and RDS-adjusted estimates. Relationships between structural risk factors and violence were analyzed using χ tests and multivariable logistic regression. The prevalence of physical violence was 53.6% (250/466), and sexual violence was 43.2% (201/465) among FSW in this study. Police refusal of protection was associated with physical (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7 to 4.4) and sexual violence (aOR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.9 to 4.8). Blackmail was associated with physical (aOR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.2) and sexual violence (aOR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.5 to 4.0). Physical violence was associated with fear (aOR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.1) and avoidance of seeking health services (aOR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.5 to 3.8). Violence is prevalent among FSW in Abidjan and associated with features of the work environment and access to care. These relationships highlight layers of rights violations affecting FSW, underscoring the need for structural interventions and policy reforms to improve work environments, and to address police harassment, stigma, and rights violations to reduce violence and improve access to HIV interventions.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Progesterone Affects Sexual Orientation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A

    2017-07-01

    Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.

  9. Sexual behavior in female western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla): evidence for sexual competition.

    PubMed

    Stoinski, Tara S; Perdue, Bonnie M; Legg, Angela M

    2009-07-01

    Previous research in gorillas suggests that females engage in post-conception mating as a form of sexual competition designed to improve their own reproductive success. This study focused on sexual behaviors in a newly formed group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) housed at Zoo Atlanta. All females engaged in mating outside their conceptive periods, although there was individual variation in the frequency of the behavior. An analysis of the presence/absence of sexual behavior found females, regardless of reproductive condition, were more likely to engage in sexual behavior on days when other females were sexually active. On these "co-occurrence" days, females were significantly more likely to solicit the silverback, but copulations did not differ from expectation. The results find further evidence for sexual competition among female gorillas and suggest that this may occur throughout their reproductive cycle rather than only during pregnancy.

  10. Why is impaired sexual function distressing to women? The primacy of pleasure in female sexual dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent research has highlighted a complex association between female sexual function and subjective distress regarding sexual activity. These findings are difficult to explain given limited knowledge as to the mechanisms through which impaired sexual function causes distress. Aim The current study assessed whether a number of specific consequences of impaired sexual function, including decreased physical pleasure, disruption of sexual activity, and negative partner responses, mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Methods Eighty seven women in sexually active relationships reporting impairments in sexual function completed validated self-report measures and daily online assessments of sexual experiences. Main Outcome Measures Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Measure of Sexual Consequences (MSC). Results Results suggested that decreased physical pleasure and disruption of sexual activity, but not partner responses, statistically mediated the association between sexual function and distress. Conclusion Sexual consequences represent potential maintaining factors of sexual dysfunction that are highly distressing to women. Results are discussed in the context of theoretical models of sexual dysfunction and related treatments. PMID:25556719

  11. Sexual identity and sexual well-being in female heterosexual university students.

    PubMed

    Muise, Amy; Preyde, Michéle; Maitland, Scott B; Milhausen, Robin R

    2010-08-01

    Sexual identity has generally been studied with a focus on sexual orientation and has not incorporated a general identity framework. Low levels of identity exploration and commitment have been shown to predict poor well-being in adolescents, but the relationship between sexual identity and sexual well-being has not been examined. The current cross-sectional survey was administered to 293 heterosexual female undergraduate students from a mid-sized university in Ontario, Canada. Participants completed the Measure of Sexual Identity Exploration and Commitment (Worthington, Navarro, Savoy, & Hampton, 2008), as well as several measures to assess sexual well-being. These included the Sexuality Scale (Snell & Papini, 1989), the Sexual Awareness Questionnaire (Snell, Fisher, & Miller, 1991), the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (Mendelson, Mendelson, & White, 2001; Mendelson, White, & Mendelson, 1997), and four individual items assessing sexual satisfaction (Laumann et al., 2006). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the measurement models of sexual identity and sexual well-being, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship between sexual identity and sexual well-being. Results indicated that higher levels of sexual identity exploration and commitment predicted sexual well-being. However, other aspects of sexual identity, such as synthesis and sexual orientation identity, were not predictive of sexual well-being. The implications of using an identity framework for measuring sexual identity are discussed.

  12. Female Sexual Victimization Among College Students: Assault Severity, Health Risk Behaviors, and Sexual Functioning.

    PubMed

    Turchik, Jessica A; Hassija, Christina M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between college women's sexual victimization experiences, health risk behaviors, and sexual functioning. A sample of 309 college women at a mid-sized Midwestern university completed measures assessing sexual victimization, sexual risk taking, substance use behaviors, sexual desire, sexual functioning, prior sexual experiences, and social desirability. Severity of sexual victimization was measured using a multi-item, behaviorally specific, gender-neutral measure, which was divided into four categories based on severity (none, sexual contact, sexual coercion, rape). Within the sample, 72.8% (n = 225) of women reported at least one experience of sexual victimization since age 16. Results from MANCOVAs and a multinomial logistic regression, controlling for social desirability and prior sexual experience, revealed that sexual victimization among female students was related to increased drug use, problematic drinking behaviors, sexual risk taking, sexual dysfunction, and dyadic sexual desire. In addition, findings indicated that women exposed to more severe forms of sexual victimization (i.e., rape) were most likely to report these risk-taking behaviors and sexual functioning issues. Implications for sexual assault risk reduction programming and treatment are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Anatomy of the Vulva and the Female Sexual Response.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jennifer; Pauls, Rachel N

    2016-03-01

    The female vulva is an intricate structure comprising several components. Each structure has been described separately, but the interplay among them and physiologic significance remain controversial. The structures extend inferiorly from the pubic arch and include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vestibule, and clitoris. The clitoris is widely accepted as the most critical anatomic structure to female sexual arousal and orgasm. The female sexual response cycle is also very complex, requiring emotional and mental stimulation in addition to end organ stimulation.

  14. Long-Term Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment on Sexuality in Female Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Marian; Kristensen, Ellids; Berg, Søren; Midgren, Bengt

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Results from a previous study showed that sexuality was negatively affected in females with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Data are sparse on the long-term effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on sexual difficulties and sexual distress in female patients with OSA. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects after 1 year of CPAP treatment on sexual difficulties, sexual distress, and manifest sexual dysfunction in female patients with OSA. The effect of CPAP on life satisfaction was also investigated. Methods Fifty-four therapy-compliant, female patients (age 22–71) received a survey before and after 1 year of nocturnal CPAP treatment. The questions on this survey were drawn from three self-administered questionnaires: two on sexuality and one on life satisfaction. The results were compared with a population sample. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale was used for assessment of daytime sleepiness. Main Outcome Measures The Female Sexual Function Index, Female Sexual Distress Scale, Manifest Female Sexual Dysfunction, four questions from Life Satisfaction 11, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale were all used to measure outcome. Results In total, 44 patients responded to the survey (81% response rate). The results were a significant, positive change in manifest female sexual dysfunction, but no significant changes in isolated sexual difficulties or sexual distress. Daytime sleepiness significantly decreased after 1 year. The results from the Life Satisfaction 11 questionnaire remained unchanged after 1 year. Conclusions After 1 year of CPAP treatment, female patients with OSA reported reduced manifest sexual dysfunction. However, it cannot be concluded if this result is due to CPAP treatment alone. Furthermore, reduced daytime tiredness was found in the surveyed population. CPAP treatment, per se, does not seem to affect partner relationships. Petersen M, Kristensen E, Berg S, and Midgren B. Long

  15. Sexual HIV Risk Among Male Parolees and Their Female Partners: The Relate Project.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Megan; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Dilworth, Samantha E; Binson, Diane; Darbes, Lynae A; Neilands, Torsten B

    The massively disproportionate impact of America's prison boom on communities of color has raised questions about how incarceration may affect health disparities, including disparities in HIV. Primary partners are an important source of influence on sexual health. In this paper, we investigate sexual HIV risk among male-female couples following a man's release from prison. We draw upon data from the Relate Project, a novel cross-sectional survey of recently released men and their female partners in Oakland and San Francisco, California (N=344). Inferential analyses use the actor-partner model to explore actor and partner effects on sexual HIV risk outcomes. Dyadic analyses of sexual HIV risk among male parolees and their female partners paint a complex portrait of couples affected by incarceration and of partners' influences on each other. Findings indicate that demographic factors such as education level and employment status, individual psycho-social factors such as perception of risk, and relationship factors such as commitment and power affect sexual HIV risk outcomes. The Relate Project provides a novel dataset for the dyadic analysis of sexual risk among male parolees and their female partners, and results highlight the importance of focusing on the couple as a unit when assessing HIV risk and protective behaviors. Results also indicate potentially fruitful avenues for population-specific interventions that may help to reduce sexual health disparities among couples affected by incarceration.

  16. Sexual assault against female Nigerian students.

    PubMed

    Kullima, Abubakar Ali; Kawuwa, Mohammed Bello; Audu, Bala Mohammed; Mairiga, Abdulkarim G; Bukar, Mohammed

    2010-09-01

    Sexual assault is a common social disorder among students in our tertiary institutions. This study ascertains the extent and effect of sexual assault among Nigerian students. Two hundred and Sixty Eight structured questionnaires were distributed to randomly selected students in 4 tertiary institutions, information on socio demography, sexual history and consequences of their exposure were obtained for analysis and interpretation. Thirty seven (13.8%) of the respondents were sexually assaulted as a student and 19 (7.1%) were assaulted by their lecturers and fellow students, Younger age at coitarche, history of forced coitarche, marriage, coitarche with relations and unknown persons, significantly influenced subsequent risks of sexual assault. Improve security, moral behaviours enforcing dress code and stiffer penalties were suggested ways to prevent sexual assault among the students. Sexual assault is still a common finding in our institutions; effort should be made by all stake holders to prevent this social embarrassment.

  17. Military sexual trauma among U.S. female veterans.

    PubMed

    Williams, Irene; Bernstein, Kunsook

    2011-04-01

    Sexual abuse among female veterans reportedly occurs in significant numbers in the U.S. military and has been recognized to cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD, which stems from sexual abuse, has been called military sexual trauma (MST), which has only recently been recognized by the Department of Defense. Consequently, there has been scant research on the prevalence, impact, and treatment of MST. This article explores the phenomenon of sexual aggression against female veterans in the U.S. military, risk factors for MST, PTSD as a result of MST, a conceptual framework for treating PTSD stress, and treatment strategies for PTSD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Teacher sexual misconduct: grooming patterns and female offenders.

    PubMed

    Knoll, James

    2010-07-01

    Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that gender-biased views on sex offenders remain prominent in society. This article will review the literature on female teacher sexual misconduct in addition to what is known about grooming patterns and warning signs. Finally, current dilemmas in resolving cases of educator sexual misconduct will be discussed, and basic prevention strategies will be recommended.

  19. Neurotrophic factors and female sexual development.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, S R; Dissen, G A; Junier, M P

    1992-04-01

    The concept is proposed that polypeptide neurotrophic factors contribute to the developmental regulation of ovarian and hypothalamic function in mammals. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3, two members of the neurotrophin family, have been identified in the rat ovary and one of its receptors has been localized to the innervation and thecal cells of developing follicles. Although NGF supports the sympathetic innervation of the gland, the extent to which follicles are innervated appears to be defined by the differential expression of NGF receptors in the theca of developing follicles. The presence of NGF receptors in steroid-producing cells suggests a direct involvement of neurotrophins in the regulation of gonadal endocrine function. Evidence is beginning to emerge suggesting that development of the reproductive hypothalamus is affected by insulin-like growth factor 1 secreted by peripheral tissues, and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) produced locally. In the rat hypothalamus, TGF alpha appears to be synthesized in both neurons and glial cells. In glial cells it may interact with epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors to further enhance TGF alpha synthesis and to, perhaps, stimulate eicosanoid formation. In turn, one of these eicosanoids, prostaglandin E2, may act on luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons to stimulate the release of LHRH in a genomic-independent manner. This provides the basis for the notion that during development LHRH secretion is regulated by a dual mechanism, one that involves transsynaptic effects exerted by neurotransmitters, the other that requires a glial-neuronal interaction and that may predominantly regulate release of the neuropeptide. An increased expression of the TGF alpha and EGF receptor genes in reactive astrocytes is postulated to contribute to the process by which hypothalamic injury causes sexual precocity. Morphological maturation of the reproductive hypothalamus is thought to occur during

  20. Women's sexual and emotional responses to male- and female-produced erotica.

    PubMed

    Laan, E; Everaerd, W; van Bellen, G; Hanewald, G

    1994-04-01

    Whether erotic films made by women are more arousing for women than erotic films made by men was studied. Forty-seven subjects were exposed to both a woman-made, female-initiated, and female centered, erotic film excerpt. Photoplethysmographic vaginal pulse amplitude was recorded continuously. Self-report ratings of sexual arousal and affective reactions were collected after each stimulus presentation. Contrary to expectation, genital arousal did not differ between films, although genital response to both films was substantial. Subjective experience of sexual arousal was significantly higher during the woman-made film. The man-made film evoked more feelings of shame, guilt, and aversion. Correlations between subjective experience of sexual arousal and photoplethysmographic measures of sexual arousal were nonsignificant. The largest contribution to female sexual excitement might result from the processing of stimulus-content and stimulus-meaning and not from peripheral vasocongestive feedback.

  1. The role of adrenoceptors in the central nervous system in male and female rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Snoeren, Eelke M S

    2015-04-15

    Three different phases can be distinguished in rats' sexual cycle, the introductory (precopulatory), the copulatory and the executive (ejaculatory) phases. In this review, a new analysis of existing pharmacological data is made, both in male and female rats, in which the different aspects of sexual behavior are taken into account. An effort is made to distinguish pharmacological effects on sexual behavior from a possible physiological role of noradrenaline. In addition, new data on the role of α2-adrenoceptors on female sexual behavior is presented. The new analysis suggests that noradrenaline has a stimulatory role on the executive phase of male sexual behavior, while the introductory and copulatory phases remain unaffected. Adrenoceptors play a role in the regulation of sexual behavior in the medial preoptic area and the lateral septum. In female rats, noradrenaline also does not play a vital role in the introductory phase. Only the lordosis behavior of the copulatory phase is sometimes affected by adrenergic agents, but only under a certain hormonal condition. The medial preoptic area, the ventromedial nucleus, the arcuate ventromedial nucleus and median eminence are involved in the regulation of female sexual behavior. The new data suggest that α2-adrenoceptors play no major role on any indices of female sexual behavior.

  2. Animal Models for the Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Marson, Lesley; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Costantini, Raffaele; Czakanski, Peter; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Significant progress has been made in elucidating the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of female sexual function through preclinical animal research. The continued development of animal models is vital for the understanding and treatment of the many diverse disorders that occur in women. Aim To provide an updated review of the experimental models evaluating female sexual function that may be useful for clinical translation. Methods Review of English written, peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 to 2012, that described studies on female sexual behavior related to motivation, arousal, physiological monitoring of genital function and urogenital pain. Main Outcomes Measures Analysis of supporting evidence for the suitability of the animal model to provide measurable indices related to desire, arousal, reward, orgasm, and pelvic pain. Results The development of female animal models has provided important insights in the peripheral and central processes regulating sexual function. Behavioral models of sexual desire, motivation, and reward are well developed. Central arousal and orgasmic responses are less well understood, compared with the physiological changes associated with genital arousal. Models of nociception are useful for replicating symptoms and identifying the neurobiological pathways involved. While in some cases translation to women correlates with the findings in animals, the requirement of circulating hormones for sexual receptivity in rodents and the multifactorial nature of women’s sexual function requires better designed studies and careful analysis. The current models have studied sexual dysfunction or pelvic pain in isolation; combining these aspects would help to elucidate interactions of the pathophysiology of pain and sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Basic research in animals has been vital for understanding the anatomy, neurobiology, and physiological mechanisms underlying sexual function and urogenital pain

  3. [Female sexual dysfunction: classification, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Luria, Mijal; Hochner-Celnikier, Drorit; Mock, Moshe

    2004-11-01

    The successful pharmacological treatment of erectile dysfunction in males has led to increasing interest in the sexual problems of women. Yet in recent years there has been growing consensus regarding the differences between male and female sexuality. William Masters and Virginia Johnson's model of sexual response, revised by Helen Singer Kaplan, has been generally accepted for many decades. This model consists of 4 successive phases: desire, excitement (arousal), orgasm and resolution. Rosemary Basson has suggested a different model, valid especially in long-term relationships. According to Basson, a woman may decide to seek a stimuli necessary to ignite sexual desire, for reasons which are not sexual (such as the need for intimacy or emotional bonding). The desire develops at a latter stage, as a consequence and not as a cause. As the understanding of the sexual response grows, new methods of classification and treatment are being developed. Female sexual dysfunction is common, frequently neglected and has a significant impact on the lives of women. It has a diverse etiology including anatomical, physiological, medical as well as psychological and social factors. The assessment of these disorders incorporates both medical and psychological evaluation. The treatment includes education, improvement of inter-personal communication, behavioral treatment and the solution of medical problems. Different medications are being developed but most have yet to be proven effective. This review presents the female sexual response as it is understood today and the different methods of classification, diagnosis and treatment of female sexual dysfunction.

  4. Female-female mounting among goats stimulates sexual performance in males.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Meagan K; Katz, Larry S

    2006-06-01

    The hypothesis that female-female mounting is proceptivity in goats, in that male goats are aroused by the visual cues of this mounting behavior, was tested. Once a week, male goats were randomly selected and placed in a test pen in which they were allowed to observe one of six selected social or sexual stimulus conditions. The stimulus conditions were one familiar male with two estrous females (MEE); three estrous females that displayed female-female mounting (E(m)); three estrous females that did not mount (E(nm)); three non-estrous females (N(E)); three familiar males (M); and no animals in the pen (Empty). After 10 min, the stimulus animals were removed, and an estrous female was placed in the test pen with the male for a 20-min sexual performance test. During sexual performance tests, the frequencies and latencies of all sexual behaviors were recorded. This procedure was repeated so all males (n = 6) were tested once each test day, and all the stimulus conditions were presented each test day. This was repeated weekly until all males had been exposed to each stimulus condition. Viewing mounting behavior, whether male-female or female-female, increased the total number of sexual behaviors displayed, increased ejaculation frequency, and decreased latency to first mount and ejaculation, post-ejaculatory interval, and the interval between ejaculations. We conclude that male goats are aroused by the visual cues of mounting behavior, and that female-female mounting is proceptivity in goats.

  5. Female sexual dysfunction after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, J W; Goetz, L; Baxter, N N; Park, J; Minami, S; Madoff, R D

    2008-07-01

    The aim was to measure female sexual function after total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis using a validated scoring system and to determine the impact of pouch function on sexual function. A cross-sectional survey was performed using a modified version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-m). Measures of pouch function, including the Faecal Incontinence Severity Index, were also evaluated. Of 166 women eligible for inclusion, 90 responded to the questionnaires and 83 of these reported sexual activity. The mean age of the 83 women was 38.4 years and the mean time since pouch formation was 6.2 years. Thirty-nine women (47.0 per cent) had an FSFI-m score of 26 or less, indicating sexual dysfunction. The association between sexual dysfunction and stool leakage interfering with the ability to enjoy sexual activity tended toward significance (P = 0.071), but other measures of pouch function were not associated with sexual dysfunction. Some 55-80 per cent of respondents perceived no change or improved performance in the six domains of sexual function. Almost half of the respondents reported having sexual dysfunction. Although poor pouch function was not identified as an important predictor of sexual dysfunction in this series, larger studies may be required to identify associated prognostic factors clearly. (c) 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Sexual bipotentiality of behavior in male and female goldfish.

    PubMed

    Saoshiro, Seiji; Kawaguchi, Yutaro; Hayakawa, Youichi; Kobayashi, Makito

    2013-01-15

    It is known that in goldfish Carassius auratus, a non-sex changing fish, prostaglandin (PG) treatment can induce female-typical sex behavior in males, and androgen treatment can induce male-typical sex behavior in females. These facts suggest that goldfish have a sexually bipotential brain even after attaining sexual maturity unlike mammals which have sexually differentiated brain. In the present study, in order to further characterize the brain function of goldfish, whether hormonal treatments which induce heterotypical sexual behavior suppress the occurrence of sex-typical behavior and whether sex-typical and heterotypical behavior can be induced in a relatively short time were examined. In the first series of experiments, male goldfish were shown to retain their ability to perform male-typical sex behavior within a week after being induced to perform female-typical behavior. Likewise, female goldfish were also shown to retain their female-typical sex behavior a week after being induced to perform male-typical behavior. In the second series of experiments, when PG-injected experimental males were placed with both PG-injected females and sexually mature males, the experimental males performed male- and female-typical behavior alternately with the females and the males, respectively during 90 min test period. When methyltestosterone-treated experimental females were injected with PG and placed with both PG-injected females and mature males, the experimental females performed male- and female-typical behavior alternately during 90 min test period. The results of the present study are consistent with the current knowledge that goldfish possess a sexually bipotential brain that can regulate both male and female-typical sex behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The development of female sexual behavior requires prepubertal estradiol.

    PubMed

    Brock, Olivier; Baum, Michael J; Bakker, Julie

    2011-04-13

    The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence of ovarian sex hormone actions. However, in a previous study, female aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to estradiol, showed deficient male-oriented partner preference and lordosis behaviors in response to adult ovarian hormones, raising the possibility that estradiol may contribute to the development of these female sexual behaviors. In the present experiments, administering estradiol prepubertally [between postnatal day 15 (P15) and P25] significantly enhanced the ability of ArKO female mice to display lordosis behavior in response to ovarian hormones administered later in adulthood, whereas treatment with estradiol over an earlier postnatal period (P5-P15) had no such effect. Treatment of ArKO females with estradiol between P15 and P25 also rescued their later preference to approach distal cues from an intact male over an estrous female. ArKO females also displayed significantly less female-directed (male-typical) mounting behavior than wild-type control females when treated with testosterone in adulthood. Prepubertal estradiol treatment failed to reverse this deficit in ArKO females, whereas earlier postnatal estradiol augmented later mounting in both genotypes. Our results provide new evidence for an organizing role of prepubertal estradiol in the development of neural mechanisms that control female-typical sexual behavior.

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF FEMALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR REQUIRES PREPUBERTAL ESTRADIOL

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Olivier; Baum, Michael J.; Bakker, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The classic view of brain and behavioral sexual differentiation holds that the neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior in female rodents develop in the absence of ovarian sex hormone actions. However, in a previous study, female aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice, which cannot convert testosterone to estradiol, showed deficient male-oriented partner preference and lordosis behaviors in response to adult ovarian hormones, raising the possibility that estradiol may contribute to the development of these female sexual behaviors. In the present experiments, administering estradiol prepubertally (between postnatal days P15–P25) significantly enhanced the ability of ArKO female mice to display lordosis behavior in response to ovarian hormones administered later in adulthood whereas treatment with estradiol over an earlier postnatal period (P5–P15) had no such effect. Treatment of ArKO females with estradiol between P15–P25 also rescued their later preference to approach distal cues from an intact male over an estrous female. ArKO females also displayed significantly less female-directed (male-typical) mounting behavior than wild type control females when treated with testosterone in adulthood. Prepubertal estradiol treatment failed to reverse this deficit in ArKO females whereas earlier postnatal estradiol augmented later mounting in both genotypes. Our results provide new evidence for an organizing role of prepubertal estradiol in the development of neural mechanisms that control female-typical sexual behavior. PMID:21490197

  9. Female tail wagging enhances sexual performance in male goats.

    PubMed

    Haulenbeek, Andrea M; Katz, Larry S

    2011-08-01

    Preference testing has shown that sexually experienced male goats choose females that are tail wagging, a behavior that may function as both attractivity and proceptivity, over those that are not. We hypothesized that exposure to females expressing high rates of tail wagging would arouse males, increasing sexual performance. Tail wagging rate could be manipulated because we have shown previously that flutamide treatment increases the frequency of tail wagging in estrous goats. Sexually experienced males observed different stimuli for 10 min before a 20 min sexual performance test (SPT). The stimuli were an empty pen (MT), or groups of three females that were all estrous (E), non-estrous (NE), estrous+flutamide (E(F)) or non-estrous+flutamide (NE(F)). During the stimulus observation period, tail wagging was recorded. During SPT, frequencies and latencies of sexual behaviors were recorded. E(F) females displayed the most tail wagging. Viewing E(F) females before SPT increased the number of ejaculations attained by males and decreased the latencies to first and second ejaculation, as well as the inter-ejaculatory interval. Viewing estrous females (E and E(F)) before SPT decreased the latency to first mount, as compared to non-estrous females (NE and NE(F)). We conclude that male goats are sexually aroused by tail wagging. This study and previous work demonstrate that tail wagging functions as both attractivity and proceptivity in goats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. "Sexy stimulants": the interaction between psychomotor stimulants and sexual behavior in the female brain.

    PubMed

    Guarraci, Fay A; Bolton, Jessica L

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates gender differences in sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. Preclinical work investigating the interaction between drugs of abuse and sex-specific behaviors, such as sexual behavior, is critical to our understanding of such gender differences in humans. A number of behavioral paradigms can be used to model aspects of human sexual behavior in animal subjects. Although traditional assessment of the reflexive, lordosis posture of the female rat has been used to map the neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems that contribute to uniquely female copulatory behavior, the additional behavioral paradigms discussed in the current review have helped us expand our description of the appetitive and consummatory patterns of sexual behavior in the female rat. Measuring appetitive behavior is particularly important for assessing sexual motivation, the equivalent of "desire" in humans. By investigating the effects of commonly abused drugs on female sexual motivation, we are beginning to elucidate the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission, a neural system also known to be critical to the neurobiology of drug addiction, in female sexual motivation. A better understanding of the nexus of sex and drugs in the female brain will help advance our understanding of motivation in general and explain how psychomotor stimulants affect males and females differently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sex Parties: Female Teen Sexual Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…

  12. Sex Parties: Female Teen Sexual Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…

  13. Sexual Harassment: A Female Counseling Student's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Counseling and Development, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A counseling student describes her experience as a target of long-term, systematic harassment in the form of sexual seduction by her practicum supervisor. The author recounts the effects of experiencing the harassment, confronting her harasser, and enduring an investigation. Claims events of case demonstrate sexualization of professor-student…

  14. Sex Role Orientation and Female Sexual Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Linda J.; Parsons, Jean L.

    1983-01-01

    Investigates the differences among 300 college women in four sex-role categories with regard to sexual behavior and attitudes. Results indicated that androgynous women did not differ significantly from feminine and masculine women with regard to sexual functioning, while undifferentiated women were more restricted. (JAC)

  15. Complications in the Development of a Female Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna, Jeanne; Pepper Goldsmith, Tara

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the struggle to develop a female sexual identity and the importance of the roles of the father and mother in this struggle. The clinical illustration is taken from the psychotherapy of an anorectic adolescent.

  16. Complications in the Development of a Female Sexual Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magagna, Jeanne; Pepper Goldsmith, Tara

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the struggle to develop a female sexual identity and the importance of the roles of the father and mother in this struggle. The clinical illustration is taken from the psychotherapy of an anorectic adolescent.

  17. The medicalization of female sexual dysfunction: the need for caution.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, John

    2002-10-01

    The use of drugs such as Viagra to treat sexual dysfunction in women may be beneficial in a proportion of cases. However, there are a number of barriers to understanding and predicting which women are likely to benefit, and caution is required in approaching this clinical issue. Three relevant issues are discussed: (1) Male-female differences in sexuality. Three complimentary ways in which male and female sexuality differs are considered--women have less need for their sexuality to be influenced by reproductive hormones; their needs for sexual enjoyment and orgasm are not well met by conventional vaginal intercourse; and, as a result of the disjunction between female sexual response and reproduction and a possibly greater propensity for central inhibition of sexual response, women are more susceptible to the repressive effects of social constraints on sexuality; (2) Sex therapy. While conventional forms of sex therapy are well designed to address the particular psychological needs of women as well as men, the interface between psychological processes and physiological response is not well understood. For the same reason, we should expect difficulty in predicting when pharmacological effects on sexual response will be beneficial; (3) When is a sexual problem a sexual dysfunction? It is likely that many cases of impaired sexual response or interest in women are psychologically understandable and hence adaptive reactions to problems in the sexual relationship, and hence not dysfunctions. Until we can distinguish between such adaptive inhibitions of response and those that are maladaptive dysfunctions, we will have difficulty in predicting when pharmacological treatment will be helpful.

  18. Revictimization as a Sequela to Childhood Sexual Abuse of Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Tracy Kay

    Research literature pertaining to revictimization as a sequela to childhood sexual abuse of females is reviewed and the methodology critiqued. Inconsistent definitions of the variables and a variety of possible intervening factors make the attribution of direct causality between sexual abuse in childhood and subsequent revictimization in adulthood…

  19. Pathways to Sexual Risk Taking among Female Adolescent Detainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…

  20. Teacher Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, James

    2010-01-01

    Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that…

  1. Ethnicity and Child Sexual Abuse Experiences of Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2005-01-01

    This research examines the understudied issue of race/ethnicity in relation to child sexual abuse experiences (CSA) in a cross-sectional convenience sample of 461 female college students completing a survey. Comparisons of students' abuse experiences revealed ethnic differences in sexual abuse prevalence, severity of abuse, the victim-offender…

  2. Teacher Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, James

    2010-01-01

    Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that…

  3. Biases for affective versus sexual content in multidimensional scaling analysis: an individual difference perspective.

    PubMed

    Prause, Nicole; Moholy, Maxwell; Staley, Cameron

    2014-04-01

    Visual sexual stimuli can motivate sexual behaviors that can risk or enhance health. How one allocates attention to a sexually motivating stimulus may be important for predicting its effect on sexual feelings, sexual risk behaviors, and sexual problems. A large sample (N = 157) of men and women rated the similarity of all possible pairs of photographs of women, which had been pretested to vary in their sexual and affective content. Multidimensional scaling was used to extract two dimensions of sex and affect, including the extent to which each person relied on each dimension in making their similarity judgments. These individual weights were then used to predict sexual variables of interest. Participants who relied more on the affect information judging photograph similarity were more likely to be female, viewed erotica less frequently, reported fewer sexual partners, reported less sexual desire, and more sexual problems. Those who relied more on the erotic content in making their similarity judgments were more likely to be male, viewed more erotica weekly, experienced higher sexual desire, and were more likely to have taken an HIV test. The "double edge sword" of attention weight to affect in sexual cues is discussed for its potential to both enhance and harm sexual health.

  4. BP101 Peptide Promotes Female Sexual Receptivity in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Lomonosov, Mikhail; Popova, Anfisa; Lagereva, Evgeniia; Clément, Pierre; Salimov, Ramiz; Golikov, Dmitriy

    2017-03-01

    Low sexual desire is a frequent sexual problem in women, with only one drug for the condition approved by the Food and Drug Administration. To evaluate the ability of a novel synthetic peptide, BP101, to facilitate sexual behavior after intranasal administration or infusion into certain brain areas in female rats. Bilaterally ovariectomized female rats, primed with a suboptimal combination of estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone, were used as a model of low sexual motivation. Sexual behavior was tested with stud male rats after acute (experiment 1) or long-term (experiment 2) intranasal administration of BP101 or peptide infusion into the olfactory bulb, medial preoptic area, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, or ventral tegmental area (experiment 3). Frequency of solicitations (SF), as an indicator of sexual motivation in female rats, and lordosis frequency and ratio, as measurements of female consummatory sexual behavior. Acute intranasal BP101 administration moderately increased SF, with the highest tested dose of 300 μg/kg causing an 80% increase. Female rats receiving BP101 75 or 300 μg/kg daily on days 6 to 16 of the peptide administration displayed twofold higher SF compared with the placebo-treated animals, an increase comparable to optimally hormone-primed female rats. Infusion of BP101 1 and 5 μg per rat into the medial preoptic area, but not into the olfactory bulb, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, or ventral tegmental area, increased SF in female rats supplemented with EB 10 or 20 μg. The effect was relatively more pronounced in female rats receiving EB 10 μg (≈300%) compared with EB 20 μg (≈50%) with direct brain infusions. BP101 displays a potent stimulatory effect on sexual motivation in the female rat, and the medial preoptic area seems to be the site of its action. BP101 is effective in female rats receiving different hormone supplementations, making the present data generalizable to pre- and postmenopausal women with hypoactive

  5. Sexual conflict and the evolution of female mate choice and male social dominance.

    PubMed

    Moore, A J; Gowaty, P A; Wallin, W G; Moore, P J

    2001-03-07

    Conflicts between the sexes over control of reproduction are thought to lead to a cost of sexual selection through the evolution of male traits that manipulate female reproductive physiology and behaviour, and female traits that resist this manipulation. Although studies have begun to document negative fitness effects of sexual conflict, studies showing the expected association between sexual conflict and the specific behavioural mechanisms of sexual selection are lacking. Here we experimentally manipulated the opportunity for sexual conflict in the cockroach. Nauphoeta cinerea and showed that, for this species, odour cues in the social environment influence the behavioural strategies and fitness of males and females during sexual selection. Females provided with the opportunity for discriminating between males but not necessarily mating with preferred males produced fewer male offspring than females mated at random. The number of female offspring produced was not affected, nor was the viability of the offspring. Experimental modification of the composition of the males' pheromone showed that the fecundity effects were caused by exposure to the pheromone component that makes males attractive to females but also makes males less likely to be dominant. Female mate choice therefore carries a demographic cost but functions to avoid male manipulation and aggression. Male-male competition appears to function to circumvent mate choice rather than directly manipulating females, as the mate choice can be cryptic. The dynamic struggle between the sexes for control of mating opportunities and outcomes in N. cinerea therefore reveals a unique role for sexual conflict in the evolution of the behavioural components of sexual selection.

  6. X-chromosome dosage affects male sexual behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bonthuis, Paul J.; Cox, Kimberly H.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2012-01-01

    Sex differences in the brain and behavior are primarily attributed to dichotomous androgen exposure between males and females during neonatal development, as well as adult responses to gonadal hormones. Here we tested an alternative hypothesis and asked if sex chromosome complement influences male copulatory behavior, a standard behavior for studies of sexual differentiation. We used two mouse models with non-canonical associations between chromosomal and gonadal sex. In both models, we found evidence for sex chromosome complement as an important factor regulating sex differences in the expression of masculine sexual behavior. Counter intuitively, males with two X-chromosomes were faster to ejaculate and display more ejaculations than males with a single X. Moreover, mice of both sexes with two X-chromosomes displayed increased frequencies of mounts and thrusts. We speculate that expression levels of a yet to be discovered gene(s) on the X-chromosome may affect sexual behavior in mice and perhaps in other mammals. PMID:22349083

  7. Alcohol consumption, female sexual behavior and contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S M; Beckman, L J

    1986-07-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol consumption on female sexuality and contraceptive use, 69 sexually active women between the ages of 18 and 34 completed daily logs of their drinking behavior, sexual activity and contraceptive use over three consecutive menstrual cycles. In addition, participants completed a post-study questionnaire that assessed personal beliefs regarding alcohol use and sexual behavior. Although the results from the daily logs failed to show any significant effects of alcohol on subsequent sexual arousal, sexual pleasure or orgasm, female-initiated sexual activity appeared to be inversely related to alcohol use with women initiating significantly fewer sexual activities following the consumption of alcohol. On the contrary, the retrospective questionnaire data indicated that women believed alcohol enhanced sexual desire, enjoyment and activity. The findings further indicated that alcohol consumption immediately prior to sexual intercourse did not significantly alter the use of coitus-dependent contraceptives. These data suggest that women view alcohol as an aphrodisiac despite their physiological and reported behavioral responses.

  8. Animal Models for the Study of Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Marson, Lesley; Giamberardino, Maria Adele; Costantini, Raffaele; Czakanski, Peter; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2013-07-01

    Significant progress has been made in elucidating the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of female sexual function through preclinical animal research. The continued development of animal models is vital for the understanding and treatment of the many diverse disorders that occur in women. To provide an updated review of the experimental models evaluating female sexual function that may be useful for clinical translation. Review of English written, peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 to 2012, that described studies on female sexual behavior related to motivation, arousal, physiological monitoring of genital function and urogenital pain. Analysis of supporting evidence for the suitability of the animal model to provide measurable indices related to desire, arousal, reward, orgasm, and pelvic pain. The development of female animal models has provided important insights in the peripheral and central processes regulating sexual function. Behavioral models of sexual desire, motivation, and reward are well developed. Central arousal and orgasmic responses are less well understood, compared with the physiological changes associated with genital arousal. Models of nociception are useful for replicating symptoms and identifying the neurobiological pathways involved. While in some cases translation to women correlates with the findings in animals, the requirement of circulating hormones for sexual receptivity in rodents and the multifactorial nature of women's sexual function requires better designed studies and careful analysis. The current models have studied sexual dysfunction or pelvic pain in isolation; combining these aspects would help to elucidate interactions of the pathophysiology of pain and sexual dysfunction. Basic research in animals has been vital for understanding the anatomy, neurobiology, and physiological mechanisms underlying sexual function and urogenital pain. These models are important for understanding the etiology of female sexual

  9. Evidence that Neural Aromatization of Androgen Regulates the Expression of Sexual Behaviour in Female Musk Shrews.

    PubMed

    Rissman, E F

    1991-08-01

    Abstract The experiments reported on here were conducted to test the hypothesis that sexual behaviour in the female musk shrew (Suncus murinus) is regulated by the neural aromatization of testosterone to oestradiol. In the first experiment ovariectomized animals received subcutaneous hormone implants containing either an aromatizable androgen (testosterone or androstenedione), a non-aromatizable androgen (dihydrotestosterone or methyltrienolone), or cholesterol. Only females that received an aromatizable androgen exhibited significant amounts of sexual behaviour as compared with controls (cholesterol). To examine the role of the oestrogen receptor, the anti-oestrogen, tamoxifen (200 or 400 mug daily) was given to ovary intact or ovariectomized females treated with testosterone. Tamoxifen treatment had significant negative effects both on female sexual behaviour and on the weights of several peripheral tissues as compared with control treatments. A similar set of experiments was conducted to examine the effect of an anti-androgen on female sexual behaviour. The androgen receptor blocker, flutamide, had no effect on sexual behaviour or weights of peripheral tissues. To determine whether flutamide can act as an anti-androgen in this species two final experiments were conducted in male musk shrews. Flutamide treatment in males did affect several measures of sexual behaviour. In summary, these data demonstrate that the oestrogen receptor is involved in the control of female copulatory behaviour. The androgen receptor plays a role in the expression of male, but not female, sexual behaviour. Female musk shrews display copulatory behaviour in advance of follicular development when oestradiol concentrations in plasma are very low. Thus, they may have evolved a strategy of aromatizing peripherally produced androgens in the brain to concentrate the oestrogen required for the expression of sexual behaviour.

  10. Female sexual dysfunction in patients with endometriosis: Indian scenario

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Vineet V.; Nanda, Sakshi; Gandhi, Khushali; Aggarwal, Rohina; Choudhary, Sumesh; Gondhali, Raveendra

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in Indian women is often overlooked due to cultural beliefs and considered as social taboos. Sexuality is an important and integral part of life. There are many causes of sexual dysfunction, but the prevalence of FSD in endometriotic patients is still underdiagnosed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study design - Cross-sectional observational study conducted at tertiary care center, from June 2015 to March 2016. Sample size - Fifty-one patients in reproductive age group (18–47 years) who were diagnosed with endometriosis on diagnostic laparoscopy were included. Methods - FSD was assessed with a detailed 19-item female sexual function index questionnaire. All six domains of sexual dysfunction, i.e., desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were studied. Exclusion - Patients with other gynecological, medical or surgical history were excluded. RESULTS: Out of 51 patients with endometriosis, 47.06% of patients had sexual dysfunction. With the increase in staging of endometriosis, sexual dysfunction prevalence is also rising. FSD was 100% in patients with severe endometriosis as compared to 33.33% in minimal endometriosis. CONCLUSION: Every individual deserves good sexual life. The sexual dysfunction associated with endometriosis should also be taken into consideration while managing these patients. PMID:28216913

  11. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  12. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  13. The Role of Impulsivity in the Relation Between Negative Affect and Risky Sexual Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Charles; Sharp, Carla; Garey, Lorra; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-04-03

    While risky sexual behavior associates with negative affect, and impulsivity often increases during negative affective states, little is known about the interrelations of these factors. This study examined whether impulsivity explained the relation between negative affect and risky sex among college students. Negative affect exhibited an indirect effect via impulsivity on number of sexual partners for both males and females, and on inconsistent condom use for females, but not males. Results suggest risky sex may serve to regulate negative affect, proposing the importance of negative affect in future strategies to reduce risky sex among young adults.

  14. Endocrinology of human female sexuality, mating, and reproductive behavior.

    PubMed

    Motta-Mena, Natalie V; Puts, David A

    2016-11-17

    Hormones orchestrate and coordinate human female sexual development, sexuality, and reproduction in relation to three types of phenotypic changes: life history transitions such as puberty and childbirth, responses to contextual factors such as caloric intake and stress, and cyclical patterns such as the ovulatory cycle. Here, we review the endocrinology underlying women's reproductive phenotypes, including sexual orientation and gender identity, mate preferences, competition for mates, sex drive, and maternal behavior. We highlight distinctive aspects of women's sexuality such as the possession of sexual ornaments, relatively cryptic fertile windows, extended sexual behavior across the ovulatory cycle, and a period of midlife reproductive senescence-and we focus on how hormonal mechanisms were shaped by selection to produce adaptive outcomes. We conclude with suggestions for future research to elucidate how hormonal mechanisms subserve women's reproductive phenotypes.

  15. Rapid changes in brain aromatase activity in the female quail brain following expression of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    de Bournonville, Catherine; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques; Cornil, Charlotte A

    2017-10-09

    In male quail, estrogens produced in the brain (neuroestrogens) exert a dual action on male sexual behavior: they increase sexual motivation within minutes via mechanisms activated at the membrane but facilitate sexual performance by slower, presumably nuclear-initiated, mechanisms. Recent work indicates that neuroestrogens are also implicated in the control of female sexual motivation despite the presence of high circulating concentrations of estrogens of ovarian origin. Interestingly aromatase activity (AA) in the male brain is regulated in time domains corresponding to the slow "genomic" and faster "non-genomic" modes of action of estrogens. Furthermore, rapid changes in brain AA are observed in males after sexual interactions with a female. In this study, we investigated whether similar rapid changes in brain AA are observed in females allowed to interact sexually with males. A significant decrease in AA was observed in the medial preoptic nucleus after interactions that lasted 2, 5 or 10 min but this decrease was no longer significant after 15 min of interaction. In the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, a progressive decline of average AA was observed between 2 and 15 min but it never reached statistical significance. AA in this nucleus was however negatively correlated with the sexual receptivity of the female. These data indicate that sexual interactions affect brain AA in females as in males in an anatomically specific manner and suggest that rapid changes in brain estrogens production could also modulate female sexual behavior. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of female sexual pain disorders.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Stéphanie C; Goldfinger, Corrie; Thibault-Gagnon, Stéphanie; Pukall, Caroline F

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the sexual pain disorders vaginismus and dyspareunia has been fundamentally altered over the past two decades due to increased attention and empirically sound research in this domain. This increased knowledge base has included a shift from a dualistic view of the etiology of painful and/or difficult vaginal penetration being due to either psychological or physiological causes, to a multifactorial perspective. The present chapter reviews current classification and prevalence rates, including ongoing definitional debates. Research regarding the etiology, assessment and management of sexual pain disorders is discussed from a biopsychosocial perspective. Cyclical theories of the development and maintenance of sexual pain disorders, which highlight the complex interplay among physiological, psychological and social factors, are described. Medical/surgical treatment options, pelvic floor rehabilitation and psychological approaches are reviewed, as well as future directions in treatment research.

  17. Female methamphetamine users: social characteristics and sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Semple, Shirley J; Grant, Igor; Patterson, Thomas L

    2004-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to expand our knowledge regarding the personal and social characteristics of female methamphetamine (meth) users, their motivations for using meth, patterns of meth use, medical and social problems associated with meth use, and the relationship between meth use and sexual risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 98 HIV-negative, heterosexually-identified, meth-using females residing in San Diego, California. Female meth users were characterized by personal and social disadvantage, high rates of psychiatric symptomatology, and high levels of sexual risk behavior, including multiple partners, risky partner types (e.g., anonymous sex partners), and high rates of unprotected vaginal and oral sex. Meth use was also associated with the subjective positive experience of sex. These finding suggest that behavioral interventions should be tailored to the social characteristics of female meth users, and program content should reflect the intertwining of women's sexual experience and meth use.

  18. Testosterone patches for female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    2009-03-01

    There is some suggestion of a link between sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women and low circulating concentrations of testosterone.1 This underlies the development of a new transdermal testosterone patch (black triangle down Intrinsa - Procter & Gamble) that has recently been licensed in the UK for the treatment of women who have hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) following a menopause induced by surgery (i.e. bilateral salpingooophorectomy and hysterectomy) and who are receiving concomitant oestrogen replacement therapy.2 Here we discuss the diagnosis of HSDD, as well as the evidence for using transdermal testosterone patches in women in whom this diagnosis is made.

  19. Sexual behavior and the influencing factors among out of school female adolescents in Mushin market, Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odeyemi, Kofoworola; Onajole, Adebayo; Ogunowo, Babatunde

    2009-01-01

    High rates of adolescent pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and unsafe abortions in Nigeria indicate the need for a greater understanding of factors that affect adolescent sexuality. The sexual health needs of adolescents remain poorly known and addressed particularly among vulnerable subpopulations like out-of-school adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the sexual behavior of female out-of-school adolescents and to identify factors that influence their sexual behavior. This cross-sectional study was conducted among a representative sample of unmarried, out-of-school female adolescents (n = 332, mean age 17 y), selected using cluster sampling, who were working in a major market (Mushin) in Lagos, Nigeria. Data were collected using interviewer administered questionnaires. Many girls (43.7%) have had sexual intercourse. The mean age at initiation was 16 years. The main reason for initiation was curiosity. Risky sexual behavior and transactional sex was common. Nonconsensual sex was also reported. Sexual health knowledge was poor, and friends served as their main source of information on sexual health issues. Factors associated with the initiation of sexual activity were friends sexual behavior, the person adolescents reside with, parents marital status, availability of funds to meet basic needs, and watching pornography (p < .05). Out-of-school female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior are exposed to sexual abuse, lack skills to resist pressure, and have limited access to credible reproductive health information. Appropriate interventions including provision of sexuality education and a supportive environment must be instituted to address their needs.

  20. Do feather-degrading bacteria affect sexually selected plumage color?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawkey, Matthew D.; Pillai, Shreekumar R.; Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    Models of parasite-mediated sexual selection propose that males with more elaborate sexual traits will have fewer parasites. These models have generally been tested using metazoan or protozoan parasites of the blood, gut, or integument. Fewer studies have examined sexual ornaments in relation to bacterial infections. While most surface bacteria are harmless or beneficial, feather-degrading bacteria may have detrimental effects. In this study, we examined the relationships between overall bacterial load, feather-degrading bacterial load, and sexually selected carotenoid-based plumage color in a wild population of house finches ( Carpodacus mexicanus). We found that males with the redder plumage preferred by females had similar overall bacterial loads, but lower feather-degrading bacterial loads, than males with less red plumage. These data suggest that plumage color can signal abundance of feather-degrading bacteria to potential mates. It remains unclear whether feather-degrading bacteria directly or indirectly affect plumage color, but the observed correlations suggest that feather-degrading bacteria may play some role in sexual selection.

  1. HIV risk and sexual health among female migrants in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Dong, Yanyan; Chen, Lin; Song, Dandan; Wang, Jun; Tao, Haidong; Zaller, Nickolas; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don

    2016-09-01

    Sexual behavior is the dominant mode of HIV transmission in China, and young female migrants are among the populations at highest risk. This article examines how HIV-related risk behaviors among female migrants might vary according to workplace settings. Participants were young female migrants recruited from three workplace settings-factories, restaurants and entertainment venues. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed 457 participants' sociodemographic characteristics, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, condom use knowledge, sexual behaviors, condom use behavior and reproductive health factors. Participants working in entertainment venues were significantly more likely than those working in factories and restaurants to report sexual behavior, unprotected sex, multiple pregnancy terminations and sexually transmitted infections (STI). However, participants working in factories and restaurants reported significantly lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, condom use knowledge, condom use self-efficacy and history of HIV/AIDS counseling and testing. Independent correlates of unprotected sex included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history and sexual self-efficacy. Independent correlates of STI or genitourinary tract infection included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history, recent migration and recent unprotected sex. These findings indicate a need for sexual and reproductive health interventions prioritizing young female migrants, and call for programs that can be incorporated into different workplace settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sexual Function Is Correlated With Body Image and Partnership Quality in Female University Students.

    PubMed

    Wallwiener, Stephanie; Strohmaier, Jana; Wallwiener, Lisa-Maria; Schönfisch, Birgitt; Zipfel, Stephan; Brucker, Sara Y; Rietschel, Marcella; Wallwiener, Christian W

    2016-10-01

    According to the World Health Organization definition, sexual health is more than mere physical sexual function; it also encompasses emotional, mental, and social well-being in relation to sexuality and is not merely the absence of dysfunction or disease. In line with this definition, various studies have reported that female sexual function is associated with partnership quality, body image, and body self-acceptance. To investigate whether female sexual function is influenced by (i) body self-acceptance and (ii) partnership quality, as important factors in psychosocial well-being, and (iii) whether the effects of body self-acceptance are moderated by partnership quality. In total, 2,685 female medical students no older than 35 years from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland completed an anonymous online questionnaire comprising the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Self-Acceptance of the Body Scale. Respondents were asked to state whether they had been in a steady partnership in the preceding 6 months. When present, the quality of the partnership status was rated (enamoredness, love, friendship, or conflicted). To determine correlations, group differences, and moderating effects among body self-acceptance, partnership quality, and sexual function, the data were analyzed using Spearman correlations, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and analyses of variance. Female sexual function (FSFI total score). (i) In sexually active women, higher FSFI scores were significantly associated with greater body self-acceptance and a steady partnership during the preceding 6 months. (ii) Total FSFI scores were highest in women who described their partnership as enamored (29.45) or loving (28.55). Lower scores were observed in single women (26.71) and in women who described their partnerships as friendship (25.76) or as emotionally conflicted (23.41). (iii) Total FSFI score was affected by an interaction between body self-acceptance and partnership quality. Body self- acceptance was

  3. Combat deployment is associated with sexual harassment or sexual assault in a large, female military cohort.

    PubMed

    Leardmann, Cynthia A; Pietrucha, Amanda; Magruder, Kathryn M; Smith, Besa; Murdoch, Maureen; Jacobson, Isabel G; Ryan, Margaret A K; Gackstetter, Gary; Smith, Tyler C

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have examined the prevalence, risk factors, and health correlates of sexual stressors in the military, but have been limited to specific subpopulations. Furthermore, little is known about sexual stressors' occurrence and their correlates in relation to female troops deployed to the current operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using longitudinal data from Millennium Cohort participants, the associations of recent deployment as well as other individual and environmental factors with sexual harassment and sexual assault were assessed among U.S. female military personnel. Multivariable analyses were used to investigate the associations. Of 13,262 eligible participants, 1,362 (10.3%) reported at least one sexual stressor at follow-up. Women who deployed and reported combat experiences were significantly more likely to report sexual harassment (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.84-2.64) or both sexual harassment and sexual assault (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.61-3.78) compared with nondeployers. In addition, significant risk factors for sexual stressors included younger age, recent separation or divorce, service in the Marine Corps, positive screen for a baseline mental health condition, moderate/severe life stress, and prior sexual stressor experiences. Although deployment itself was not associated with sexual stressors, women who both deployed and reported combat were at a significantly increased odds for sexual stressors than other female service members who did not deploy. Understanding the factors associated with sexual stressors can inform future policy and prevention efforts to eliminate sexual stressors. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  4. Possible evolutionary origins of human female sexual fluidity.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2016-05-16

    I propose an evolutionary theory of human female sexual fluidity and argue that women may have been evolutionarily designed to be sexually fluid in order to allow them to have sex with their cowives in polygynous marriage and thus reduce conflict and tension inherent in such marriage. In addition to providing an extensive definition and operationalization of the concept of sexual fluidity and specifying its ultimate function for women, the proposed theory can potentially solve several theoretical and empirical puzzles in evolutionary psychology and sex research. Analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) confirm the theory's predictions that: (i) women (but not men) who experience increased levels of sexual fluidity have a larger number of children (suggesting that female sexual fluidity, if heritable, may be evolutionarily selected); (ii) women (but not men) who experience marriage or parenthood early in adult life subsequently experience increased levels of sexual fluidity; and (iii) sexual fluidity is significantly positively correlated with known markers of unrestricted sexual orientation among women whereas it is significantly negatively correlated with such markers among men.

  5. "Lesbian"/female same-sex sexualities in Africa.

    PubMed

    Currier, Ashley; Migraine-George, Thérèse

    2017-04-03

    Understandings of African lesbian sexualities have been affected by silence, repression, and uncertainty. The subject of lesbian experiences and sexualities in Africa constitutes an opportunity for feminist scholars to address the transnational politics of knowledge production about African lesbians' lives and the contours of lesbian art, activism, and relationships in African nations. This article contextualizes the state of research on African lesbian sexualities and introduces the special issue.

  6. Association between sexting and sexual coercion among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Choi, HyeJeong; Van Ouytsel, Joris; Temple, Jeff R

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to investigate whether experiences of offline sexual coercion are associated with adolescent females' involvement in different types of sexting behaviors. It draws on data from 450 ethnically diverse female adolescents with an average age of 19.02 years (SD = 0.74) who were originally recruited in southeast Texas. The participants were asked about their experiences with sexual coercion, and their engagement in sexting behavior (i.e., sending, requesting, and being asked for a sext, and receiving a sext without giving permission). Logistic regressions were used to analyze these relationships, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education level, living situation, and sexting behaviors in the year prior of the study. Offline sexual coercion was significantly associated with sending and being asked for a naked image, as well as receiving a naked image without giving permission. The results suggest that sexting could function as an online extension of offline forms of sexual coercion.

  7. Role of acetylcholine in control of sexual behavior of male and female mammals.

    PubMed

    Floody, Owen R

    2014-05-01

    The results of studies using systemic or central applications of cholinergic drugs suggest that acetylcholine makes important contributions to the neurochemical control of male- and female-typical reproductive behaviors. In males, cholinergic control seems largely specific to some elements or aspects of copulatory behavior that can vary significantly across species. Synapses in or near the medial preoptic area represent part of this mechanism, but the entire system appears to extend more widely, perhaps especially to one or more structures flanking some part of the lateral ventricle. In females, the lordosis response that essentially defines sexual receptivity is clearly responsive to cholinergic drugs. The same seems likely to be true of other elements of female sexual behavior, but additional studies will be needed to confirm this. Changes in cholinergic activity may help to mediate estrogenic effects on female sexual behavior. However, estrogen exposure can increase or decrease cholinergic effects, suggesting a relationship that is complex and requires further analysis. Also presently unclear is the localization of the cholinergic effects on female sexual responses. Though periventricular sites again have been implicated, their identity is presently unknown. This review discusses these and other aspects of the central cholinergic systems affecting male and female sexual behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  9. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  10. Romantic, sexual, and sexual risk behaviours of adolescent females with severe obesity.

    PubMed

    Becnel, J N; Zeller, M H; Noll, J G; Sarwer, D B; Reiter-Purtill, J; Michalsky, M; Peugh, J; Biro, F M

    2017-10-01

    There is an increasing adolescent population with severe obesity with impairments in social and romantic relationships that are seeking clinical weight management, including weight loss surgery (WLS). To document romantic, sexual and sexual risk behaviours in a clinical sample of adolescent females with severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m(2) ) compared to those of healthy weight (HW). This multi-site study-an ancillary to a prospective longitudinal observational study documenting health in adolescents having WLS-presents pre-operative/baseline data from 108 females undergoing WLS, 68 severely obese seeking lifestyle intervention and 118 of HW. Romantic and sexual risk behaviour and birth control information sources were assessed using the Sexual Activities and Attitudes Questionnaire (SAAQ). Severely obese females reported engaging in fewer romantic and sexual behaviours compared to HW. Similar to HW, a subgroup (25%) of severely females were engaging in higher rates of sexual risk behaviours and reported pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A considerable number (28-44%) reported receiving no birth control information from physicians. Discussion topics with the adolescent patient should extend beyond reproductive health needs (e.g. contraception, unintended pregnancies) to include guidance around navigating romantic and sexual health behaviours that are precursors to these outcomes. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  11. Harassment, sexual abuse, and safety of the female athlete.

    PubMed

    Brackenridge, C

    2000-04-01

    Sexual harassment and abuse by authority figures in sports are discussed in relation to how female athletes might improve their personal safety to guard against such practices. The origins of sport research on this theme are traced, and the processes of sexual harassment and abuse are identified. Risk factors for the coach, the athlete, and the sport are presented, and, finally, sources of prevention measures for coaches, athletes, parents, and clubs are provided.

  12. Female sexual dysfunction: facts and factors among gynecology outpatients.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Muna Shalima; Billah, Syed Muhammad Baqui; Furuya, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the female sexual dysfunction of respondents at gynecology outpatient clinics.   The cross-sectional study involved interviewing 137 female respondents from the gynecology outpatient department of Dhaka Medical College Hospital and Shaheed Suhrawardy Hospital with a semi-structured questionnaire during March-August 2007. The sociodemographic details and sexual history with sexual problems were recorded. Half (51.8%) the respondents had one or more sexual problems. Pain during intercourse (71.8%) and reduced desire (54.9%) were highest among different complaints followed by orgasmic (43.66%) and arousal problems (32.39%). Age and education were significantly associated with reduced desire (P=0.03). Delivery mode was significantly associated with inhibited desire (P=0.01) and arousal problems (P=0.003), and not significantly with pain (P=0.06). After adjusting confounding factors, parity (odds ratio [OR]=3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.21-9.68), history of menstrual regulation (OR=2.84, 95%CI: 1.31-6.22), mental stress (OR=2.81, 95%CI: 1.05-7.50) and sexual problems of the husband (OR=3.16, 95%CI: 1.19-8.44) became risk factors for increasing odds of having dysfunction while increased frequency of intercourse showed a marginally significant reducing effect (OR=0.764, 95%CI: 0.95-1.00). This is a pioneer study in Bangladesh to postulate female sexuality, revealing pain disorder as most prevalent; the women with dysfunction were dissatisfied with their sexual life. In order to determine the cause of female sexual dysfunction, the topic needs further exploration involving intervention at regular medical investigations. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Ascending SAG neurons control sexual receptivity of Drosophila females.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kai; Palfreyman, Mark T; Häsemeyer, Martin; Talsma, Aaron; Dickson, Barry J

    2014-07-02

    Mating induces pronounced changes in female reproductive behavior, typically including a dramatic reduction in sexual receptivity. In Drosophila, postmating behavioral changes are triggered by sex peptide (SP), a male seminal fluid peptide that acts via a receptor (SPR) expressed in sensory neurons (SPSNs) of the female reproductive tract. Here, we identify second-order neurons that mediate the behavioral changes induced by SP. These SAG neurons receive synaptic input from SPSNs in the abdominal ganglion and project to the dorsal protocerebrum. Silencing SAG neurons renders virgin females unreceptive, whereas activating them increases the receptivity of females that have already mated. Physiological experiments demonstrate that SP downregulates the excitability of the SPSNs, and hence their input onto SAG neurons. These data thus provide a physiological correlate of mating status in the female central nervous system and a key entry point into the brain circuits that control sexual receptivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Teen birth rates in sexually abused and neglected females.

    PubMed

    Noll, Jennie G; Shenk, Chad E

    2013-04-01

    Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized.

  15. Teen Birth Rates in Sexually Abused and Neglected Females

    PubMed Central

    Shenk, Chad E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prospectively track teen childbirths in maltreated and nonmaltreated females and test the hypothesis that child maltreatment is an independent predictor of subsequent teen childbirth over and above demographic characteristics and other risk factors. METHODS: Nulliparous adolescent females (N = 435) aged 14 to 17 years were assessed annually through age 19 years. Maltreated females were referred by Child Protective Services agencies for having experienced substantiated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or neglect within the preceding 12 months. Comparison females were matched on race, family income, age and family constellation. Teen childbirth was assessed via self-report during annual interviews. Births were confirmed using hospital delivery records. RESULTS: Seventy participants gave birth during the study, 54 in the maltreated group and 16 in the comparison group. Maltreated females were twice as likely to experience teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds and known risk factors (odds ratio = 2.17, P = 0.01). Birth rates were highest for sexually abused and neglected females. Sexual abuse and neglect were both independent predictors of teen childbirth after controlling for demographic confounds, other risk factors and alternative forms of maltreatment occurring earlier in development. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence that sexual abuse and neglect are unique predictors of subsequent teen childbirth. Partnerships between protective service providers and teen childbirth prevention strategists hold the best promise for further reducing the US teen birth rate. Additional research illuminating the pathways to teen childbirth for differing forms of maltreatment is needed so that tailored interventions can be realized. PMID:23530173

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Adult Female Sexual Dysfunction: A Study of Couples Seeking Sex Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarwer, David B.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of 359 married women who sought sex therapy with their spouses found a connection between adult female sexual dysfunction and childhood sexual abuse. Abuse involving sexual penetration was specifically associated with adult sexual dysfunction. Future research on additional variables that contribute to sexual dysfunction is urged. (CR)

  18. Sexuality behind bars in the female central penitentiary of Santiago, Chile: Unlocking the gendered binary.

    PubMed

    Castro Madariaga, Francisca Alejandra; Gómez Garcés, Belén Estefanía; Carrasco Parra, Alicia; Foster, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    We explore what it means to promote healthy sexuality for incarcerated women. We report upon the experiences of ten inmates in the Female Central Penitentiary of Santiago, Chile, regarding their sexuality within prison. We used a qualitative, descriptive research approach. Individual and semistructured interviews were conducted with women from different sections of the prison over a 2-month period. Participants highlighted the site for conjugal visits, the Venusterio, as a place of privacy and sexual expression between couples from outside prison. Motivated by loneliness, need of protection, and desire for affection, participants enacted alternate gender and sexual identities and sexual orientation. Some previously heterosexual women became 'machos', women taking on dominant masculine identities. Women found a paradoxical freedom to express a malleable and fluid sexual identity, an identity that might not go outside the prison. Informed by Judith Butler's idea of performativity, we argue that women could enact both different gender and sexual identities in search of satisfying their affective and erotic desires while under the duress of incarceration. The findings suggest a need for a more fluid understanding of gender and sexuality, especially for those midwives and nurses who strive to promote sexual health, not only reproductive health.

  19. Female offenders in child sexual abuse cases: a national picture.

    PubMed

    McLeod, David Axlyn

    2015-01-01

    Female sexual offenders are significantly underrepresented in the literature. Largely due to a failure of our society to recognize women as offenders, we allow them to avoid detection, prosecution, and interventions like tracking, registration, or mandated treatment. This could be partially due to differences that exist in their offending behaviors, victim profiles, and personal characteristics that set them apart from male offenders, to whom our systems have become more attuned. This article features an examination of virtually every substantiated child sexual abuse case reported to child protective services in the United States for 2010. Findings detail observed differences between male and female offenders on multiple domains and affirm female sexual offenders to be distinctly different from their male counterparts.

  20. Prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in Brazil: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wolpe, Raquel E; Zomkowski, Kamilla; Silva, Fabiana P; Queiroz, Ana Paula A; Sperandio, Fabiana F

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in the Brazilian population. This is a systematic review conducted in July 2016 in which four databases were searched: MEDLINE/Pubmed, Scopus, LILACS, and Cinahl. Two investigators extracted the primary data, which were fully analyzed, and applied the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The search found 113 results, and 20 of them compounded the scope of this study. Only four of the studies showed good methodology quality. The main diagnostics criteria used were validated questionnaires specific for sexual function assessment. Regarding the variation of prevalence values, female sexual dysfunction ranged from 13.3% to 79.3% of the studied population, while this value for changes in sexual desire ranged from 11% to 75%, arousal from 8% to 68.2%, lubrication from 29.1% to 41.4%, orgasm from 18% to 55.4%, and satisfaction from 3.3% to 42%; sexual activity frequency ranged from 55.8% to 78.5%, dyspareunia from 1.2% to 56.1%, and pleasure modifications was not addressed. Beside the divergences among studies, there is still a high prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in Brazil.

  1. Socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Javadnoori, Mojgan; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite clear reasons for necessity of sexual health education for adolescents, it is a contested issue and has faced challenges in most cultures. Providing sexual education for non-married adolescents is culturally unacceptable in most Muslim societies. Objective: This qualitative study addressed socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Materials and Methods: Qualitative data from female adolescents (14-18 yr), mothers, teachers, authorities in health and education organizations, health care providers and clergies were collected in two large cities of Iran including Mashhad and Ahvaz through focus group discussions and individual in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional qualitative content analysis with MAXqda software. Results: Our results revealed that the main socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for adolescents in Iran are affected by taboos surrounding sexuality. The emergent categories were: denial of premarital sex, social concern about negative impacts of sexual education, perceived stigma and embarrassment, reluctance to discuss sexual issues in public, sexual discussion as a socio-cultural taboo, lack of advocacy and legal support, intergenerational gap, religious uncertainties, and imitating non-Islamic patterns of education. Conclusion: It seems that cultural resistances are more important than religious prohibitions, and affect more the nature and content of sexual health education. However, despite existence of salient socio-cultural doubtful issues about sexual health education for adolescents, the emerging challenges are manageable to some extent. It is hoped that the acceptability of sexual health education for adolescents could be promoted through overcoming the cultural taboos and barriers as major obstacles. PMID:24639734

  2. Advances in pharmacotherapy for treating female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E; Cucinella, Laura

    2015-04-01

    'Female sexual dysfunction' (FSD) is an umbrella term comprising a range of common disorders, including hypoactive sexual desire, reduced subjective and/or physical genital arousal (poor sensation, vasocongestion, lubrication), sexual pain and inability to achieve orgasm/satisfaction, which are multidimensional by nature and often coexisting. Psychological and contextual factors have a significant influence on organic components of sexual response and behavior and a tailored medical approach to sexual symptoms is inevitably limited. The paper reports the most recent advances in pharmacotherapy for women taking into account the biopsychosocial model. Hormone therapy, including estrogens, testosterone, tibolone and dehydroepiandrosterone, are discussed in term of efficacy and safety in postmenopausal women both for female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD) and genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder. Ospemifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, approved to treat dyspareunia at menopause, is also discussed. Data on psychoactive agents for treatment of FSIAD in premenopausal women are discussed, including the potential use of on-demand combined hormonal (testosterone) and non-hormonal (buspirone or sildenafil) treatments to address possible neurophysiological profiles of women. We are still waiting for an approved pharmacotherapy for FSD. This is not the result of gender inequality in sexual medicine, but it reflects the need of balancing benefits and risks in order to provide effective and safe treatments to women of any age.

  3. Sexual Desire in Iranian Female University Students: Role of Marital Satisfaction and Sex Guilt

    PubMed Central

    Teimourpour, Negar; Moshtagh Bidokhti, Nahaleh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Bahrami Ehsan, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine association between sexual desire and marital satisfaction and sex guilt among a sample of Iranian female university students. Methods: The data presented here were obtained from a total of 192 married Iranian female university students who were selected via a multi-cluster sampling method from universities of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tarbiat Modarres, and Islamic Azad. The subjects' sociodemographic data, marital satisfaction (using ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire), sex guilt (using Mosher Revised Sex-Guilt Inventory), and sexual desire (using Hurlbert Index of Sexual Desire) were gathered. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis methods were used to analyse the data. Results: Findings showed there are significant relationships between sexual desire and marital satisfaction (r = 0.51, p < 0.01) and also between sexual desire and sex guilt (r = -0.44, p < 0.01). Also marital satisfaction and sex guilt were able to predict 31 percent of the variance of sexual desire. Conclusion: Marital satisfaction and sex guilt are two factors that significantly affect fluctuations in sexual desire of Iranian female university students. PMID:25798176

  4. Tissue-specific insulin signaling mediates female sexual attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fedina, Tatyana Y; Arbuthnott, Devin; Rundle, Howard D; Promislow, Daniel E L; Pletcher, Scott D

    2017-08-01

    Individuals choose their mates so as to maximize reproductive success, and one important component of this choice is assessment of traits reflecting mate quality. Little is known about why specific traits are used for mate quality assessment nor about how they reflect it. We have previously shown that global manipulation of insulin signaling, a nutrient-sensing pathway governing investment in survival versus reproduction, affects female sexual attractiveness in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Here we demonstrate that these effects on attractiveness derive from insulin signaling in the fat body and ovarian follicle cells, whose signals are integrated by pheromone-producing cells called oenocytes. Functional ovaries were required for global insulin signaling effects on attractiveness, and manipulations of insulin signaling specifically in late follicle cells recapitulated effects of global manipulations. Interestingly, modulation of insulin signaling in the fat body produced opposite effects on attractiveness, suggesting a competitive relationship with the ovary. Furthermore, all investigated tissue-specific insulin signaling manipulations that changed attractiveness also changed fecundity in the corresponding direction, pointing to insulin pathway activity as a reliable link between fecundity and attractiveness cues. The cues themselves, cuticular hydrocarbons, responded distinctly to fat body and follicle cell manipulations, indicating independent readouts of the pathway activity from these two tissues. Thus, here we describe a system in which female attractiveness results from an apparent connection between attractiveness cues and an organismal state of high fecundity, both of which are created by lowered insulin signaling in the fat body and increased insulin signaling in late follicle cells.

  5. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:24262218

  6. Female gratification, sexual power and safer sex: female sexuality as an empowering resource among women in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Skafte, Ina; Silberschmidt, Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    The gender-based response to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa has tended to reinforce normative stereotypes of women as subordinated, passive and powerless victims, in particular in sexual relations. However, based on qualitative data from Rwanda, this paper argues that such conceptualisations fail to recognise that while women do comply with prevalent social norms, they also challenge these norms and sex becomes a domain in which they can exert power. Female sexuality and sexual gratification - acknowledged and valued by women as well as men - play a pivotal role in the Rwandese mode of sexual intercourse. This provides women a central position in sexual relations, which affords them sexual power. Recognising their sexuality as a resource and drawing upon this 'sexual capital', women are active social agents who have the capacity to manipulate and challenge male dominance in a deliberate strategy both to practice safer sex and to access decision-making power and material resources. This suggests that inherent in sexual relations is a potential for the empowerment of women and the transformation of gender relations.

  7. Female sexual compulsivity: a new syndrome.

    PubMed

    Turner, Martha

    2008-12-01

    This article discusses women who have sexual compulsivity, a disorder that is intensely shame-based and difficult to treat. The case studies presented show the family preconditioning of abandonment in childhood through inadequate care, abuse, neglect, and the presence of other addictions. As children, these women searched for something to soothe their distress when they could not rely on their caregivers. Maladaptive coping mechanisms, such as masturbation, food, romantic or violent fantasies, and any behavior to would gain attention, maintained their sanity in childhood. However, these behaviors also advanced to autonomy, eliminating the option of choices. In adulthood, the numbing of psychic pain by these found solutions became a preoccupation around which life was organized. Consequences developed and as the disease progressed, large amounts of time were regularly lost in fantasy and ritualistic behaviors, causing life to become unmanageable. The fear of being discovered, loneliness, and sexually transmitted diseases typically escalates to spiritual bankruptcy and eventual spiritual, psychological, and possibly physical death. The dilemma is too deep and powerful for women to heal themselves over time, partly because of her impaired thinking, unresolved trauma, and desperation-driven repeat of the behaviors. Proper intervention and treatment can make a difference. Restoration to full health takes years, requiring diligence, motivation, and a therapist who is knowledgeable, committed, patient, and willing to use all available modalities. Trust is a huge issue for these women, and even when taking a positive risk in therapy, trauma responses from early childhood may be evoked. These women are exquisitely sensitive to criticism, but if feeling safe most can learn to trust and will respond to help, because they long to be restored to their values, be self-sufficient, and have a voice that is respected. Uncovering sexual secrets from previous generations, still

  8. Duration of hypertension and antihypertensive agents in correlation with the phases of female sexual response cycle.

    PubMed

    Latif, Rozimah Abdul; Muhamad, Rosediani; Ann, Anne Yee Hway; Sidi, Hatta; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Midin, Marhani; Das, Srijit; Seng, Loh Huai; Guan, Ng Chong

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the construct of the phases of the female sexual response cycle (SRC) in women with hypertension and their association with the duration of hypertension and types of antihypertensive agents. The sexual response phases were measured with a validated Malay version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The correlations structure of the items of the SRC's phases (i.e. desire, arousal, orgasm, satisfaction and pain) was determined using principal component analysis (PCA), with varimax rotation method. The number of factors obtained was decided using Kaiser's criteria. A total of 348 hypertensive women were recruited for this study. Four constructs were extracted in the analysis of all subjects. Using the factor analysis, the six domains (i.e. sexual desire, arousal, etc.) of the women's SRC among hypertensive women merged into 4 constructs. They were composed of (i) sexual desire and arousal, (ii) orgasm and sexual satisfaction, (iii) vaginal lubrication and (iv) sexual pain. Interestingly, vaginal lubrication stood out alone as one construct, compared to the non-hypertensive women. It was also observed that the duration of hypertension, beta blocker and diuretic antihypertensive medications had different influence on the SCR (in terms of constructs). Duration of hypertension and types of antihypertensive drugs may affect the components of the SRC. A clear understanding would help the clinician in strategizing the treatment approach of sexual dysfunction in women with hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females.

  10. Affect and Sexual Responsivity in Men With and Without a History of Sexual Aggression.

    PubMed

    Craig, Amber N; Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R

    2017-10-01

    Despite increased attention to understanding risk factors for sexual aggression, knowledge regarding the emotional and sexual arousal patterns of sexually aggressive men remains limited. The current study examined whether sexually aggressive men exhibit unique profiles of affective responsivity, in particular to negatively valenced stimuli, as well as sexual arousal patterns that differentiate them from nonaggressive men. We presented 78 young men (38 sexually aggressive; 40 nonaggressive) with a series of videos designed to induce positive, sad, or anxious affect. Affect and subjective sexual arousal were assessed following each film and erectile responses were measured continuously. Sexually aggressive men reported significantly higher levels of sexual arousal following both the positive and negative conditions as compared to nonaggressive men. Erectile responses of sexually aggressive men were significantly greater than nonaggressive men's following the positive affect induction. Self-reported positive affect, but not negative affect, was a significant predictor of subjective sexual arousal for both groups of men. Compared to nonaggressive men, sexually aggressive men showed significantly weaker correlations between subjective and physiological sexual arousal. Findings suggest that generalized heightened propensity for sexual arousal may be a risk factor for sexually aggressive behavior.

  11. Female sexual dysfunction and hormonal status in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Giuseppe; Celso, Maria; Bartelli, Mario; Cilotti, Antonio; Del Popolo, Giulio

    2011-04-01

    Literature holds no information on a correlation between blood hormonal levels, in particular sex hormones and the sexual response of women with multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate a possible correlation between hormonal status and the sexual response of females with MS. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used to determine sexual dysfunctions (SDs). Methods for measuring blood hormones were chemiluminescence immunoassay, electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay, and radioimmunoassay. During the screening phase, 55 women of reproductive age were recruited and completed the FSFI. In the first phase of the study females underwent a hematic hormonal evaluation on the third day of their menstrual cycle. Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), androstenedione, 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone, total and free testosterone, 17 beta estradiol, inhibin and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and thyroid hormones (fT3 and fT4) were checked. On the day 20-21 into their menstrual cycle the progesterone hematic value was noted. Patients with amenorrhea had all hormones tested once with a random blood drawing. After a 3-month period patients began phase 2, completing the FSFI again. The same blood hormones were investigated. Fifty-four females completed the study. Thirty-one continued to manifest at least one SD: desire (57.4%) was the most common. Overall, 36.4% showed abnormal hormonal alterations. The most frequent was 40% for 17 beta-estradiol. None of the FSFI domains, including the total score, revealed any statistically significant correlation to the hormones investigated. No statistically significant clinical predictive factors for blood hormone abnormalities were detected; comparing females with and without SD, P = 0.250 using chi-squared test was reached. Notable percentages of blood hormonal

  12. Conflict Resolution Styles as Mediators of Female Child Sexual Abuse Experience and Heterosexual Couple Relationship Satisfaction and Stability in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H

    2017-01-01

    Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.

  13. Sexual Equality, Female Labor Force Participation and Female Crime: Testing Some Common Assumptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Cecil L.

    This study measures the impact of sexual equality on the differences between male and female involvement in crime. The units of analysis were all 100 counties in North Carolina. Data for the dependent variable, male-female involvement in crime, were obtained from the North Carolina Police Information Network. The 1970 U.S. Census was the source of…

  14. Inter-relationships between sexual abuse, female sexual function and childbirth.

    PubMed

    Gottfried, Ruth; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Hallak, Mordechai; Lang-Franco, Nessia

    2015-11-01

    the present quantitative longitudinal study focuses on the inter-relationships between sexual abuse, distressed female sexual function and childbirth. Additional variables studied include depression, mode of delivery, subjective birth experience and traumatic life events other than sexual abuse. data collection for the study was extended across three time periods: during the third trimester of pregnancy and approximately one and six months postpartum. Self-reported questionnaire responses of 300 women from two medical centres in Israel, as well as hospital records regarding their mode of childbirth, were included in the data analysis. Measures incorporated in the study included the Female Sexual Distress Scale-Revised, the Beck Depression Inventory and modified versions of the Traumatic Events Questionnaire, the Sexual Experiences Survey, and the Subjective Birth Experience Questionnaire. findings demonstrated that women with a lifetime history of sexual abuse compared to women without such history, are at an increased risk for distressed antenatal and postpartum female sexual function (Odds Ratio OR=2.66 and OR=2.26, respectively); and postpartum depression (OR=2.36). Antenatal depression was likewise shown to be significantly associated with antenatal and postpartum distressed female sexual function (OR=4.32 and OR=10.4, respectively), as well as with a more negatively experienced childbirth (T-Ratio, T=1.98, p<0.05). Moreover, distressed antenatal female sexual function was found to increase the risk for a more negatively experienced childbirth (T=2.04, p<0.05), and caesarean childbirth (OR=3.34). the current study enriches the understanding of the inter-relationships between the antenatal, childbirth and postpartum variables studied herein; and has implications for evidence based practice in both preventative and intervention efforts. Recommendations for future research are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward.

  16. Female and male undergraduates' attributions for sexual offending against children.

    PubMed

    Beling, J; Hudson, S M; Ward, T

    2001-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in undergraduates' attributions for child sex offending. One hundred and sixty-four undergraduates were asked to give the reasons why they think men sexually offend against children and to rate them using Benson's Attributional Scale across four dimensions: stability, locus, controllability and globality. A Grounded Theory methodology was applied to these reasons and a set of nine categories derived from the data. The results showed that undergraduates' reasons for child sexual abuse strongly parallel contemporary scientific theories of abuse, and that there were significant gender differences in the frequency with which participants cited various types of reasons given for sexual abuse. Females endorsed significantly more victim reasons than males, and also more power and control reasons than did males. In contrast, males endorsed significantly more sexual reasons for offending than did females. Furthermore, significant gender differences were found between the ways in which participants construed the reasons for sexual abuse, with females seeing the phenomenon as significantly more stable and internal than males. No significant gender differences were found on the dimensions of controllability and globality.

  17. Health professionals' responses to disclosure of child sexual abuse history: female child sexual abuse survivors' experiences.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Kim; Jülich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-05-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had not disclosed reported that they would have liked to but were not asked about child sexual abuse. Thirty-five percent of participants suggested routine questioning about child sexual abuse. Most participants related a fear of common medical examination procedures to their experience of child sexual abuse, and 64% said this stopped them from attending regular health checks. The current study suggests the development of guidelines for dealing with possible child sexual abuse survivors would be useful for health professionals.

  18. Sexual behaviour and risk of sexually transmitted infections in young female healthcare students in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Cremades, Felipe; Marhuenda-Amorós, Dolores; Tomás-Rodríguez, María Isabel; Antón-Ruiz, Fina; Belda-Ibañez, Josefina; Montejo, Ángel Luis; Gil-Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI), but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms). Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]). Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05) included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008) and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001). Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI. PMID:26966654

  19. Sexual Abuse among Female High School Students in Istanbul, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Erginoz, Ethem; Ercan, Oya; Albayrak-Kaymak, Deniz; Uysal, Omer; Ilter, Ozdemir

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of sexual abuse in female adolescents in Istanbul, Turkey from data collected as part of a school-based population study on health and health behaviors. Method: A stratified cluster sampling procedure was used for this cross-sectional study. The study sample included 1,955…

  20. The Sexually Assaulted Female: Innocent Victim or Temptress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Sheldon H.

    The Toronto Transit Commission employees were on strike for 23 days, producing a total shut-down of all public transportation and a resulting increase in the number of hitch-hiking females. The strike provided a novel and unique opportunity to empirically examine two theories of sexual assault and to evaluate the effects of hitch-hiking upon…

  1. Sexual Harassment among Female Dentists and Dental Students in Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telles-Irvin, Patricia; Schwartz, Ivy S.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 164 female members of the Texas dental association and 62 junior and senior students at the 3 Texas dental schools investigated sexual harassment experiences with patients and colleagues, reasons for tolerating such behavior, and the manner in which the offensive behavior was handled. Results and implications are discussed. (MSE)

  2. Sexually abstinent African American adolescent females' descriptions of abstinence.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Kristin

    2003-01-01

    To describe sexual abstinence from the perspective of abstinent African American female adolescents. Descriptive qualitative. Data were collected from 14 sexually abstinent, African American adolescent girls during two semi-structured interviews. Data were collected using the life history method and were analyzed in the style of narrative analysis. This analysis indicated four themes in descriptions of abstinence: limited information, categorization of sexual behaviors, activities that lead to intercourse, and abstinence as a self-determined choice. For most participants, "having sex" referred to heterosexual vaginal intercourse and being abstinent meant that one chose to refrain from intercourse. The participants' limited definition of abstinence might lead them to unknowingly put themselves at risk by engaging in other forms of genital sexual activities. They may think that they are protected because they believe that they are practicing abstinence.

  3. Sexual abuse in childhood and the mentally disordered female offender.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently prescribed in response to adjustment problems associated with childhood sexual abuse. White women who exhibit adjustment problems associated with a history of child sexual abuse are especially likely to be diagnosed as mentally disordered at admission and to be sent to the mental health unit for treatment. In the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder at admission, women who receive psychotropic medication to help them adjust to prison life are likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder later on.

  4. Nonlinear and correlational sexual selection on 'honest' female ornamentation.

    PubMed

    LeBas, Natasha R; Hockham, Leon R; Ritchie, Michael G

    2003-10-22

    Female ornamentation has long been overlooked because of the greater prevalence of elaborate displays in males. However, the circumstances under which females would benefit from honestly signalling their quality are limited. Females are not expected to invest in ornamentation unless the fitness benefits of the ornament exceed those derived from investing the resources directly into offspring. It has been proposed that when females gain direct benefits from mating, females may instead be selected for ornamentation that deceives males about their reproductive state. In the empidid dance flies, males frequently provide nuptial gifts and it is usually only the female that is ornamented. Female traits in empidids, such as abdominal sacs and enlarged pinnate leg scales, have been proposed to 'deceive' males into matings by disguising egg maturity. We quantified sexual selection in the dance fly Rhamphomyia tarsata and found escalating, quadratic selection on pinnate scales and that pinnate scales honestly reflect female fecundity. Mated females had a larger total number and more mature eggs than unmated females, highlighting a potential benefit rather than a cost of male mate choice. We also show correlational selection on female pinnate scales and fecundity. Correlational selection, equivalent investment patterns or increased nutrition from nuptial gifts may all maintain honesty in female ornamentation.

  5. Developmental Environment Effects on Sexual Selection in Male and Female Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Juliano; Pizzari, Tommaso; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The developmental environment can potentially alter the adult social environment and influence traits targeted by sexual selection such as body size. In this study, we manipulated larval density in male and female Drosophila melanogaster, which results in distinct adult size phenotypes–high (low) densities for small (large) adults–and measured sexual selection in experimental groups consisting of adult males and females from high, low, or a mixture of low and high larval densities. Overall, large adult females (those reared at low larval density) had more matings, more mates and produced more offspring than small females (those reared at high larval density). The number of offspring produced by females was positively associated with their number of mates (i.e. there was a positive female Bateman gradient) in social groups where female size was experimentally varied, likely due to the covariance between female productivity and mating rate. For males, we found evidence that the larval environment affected the relative importance of sexual selection via mate number (Bateman gradients), mate productivity, paternity share, and their covariances. Mate number and mate productivity were significantly reduced for small males in social environments where males were of mixed sizes, versus social environments where all males were small, suggesting that social heterogeneity altered selection on this subset of males. Males are commonly assumed to benefit from mating with large females, but in contrast to expectations we found that in groups where both the male and female size varied, males did not gain more offspring per mating with large females. Collectively, our results indicate sex-specific effects of the developmental environment on the operation of sexual selection, via both the phenotype of individuals, and the phenotype of their competitors and mates. PMID:27167120

  6. Nutrition-dependent phenotypes affect sexual selection in a ladybird

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jiaqin; De Clercq, Patrick; Zhang, Yuhong; Wu, Hongsheng; Pan, Chang; Pang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Environmental factors play a crucial role in influencing sexual selection in insects and the evolution of their mating systems. Although it has been reported that sexual selection in insects may change in response to varying environments, the reason for these changes remains poorly understood. Here, we focus on the mate selection process of a ladybird, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri, when experiencing low- and high-nutrition diet regimes both in its larval and adult stages. We found that female ladybirds preferred to mate with males reared under high-nutrition diet regimes, regardless of the nutritional conditions they experienced during their own larval stages, indicating that mate choice of female C. montrouzieri is non-random and phenotype-dependent. Such mate choice may depend on visual cues (body or genitalia size) and/or chemical cues (pheromones). Further, females from high-nutrition larval diet regimes produced more eggs than those from low-nutrition larval diet regimes. In addition, diet regimes during adulthood also exerted strong effects on egg production. In summary, our study provides new insight into the mate choice of C. montrouzieri as affected by seasonal changes in resources, and suggests that food availability may be a driving force in mate choice. PMID:26269214

  7. Sexual conflict inhibits female mate choice for major histocompatibility complex dissimilarity in Chinook salmon

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Shawn R.; Bortoluzzi, Romina N.; Heath, Daniel D.; Neff, Bryan D.

    2010-01-01

    In many species females prefer major histocompatibility complex (MHC) dissimilar mates, which may improve offspring resistance to pathogens. However, sexual conflict may interfere with female preference when males attempt to mate with all females, regardless of compatibility. Here we used semi-natural spawning channels to examine how mating behaviour and genetic similarity at the MHC class II peptide binding region affected parentage patterns in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We found that females directed aggression at more MHC-similar males than expected by chance, providing a possible mechanism of female MHC choice in salmon. Males also directed aggression towards MHC-similar females, which was consistent with males harassing unreceptive mates. Males' aggression was positively correlated with their reproductive success, and it appeared to overcome female aversion to mating with MHC-similar males, as females who were the target of high levels of male aggression had lower than expected MHC divergence in their offspring. Indeed, offspring MHC divergence was highest when the sex ratio was female-biased and male harassment was likely to be less intense. These data suggest that male harassment can reduce female effectiveness in selecting MHC-compatible mates, and sexual conflict can thus have an indirect cost to females. PMID:19864282

  8. Sexual signalling by females: do unmated females increase their signalling effort?

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Leigh W.

    2015-01-01

    Theory predicts that females should invest least in mate searching when young, but increase their effort with age if they remain unmated. Few studies have examined variation in female sexual signalling. Female Dawson's burrowing bees (Amegilla dawsoni) search for males by signalling their receptivity on emergence, but many leave the emergence site unmated and must attract males at feeding sites. Female bees prevented from mating on emergence had more extreme versions of cuticular hydrocarbon profiles that make them attractive to males, lending empirical evidence of adaptive shifts in female mating effort. PMID:26109613

  9. Initiation of sexual activity among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Forste, R T; Heaton, T B

    1988-03-01

    According to the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth, 46% women aged 15-19 had experienced premarital intercourse. Projections based on this study show that by their 20th birthdays, 70% of all women in the US will have experienced premarital intercourse. This article examines the effects of various factors on the likelihood that teenagers will become sexually active. Data for this study were taken from the National Survey of Family Growth, Cycle III. Fieldwork was done in 1982 and included interviews of 7969 women aged 15-44. Data include background characteristics, measures of fertility and contraception, measures of fecundity and birth expectations, use of family planning services, and the respondent's marital history. The study concludes that family stability (intact families), Hispanic ethnicity, high parental education, religious affiliation, regular church attendance, and reproductive education decrease the occurrence of 1st intercourse. Other factors characterize an environment that is unstable and unstructured and has a liberalizing influence upon 1st intercourse. Teens from broken homes, blacks, and the lower social classes are more likely to initiate intercourse. Geographic factors have a very small influence upon the initiation of sexual activity among teens. Similar patterns of influence appear regarding contraceptive use. The same factors that encourage stability, such as high father's education, Catholic or Jewish religious affiliation, religious attendance, and reproductive instruction shift the odds in favor of contracepted rather than noncontracepted sex. Family instability and low social class increase the risk that 1st intercourse will not be contracepted. Providing too much sex education, such as instruction on birth control, may actually contribute to the leniency of the environment, although the authors find no evidence that school-based birth control instruction increases the chances that contraceptives will be used. Environments that are

  10. The role of pregnancy awareness on female sexual function in early gestation.

    PubMed

    Corbacioglu, Aytul; Bakir, Vuslat Lale; Akbayir, Ozgur; Cilesiz Goksedef, Behiye Pinar; Akca, Aysu

    2012-07-01

    Female sexual function is negatively influenced by pregnancy due to the physical and emotional changes. Although the most significant effect is seen in the third trimester of pregnancy, a considerable decrease in the frequency of intercourse and sexual desire in the first trimester has also been shown. To investigate the factors that affect sexuality in early pregnancy and the impact of awareness of pregnancy on female sexual function in the first trimester of pregnancy using two self-reported questionnaires. In this cross-sectional study, 130 healthy, married pregnant women who were admitted to the gynecology clinic between the 4th and 10th week of gestation were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire and the female sexual function index (FSFI). The factors associated with FSFI score and monthly sexual activity frequency in the first trimester, as well as the differences in sexual activity frequency and FSFI scores between the women who were previously aware of their pregnancy and those who were yet unaware of their pregnancy. Women who were unaware of their pregnancy had significantly higher coitus frequency in comparison with the aware group (P = 0.002). Total FSFI score was 21.99 ± 8.13 in the aware group and 24.66 ± 3.76 in the unaware group (P = 0.02). None of the obstetric and sociodemographic variables had an influence on desire and pain scores. Arousal, lubrication, and satisfaction scores were adversely affected by awareness of pregnancy. Orgasm scores were influenced negatively by awareness and positively by love marriage; however, in multivariate linear regression analysis none of these were defined as independent factor for orgasm scores. Overall FSFI scores and monthly frequency of sexual activity were only affected by awareness. The results of this study suggest that in early gestation, awareness of pregnancy is associated with lower female sexual function. Furthermore, obstetric and sociodemographic factors seem to be

  11. The impact of sleep on female sexual response and behavior: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, David A; Arnedt, J Todd; Pillai, Vivek; Ciesla, Jeffrey A

    2015-05-01

    The etiological role of sleep disturbance in sexual difficulties has been largely overlooked. Research suggests that short sleep duration and poor sleep quality lead to poor female sexual response. However, prior research consists of cross-sectional studies, and the influence of sleep on sexual functioning and behavior has not been prospectively examined. We sought to examine the influence of nightly sleep duration, sleep quality, and sleep onset latency on daily female sexual response and activity. This study used a longitudinal design to study 171 women free of antidepressants and with reliable Internet access who were recruited from a university setting in the United States. Participants first completed baseline measures in a laboratory, and then completed web-delivered surveys at their habitual wake time for 14 consecutive days. All outcome measures were modified for daily recall. Participants completed the Profile of Female Sexual Function's desire, subjective arousal, and orgasmic functioning scales and the Female Sexual Function Index's genital arousal scale, and indicated whether they engaged in partnered sexual activity or self-stimulation in response to dichotomous items. Analyses revealed that longer sleep duration was related to greater next-day sexual desire (b = 0.32, P = 0.02), and that a 1-hour increase in sleep length corresponded to a 14% increase in odds of engaging in partnered sexual activity (odds ratio = 1.14, P < 0.05). In contrast, sleeping longer predicted poorer next-day genital arousal (b = -0.19, P < 0.01). However, results showed that women with longer average sleep duration reported better genital arousal than women with shorter average sleep length (b = 0.54, P = 0.03). Obtaining sufficient sleep is important to the promotion of healthy sexual desire and genital response, as well as the likelihood of engaging in partnered sexual activity. These relationships were independent of daytime affect and

  12. Affective and cognitive determinants of women's sexual response to erotica.

    PubMed

    Vilarinho, Sandra; Laja, Pedro; Carvalho, Joana; Quinta-Gomes, Ana Luísa; Oliveira, Cátia; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-11-01

    The specific cognitive-affective mechanisms involved in the activation and regulation of the subjective and genital components of sexual arousal are not fully understood yet. The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of self-reported thoughts and affect to the prediction of women's subjective and genital responses to erotica. Twenty-eight sexually functional women (mean age = 32, SD = 6.29) were presented with sexually explicit and nonexplicit romantic films. Genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, state affect, and self-reported thoughts were assessed. Vaginal pulse amplitude was measured using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Subjective sexual arousal, thoughts, and affective responses were assessed through self-report scales. Correlations between subjective and physiological sexual arousal were low (r = -0.05, P > 0.05). Self-reported thoughts and affect were significant predictors of subjective sexual arousal. The strongest single predictor of subjective arousal was sexual arousal thoughts (e.g., "I'm getting excited") (β = 0.63, P < 0.01). None of the cognitive or affective variables predicted women's genital responses. Overall, results support the role of cognitive (self-reported thoughts) and affective dimensions in women's subjective sexual arousal to erotica and, consistent with previous findings, suggest that subjective and physiological sexual arousal may be impacted by different processes. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. Creation and Validation of the Self-esteem/Self-image Female Sexuality (SESIFS) Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lordello, Maria CO; Ambrogini, Carolina C; Fanganiello, Ana L; Embiruçu, Teresa R; Zaneti, Marina M; Veloso, Laise; Piccirillo, Livia B; Crude, Bianca L; Haidar, Mauro; Silva, Ivaldo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. AIMS To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. METHODS A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire) was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ), and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to test concurrent validity of the SESIFS against Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale and the FSQ. Reliability was tested using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. RESULT The new questionnaire had a good overall reliability (Cronbach’s alpha r = 0.862, p < 0.001), but the sexual domain scored lower than expected (r = 0.65). The validity was good: overall score r = 0.38, p < 0.001, self-esteem domain r = 0.32, p < 0.001, self-image domain r = 0.31, p < 0.001, sexual domain r = 0.29, p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS The SESIFS questionnaire has limitations in measuring the correlation among self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality domains. A new, revised version is being tested and will be presented in an upcoming publication. PMID:25574149

  14. Creation and Validation of the Self-esteem/Self-image Female Sexuality (SESIFS) Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Lordello, Maria Co; Ambrogini, Carolina C; Fanganiello, Ana L; Embiruçu, Teresa R; Zaneti, Marina M; Veloso, Laise; Piccirillo, Livia B; Crude, Bianca L; Haidar, Mauro; Silva, Ivaldo

    2014-01-01

    Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire) was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ), and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to test concurrent validity of the SESIFS against Rosenberg's self-esteem scale and the FSQ. Reliability was tested using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The new questionnaire had a good overall reliability (Cronbach's alpha r = 0.862, p < 0.001), but the sexual domain scored lower than expected (r = 0.65). The validity was good: overall score r = 0.38, p < 0.001, self-esteem domain r = 0.32, p < 0.001, self-image domain r = 0.31, p < 0.001, sexual domain r = 0.29, p < 0.001. The SESIFS questionnaire has limitations in measuring the correlation among self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality domains. A new, revised version is being tested and will be presented in an upcoming publication.

  15. Disordered Eating Behaviors and Sexual Harassment in Italian Male and Female University Students.

    PubMed

    Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe

    2016-08-12

    The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.

  16. Female sexual subjectivity and verbal consent to receiving oral sex.

    PubMed

    Satinsky, Sonya; Jozkowski, Kristen N

    2015-01-01

    Women are less likely than men are to report receiving oral sex from their partners. Elements of sexual subjectivity may have implications for women's communication of consent to specific sexual acts. Sexually active women (n = 237) between 18 and 71 years of age (M = 28.85 years) completed an online survey measuring sociodemographic variables, entitlement to pleasure from partner, self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure, and consent communication at last receptive oral sex event. Participants were predominantly White (84.8%, n = 201) and in exclusive or monogamous sexual relationships (54.9%, n = 130). The authors used a 4-step test of mediation to determine whether self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure mediated the relation between entitlement to pleasure from partner and verbal consent communication. Self-efficacy emerged as a significant predictor of verbal consent communication (p <.01) in the fourth step, while entitlement to pleasure dropped out of the model (p >.05), indicating full mediation. Therefore, entitlement to pleasure predicted verbal consent to oral sex as a function of self-efficacy in achieving sexual pleasure. Sex-positive educational interventions may improve disparities between men and women in receiving oral sex from their partners. Results of this study offer insight into the ways in which culture-level forces affect interpersonal and intraindividual sexual health behaviors.

  17. Treatments of Female Sexual Dysfunction Symptoms during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Meireluci Costa; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Torloni, Maria Regina; Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'Ana; Puga, Maria Eduarda Dos Santos; Mattar, Rosiane

    2014-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of sexual dysfunction symptoms in pregnancy. These symptoms can have a negative impact on women's quality of life and affect couples' relationship. To perform a systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness and safety of treatments for sexual dysfunction symptoms during pregnancy. Six electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, Cochrane CENTRAL, PSYCOINFO, and SCIRUS) were searched from inception to January 2013, without language restrictions. Five trial registers were also assessed for ongoing trials. Trials that reported any type of treatment for female sexual dysfunction symptoms during pregnancy were eligible for inclusion. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment were performed in duplicate. The main outcome was the effectiveness of different treatments for female sexual dysfunction symptoms during pregnancy. A secondary outcome was safety of proposed treatments. One thousand one hundred thirty-seven citations were retrieved, four were selected for full-text reading, and two randomized trials (159 participants) were included. One study reported a significant increase in mean total sexual function scores of 44 women in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, 4 weeks after an educative intervention (mean difference 7.0, 95% confidence interval 4.1-9.9). The second study did not detect significant differences in the sexual behavior of 71 women in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy, 12 weeks after an educational session. Results could not be pooled due to heterogeneity between the studies. Based on the findings of this review, it is not possible to make any clear and definitive recommendation regarding the effectiveness and safety of interventions used for the treatment of sexual dysfunction symptoms in pregnancy. Ribeiro MC, Nakamura MU, Torloni MR, Scanavino MT, do Amaral MLS, Puga MES, and Mattar R. Treatments of female sexual dysfunction symptoms during pregnancy: A systematic review of the literature. Sex Med Rev

  18. Heart Rate Variability: A Risk Factor for Female Sexual Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Amelia M; Lorenz, Tierney A; Pulverman, Carey S; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-09-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of autonomic nervous system activity, which reflects an individual's ability to adapt to physiological and environmental changes. Low resting HRV has been linked to several mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, and alcohol dependence (Kemp et al. in Biological Psychiatry 67(11):1067-1074, 2010. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.12.012; Kemp et al. in PloS One, 7(2):e30777, 2012; Quintana et al. in Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 132(1-2):395-398, 2013. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.02.025). HRV has also been used as a method for indexing the relative balance of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity to parasympathetic nervous system activity. This balance--in particular, moderately dominant SNS activity--has been shown to play a significant role in women's genital sexual arousal in the laboratory; however, the role of SNS activity in clinically relevant sexual arousal function is unknown. The present study assessed the feasibility of using HRV as an index of women's self-reported sexual arousal function outside the laboratory. Sexual arousal function, overall sexual function, and resting HRV were assessed in 72 women, aged 18-39. Women with below average HRV were significantly more likely to report sexual arousal dysfunction (p < .001) and overall sexual dysfunction (p < .001) than both women with average HRV and women with above average HRV. In conclusion, low HRV may be a risk factor for female sexual arousal dysfunction and overall sexual dysfunction.

  19. Acceptance of Treatment of Sexually Transmitted Infections for Stable Sexual Partners by Female Sex Workers in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mayanja, Yunia; Mukose, Aggrey David; Nakubulwa, Susan; Omosa-Manyonyi, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Providing treatment to the affected FSWs is a challenge, and more so to their stable sexual partners. There is scanty research information on acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs. We conducted a study to assess acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners by FSWs, and to identify factors associated with acceptance. Methods We enrolled 241 FSWs in a cross sectional study; they were aged ≥ 18 years, had a stable sexual partner and a diagnosis of STI. Factors associated with acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners were analysed in STATA (12) using Poisson regression. Mantel-Haenszel tests for interaction were performed. Results Acceptance of partner treatment was 50.6%. Majority (83.8%) of partners at the last sexual act were stable partners, and 32.4% of participants had asymptomatic STIs. Factors independently associated with acceptance were: earning ≤ $4 USD per sexual act (aPR 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49–0.94) and a clinical STI diagnosis (aPR 1.95; 95% CI: 1.30–2.92). The effect of low income on acceptance of partner treatment was seen in those with less education. Conclusion Acceptance of STI treatment for stable sexual partners was lower than that seen in other studies. Interventions to improve economic empowerment among FSWs may increase acceptance of partner treatment. PMID:27171270

  20. Sexually dimorphic octopaminergic neurons modulate female postmating behaviors in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Rezával, Carolina; Nojima, Tetsuya; Neville, Megan C; Lin, Andrew C; Goodwin, Stephen F

    2014-03-31

    Mating elicits profound behavioral and physiological changes in many species that are crucial for reproductive success. After copulation, Drosophila melanogaster females reduce their sexual receptivity and increase egg laying [1, 2]. Transfer of male sex peptide (SP) during copulation mediates these postmating responses [1, 3-6] via SP sensory neurons in the uterus defined by coexpression of the proprioceptive neuronal marker pickpocket (ppk) and the sex-determination genes doublesex (dsx) and fruitless (fru) [7-9]. Although neurons expressing dsx downstream of SP signaling have been shown to regulate postmating behaviors [9], how the female nervous system coordinates the change from pre- to postcopulatory states is unknown. Here, we show a role of the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in the female postmating response. Lack of OA disrupts postmating responses in mated females, while increase of OA induces postmating responses in virgin females. Using a novel dsx(FLP) allele, we uncovered dsx neuronal elements associated with OA signaling involved in modulation of postmating responses. We identified a small subset of sexually dimorphic OA/dsx(+) neurons (approximately nine cells in females) in the abdominal ganglion. Our results are consistent with a model whereby OA neuronal signaling increases after copulation, which in turn modulates changes in female behavior and physiology in response to reproductive state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social Support and Sexual Risk Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in Tijuana.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Toller Erausquin, Jennifer; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie

    2015-08-01

    Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk.

  2. Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    PubMed

    Deere, Kerry A; Grether, Gregory F; Sun, Aida; Sinsheimer, Janet S

    2012-05-07

    We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation most directly affected by the pigment ratio. To test this hypothesis, we crossed two populations differing in drosopterin production and produced an F(2) generation with variable drosopterin levels. When the carotenoid content of the orange spots was held constant, female guppies preferred males with intermediate drosopterin levels. This shows that females do not simply prefer males with greater orange spot pigment content; instead, the ratio of the pigments also affects male attractiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence for a hypothesized agent of countergradient sexual selection.

  3. Cell-Type Specific Increases in Female Hamster Nucleus Accumbens Spine Density following Female Sexual Experience

    PubMed Central

    Staffend, Nancy A.; Hedges, Valerie L.; Chemel, Benjamin R.; Watts, Val J.; Meisel, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Female sexual behavior is an established model of a naturally motivated behavior which is regulated by activity within the mesolimbic dopamine system. Repeated activation of the mesolimbic circuit by female sexual behavior elevates dopamine release and produces persistent postsynaptic alterations to dopamine D1 receptor signaling within the nucleus accumbens. Here we demonstrate that sexual experience in female Syrian hamsters significantly increases spine density and alters morphology selectively in D1 receptor expressing medium spiny neurons within the nucleus accumbens core, with no corresponding change in dopamine receptor binding or protein expression. Our findings demonstrate that previous life experience with a naturally motivated behavior has the capacity to induce persistent structural alterations to the mesolimbic circuit that can increase reproductive success and are analogous to the persistent structural changes following repeated exposure to many drugs of abuse. PMID:23934655

  4. Female sexual dysfunction in patients with substance-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Alessandra; da Silva, Rosiane Lopes; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction symptoms and the associated risk factors in a sample of patients with substance-related disorders admitted to a specialized in-patient care unit. METHODS: This study used a cross-section design, with eight months of data collection, conducted with substance-dependent women using structured questionnaires to collect socio-demographic data and identify their drug of choice. The Drug Abuse Screening Test, Short Alcohol Dependence Data questionnaire, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and Arizona Sexual Experience Scale were also administered. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 105 women who had a mean age of 34.8 years (SD = 12.1, range = 18-65) and were predominantly heterosexual (74.3%), single (47.6%), Caucasian (50.5%), catholic (36.2%), and educated only to the level of primary education (40%), with a monthly family income of up to one minimum salary (37.5%). In 42.9% of the patients, crack was the drug of choice; 47.6% of the sample qualified for the Drug Abuse Screening Test (substantial problems related to drugs), 43.8% exhibited Short Alcohol Dependence Data (moderate or severe dependency), 47.6% exhibited Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (high or very high nicotine dependence). The prevalence of sexual dysfunction symptoms was 34.2% (95% CI = [25.3, 44.1]), and a high level of nicotine dependence and low income increased the chances of having sexual dysfunction by 2.72-fold and 2.54 fold, respectively. An association was also observed between female sexual dysfunction symptoms and schooling and levels of drug dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Female sexual dysfunction symptoms were common among this sample and primarily associated with high levels of nicotine use. PMID:23525317

  5. Female sexual dysfunction in patients with substance-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Alessandra; Silva, Rosiane Lopes da; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction symptoms and the associated risk factors in a sample of patients with substance-related disorders admitted to a specialized in-patient care unit. This study used a cross-section design, with eight months of data collection, conducted with substance-dependent women using structured questionnaires to collect socio-demographic data and identify their drug of choice. The Drug Abuse Screening Test, Short Alcohol Dependence Data questionnaire, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, and Arizona Sexual Experience Scale were also administered. The sample consisted of 105 women who had a mean age of 34.8 years (SD = 12.1, range = 18-65) and were predominantly heterosexual (74.3%), single (47.6%), Caucasian (50.5%), catholic (36.2%), and educated only to the level of primary education (40%), with a monthly family income of up to one minimum salary (37.5%). In 42.9% of the patients, crack was the drug of choice; 47.6% of the sample qualified for the Drug Abuse Screening Test (substantial problems related to drugs), 43.8% exhibited Short Alcohol Dependence Data (moderate or severe dependency), 47.6% exhibited Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (high or very high nicotine dependence). The prevalence of sexual dysfunction symptoms was 34.2% (95% CI = [25.3, 44.1]), and a high level of nicotine dependence and low income increased the chances of having sexual dysfunction by 2.72-fold and 2.54 fold, respectively. An association was also observed between female sexual dysfunction symptoms and schooling and levels of drug dependence. Female sexual dysfunction symptoms were common among this sample and primarily associated with high levels of nicotine use.

  6. Sexually antagonistic selection on genetic variation underlying both male and female same-sex sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Berger, David; You, Tao; Minano, Maravillas R; Grieshop, Karl; Lind, Martin I; Arnqvist, Göran; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-05-13

    Intralocus sexual conflict, arising from selection for different alleles at the same locus in males and females, imposes a constraint on sex-specific adaptation. Intralocus sexual conflict can be alleviated by the evolution of sex-limited genetic architectures and phenotypic expression, but pleiotropic constraints may hinder this process. Here, we explored putative intralocus sexual conflict and genetic (co)variance in a poorly understood behavior with near male-limited expression. Same-sex sexual behaviors (SSBs) generally do not conform to classic evolutionary models of adaptation but are common in male animals and have been hypothesized to result from perception errors and selection for high male mating rates. However, perspectives incorporating sex-specific selection on genes shared by males and females to explain the expression and evolution of SSBs have largely been neglected. We performed two parallel sex-limited artificial selection experiments on SSB in male and female seed beetles, followed by sex-specific assays of locomotor activity and male sex recognition (two traits hypothesized to be functionally related to SSB) and adult reproductive success (allowing us to assess fitness consequences of genetic variance in SSB and its correlated components). Our experiments reveal both shared and sex-limited genetic variance for SSB. Strikingly, genetically correlated responses in locomotor activity and male sex-recognition were associated with sexually antagonistic fitness effects, but these effects differed qualitatively between male and female selection lines, implicating intralocus sexual conflict at both male- and female-specific genetic components underlying SSB. Our study provides experimental support for the hypothesis that widespread pleiotropy generates pervasive intralocus sexual conflict governing the expression of SSBs, suggesting that SSB in one sex can occur due to the expression of genes that carry benefits in the other sex.

  7. Female Sexual Arousal: Genital Anatomy and Orgasm in Intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity.. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data which were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse. PMID:21195073

  8. Female Sexual Function During the Menopausal Transition in a Group of Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Dashti, Mahboobeh; Shariat, Mamak; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Ghahghaei-Nezamabadi, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexual problems in Iranian women and association of sexual dysfunction with menopausal symptoms. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 151 married women with the age of 40-60 yearsold who were referred for treatmentto Department of Gynecology in Vali-e-Asr Hospital (Tehran, Iran) from April to July 2012, were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire.Menopause rating scale (MRS) was developed for the diagnosis and quantification of climacteric symptoms. Results: Total frequency of sexual dysfunction was 53% with the domains of lubrication, arusal and desire being commonly affected 62%, 70% and 98.5% of cases respectively. There is a relationship between severity of somatic and urogenital symptoms with sexual dysfunction (p = 0.03, p = 0.00 respectively). Conclusion: A considerable percentage of women experienced sexual dysfunctions in this period. Somatic and urogenital symptoms during the menopausal period could be a factor to maintain or intensity of sexual dysfunctions. PMID:27648093

  9. X-chromosome dosage affects male sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bonthuis, Paul J; Cox, Kimberly H; Rissman, Emilie F

    2012-04-01

    Sex differences in the brain and behavior are primarily attributed to dichotomous androgen exposure between males and females during neonatal development, as well as adult responses to gonadal hormones. Here we tested an alternative hypothesis and asked if sex chromosome complement influences male copulatory behavior, a standard behavior for studies of sexual differentiation. We used two mouse models with non-canonical associations between chromosomal and gonadal sex. In both models, we found evidence for sex chromosome complement as an important factor regulating sex differences in the expression of masculine sexual behavior. Counter intuitively, males with two X-chromosomes were faster to ejaculate and display more ejaculations than males with a single X. Moreover, mice of both sexes with two X-chromosomes displayed increased frequencies of mounts and thrusts. We speculate that expression levels of a yet to be discovered gene(s) on the X-chromosome may affect sexual behavior in mice and perhaps in other mammals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Touching the private parts: how gender and sexuality norms affect medical students' first pelvic examination.

    PubMed

    Sörensdotter, Renita; Siwe, Karin

    2016-11-01

    Gynaecologists are in a position to challenge norms about gender and sexuality in relation to female genitals. Through their work they have the opportunity to educate patients, which is why teaching medical students to perform examinations in a gender sensitive way is significant. Medical students performing their first pelvic examination often experience the examination as uncomfortable because it is a body part that is connected to sex and to something private. This paper uses medical students' interpretations of performing their first pelvic examination as a means to discuss how cultural norms for gender, sexuality and female genitals affect these examinations. Issues raised include how cultural connotations of female genitals affect the pelvic examination, how female and male students relate differently to examining female genitals and the interpretations they make in relation to themselves. Findings show that the female genitals are perceived as a special body part connected to sexuality and intimacy. Students' gender also affects the interpretations they make during pelvic examinations. Norms of gender, sexuality and female genitals need to be challenged in the teaching and performance of pelvic examination in order to demystify this experience.

  11. Serotonin transporter null mutation and sexual behavior in female rats: 5-HT1A receptor desensitization.

    PubMed

    Snoeren, Eelke; Chan, Johnny; Bovens, Astrid; Cuppen, Edwin; Waldinger, Marcel; Olivier, Berend; Oosting, Ronald

    2010-07-01

    Serotonin plays a key role in sexual behavior. In serotonin transporter (SERT) knockout rats (-/-), basal extracellular 5-HT levels are considerably increased, indicating a serotonergic disturbance. Heterozygous SERT(+/-) rats express 50% of SERT in comparison to wild-type rats and may therefore model the s/s phenotype of the human SERT promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism. In the present study, we used both homozygote and heterozygote SERT knockout and wild-type rats (+/+) to study the putative role of the SERT in female sexual behavior. Female rats were brought into estrous by hormonal injections before a paced mating sex test. The effects of the 5-HT(1A)/5-HT(7) receptor agonist (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (+/-8-OH-DPAT) (0.03-1 mg/kg s.c.) and the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (0.1-1-mg/kg i.p.) on sexual behaviors of the females were tested separately and in a selected combination of both in all three genotypes. Proceptive (darting and hopping) and receptive (lordosis) behaviors were quantified. Basal proceptive and receptive sexual activities were not different between SERT+/+, +/- and -/- female rats. The dose-effect curve after +/-8-OH-DPAT for these activities was clearly shifted to the right in SERT-/- animals compared to other genotypes. WAY-100635 alone had no effect on sexual behavior in any genotype, but was able to antagonize the +/-8-OH-DPAT-induced decrease in sexual activities indicating the involvement of the 5-HT(1A) receptor. The absence (-/-) or reduced (+/-) expression of SERT does not affect basal sexual activity in female rats in a paced mating situation. The data indicate a desensitized 5-HT1A receptor in the SERT-/-, but not in the SERT+/- females. Under normal basal conditions, desensitized 5-HT1A receptors apparently do not play a role in female sexual behavior of the SERT-/-. However, upon activation of the 5-HT1A receptor in "normal" females (SERT+/+ and SERT+/-), a hyposexual behavior is induced.

  12. Overweight, obesity and female sexuality in perimenopause: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Jarząbek-Bielecka, Grażyna; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Mizgier, Małgorzata; Andrzejak, Karolina; Kędzia, Witold; Sajdak, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The research was conducted among patients of the Department of Perinatology and Gynaecology of the Poznań University of Medical Sciences. Its aim was to investigate the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopausal period. Preliminary results of the research are presented in the thesis, which was as a matter of fact intended as a preliminary report. The examination of sexual functions of the patients was performed with the use of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) form. Material and methods Sixty-one women during the perimenopausal period filled out the survey, with the average age of these women being 51 years. Forty-two of the examined women had an appropriate body mass index (BMI), i.e. between 18.5 and 25, while for 19 of the women, the BMI was above normal. For statistical analysis and in order to assess the differences between the two above-mentioned groups of patients, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied. A statistically significant value was assumed at p < 0.05. The results of the conducted research indicated no such difference between the women with differing BMI for the specific domains of the FSFI test. Results The results obtained show that research in the area needs to be continued. Conclusions All the hitherto existing scientific studies also seem to indicate that the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopause has not yet been unambiguously proven. Beyond any doubt, however, sexual disorders appear in women at this time of life and the factors which determine them can vary greatly. Given the character of the situation, women ought to be supported both by a team of specialists representing different branches of medicine as well as by their relatives. The whole situation also calls for more research of the important subject matter. PMID:26327896

  13. Significant Resolution of Female Sexual Dysfunction after Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Wing, Rena R.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Sax, Harry C.; Roye, G. Dean; Ryder, Beth A.; Pohl, Dieter; Giovanni, Jeannine

    2010-01-01

    Background We previously reported that the majority of women seeking bariatric surgery had female sexual dysfunction (FSD) as defined by the validated Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Objective The current study examined whether FSD resolves after bariatric surgery. Setting The Miriam Hospital, Providence RI, USA. Methods Fifty-four reportedly sexually active women (43.3±9.5 years) completed the FSFI pre- and 6-months post-operatively after a mean excess weight loss (%EWL) of 42.3% [Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) n=38; %EWL=34.6±15.7; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) n=16; %EWL=60.0±21.2). The FSFI assesses sexual function across six domains with higher scores indicating better sexual function. Summing of these scores yields a FSFI-total score (range=2–36 with ≤26.55=FSD). Results Before surgery, 34 women (63%) had scores indicative of FSD. By 6-months after surgery, FSD had resolved in 23 of these 34 (68%) women, and only 1 woman developed FSD. In the entire sample, there were significant (p<0.05) improvements from pre- to post-surgery on all FSFI domains. FSFI-total scores improved after LAGB (24.2±5.9 to 29.1±4.1, p<0.001) and RYGB (23.7±7.7 to 30.0±4.7, p<0.001). In regression analyses, being married, younger age, and worse preoperative sexual function were related to greater sexual function improvements. Postoperatively, participants’ FSFI-total scores were indistinguishable from published normative controls (29.4±4.3 vs. 30.5±5.3, p=0.18). Conclusion FSD resolved in a large percentage of women. Sexual functioning in the entire sample improved to levels consistent with normative controls. This improvement in sexual function did not depend on surgery type or weight loss amount, and appears to be an additional benefit for women undergoing bariatric surgery. PMID:20678969

  14. Female, but not male, nematodes evolve under experimental sexual coevolution.

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, K; Timmermeyer, N; Wolter, M; Michiels, N K

    2014-12-07

    Coevolution between the sexes is often considered to be male-driven: the male genome is constantly scanned by selection for traits that increase relative male fertilization success. Whenever these traits are harmful to females, the female genome is scanned for resistance traits. The resulting antagonistic coevolution between the sexes is analogous to Red Queen dynamics, where adaptation and counteradaptation keep each other in check. However, the underlying assumption that male trait evolution precedes female trait counteradaptation has received few empirical tests. Using the gonochoristic nematode Caenorhabditis remanei, we now show that 20 generations of relaxed versus increased sexual selection pressure lead to female, but not to male, trait evolution, questioning the generality of a male-driven process. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Female, but not male, nematodes evolve under experimental sexual coevolution

    PubMed Central

    Fritzsche, K.; Timmermeyer, N.; Wolter, M.; Michiels, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    Coevolution between the sexes is often considered to be male-driven: the male genome is constantly scanned by selection for traits that increase relative male fertilization success. Whenever these traits are harmful to females, the female genome is scanned for resistance traits. The resulting antagonistic coevolution between the sexes is analogous to Red Queen dynamics, where adaptation and counteradaptation keep each other in check. However, the underlying assumption that male trait evolution precedes female trait counteradaptation has received few empirical tests. Using the gonochoristic nematode Caenorhabditis remanei, we now show that 20 generations of relaxed versus increased sexual selection pressure lead to female, but not to male, trait evolution, questioning the generality of a male-driven process. PMID:25339719

  16. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): female sexual dysfunction among Internet users in the reproductive age group in the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Shaeer, Osama; Shaeer, Kamal; Shaeer, Eman

    2012-02-01

    The exact prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in the Middle East is exceptionally difficult to measure in light of its sensitive nature and the conservative tinge of the population. The Global Online Sexuality Survey-Arabic-Females (GOSS-AR-F) is a community-based study of female sexuality in the Middle East through an online survey. Prevalence of risk for female sexual dysfunction (rFSD) in the reproductive age group and its vulnerability to various risk factors. GOSS-AR-F was offered via online advertising. The survey is comprised of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire among other questions. Out of 2,920 participants, 344 participants completed all survey questions. Average total FSFI score was 23 ± 6.5, with 59.1% of participants suffering rFSD. Age adjusted prevalence of rFSD was 59.5%, standardized to World Health Organization World Standard Population. There was a statistically significant higher prevalence of rFSD among cases with subjectively reported depression and male partner-related shortcomings such as erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation as reported by the female participant, in addition to dissatisfaction with partner's penile size, insufficient foreplay, and practice of masturbation. This was not the case with advancing age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, ongoing pregnancy, mode of previous child delivery, infertility, menstrual irregularities, dysmenorrhea, interpersonal distress, subjectively reported hirsutism, and female genital cutting. Participants were found to require longer duration of coitus and better ejaculatory control but not necessarily a higher coital frequency. Female sexual function in the reproductive age appears to be adversely affected by psychological factors and shortcomings in male sexual function more than anything. These findings point to the possibility that many cases of FSD can be managed with the focus on male partner's ailments and attitudes that are relatively easier

  17. Female same-sex sexuality from a dynamical systems perspective: sexual desire, motivation, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H; Diamond, Lisa M; Boker, Steven M

    2014-11-01

    Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or "fluid" based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women's reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a "core sexual orientation" for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly.

  18. Female Same-Sex Sexuality from a Dynamical Systems Perspective: Sexual Desire, Motivation, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Rachel H.; Diamond, Lisa M.; Boker, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Fluidity in attractions and behaviors among same-sex attracted women has been well-documented, suggesting the appropriateness of dynamical systems modeling of these phenomena over time. As dynamical systems modeling offer an approach to explaining the patterns of complex phenomena, it may be apt for explaining variability in female same-sex sexuality. The present research is the first application of this analytical approach to such data. Dynamical systems modeling, and specifically generalized local linear approximation modeling, was used to fit daily diary data on same-sex attractions and behaviors over a 21 day period among a group of 33 sexual minority women characterized as lesbian, bisexual or “fluid” based on their identity histories. Daily measures of women’s reported same-sex attractions were fit using a linear oscillator model and its parameters estimated the cyclicity in these attractions. Results supported the existence of a “core sexual orientation” for women in this sample, regardless of how they identified and despite a high degree of variability in daily same-sex attractions. Thus, modeling individual differences in the variability of attractions and behaviors of sexual minority women may be critical to furthering our understanding of female same-sex sexuality and human sexual orientation more broadly. PMID:25193132

  19. The Ontogeny of Sexual Size Dimorphism of a Moth: When Do Males and Females Grow Apart?

    PubMed Central

    Stillwell, R. Craig; Daws, Andrew; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in body size (sexual size dimorphism) is common in many species. The sources of selection that generate the independent evolution of adult male and female size have been investigated extensively by evolutionary biologists, but how and when females and males grow apart during ontogeny is poorly understood. Here we use the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to examine when sexual size dimorphism arises by measuring body mass every day during development. We further investigated whether environmental variables influence the ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism by raising moths on three different diet qualities (poor, medium and high). We found that size dimorphism arose during early larval development on the highest quality food treatment but it arose late in larval development when raised on the medium quality food. This female-biased dimorphism (females larger) increased substantially from the pupal-to-adult stage in both treatments, a pattern that appears to be common in Lepidopterans. Although dimorphism appeared in a few stages when individuals were raised on the poorest quality diet, it did not persist such that male and female adults were the same size. This demonstrates that the environmental conditions that insects are raised in can affect the growth trajectories of males and females differently and thus when dimorphism arises or disappears during development. We conclude that the development of sexual size dimorphism in M. sexta occurs during larval development and continues to accumulate during the pupal/adult stages, and that environmental variables such as diet quality can influence patterns of dimorphism in adults. PMID:25184664

  20. Effects of egg testosterone on female mate choice and male sexual behavior in the pheasant.

    PubMed

    Bonisoli-Alquati, Andrea; Matteo, Angelo; Ambrosini, Roberto; Rubolini, Diego; Romano, Maria; Caprioli, Manuela; Dessì-Fulgheri, Francesco; Baratti, Mariella; Saino, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that sex steroids in the eggs, besides affecting progeny phenotype and behavior in the short term, also have enduring effects until adulthood, when they may translate into differences in reproductive strategies and success. Maternal steroids transfer may therefore affect both agonistic behavior and mate choice decisions, either through the promotion of body size and condition or through a priming effect on the neuroendocrine system. However, owing to the prevalence of a short-term perspective, relevance of maternal transfer of sex steroids to sexual selection processes has been seldom studied. Here we investigate the effects of an experimental increase in egg testosterone on male dominance and copulation success in the ring-necked pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, a polygynous galliform with multiple male ornamental traits, in captivity. We found that females from testosterone (T) injected eggs copulated less than control females. Males from T-injected eggs obtained more copulations than control males, specifically with control females. The effect of male 'ordinary' and secondary sexual traits on either dominance or copulation frequency did not depend on early exposure to T, nor did T treatment affect male dominance. Present results demonstrate that variation in the early hormonal environment set up by mothers affects sexual behavior of the offspring, which might translate into fitness differences.

  1. High Female Survival Promotes Evolution of Protogyny and Sexual Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Tobias; Hovestadt, Thomas; Mitesser, Oliver; Hölker, Franz

    2015-01-01

    Existing models explaining the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the timing of emergence (SDT) in Lepidoptera assume equal mortality rates for males and females. The limiting assumption of equal mortality rates has the consequence that these models are only able to explain the evolution of emergence of males before females, i.e. protandry—the more common temporal sequence of emergence in Lepidoptera. The models fail, however, in providing adaptive explanations for the evolution of protogyny, where females emerge before males, but protogyny is not rare in insects. The assumption of equal mortality rates seems too restrictive for many insects, such as butterflies. To investigate the influence of unequal mortality rates on the evolution of SDT, we present a generalised version of a previously published model where we relax this assumption. We find that longer life-expectancy of females compared to males can indeed favour the evolution of protogyny as a fitness enhancing strategy. Moreover, the encounter rate between females and males and the sex-ratio are two important factors that also influence the evolution of optimal SDT. If considered independently for females and males the predicted strategies can be shown to be evolutionarily stable (ESS). Under the assumption of equal mortality rates the difference between the females’ and males’ ESS remains typically very small. However, female and male ESS may be quite dissimilar if mortality rates are different. This creates the potential for an ‘evolutionary conflict’ between females and males. Bagworm moths (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) provide an exemplary case where life-history attributes are such that protogyny should indeed be the optimal emergence strategy from the males’ and females’ perspectives: (i) Female longevity is considerably larger than that of males, (ii) encounter rates between females and males are presumably low, and (iii) females mate only once. Protogyny is indeed the general mating strategy

  2. Seminal Fluid Regulation of Female Sexual Attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tram, Uyen; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    1998-03-01

    Finding a willing and suitable mate is critical for sexual reproduction. Visual, auditory, and chemical cues aid in locating and/or attracting partners. After mating, females from many insect species become less attractive. This is caused by changes in the quantity and/or quality of pheromones synthesized by the female and to changes in the female's behavior. For example, female insects may stop releasing pheromones, assume a mate refusal posture, or move less in response to males. Many postmating changes in female insects are triggered by seminal fluid proteins from the male's accessory gland proteins (Acps) and by sperm. To determine the role of seminal fluid components in mediating changes in attractiveness, we measured the attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster females that had been mated to genetically altered males that lack sperm and/or Acps. We found that the drop in female attractiveness occurs in two phases. A short-term drop in attractiveness is triggered independent of the receipt of sperm and Acps. Maintenance of lowered attractiveness is dependent upon sperm.

  3. The re-construction of women's sexual lives after pelvic radiotherapy: a critique of social constructionist and biomedical perspectives on the study of female sexuality after cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    White, I D; Faithfull, S; Allan, H

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic radiotherapy creates physical effects and psychological responses that negatively affect the sexual health of women and couples, yet these sexual consequences are not frequently researched or clinically assessed. This focused ethnographic study explored factors that influence the clinical assessment of treatment-induced female sexual difficulties after pelvic radiotherapy within routine medical follow-up. Participant observation of follow-up clinics (n = 69) and in-depth interviews with 24 women, 5 partners and 20 health professionals were undertaken at two cancer centres in the South East of England from 2005 to 2006. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts resulted in five emergent themes, two of which are explored in detail within this paper. A social constructionist approach to human sexuality was used to explore representations of female sexuality in oncology follow-up constructed by clinicians, women and their partners. Yet neither social constructionist nor biomedical (the predominant model in medical follow-up) perspectives on human sexuality provided an adequate interpretation of these study findings. This paper argues that the comprehensive study and practice of sexual rehabilitation in oncology requires a synthesis of both biomedical and social constructionist perspectives in order to capture the complex, subjective and embodied nature of the female sexual response in both health and illness.

  4. Female sexual dysfunction in androgenetic alopecia: Case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Sancak, Eyup Burak; Oguz, Sevilay; Akbulut, Tugba; Uludag, Aysegul; Akbas, Alpaslan; Kurt, Omer; Akbulut, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to evaluate the association of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in premenopausal women. Methods: From December 2013 to June 2015, we performed a case-control, prospective study of 115 patients with AGA and 97 age-matched control patients without AGA from among premenopausal women who visited dermatology clinics of the two reference hospitals. Comprehensive history, anthropometric measurements, and questionnaire administration were performed for each of the total of 212 women. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to assess the key dimensions of female sexual function. AGA was assessed and graded by an experienced dermatologist according to Ludwig’s classification. The MetS assessment was made according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. Results: In univariate analysis, age, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index (BMI), AGA, MetS, cardiovascular event, marital status, hypertension, high fasting plasma glucose, high triglyceride, large waist, total testosterone, and free testosterone were associated with presence of FSD. In logistic regression analysis, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–1.30; p<0.001), AGA (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.31–8.94; p=0.017), MetS (OR 5.39, 95% CI 1.34–21.62; p=0.012), and free testosterone (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.09–0.37; p<0.001) were independently associated with FSD. Conclusions: Our study suggests that age, AGA, MetS, and free testosterone may have strong impact on sexual function in premenopausal women. Further studies with population-based and longitudinal design should be conducted to confirm this finding. PMID:28255417

  5. Maternal treatment with picrotoxin in late pregnancy improved female sexual behavior but did not alter male sexual behavior of offspring.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Maria M; Scanzerla, Kayne K; Chamlian, Mayra; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Felicio, Luciano F

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory investigated the effects of picrotoxin (PT), a γ-aminobutyric acid receptor antagonist administered during several perinatal periods, on the sexual behavior of male and female rats. We observed that the time of perinatal exposure to PT is critical to determine either facilitation or impairment of sexual behavior. The present study evaluated the effects of prenatal administration of a single dose of PT on gestation day 18 of dams (the first critical period of male brain sexual differentiation) on sexual behavior of male and female offspring. Thus, female Wistar rats were mated with males and, on gestation day 18, received 0.6 mg/kg of PT or 0.9% saline solution subcutaneously. On postnatal day 1, the offspring were weighed and several measures of sexual development were assessed. The sexual behaviors and the general activity in the open field of adult male and ovariectomized, hormone-treated female rats were observed. On comparison with the control group, maternal PT treatment: (i) did not alter the maternal weight, pup weight, anogenital distance, or male and female general activity; (ii) increased female sexual behavior, that is, decreased the latencies to first mount, first lordosis, and tenth lordosis, and the percentage of females presenting lordosis; and (iii) did not alter male sexual behavior. It is suggested that prenatal PT exposure interfered with epigenetic mechanisms related to the development of sex differences in the brain, leading to the observed sexually dimorphic effects on sexual behavior.

  6. Hormones and History: The Evolution and Development of Primate Female Sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Wallen, Kim; Zehr, Julia L.

    2005-01-01

    Sexual behavior is required for reproduction in internally fertilizing species but poses significant social and physical risks. Females in many nonprimate species have evolved physical and behavioral mechanisms restricting sexual behavior to when females are fertile. The same hormones producing female fertility also control these mechanisms, assuring that sex only occurs when reproduction is possible. In contrast to nonprimate mammals, hormones do not regulate the capacity to engage in sex in female anthropoid primates, uncoupling fertility and the physical capacity to mate. Instead, in primates, sexual motivation has become the primary coordinator between sexual behavior and fertility. This dependence upon psychological mechanisms to coordinate physiology with behavior is possibly unique to primates, including humans, and allows a variety of nonphysiological influences, particularly social context, to regulate sexual behavior. The independence between hormonal state and sexual behavior allows sex to be used for social purposes. This complex regulation of primate sexuality develops during adolescence, where female monkeys show both hormonally influenced sexual motivation and socially modulated sexual behavior. We present findings from rhesus monkeys illustrating how social context and hormonal state interact to modulate adolescent and adult sexuality. It is argued that this flexibility in sexual behavior, combined with a tight regulation of sexual motivational systems by reproductive hormones, allows sexual behavior to be used for nonreproductive purposes while still assuring its occurrence during periods of female fertility. The evolutionary pressures that produced such flexibility in sexual behavior remain puzzling, but may reflect the importance of sexuality to primate social attraction and cohesion. PMID:15216429

  7. Female sexual arousal: genital anatomy and orgasm in intercourse.

    PubMed

    Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A

    2011-05-01

    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data that were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. A genetic basis for altered sexual behavior in mutant female mice.

    PubMed

    Zakany, Jozsef; Duboule, Denis

    2012-09-25

    Although neural substrates of mammalian female mating behavior have been described, the association between complex courtship activity and specific underlying mechanisms remains elusive. We have isolated a mouse line that unexpectedly shows altered female social behavior with increased investigation of males and increased genital biting. We investigated adult individuals by behavioral observation and genetic and molecular neuroanatomy methods. We report exacerbated inverse pursuits and incapacitating bites directed at the genitals of stud males. This extreme deviation from wild-type female courtship segregates with a deletion of the Hoxd1 to Hoxd9 genomic region. This dominant Atypical female courtship allele (HoxD(Afc)) induces ectopic Hoxd10 gene expression in several regions in newborn forebrain transitorily and stably in a sparse subpopulation of cells in the cornu ammonis fields of adult hippocampus, which may thus lead to an abnormal modulation in the sexual behavior of mutant females. The resulting compulsive sexual solicitation behavior displayed by the most affected individuals suggests new avenues to study the genetic and molecular bases of normal and pathological mammalian affect and raises the potential involvement of the hippocampus in the control of female courtship behavior. The potential relevance to human 2q.31.1 microdeletion syndrome is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of Mode of Delivery on Female Postpartum Sexual Functioning: Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery and Operative Vaginal Delivery vs. Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Giussy; Pifarotti, Paola; Facchin, Federica; Cortinovis, Ivan; Dridi, Dhohua; Ronchetti, Camilla; Calzolari, Luca; Vercellini, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have explored the association between modes of delivery and postpartum female sexual functioning, although with inconsistent findings. To investigate the impact of mode of delivery on female postpartum sexual functioning by comparing spontaneous vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery, and cesarean section. One hundred thirty-two primiparous women who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery, 45 who had an operative vaginal delivery, and 92 who underwent a cesarean section were included in the study (N = 269). Postpartum sexual functioning was evaluated 6 months after childbirth using the Female Sexual Function Index. Time to resumption of sexual intercourse, postpartum depression, and current breastfeeding also were assessed 6 months after delivery. Female Sexual Function Index total and domain scores and time to resumption of sexual intercourse at 6 months after childbirth. Women who underwent an operative vaginal delivery had poorer scores on arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and global sexual functioning compared with the cesarean section group and lower orgasm scores compared with the spontaneous vaginal delivery group (P < .05). The mode of delivery did not significantly affect time to resumption of sexual intercourse. Women who were currently breastfeeding had lower lubrication, more pain at intercourse, and longer time to resumption of sexual activity. Operative vaginal delivery might be associated with poorer sexual functioning, but no conclusions can be drawn from this study regarding the impact of pelvic floor trauma (perineal laceration or episiotomy) on sexual functioning because of the high rate of episiotomies. Overall, obstetric algorithms currently in use should be refined to decrease further the risk of operative vaginal delivery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Hyperthyroidism: a risk factor for female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Atis, Gokhan; Dalkilinc, Ayhan; Altuntas, Yuksel; Atis, Alev; Gurbuz, Cenk; Ofluoglu, Yilmaz; Cil, Esra; Caskurlu, Turhan

    2011-08-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a common hormonal disorder in women that may cause female sexual dysfunction (FSD). To assess sexual function in women with hyperthyroidism. A total of 40 women with clinical hyperthyroidism and 40 age-matched voluntary healthy women controls were included in the study. All the subjects were evaluated with a detailed medical and sexual history, including a Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire for sexual status and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for psychiatric assessment. The levels of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid hormones, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (tT), free testosterone (fT), prolactin, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone were measured. The mean total FSFI scores were 24.2 ± 9.96 in the hyperthyroidic group and 29 ± 10.4 in the control group (P < 0.0001). Desire (P < 0.040), arousal (P < 0.0001), lubrication (P < 0.0001), orgasm (P < 0.0001), satisfaction (P < 0.0001), and pain (P < 0.007) domain scores were also significantly lower in women with hyperthyroidism. The mean BDI score for hyperthyroidic patients was significantly greater than the score for the control group (P < 0.0001). The mean SHBG level in the hyperthyroidic group was found to be significantly higher than the level in the controls (P < 0.0001), whereas the mean fT level in the hyperthyroidic group was lower than in the control group (P < 0.0001). The FSFI score showed a significant negative correlation with the serum SHBG (r = -0.309, P = 0.005), free triiodothyronine (r = -0.353, P = 0.006) and free tetraiodothyronine (r = -0.305, P = 0.018) levels, BDI scores (r = -0.802, P = 0.0001) and positive correlation with tT (r = 0.284, P = 0.011), fT (r = 0.407, P = 0.001), and TSH (r = 0.615, P = 0.0001) levels. A significant percentage of women with clinical hyperthyroidism had sexual dysfunction. Increased depressive symptoms, increased SHBG level, and decreased fT levels were all

  11. The recidivism rates of female sexual offenders are low: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cortoni, Franca; Hanson, R Karl; Coache, Marie-Ève

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the recidivism rates of female sexual offenders. A meta-analysis of 10 studies (2,490 offenders; average follow-up 6.5 years) showed that female sexual offenders have extremely low rates of sexual recidivism (less than 3%). The recidivism rates for violent (including sexual) offences and for any type of crime were predictably higher than the recidivism rates for sexual offences but still lower than the recidivism rates of male sexual offenders. These findings indicate the need for distinct policies and procedures for assessing and managing the risk of male and female sexual offenders. Risk assessment tools developed specifically for male sexual offenders would be expected to substantially overestimate the recidivism risk of female sexual offenders.

  12. Seminal fluid regulation of female sexual attractiveness in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Tram, Uyen; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    1998-01-01

    Finding a willing and suitable mate is critical for sexual reproduction. Visual, auditory, and chemical cues aid in locating and/or attracting partners. After mating, females from many insect species become less attractive. This is caused by changes in the quantity and/or quality of pheromones synthesized by the female and to changes in the female’s behavior. For example, female insects may stop releasing pheromones, assume a mate refusal posture, or move less in response to males. Many postmating changes in female insects are triggered by seminal fluid proteins from the male’s accessory gland proteins (Acps) and by sperm. To determine the role of seminal fluid components in mediating changes in attractiveness, we measured the attractiveness of Drosophila melanogaster females that had been mated to genetically altered males that lack sperm and/or Acps. We found that the drop in female attractiveness occurs in two phases. A short-term drop in attractiveness is triggered independent of the receipt of sperm and Acps. Maintenance of lowered attractiveness is dependent upon sperm. PMID:9520491

  13. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. Changes in the sexual orientation of six heterosexual male-to-female transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Daskalos, C T

    1998-12-01

    Researchers traditionally have assumed that sex reassignment procedures do not change sexual orientation. Of 20 transsexuals of various types that were interviewed, 6 heterosexual male-to-female transsexual respondents reported that their sexual orientation had changed since transitioning from male to female. These respondents stated that before transitioning they had been sexually orientated towards females. After transitioning, these same respondents reported that they were sexually orientated towards males. Five of the six respondents reported having various sexual encounters with males since transitioning. The respondents explained the changes in their sexual orientation as part of their emerging female gender identities. Three of the respondents claimed that the use of female hormones played a role in changing their sexual orientation. It did not appear that the respondents' post-transitional sexual attractions towards males were similar to autogynephilic images and fantasies described by Blanchard (1991).

  15. Female homosexual behavior and inter-sexual mate competition in Japanese macaques: possible implications for sexual selection theory.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we review research related to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata), including our 20-year program of research on this species. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that female homosexual behavior in this species is sexually motivated. In contrast, many sociosexual hypotheses have been tested in relation to female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques, but none have been supported. Female Japanese macaques sometimes engage in same-sex sexual activity even when motivated opposite-sex alternatives are available. Within this context of mate choice, males compete inter-sexually for opportunities to copulate with females above and beyond any intra-sexual competition that is required. Anecdotal evidence suggests that inter-sexual competition for female sexual partners has been observed in a number of other species, including humans. At present it is unclear whether inter-sexual competition for sexual partners influences patterns of reproduction. Our understanding of sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems may be improved by investigating whether inter-sexual mate competition influences the acquisition and maintenance of reproductive partners in those species in which such interactions occur.

  16. Effect of female genital mutilation/cutting on sexual functions.

    PubMed

    Biglu, Mohammad-Hossein; Farnam, Alireza; Abotalebi, Parvaneh; Biglu, Sahar; Ghavami, Mostafa

    2016-12-01

    Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) or female circumcision is the procedure of eliminating some or all parts of the external female genitalia. FGM/C is carried out by traditional circumcisers. They usually use cutting tools like a blade or straight-razor. Although FGM/C is well described in the African continent and some Arabic countries, data from Iran are scarce. The major objective of this current study was to investigate the effects of FGM/C on the female sexual function of married women compared to the non-circumcised women in the Kurdistan province of Iran. A case-control study was conducted in a sample of 280 married women (140 circumcised-women and 140 non-circumcised-women) who referred to the healthcare centers for vaccination, midwifery, or family planning services. Participants were requested to complete the Persian-translated version of the Female Sexual Function Index. The total score of the FSFI and its individual domains. Of the circumcised women, 51.4% reported circumcision procedures before the age of 3 years. Religion motivation (53.6%) was mentioned as the most important factor for the family leading to FGM/C. Almost all operations were performed by traditional circumcisers. Non-circumcised women had significantly higher Persian-FSFI total score (25.3 ± 4.34) compared to the circumcised women (17.9 ± 5.39). Sexual function in women with FGM/C is adversely altered. In Kurdistan province women, FGM/C is associated with reduction of scores of Persian-FSFI on all domain scores. Education in general and informing the people that FGM/C is not a religious Hadith certainly would have a great impact on the suffering of the women from FGM/C as well as the level of "desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain in the sexual function of women". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The DSM diagnostic criteria for female sexual arousal disorder.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A

    2010-04-01

    This article reviews and critiques the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD). An overview of how the diagnostic criteria for FSAD have evolved over previous editions of the DSM is presented and research on prevalence and etiology of FSAD is briefly reviewed. Problems with the essential feature of the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis-"an inability to attain, or to maintain...an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement"-are identified. The significant overlap between "arousal" and "desire" disorders is highlighted. Finally, specific recommendations for revision of the criteria for DSM-V are made, including use of a polythetic approach to the diagnosis and the addition of duration and severity criteria.

  18. Sexual signalling in female crested macaques and the evolution of primate fertility signals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Female signals of fertility have evolved in diverse taxa. Among the most interesting study systems are those of multimale multifemale group-living primates, where females signal fertility to males through multiple signals, and in which there is substantial inter-specific variation in the composition and reliability of such signals. Among the macaques, some species display reliable behavioural and/or anogenital signals while others do not. One cause of this variation may be differences in male competitive regimes: some species show marked sexual dimorphism and reproductive skew, with males fighting for dominance, while others show low dimorphism and skew, with males queuing for dominance. As such, there is variation in the extent to which rank is a reliable proxy for male competitiveness, which may affect the extent to which it is in females’ interest to signal ovulation reliably. However, data on ovulatory signals are absent from species at one end of the macaque continuum, where selection has led to high sexual dimorphism and male reproductive skew. Here we present data from 31 cycles of 19 wild female crested macaques, a highly sexually dimorphic species with strong mating skew. We collected measures of ovarian hormone data from faeces, sexual swelling size from digital images, and male and female behaviour. Results We show that both sexual swelling size and female proceptivity are graded-signals, but relatively reliable indicators of ovulation, with swelling size largest and female proceptive behaviours most frequent around ovulation. Sexual swelling size was also larger in conceptive cycles. Male mating behaviour was well timed to female ovulation, suggesting that males had accurate information about this. Conclusion Though probabilistic, crested macaque ovulatory signals are relatively reliable. We argue that in species where males fight over dominance, male dominance rank is surrogate for competitiveness. Under these circumstances it is in the

  19. Sexual Self-Acceptance, Communication with Partner, and Contraceptive Use among Adolescent Females: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschann, Jeanne M.; Adler, Nancy E.

    1997-01-01

    Examined relationships among sexual self-acceptance, communication with sexual partners about sex and contraception, and contraceptive use in 201 adolescent females, ages 14 to 19. Found that females with greater sexual self-acceptance communicated more with partners about sex and contraception. Discussion about contraception, but not about sex,…

  20. Female-controlled methods to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.

    PubMed

    Elias, C J; Coggins, C

    1996-12-01

    THE NEED FOR PREVENTION: Women throughout the world face a growing risk of infection with HIV. Consistent condom use, one cornerstone of primary prevention strategy, is not always feasible for many women. Consequently, women urgently need infection prevention technology that is within their personal control. This session will review current efforts to develop and test female-controlled methods for preventing sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted pathogens. Both physical and chemical methods will be summarized, including recent findings concerning the efficacy and acceptability of the vaginal pouch (female condom), as well as an overview of research on vaginal microbicides. Data from studies of existing over-the-counter spermicides will be reviewed. The wide range of novel microbicidal products currently being evaluated in the laboratory and early clinical trials demonstrate the breadth of possibilities presented by chemical barrier methods. However, formidible challenges face public and private sector research and development efforts. This session will conclude by highlighting several issues related to the clinical evaluation and introduction of female-controlled prevention technology.

  1. Low-dose exposure to alkylphenols adversely affects the sexual development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): acceleration of the onset of puberty and delayed seasonal gonad development in mature female cod.

    PubMed

    Meier, Sonnich; Morton, H Craig; Andersson, Eva; Geffen, Audrey J; Taranger, Geir Lasse; Larsen, Marita; Petersen, Marianne; Djurhuus, Rune; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Svardal, Asbjørn

    2011-09-01

    Produced water (PW), a by-product of the oil-production process, contains large amount of alkylphenols (APs) and other harmful oil compounds. In the last 20 years, there have been increasing concerns regarding the environmental impact of large increases in the amounts of PW released into the North Sea. We have previously shown that low levels of APs can induce disruption of the endocrine and reproductive systems of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The aims of this follow-up study were to: (i) identify the lowest observable effect concentration of APs; (ii) study the effects of exposure to real PW, obtained from a North Sea oil-production platform; and (iii) study the biological mechanism of endocrine disruption in female cod. Fish were fed with feed paste containing several concentrations of four different APs (4-tert-butylphenol, 4-n-pentylphenol, 4-n-hexylphenol and 4-n-heptylphenol) or real PW for 20 weeks throughout the normal period of vitellogenesis in Atlantic cod from October to January. Male and female cod, exposed to AP and PW, were compared to unexposed fish and to fish fed paste containing 17β-oestradiol (E(2)). Approximately 60% of the females and 96% of the males in the unexposed groups were mature at the end of the experiment. Our results show that exposure to APs and E(2) have different effects depending on the developmental stage of the fish. We observed that juvenile females are advanced into puberty and maturation, while gonad development was delayed in both maturing females and males. The AP-exposed groups contained increased numbers of mature females, and significant differences between the untreated group and the AP-treated groups were seen down to a dose of 4 μg AP/kg body weight. In the high-dose AP and the E(2) exposed groups, all females matured and no juveniles were seen. These results suggest that AP-exposure can affect the timing of the onset of puberty in fish even at extremely low concentrations. Importantly, similar effects were not

  2. Changes in Female Sexuality: A Study of Mother/Daughter Communication and Generational Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalom, Marilyn; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reports findings of two surveys representing mothers in college in the l950s (N=141) and daughters in college in the 1970s (N=184) about female sexuality. While both groups expressed similar sexual attitudes, the class of 1980 reported considerably more sexual activity than the class of 1954. Communication about sexuality appears to have improved.…

  3. Sex trafficking, sexual risk, sexually transmitted infection and reproductive health among female sex workers in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Decker, Michele R; McCauley, Heather L; Phuengsamran, Dusita; Janyam, Surang; Silverman, Jay G

    2011-04-01

    The trafficking of women and girls for sexual exploitation is an internationally recognised form of gender-based violence, and is thought to confer unique sexual and reproductive health vulnerabilities. To date, little research has compared sexual risk or health outcomes among female sex workers (FSWs) on the basis of experiences of sex trafficking. To compare experiences of sexual risk and sexual and reproductive health outcomes among FSWs on the basis of experiences of trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Data from a national sample of FSWs in Thailand (n=815) was used to assess (a) the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism into sex work and (b) associations of sex trafficking with sexual risk and health outcomes. Approximately 10% of FSWs met criteria for trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work. Compared with their non-trafficked counterparts, sex-trafficked FSWs were more likely to have experienced sexual violence at initiation to sex work (adjusted risk ratio (ARR) 2.29, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.72), recent workplace violence or mistreatment (ARR 1.38, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.67), recent condom failure (ARR 1.80, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.80), condom non-use (ARR 3.35, 95% CI 1.49 to 7.52) and abortion (ARR 2.83, 95% CI 1.48 to 5.39). Both the prevalence of sex trafficking as an entry mechanism to sex work and the threats to sexual and reproductive health observed on the basis of trafficking status show the need for comprehensive efforts to identify and support this vulnerable population. Moreover, existing STI/HIV-prevention programming may be stymied by the limited condom-use capacity and high levels of violence observed among those trafficked into sex work.

  4. Sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. A female perspective.

    PubMed

    Horgan, M; Bersoff-Matcha, S

    1998-10-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases have the greatest impact on the health of women. They are frequently asymptomatic, so screening for infection is important in preventing the long-term sequelae which include infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. HIV continues to increase in the female population and the gynecologic complications associated with it are unique to this population. Use of zidovudine in pregnant HIV-infected women has substantially decreased the rate of vertical transmission of HIV infection. The epidemiologic synergy between HIV and STDs is well recognized and prevention of one is dependent on prevention of the other.

  5. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  6. Does Sex Education Affect Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines whether offering sex education to young teenagers affects several measures of adolescent sexual behavior and health: virginity status, contraceptive use, frequency of intercourse, likelihood of pregnancy, and probability of contracting a sexually transmitted disease. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  7. Biphasic role of dopamine on female sexual behaviour via D2 receptors in the mediobasal hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Fabre-Nys, Claude; Chesneau, Didier; de la Riva, Carlos; Hinton, Michael R; Locatelli, Alain; Ohkura, Satoshi; Kendrick, Keith M

    2003-03-01

    Dopamine has been implicated in the control of sexual behaviour, but its role seems quite complex and controversial. The aim of the present experiments was to investigate the effects of dopamine (DA) acting on D2 receptors in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) on sexual behaviour in female sheep. To achieve this, the D2 agonist, quinpirole, was administered bilaterally via microdialysis probes into the MBH of ovariectomized ewes either before or after oestradiol (E2) administration. Quinpirole (100 ng/ml) infused for 6 h just before E2 hastened the onset of oestrus behaviour and the luteinizing hormone surge, whereas the same treatment given 6-12 h or 18-21 h after E2 decreased the intensity of sexual receptivity without affecting LH or prolactin secretion. We then tested the hypothesis that E2 stimulates the onset of oestrus partly by decreasing DA activation of D2 receptors. In this case the D2 antagonists pimozide or spiperone (100 ng/ml) were infused into the MBH via microdialysis probes for 11 h in the absence of E2 administration. A significant number of ewes showed induction of receptivity with both antagonists, although its intensity was significantly lower than that induced by E2. These treatments generally did not significantly alter extracellular concentrations of monoamines or aminoacids although quinpirole modulated the ability of sexual interactions to increase noradrenaline release. These experiments show that DA acts via D2 receptors in the MBH to control female sexual behaviour in a biphasic manner: the onset of sexual motivation and receptivity requiring an initial increase in activation followed by a decrease. This dual action could explain some of the controversies concerning DA action on sexual behaviour.

  8. Anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and labia minora with a review of the female orgasm and the prevention of female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause "vaginal" orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sexpectations: male college students' views about displayed sexual references on females' social networking web sites.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Swanson, Michael J; Royer, Heather; Roberts, Linda J

    2011-04-01

    Sexual reference display on a social networking web site (SNS) is associated with self-reported sexual intention; females are more likely to display sexually explicit content on SNSs. The purpose of this study was to investigate male college students' views towards sexual references displayed on publicly available SNSs by females. Focus groups. One large state university. Male college students age 18-23. All tape recorded discussion was fully transcribed, then discussed to determine thematic consensus. A trained male facilitator asked participants about views on sexual references displayed on SNSs by female peers and showed examples of sexual references from female's SNS profiles to facilitate discussion. A total of 28 heterosexual male participants participated in seven focus groups. Nearly all participants reported using Facebook to evaluate potential female partners. Three themes emerged from our data. First, participants reported that displays of sexual references on social networking web sites increased sexual expectations. Second, sexual reference display decreased interest in pursuing a dating relationship. Third, SNS data was acknowledged as imperfect but valuable. Females who display sexual references on publicly available SNS profiles may be influencing potential partners' sexual expectations and dating intentions. Future research should examine females' motivations and beliefs about displaying such references and educate women about the potential impact of these sexual displays. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition: could it have a role in the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder?

    PubMed

    Angulo, Javier

    2010-05-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is the inability to attain or maintain an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement. The potentiation of vascular responses leading to increased blood flow in clitoris and vagina has represented the main focus in the pharmacological treatment of FSAD, including the evaluation of the type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibitors. However, due to a lack of clear efficacy, there is no approved pharmacotherapy for FSAD to date. In the present issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Wayman et al. show that the administration by intravenous or intravaginal routes of a novel neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, UK-414,445, results in enhanced genital blood flow responses to pelvic nerve stimulation in female rabbits, without significantly affecting blood pressure. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition, by preserving vasoactive peptides such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, raises the possibility of a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of FSAD.

  11. Differences between males and females in motives for engaging in sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J L; Volk, K D; Hyde, J S

    1985-04-01

    In a test of the hypothesis that a difference exists between males and females in motives for participating in sexual intercourse, a random sample of 249 college students was given a questionnaire containing questions about sexual behavior and attitudes, focusing on motives for having intercourse. There were significant differences between males and females in approval of casual sexual intercourse, number of premarital sexual partners, most important part of sexual behavior, and whether an emotional involvement was a prerequisite for participating in sexual intercourse. Effect-size analyses indicated that these differences are large, with a median omega 2 = 0.24. Both males and females approved of premarital sexual intercourse in a serious relationship and stressed the importance of feeling loved and needed. However, males found it easier to participate in sexual intercourse without an emotional commitment, whereas females were unlikely to want intercourse for physical pleasure in the absence of psychological involvement.

  12. Gender and sexual economics: do women view sex as a female commodity?

    PubMed

    Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C

    2014-07-01

    In the study reported here, data from implicit and behavioral choice measures did not support sexual economics theory's (SET's) central tenet that women view female sexuality as a commodity. Instead, men endorsed sexual exchange more than women did, which supports the idea that SET is a vestige of patriarchy. Further, men's sexual advice, more than women's, enforced the sexual double standard (i.e., men encouraged men more than women to have casual sex)-a gender difference that was mediated by hostile sexism, but also by men's greater implicit investment in sexual economics. That is, men were more likely to suppress female sexuality because they resisted female empowerment and automatically associated sex with money more than women did. It appears that women are not invested in sexual economics, but rather, men are invested in patriarchy, even when it means raising the price of sexual relations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Sexual dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and its affected domains

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Zabandan, Neda; Shariat, Mamak; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Ghahghaei-Nezamabadi, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is presented with characteristic complications such as chronic an ovulation, obesity, and hyperandrogenism which can affect sexual function in women of reproductive age. Objective: Herein we evaluated the frequency and predisposing factors of sexual dysfunction in infertile PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 130 married women with a definite diagnosis of PCOS who were referred due to infertility were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Results: The frequency of sexual dysfunction was verified 57.7% in PCOS patients with the domains of desire and arousal being commonly affected in 99.2% and 98.5%of cases respectively. BMI had a significant effect on sexual desire and arousal (p=0.02) while the effect of hirsutism was significant on all domains (p<0.001 for total FSFI score) except for dyspareunia. Conclusion: PCOS patients markedly suffer from sexual dysfunction as comorbidity. It seems appropriate to screen all PCOS patients for sexual function with a simple short questionnaire such as FSFI. Targeted interventions could be considered to help improve their quality of life along with other treatments. PMID:25408703

  14. Desire and ability: hormones and the regulation of female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Wallen, K

    1990-01-01

    The distinction between the ability to copulate and the desire to copulate is used to understand species differences in hormonal regulation of female sexual behavior. Evidence is presented demonstrating that ovarian hormones modulate female sexual motivation in both rodent and primate females. The thesis is developed that rodent females differ from primate females primarily in their dependence upon hormones for the ability to mate. Thus, apparent differences between the two groups of females in the extent to which hormones control copulatory behavior does not stem from differences in hormonal regulation of female sexual motivation but from the physical ability of primate, but not rodent, females to mate without hormonal stimulation. This emancipation of the ability to copulate from hormonal influence makes female sexual motivation the primary regulator of mating in primates. Dependence upon female sexual motivation means that the copulatory behavior of primate females is easily influenced by their physical and social environment. Because primate females can mate without hormonal input, female sexual initiation, not copulation, is argued to be the only valid indicator of female sexual motivation.

  15. Pedagogical Moments: Affective Sexual Literacies in Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Kyra

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers three pedagogical moments in the film "Tomorrow, When the War Began" (2010), contemplating the way in which they open a space for conversations about feelings, sexuality and gender. "Tomorrow, When the War Began" follows the plight of 17-year-old Ellie who returns to her rural town from a camping trip with…

  16. Pedagogical Moments: Affective Sexual Literacies in Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Kyra

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers three pedagogical moments in the film "Tomorrow, When the War Began" (2010), contemplating the way in which they open a space for conversations about feelings, sexuality and gender. "Tomorrow, When the War Began" follows the plight of 17-year-old Ellie who returns to her rural town from a camping trip with…

  17. Playing a Videogame with a Sexualized Female Character Increases Adolescents' Rape Myth Acceptance and Tolerance Toward Sexual Harassment.

    PubMed

    Driesmans, Karolien; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has documented favorable effects of active and educational videogames among adolescents. However, research on potential negative effects of such games is limited. Scholars have called attention to games portraying sexualized female characters. The purpose of the current study was to experimentally investigate the effect of playing a videogame with a sexualized female character on adolescents' acceptance of rape myths and tolerance for sexual harassment. Fifty-seven secondary school pupils, 12-15 years of age, participated in a 2 (gender: boys versus girls)×2 (game character: nonsexualized versus sexualized female) factorial design experiment. Participants played a game for 15 minutes and were randomly assigned to one of the two game characters. Afterward, they completed established scales to assess rape myth acceptance and tolerance for sexual harassment. Analyses of variance showed greater acceptance of rape myths (P=0.039) and greater tolerance of sexual harassment (P=0.046) in adolescents who played with the sexualized woman compared with adolescents in the control condition. We did not find significant differences between boys and girls or any interaction effect between gender and game character. Findings suggest that gameplaying with a sexualized woman may increase adolescents' acceptance of rape myths and tolerance for sexual harassment. These findings highlight attention to the use of sexualized female game characters in (educational and active) videogames that target adolescents.

  18. Brief report: sexual sensation seeking and its relationship to risky sexual behaviour among African-American adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Spitalnick, Joshua S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Crosby, Richard A; Milhausen, Robin R; Sales, Jessica M; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N

    2007-02-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a clinic-based sample of African-American adolescent females (N=715) enrolled in an STD/HIV prevention intervention. Participants (ages 15-21) endorsing higher levels of sexual sensation seeking reported higher levels of sexual risk-taking behaviours (e.g. frequency of vaginal intercourse, number of sexual partners, and poorer condom use). Results remained significant after controlling for known covariates associated with sexual risk-taking behaviours. Results are consistent with the adult literature and highlight the need for future investigations examining sexual sensation seeking among adolescents. These results, though preliminary, could be used to better inform prevention interventions and clinicians/health educators who provide direct services to adolescents.

  19. Mixed messages: wild female bonobos show high variability in the timing of ovulation in relation to sexual swelling patterns.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Pamela Heidi; Hohmann, Gottfried; Murtagh, Róisín; Thiessen-Bock, Robyn; Deschner, Tobias

    2016-06-30

    The evolution of primate sexual swellings and their influence on mating strategies have captivated the interest of biologists for over a century. Across the primate order, variability in the timing of ovulation with respect to females' sexual swelling patterns differs greatly. Since sexual swellings typically function as signals of female fecundity, the temporal relation between ovulation and sexual swellings can impact the ability of males to pinpoint ovulation and thereby affect male mating strategies. Here, we used endocrine parameters to detect ovulation and examined the temporal relation between the maximum swelling phase (MSP) and ovulation in wild female bonobos (Pan paniscus). Data were collected at the Luikotale field site, Democratic Republic of Congo, spanning 36 months. Observational data from 13 females were used to characterise female swelling cycles (N = 70). Furthermore, we measured urinary oestrone and pregnanediol using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and used pregnanediol to determine the timing of ovulation in 34 cycles (N = 9 females). We found that the duration of females' MSP was highly variable, ranging from 1 to 31 days. Timing of ovulation varied considerably in relation to the onset of the MSP, resulting in a very low day-specific probability of ovulation and fecundity across female cycles. Ovulation occurred during the MSP in only 52.9 % of the analysed swelling cycles, and females showed regular sexual swelling patterns in N = 8 swelling cycles where ovulation did not occur. These findings reveal that sexual swellings of bonobos are less reliable indicators of ovulation compared to other species of primates. Female bonobos show unusual variability in the duration of the MSP and in the timing of ovulation relative to the sexual swelling signal. These data are important for understanding the evolution of sexual signals, how they influence male and female mating strategies, and how decoupling visual signals

  20. Pre- and postnatal bisphenol A treatment results in persistent deficits in the sexual behavior of male rats, but not female rats, in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bryan A; Shimell, Jordan J; Watson, Neil V

    2011-02-01

    Perinatal administration of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) reportedly inhibits the sexual behavior of sexually naïve adult male rats. In order to evaluate the effects of BPA administration during early development on later reproductive behavior, we administered one of five doses of bisphenol A daily to pregnant female rats throughout gestation and lactation, and quantified the appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors of the resultant male and female offspring over multiple sexual encounters in adulthood. Males receiving low dose perinatal BPA (50 μg/kg bw/day) showed persistent deficits in sexual behavior in adulthood. Males receiving the highest dose (5 mg/kg bw/day), however, were indistinguishable from controls with respect to consummatory sexual behaviors but showed decreased latencies to engage in those behaviors when sexually naïve, with significant non-linear, or U-shaped, dose-response relationships observed on the first and last day of testing. Adult female sexual behavior was not affected by early BPA administration at any dose tested. These results are consistent with previous reports that BPA exerts behavioral effects especially at low doses, and further indicates that BPA can cause lasting impairment of sexual behavior in males, but does not alter the normal development of female appetitive or consummatory sexual behaviors. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that adult sexual performance is impaired in sexually experienced animals following perinatal exposure to bisphenol A.

  1. Older Sexual Partners and Adolescent Females' Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Meier, Ann; Erickson, Gina A; McLaughlin, Heather

    2016-03-01

    The physical health detriments associated with adolescent females' having older romantic partners are well documented. However, little is known about the relationship between having an older partner and females' subsequent mental health. Two waves of data from 1,440 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. The sample was restricted to females in grades 7-12 who had not had sex at Wave 1 (1994-1995) and reported at least one romantic relationship by Wave 2 (1996). A lagged dependent variable approach with ordinary least-squares regression measured changes in depression and self-esteem associated with sexual and nonsexual relationships with same-age and older partners. Intimate partner violence was tested as a mediator. Compared with respondents reporting a nonsexual relationship with a same-age partner, those reporting a nonsexual relationship with an older partner, sex with a same-age partner or sex with an older partner experienced greater increases in depression between surveys; mean predicted depression levels at Wave 2 ranged from 7.7 to 9.0 across these groups (possible range, 0-27). Intimate partner violence explained one-third of the difference between those who had had sex and those who had not had sex with same-age partners. Fewer associations were found for self-esteem, and differences between groups were small. Health correlates of adolescent sexual behavior go beyond physical health outcomes. Future research should identify mechanisms through which relationships, especially those with older partners, are associated with declines in mental health. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  2. Psychological correlates of sexual dysfunction in female rectal and anal cancer survivors: analysis of baseline intervention data.

    PubMed

    Philip, Errol J; Nelson, Christian; Temple, Larissa; Carter, Jeanne; Schover, Leslie; Jennings, Sabrina; Jandorf, Lina; Starr, Tatiana; Baser, Ray; DuHamel, Katherine

    2013-10-01

    Sexual dysfunction represents a complex and multifactorial construct that can affect both men and women and has been noted to often deteriorate significantly after treatment for rectal and anal cancer. Despite this, it remains an understudied, underreported, and undertreated issue in the field of cancer survivorship. This study examined the characteristics of women enrolled in an intervention trial to treat sexual dysfunction, and explored the relationship between sexual functioning and psychological well-being. There were 70 female posttreatment anal or rectal cancer survivors assessed as part of the current study. Participants were enrolled in a randomized intervention trial to treat sexual dysfunction and completed outcome measures prior to randomization. The main outcome measures are quality of life (QOL) (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire [EORTC-QLQ-C30] and Colorectal Cancer-Specific Module [QLQ-CR38]), sexual functioning (Female Sexual Functioning Index), and psychological well-being (Brief Symptom Inventory Depression/Anxiety, Impact of Events Scale-Revised, CR-38 Body Image). Women enrolled in the study intervention were on average 55 years old, predominantly Caucasian (79%), married (57%), and a median of 4 years postprimary treatment. For those reporting sexual activity at baseline (N=41), sexual dysfunction was associated with a range of specific measures of psychological well-being, all in the hypothesized direction. The Sexual/Relationship Satisfaction subscale was associated with all measures of psychological well-being (r=-0.45 to -0.70, all P<0.01). Body image, anxiety, and cancer-specific posttraumatic distress were notable in their association with subscales of sexual functioning, while a global QOL measure was largely unrelated. For sexually active female rectal and anal cancer survivors enrolled in a sexual health intervention, sexual dysfunction was significantly and consistently

  3. Female youth who sexually coerce: prevalence, risk, and protective factors in two national high school surveys.

    PubMed

    Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Mossige, Svein; Långström, Niklas

    2011-12-01

    Sexual coercion is recognized as a serious societal problem. Correlates and risk factors of sexually abusive behavior in females are not well known. Etiological theory and empirical study of female perpetrators of sexual coercion are usually based on small or highly selected samples. Specifically, population-based data are needed to elucidate risk/protective factors. Main outcome measures include a self-report questionnaire containing 65 items tapping socio-demographic and health conditions, social relations, sexual victimization, conduct problems and a set of normative and deviant sexual cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. We used a 2003-2004 survey of sexual attitudes and experiences among high school students in Norway and Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates to sexually coercive behavior (response rate 80%); 4,363 females participated (Mean = 18.1 years). Thirty-seven women (0.8%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked someone into, used pressure, or forced somebody to have sex). Sexually coercive compared with non-coercive women were similar on socio-demographic variables, but reported less parental care and more parental overprotection, aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance misuse. Also, sexually coercive females reported more sexual lust, sex partners, penetrative sexual victimization, rape myths, use of violent porn, and friends more likely to use porn. When using the Swedish subsample to differentiate risk factors specific for sexual coercion from those for antisocial behavior in general, we found less cannabis use, but more sexual preoccupation, pro-rape attitudes, and friends using violent porn in sexually coercive compared with non-sex conduct problem females. Sexually coercive behavior in high school women was associated with general risk/needs factors for antisocial behavior, but also with specific sexuality-related risk factors. This differential effect has previously been overlooked, agrees with similar findings in men, and

  4. A Model of Female Sexual Desire: Internalized Working Models of Parent-Child Relationships and Sexual Body Self-Representations.

    PubMed

    Cherkasskaya, Eugenia; Rosario, Margaret

    2017-01-24

    The etiology of low female sexual desire, the most prevalent sexual complaint in women, is multi-determined, implicating biological and psychological factors, including women's early parent-child relationships and bodily self-representations. The current study evaluated a model that hypothesized that sexual body self-representations (sexual subjectivity, self-objectification, genital self-image) explain (i.e., mediate) the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment, separation-individuation, parental identification) and sexual desire in heterosexual women. We recruited 614 young, heterosexual women (M = 25.5 years, SD = 4.63) through social media. The women completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was used. The hypotheses were supported in that the relation between internalized working models of parent-child relationships (attachment and separation-individuation) and sexual desire was mediated by sexual body self-representations (sexual body esteem, self-objectification, genital self-image). However, parental identification was not related significantly to sexual body self-representations or sexual desire in the model. Current findings demonstrated that understanding female sexual desire necessitates considering women's internalized working models of early parent-child relationships and their experiences of their bodies in a sexual context. Treatment of low or absent desire in women would benefit from modalities that emphasize early parent-child relationships as well as interventions that foster mind-body integration.

  5. Genes specifically expressed in sexually differentiated female spheroids of Volvox carteri.

    PubMed

    Aono, Naoki; Inoue, Tan; Shiraishi, Hideaki

    2005-10-01

    Volvox carteri is a multicellular green alga with only two cell types, somatic cells and reproductive cells. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that this organism has evolved from a Chlamydomonas-like unicellular ancestor along with multicellularity, cellular differentiation, and a change in the mode of sexual reproduction from isogamy to oogamy. To examine the mechanism of sexual differentiation and the evolution of oogamy, we isolated 6 different cDNA sequences specifically expressed in sexually differentiated female spheroids. The genes for the cDNAs were designated SEF1 to SEF6. The time course of accumulation of each mRNA was shown to be distinct. The expression of some of these genes was not significantly affected when the sexual inducer was removed after the induction of sexual development. Sequence analysis indicates that SEF5 and SEF6 encode pherophorin-related proteins. Of these, SEF5 has the unique structural feature of a polyproline stretch in the C-terminal domain in addition to the one found in the central region.

  6. Quality of life, depression, and sexual dysfunction in spouses of female patients with fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Tutoglu, Ahmet; Boyaci, Ahmet; Koca, Irfan; Celen, Esra; Korkmaz, Nurdan

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the quality of life and psychological condition of female patients with fibromyalgia and their spouses on sexual function. A total of 32 female patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia and their spouses were analyzed. Thirty married couples were included in the study as the control group. The demographic data of the fibromyalgia patients were recorded, a visual analog scale was used to evaluate the level of pain, and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire was used to evaluate the impact of the symptoms on the quality of life of the patients. The quality of life of both the patients and the control group were evaluated using the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and psychological variables were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Sexual function was assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index for female participants and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) for male participants. The IIEF erectile dysfunction scores were significantly lower in the spouses of female patients with fibromyalgia than in the control group (p < 0.05), and the BDI scores were significantly higher in the spouses of the female patients with fibromyalgia (p < 0.05). Among the SF-36 scores, the emotional and physical roles were significantly lower in the spouses of the female patients with fibromyalgia (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, respectively). In all spouses of FMS patients and controls, there was a significantly negative correlation between erectile function, the BDI score, and to be married with FMS patient and positive correlations between erectile function and emotional role, social function, mental health, SF-36 pain score, and general health (p < 0.05 for all). In a linear regression model, BDI, to be married with FMS patient and general health were found to affect erectile function (beta regression coefficient = -0.572, SE = 0.082, p = 0.001; beta regression coefficient = -0.332, SE = 1

  7. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory for Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…

  8. The Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory: Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Inventory for Late Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Sharon; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to develop and validate a theoretically derived multidimensional inventory of females' sexual self-conceptions ("sexual subjectivity"). Study 1 revealed five factors on the Female Sexual Subjectivity Inventory (FSSI): sexual body-esteem, three factors of conceptions and expectations of sexual desire and pleasure (self,…

  9. Food restriction dissociates sexual motivation, sexual performance, and the rewarding consequences of copulation in female Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Klingerman, Candice M.; Patel, Anand; Hedges, Valerie L.; Meisel, Robert L.; Schneider, Jill E.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can switch their behavioral priorities from ingestive to sex behaviors to optimize reproductive success in environments where energy fluctuates. We hypothesized that energy availability differentially affects the appetitive (motivation), consummatory (performance), and learned (rewarding) components of behavior. In Experiment 1, appetitive and consummatory aspects of sex behavior were dissociated in the majority of female Syrian hamsters restricted to 75% of their ad libitum food intake for 11 days. Food restriction significantly inhibited vaginal scent marking, decreased the preference for spending time with male hamsters vs. spending time with food, and increased food hoarding with no significant effect on consummatory behaviors such as the incidence of lordosis or food intake. In Experiments 2 and 3, we attempted to use a similar level of food restriction to dissociate sexual appetite from sexual reward. In hamsters, formation of a conditioned place preference (CPP) for copulatory reward is reflected in increased nucleus accumbens (NAc) neural activation, measured as immunocytochemical staining for c-Fos, the protein product of the immediate-early gene, c-fos. In Experiment 2, neural activation increased 1 h after copulation in the NAc core and shell, and did not differ significantly between 10-day food-restricted and ad libitum-fed females in any brain area examined. In Experiment 3, females were either food-restricted or fed ad libitum over 8-30 days of conditioning with copulatory stimuli. Food-restricted females showed significantly fewer appetitive behaviors, but no difference in formation of a CPP compared to females fed ad libitum. Together these data are consistent with the idea that mild levels of food restriction that inhibit appetitive behaviors fail to attenuate consummatory behaviors and the rewarding consequences of copulation. Thus, appetitive sex behaviors are, at least partially, neuroanatomically and behaviorally distinct from both

  10. Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female sex workers in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Martin; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Weiss, Helen; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of Kampala city. We conducted 3 in-depth interviews with 40 female sex workers between 2010 and 2011. Data were analysed thematically, focusing on alcohol use within the context of sex work. Alcohol consumption was very high with only seven women reporting that they did not drink. Alcohol consumption was driven by the emotional and economic needs of the participants, but also promoted by clients who encouraged consumption. Many sex workers only started drinking alcohol when they joined sex work on the advice of more experienced peers, as a way to cope with the job. Alcohol was blamed for unsafe sex, acts of violence and poor decision making which increased sexual and physical violence. Alcohol was reported to affect medication adherence for HIV-positive women who forgot to take medicine. The findings suggest that the drivers of alcohol consumption are multifaceted in this group and require both individual and structural interventions. Alcohol reduction counselling can be supportive at the individual level and should be an integral part of HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers and others such as patrons in bars. The counselling should be addressed in a sensitive manner to bar owners and managers.

  11. The long-term effects of child sexual abuse by female perpetrators: a qualitative study of male and female victims.

    PubMed

    Denov, Myriam S

    2004-10-01

    Although the long-term effects of sexual abuse by men have been studied extensively, minimal research has explored the effects of sexual abuse by women. This qualitative study explores the experience and long-term impact of sexual abuse by women. The data were derived from in-depth interviews with 14 adult victims (7 men, 7 women) of child sexual abuse by females. Most respondents reported severe sexual abuse by their mothers. The vast majority of participants reported that the experience of female-perpetrated sexual abuse was harmful and damaging. As a result of the sexual abuse, male and female respondents reported long-term difficulties with substance abuse, self-injury, suicide, depression, rage, strained relationships with women, self-concept and identity issues, and a discomfort with sex. In light of the popular and professional perceptions that sexual abuse by women is relatively harmless as compared to sexual abuse by men, the implications of these long-term effects are discussed, particularly in relation to professionals working in the area of child sexual abuse.

  12. Exposure of sexually inactive males to estrogenized females increased the investigative and consummatory sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Guillén-Muñoz, J M; Meza-Herrera, C A; Santos-Jimenez, Z; Rivas-Muñoz, R; Luna-Orozco, J R; Mellado, M; Véliz-Deras, F G

    2016-10-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of diverse socio-sexual cues upon male sexual behavior and the reproductive performance of anestrous does (AD). Trials were conducted in northern Mexico (26°N) during the natural anestrous season (Feb-Mar) with crossbred dairy bucks. In Experiment 1, sexually inactive bucks (SIB, n=12) were randomly allotted to three groups, four males/group: a) DEE 9novelty stimulation) - daily exchange of estrogenized females (EF) 12&12h, b) NEE (no novelty stimulation) - no-exchange of EF, 24h, or c) CON (saline-treated_ -daily exchange of AF 12&12h. Sexually active bucks (SAB) from the DEE, NEE and CON groups were subsequently exposed to AD (n=72; n=24/group) and the reproductive outcomes were recorded. In Experiment 2, SAB (n=12; n=6/group) were randomly divided in: 1) B+EF - males+four-EF exposed to AF (n=36), and 2) B+NEF; males+four-saline-treated AD and exposed to AD (n=36). Prior to the onset of the experimental breeding in both experiments, the investigative (ISB), consummatory (CSB) and resting (RSB) sexual behavior of males were quantified (2h×d×2d). Sexual behaviors considered were: ISB - flehmen, ano-genital sniffing, approaches, vocalizations, kicking, penis extrusion, CSB; mount attempts and mounts, and RSB - isolation, attempted escape, aggression and distractions. While EF were an effective stimulus (P<0.05) for evoking mounting in SIB males, daily exchange of estrous does used to stimulate males promoted an enhanced response (P<0.05) in terms of both ISB and CSB. After being exposed to AD, the B+EF bucks induced an earlier estrous response (P<0.05) as compared with the B+NEF bucks. The untreated females did not induce any sexual activity in males and stimulation of ovarian function did not occur when saline treated (CON) AD were exposed to AD. Also, the B+EF group induced an enhanced increase (P<0.05) of the male ISB and CSB, inducing in turn an increase percentage onset of estrus in does that had previously

  13. Parental Support, Depressed Affect, and Sexual Experience among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the effect of unsupportive family relations and low self-esteem on teenage sexual activity and alcohol use. Data from a telephone survey of 301 male and 242 female adolescents in Iowa suggested significant gender differences, with young women in unsupportive contexts seeking compensatory intimacy outside the family. (JB)

  14. A Survey of Female Sexual Functioning in the General Dutch Population.

    PubMed

    Lammerink, Ellen A G; de Bock, Geertruida H; Pascal, Astrid; van Beek, Andre P; van den Bergh, Alfons C M; Sattler, Margriet G A; Mourits, Marian J E

    2017-07-01

    After the diagnosis and treatment of disease, a major barrier to research on psychosexual functioning is the lack of a consistent estimate for the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in the general population. To clarify the prevalence of age-related female sexual functioning in the general population. A sample was compiled by random selection of women from the general population in the northern part of the Netherlands and was categorized by age. Women completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), personal medical items and daily activities, the Body Image Scale, the SF-36 Health Survey, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Participants' representativeness was assessed by comparing their characteristics with data from the Dutch Central Agency for Statistics and the Dutch Health Monitor. General health, fatigue, and well-being were compared with national or international data. Age-related total and domain scores of the FSFI. We evaluated female sexual functioning of 521 sexually active women. For women 20 to 80 years old, sexual functioning showed wide variance and was poor in 28% of all sexually active women, with FSFI scores being below the defined clinical cutoff (FSFI score < 26.55). Although sexual activity and functioning significantly decreased with increasing age, sexual satisfaction decreased only non-significantly. This study provides valuable age-specific ranges for female sexual functioning in the general population and can inform upcoming clinical studies. This is the largest study on female sexual function in a representative Dutch population using internationally validated tools and described by age categories, providing valuable information that can help in the understanding of how female sexual function changes with age. The FSFI has been criticized for not assessing personal distress related to sexual problems, so the lack of the Female Sexual Distress Scale in our study is an unfortunate

  15. Toward a More Evidence-Based Nosology and Nomenclature for Female Sexual Dysfunctions-Part II.

    PubMed

    Parish, Sharon J; Goldstein, Andrew T; Goldstein, Sue W; Goldstein, Irwin; Pfaus, James; Clayton, Anita H; Giraldi, Annamaria; Simon, James A; Althof, Stanley E; Bachmann, Gloria; Komisaruk, Barry; Levin, Roy; Spadt, Susan Kellogg; Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Perelman, Michael A; Waldinger, Marcel D; Whipple, Beverly

    2016-12-01

    Current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) definitions of sexual dysfunction do not identify all sexual problems experienced clinically by women and are not necessarily applicable for biologic or biopsychosocial management of female sexual dysfunction. A unified nomenclature system enables clinicians, researchers, and regulatory agencies to use the same language and criteria for determining clinical end points, assessing research results, and managing patients. To develop nomenclature with classification systems for female sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm disorders with definitions pertinent to clinicians and researchers from multiple specialties who contribute to the field of sexual medicine. Key national and international opinion leaders diverse in gender, geography, and areas of expertise met for 2 days to discuss and agree to definitions of female sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm disorders and persistent genital arousal disorder. The attendees consisted of 10 psychiatrists and psychologists; 12 health care providers in specialties such as gynecology, internal medicine, and sexual medicine; three basic scientists; and one sexuality educator, representing an array of societies working within the various areas of sexual function and dysfunction. A unified set of definitions was developed and accepted for use by the International Society for the Study of Women's Sexual Health (ISSWSH) and members of other stakeholder societies participating in the consensus meeting. Current DSM-5 definitions, in particular elimination of desire and arousal disorders as separate diagnoses and lack of definitions of other specific disorders, were adapted to create ISSWSH consensus nomenclature for distressing sexual dysfunctions. The ISSWSH definitions include hypoactive sexual desire disorder, female genital arousal disorder, persistent genital arousal disorder, female orgasmic disorder, pleasure dissociative orgasm disorder, and

  16. Membrane-Initiated Estradiol Signaling Induces Spinogenesis Required for Female Sexual Receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Amy; Dewing, Phoebe

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens have profound actions on the structure of the nervous system during development and in adulthood. One of the signature actions of estradiol is to alter the morphology of neural processes. In the hippocampus, estradiol modulates spines and cellular excitability that affect cognitive behaviors. In the hypothalamus, estradiol increases spine density in mediobasal hypothalamic nuclei that regulate reproduction. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH), an important site for modulation of female sexual receptivity, has a sexual dimorphism in dendritic spine density that favors females. In the present study, we used both β-actin immunostaining and Golgi staining to visualize estradiol-induced changes in spine density in Long–Evans rats. Golgi impregnation was used to visualize spine shape, and then β-actin immunoreactivity was used as a semiquantitative measure of spine plasticity since actin forms the core of dendritic spines. At 4 h after estradiol treatment, both β-actin immunofluorescence and filopodial spines were increased (from 70.57 ± 1.09% to 78.01 ± 1.05%, p < 0.05). Disruption of estradiol-induced β-actin polymerization with cytochalasin D attenuated lordosis behavior, indicating the importance of estradiol-mediated spinogenesis for female sexual receptivity (81.43 ± 7.05 to 35.00 ± 11.76, p < 0.05). Deactivation of cofilin, an actin depolymerizing factor is required for spinogenesis. Membrane-initiated estradiol signaling involving the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1a was responsible for the phosphorylation and thereby deactivation of cofilin. These data demonstrate that estradiol-induced spinogenesis in the ARH is an important cellular mechanism for the regulation of female sexual behavior. PMID:22131419

  17. Framing disease: the example of female hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2010-04-01

    Disease classification is an important part in the process of medicalisation and one important tool by which medical authority is exerted. The demand for, or proposal of a diagnosis may be the first step in casting life's experiences as medical in nature. Aronowitz has written about how diagnoses result from social framing mechanisms (2008) and consensus (2001), while Brown (1995) has demonstrated a complex range of interactions between lay and professionals, institutions and industries which underpin disease discovery. In any case, there are numerous social factors which shape the diagnosis, and in turn, provide a mechanism by which medicalisation can be enacted. Focussing on diagnostic classification provides an important perspective on the human condition and its relationship to medicine. To illustrate how layers of social meaning may be concealed in a diagnosis, this paper uses as heuristic the relatively obscure diagnosis of Female Hyposexual Desire Disorder which is currently surfacing in medical and marketing literature as a frequent disorder worthy of concern. I describe how this diagnosis embodies long-standing fascination with female libido, a contemporary focus on female hypersexuality, and commercial interest of the pharmaceutical industry and its medical allies to reify low sexual urge as a pathological disorder in women.

  18. Factors that affect the young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Lal, Sophia; Hoch, Anne Z

    2007-08-01

    The past 35 years have seen a tremendous increase in the number of female athletes at all ages and abilities. Recent research has shown a myriad of benefits for girls and women who participate in sports. Physical activity positively influences almost every aspect of a young woman's health, from her physiology to her social interactions and mental health. As the level of girls' participation in sports increases, it is important to examine their risk factors for sports-related injuries.

  19. Male clasping ability, female polymorphism and sexual conflict: fine-scale elytral morphology as a sexually antagonistic adaptation in female diving beetles

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson Green, Kristina; Kovalev, Alexander; Svensson, Erik I.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2013-01-01

    During sexual conflict, males and females are expected to evolve traits and behaviours with a sexually antagonistic function. Recently, sexually antagonistic coevolution was proposed to occur between male and female diving beetles (Dytiscidae). Male diving beetles possess numerous suction cups on their forelegs whereas females commonly have rough structures on their elytra. These rough structures have been suggested to obstruct adhesion from male suction cups during mating attempts. However, some diving beetle species are dimorphic, where one female morph has a rough elytra and the other has a smooth elytra. Here, we used biomechanics to study the adhesive performance of male suction cups on the female morphs in two diving beetle species: Dytiscus lapponicus and Graphoderus zonatus. We compared adhesion on the rough and the smooth female morphs to infer the function of the rough elytral modifications. We found that the adhesive force on the rough structures was much lower than on other surfaces. These findings support the suggestion of sexual conflict in diving beetles and a sexually antagonistic function of the rough female structures. In addition, males differed in their adhesive capacity on different female surfaces, indicating a male trade-off between adhering to smooth and rough female morphs. PMID:23825114

  20. Male clasping ability, female polymorphism and sexual conflict: fine-scale elytral morphology as a sexually antagonistic adaptation in female diving beetles.

    PubMed

    Karlsson Green, Kristina; Kovalev, Alexander; Svensson, Erik I; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-09-06

    During sexual conflict, males and females are expected to evolve traits and behaviours with a sexually antagonistic function. Recently, sexually antagonistic coevolution was proposed to occur between male and female diving beetles (Dytiscidae). Male diving beetles possess numerous suction cups on their forelegs whereas females commonly have rough structures on their elytra. These rough structures have been suggested to obstruct adhesion from male suction cups during mating attempts. However, some diving beetle species are dimorphic, where one female morph has a rough elytra and the other has a smooth elytra. Here, we used biomechanics to study the adhesive performance of male suction cups on the female morphs in two diving beetle species: Dytiscus lapponicus and Graphoderus zonatus. We compared adhesion on the rough and the smooth female morphs to infer the function of the rough elytral modifications. We found that the adhesive force on the rough structures was much lower than on other surfaces. These findings support the suggestion of sexual conflict in diving beetles and a sexually antagonistic function of the rough female structures. In addition, males differed in their adhesive capacity on different female surfaces, indicating a male trade-off between adhering to smooth and rough female morphs.

  1. Reduced negative affect response in female psychopaths

    PubMed Central

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Angrilli, Alessandro; Calogero, Antonio; Harper, Jeremy; Olson, Lacy A.; Bernat, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Studies that investigate the differences between high and low psychopathic persons in brain activity during emotional facial expression processing are rare and commonly focus on males. The current study assessed whether previously reported behavioral differences would be reflected in differential brain activity in a sample of female offenders. The participants included 23 female forensic inpatients with high and low scores on the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). ERPs were recorded during presentation of emotional facial expressions (i.e., fear, angry, and happy). Results revealed no differences in N170, P3 and late positive potential components between groups, but a significant difference in N2 only for angry and fear facial expressions, with high psychopathic participants showing lower reactivity. This N2 effect was found to be related to Factor 2 but not Factor 1 of the PCL-R. In time frequency analysis, theta activity underlying N2 best reflected these differences. Findings in this female sample are consistent with a cortical deficit in processing facial expression of negative emotions in psychopathic men. In addition, differences in processing seem to appear relatively early. PMID:23896396

  2. Female fertility affects men's linguistic choices.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Jacqueline M; Kaschak, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women.

  3. Female Fertility Affects Men's Linguistic Choices

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Jacqueline M.; Kaschak, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the influence of female fertility on the likelihood of male participants aligning their choice of syntactic construction with those of female confederates. Men interacted with women throughout their menstrual cycle. On critical trials during the interaction, the confederate described a picture to the participant using particular syntactic constructions. Immediately thereafter, the participant described to the confederate a picture that could be described using either the same construction that was used by the confederate or an alternative form of the construction. Our data show that the likelihood of men choosing the same syntactic structure as the women was inversely related to the women's level of fertility: higher levels of fertility were associated with lower levels of linguistic matching. A follow-up study revealed that female participants do not show this same change in linguistic behavior as a function of changes in their conversation partner's fertility. We interpret these findings in the context of recent data suggesting that non-conforming behavior may be a means of men displaying their fitness as a mate to women. PMID:22347361

  4. Sexual Cannibalism: High Incidence in a Natural Population with Benefits to Females

    PubMed Central

    Rabaneda-Bueno, Rubén; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel Á.; Aguado-de-la-Paz, Sara; Fernández-Montraveta, Carmen; De Mas, Eva; Wise, David H.; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    Background Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula), a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females. Conclusions/Significance In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that

  5. Sexual cannibalism: high incidence in a natural population with benefits to females.

    PubMed

    Rabaneda-Bueno, Rubén; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A; Aguado-de-la-Paz, Sara; Fernández-Montraveta, Carmen; De Mas, Eva; Wise, David H; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    Sexual cannibalism may be a form of extreme sexual conflict in which females benefit more from feeding on males than mating with them, and males avoid aggressive, cannibalistic females in order to increase net fitness. A thorough understanding of the adaptive significance of sexual cannibalism is hindered by our ignorance of its prevalence in nature. Furthermore, there are serious doubts about the food value of males, probably because most studies that attempt to document benefits of sexual cannibalism to the female have been conducted in the laboratory with non-natural alternative prey. Thus, to understand more fully the ecology and evolution of sexual cannibalism, field experiments are needed to document the prevalence of sexual cannibalism and its benefits to females. We conducted field experiments with the Mediterranean tarantula (Lycosa tarantula), a burrowing wolf spider, to address these issues. At natural rates of encounter with males, approximately a third of L. tarantula females cannibalized the male. The rate of sexual cannibalism increased with male availability, and females were more likely to kill and consume an approaching male if they had previously mated with another male. We show that females benefit from feeding on a male by breeding earlier, producing 30% more offspring per egg sac, and producing progeny of higher body condition. Offspring of sexually cannibalistic females dispersed earlier and were larger later in the season than spiderlings of non-cannibalistic females. In nature a substantial fraction of female L. tarantula kill and consume approaching males instead of mating with them. This behaviour is more likely to occur if the female has mated previously. Cannibalistic females have higher rates of reproduction, and produce higher-quality offspring, than non-cannibalistic females. Our findings further suggest that female L. tarantula are nutrient-limited in nature and that males are high-quality prey. The results of these field

  6. Associations of desire for change in sexual life amongst female medical students in North America

    PubMed Central

    Shindel, Alan W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, James F.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed associations of dissatisfaction with sexual life and desire for change in female medical students. Students enrolled in medical schools in North America between February and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet based survey of sexual function. The principle outcome measure was a single item question on sexual life satisfaction and desire for change. Women who reported dissatisfaction and desire for change were classified as “sexually bothered”. The survey also assessed ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history, and depressive symptoms. Respondents completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Index of Sex Life (ISL). Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. There were 661 non-virgin female subjects with data adequate for analysis. Whereas 281 (43%) of these met criteria for High Risk of Female Sexual Dysfunction (HRFSD) based on FSFI scoring, just 173 (26%) reported sexual bother. Among women with HRFSD, 126 (45%) reported sexual bother; in women without HRFSD, 362 (95%) were not sexually bothered. Interference in sexual life from tiredness and stress were associated with sexual bother. Progressively better scores on the FSFI-desire, orgasm, and satisfaction domains were significantly associated with lower odds of sexual bother. Few women in this cohort with FSFI score >26.55 reported sexual bother. Women with FSFI less than 26.55 had greater odds of sexual bother but this criterion alone was not pathognomonic for sexual concerns. Issues of sexual desire and orgasm appear to play a more important role than lubrication, arousal, and sexual pain issues in this population. PMID:22971616

  7. Application of the sexual health model in the long-term treatment of hypoactive sexual desire and female orgasmic disorder.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Beatrice Bean E; Munns, Rosemary A; Weber-Main, Anne M; Lowe, Margaret A; Raymond, Nancy C

    2011-04-01

    Using the Sexual Health Model as a framework, this case study illustrates the treatment of female orgasmic and low desire disorder in a long-term case with numerous complexities and other co-morbid mental health diagnoses. Derived from a sexological approach to education, the Sexual Health Model defines 10 key components posited to be essential aspects of healthy human sexuality: talking about sex, culture and sexual identity, sexual anatomy and functioning, sexual health care and safer sex, challenges to sexual health, body image, masturbation and fantasy, positive sexuality, intimacy and relationships, and spirituality. The client was selected because of the commonality of her initial presenting concerns and the etiological and treatment complexity of the case, which necessitated the use of all the sexual health treatment modalities provided at our center-individual, couple, and group therapy, sexual medicine, and psychiatric care. Her case is distinct in that her sexual dysfunctions and negative cognitions, while common, occurred in the context of serious relational, family sexual abuse, depression, and life-threatening medical problems, which necessitated long-term treatment. This case illustrates the multifactoral etiology of complex sexual dysfunctions requiring treatment that deals with varied psychosocial and biological factors.

  8. [MALE, FEMALE, NEUTRUM. SEXUAL IDENTITY, UNCERTAIN SEX AND BIOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Famularo, Simone

    2014-01-01

    For almost 2000 years, human beings have been discussing about gender. New scientific evidences give interesting new points of view, partially subverting the normal dichotomy described by the "two-gender" theory. In this article, we are going to critically review the history of the approach towards people born with a Sexual-Differentiation-Disorder, passing through the analysis of the Italian National Ethics Committee's opinion, describing the modern scientific evidences on the gender-identity development, furthermore ruling out the new approach borned from the femminist philosophies, and the new biogiuridical experiments borned in Australia and Germany. Would it be possible a world where a person could be more then a male or a female?

  9. Sexual Assault Experienced by Deaf Female Undergraduates: Prevalence and Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Elliott Smith, Rebecca A; Pick, Lawrence H

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 25% of hearing women in the United States experience rape in their life-time, whereas deaf women have been found to experience increased rates of assault consistent with other marginalized populations. This study explored sexual assault prevalence and characteristics of assault in deaf female undergraduate students. Results revealed that more than two-thirds of the participants (69%) endorsed experiencing at least one assault and more than half (56%) experienced multiple types of assault. Most assaults were committed by a man known to the survivor. Characteristics (e.g., hearing status, primary language, and ethnicity) of the survivors and the assailants are explored. The implications of this data are discussed as well as the development of culturally and linguistically sensitive outreach and educational programs.

  10. Sildenafil citrate for female sexual arousal disorder: a future possibility?

    PubMed

    Schoen, Corina; Bachmann, Gloria

    2009-04-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a common disorder encountered in clinical practice, with self-reported arousal difficulties reported in up to 26% of American women. Various oral therapies for FSAD have been studied, including sildenafil citrate, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is currently used to treat male erectile dysfunction. In vitro studies of sildenafil citrate have demonstrated smooth-muscle relaxation in clitoral tissue, and phosphodiesterase type-5 has been shown to be present in vaginal, clitoral and labial smooth muscle; these findings have led to theories that sildenafil citrate might be successful for treating FSAD. This Review discusses the data from clinical trials that have assessed sildenafil citrate for the treatment of FSAD; the trials show that sildenafil citrate is moderately effective. Sildenafil citrate may also be effective in women with FSAD secondary to multiple sclerosis, diabetes or antidepressant use; however, more trials in these patient populations are required to confirm these findings.

  11. Anatomy of the clitoris and the female sexual response.

    PubMed

    Pauls, Rachel N

    2015-04-01

    The clitoris may be the most pivotal structure for female sexual pleasure. While its significance has been reported for hundreds of years, no complete anatomical description was available until recently. Most of the components of the clitoris are buried under the skin and connective tissues of the vulva. It comprises an external glans and hood, and an internal body, root, crura, and bulbs; its overall size is 9-11 cm. Clitoral somatic innervation is via the dorsal nerve of the clitoris, a branch of the pudendal nerve, while other neuronal networks within the structure are complex. The clitoris is the center for orgasmic response and is embryologically homologous to the male penis. While the source of vaginal eroticism might or might not be exclusively clitoral stimulation, it is necessary to understand the intricate anatomy of the organ to assess the data in this regard. Ultimately, sexual enjoyment entails a balance of physical and emotional factors and should be encouraged. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sexually transmissible infections among illegal female sex workers in Israel.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie G; Lazer, Tal; Press, Fernanda; Lazer, Simcha

    2006-12-01

    Due to the mobile and clandestine nature of those who enter a country illegally, female sex workers (FSWs) who are working without papers or work permits often have no access to sexual health care. This study reports on the sexually transmissible infection (STI) prevalence among a sample of 43 sex workers working illegally. Brothel workers from republics of the Former Soviet Union (FSU), working in two locales in Israel were tested for the presence of eight pathogens and the presence of pathology by Pap smear. Of these brothel workers, 48.8% had at least one positive STI result, 14% had two STIs and one woman had three STIs. There were no cases of HIV, gonorrhoea or malignancy detected; high rates of ureaplasma (26.8%) and chlamydia were found (16.7%). Four cases of hepatitis C (9%) and three cases of hepatitis B (7%) and mycoplasma (7%) were detected. There was no relationship between reported symptoms and the detection of STIs. The level of STIs is high among this population of FSWs and it is imperative to develop more accessible health services for these women.

  13. The other side of the bridge: exploring the sexual relationships of men who have sex with men and their female partners in Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Closson, Elizabeth F.; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Srivastava, Ankur; Safren, Steven A.; Anand, Vivek Raj; Gangakhedkar, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a ‘bridge’ population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk reduction counselling that attend to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics. PMID:24815724

  14. The other side of the bridge: exploring the sexual relationships of men who have sex with men and their female partners in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Sivasubramanian, Murugesan; Mayer, Kenneth H; Srivastava, Ankur; Safren, Steven A; Anand, Vivek Raj; Gangakhedkar, Raman; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-01-01

    Behaviourally bisexual men have been identified as a 'bridge' population of HIV transmission to heterosexual women in India. Little is known about the sexual relationships that these men have with their female sex partners. The primary objective of this study was to explore the sexual practices and relationship dynamics between married and unmarried behaviourally bisexual men and their female sex partners in Mumbai, India. In 2009, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 men who reported sex with men and women. Participants discussed a variety of sexual practices and arrangements with female sex partners. Irrespective of marital status and sexual identity, many said that they had satisfying sexual experiences and feelings of affection for female sex partners. However, sexual incompatibility between married partners was also reported. Explanations of bisexual concurrency were discussed in terms of both sexual satisfaction and sexual preference. Self-perceived HIV risk related to same-sex sexual behaviour motivated many men to use condoms with female partners. Expectations of unprotected marital sex and perceptions of partner risk were barriers to condom use. HIV-prevention programmes for this population may benefit from tailored risk-reduction counselling that attends to the variations of these sexual and social relationship dynamics.

  15. Assessing sexual problems in women at midlife using the short version of the female sexual function index.

    PubMed

    Chedraui, Peter; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2015-11-01

    Assessment of sexual function is a complex process, especially in women, which requires in any individual case: time, appropriate training and experience. The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction is quite variable depending on the studied population, assessment methods, comorbid conditions and treatments, and age. A large number of screening methods have been developed over the last decades which range from tedious, exhaustive and boring tools to very simple standardized questionnaires. The 19-item female sexual function index (FSFI-19) is among the most used and useful- instrument designed to assess female sexual function in all types of circumstances, sexual orientation and perform the comparison of transcultural factors. A short 6-item- version of the FSFI-19 has been developed to provide a quick general approach to the six original domains (one item per domain). Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations as it has been extensively demonstrated with the original tool.

  16. Sexual competition and N supply interactively affect the dimorphism and competiveness of opposite sexes in Populus cathayana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Dong, Tingfa; Duan, Baoli; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2015-07-01

    Several important dioecious species show sexual spatial segregation (SSS) along environmental gradients that have significant ecological effect on terrestrial ecosystem. However, little attention has been paid to understanding of how males and females respond to environmental gradients and sexual competition. We compared eco-physiological parameters of males and females of Populus cathayana under different sexual competition patterns and nitrogen (N) supply levels. We found that males and females interacting with the same or opposite sex showed significant differences in biomass partition, photosynthetic capacity, carbon (C) and N metabolism, and leaf ultrastructure, and that the sexual differences to competition were importantly driven by N supply. The intersexual competition was enhanced under high N, while the intrasexual competition among females was amplified under low N. Under high N, the intersexual competition stimulated the growth of the females and negatively affected the males. In contrast, under low N, the males exposed to intrasexual competition had the highest tolerance, whereas females exposed to intrasexual competition showed the lowest adaptation among all competition patterns. Sexual competition patterns and N supply levels significantly affected the sexual dimorphism and competitiveness, which may play an important role in spatial segregation of P. cathayana populations.

  17. Influence of the type of work shift in Female Sexual Function Index of healthcare sector female workers.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Peters, Romina; Contreras-García, Yolanda; Manriquez-Vidal, Camilo

    2017-03-01

    To determine the influence of the type of work shift over the sexual function of healthcare sector female workers. Quantitative, cross-sectional and correlation type of study. Universe composed of a high complexity hospital female workers aged between 20 and 64 years old who worked in Day Shifts (DS) and Rotating Shifts (RS). Bio-social-demographic profile of 365 female workers was characterized by means of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS v.19.0 Software and univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were applied. Mann-Whitney's non-parametric test was employed, altogether with Chi Square Test, Fisher's exact test and logistic regression with p-value<0.05. 36, 5 years old mean age (10, 65 SD); 43,2% belongs to DS and 56,7% belongs to RS. General FSFI scored 27, 86 points (6, 11 SD), with an mean of 27,47 points (6,82 SD) for DS and 28,16 points (5,51 SD) for the RS. Variables that might affect FSFI in the case of RS were the Health Service Assistant category, with 7, 11 OR; 2, 051-24,622 IC; p=0,002 and chronic disease with 2, 226 OR; 1093-4533 IC; p=0,027. Protective variables for DS, the use of hormonal contraceptive method with 0,322 OR; 0,145-0,713 IC; p=0,005 and non- hormonal contraceptive method with 0,229 OR; 0,09-0,586 IC; p=0,002. There was no significant FSFI difference per shift. A protective factor for DS and two Risk factors for RS were identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Androgens and Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction--Findings From the Fourth International Consultation of Sexual Medicine.

    PubMed

    Davis, Susan R; Worsley, Roisin; Miller, Karen K; Parish, Sharon J; Santoro, Nanette

    2016-02-01

    Androgens have been implicated as important for female sexual function and dysfunction. To review the role of androgens in the physiology and pathophysiology of female sexual functioning and the evidence for efficacy of androgen therapy for female sexual dysfunction (FSD). We searched the literature using online databases for studies pertaining to androgens and female sexual function. Major reviews were included and their findings were summarized to avoid replicating their content. Quality of data published in the literature and recommendations were based on the GRADES system. The literature supports an important role for androgens in female sexual function. There is no blood androgen level below which women can be classified as having androgen deficiency. Clinical trials have consistently demonstrated that transdermal testosterone (T) therapy improves sexual function and sexual satisfaction in women who have been assessed as having hypoactive sexual desire disorder. The use of T therapy is limited by the lack of approved formulations for women and long-term safety data. Most studies do not support the use of systemic dehydroepiandrosterone therapy for the treatment of FSD in women with normally functioning adrenals or adrenal insufficiency. Studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of vaginal testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone for the treatment of vulvovaginal atrophy are ongoing. Available data support an important role of androgens in female sexual function and dysfunction and efficacy of transdermal T therapy for the treatment of some women with FSD. Approved T formulations for women are generally unavailable. In consequence, the prescribing of T mostly involves off-label use of T products formulated for men and individually compounded T formulations. Long-term studies to determine the safety of T therapy for women and possible benefits beyond that of sexual function are greatly needed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Are Males and Females Sexually Abused as Children Socially Anxious Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Ariz; Kinder, Bill N.

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that childhood sexual abuse is associated with deleterious outcomes in the areas of anxiety, depression, and sexual functioning. However, very little research has been conducted to specifically investigate childhood sexual abuse's relationship to adult social anxiety in both males and females. Participants included 250…

  20. The Role of Learned Resourcefulness in Helping Female Undergraduates Deal with Unwanted Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennett, Deborah J.; Humphreys, Terry P.; Patchell, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relationship between learned resourcefulness skills and the manner in which undergraduate heterosexual women handle unwanted sexual advances/activity. Participants consisted of 150 females completing a set of questionnaires assessing general learned resourcefulness, sexual giving-in experience, sexual resourcefulness, sexual…

  1. Incorporating Mindfulness and Chat Groups Into an Online Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Mixed Female Sexual Problems.

    PubMed

    Hucker, Alice; McCabe, Marita P

    2015-01-01

    The current randomized study evaluated an online cognitive behavioral therapy program for female sexual problems. PursuingPleasure (PP) consisted of six online modules that included psychoeducation, sensate focus, communication exercises, cognitive exercises, and e-mail contact with a therapist. PP incorporated mindfulness training and online chat groups as well as assessed partner sexual functioning. Participants demonstrated a completion rate of 57%, with 26 women with female sexual problems and related distress completing the program compared to a wait-list control group of 31 women also experiencing sexual problems and distress. Sexual problems reported by women in both groups included difficulties with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. The treatment group demonstrated significant improvements in all domains of female sexual response (except for sexual pain) and significant reductions in the reported frequency of sexual problems and distress. Partner sexual functioning showed positive change. Improvements in female sexual functioning and some improvements in male partner sexual functioning were maintained at three-month follow-up. Limitations and suitability of clients for this treatment approach for women who are geographically isolated, who are unable to attend face-to-face therapy, and who possess a high degree of motivation are discussed.

  2. Evaluation of sexual behavior of housed male camels (Camelus dromedarius) through female parades: correlation with climatic parameters.

    PubMed

    Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    Camels are seasonal breeders, and their sexual behavior is influenced by environmental conditions, but the relationship between climatic factors and sexual behavior has been poorly described in the available literature. Nowadays, the male camel living habit is shifting towards captivity; thus, this study was carried out to evaluate the sexual behavior of housed male dromedary camel through female's parades and to correlate it with climatic parameters. Four housed sires, reared for semen collection, and one dam were used and the trial lasted 8 weeks, considering the first week as control. Six days per week and during evenings, the female was brought near each males' boxes, while two observers filled a behavioral sampling ethogram and scored the male sexual behavior. After this parade, blood samples were taken from the female to evaluate the estradiol concentration. In addition, the following meteorological parameters were recorded, everyday, at 9:00 a.m. and 19:00 p.m.: pressure, wind, temperature, humidity, and H-index. The correlation between sexual behavioral score and female estradiol concentration and climate parameters was analyzed. All the behavioral parameters showed a significant upward trend; female estradiol concentration varied during the period and picked at week 5. Male sexual behavior was negatively correlated with morning H-index, wind, and temperature, and positively correlated with pressure and evening humidity, whereas it was not correlated with estrogen. In conclusion, female parade was a successful method to evaluate and stimulate the occurrence of housed male dromedary camel sexual activity that resulted to be negatively affected by hot temperature, warm wind, and lack of rain.

  3. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women(∗): (∗)2016 ISSM Female Sexual Dysfunction Prize.

    PubMed

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Laessøe, Nanna Cassandra; Cohen, Arieh S; Hougaard, David M; Lundqvist, Marika; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    The female sexual response is complex and influenced by several biological, psychological, and social factors. Testosterone is believed to modulate a woman's sexual response and desire, because low levels are considered a risk factor for impaired sexual function, but previous studies have been inconclusive. To investigate how androgen levels and psychosocial factors are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). The cross-sectional study included 428 premenopausal women 19 to 58 years old who completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and had blood sampled at days 6 to 10 in their menstrual cycle. Logistic regression models were built to test the association among hormone levels, psychosocial factors, and sexual end points. Five different sexual end points were measured using the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale: impaired sexual function, sexual distress, FSD, low sexual desire, and HSDD. Serum levels of total and free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androsterone glucuronide were analyzed using mass spectrometry. After adjusting for psychosocial factors, women with low sexual desire had significantly lower mean levels of free testosterone and androstenedione compared with women without low sexual desire. None of the androgens were associated with FSD in general or with HSDD in particular. Relationship duration longer than 2 years and mild depressive symptoms increased the risk of having all the sexual end points, including FSD in general and HSDD in particular in multivariate analyses. In this large cross-sectional study, low sexual desire was significantly associated with levels of free testosterone and androstenedione, but FSD in general and HSDD in particular were not associated with androgen levels. Length of relationship and depression were associated with FSD including HSDD. Wåhlin-Jacobsen S, Kristensen E, Tønnes Pedersen A

  4. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  5. Brief Report: Sexual Sensation Seeking and Its Relationship to Risky Sexual Behaviour among African-American Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitalnick, Joshua S.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Crosby, Richard A.; Milhausen, Robin R.; Sales, Jessica M.; McCarty, Frances; Rose, Eve; Younge, Sinead N.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk taking has been investigated among adult populations. There are limited data, however, regarding this relationship for adolescents. Since African-American adolescent females continue to be disproportionately diagnosed with STDs, including HIV, we examined this association among a…

  6. Female mate preference explains countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kerry A.; Grether, Gregory F.; Sun, Aida; Sinsheimer, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that mate choice is responsible for countergradient variation in the sexual coloration of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The nature of the countergradient pattern is that geographical variation in the carotenoid content of the orange spots of males is counterbalanced by genetic variation in drosopterin production, resulting in a relatively uniform pigment ratio. A female hue preference could produce this pattern, because hue is the axis of colour variation most directly affected by the pigment ratio. To test this hypothesis, we crossed two populations differing in drosopterin production and produced an F2 generation with variable drosopterin levels. When the carotenoid content of the orange spots was held constant, female guppies preferred males with intermediate drosopterin levels. This shows that females do not simply prefer males with greater orange spot pigment content; instead, the ratio of the pigments also affects male attractiveness. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence for a hypothesized agent of countergradient sexual selection. PMID:22113030

  7. Hormones and Female Sexual Dysfunction: Beyond Estrogens and Androgens--Findings from the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine.

    PubMed

    Worsley, Roisin; Santoro, Nanette; Miller, Karen K; Parish, Sharon J; Davis, Susan R

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, multiple hormones have been investigated in relation to female sexual function. Because consumers can easily purchase products claiming to contain these hormones, a clear statement regarding the current state of knowledge is required. To review the contribution of hormones, other than estrogens and androgens, to female sexual functioning and the evidence that specific endocrinopathies in women are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and to update the previously published International Society of Sexual Medicine Consensus on this topic. The literature was searched using several online databases with an emphasis on studies examining the physiologic role of oxytocin, prolactin, and progesterone in female sexual function and any potential therapeutic effect of these hormones. The association between common endocrine disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome, pituitary disorders, and obesity, and FSD also was examined. Quality of data published in the literature and recommendations were based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Education system. There is no evidence to support the use of oxytocin or progesterone for FSD. Treating hyperprolactinemia might lessen FSD. Polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity, and metabolic syndrome could be associated with FSD, but data are limited. There is a strong association between diabetes mellitus and FSD. Further research is required; in particular, high-quality, large-scale studies of women with common endocrinopathies are needed to determine the impact of these prevalent disorders on female sexual function. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Imorin: a sexual attractiveness pheromone in female red-bellied newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster).

    PubMed

    Nakada, Tomoaki; Toyoda, Fumiyo; Matsuda, Kouhei; Nakakura, Takashi; Hasunuma, Itaru; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Onoue, Satomi; Yokosuka, Makoto; Kikuyama, Sakae

    2017-01-25

    The male red-bellied newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster) approaches the female's cloaca prior to performing any courtship behaviour, as if he is using some released substance to gauge whether she is sexually receptive. Therefore, we investigated whether such a female sexual attractiveness pheromone exists. We found that a tripeptide with amino acid sequence Ala-Glu-Phe is secreted by the ciliary cells in the epithelium of the proximal portion of the oviduct of sexually developed newts and confirmed that this is the major active substance in water in which sexually developed female newts have been kept. This substance only attracted sexually developed male newts and acted by stimulating the vomeronasal epithelial cells. This is the first female sexual attractiveness peptide pheromone to be identified in a vertebrate.

  9. The Experiences of Sexual Harassment in Sport and Education among European Female Sports Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…

  10. Assessment of Sexual Violence against Female Students in Wolaita Sodo University, Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tora, Abebayehu

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95%…

  11. The Experiences of Sexual Harassment in Sport and Education among European Female Sports Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…

  12. Assessment of Sexual Violence against Female Students in Wolaita Sodo University, Southern Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tora, Abebayehu

    2013-01-01

    Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95%…

  13. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  14. SEXUAL INTERACTIONS WITH UNFAMILIAR FEMALES REDUCE HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AMONG ADULT MALE RATS

    PubMed Central

    Spritzer, Mark D.; Curtis, Molly G.; DeLoach, Julia P.; Maher, Jack; Shulman, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of BrdU (200 mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30 min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohisotchemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. There were no differences in the amount of sexual behavior (mounts, intromissions, ejaculations, or contact time) that the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in, indicating that the differences in neurogenesis were not due to the relative amounts of sexual activity. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect

  15. Male irradiation affects female remating behavior in Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Landeta-Escamilla, Anais; Hernández, Emilio; Arredondo, José; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Pérez-Staples, Diana

    2016-02-01

    Female remating in target pest species can affect the efficacy of control methods such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) but very little is known about the postcopulatory mating behavior of these pests. In this study, we investigated the remating behavior of female Anastrepha serpentina (Diptera: Tephritidae), an oligophagous pest of Sapotaceae. First, we tested how long the sexual refractory period of females lasted after an initial mating. Second, we tested the effect of male and female sterility, female ovipositing opportunities and male density on female propensity to remate. Lastly, we tested if the amount of sperm stored by females was correlated to the likelihood of females to remate. We found that receptivity of mass-reared A. serpentina females had a bimodal response, with up to 16% of mass-reared A. serpentina females remating five days after the initial copulation, decreasing to 2% at 10 and 15 days and increasing to 13% after 20 days. Compared to fertile males, sterile males were less likely to mate and less likely to inhibit females from remating. Copula duration of sterile males was shorter compared to fertile males. Remating females were less likely to mate with a sterile male as a second mate. Sterile females were less likely to mate or remate compared to fertile females. Opportunity to oviposit and male density had no effect on female remating probability. Sperm numbers were not correlated with female likelihood to remate. Information on the post-copulatory behavior of mass-reared A. serpentina will aid fruit fly managers in improving the quality of sterile males. We discuss our results in terms of the differences this species presents in female remating behavior compared to other tephritids.

  16. Baseline Characteristics and Concerns of Female Cancer Patients/Survivors Seeking Treatment at a Female Sexual Medicine Program

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jeanne; Stabile, Cara; Seidel, Barbara; Baser, Raymond E.; Gunn, Abigail R.; Chi, Stephanie; Steed, Rebecca F.; Goldfarb, Shari; Goldfrank, Deborah J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To characterize patients seeking treatment at a Female Sexual Medicine and Women’s Health Program and examine their sexual/vaginal health issues. Methods Data from clinical assessment forms were extracted from 509 women referred to the Female Sexual Medicine and Women’s Health Program during/after cancer treatment. The form consists of a Vaginal Assessment Scale [VAS], vaginal health items, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (Sexual Activity Questionnaire [SAQ], Sexual Self-Schema Scale [SSS], Female Sexual Function Index [FSFI]), and exploratory items. Results Of 509 patients, 493 (97%) completed PROs; 253 (50%) received a pelvic examination. The majority had a history of breast (n=260, 51%), gynecologic (n=184, 36%), or colorectal/anal (n=35, 7%) cancer. Mean age was 51.2 years; 313 (62%) were married/partnered. Approximately two-thirds had elevated vaginal pH scores (5–6.5 [35%] or 6.5+ [33%]) and minimal (62%) or no (5%) vaginal moisture. Eighty-seven patients (44%) experienced pain during their exam (23% mild, 11% moderate, 1.5% severe, and 8.5% not indicated). Fifty-three percent engaged in sexual activity with a partner; only 43% felt confident about future sexual activity. Ninety-three percent were somewhat-to-very concerned/worried about sexual function/vaginal health. Approximately half had moderate/severe dryness (n=133, 51%) and dyspareunia (n=120, 46%). Mean SSS score was 60.7, indicating a slightly positive sexual self-view. However, 93.5% (n=429) had an FSFI score <26.55, suggesting sexual dysfunction. Conclusions At initial consult, women reported vaginal dryness, pain, and sexual dysfunction. For many women, pelvic exams showed elevated vaginal pH, lack of moisture, and discomfort with the exam itself. Future analyses will examine changes over time. PMID:25567673

  17. Reproductive switching analysis of Daphnia similoides between sexual female and parthenogenetic female by transcriptome comparison

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Nan; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; Wang, Wen-Ping; Wang, Yi; Wang, Lu; Xu, Xiao-Xue; Zhang, Kun; Deng, Dao-Gui

    2016-01-01

    The water flea Daphnia are planktonic crustaceans commonly found in freshwater environment that can switch their reproduction mode from parthenogenesis to sexual reproduction to adapt to the external environment. As such, Daphnia are great model organisms to study the mechanism of reproductive switching, the underlying mechanism of reproduction and development in cladocerans and other animals. However, little is known about the Daphnia’s reproductive behaviour at a molecular level. We constructed a genetic database of the genes expressed in a sexual female (SF) and a parthenogenetic female (PF) of D. similoides using Illumina HiSeq 2500. A total of 1,763 differentially expressed genes (865 up- and 898 down-regulated) were detected in SF. Of the top 30 up-regulated SF unigenes, the top 4 unigenes belonged to the Chitin_bind_4 family. In contrast, of the top down-regulated SF unigenes, the top 3 unigenes belonged to the Vitellogenin_N family. This is the first study to indicate genes that may have a crucial role in reproductive switching of D. similoides, which could be used as candidate genes for further functional studies. Thus, this study provides a rich resource for investigation and elucidation of reproductive switching in D. similoides. PMID:27671106

  18. Influence of sexual competition and social context on homosexual behavior in adolescent female Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Gunst, Noëlle; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-05-01

    We explored the role that sexual and social partners play in the expression of female homosexual behavior among adolescent female Japanese macaques at Arashiyama, Japan. Our data fully or partially supported all the predictions related to four non-mutually exclusive hypotheses, namely the "adult male disinterest in adolescent females" hypothesis, the "numerous homosexual adult females" hypothesis, the "safer homosexual interactions" hypothesis and the "same-sex sexual interactions" hypothesis. Our results show that both sexual context (e.g., lack of adolescent female attractivity toward adult males, presence of motivated same-sex sexual partners), and social context (e.g., risk of aggression) help explain the high frequency and prevalence of homosexual behavior in adolescent females in the Arashiyama group of Japanese macaques. As with adult females, whose homosexual consortships do not reflect generalized patterns of social affiliation or kinship, we found that adolescent females' same-sex sexual partners were neither kin, nor were they non-kin individuals with whom adolescent females were closely affiliated outside of a consortship context. Our study furthers the growing database of female homosexual behavior in Japanese macaques and provides additional evidence that homosexual behavior as expressed by adolescent female Japanese macaques is, like heterosexual behavior, sexual in nature. We discuss the relevance of our findings to a broader comparative approach that may shed light upon the development and evolution of human homosexuality.

  19. Sexual function assessment and the role of vasoactive drugs in female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Raymond C

    2002-10-01

    Despite the high prevalence of sexual problems in women, relatively few clinical trials have been conducted to date of either vasoactive drugs (e.g., sildenafil, apomorphine) or hormone replacement therapy or a combination of the two on sexual function problems in women. This article addresses the key conceptual and methodological issues to be addressed in clinical trials, particularly in the area of response outcomes or efficacy assessment. In particular, the use of self-report questionnaires and event-log or diary-based responses as primary outcome variables or endpoints in clinical trials is considered. Physiological measures, such as the vaginal photoplethysmograph probe, are being used in early proof of concept studies. There may be some value in the use of these measures for proof-of-concept and early dose-finding studies. Physiological measures are not used in large-scale, multicenter clinical trials, where patient-based or diary measures are clearly preferable. Clinical trials in this area should also make use of the new consensus classification system for female sexual dysfunction in determining inclusion and exclusion criteria for the trial.

  20. Risky sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Malaysia: a limited role of protective factors.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-03-23

    This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents' risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia.

  1. Risky Sexual Behavior among Rural Female Adolescents in Malaysia: A Limited Role of Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Hamsan, Hanina H.; Abdullah, Haslinda; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Noor, Amna Md

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents the findings of a cross-sectional survey on the risk and protective factors of premarital sexual behavior among rural female adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: We investigated data on 770 female respondents aged 13-17 years in rural areas to identify predictive factors for premarital sexual intercourse. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate regression. Specific socio-demographic factors, psychological and family domains, peer delinquency, and knowledge and attitudes about sexuality were considered in risky sexual behaviors in rural Malay girls. The effects of other covariates for premarital sexual intercourse were controlled by logistic regression model. Results: Of the 770 rural female students, about 3.2% of respondents reported experience of sexual intercourse in the past three months. Out of those sexually active girls, 36% were 17 years old and 20% stated having sexual intercourse with more than one partner, and 72% did not use contraception during the most recent sexual intercourse. Midnight activities, peer-sexual disorder, self-evaluation, and attitude toward sexual health were significant predictors of sexual intercourse in rural girls in Malaysia. Conclusion: The finding highlights the impact of psychological factors and peer group influences on the challenges of premarital sexual behavior among rural girls and the notion of school-based sexual health education for adolescents. This study triggers other researchers take into account a comprehensive view of protective factors operating in adolescents’ risky sexual behaviors in Asian culture seeing that family domain variables, unexpectedly, exerted no predicting influence on sexually active female teens in rural areas in Malaysia. PMID:24762359

  2. Intimacy, orgasm likelihood, and conflict predict sexual satisfaction in heterosexual male and female respondents.

    PubMed

    Haning, R Vernon; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Randall, Elizabeth J; Kommor, Martin J; Baker, Elaine; Wilson, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Anonymous data provided by 417 female and 179 male sexually active heterosexual respondents showed that in long term sexual relationships, sexual satisfaction was positively correlated with two different intimacy variables, the respondent's orgasm likelihood, and negatively correlated with conflict in the relationship. Multiple linear regression permitted us to measure the effect sizes of these variables as predictors of sexual satisfaction. These findings have important implications for treatment of symptomatic couples.

  3. Commentary: Female forensic worker sexual misconduct--who is the captive?

    PubMed

    Hackett, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    The risk of sexual misconduct by forensic professionals appears at first glance to be far less than the risk of sexual misconduct by other clinical professionals. Yet, Faulkner and Regehr's article draws our attention to the unique and intriguing situation of females working in forensic settings and the very real risk of their engaging in sexual misconduct with male prisoners. The female workers described are professionals: nurses, prison staff, and security officers. Analogies are made between Gabbard's proposed categories of professionals who commit sexual boundary violations and groups of female forensic workers' sexual misconduct with male prisoners. Faulkner and Regehr detail the characteristics of prisoners and the prison setting and how they relate to detrimental interpersonal behavior by female forensic workers. The role of security officers is discussed along with the need for policy-makers to minimize the risks inherent in working with incarcerated populations. The potential for gender-biased explanations of misconduct among female forensic workers is also considered.

  4. A Comprehensive Review of the Clitoris and Its Role in Female Sexual Function.

    PubMed

    Mazloomdoost, Donna; Pauls, Rachel N

    2015-10-01

    The clitoris is often considered the female version of the penis and less studied compared to its male counterpart. Nonetheless, it carries the same importance in sexual functioning. While it has more recently been allocated the appreciation it deserves, the clitoris should be examined as a separate and unique entity. To review clitoral anatomy, its role in sexual functioning, the controversies of vaginal eroticism and the female prostate, as well as address potential impacts of pelvic surgery on its function. We examined available evidence (from 1950 until 2015) relating to clitoral anatomy, the clitoral role in sexual functioning, vaginal eroticism, female prostate, female genital mutilation/cutting, and surgical implications for the clitoris. Main outcomes included an historical review of the clitoral anatomy and its role in sexual functioning, the controversies regarding vaginal sources of sexual function, and the impact of both reconstructive and nonmedical procedures on the clitoris. The intricate neurovasculature and multiplanar design of the clitoris contribute to its role in female sexual pleasure. Debate still remains over the exclusive role of the clitoris in orgasmic functioning. Normal sexual function may remain intact, however, after surgical procedures involving the clitoris and surrounding structures. The clitoris is possibly the most critical organ for female sexual health. Its importance is highlighted by the fact that the practice of female genital cutting is often used to attenuate the female sexual response. While its significance may have been overshadowed in reports supporting vaginal eroticism, it remains pivotal to orgasmic functioning of most women. Donna Mazloomdoost and Rachel N. Pauls. A comprehensive review of the clitoris and its role in female sexual function. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Naloxone reverses post-ejaculatory inhibition of sexual behaviour in female rats.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, G; Bednar, I; Eneroth, P; Södersten, P

    1987-06-01

    Sexual receptivity was inhibited in ovariectomized rats treated with oestradiol benzoate (OB: two injections of 2 micrograms) and progesterone (0.5 mg) immediately after ejaculation by the male and restored after the end of the post-ejaculatory refractory period in the male. The post-ejaculatory inhibition of sexual receptivity was reversed by i.p. (5 mg), intracerebroventricular (50 micrograms) or intrathecal (50 micrograms) injection of the opioid peptide receptor antagonist naloxone. The concentration of serum beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in ovariectomized rats treated with OB plus progesterone was unaltered by sexual interactions with males (18.3 +/- 6.0 (S.E.M.), 26.4 +/- 2.1 and 21.8 +/- 6.1 pmol/l before sexual activity, after ejaculation and after the end of the post-ejaculatory interval) but reduced to non-detectable by hypophysectomy. Subcutaneous injection of 10 micrograms beta-endorphin raised serum concentrations of beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity but did not affect the display of sexual behaviour. The behaviour was also unaffected by intracerebroventricular injection of 0.1, 0.2 or 1.0 microgram beta-endorphin or by injections of 0.25 microgram beta-endorphin in the periaqueductal central grey of the mesencephalon. The results show that ejaculation by male rats causes a transient inhibition of sexual receptivity in the female which may be dependent upon opioid peptide receptor mechanisms in the brain and spinal cord. It is unlikely that the peptide is beta-endorphin.

  6. Somatic symptoms among US adolescent females: associations with sexual and physical violence exposure.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Tucker, Christine M; Bengtson, Angela; Kupper, Lawrence L; McLean, Samuel A; Martin, Sandra L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between physical and sexual violence exposure and somatic symptoms among female adolescents. We studied a nationally representative sample of 8,531 females, aged 11-21 years, who participated in the 1994-1995 Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Female adolescents were asked how often they had experienced 16 specific somatic symptoms during the past 12 months. Two summary categorical measures were constructed based on tertiles of the distributions for the entire female sample: (a) total number of different types of symptoms experienced, and (b) number of frequent (once a week or more often) different symptoms experienced. Groups were mutually exclusive. We examined associations between adolescents' violence exposure and somatic symptoms using multinomial logistic regression analyses. About 5 % of adolescent females reported both sexual and non-sexual violence, 3 % reported sexual violence only, 36 % reported non-sexual violence only, and 57 % reported no violence. Adolescents who experienced both sexual and non-sexual violence were the most likely to report many different symptoms and to experience very frequent or chronic symptoms. Likelihood of high symptomatology was next highest among adolescents who experienced sexual violence only, followed by females who experienced non-sexual violence only. Findings support an exposure-response association between violence exposure and somatic symptoms, suggesting that symptoms can be markers of victimization. Treating symptoms alone, without addressing the potential violence experienced, may not adequately improve adolescents' somatic complaints and well-being.

  7. Cross-generational effects of sexual harassment on female fitness in the guppy.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Pilastro, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Sexual harassment is a common outcome of sexual conflict over mating rate. A large number of studies have identified several direct costs to females of sexual harassment including energy expenditure and reduced foraging ability. However, the fitness consequences of sexual harassment for descendants have rarely been investigated. Here, we manipulated the level of sexual harassment and mating rate in two groups of female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, a live-bearing fish in which sexual conflict over mating rate is particularly pronounced. Each female was allowed to interact with three males for one day (low sexual harassment, LSH) or for eight days (high sexual harassment, HSH) during each breeding cycle throughout their life. Female lifetime fecundity did not differ between the groups, but we found a strong effect on offspring fitness. HSH females produced (1) daughters with smaller bodies and (2) sons with shorter gonopodia, which were less attractive to females and less successful in coercive matings than their LSH counterparts. Although these results may be influenced by the indirect effects of sex ratio differences between treatments, they suggest that sexual harassment and elevated mating rate can have negative cross-generational fitness effects and more profound evolutionary consequences than currently thought.

  8. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Female Sexual Orientation, Childhood Gender Typicality and Adult Gender Identity

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Andrea; Cherkas, Lynn; Spector, Timothy; Rahman, Qazi

    2011-01-01

    Background Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates – childhood gender typicality (CGT) and adult gender identity (AGI). However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%), AGI (11%) and CGT (31%). For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. Conclusions/Significance This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation. PMID:21760939

  9. Men's sexual response to female partner's intranasal oxytocin administration for hypoactive sexual desire disorder: an open prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Muin, Dana A; Sheikh Rezaei, Safoura; Tremmel-Scheinost, Max; Salama, Mohamed; Luger, Anton; Wolzt, Michael; Husslein, Peter W; Bayerle-Eder, Michaela

    2017-03-01

    To study sexual function, quality of life, and depression in men, whose female partners are undergoing double-blind placebo-controlled randomized treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Open prospective cohort study of 22 weeks. Academic medical center. Male partners of 30 premenopausal and postmenopausal women with HSDD. Baseline, 3-month, and 5-month assessment (for 8 weeks each) of male response to female partner's use of oxytocin nasal spray (32 IE) and placebo within 50 minutes before sexual intercourse. Primary outcome parameters were Sexual Life Quality Questionnaire-Male, Sexual Activity Record, Partner Performance Questionnaire, and Hamilton Depression Scale. Male Sexual Life Quality questionnaire improved significantly from -7.4 ± 9.9 at baseline to 8.2 ± 12 with female partners' treatment with oxytocin nasal spray and to 10.8 ± 13.8 with placebo. Frequency of intercourse improved slightly but not significantly from 6.3 ± 3.9 at baseline to 7.3 ± 4 with female oxytocin therapy, but not with placebo. Male desire and arousal remained stable throughout the study period. Evaluation of female partners' performance by men improved significantly from 8.9 ± 2.8 at baseline to 10.6 ± 2.2 with oxytocin and to 11.2 ± 2.6 with placebo. Female treatment with either oxytocin or placebo for HSDD significantly improves male sexual quality of life and evaluation of female partner's sexual performance with no difference between oxytocin and placebo on any outcome parameters. A nonsignificant improvement was seen in the frequency of intercourse, male arousal, desire, satisfaction, and Hamilton depression scale. NCT02229721. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Affective and physiological sexual response patterns: the effects of instructions on sexually functional and dysfunctional men.

    PubMed

    Heiman, J R; Rowland, D L

    1983-01-01

    To more clearly characterize the patterns of cognitive-affective and physiological responses concomitant with male sexual dysfunction, the present study compared 14 sexually dysfunctional and 16 sexually functional men. All individuals listened to two sexually explicit tapes and engaged in a self-generated fantasy, while genital, heart rate and scaled cognitive affective responses were recorded. Two types of instructions, a performance demand set and a non-demand sensate focus set, preceded the erotic tapes in counterbalanced order. As predicted, dysfunctional men showed less genital tumescence to tapes preceded by the demand than the non-demand instructions. Contrary to expectation, functional men showed greater penile tumescence to the tapes preceded by demand instructions. Self-reported sexual arousal did not follow the penile tumescence pattern but instead indicated that the dysfunctional sample was significantly less subjectively aroused to the tapes and fantasy. There were other significant differences between the groups. Dysfunctional men showed greater general psychological distress, as measured by the SCL-90, including elevated somaticism, anxiety and depression scores. During the experimental session, dysfunctional men also evidenced greater awareness of a variety of physiological responses, as well as more negative and fewer positive cognitive-affective states. These data are discussed in terms of the interaction of affective and physiological responses, differences in contextual meanings of instructional sets given the presence of a dysfunction, and theoretical and clinical conceptualizations of male sexual functioning.

  11. A qualitative evaluation of online chat groups for women completing a psychological intervention for female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hucker, Alice; McCabe, Marita P

    2014-01-01

    Because of the embarrassment that can surround female sexual dysfunctions, online interventions offer an anonymous and private treatment alternative. Recently, an online cognitive-behavioral treatment for female sexual dysfunctions was evaluated. Although significant improvements were observed in sexual functioning, the treatment was primarily a behavioral intervention because of difficulties with engaging participants in cognitive therapy over e-mail. To address this limitation, the use of chat groups was incorporated into a new online treatment for female sexual dysfunctions-the PursuingPleasure program. Thirty-eight women participated in the PursuingPleasure chat groups. The goals of the chat groups were to address and overcome challenges as women progressed through PursuingPleasure and to create a social support network where group therapy processes could be used. The chat groups aimed to address misunderstandings, monitor changes, and receive feedback. A qualitative analysis of the chat groups revealed that they helped to facilitate the cognitive-affective aspects of the program, as well as fulfill their other intended functions. This study demonstrates how the use of chat groups in the online treatment of female sexual dysfunctions is a useful addition to Internet-based treatment. Feedback suggests that the chat groups were one of the most helpful aspects of the program, although a small group of women reported finding the groups unhelpful.

  12. Reproductive and resource benefits to large female body size in a mammal with female-biased sexual size dimorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Fokidis, H.B., T.S. Risch and T.C. Glenn

    2007-01-01

    Factors underlying the evolution of female-biased sexual size dimorphism in mammals are poorly understood. In an effort to better understand these factors we tested whether larger female southern flying squirrels, Glaucomys volans, gained reproductive advantages (larger litters or more male mates) and direct resource benefits, such as larger home ranges or access to more food (i.e. mast-producing trees). As dimorphism can vary with age in precocial breeding species, we compared females during their first reproduction and during a subsequent breeding attempt. Females were not significantly larger or heavier than males at first reproduction, but became about 7% heavier and 22% larger than males at subsequent breeding. Larger females produced larger litters and had home ranges containing a greater proportion of upland hardwood trees. Female body size was not associated with either multiple male mating or home range size, but females with larger home ranges had higher indexes of body condition. Females in precocial breeding flying squirrels initiate reproduction before sexual size dimorphism is evident, and thus, may be allocating resources to both reproduction and growth simultaneously, or delaying growth entirely. Larger females produce more pups and have access to more food resources. Thus, selection for increased female size may partly explain how female-biased sexual size dimorphism is maintained in this species.

  13. Knockout mutations of insulin-like peptide genes enhance sexual receptivity in Drosophila virgin females.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakai, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    In the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster, females take the initiative to mate successfully because they decide whether to mate or not. However, little is known about the molecular and neuronal mechanisms regulating sexual receptivity in virgin females. Genetic tools available in Drosophila are useful for identifying molecules and neural circuits involved in the regulation of sexual receptivity. We previously demonstrated that insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the female brain are critical to the regulation of female sexual receptivity. Ablation and inactivation of IPCs enhance female sexual receptivity, suggesting that neurosecretion from IPCs inhibits female sexual receptivity. IPCs produce and release insulin-like peptides (Ilps) that modulate various biological processes such as metabolism, growth, lifespan and behaviors. Here, we report a novel role of the Ilps in sexual behavior in Drosophila virgin females. Compared with wild-type females, females with knockout mutations of Ilps showed a high mating success rate toward wild-type males, whereas wild-type males courted wild-type and Ilp-knockout females to the same extent. Wild-type receptive females retard their movement during male courtship and this reduced female mobility allows males to copulate. Thus, it was anticipated that knockout mutations of Ilps would reduce general locomotion. However, the locomotor activity in Ilp-knockout females was significantly higher than that in wild-type females. Thus, our findings indicate that the high mating success rate in Ilp-knockout females is caused by their enhanced sexual receptivity, but not by improvement of their sex appeal or by general sluggishness.

  14. The impact of depressive symptomatology on risky sexual behavior and sexual communication among African American female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Patel, Shilpa N; Sales, Jessica M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Wingood, Gina M; Rose, Eve S

    2011-05-01

    Adolescents, particularly African American adolescents, are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behavior has been well established. However, only a small number of studies have examined the relationship between depressive symptomatology among African American female adolescents, specifically over time. The present study examined depressive symptoms as a predictor of risky sexual behavior, sexual communication, and STIs longitudinally among African American female adolescents between the ages 15 and 21. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of depressive symptoms at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STIs over six- and 12-months follow-up. Age, intervention group, and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that high levels of depressive symptoms predicted no condom use during last sexual encounter and multiple sexual partners over six-months follow-up. Depressive symptoms also predicted having a main partner with concurrent partners, high fear of communication about condoms, and sex while high on alcohol or drugs over six- and 12-months follow-up. These findings could be used to inform HIV/STI prevention intervention programs and clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior. © 2011 Taylor & Francis

  15. The Impact of Depressive Symptomatology on Risky Sexual Behavior and Sexual Communication among African American Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Puja; Patel, Shilpa N.; Sales, Jessica M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Wingood, Gina M.; Rose, Eve S.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), particularly African American adolescents. The association between psychosocial factors and risky sexual behavior has been well established. However, only a small number of studies have examined the relationship between depressive symptomatology among African American female adolescents, specifically over time. The present study examined depressive symptoms as a predictor of risky sexual behavior, sexual communication, and STIs longitudinally among African American female adolescents between the ages of 15-21. Binary generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were conducted assessing the impact of depressive symptoms at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STIs over 6- and 12-months follow-up. Age, intervention group, and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that high levels of depressive symptoms predicted no condom use during last sexual encounter and multiple sexual partners over 6-months follow-up. Depressive symptoms also predicted having a main partner with concurrent partners, high fear of communication about condoms, and sex while high on alcohol or drugs over 6- and 12-months follow-up. These findings could be used to inform HIV/STI prevention intervention programs and clinicians providing regular health care maintenance to African American female adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior. PMID:21491342

  16. [Does circumcision has an effect on female's perception of sexual satisfaction?].

    PubMed

    Cortés-González, Jeff R; Arratia-Maqueo, Jorge A; Gómez-Guerra, Lauro S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate sexual satisfaction on women who have experienced sexual intercourse with the same partner on non-circumcised and circumcised states. A total of 19 women between 19 and 53 y/o, median age 30, in which their sexual partner was programmed for circumcision were included in this study. The survey was a validated version on the Changes on Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (CSFQ). General sexual satisfaction, pain during vaginal penetration, desire, vaginal orgasm, vaginal lubrication, sexual frequency changes in oral and/or anal sexual activities and esthetical perception on circumcised penis were surveyed before the procedure and 2 months after. Changes on Vaginal lubrication during intercourse were significant (p = 0.004), it diminished from 78% to 63%. There were no statistically significant differences on general sexual satisfaction, pain during vaginal penetration, desire, vaginal orgasm. Circumcision has either negative or positive effect on female's partner perception of sexual satisfaction.

  17. Predictors of sexual coercion and alcohol use among female juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Yeater, Elizabeth A; Montanaro, Erika A; Bryan, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders report high rates of sexual coercion and substance use, yet the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear. The focus of this study was to conduct a prospective examination of predictors of sexual coercion and substance use for a group of high-risk young women. Two hundred and forty five adolescent females (34 % of a sample including males and females), between the ages of 14-17, and from a larger study of juvenile offenders, were recruited from juvenile probation offices to participate in a longitudinal study on substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed measures associated with increased risk for sexual coercion, including substance use, perceived relationship control, and externalizing behavior. At 6- and 24-month follow-up, participants also completed a measure assessing sexually coercive experiences. Path analysis revealed that less relationship control at baseline predicted sexual coercion at 6-months. Additionally, 6-month sexual coercion predicted alcohol use and sexual coercion at 24-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed also that alcohol use at 6-months predicted sexual revictimization at 24-months. Sexual coercion appears to be associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use, suggesting that female juvenile offenders may be using alcohol to cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of victimization. Alcohol use is linked to increased risk for repeat sexual coercion, suggesting that exposure to risky environments also may be important in understanding these girls' risk. Difficulties responding assertively in sexual relationships (i.e., low relationship control) also seem to increase female juvenile offenders' risk for sexual coercion. Finally, previous sexual coercion appears to increase risk for future victimization, highlighting the importance of early intervention for this at-risk group.

  18. Predictors of Sexual Coercion and Alcohol Use among Female Juvenile Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montanaro, Erika A.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2014-01-01

    Female juvenile offenders report high rates of sexual coercion and substance use, yet the temporal relationship between the two remains unclear. The focus of this study was to conduct a prospective examination of predictors of sexual coercion and substance use for a group of high-risk young women. Two hundred and forty five adolescent females (34% of a sample including males and females), between the ages of 14-17, and from a larger study of juvenile offenders, were recruited from juvenile probation offices to participate in a longitudinal study on substance use and sexual risk. At baseline, participants completed measures associated with increased risk for sexual coercion, including substance use, perceived relationship control, and externalizing behavior. At 6- and 24-month follow-up, participants also completed a measure assessing sexually coercive experiences. Path analysis revealed that less relationship control at baseline predicted sexual coercion at 6-months. Additionally, 6-month sexual coercion predicted alcohol use and sexual coercion at 24-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed also that alcohol use at 6-months predicted sexual revictimization at 24-months. Sexual coercion appears to be associated with subsequent increases in alcohol use, suggesting that female juvenile offenders may be using alcohol to cope with the psychological and emotional consequences of victimization. Alcohol use is linked to increased risk for repeat sexual coercion, suggesting that exposure to risky environments also may be important in understanding these girls' risk. Difficulties responding assertively in sexual relationships (i.e., low relationship control) also seem to increase female juvenile offenders' risk for sexual coercion. Finally, previous sexual coercion appears to increase risk for future victimization, highlighting the importance of early intervention for this at-risk group. PMID:25107488

  19. Male mate choice, male quality, and the potential for sexual selection on female traits under polygyny.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Courtney L; Servedio, Maria R

    2017-01-01

    Observations of male mate choice are increasingly common, even in species with traditional sex roles. In addition, female traits that bear the hallmarks of secondary sexual characters are increasingly reported. These concurrent empirical trends have led to the repeated inference that, even under polygyny, male mate choice is a mechanism of sexual selection on female traits. It is often either assumed or argued that in these cases females are competing for males of superior "quality"; females might experience sexual selection under polygyny if they compete for mates that provide either direct or indirect benefits. However, the theoretical foundation of this testable hypothesis remains largely uninvestigated. We develop a population genetic model to probe the logic of this hypothesis and demonstrate that, contrary to common inferences, male mate choice, variation in male quality (in the form of a direct fecundity benefit to females), and female ornamentation can coexist in a population without any sexual selection on female ornamentation taking place at all. Furthermore, even in a "best case scenario" where high quality males with a preference for ornamented females are able to mate disproportionately more often with them, the evolution of female traits by sexual selection may be relatively weak. We discuss the implication of these findings for ongoing empirical and theoretical research on the evolution of sexual-signaling in females. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Sexually Dimorphic Responses to Early Adversity: Implications for Affective Problems and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Pfaff, Donald

    2014-01-01

    During gestation, development proceeds at a pace that is unmatched by any other stage of the lifecycle. For these reason the human fetus is particularly susceptible not only to organizing influences, but also to pathogenic disorganizing influences. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to prenatal adversity leads to neurological changes that underlie lifetime risks for mental illness. Beginning early in gestation, males and females show differential developmental trajectories and responses to stress. It is likely that sex-dependent organization of neural circuits during the fetal period influences differential vulnerability to mental health problems. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorder (greater male prevalence). Recent prospective studies illustrating the neurodevelopmental consequences of fetal exposure to stress and stress hormones for males and females are considered here. Plausible biological mechanisms including the role of the sexually differentiated placenta are discussed. We consider in this review evidence that sexually dimorphic responses to early life stress are linked to two sets of developmental disorders: affective problems (greater female prevalence) and autism spectrum disorders (greater male prevalence). PMID:25038479

  1. Female control of paternity in the sexually cannibalistic spider Argiope keyserlingi.

    PubMed Central

    Elgar, M A; Schneider, J M; Herberstein, M E

    2000-01-01

    Sexual conflict theory predicts an antagonistic coevolution, with each sex evolving adaptations and counter-adaptations to overcome a temporary dominance of the other sex over the control of paternity. Polyandry allows sexual selection to operate after mating has commenced, with male and female interests competing for control of fertilization. There are numerous examples of male control of paternity, but few studies have unambiguously revealed female control. Attributing variance in paternity to females is often difficult since male and female influences cannot be separated unambiguously. However, we show that polyandrous female orb-web spiders Argiope keserlingi (Arancidae) control the paternity of their offspring by adjusting the timing of sexual cannibalism. Our experiments reveal that females copulating with relatively smaller males delay sexual cannibalism, thereby prolonging the duration of copulation, and that these males consequently fertilize relatively more eggs. PMID:11133035

  2. Measuring sexual selection on females in sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets (Anabrus simplex, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae).

    PubMed

    Robson, L J; Gwynne, D T

    2010-07-01

    Although many studies examine the form of sexual selection in males, studies characterizing this selection in females remain sparse. Sexual selection on females is predicted for sex-role-reversed Mormon crickets, Anabrus simplex, where males are choosy of mates and nutrient-deprived females compete for matings and nutritious nuptial gifts. We used selection analyses to describe the strength and form of sexual selection on female morphology. There was no positive linear sexual selection on the female body size traits predicted to be associated with male preferences and female competition. Instead, we detected selection for decreasing head width and mandible length, with stabilizing selection as the dominant form of nonlinear selection. Additionally, we tested the validity of a commonly used instantaneous measure of mating success by comparing selection results with those determined using cumulative mating rate. The two fitness measures yielded similar patterns of selection, supporting the common sampling method comparing mated and unmated fractions.

  3. Clinical interviewing techniques and sexuality questionnaires for male and female cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Althof, Stanley E; Parish, Sharon J

    2013-02-01

    Sexuality is an important aspect of quality of life; however, cancer and its treatments may impact the sexual function of men and women. Both cancer survivors and healthcare providers have barriers to addressing sexual problems in the clinical encounter. To summarize the key points from the two authors' oral presentations at the Cancer Survivorship and Sexual Health Symposium, International Society for Sexual Medicine-Sexual Medicine Society of North America (ISSM-SMSNA) Joint Meeting, Washington, DC, June 2011. To describe patient-centered communication skills that can improve communication without excessively increasing the length of the visit. To review the validated sexuality measures that can assist clinicians in gathering sexual health information and assessing the response to therapeutic interventions for sexual problems. Sexual health interviewing skills including screening, assessment, open-ended questions, empathic delineation, and counseling are discussed. Key sexuality scales including the rationale for their use, psychometric properties, and patient-reported outcomes are summarized. Optimal approaches to the spectrum of communication challenges in the male and female sexual health encounter are exemplified. Advantages and limitations of the array of measures, including structured interviews, self-administered questionnaires, daily diaries, and event logs, are explained. Practitioners can improve their detection and management of sexual concerns in cancer survivors by employing efficient patient-centered communication skills in conjunction with validated sexuality scales. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  4. Imorin: a sexual attractiveness pheromone in female red-bellied newts (Cynops pyrrhogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Nakada, Tomoaki; Toyoda, Fumiyo; Matsuda, Kouhei; Nakakura, Takashi; Hasunuma, Itaru; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Onoue, Satomi; Yokosuka, Makoto; Kikuyama, Sakae

    2017-01-01

    The male red-bellied newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster) approaches the female’s cloaca prior to performing any courtship behaviour, as if he is using some released substance to gauge whether she is sexually receptive. Therefore, we investigated whether such a female sexual attractiveness pheromone exists. We found that a tripeptide with amino acid sequence Ala-Glu-Phe is secreted by the ciliary cells in the epithelium of the proximal portion of the oviduct of sexually developed newts and confirmed that this is the major active substance in water in which sexually developed female newts have been kept. This substance only attracted sexually developed male newts and acted by stimulating the vomeronasal epithelial cells. This is the first female sexual attractiveness peptide pheromone to be identified in a vertebrate. PMID:28120945

  5. What motivates the sexual double standard? More support for male versus female control theory.

    PubMed

    Rudman, Laurie A; Fetterolf, Janell C; Sanchez, Diana T

    2013-02-01

    The present research uniquely compared male control theory (MCT) versus female control theory (FCT) to illuminate motives for the sexual double standard (SDS), whereby men gain status from engaging in casual sex or having many sexual partners, but women are stigmatized for it. Consistent with MCT, men were more likely than women to endorse the SDS and to give sexual advice in ways that reinforce it-gender differences that were mediated by hostile sexism (HS) and endorsing the SDS, respectively. The data did not support FCT's argument that women are motivated by sexual economics to restrict female sexuality (Baumeister & Twenge, 2002). Both genders discouraged women from having casual sex to protect women from social stigma and rape myths that justify violence against sexual women. In concert, the findings support MCT more than FCT and suggest that sexism, stigma, and rape myths are primary obstacles to sexual equality.

  6. Further Validation of the Female Sexual Function Index: Specificity and Associations With Clinical Interview Data.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Kyle R; Toorabally, Nasreen; Lyons, Leah; M Meston, Cindy

    2016-07-03

    Female sexual function is a multi-faceted psychophysiological construct. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) is considered a "gold standard" self-report instrument that assesses the various aspects of sexual function. However, researchers have recently proposed potential limitations of the FSFI, highlighting the need for continued validation research. The aims of the current analyses were (a) to assess the correlations between FSFI scores and information regarding specific rates of functional impairment gained via clinical interview; and (b) to assess the specificity of FSFI subscale scores in reflecting corresponding aspects of sexual function (e.g., whether the Sexual Desire subscale reflects sexual desire specifically rather than sexual arousal, orgasm, etc.). The participants were 97 sexually active women who reported impairments in sexual function. Clinical interview data exhibited moderate-to-strong correlations with FSFI scores. Additionally, FSFI subscales generally exhibited adequate specificity in terms of reflecting their corresponding aspects of sexual function more strongly than other aspects. The results generally supported the validity of the FSFI. Implications for the measurement and conceptualization of female sexual function are discussed.

  7. The medial preoptic area is necessary for sexual odor preference, but not sexual solicitation, in female Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luis A; Petrulis, Aras

    2013-04-01

    Precopulatory behaviors that are preferentially directed towards opposite-sex conspecifics are critical for successful reproduction, particularly in species wherein the sexes live in isolation, such as Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). In females, these behaviors include sexual odor preference and vaginal scent marking. The neural regulation of precopulatory behaviors is thought to involve a network of forebrain areas that includes the medial amygdala (MA), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the medial preoptic area (MPOA). Although MA and BNST are necessary for sexual odor preference and preferential vaginal marking to male odors, respectively, the role of MPOA in odor-guided female precopulatory behaviors is not well understood. To address this issue, female Syrian hamsters with bilateral, excitotoxic lesions of MPOA (MPOA-X) or sham lesions (SHAM) were tested for sexual odor investigation, scent marking, and lordosis. MPOA-X females did not investigate male odors more than female odors in an odor preference test, indicating that MPOA may be necessary for normal sexual odor preference in female hamsters. This loss of preference cannot be attributed to a sensory deficit, since MPOA-X females successfully discriminated male odors from female odors during an odor discrimination test. Surprisingly, no deficits in vaginal scent marking were observed in MPOA-X females, although these females did exhibit decreased overall levels of flank marking compared to SHAM females. Finally, all MPOA-X females exhibited lordosis appropriately. These results suggest that MPOA plays a critical role in the neural regulation of certain aspects of odor-guided precopulatory behaviors in female Syrian hamsters.

  8. Manufacturing desire: the commodification of female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jennifer R

    2004-04-01

    The process of bringing new drugs to market interweaves commercialism, science, clinical medicine, and governmental regulation. Through their authority and public persona as medical experts, academic clinical trial researchers studying these pharmaceuticals are integral to this process, serving as mediators between producers (the pharmaceutical companies) and consumers (clinicians and patients) of new drugs through a complex set of exchange networks. Using examples from my ethnographic research on the search for pharmaceuticals to treat what has become known as female sexual dysfunction, this paper explores the links academic researchers make with drug manufacturers and consumer markets. Academic researchers have become an integral aspect of drug development, not only by conducting clinical trial research, but also by participating in a number of other activities that assist pharmaceutical companies in identifying and creating new markets. In this paper, i examine how researchers attend professional meetings where they present clinical trial data, lecture at continuing medical education conferences, and offer themselves as ' experts' to raise awareness about disorders and their treatments. Modifying a sociology of technology approach, this paper focuses on the actors in the social network who mediate the junctions between technological producers and consumers. This extends work in this area through theorizing the linkages between exchange networks, commodification techniques, and technoscientific developments.

  9. Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in settings affected by armed conflicts in Africa, Asia and the Middle East: systematic review.

    PubMed

    McAlpine, Alys; Hossain, Mazeda; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2016-12-28

    Sex trafficking and sexual exploitation has been widely reported, especially in conflict-affected settings, which appear to increase women's and children's vulnerabilities to these extreme abuses. We conducted a systematic search of ten databases and extensive grey literature to gather evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in conflict-affected settings. International definitions of "sexual exploitation" and "sex trafficking" set the indicator parameters. We focused on sexual exploitation in forms of early or forced marriage, forced combatant sexual exploitation and sexual slavery. We extracted prevalence measures, health outcomes and sexual exploitation terminology definitions. The review adhered to PRISMA guidelines and includes quality appraisal. The search identified 29 eligible papers with evidence of sex trafficking and sexual exploitation in armed conflict settings in twelve countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. The evidence was limited and not generalizable, due to few prevalence estimates and inconsistent definitions of "sexual exploitation". The prevalence estimates available indicate that females were more likely than males to be victims of sexual exploitation in conflict settings. In some settings, as many as one in four forced marriages took place before the girls reached 18 years old. Findings suggest that the vast majority of former female combatants were sexually exploited during the conflict. These studies provided various indicators of sexual exploitation compatible to the United Nation's definition of sex trafficking, but only 2 studies identified the exploitation as trafficking. None of the studies solely aimed to measure the prevalence of sex trafficking or sexual exploitation. Similar descriptions of types of sexual exploitation and trafficking were found, but the inconsistent terminology or measurements inhibited a meta-analysis. Findings indicate there are various forms of human trafficking and sexual exploitation in

  10. Female brain size affects the assessment of male attractiveness during mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Corral-López, Alberto; Bloch, Natasha I.; Kotrschal, Alexander; van der Bijl, Wouter; Buechel, Severine D.; Mank, Judith E.; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-01-01

    Mate choice decisions are central in sexual selection theory aimed to understand how sexual traits evolve and their role in evolutionary diversification. We test the hypothesis that brain size and cognitive ability are important for accurate assessment of partner quality and that variation in brain size and cognitive ability underlies variation in mate choice. We compared sexual preference in guppy female lines selected for divergence in relative brain size, which we have previously shown to have substantial differences in cognitive ability. In a dichotomous choice test, large-brained and wild-type females showed strong preference for males with color traits that predict attractiveness in this species. In contrast, small-brained females showed no preference for males with these traits. In-depth analysis of optomotor response to color cues and gene expression of key opsins in the eye revealed that the observed differences were not due to differences in visual perception of color, indicating that differences in the ability to process indicators of attractiveness are responsible. We thus provide the first experimental support that individual variation in brain size affects mate choice decisions and conclude that differences in cognitive ability may be an important underlying mechanism behind variation in female mate choice. PMID:28345039

  11. Female brain size affects the assessment of male attractiveness during mate choice.

    PubMed

    Corral-López, Alberto; Bloch, Natasha I; Kotrschal, Alexander; van der Bijl, Wouter; Buechel, Severine D; Mank, Judith E; Kolm, Niclas

    2017-03-01

    Mate choice decisions are central in sexual selection theory aimed to understand how sexual traits evolve and their role in evolutionary diversification. We test the hypothesis that brain size and cognitive ability are important for accurate assessment of partner quality and that variation in brain size and cognitive ability underlies variation in mate choice. We compared sexual preference in guppy female lines selected for divergence in relative brain size, which we have previously shown to have substantial differences in cognitive ability. In a dichotomous choice test, large-brained and wild-type females showed strong preference for males with color traits that predict attractiveness in this species. In contrast, small-brained females showed no preference for males with these traits. In-depth analysis of optomotor response to color cues and gene expression of key opsins in the eye revealed that the observed differences were not due to differences in visual perception of color, indicating that differences in the ability to process indicators of attractiveness are responsible. We thus provide the first experimental support that individual variation in brain size affects mate choice decisions and conclude that differences in cognitive ability may be an important underlying mechanism behind variation in female mate choice.

  12. The Context of Sexual Decisions and Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Factors Related to Sexual Initiation Among Female Military-Dependent Youth.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Belinda F; Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Burr, Jean; Roberts, Timothy; Emery, Susan Tortolero

    2017-03-24

    Despite the sizable population of military-dependent youth (MDY) in the United States and the military stressors they experience (e.g., relocations, parental deployment), little is known about MDY's sexual behavior, especially about the perceived role that military stressors play in their sexual decisions, such as the decision to initiate sex. We conducted 25 semistructured, in-depth interviews with sexually experienced female MDY aged 15 to 19 years to (a) describe MDY's general perceptions of military life and (b) identify intrapersonal and interpersonal characteristics related to MDY's sexual initiation, including the perceived impact of military stressors. We analyzed life history grids and transcripts to identify common and unique themes across participants' experiences. Most participants reported having positive experiences related to military life, and most did not believe that military stressors influenced their decision to initiate sex. Common intrapersonal and interpersonal characteristics related to sexual initiation were having an older first sexual partner, being in a dating relationship, receiving sexual health education prior to their first sexual experience, and discussing sex with a parent prior to their first sexual experience. These intrapersonal and interpersonal characteristics should be considered when developing sexual health programs for MDY, which should focus on building supportive peer and parental relationships.

  13. An audit on the management of female victims of sexual assault attending a genitourinary medicine clinic.

    PubMed

    Das, Satyajit; Huengsberg, Mia

    2004-07-01

    The victims of sexual assault may attend GUM clinic without any referral from any other agency. The management of these cases need special care. We audited the management of females who were known to us as victims of sexual assault. In 15 months, 68 females attended our clinic. All were screened for sexually transmitted infections (STI). Emergency contraception was offered to only 38.4% at risk cases, and formal counselling support was offered to only 25% cases. Further care is necessary to improve counselling support and offering emergency contraception to the victims of sexual assault.

  14. Risk and associated factors of female sexual orgasmic disorder in women with hypertension in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdul Latif, Rozimah; Muhamad, Rosediani; Kanagasundram, Sharmilla; Sidi, Hatta; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Midin, Marhani; Das, Srijit; Ng, Chong Guan

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the risk of female sexual orgasmic disorder among a group of women with hypertension in Malaysia. The associated factors were also examined. This cross-sectional study involved 348 hypertensive women attending the primary care or hypertension clinic in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Female sexual orgasmic disorder was assessed using the Orgasmic subscale of the Malay Version of the Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSFI). Basic socio-demographic data of the subjects was collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Medical records were reviewed to gather patients' medical information. The risk of female sexual orgasmic disorder among hypertensive women was 14.1%. Univariate analysis found that older age, longer duration of marriage, lower educational level, and menopause were associated with higher risk of female sexual orgasmic disorder. These factors were not significant in multivariate analysis. The risk of female sexual orgasmic disorder was relatively low in Malaysian women with hypertension. No risk factors were associated with female sexual orgasmic disorder in the current study. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    PubMed Central

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers’ risky sexual behavior and substance use to adolescent girls’ risky sexual behavior and substance use in a sample of 214 low-income, urban AA female caregivers and daughters recruited from outpatient mental health clinics in Chicago. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed that sexual risk reported by female caregivers was associated with adolescent sexual risk, and illicit drug use reported by female caregivers was related to adolescent-reported substance use, which was in turn associated with adolescent-reported sexual risk behavior. These findings suggest that female caregivers’ sexual behavior and substance use both relate to girls’ sexual risk. Thus, results emphasize the role of female caregivers in transmitting risk. PMID:22353241

  16. Interactions with heterospecific males do not affect how female Mesocricetus hamsters respond to conspecific males

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive interference includes any interspecific interaction that reduces the fitness of one or both species involved. There are several types of reproductive interference, but they normally involve the direct cost of interacting or mating with heterospecifics. An indirect cost of interacting with heterospecific individuals is a consequent reduction in successful interactions with conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that being aggressive towards a heterospecific individual will diminish sexual responses towards conspecifics in later encounters. We used two species of Mesocricetus hamsters (Syrian and Turkish hamsters), whose interspecific interactions have previously been determined. We exposed or both exposed and paired Syrian hamster females with a conspecific or a heterospecific male. Five minutes later, we paired all females with a conspecific male and measured the latency to lordosis, the duration of lordosis and any incidence of aggression. We found that (1) interactions with heterospecific males did not affect how females responded to conspecific males in later encounters and (2) previous pairing of female subjects with either conspecific or heterospecific males promoted a faster sexual response by females in subsequent interactions with conspecific males. Thus, aggressive interactions of Syrian hamster females with heterospecific males, contrary to our initial hypothesis, had a positive effect on subsequent interactions with conspecific males. PMID:23439800

  17. Combat Deployment is Associated With Sexual Harassment or Sexual Assault in a Large, Female Military Cohort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-11

    Women who deployed and reported combat experiences were significantly more likely to report sexual harassment (odds ratio [OR], 2.20; 95% confidence...experiences (Table 2). Women who were deployed who experi enced combat reported the highest cumulative incidence of sexual harassment (19.9%) and sexual ... sexual harassment and sexual assault (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.61 3.78), but not the sexual assault only category. Women who deployed before baseline had

  18. EVOLUTION OF DIVERGENT FEMALE MATING PREFERENCE IN RESPONSE TO EXPERIMENTAL SEXUAL SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    Debelle, Allan; Ritchie, Michael G; Snook, Rhonda R

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection is predicted to drive the coevolution of mating signals and preferences (mating traits) within populations, and could play a role in speciation if sexual isolation arises due to mating trait divergence between populations. However, few studies have demonstrated that differences in mating traits between populations result from sexual selection alone. Experimental evolution is a promising approach to directly examine the action of sexual selection on mating trait divergence among populations. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection (low vs. high) in populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previous studies on these experimental populations have shown that sexual selection manipulation resulted in the divergence between sexual selection treatments of several courtship song parameters, including interpulse interval (IPI) which markedly influences male mating success. Here, we measure female preference for IPI using a playback design to test for preference divergence between the sexual selection treatments after 130 generations of experimental sexual selection. The results suggest that female preference has coevolved with male signal, in opposite directions between the sexual selection treatments, providing direct evidence of the ability of sexual selection to drive the divergent coevolution of mating traits between populations. We discuss the implications in the context sexual selection and speciation. PMID:24931497

  19. Evolution of divergent female mating preference in response to experimental sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Debelle, Allan; Ritchie, Michael G; Snook, Rhonda R

    2014-09-01

    Sexual selection is predicted to drive the coevolution of mating signals and preferences (mating traits) within populations, and could play a role in speciation if sexual isolation arises due to mating trait divergence between populations. However, few studies have demonstrated that differences in mating traits between populations result from sexual selection alone. Experimental evolution is a promising approach to directly examine the action of sexual selection on mating trait divergence among populations. We manipulated the opportunity for sexual selection (low vs. high) in populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Previous studies on these experimental populations have shown that sexual selection manipulation resulted in the divergence between sexual selection treatments of several courtship song parameters, including interpulse interval (IPI) which markedly influences male mating success. Here, we measure female preference for IPI using a playback design to test for preference divergence between the sexual selection treatments after 130 generations of experimental sexual selection. The results suggest that female preference has coevolved with male signal, in opposite directions between the sexual selection treatments, providing direct evidence of the ability of sexual selection to drive the divergent coevolution of mating traits between populations. We discuss the implications in the context sexual selection and speciation.

  20. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  1. Female Sexual-Offenders: Personality Pathology as a Mediator of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Sexual Abuse Perpetration against Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Kelly; Lutz-Zois, Catherine J.; Reinhardt, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The goal was to examine, in an all female sample, possible mechanisms for the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse and the likelihood of perpetrating sexual abuse as an adult. It was hypothesized that Borderline and Antisocial Personality Disorder tendencies would mediate the relationship between these two forms of…

  2. Pattern of Female Sexual Assault in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt, During the Period From 2009 to 2013: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Sharaf El-Din, Abeer A I; Elkholy, Shereen M S; Metwally, Eslam S; Farag, Hesham A

    2015-12-01

    Sexual assault is a serious social problem that affects women's life. In Egypt, there is no accurate epidemiological study on sexual assault, although it has undergone a dramatic surge in 2013. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence and the characteristics of sexual assault against female in Qalyubia Governorate, Egypt. It is a retrospective study evaluating sexual assault against females from 2009 to 2013. Total numbers of cases of female sexual assault was 130 over the studied years. The mean (SD) age of victims was 15.2 (6) years ranging from 4 to 40 years. Fifty-eight percent fall in the age group of 12 to 18 years. Most victims (61.5%) came from urban areas. Summer was relatively a vulnerable season for sexual assault (53.1%); 81.5% of victims was unmarried and 94.6% with normal mentality. The highest percentage of sexual assault crime was found in females with primary education (44.6%). Twenty-two (16.9%) of the assaulted cases were considered intrafamilial assault, whereas 83.1% were extrafamilial. The most common location for assaults was at the assailant's home (50.8%), and 80% of the victims were exposed to assault by 1 assailant. The shortest time between alleged assault and the examination was 1 day in 12 cases (9.2%). The most frequent type of assault was complete vaginal penetration (48.55%). The most common type of physical injury was abrasions (48.1%), whereas the least was burn or broken teeth (1.3% for each). The highest percentage of genital injury was lacerations (36.4%), and the most common location was the hymen (36.4%).

  3. Higher variability in the number of sexual partners in males can contribute to a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases in females.

    PubMed

    Gouveia-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Pedersen, Anders Gorm

    2009-11-07

    By examining published, empirical data we show that men and women consistently differ in the shape of the distribution of the number of sexual partners. The female distribution is always relatively narrow-variance is low-with a big majority of women having a number of partners close to the average. The male distribution is much wider-variance is high-with many men having few sex partners and many others having more partners than most females. Using stochastic modelling we demonstrate that this difference in variance is, in principle, sufficient to cause a difference in the gender prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases: compared to the situation where the genders have identical sex partner distributions, men will reach a lower equilibrium value, while women will stay at the same level (meaning that female prevalence becomes higher than male). We carefully analyse model behaviour and derive approximate expressions for equilibrium prevalences in the two different scenarios. We find that the size of the difference in gender prevalence depends on the variance ratio (the ratio between the variances of the male and female sex partner distributions), on the expected number of life-time partners, and on the probability of disease transmission. We note that in addition to humans, the variance phenomenon described here is likely to play a role for sexually transmitted diseases in other species also. We also show, again by examining published, empirical data, that the female to male prevalence ratio increases with the overall prevalence of a sexually transmitted disease (i.e., the more widespread the disease, the more women are affected). We suggest that this pattern may be caused by the effect described above in highly prevalent sexually transmitted diseases, while its impact in low-prevalence epidemics is surpassed by the action of high-risk individuals (mostly males).

  4. The effect of sexual harassment on lethal mutation rate in female Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Maklakov, Alexei A; Immler, Simone; Løvlie, Hanne; Flis, Ilona; Friberg, Urban

    2013-01-07

    The rate by which new mutations are introduced into a population may have far-reaching implications for processes at the population level. Theory assumes that all individuals within a population have the same mutation rate, but this assumption may not be true. Compared with individuals in high condition, those in poor condition may have fewer resources available to invest in DNA repair, resulting in elevated mutation rates. Alternatively, environmentally induced stress can result in increased investment in DNA repair at the expense of reproduction. Here, we directly test whether sexual harassment by males, known to reduce female condition, affects female capacity to alleviate DNA damage in Drosophila melanogaster fruitflies. Female gametes can repair double-strand DNA breaks in sperm, which allows manipulating mutation rate independently from female condition. We show that male harassment strongly not only reduces female fecundity, but also reduces the yield of dominant lethal mutations, supporting the hypothesis that stressed organisms invest relatively more in repair mechanisms. We discuss our results in the light of previous research and suggest that social effects such as density and courtship can play an important and underappreciated role in mediating condition-dependent mutation rate.

  5. An Update on Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction in Old Age and Its Relevance to Old Age Psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Alison; Runciman, Ross; Wylie, Kevan R.; McManus, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have now demonstrated that many older women retain an interest in their sexual lives. Yet, how many old age psychiatrists commonly check with older women about whether the depression they are treating, or the SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors) they have prescribed, have adversely affected their patient’s sexual lives? We consider the latest evidence regarding cultural, social and medical influences on older women’s sexual lives and some specific issues which affect lesbian and transsexual people. We examine how mental illness and psychotropic medication in particular can adversely affect older women’s sexual functioning and at how difficult it often proves to be for women to seek help. We also focus on why doctors and in particular psychiatrists may not take a sexual history, look for sexual side effects or refer for appropriate treatment, especially when interviewing older women patients. Most published information about psychiatric training and sexual issues focuses on the younger male patient. We therefore aimed to provide a broad-ranging review of the literature regarding female sexual functioning in old age, the difficulties that can arise and the role that old age psychiatrists have an opportunity to fulfil, in this often neglected aspect of their patients’ treatment. From our review it was clear that, in the light of the increasing cultural acceptability of discussions regarding sexuality and older women, the training of student doctors and trainee psychiatrists needs to reflect this change so that old age psychiatrists can enhance the quality of their patient care. PMID:23185718

  6. Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response (SCAR): A Model of Sexual Trauma that Disrupts Maternal Learning and Plasticity in the Female Brain

    PubMed Central

    Shors, Tracey J.; Tobόn, Krishna; DiFeo, Gina; Durham, Demetrius M.; Chang, Han Yan M.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual aggression can disrupt processes related to learning as females emerge from puberty into young adulthood. To model these experiences in laboratory studies, we developed SCAR, which stands for Sexual Conspecific Aggressive Response. During puberty, a rodent female is paired daily for 30-min with a sexually-experienced adult male. During the SCAR experience, the male tracks the anogenital region of the female as she escapes from pins. Concentrations of the stress hormone corticosterone were significantly elevated during and after the experience. Moreover, females that were exposed to the adult male throughout puberty did not perform well during training with an associative learning task nor did they learn well to express maternal behaviors during maternal sensitization. Most females that were exposed to the adult male did not learn to care for offspring over the course of 17 days. Finally, females that did not express maternal behaviors retained fewer newly-generated cells in their hippocampus whereas those that did express maternal behaviors retained more cells, most of which would differentiate into neurons within weeks. Together these data support SCAR as a useful laboratory model for studying the potential consequences of sexual aggression and trauma for the female brain during puberty and young adulthood. PMID:26804826

  7. Serotonin signaling in the brain of adult female mice is required for sexual preference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shasha; Liu, Yan; Rao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    A role for serotonin in male sexual preference was recently uncovered by our finding that male mutant mice lacking serotonin have lost sexual preference. Here we show that female mouse mutants lacking either central serotonergic neurons or serotonin prefer female over male genital odors when given a choice, and displayed increased female–female mounting when presented either with a choice of a male and a female target or only with a female target. Pharmacological manipulations and genetic rescue experiments showed that serotonin is required in adults. Behavioral changes caused by deficient serotonergic signaling were not due to changes in plasma concentrations of sex hormones. We demonstrate that a genetic manipulation reverses sexual preference without involving sex hormones. Our results indicate that serotonin controls sexual preference. PMID:23716677

  8. A selective androgen receptor modulator enhances male-directed sexual preference, proceptive behavior, and lordosis behavior in sexually experienced, but not sexually naive, female rats.

    PubMed

    Kudwa, A E; López, F J; McGivern, R F; Handa, R J

    2010-06-01

    Androgens influence many aspects of reproductive behavior, including sexual preference of females for males. In oophorectomized women with sexual desire disorder, testosterone patches improve libido, but their use is limited because of adverse side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators offer an improved safety profile for both sexes: enhancing libido and muscle and bone growth in a manner similar to steroidal androgens but with fewer adverse effects, such as hirsutism, acne, and prostate growth. The current study investigated the action of a novel selective androgen receptor modulator (LGD-3303 [9-chloro-2-ethyl-1-methyl-3-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-3H-pyrrolo-[3,2-f]quinolin-7(6H)-one]) on male-directed sexual preference, proceptivity, and lordosis behavior of female rats. LGD-3303 is a nonsteroidal, nonaromatizable, highly selective ligand for the androgen receptor and effectively crosses the blood-brain barrier. Gonadectomized female rats were treated with LGD-3303 (3-30 mg/kg) or vehicle by daily oral gavage. Results showed that LGD-3303 treatment enhanced sexual preference of females for males but only if females had previous sexual experience. This occurred after 1 or 7 d of treatment. In contrast, preference for males was inhibited by LGD-3303 treatments of sexually naive females. The LGD-3303 increase in male preference was blocked by pretreatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide. LGD-3303 treatment increased lordosis and proceptivity behaviors in ovariectomized females primed with suboptimal doses of estradiol benzoate plus progesterone. These data support the concept that LGD-3303 can stimulate aspects of female sexual behavior and may serve as a potential therapeutic for women with sexual desire disorders.

  9. Attachment and personality predicts engagement in sexual harassment by male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.

  10. The construct of sexual openness for females in steady intimate relationships

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Diana; Dekker, Arne; Rettenberger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of open-minded attitudes towards sexuality in general requires a construct based on attitudinal dimensions. Although several existing studies involve sexual attitudes, they differ substantially and standardized conceptual work is missing. Thus, the authors introduce the latent variable sexual openness to develop a construct based on self-oriented attitudes towards different sexual topics. Available survey data of female German students in a steady relationship allowed providing a first empirical test for the applicability of this construct. Five subdimensions are acknowledged central for sexual openness: sexual practices, masturbation, bisexuality, permissiveness, and pornography consumption. Confirmatory factor analysis and correlations confirmed the idea of an underlying mechanism with an impact on all five variables. Though further validation of the construct of sexual openness is required, the findings strongly support the notion of an overarching latent attitude variable, which influences the individual relation to everything sexual. The results were compared to other studies and potential approaches for future analyses were proposed. PMID:28636608

  11. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  12. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards.

    PubMed

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D(3)) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  13. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  14. Alcohol--a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults.

  15. Embryology and anatomy of the vulva: the female orgasm and women's sexual health.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    Sexual health is vital to overall well-being. Orgasm is a normal psycho-physiological function of human beings and every woman has the right to feel sexual pleasure. The anatomy of the vulva and of the female erectile organs (trigger of orgasm) is described in human anatomy textbooks. Female sexual physiology was first described in Dickinson's textbook in 1949 and subsequently by Masters and Johnson in 1966. During women's sexual response, changes occur in the congestive structures that are essential to the understanding of women's sexual response and specifically of their orgasm. Female and male external genital organs arise from the same embryologic structures, i.e. phallus, urogenital folds, urogenital sinus and labioscrotal swellings. The vulva is formed by the labia majora and vestibule, with its erectile apparatus: clitoris (glans, body, crura), labia minora, vestibular bulbs and corpus spongiosum. Grafenberg, in 1950, discovered no "G-spot" and did not report an orgasm of the intraurethral glands. The hypothetical area named "G-spot" should not be defined with Grafenberg's name. The female orgasm should be a normal phase of the sexual response cycle, which is possible to achieve by all healthy women with effective sexual stimulation. Knowledge of the embryology, anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs are important in the field of women's sexual health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Individual and Relationship Factors that Differentiate Female Offenders with and without a Sexual Abuse History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartan, Lisa M.; Gunnison, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The link between prior sexual abuse and female offending is one of the most consistent findings within the etiology of female offending. It is not, however, part of every female offender's life history. Working from research on the impact of abuse on individuals, the current article examines the individual and relationship factors that…

  17. Individual and Relationship Factors that Differentiate Female Offenders with and without a Sexual Abuse History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCartan, Lisa M.; Gunnison, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The link between prior sexual abuse and female offending is one of the most consistent findings within the etiology of female offending. It is not, however, part of every female offender's life history. Working from research on the impact of abuse on individuals, the current article examines the individual and relationship factors that…

  18. Sexual Harassment by Males Reduces Female Fecundity in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile rotundata)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Under sexual conflict, males evolve traits to increase their mating and reproductive success that impose costs on females. Females evolve counter-adaptations to resist males and reduce those costs. Female resistance may instead serve as a mechanism for mate choice if the male-imposed costs are outwe...

  19. To each its own? Gender differences in affective, autonomic, and behavioral responses to same-sex and opposite-sex visual sexual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sarlo, Michela; Buodo, Giulia

    2017-03-15

    A large body of research on gender differences in response to erotic stimuli has focused on genital and/or subjective sexual arousal. On the other hand, studies assessing gender differences in emotional psychophysiological responding to sexual stimuli have only employed erotic pictures of male-female couples or female/male nudes. The present study aimed at investigating differences between gynephilic men and androphilic women in emotional responding to visual sexual stimuli depicting female-male, female-female and male-male couples. Affective responses were explored in multiple response systems, including autonomic indices of emotional activation, i.e., heart rate and skin conductance, along with standardized measures of valence and arousal. Blood pressure was measured as an index of autonomic activation associated with sexual arousal, and free viewing times as an index of interest/avoidance. Overall, men showed gender-specific activation characterized by clearly appetitive reactions to the target of their sexual attraction (i.e., women), with physiological arousal discriminating female-female stimuli as the most effective sexual cues. In contrast, women's emotional activation to sexual stimuli was clearly non-specific in most of the considered variables, with the notable exception of the self-report measures. Overall, affective responses replicate patterns of gender-specific and gender-nonspecific sexual responses in gynephilic men and androphilic women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Female sexual behavior, estrous cycle and gene expression in sexually dimorphic brain regions after pre- and postnatal exposure to endocrine active UV filters.

    PubMed

    Faass, Oliver; Schlumpf, Margret; Reolon, Sasha; Henseler, Manuel; Maerkel, Kirsten; Durrer, Stefan; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2009-03-01

    The developing female brain represents a potential target for estrogenic environmental chemicals because it depends on estrogen but is exposed to low endogenous estrogen levels, thus facilitating competition by exogenous estrogen receptor (ER) agonists. We investigated effects of two estrogenic UV filters, 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC). 4-MBC has been detected in human milk, indicating potential exposure of fetus and infant. The two chemicals were administered in chow to rats of the parent generation before mating, during pregnancy and lactation, and to their offspring until adulthood. Female sexual behavior was recorded on videotape in adult female offspring on proestrus evening at the beginning of the dark phase. 4-MBC (7 and 24mg/kg bw/day) and 3-BC (2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day) reduced proceptive behavior (jump and ear wiggling) and receptive behavior (lordosis quotient), and increased rejection behavior towards the male. Estrous cycles were not affected by 4-MBC but disturbed by 3-BC. mRNAs encoding for genes involved in female sexual behavior, ERalpha, ERbeta, progesterone receptor (PR) and steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1), were measured by real-time RT-PCR in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial preoptic area of adult male and female offspring (studied in diestrus) after pre- and postnatal exposure to 3-BC (0.24, 0.7, 2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day). Gene expression was affected in a sex- and region-specific manner. PR mRNA in female VMH was reduced to male levels at dose levels of 2.4 and 7mg/kg bw/day 3-BC. Our data demonstrate that female sexual behavior represents a sensitive target of endocrine disrupters and point to an involvement of PR in VMH.

  1. Sexual victimization among African American adolescent females: examination of the reliability and validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Heather; Matson, Steven C

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent females are disproportionately represented among reported cases of sexual victimization. Because sexual victimization is associated with an array of negative sequelae (e.g., depression, alcohol abuse), psychometrically sound instruments are urgently needed to assess sexual victimization or coercion. The investigation conducts a preliminary analysis of the reliability and validity of the Sexual Experiences Survey (SES) for a sample drawn from a high-risk population-African American adolescent females. Our analyses indicate good internal consistency for the SES with this sample. Convergent validity is demonstrated. Specifically, scores on the SES are associated with significantly lower levels of self-esteem and mastery, higher levels of depression, lower levels of family cohesion, higher levels of family conflict, and higher levels of using alcohol and being a smoker. Preliminary support for discriminant validity is also obtained. This study is a stepping stone for future investigations into the psychometric evaluation of the SES.

  2. [Testosterone therapy in female hypoactive sexual desire disorder].

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patrick

    2016-03-16

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is a deficiency of sexual desire that causes marked personal or interpersonal distress. It occurs in approximately 1 in 10 adult women. A number of potential contributory factors (hormonal, neurobiological and psychosocial) have been identified. Testosterone plays an excitatory role in sexual desire but the mechanism is not yet well understood. Treatment with testosterone has been shown to improve sexual desire in menopausal women with HSDD. However, there are limited data concerning premenopausal women and long-term safety. At present, physiological testosterone preparations for use in women are not available in Switzerland.

  3. Female sexual dysfunction with combined oral contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jean Jasmin M L; Tan, Thiam Chye; Ang, Seng Bin

    2017-06-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs) remain one of the most popular forms of contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancy in women. While it is known that COCs can cause sexual dysfunction in women, there is currently no recommendation to screen for sexual function before and after initiation of COCs. We propose that, based on the evidence available, assessment of sexual function should be done at initiation of COCs, as well as at regular intervals thereafter. This would allow COC-related sexual dysfunction to be managed early, such as by switching the patient to newer-generation COCs or other forms of contraception. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  4. A systematic review of the literature on female sexual dysfunction prevalence and predictors.

    PubMed

    West, Suzanne L; Vinikoor, Lisa C; Zolnoun, Denniz

    2004-01-01

    Interest in human sexuality began in the 18th century, but formal and more rigorous studies focused on sexual satisfaction and sexual practices were published in the early 1900s. Alfred Kinsey's pioneering work on sexuality, in which he surveyed over 10,000 men and women age 16 and older, began in the late 1930s. In the mid-1960s, Masters and Johnson published their seminal work characterizing the sexual response cycle. Since then, numerous researchers have attempted to understand and to quantify "normal" sexual behaviors using survey techniques. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction overall and, more specifically, on sexual desire disorder, arousal difficulties, anorgasmia, and dyspareunia. The review also encompassed dysfunction related to the reproductive factors, such as pregnancy, hysterectomy, and menopause. We included sexual dysfunction comorbid with diabetes, depression, and antidepressant therapies. In total, 85 studies are summarized in this review, which spans literature from the early 1900s to the present. We performed a quality assessment of each study, defining quality based on the representativeness of the population studied and the rigor of the instruments used for assessing sexual dysfunction. Although none of the 85 studies included in the review met both standards of quality, some met one criterion and not the other. Definitions of female sexual dysfunction have been developed and refined recently, but there is an urgent need to determine measurable outcomes that can be used for future work.

  5. Sexual selection affects local extinction and turnover in bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, P.F.; Sorci, G.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Boulinier, T.

    2003-01-01

    Predicting extinction risks has become a central goal for conservation and evolutionary biologists interested in population and community dynamics. Several factors have been put forward to explain risks of extinction, including ecological and life history characteristics of individuals. For instance, factors that affect the balance between natality and mortality can have profound effects on population persistence. Sexual selection has been identified as one such factor. Populations under strong sexual selection experience a number of costs ranging from increased predation and parasitism to enhanced sensitivity to environmental and demographic stochasticity. These findings have led to the prediction that local extinction rates should be higher for species/populations with intense sexual selection. We tested this prediction by analyzing the dynamics of natural bird communities at a continental scale over a period of 21 years (1975-1996), using relevant statistical tools. In agreement with the theoretical prediction, we found that sexual selection increased risks of local extinction (dichromatic birds had on average a 23% higher local extinction rate than monochromatic species). However, despite higher local extinction probabilities, the number of dichromatic species did not decrease over the period considered in this study. This pattern was caused by higher local turnover rates of dichromatic species, resulting in relatively stable communities for both groups of species. Our results suggest that these communities function as metacommunities, with frequent local extinctions followed by colonization. Anthropogenic factors impeding dispersal might therefore have a significant impact on the global persistence of sexually selected species.

  6. Prior hormonal treatment, but not sexual experience, reduces the negative effects of restraint on female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Uphouse, Lynda; Hiegel, Cindy; Adams, Sarah; Murillo, Vanessa; Martinez, Monique

    2014-02-01

    These experiments were designed to determine if prior sexual experience reduced the negative effect of mild stress on female sexual behavior. In the first experiment, ovariectomized rats were hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate and progesterone for 3 consecutive weeks during which they received six mating experiences in a male's home cage or received no sexual experience. The next week, females were primed with 10 μg estradiol benzoate two days before a 5 min restraint. Both groups were resistant to the negative effects of the stressor. In the second experiment, females received 0, 1, 2, or 3 weeks of 10 μg estradiol benzoate and were restrained on the fourth week after priming with 10 μg estradiol benzoate. Rats without prior hormonal priming showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint but prior priming with estradiol benzoate reduced this effect. In the third experiment, rats received 3 weeks of hormonal priming with estradiol benzoate and progesterone with or without sexual experience. An additional group received no sexual experience or hormonal priming. Females were then given a 3-week hormone vacation before testing in the restraint paradigm. All groups showed a decline in lordosis behavior after restraint. The fourth experiment was identical to the third except that sexual experience in the male's cage and in a pacing apparatus were compared. There was no effect of either type of sexual experience on the response to restraint. Possible mechanisms responsible for effects of prior hormonal priming are presented and the absence of an effect of sexual experience is discussed in comparison to findings in male rats.

  7. Psychosocial and developmental characteristics of female adolescents who have committed sexual offenses.

    PubMed

    van der Put, Claudia; van Vugt, Eveline S; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Hendriks, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent