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Sample records for affects human physiology

  1. Human physiology in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  2. Do targeted written comments and the rubric method of delivery affect performance on future human physiology laboratory reports?

    PubMed

    Clayton, Zachary S; Wilds, Gabriel P; Mangum, Joshua E; Hocker, Austin D; Dawson, Sierra M

    2016-09-01

    We investigated how students performed on weekly two-page laboratory reports based on whether the grading rubric was provided to the student electronically or in paper form and the inclusion of one- to two-sentence targeted comments. Subjects were registered for a 289-student, third-year human physiology class with laboratory and were randomized into four groups related to rubric delivery and targeted comments. All students received feedback via the same detailed grading rubric. At the end of the term, subjects provided consent and a self-assessment of their rubric viewing rate and preferences. There were no differences in laboratory report scores between groups (P = 0.86), although scores did improve over time (P < 0.01). Students receiving targeted comments self-reported viewing their rubric more often than students that received no comments (P = 0.02), but the viewing rate was independent of the rubric delivery method (P = 0.15). Subjects with high rubric viewing rates did not have higher laboratory report grades than subjects with low viewing rates (P = 0.64). When asked about their preference for the future, 43% of respondents preferred the same method again (electronic or paper rubric) and 25% had no preference. We conclude that although student laboratory report grades improved over time, the rate and degree of improvement were not related to rubric delivery method or to the inclusion of targeted comments. PMID:27445286

  3. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, the Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Nathalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding, has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is a necessity in normal gravity on Earth, in microgravity, and when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Reduced physical activity, such as observed in microgravity or bed rest, has an effect on many physiological systems, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune, and body fluids regulation systems. There is currently no countermeasure that is effective to counteract both the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning when applied for a short duration (see Chapter 1). Artificial gravity therefore seems the simplest physiological approach to keep these systems intact. The application of intermittent daily dose of artificial gravity by means of centrifugation has often been proposed as a potential countermeasure against the physiological deconditioning induced by spaceflight. However, neither the optimal gravity level, nor its optimal duration of exposure have been enough studied to recommend a validated, effective, and efficient artificial gravity application. As discussed in previous chapters, artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any changes caused by reduced physical activity. The nutrient supply, which ideally should match the actual needs, will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. This chapter reviews the potential interactions between these nutrients (energy intake, vitamins, minerals) and the other physiological systems affected by artificial gravity generated by an on-board short-radius centrifuge.

  4. Food Affects Human Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolata, Gina

    1982-01-01

    A conference on whether food and nutrients affect human behavior was held on November 9, 1982 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Various research studies on this topic are reviewed, including the effects of food on brain biochemistry (particularly sleep) and effects of tryptophane as a pain reducer. (JN)

  5. Virtual physiological human: training challenges.

    PubMed

    Lawford, Patricia V; Narracott, Andrew V; McCormack, Keith; Bisbal, Jesus; Martin, Carlos; Bijnens, Bart; Brook, Bindi; Zachariou, Margarita; Freixa, Jordi Villà I; Kohl, Peter; Fletcher, Katherine; Diaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa

    2010-06-28

    The virtual physiological human (VPH) initiative encompasses a wide range of activities, including structural and functional imaging, data mining, knowledge discovery tool and database development, biomedical modelling, simulation and visualization. The VPH community is developing from a multitude of relatively focused, but disparate, research endeavours into an integrated effort to bring together, develop and translate emerging technologies for application, from academia to industry and medicine. This process initially builds on the evolution of multi-disciplinary interactions and abilities, but addressing the challenges associated with the implementation of the VPH will require, in the very near future, a translation of quantitative changes into a new quality of highly trained multi-disciplinary personnel. Current strategies for undergraduate and on-the-job training may soon prove insufficient for this. The European Commission seventh framework VPH network of excellence is exploring this emerging need, and is developing a framework of novel training initiatives to address the predicted shortfall in suitably skilled VPH-aware professionals. This paper reports first steps in the implementation of a coherent VPH training portfolio. PMID:20478909

  6. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  7. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both. PMID:26752207

  8. HUMAN--A Comprehensive Physiological Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Thomas G.; Randall, James E.

    1983-01-01

    Describes computer program (HUMAN) used to simulate physiological experiments on patient pathology. Program (available from authors, including versions for microcomputers) consists of dynamic interactions of over 150 physiological variables and integrating approximations of cardiovascular, renal, lung, temperature regulation, and some hormone…

  9. Gravitational Effects on Human Physiology.

    PubMed

    Atomi, Yoriko

    2015-01-01

    Physical working capacity decreases with age and also in microgravity. Regardless of age, increased physical activity can always improve the physical adaptability of the body, although the mechanisms of this adaptability are unknown. Physical exercise produces various mechanical stimuli in the body, and these stimuli may be essential for cell survival in organisms. The cytoskeleton plays an important role in maintaining cell shape and tension development, and in various molecular and/or cellular organelles involved in cellular trafficking. Both intra and extracellular stimuli send signals through the cytoskeleton to the nucleus and modulate gene expression via an intrinsic property, namely the "dynamic instability" of cytoskeletal proteins. αB-crystallin is an important chaperone for cytoskeletal proteins in muscle cells. Decreases in the levels of αB-crystallin are specifically associated with a marked decrease in muscle mass (atrophy) in a rat hindlimb suspension model that mimics muscle and bone atrophy that occurs in space and increases with passive stretch. Moreover, immunofluorescence data show complete co-localization of αB-crystallin and the tubulin/microtubule system in myoblast cells. This association was further confirmed in biochemical experiments carried out in vitro showing that αB-crystallin acts as a chaperone for heat-denatured tubulin and prevents microtubule disassembly induced by calcium. Physical activity induces the constitutive expression of αB-crystallin, which helps to maintain the homeostasis of cytoskeleton dynamics in response to gravitational forces. This relationship between chaperone expression levels and regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics observed in slow anti-gravitational muscles as well as in mammalian striated muscles, such as those in the heart, diaphragm and tongue, may have been especially essential for human evolution in particular. Elucidation of the intrinsic properties of the tubulin/microtubule and chaperone

  10. Effects of picture content and intensity on affective physiological response

    PubMed Central

    BERNAT, EDWARD; PATRICK, CHRISTOPHER J.; BENNING, STEPHEN D.; TELLEGEN, AUKE

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of affective intensity and thematic content of foreground photographic stimuli on various physiological response systems. This was accomplished by assessing responses to pictures that varied systematically in these parameters. Along with overall effects of picture valence reported in previous work, we found effects of thematic content (i.e., specific nature of objects/events depicted) for all measures except heart rate. In addition, we found that the magnitude of startle blink, skin conductance, and corrugator muscle reactions increased with increasing affective intensity of pictures. Additionally, for these three measures, intensity effects also interacted with effects of picture content. These results indicate that stimulus parameters of intensity and thematic content exert separate—and in some cases interactive—modulatory effects on physiological reactions to emotional pictures. PMID:16629689

  11. Impact of human emotions on physiological characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partila, P.; Voznak, M.; Peterek, T.; Penhaker, M.; Novak, V.; Tovarek, J.; Mehic, Miralem; Vojtech, L.

    2014-05-01

    Emotional states of humans and their impact on physiological and neurological characteristics are discussed in this paper. This problem is the goal of many teams who have dealt with this topic. Nowadays, it is necessary to increase the accuracy of methods for obtaining information about correlations between emotional state and physiological changes. To be able to record these changes, we focused on two majority emotional states. Studied subjects were psychologically stimulated to neutral - calm and then to the stress state. Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography and blood pressure represented neurological and physiological samples that were collected during patient's stimulated conditions. Speech activity was recording during the patient was reading selected text. Feature extraction was calculated by speech processing operations. Classifier based on Gaussian Mixture Model was trained and tested using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients extracted from the patient's speech. All measurements were performed in a chamber with electromagnetic compatibility. The article discusses a method for determining the influence of stress emotional state on the human and his physiological and neurological changes.

  12. Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal among Referred and Nonreferred Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Jeff; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.; Catanzaro, Salvatore J.

    2011-01-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) and the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C) seem ideal measures for school mental health screenings, because they are theory based, psychometrically sound, and brief. This study provides descriptive information and preliminary cutoff scores in an effort to increase the…

  13. Leptin in human physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Magkos, Faidon; Brinkoetter, Mary; Sienkiewicz, Elizabeth; Dardeno, Tina A.; Kim, Sang-Yong; Hamnvik, Ole-Petter R.; Koniaris, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Leptin, discovered through positional cloning 15 years ago, is an adipocyte-secreted hormone with pleiotropic effects in the physiology and pathophysiology of energy homeostasis, endocrinology, and metabolism. Studies in vitro and in animal models highlight the potential for leptin to regulate a number of physiological functions. Available evidence from human studies indicates that leptin has a mainly permissive role, with leptin administration being effective in states of leptin deficiency, less effective in states of leptin adequacy, and largely ineffective in states of leptin excess. Results from interventional studies in humans demonstrate that leptin administration in subjects with congenital complete leptin deficiency or subjects with partial leptin deficiency (subjects with lipoatrophy, congenital or related to HIV infection, and women with hypothalamic amenorrhea) reverses the energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine and metabolic abnormalities associated with these conditions. More specifically, in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea, leptin helps restore abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-peripheral axes including the gonadal, thyroid, growth hormone, and to a lesser extent adrenal axes. Furthermore, leptin results in resumption of menses in the majority of these subjects and, in the long term, may increase bone mineral content and density, especially at the lumbar spine. In patients with congenital or HIV-related lipoatrophy, leptin treatment is also associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, concomitant with reduced visceral and ectopic fat deposition. In contrast, leptin's effects are largely absent in the obese hyperleptinemic state, probably due to leptin resistance or tolerance. Hence, another emerging area of research pertains to the discovery and/or usefulness of leptin sensitizers. Results from ongoing studies are expected to further increase our understanding of the role of leptin and the potential clinical

  14. Artificial Polychromatic Light Affects Growth and Physiology in Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Yu, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming use of artificial light on captive animals, its effect on those animals has rarely been studied experimentally. Housing animals in controlled light conditions is useful for assessing the effects of light. The chicken is one of the best-studied animals in artificial light experiments, and here, we evaluate the effect of polychromatic light with various green and blue components on the growth and physiology in chicks. The results indicate that green-blue dual light has two side-effects on chick body mass, depending on the various green to blue ratios. Green-blue dual light with depleted and medium blue component decreased body mass, whereas enriched blue component promoted body mass in chicks compared with monochromatic green- or blue spectra-treated chicks. Moreover, progressive changes in the green to blue ratios of green-blue dual light could give rise to consistent progressive changes in body mass, as suggested by polychromatic light with higher blue component resulting in higher body mass. Correlation analysis confirmed that food intake was positively correlated with final body mass in chicks (R2 = 0.7664, P = 0.0001), suggesting that increased food intake contributed to the increased body mass in chicks exposed to higher blue component. We also found that chicks exposed to higher blue component exhibited higher blood glucose levels. Furthermore, the glucose level was positively related to the final body mass (R2 = 0.6406, P = 0.0001) and food intake (R2 = 0.784, P = 0.0001). These results demonstrate that spectral composition plays a crucial role in affecting growth and physiology in chicks. Moreover, consistent changes in spectral components might cause the synchronous response of growth and physiology. PMID:25469877

  15. Effect of Light on Human Circadian Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Jeanne F.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis The circadian system in animals and humans, being near but not exactly 24-hours in cycle length, must be reset on a daily basis in order to remain in synchrony with external environmental time. This process of entrainment is achieved in most mammals through regular exposure to light and darkness. In this chapter, we review the results of studies conducted in our laboratory and others over the past 25 years in which the effects of light on the human circadian timing system were investigated. These studies have revealed, how the timing, intensity, duration, and wavelength of light affect the human biological clock. Our most recent studies also demonstrate that there is much yet to learn about the effects of light on the human circadian timing system. PMID:20161220

  16. The Virtual Physiological Human: Ten Years After.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter

    2016-07-11

    Biomedical research and clinical practice are struggling to cope with the growing complexity that the progress of health care involves. The most challenging diseases, those with the largest socioeconomic impact (cardiovascular conditions; musculoskeletal conditions; cancer; metabolic, immunity, and neurodegenerative conditions), are all characterized by a complex genotype-phenotype interaction and by a "systemic" nature that poses a challenge to the traditional reductionist approach. In 2005 a small group of researchers discussed how the vision of computational physiology promoted by the Physiome Project could be translated into clinical practice and formally proposed the term Virtual Physiological Human. Our knowledge about these diseases is fragmentary, as it is associated with molecular and cellular processes on the one hand and with tissue and organ phenotype changes (related to clinical symptoms of disease conditions) on the other. The problem could be solved if we could capture all these fragments of knowledge into predictive models and then compose them into hypermodels that help us tame the complexity that such systemic behavior involves. In 2005 this was simply not possible-the necessary methods and technologies were not available. Now, 10 years later, it seems the right time to reflect on the original vision, the results achieved so far, and what remains to be done. PMID:27420570

  17. Columbus payload requirements in human physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegemann, Juergen

    1993-03-01

    Most of the biological feedback loops in the human body are interrelated. This means that several different parameters have to be recorded simultaneously to understand the interrelationship of different subsystems within the body when fast and slow adaptation processes are to be studied. This determines the requirements for the payload in the Columbus module. In 1988 ESA asked some European scientists in different fields of physiology to provide a 'science study' for the Columbus payload requirements. Their report was the basis of a phase A study completed in December 1991, concerning the 'ANTHROLAB', a laboratory that covers all presently known research challenges in this area. Anthrolab is more or less an improvement of the Anthrorack to be flown on the German Spacelab mission D-2 and on the Columbus precursor flight E-1. Beside the present Anthrorack design, Anthrolab will also provide subelements for vestibular, neurophysiological, and biomechanical research.

  18. A dynamic model of human physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Melissa; Kaplan, Carolyn; Oran, Elaine; Boris, Jay

    2010-11-01

    To study the systems-level transport in the human body, we develop the Computational Man (CMAN): a set of one-dimensional unsteady elastic flow simulations created to model a variety of coupled physiological systems including the circulatory, respiratory, excretory, and lymphatic systems. The model systems are collapsed from three spatial dimensions and time to one spatial dimension and time by assuming axisymmetric vessel geometry and a parabolic velocity profile across the cylindrical vessels. To model the actions of a beating heart or expanding lungs, the flow is driven by user-defined changes to the equilibrium areas of the elastic vessels. The equations are then iteratively solved for pressure, area, and average velocity. The model is augmented with valves and contractions to resemble the biological structure of the different systems. CMAN will be used to track material transport throughout the human body for diagnostic and predictive purposes. Parameters will be adjustable to match those of individual patients. Validation of CMAN has used both higher-dimensional simulations of similar geometries and benchmark measurement from medical literature.

  19. Physiological basis for human autonomic rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckberg, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    Oscillations of arterial pressures, heart periods, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity have been studied intensively in recent years to explore otherwise obscure human neurophysiological mechanisms. The best-studied rhythms are those occurring at breathing frequencies. Published evidence indicates that respiratory fluctuations of muscle sympathetic nerve activity and electrocardiographic R-R intervals result primarily from the action of a central 'gate' that opens during expiration and closes during inspiration. Parallel respiratory fluctuations of arterial pressures and R-R intervals are thought to be secondary to arterial baroreflex physiology: changes in systolic pressure provoke changes in the R-R interval. However, growing evidence suggests that these parallel oscillations result from the influence of respiration on sympathetic and vagal-cardiac motoneurones rather than from baroreflex physiology. There is a rapidly growing literature on the use of mathematical models of low- and high-frequency (respiratory) R-R interval fluctuations in characterizing instantaneous 'sympathovagal balance'. The case for this approach is based primarily on measurements made with patients in upright tilt. However, the strong linear relation between such measures as the ratio of low- to high-frequency R-R interval oscillations and the angle of the tilt reflects exclusively the reductions of the vagal (high-frequency) component. As the sympathetic component does not change in tilt, the low- to high-frequency R-R interval ratio provides no proof that sympathetic activity increases. Moreover, the validity of extrapolating from measurements performed during upright tilt to measurements during supine rest has not been established. Nonetheless, it is clear that measures of heart rate variability provide important prognostic information in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is not known whether reduced heart rate variability is merely a marker for the severity of disease or a

  20. Physiological basis for human autonomic rhythms.

    PubMed

    Eckberg, D L

    2000-07-01

    Oscillations of arterial pressures, heart periods, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity have been studied intensively in recent years to explore otherwise obscure human neurophysiological mechanisms. The best-studied rhythms are those occurring at breathing frequencies. Published evidence indicates that respiratory fluctuations of muscle sympathetic nerve activity and electrocardiographic R-R intervals result primarily from the action of a central 'gate' that opens during expiration and closes during inspiration. Parallel respiratory fluctuations of arterial pressures and R-R intervals are thought to be secondary to arterial baroreflex physiology: changes in systolic pressure provoke changes in the R-R interval. However, growing evidence suggests that these parallel oscillations result from the influence of respiration on sympathetic and vagal-cardiac motoneurones rather than from baroreflex physiology. There is a rapidly growing literature on the use of mathematical models of low- and high-frequency (respiratory) R-R interval fluctuations in characterizing instantaneous 'sympathovagal balance'. The case for this approach is based primarily on measurements made with patients in upright tilt. However, the strong linear relation between such measures as the ratio of low- to high-frequency R-R interval oscillations and the angle of the tilt reflects exclusively the reductions of the vagal (high-frequency) component. As the sympathetic component does not change in tilt, the low- to high-frequency R-R interval ratio provides no proof that sympathetic activity increases. Moreover, the validity of extrapolating from measurements performed during upright tilt to measurements during supine rest has not been established. Nonetheless, it is clear that measures of heart rate variability provide important prognostic information in patients with cardiovascular diseases. It is not known whether reduced heart rate variability is merely a marker for the severity of disease or a

  1. Human Physiology in an Aquatic Environment.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, David R; Moon, Richard E; Krasney, John J; Held, Heather E; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-10-01

    Water covers over 70% of the earth, has varying depths and temperatures and contains much of the earth's resources. Head-out water immersion (HOWI) or submersion at various depths (diving) in water of thermoneutral (TN) temperature elicits profound cardiorespiratory, endocrine, and renal responses. The translocation of blood into the thorax and elevation of plasma volume by autotransfusion of fluid from cells to the vascular compartment lead to increased cardiac stroke volume and output and there is a hyperperfusion of some tissues. Pulmonary artery and capillary hydrostatic pressures increase causing a decline in vital capacity with the potential for pulmonary edema. Atrial stretch and increased arterial pressure cause reflex autonomic responses which result in endocrine changes that return plasma volume and arterial pressure to preimmersion levels. Plasma volume is regulated via a reflex diuresis and natriuresis. Hydrostatic pressure also leads to elastic loading of the chest, increasing work of breathing, energy cost, and thus blood flow to respiratory muscles. Decreases in water temperature in HOWI do not affect the cardiac output compared to TN; however, they influence heart rate and the distribution of muscle and fat blood flow. The reduced muscle blood flow results in a reduced maximal oxygen consumption. The properties of water determine the mechanical load and the physiological responses during exercise in water (e.g. swimming and water based activities). Increased hydrostatic pressure caused by submersion does not affect stroke volume; however, progressive bradycardia decreases cardiac output. During submersion, compressed gas must be breathed which introduces the potential for oxygen toxicity, narcosis due to nitrogen, and tissue and vascular gas bubbles during decompression and after may cause pain in joints and the nervous system. PMID:26426465

  2. Social interactions affecting caste development through physiological actions in termites

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Dai; Gotoh, Hiroki; Miura, Toru; Maekawa, Kiyoto

    2014-01-01

    A colony of social insects is not only an aggregation of individuals but also a functional unit. To achieve adaptive social behavior in fluctuating environmental conditions, in addition to coordination of physiological status in each individual, the whole colony is coordinated by interactions among colony members. The study on the regulation of social-insect colonies is termed “social physiology.” Termites, a major group of social insects, exhibit many interesting phenomena related to social physiology, such as mechanisms of caste regulation in a colony. In their colonies, there are different types of individuals, i.e., castes, which show distinctive phenotypes specialized in specific colony tasks. Termite castes comprise reproductives, soldiers and workers, and the caste composition can be altered depending on circumstances. For the regulation of caste compositions, interactions among individuals, i.e., social interactions, are thought to be important. In this article, we review previous studies on the adaptive meanings and those on the proximate mechanisms of the caste regulation in termites, and try to understand those comprehensively in terms of social physiology. Firstly, we summarize classical studies on the social interactions. Secondly, previous studies on the pheromone substances that mediate the caste regulatory mechanisms are overviewed. Then, we discuss the roles of a physiological factor, juvenile hormone (JH) in the regulation of caste differentiation. Finally, we introduce the achievements of molecular studies on the animal sociality (i.e., sociogenomics) in terms of social physiology. By comparing the proximate mechanisms of social physiology in termites with those in hymenopterans, we try to get insights into the general principles of social physiology in social animals. PMID:24782780

  3. Interactions between Artificial Gravity, Affected Physiological Systems, and Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2007-01-01

    Malnutrition, either by insufficient supply of some nutrients or by overfeeding has a profound effect on the health of an organism. Therefore, optimal nutrition is mandatory on Earth (1 g), in microgravity and also when applying artificial gravity to the human system. Immobilization like in microgravity or bed rest also has a profound effect on different physiological systems, like body fluid regulation, the cardiovascular, the musculoskeletal, the immunological system and others. Up to now there is no countermeasure available which is effective to counteract cardiovascular deconditioning (rf. Chapter 5) together with maintenance of the musculoskeletal system in a rather short period of time. Gravity seems therefore to be one of the main stimuli to keep these systems and application of certain duration of artificial gravity per day by centrifugation has often been proposed as a very potential countermeasure against the weakening of the physiological systems. Up to now, neither optimal intensity nor optimal length of application of artificial gravity has been studied sufficiently to recommend a certain, effective and efficient protocol. However, as shown in chapter 5 on cardiovascular system, in chapter 6 on the neuromuscular system and chapter 7 (bone and connective system) artificial gravity has a very high potential to counteract any degradation caused by immobilization. But, nutrient supply -which ideally should match the actual needs- will interact with these changes and therefore has also to be taken into account. It is well known that astronauts beside the Skylab missions- were and are still not optimally nourished during their stay in space (Bourland et al. 2000;Heer et al. 1995;Heer et al. 2000b;Smith et al. 1997;Smith & Lane 1999;Smith et al. 2001;Smith et al. 2005). It has also been described anecdotally that astronauts have lower appetites. One possible explanation could be altered taste and smell sensations during space flight, although in some early

  4. Geomagnetic Indices Variations And Human Physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2007-12-01

    A group of 86 volunteers was examined on each working day in autumn 2001 and in spring 2002. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were registered. Pulse pressure (PP) was calculated. Data about subjective psycho-physiological complaints (SPPC) were also gathered. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained. ANOVA was employed to check the significance of influence of daily amplitude of H-component of local geomagnetic field, daily planetary Ap-index and hourly planetary Dst-index on the physiological parameters examined. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors levels. Average values of SBP, DBP, PP and SPPC of the group were found to increase statistically significantly and biologically considerably with the increase of geomagnetic indices.

  5. Human Adaptation to Space: Space Physiology and Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews human physiological responses to spaceflight, and the countermeasures taken to prevent adverse effects of manned space flight. The topics include: 1) Human Spaceflight Experience; 2) Human Response to Spaceflight; 3) ISS Expeditions 1-16; 4) Countermeasure; and 5) Biomedical Data;

  6. Zinc deficiency affects physiological and anatomical characteristics in maize leaves.

    PubMed

    Mattiello, Edson M; Ruiz, Hugo A; Neves, Julio C L; Ventrella, Marília C; Araújo, Wagner L

    2015-07-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential microelement involved in several plant physiological processes. Therefore, it is important to identify Zn deficiencies promptly--before extensive damage occurs to the plant. The diagnostic tools that are used to identify Zn deficiencies are very important in areas where Zn deficiencies occur. Such diagnostic tools are vital for nutritional management and fertilizer recommendations. The current study investigated the effects of Zn deficiency on maize plants by recording a number of physiological and anatomical parameters. A Zn omission trial (from 0 to 22 days) was carried out to produce plants that had varying degrees of Zn deficiency. Typical symptoms of Zn deficiency (e.g. chlorotic stripes and purple shades on the edges and leaf sheath) appeared 16 days after the omission of Zn from nutrient solutions. As the time of Zn omission increased, there were significant decreases in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, maximal efficiency of photosystem I (evaluated by Fv/Fm), biomass (dry weight) and Zn concentrations in plants. Zinc-deficient plants also had a lower vascular bundle proportion coupled with a higher stomata density. These physiological and anatomical changes negatively impacted plant growth. Moreover, they occurred before visible symptoms of Zn deficiency were observed. Zinc concentrations were recorded for younger leaves, rather than for more mature leaves, which is usually recommended for plant analysis. The results demonstrate that the analysis of Zn in young leaves of maize is a very sensitive indicator of Zn status. PMID:26135475

  7. Physiological tremor enhanced by manoeuvres affecting the segmental stretch reflex.

    PubMed Central

    Young, R R; Hagbarth, K E

    1980-01-01

    In view of recent evidence that physiological tremor can be enhanced by positive feedback via the segmental stretch reflex, several manoeuvres and procedures were employed to enhance the finger and hand tremor of healthy subjects--the purpose being to determine if tremorogenic effects, at least in part, are due to increase efficacy of the stretch reflex servo. Mechanical events during tremor (and during voluntary or electrically induced muscle twitches) were recorded together with EMG activity from wrist and finger flexor muscles and discharges from primary spindle endings in these muscles. Physiological tremor can be enhanced not only by manoeuvres which increase the gain of segmental stretch reflexes (Jendrassik manoeuvre) but also by manoeuvres which increase the contrast in spindle firing during stretch versus shortening phases of tremor, thus enhancing reflex modulation. Effects of the latter type can be achieved by procedures which alter mechanical twitch properties of extrafusal fibres (isoproterenol infusions and fatigue) and by procedures which involve application of spindle stimuli acting preferentially during stretch phases of tremor movements (muscle vibrations). Physiological tremor, which can be temporarily enhanced by an externally applied muscle perturbation, also becomes accentuated by those small "pseudo-myoclonic" jerks which occur in all normal subjects attempting to perform slow, smooth movements. PMID:7373322

  8. Positive affect, negative affect, and physiological hyperarousal among referred and nonreferred youths.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Jeff; Joiner, Thomas E; Catanzaro, Salvatore J

    2011-12-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) and the Physiological Hyperarousal Scale for Children (PH-C) seem ideal measures for school mental health screenings, because they are theory based, psychometrically sound, and brief. This study provides descriptive information and preliminary cutoff scores in an effort to increase the practical utility of the measures. Scores on the PANAS-C Positive Affect (PA) and Negative Affect (NA) scales and the PH-C were compared for a general sample of schoolchildren (n = 226), a group of students referred for special education services (n = 83), and youths on an inpatient psychiatric unit (n = 37). Expected patterns of scores emerged for the general school and referred school samples, although only scores on the PH-C were statistically significantly different. Differences in scores between the general school and inpatient samples were significant for all 3 scales. Differences in scores between the referred school and inpatient samples were significant for the NA scale and the PH-C but not for the PA scale. In addition, we used traditional self-report measures to form groups of normal, anxious, depressed, and mixed anxious and depressed youths. Again, predicted general patterns of PA, NA and PH scores were supported, although statistical differences were not always evident. In particular, scores on the PH-C for the anxious and depressed groups were inconsistent with predictions. Possible reasons related to sample and scale issues are discussed. Finally, preliminary cutoff scores were proposed for the PANAS-C scales and the PH-C. PMID:21744972

  9. Development of a Physiological Model for the Human Spine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitnitsky, Michael; Thangam, Siva

    2011-11-01

    The intervertebral disc in a human spine is a complex structure consisting of three distinct parts: the nucleus pulposus, the annulus fibrosus, and the cartilaginous end-plates. The Nucleus Pulposus is centrally located within the disc surrounded by annulus fibrosus. It consists of a loose network of fibers and cells in a proteoglycan gel, which merges indistinctly at its outer margin with the annulus fibrosus. A viscoelastic constitutive model is proposed for the nucleus pulposus of the human spine to facilitate the development of a flexible intervetebral device designed for application in the thoraco-lumbar region of the human spine during surgery. A novel experimental set up was designed to establish application limits of the design concept for different approaches in spinal surgery. Both static and fatigue mechanical tests based on the ASTM standards provided a basis for the comparison with some existing clinically successful spinal implants designed for similar applications. Also, these mechanical tests and in-vitro comparison with normal spine provided the application limits of this design in surgery to maintain physiologic functional performance at the affected spinal level. The model is used to investigate the effect of the various design parameters on the biomechanical environment of the spine segment.

  10. Telescience testbed in human space physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Satoru; Seo, Hisao; Iwase, Satoshi; Tanaka, Masafumi; Kaneko, Sayumi; Mano, Tadaaki; Matsui, Nobuo; Foldager, Niels; Bondepetersen, Flemming; Yamashita, Masamichi; Shoji, Takatoshi; Sudoh, Hideo

    The present telescience testbed study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of physiological experimentation under restricted conditions such as during simulated weightlessness induced by using a water immersion facility, a reduced capacity of laboratory facilities, a delay and desynchronization of communication between investigator and operator, restrictions of different kinds of experiments practiced by only one operator following a limited time line and so on. The three day's experiments were carried out following the same protocols. The operators were changed every day, but was the same the first and the third day. The operators were both medical doctors but not all round experts in the physiological experimentation. The experimental objectives were: 1) ECG changes by changing water immersion levels, 2) blood pressure changes, 3) ultrasonic Echo-cardiographic changes, 4) laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry in a finger, 5) blood sampling to examine blood electrolytic and humoral changes. The effectiveness of the testbed experiment was assessed by evaluating the quality of the obtained data and estimating the friendliness of the operation of the telescience to investigators and operators.

  11. Infrasound from Wind Turbines Could Affect Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Alec N.; Kaltenbach, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Wind turbines generate low-frequency sounds that affect the ear. The ear is superficially similar to a microphone, converting mechanical sound waves into electrical signals, but does this by complex physiologic processes. Serious misconceptions about low-frequency sound and the ear have resulted from a failure to consider in detail how the ear…

  12. AN EXAMPLE OF MODEL STRUCTURE DIFFERENCES USING SENSITIVITY ANALYSES IN PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial chemical and an environmental contaminant. TCE and its metabolites may be carcinogenic and affect human health. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models that differ in compartmentalization are developed for TCE metabo...

  13. EVOKED POTENTIALS, PHYSIOLOGICAL METHODS WITH HUMAN APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of tests and test batteries have been developed and implemented for detecting potential neurotoxicity in humans. n some cases test results may suggest specific dysfunction. hile tests in laboratory animals are often used to project the potential for adverse health effect...

  14. Arthropods affecting the human eye.

    PubMed

    Panadero-Fontán, Rosario; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-02-28

    Ocular infestations by arthropods consist in the parasitization of the human eye, either directly (e.g., some insect larvae causing ophthalmomyiasis) or via arthropods feeding on lachrymal/conjunctival secretions (e.g., some eye-seeking insects, which also act as vectors of eye pathogens). In addition, demodicosis and phthiriasis may also cause eye discomfort in humans. Ophthalmomyiasis by larvae of the families Oestridae, Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae, are frequent causative agents of human ocular infestations. Over the last decades, the extensive use of macrocyclic lactones in cattle has reduced the frequency of infestations by Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum (family Oestridae), and consequently, human infestations by these species. A prompt diagnosis of ocular myiasis (e.g., by serological tests) is pivotal for positive prognoses, particularly when the larvae are not detectable during the ophthalmologic examination. Molecular diagnoses may also assist physicians and parasitologists in achieving time-efficient diagnoses of infestations by Oestridae causing myiasis. Finally, due to widespread international travel to exotic destinations, cases of myiasis are increasing in non-endemic areas, therefore requiring physicians to acquire a profound knowledge of the clinical symptoms linked to these infestations to prevent costly, inappropriate treatments or severe complications. PMID:25620292

  15. Anatomical, physiological and experimental factors affecting the bioavailability of sc administered large biotherapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Fathallah, Anas M.; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V.

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous route of administration is highly desirable for protein therapeutics. It improves patient compliance and quality of life1,2, while reducing healthcare cost2. Recent evidence also suggests that sc administration of protein therapeutics can increase tolerability to some treatments such as intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) by administering it subcutaneously (subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy SCIG), which will reduce fluctuation in plasma drug concentration3. Furthermore, sc administration may reduce the risk of systemic infections associated with iv infusion1,2. This route, however, has its challenges especially for large multi-domain proteins. Poor bioavailability and poor scalability from preclinical models are often cited. This commentary will discuss barriers to sc absorption as well as physiological and experimental factors that could affect pharmacokinetics of subcutaneously administered large protein therapeutics in preclinical models. A mechanistic pharmacokinetic model is proposed as a potential tool to address the issue of scalability of sc pharmacokinetic from preclinical models to humans PMID:25411114

  16. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  17. Non-linear leak currents affect mammalian neuron physiology

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shiwei; Hong, Sungho; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In their seminal works on squid giant axons, Hodgkin, and Huxley approximated the membrane leak current as Ohmic, i.e., linear, since in their preparation, sub-threshold current rectification due to the influence of ionic concentration is negligible. Most studies on mammalian neurons have made the same, largely untested, assumption. Here we show that the membrane time constant and input resistance of mammalian neurons (when other major voltage-sensitive and ligand-gated ionic currents are discounted) varies non-linearly with membrane voltage, following the prediction of a Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz-based passive membrane model. The model predicts that under such conditions, the time constant/input resistance-voltage relationship will linearize if the concentration differences across the cell membrane are reduced. These properties were observed in patch-clamp recordings of cerebellar Purkinje neurons (in the presence of pharmacological blockers of other background ionic currents) and were more prominent in the sub-threshold region of the membrane potential. Model simulations showed that the non-linear leak affects voltage-clamp recordings and reduces temporal summation of excitatory synaptic input. Together, our results demonstrate the importance of trans-membrane ionic concentration in defining the functional properties of the passive membrane in mammalian neurons as well as other excitable cells. PMID:26594148

  18. Molecular physiology of weight regulation in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Leibel, RL

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary considerations relating to efficiency in reproduction, and survival in hostile environments, suggest that body energy stores are sensed and actively regulated, with stronger physiological and behavioral responses to loss than gain of stored energy. Many physiological studies support this inference, and suggest that a critical axis runs between body fat and the hypothalamus. The molecular cloning of leptin and its receptor—projects based explicitly on the search for elements in this axis—confirmed the existence of this axis and provided important tools with which to understand its molecular physiology. Demonstration of the importance of this soma-brain reciprocal connection in body weight regulation in humans has been pursued using both classical genetic approaches and studies of physiological responses to experimental weight perturbation. This paper reviews the history of the rationale and methodology of the cloning of leptin (Lep) and the leptin receptor (Lepr), and describes some of the clinical investigation characterizing this axis. PMID:19136999

  19. Drawing on student knowledge in human anatomy and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slominski, Tara Nicole

    Prior to instruction, students may have developed alternative conceptions about the mechanics behind human physiology. To help students re-shape these ideas into correct reasoning, the faulty characteristics reinforcing the alternative conceptions need to made explicit. This study used student-generated drawings to expose alternative conceptions Human Anatomy and Physiology students had prior to instruction on neuron physiology. Specifically, we investigated how students thought about neuron communication across a synapse (n=355) and how neuron activity can be modified (n=311). When asked to depict basic communication between two neurons, at least 80% of students demonstrated incorrect ideas about synaptic transmission. When targeting spatial and temporal summation, only eleven students (3.5%) were able to accurately depict at least one form of summation. In response to both drawing questions, student drawings revealed multiple alternative conceptions that resulted in a deeper analysis and characterization of the wide variation of student ideas.

  20. Colonic Fermentation: A Neglected Topic in Human Physiology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeur, Jorgen; Berstad, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Human physiology textbooks tend to limit their discussion of colonic functions to those of absorbing water and electrolytes and storing waste material. However, the colon is a highly active metabolic organ, containing an exceedingly complex society of microbes. By means of fermentation, gastrointestinal microbes break down nutrients that cannot be…

  1. Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Belin, Pascal; Fecteau, Shirley; Charest, Ian; Nicastro, Nicholas; Hauser, Marc D; Armony, Jorge L

    2007-01-01

    It is presently unknown whether our response to affective vocalizations is specific to those generated by humans or more universal, triggered by emotionally matched vocalizations generated by other species. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys). Positively versus negatively valenced vocalizations from cats and monkeys elicited different cerebral responses despite the participants' inability to differentiate the valence of these animal vocalizations by overt behavioural responses. Moreover, the comparison with human non-speech affective vocalizations revealed a common response to the valence in orbitofrontal cortex, a key component on the limbic system. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms involved in processing human affective vocalizations may be recruited by heterospecific affective vocalizations at an unconscious level, supporting claims of shared emotional systems across species. PMID:18077254

  2. Linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis with human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Megan; Jessberger, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    We here review the existing evidence linking adult hippocampal neurogenesis and human brain function in physiology and disease. Furthermore, we aim to point out where evidence is missing, highlight current promising avenues of investigation, and suggest future tools and approaches to foster the link between life-long neurogenesis and human brain function. Developmental Dynamics 245:702-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890418

  3. Emotional Processing in High-Functioning Autism--Physiological Reactivity and Affective Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Poustka, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    This study examined physiological response and affective report in 10 adult individuals with autism and 10 typically developing controls. An emotion induction paradigm using stimuli from the International Affective Picture System was applied. Blood pressure, heart and self-ratings of experienced valence (pleasure), arousal and dominance (control)…

  4. Is It Worth Lying For? Physiological and Emotional Implications of Recalling Deceptive Affection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Sean M.; Booth-Butterfield, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    This investigation explored the risks of affectionate expressions in romantic relationships by examining the physiological and emotional implications of recalled expressed deceptive affectionate messages to romantic partners. Ninety-nine participants were assigned to one of three conditions: deceptive affection, honest affection, or plans with a…

  5. EPM - The European Facility for human physiology research on ISS.

    PubMed

    Rieschel, Mats; Nasca, Rosario; Junk, Peter; Gerhard, Ingo

    2002-07-01

    The European Physiology Modules (EPM) Facility is one of the four major Space Station facilities being developed within the framework of ESA's Microgravity Facilities for Columbus (MFC) programme. In order to allow a wide spectrum of physiological studies in weightlessness conditions, the facility provides the infrastructure to accommodate a variable set of scientific equipment. The initial EPM configuration supports experiments in the fields of neuroscience, bone & muscle research, cardiovascular research and metabolism. The International Space Life Science Working Group (ISLSWG) has recommended co-locating EPM with the 2 NASA Human Research Facility racks. PMID:15002609

  6. Physiological correlates and emotional specificity of human piloerection.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Piloerection is known as an indicator of strong emotional experiences. However, little is known about the physiological and emotional specificity of this psychophysiological response. In the presented study, piloerection was elicited by audio stimuli taken from music and film episodes. The physiological response accompanying the incidence of piloerection was recorded with respect to electrodermal, cardiovascular and respiratory measures and compared to a matched control condition. The employment of an optical recording system allowed for a direct and objective assessment of visible piloerection. The occurrence of piloerection was primarily accompanied by an increase of phasic electrodermal activity and increased respiration depth as compared to a matched control condition. This physiological response pattern is discussed in the context of dominant theories of human piloerection. Consideration of all available evidence suggests that emotional piloerection represents a valuable indicator of the state of being moved or touched. PMID:21276827

  7. Physiological correlates and emotional specificity of human piloerection

    PubMed Central

    Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Piloerection is known as an indicator of strong emotional experiences. However, little is known about the physiological and emotional specificity of this psychophysiological response. In the presented study, piloerection was elicited by audio stimuli taken from music and film episodes. The physiological response accompanying the incidence of piloerection was recorded with respect to electrodermal, cardiovascular and respiratory measures and compared to a matched control condition. The employment of an optical recording system allowed for a direct and objective assessment of visible piloerection. The occurrence of piloerection was primarily accompanied by an increase of phasic electrodermal activity and increased respiration depth as compared to a matched control condition. This physiological response pattern is discussed in the context of dominant theories of human piloerection. Consideration of all available evidence suggests that emotional piloerection represents a valuable indicator of the state of being moved or touched. PMID:21276827

  8. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host–parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife.

  9. How do humans affect wildlife nematodes?

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Sara B; Lafferty, Kevin D

    2015-05-01

    Human actions can affect wildlife and their nematode parasites. Species introductions and human-facilitated range expansions can create new host-parasite interactions. Novel hosts can introduce parasites and have the potential to both amplify and dilute nematode transmission. Furthermore, humans can alter existing nematode dynamics by changing host densities and the abiotic conditions that affect larval parasite survival. Human impacts on wildlife might impair parasites by reducing the abundance of their hosts; however, domestic animal production and complex life cycles can maintain transmission even when wildlife becomes rare. Although wildlife nematodes have many possible responses to human actions, understanding host and parasite natural history, and the mechanisms behind the changing disease dynamics might improve disease control in the few cases where nematode parasitism impacts wildlife. PMID:25680855

  10. Human Physiological Responses to Acute and Chronic Cold Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocks, Jodie M.; Taylor, Nigel A. S.; Tipton, Michael J.; Greenleaf, John E.

    2001-01-01

    When inadequately protected humans are exposed to acute cold, excessive body heat is lost to the environment and unless heat production is increased and heat loss attenuated, body temperature will decrease. The primary physiological responses to counter the reduction in body temperature include marked cutaneous vasoconstriction and increased metabolism. These responses, and the hazards associated with such exposure, are mediated by a number of factors which contribute to heat production and loss. These include the severity and duration of the cold stimulus; exercise intensity; the magnitude of the metabolic response; and individual characteristics such as body composition, age, and gender. Chronic exposure to a cold environment, both natural and artificial, results in physiological alterations leading to adaptation. Three quite different, but not necessarily exclusive, patterns of human cold adaptation have been reported: metabolic, hypothermic, and insulative. Cold adaptation has also been associated with an habituation response, in which there is a desensitization, or damping, of the normal response to a cold stress. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the human physiological and pathological responses to cold exposure. Particular attention is directed to the factors contributing to heat production and heat loss during acute cold stress, and the ability of humans to adapt to cold environments.

  11. Sunspot Dynamics Are Reflected in Human Physiology and Pathophysiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrushesky, William J. M.; Sothern, Robert B.; Du-Quiton, Jovelyn; Quiton, Dinah Faith T.; Rietveld, Wop; Boon, Mathilde E.

    2011-03-01

    Periodic episodes of increased sunspot activity (solar electromagnetic storms) occur with 10-11 and 5-6 year periodicities and may be associated with measurable biological events. We investigated whether this sunspot periodicity characterized the incidence of Pap smear-determined cervical epithelial histopathologies and human physiologic functions. From January 1983 through December 2003, monthly averages were obtained for solar flux and sunspot numbers; six infectious, premalignant and malignant changes in the cervical epithelium from 1,182,421 consecutive, serially independent, screening Pap smears (59°9"N, 4°29"E); and six human physiologic functions of a healthy man (oral temperature, pulse, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respiration, and peak expiratory flow), which were measured ∼5 times daily during ∼34,500 self-measurement sessions (44°56"N, 93°8"W). After determining that sunspot numbers and solar flux, which were not annually rhythmic, occurred with a prominent 10-year and a less-prominent 5.75-year periodicity during this 21-year study span, each biological data set was analyzed with the same curve-fitting procedures. All six annually rhythmic Pap smear-detected infectious, premalignant and malignant cervical epithelial pathologies showed strong 10-year and weaker 5.75-year cycles, as did all six self-measured, annually rhythmic, physiologic functions. The phases (maxima) for the six histopathologic findings and five of six physiologic measurements were very near, or within, the first two quarters following the 10-year solar maxima. These findings add to the growing evidence that solar magnetic storm periodicities are mirrored by cyclic phase-locked rhythms of similar period length or lengths in human physiology and pathophysiology.

  12. Human thermal physiological and psychological responses under different heating environments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaojun; Ning, Haoran; Ji, Yuchen; Hou, Juan; He, Yanan

    2015-08-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that many residents of severely cold areas of China who use floor heating (FH) systems feel warmer but drier compared to those using radiant heating (RH) systems. However, this phenomenon has not been verified experimentally. In order to validate the empirical hypothesis, and research the differences of human physiological and psychological responses in these two asymmetrical heating environments, an experiment was designed to mimic FH and RH systems. The subjects participating in the experiment were volunteer college-students. During the experiment, the indoor air temperature, air speed, relative humidity, globe temperature, and inner surface temperatures were measured, and subjects' heart rate, blood pressure and skin temperatures were recorded. The subjects were required to fill in questionnaires about their thermal responses during testing. The results showed that the subjects' skin temperatures, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly affected by the type of heating environment. Ankle temperature had greatest impact on overall thermal comfort relative to other body parts, and a slightly cool FH condition was the most pleasurable environment for sedentary subjects. The overall thermal sensation, comfort and acceptability of FH were higher than that of RH. However, the subjects of FH felt drier than that of RH, although the relative humidity in FH environments was higher than that of the RH environment. In future environmental design, the thermal comfort of the ankles should be scrutinized, and a FH cool condition is recommended as the most comfortable thermal environment for office workers. Consequently, large amounts of heating energy could be saved in this area in the winter. The results of this study may lead to more efficient energy use for office or home heating systems. PMID:26267512

  13. Effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Skylab and Spacelab data on changes occurring in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. The combined results for all three Spacelab studies show that hyponatremia developed within 20 h after the onset of weightlessness and continued throughout the flights, and hypokalemia developed by 40 h. Antidiuretic hormone was increased in plasma throughout the flights. Aldosterone decreased by 40 h, but after 7 days it had reached preflight levels.

  14. Nutrition and human physiological adaptations to space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, H. W.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Putcha, L.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Space flight provides a model for the study of healthy individuals undergoing unique stresses. This review focuses on how physiological adaptations to weightlessness may affect nutrient and food requirements in space. These adaptations include reductions in body water and plasma volume, which affect the renal and cardiovascular systems and thereby fluid and electrolyte requirements. Changes in muscle mass and function may affect requirements for energy, protein and amino acids. Changes in bone mass lead to increased urinary calcium concentrations, which may increase the risk of forming renal stones. Space motion sickness may influence putative changes in gastro-intestinal-hepatic function; neurosensory alterations may affect smell and taste. Some or all of these effects may be ameliorated through the use of specially designed dietary countermeasures.

  15. Nutrition and human physiological adaptations to space flight.

    PubMed

    Lane, H W; LeBlanc, A D; Putcha, L; Whitson, P A

    1993-11-01

    Space flight provides a model for the study of healthy individuals undergoing unique stresses. This review focuses on how physiological adaptations to weightlessness may affect nutrient and food requirements in space. These adaptations include reductions in body water and plasma volume, which affect the renal and cardiovascular systems and thereby fluid and electrolyte requirements. Changes in muscle mass and function may affect requirements for energy, protein and amino acids. Changes in bone mass lead to increased urinary calcium concentrations, which may increase the risk of forming renal stones. Space motion sickness may influence putative changes in gastro-intestinal-hepatic function; neurosensory alterations may affect smell and taste. Some or all of these effects may be ameliorated through the use of specially designed dietary countermeasures. PMID:8237860

  16. Thermoregulatory responses in exercising rats: methodological aspects and relevance to human physiology

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Pires, Washington; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Hudson, Alexandre Sérvulo Ribeiro; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Damasceno, William Coutinho; Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Rats are used worldwide in experiments that aim to investigate the physiological responses induced by a physical exercise session. Changes in body temperature regulation, which may affect both the performance and the health of exercising rats, are evident among these physiological responses. Despite the universal use of rats in biomedical research involving exercise, investigators often overlook important methodological issues that hamper the accurate measurement of clear thermoregulatory responses. Moreover, much debate exists regarding whether the outcome of rat experiments can be extrapolated to human physiology, including thermal physiology. Herein, we described the impact of different exercise intensities, durations and protocols and environmental conditions on running-induced thermoregulatory changes. We focused on treadmill running because this type of exercise allows for precise control of the exercise intensity and the measurement of autonomic thermoeffectors associated with heat production and loss. Some methodological issues regarding rat experiments, such as the sites for body temperature measurements and the time of day at which experiments are performed, were also discussed. In addition, we analyzed the influence of a high body surface area-to-mass ratio and limited evaporative cooling on the exercise-induced thermoregulatory responses of running rats and then compared these responses in rats to those observed in humans. Collectively, the data presented in this review represent a reference source for investigators interested in studying exercise thermoregulation in rats. In addition, the present data indicate that the thermoregulatory responses of exercising rats can be extrapolated, with some important limitations, to human thermal physiology. PMID:27227066

  17. Thermoregulatory responses in exercising rats: methodological aspects and relevance to human physiology.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Pires, Washington; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Hudson, Alexandre Sérvulo Ribeiro; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Damasceno, William Coutinho; Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Rats are used worldwide in experiments that aim to investigate the physiological responses induced by a physical exercise session. Changes in body temperature regulation, which may affect both the performance and the health of exercising rats, are evident among these physiological responses. Despite the universal use of rats in biomedical research involving exercise, investigators often overlook important methodological issues that hamper the accurate measurement of clear thermoregulatory responses. Moreover, much debate exists regarding whether the outcome of rat experiments can be extrapolated to human physiology, including thermal physiology. Herein, we described the impact of different exercise intensities, durations and protocols and environmental conditions on running-induced thermoregulatory changes. We focused on treadmill running because this type of exercise allows for precise control of the exercise intensity and the measurement of autonomic thermoeffectors associated with heat production and loss. Some methodological issues regarding rat experiments, such as the sites for body temperature measurements and the time of day at which experiments are performed, were also discussed. In addition, we analyzed the influence of a high body surface area-to-mass ratio and limited evaporative cooling on the exercise-induced thermoregulatory responses of running rats and then compared these responses in rats to those observed in humans. Collectively, the data presented in this review represent a reference source for investigators interested in studying exercise thermoregulation in rats. In addition, the present data indicate that the thermoregulatory responses of exercising rats can be extrapolated, with some important limitations, to human thermal physiology. PMID:27227066

  18. Introduction to anatomy and physiology of human conception.

    PubMed

    Kably, A; Barroso, G

    2000-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological concepts of human reproduction currently in use have been developed over generations, following clinical and basic research guidelines that preceded modern technology. The application of new forms of research over recent decades, as in the case of molecular biology, has contributed to a more in-depth and accurate understanding of the interaction of each of the inter- and intracellular structures in the mechanics of human physiology. On the other hand the use of non-human primate models has provided invaluable information in the reproductive field. The information obtained through models and techniques that have changed over time has led to concepts that continue to have the same validity as when they were first described. The principal objective of this review is to develop an understanding of the physiological processes applied in the anatomical sphere, taking as a reference the fact that it is impossible to understand reproductive mechanics in terms of static phenomena, but rather they should be understood as dynamic and changing processes adaptable to the conditions of each individual's surroundings. PMID:12804191

  19. DigitalHuman (DH): An Integrative Mathematical Model ofHuman Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, Robert L.; Summers, Richard L.; lIescu, Radu; Esters, Joyee; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical models and simulation are important tools in discovering the key causal relationships governing physiological processes and improving medical intervention when physiological complexity is a central issue. We have developed a model of integrative human physiology called DigitalHuman (DH) consisting of -5000 variables modeling human physiology describing cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, endocrine, neural and metabolic physiology. Users can view time-dependent solutions and interactively introduce perturbations by altering numerical parameters to investigate new hypotheses. The variables, parameters and quantitative relationships as well as all other model details are described in XML text files. All aspects of the model, including the mathematical equations describing the physiological processes are written in XML open source, text-readable files. Model structure is based upon empirical data of physiological responses documented within the peer-reviewed literature. The model can be used to understand proposed physiological mechanisms and physiological interactions that may not be otherwise intUitively evident. Some of the current uses of this model include the analyses of renal control of blood pressure, the central role of the liver in creating and maintaining insulin resistance, and the mechanisms causing orthostatic hypotension in astronauts. Additionally the open source aspect of the modeling environment allows any investigator to add detailed descriptions of human physiology to test new concepts. The model accurately predicts both qualitative and more importantly quantitative changes in clinically and experimentally observed responses. DigitalHuman provides scientists a modeling environment to understand the complex interactions of integrative physiology. This research was supported by.NIH HL 51971, NSF EPSCoR, and NASA

  20. Using a Combined Approach of Guided Inquiry & Direct Instruction to Explore How Physiology Affects Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machtinger, Erika T.

    2014-01-01

    Hands-on activities with live organisms allow students to actively explore scientific investigation. Here, I present activities that combine guided inquiry with direct instruction and relate how nutrition affects the physiology and behavior of the common housefly. These experiments encourage student involvement in the formulation of experimental…

  1. How Do Humans Control Physiological Strain during Strenuous Endurance Exercise?

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Lucia, Alejandro; deKoning, Jos J.; Foster, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Background Distance running performance is a viable model of human locomotion. Methodology/Principal Findings To evaluate the physiologic strain during competitions ranging from 5–100 km, we evaluated heart rate (HR) records of competitive runners (n = 211). We found evidence that: 1) physiologic strain (% of maximum HR (%HRmax)) increased in proportional manner relative to distance completed, and was regulated by variations in running pace; 2) the %HRmax achieved decreased with relative distance; 3) slower runners had similar %HRmax response within a racing distance compared to faster runners, and despite differences in pace, the profile of %HRmax during a race was very similar in runners of differing ability; and 4) in cases where there was a discontinuity in the running performance, there was evidence that physiologic effort was maintained for some time even after the pace had decreased. Conclusions/Significance The overall results suggest that athletes are actively regulating their relative physiologic strain during competition, although there is evidence of poor regulation in the case of competitive failures. PMID:18698405

  2. Thermogenic potential and physiological relevance of human epicardial adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chechi, K; Richard, D

    2015-01-01

    Epicardial adipose tissue is a unique fat depot around the heart that shares a close anatomic proximity and vascular supply with the myocardium and coronary arteries. Its accumulation around the heart, measured using various imaging modalities, has been associated with the onset and progression of coronary artery disease in humans. Epicardial adipose tissue is also the only fat depot around the heart that is known to express uncoupling protein 1 at both mRNA and protein levels in the detectable range. Recent advances have further indicated that human epicardial fat exhibits beige fat-like features. Here we provide an overview of the physiological and pathophysiological relevance of human epicardial fat, and further discuss whether its thermogenic properties can serve as a target for the therapeutic management of coronary heart disease in humans. PMID:27152172

  3. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  4. An overview of artificial gravity. [effects on human performance and physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The unique characteristics of artificial gravity that affect human performance and physiology in an artificial gravity environment are reviewed. The rate at which these unique characteristics change decreases very rapidly with increasing radius of a rotating vehicle used to produce artificial gravity. Reducing their influence on human performance or physiology by increasing radius becomes a situation of very rapidly diminishing returns. A review of several elements of human performance has developed criteria relative to the sundry characteristics of artificial gravity. A compilation of these criteria indicates that the maximum acceptable rate of rotation, leg heaviness while walking, and material handling are the factors that define the minimum acceptable radius. The ratio of Coriolis force to artificial weight may also be significant. Based on current knowledge and assumptions for the various criteria, a minimum radius between 15.2 and 16.8 m seems desirable.

  5. Is Lutein a Physiologically Important Ligand for Transthyretin in Humans?

    SciTech Connect

    Liwei Chen

    2003-05-31

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are the only carotenoids accumulated in the macula of the human retina and are known as the macular pigments (MP). These pigments account for the yellow color of the macula and appear to play an important role in protecting against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The uptake of lutein and zeaxanthin in human eyes is remarkably specific. It is likely that specific transport or binding proteins are involved. The objective is to determine whether transthyretin (TTR) is a transport protein in human plasma and could thus deliver lutein from the blood to the retina. In this study, they used a biosynthetic {sup 13}C-lutein tracer and gas chromatography-combustion interfaced-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GCC-IRMS) to gain the requisite sensitivity to detect the minute amounts of lutein expected as a physiological ligand for human transthyretin. The biosynthetic {sup 13}C-labeled lutein tracer was purified from algae. Healthy women (n = 4) each ingested 1 mg of {sup 13}C-labeled lutein daily for 3 days and a blood sample was collected 24 hours after the final dose. Plasma TTR was isolated by retinol-binding protein (RBP)-sepharose affinity chromatography and extracted with chloroform. The {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio in the TTR extract was measured by GCC-IRMS. There was no {sup 13}C-lutein enrichment in the pure TTR extract. This result indicated that lutein is not associated with TTR in human plasma after ingestion in physiological amounts. Some hydrophobic compounds with yellow color may bind to human TTR in the plasma. However, this association needs to be further proved by showing specificity. The study provides a new approach for carotenoid-binding protein studies using a stable isotope tracer method combined with the high precision of GCC-IRMS. The mechanism of selective transport, uptake, and accumulation of lutein in human macula remain to be determined.

  6. Humans Process Dog and Human Facial Affect in Similar Ways

    PubMed Central

    Schirmer, Annett; Seow, Cui Shan; Penney, Trevor B.

    2013-01-01

    Humans share aspects of their facial affect with other species such as dogs. Here we asked whether untrained human observers with and without dog experience are sensitive to these aspects and recognize dog affect with better-than-chance accuracy. Additionally, we explored similarities in the way observers process dog and human expressions. The stimulus material comprised naturalistic facial expressions of pet dogs and human infants obtained through positive (i.e., play) and negative (i.e., social isolation) provocation. Affect recognition was assessed explicitly in a rating task using full face images and images cropped to reveal the eye region only. Additionally, affect recognition was assessed implicitly in a lexical decision task using full faces as primes and emotional words and pseudowords as targets. We found that untrained human observers rated full face dog expressions from the positive and negative condition more accurately than would be expected by chance. Although dog experience was unnecessary for this effect, it significantly facilitated performance. Additionally, we observed a range of similarities between human and dog face processing. First, the facial expressions of both species facilitated lexical decisions to affectively congruous target words suggesting that their processing was equally automatic. Second, both dog and human negative expressions were recognized from both full and cropped faces. Third, female observers were more sensitive to affective information than were male observers and this difference was comparable for dog and human expressions. Together, these results extend existing work on cross-species similarities in facial emotions and provide evidence that these similarities are naturally exploited when humans interact with dogs. PMID:24023954

  7. The human cerebellum: a review of physiologic neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Roostaei, Tina; Nazeri, Arash; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Minagar, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    The cerebellum resides in the posterior cranial fossa dorsal to the brainstem and has diverse connections to the cerebrum, brain stem, and spinal cord. It is anatomically and physiologically divided into distinct functional compartments and is composed of highly regular arrays of neuronal units, each sharing the same basic cerebellar microcircuitry. Its circuitry is critically involved in motor control and motor learning, and its role in nonmotor cognitive and affective functions is becoming increasingly recognized. This article describes the cerebellar gross and histologic neuroanatomy in relation to its function, and the relevance of cerebellar circuitry and firing patterns to motor learning. PMID:25439284

  8. Physiological effects of light on the human circadian pacemaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanahan, T. L.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    The physiology of the human circadian pacemaker and its influence and on the daily organization of sleep, endocrine and behavioral processes is an emerging interest in science and medicine. Understanding the development, organization and fundamental properties underlying the circadian timing system may provide insight for the application of circadian principles to the practice of clinical medicine, both diagnostically (interpretation of certain clinical tests are dependent on time of day) and therapeutically (certain pharmacological responses vary with the time of day). The light-dark cycle is the most powerful external influence acting upon the human circadian pacemaker. It has been shown that timed exposure to light can both synchronize and reset the phase of the circadian pacemaker in a predictable manner. The emergence of detectable circadian rhythmicity in the neonatal period is under investigation (as described elsewhere in this issue). Therefore, the pattern of light exposure provided in the neonatal intensive care setting has implications. One recent study identified differences in both amount of sleep time and weight gain in infants maintained in a neonatal intensive care environment that controlled the light-dark cycle. Unfortunately, neither circadian phase nor the time of day has been considered in most clinical investigations. Further studies with knowledge of principles characterizing the human circadian timing system, which governs a wide array of physiological processes, are required to integrate these findings with the practice of clinical medicine.

  9. Human Physiology and the Environment in Health and Disease: Readings from Scientific American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This anthology of articles is designed to supplement standard texts for courses in human physiology, environmental physiology, anatomy and physiology, pathobiology, general biology, and environmental medicine. It focuses on the influences of the external environment on the body, the physiological responses to environmental challenges, and the ways…

  10. The dual origins of affect in nightmares: the roles of physiological homeostasis and memory.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Georg

    2006-01-01

    Strong negative affect is a key and distressing ingredient of nightmares. Affect in nightmares arises either from the new generation of affective states due to physiological imbalances that occur during sleep or from the reactivation of affect-laden memories. The disruption of physiological balance produces a negative hedonic state, restoration of this balance produces a positive hedonic state, and when balance is attained, a neutral hedonic state results. As a result, hedonic states provoke behaviors in defense of homeostasis, then guide and terminate them. When, due to inadvertent behavior, a pronounced disruption of homeostasis occurs after sleep onset, the resultant strong negative hedonic state is likely to precipitate a nightmare and may lead to awakening. During normal wakefulness, associations of the interplay between stimuli and behaviors that disrupt homeostasis, those that restore homeostasis, and the affective states generated in the process, are committed to memory as affecto-cognitive ensembles. Sleep serves to build or rebuild neural architecture to effect development or to compensate for use- or disease-related wear (e.g. repair oxidative damage). Dreaming serves to synchronize or resynchronize such modified neural circuits with each other and those not modified. Hence, during dreaming, affecto-cognitive ensembles may get reactivated as part of the synchronization process. Where such an ensemble contains strong negative affect (i.e., due to strong affect generated during the original experience), a nightmare may be precipitated. Although both can occur throughout life, the latter type of nightmare is more likely in adults and the former in young children. For the latter memory-based behavioral therapy and for the former education and care are expected to be useful. For both types of nightmare, because strong negative affect is deemed dependent on noradrenergic outflow from the locus coeruleus, the administration of alpha-adrenergic antagonists will

  11. Design and fabrication of a sensor integrated MEMS/NANO-skin system for human physiological response measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Hongjie; Lin, Yingzi

    2010-04-01

    Human state in human-machine systems highly affects the system performance, and should be monitored. Physiological cues are more suitable for monitoring the human state in human-machine system. This study was focused on developing a new sensing system, i.e. NANO-Skin, to non-intrusively measure physiological cues from human-machine contact surfaces for human state recognition. The first part was to analyze the relation between human state and physiological cues. Generally, heart rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, operating force, blood alcohol concentration, sweat rate, and electromyography have close relation with human state, and can be measured from human skin. The second part was to compare common sensors, MEMS sensors, and NANO sensors. It was found that MEMS sensors and NANO sensors can offer unique contributions to the development of NANO-Skin. The third part was to discuss the design and manufacture of NANO-Skin. The NANO-Skin involves five components, the flexible substrate, sensors, special integrated circuit, interconnection between sensors and special integrated circuit, and protection layer. Experiments were performed to verify the measurement accuracy of NANO-Skin. It is feasible to use NANO-Skins to non-intrusively measure physiological cues from human-machine contact surfaces for human state recognition.

  12. Modeling physiological and pathological human neurogenesis in the dish

    PubMed Central

    Broccoli, Vania; Giannelli, Serena G.; Mazzara, Pietro G.

    2014-01-01

    New advances in directing the neuronal differentiation of human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs, abbreviation intended to convey both categories of pluripotent stem cells) have promoted the development of culture systems capable of modeling early neurogenesis and neural specification at some of their critical milestones. The hPSC-derived neural rosette can be considered the in vitro counterpart of the developing neural tube, since both structures share a virtually equivalent architecture and related functional properties. Epigenetic stimulation methods can modulate the identity of the rosette neural progenitors in order to generate authentic neuronal subtypes, as well as a full spectrum of neural crest derivatives. The intrinsic capacity of induced pluripotent cell-derived neural tissue to self-organize has become fully apparent with the emergence of innovative in vitro systems that are able to shape the neuronal differentiation of hPSCs into organized tissues that develop in three dimensions. However, significant hurdles remain that must be completely solved in order to facilitate the use of hPSCs in modeling (e.g., late-onset disorders) or in building therapeutic strategies for cell replacement. In this direction, new procedures have been established to promote the maturation and functionality of hPSC-derived neurons. Meanwhile, new methods to accelerate the aging of in vitro differentiating cells are still in development. hPSC-based technology has matured enough to offer a significant and reliable model system for early and late neurogenesis that could be extremely informative for the study of the physiological and pathological events that occur during this process. Thus, full exploitation of this cellular system can provide a better understanding of the physiological events that shape human brain structures, as well as a solid platform to investigate the pathological mechanisms at the root of human diseases. PMID:25104921

  13. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  14. Zoonotic helminths affecting the human eye

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Nowaday, zoonoses are an important cause of human parasitic diseases worldwide and a major threat to the socio-economic development, mainly in developing countries. Importantly, zoonotic helminths that affect human eyes (HIE) may cause blindness with severe socio-economic consequences to human communities. These infections include nematodes, cestodes and trematodes, which may be transmitted by vectors (dirofilariasis, onchocerciasis, thelaziasis), food consumption (sparganosis, trichinellosis) and those acquired indirectly from the environment (ascariasis, echinococcosis, fascioliasis). Adult and/or larval stages of HIE may localize into human ocular tissues externally (i.e., lachrymal glands, eyelids, conjunctival sacs) or into the ocular globe (i.e., intravitreous retina, anterior and or posterior chamber) causing symptoms due to the parasitic localization in the eyes or to the immune reaction they elicit in the host. Unfortunately, data on HIE are scant and mostly limited to case reports from different countries. The biology and epidemiology of the most frequently reported HIE are discussed as well as clinical description of the diseases, diagnostic considerations and video clips on their presentation and surgical treatment. Homines amplius oculis, quam auribus credunt Seneca Ep 6,5 Men believe their eyes more than their ears PMID:21429191

  15. Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.

    1989-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to elucidate the influence of four constant ambient temperatures (20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C) on the performance and physiological reactions of male commercial broiler chicks from 3 to 7 weeks of age. A 12 h light-dark cycle was operated, while relative humidity and air circulation were not controlled. Exposure of broiler chickens to the 20°, 25°, 30° and 35°C treatments showed highly significant ( P<0.0001) depression in growth rate, food intake and efficiency of food utilization, and a significant increase in water consumption for the 30° and 35°C groups. Mortality was, however, not affected by the temperature treatments. Changes in physiological status, such as increased rectal temperatures, decreased concentration of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and total plasma protein were observed in birds housed in the higher temperature (30° and 35°C) environments. Moreover, in these broiler chickens, there was an increased blood glucose concentration and a decreased thyroid gland weight. These results indicate that continuous exposure of broiler chickens to high ambient temperatures markedly affects their performance and physiological response.

  16. Examination of Duct Physiology in the Human Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Dixie; Gomberawalla, Ameer; Gordon, Eva J.; Tondre, Julie; Nejad, Mitra; Nguyen, Tinh; Pogoda, Janice M.; Rao, Jianyu; Chatterton, Robert; Henning, Susanne; Love, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The human breast comprise several ductal systems, or lobes, which contain a small amount of fluid containing cells, hormones, proteins and metabolites. The complex physiology of these ducts is likely a contributing factor to the development of breast cancer, especially given that the vast majority of breast cancers begin in a single lobular unit. Methods We examined the levels of total protein, progesterone, estradiol, estrone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and macrophages in ductal fluid samples obtained from 3 ducts each in 78 women, sampled twice over a 6 month period. Samples were processed for both cytological and molecular analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficients and mixed models were utilized to identify significant data. Results We found that the levels of these ductal fluid components were generally uncorrelated among ducts within a single breast and over time, suggesting that each lobe within the breast has a distinct physiology. However, we also found that estradiol was more correlated in women who were nulliparous or produced nipple aspirate fluid. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that the microenvironment of any given lobular unit is unique to that individual unit, findings that may provide clues about the initiation and development of ductal carcinomas. PMID:27073976

  17. User Interactive Software for Analysis of Human Physiological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William; Taylor, Bruce C.; Acharya, Soumydipta

    2006-01-01

    Ambulatory physiological monitoring has been used to study human health and performance in space and in a variety of Earth-based environments (e.g., military aircraft, armored vehicles, small groups in isolation, and patients). Large, multi-channel data files are typically recorded in these environments, and these files often require the removal of contaminated data prior to processing and analyses. Physiological data processing can now be performed with user-friendly, interactive software developed by the Ames Psychophysiology Research Laboratory. This software, which runs on a Windows platform, contains various signal-processing routines for both time- and frequency- domain data analyses (e.g., peak detection, differentiation and integration, digital filtering, adaptive thresholds, Fast Fourier Transform power spectrum, auto-correlation, etc.). Data acquired with any ambulatory monitoring system that provides text or binary file format are easily imported to the processing software. The application provides a graphical user interface where one can manually select and correct data artifacts utilizing linear and zero interpolation and adding trigger points for missed peaks. Block and moving average routines are also provided for data reduction. Processed data in numeric and graphic format can be exported to Excel. This software, PostProc (for post-processing) requires the Dadisp engineering spreadsheet (DSP Development Corp), or equivalent, for implementation. Specific processing routines were written for electrocardiography, electroencephalography, electromyography, blood pressure, skin conductance level, impedance cardiography (cardiac output, stroke volume, thoracic fluid volume), temperature, and respiration

  18. Has cervical smooth muscle any physiological role in the human?

    PubMed

    Bryman, I; Norström, A; Lindblom, B

    1985-01-01

    Strips of human cervical tissue were obtained by needle biopsy and contractile activity was registered isometrically in a tissue chamber perfused by Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer. The most frequently encountered pattern of contractile activity was high frequency-short duration. Prostaglandin (PG)E2, PGI2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha had an inhibitory effect on the muscular activity. Cervical muscle from pregnant women was more sensitive to PGE2 than specimens from non-pregnant women. PGF2 alpha had no apparent effect on cervical contractility in non-pregnant and early pregnant patients. In late pregnancy, however, PGF2 alpha inhibited muscle contractions. The present results point to a physiological role of the cervical muscles for the control of cervical competence during pregnancy. The inhibitory effect of PGs on the muscle activity may promote cervical dilatation and retraction. PMID:3893038

  19. Physiological and biomechanical considerations for a human Mars mission.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Evolving on Earth has made humans perfectly adapted, both physiologically and biomechanically, to its gravity and atmospheric conditions. Leaving the Earth and its protective environment, therefore, results in the degradation of a number of human systems. Long-duration stays on the International Space Station (ISS) are accompanied by significant effects on crew's cardiovascular, vestibular and musculoskeletal systems. Bone loss and muscle atrophy are experienced at a rate of 1-3% and 5% per month respectively, while VO2 (oxygen consumption) measurements are reduced by approximately 25% after a few weeks in space. If these figures are simply extrapolated, a future human mission to Mars will be seriously jeopardised and crews may find they cross the threshold of bone and muscle loss and aerobic fitness--ultimately with them being unable to return to Earth. When arriving on Mars, considerable biomechanical alterations will also occur. Optimum walking speeds will be approximately 30% lower and transitioning from a walk to a run will occur at a speed 25% slower. Peak vertical forces will be reduced by as much as 50%, while stride length, stride time and airborne time will all increase. On Mars, half as much energy will be required to travel the equivalent distance on Earth and it will be 65% more economical to run rather than to walk. PMID:15852539

  20. Physiological and Biomechanical Considerations for a Human Mars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkey, A.

    Evolving on Earth has made humans perfectly adapted, both physiologically and biomechanically, to its gravity and atmospheric conditions. Leaving the Earth and its protective environment, therefore, results in the degradation of a number of human systems. Long-duration stays on the International Space Station (ISS) are accompanied by significant effects on crew's cardiovascular, vestibular and musculoskeletal systems. Bone loss and muscle atrophy are experienced at a rate of 1-3% and 5% per month respectively, while VO2 (oxygen consumption) measurements are reduced by approximately 25% after a few weeks in space. If these figures are simply extrapolated, a future human mission to Mars will be seriously jeopardised and crews may find they cross the threshold of bone and muscle loss and aerobic fitness - ultimately with them being unable to return to Earth. When arriving on Mars, considerable biomechanical alterations will also occur. Optimum walking speeds will be approximately 30% lower and transitioning from a walk to a run will occur at a speed 25% slower. Peak vertical forces will be reduced by as much as 50%, while stride length, stride time and airborne time will all increase. On Mars, half as much energy will be required to travel the equivalent distance on Earth and it will be 65% more economical to run rather than to walk.

  1. Anatomical and physiological development of the human inner ear.

    PubMed

    Lim, Rebecca; Brichta, Alan M

    2016-08-01

    We describe the development of the human inner ear with the invagination of the otic vesicle at 4 weeks gestation (WG), the growth of the semicircular canals from 5 WG, and the elongation and coiling of the cochlea at 10 WG. As the membranous labyrinth takes shape, there is a concomitant development of the sensory neuroepithelia and their associated structures within. This review details the growth and differentiation of the vestibular and auditory neuroepithelia, including synaptogenesis, the expression of stereocilia and kinocilia, and innervation of hair cells by afferent and efferent nerve fibres. Along with development of essential sensory structures we outline the formation of crucial accessory structures of the vestibular system - the cupula and otolithic membrane and otoconia as well as the three cochlea compartments and the tectorial membrane. Recent molecular studies have elaborated on classical anatomical studies to characterize the development of prosensory and sensory regions of the fetal human cochlea using the transcription factors, PAX2, MAF-B, SOX2, and SOX9. Further advances are being made with recent physiological studies that are beginning to describe when hair cells become functionally active during human gestation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:26900072

  2. Human freezing in response to affective films.

    PubMed

    Hagenaars, Muriel A; Roelofs, Karin; Stins, John F

    2014-01-01

    Human freezing has been objectively assessed using a passive picture viewing paradigm as an analog for threat. These results should be replicated for other stimuli in order to determine their stability and generalizability. Affective films are used frequently to elicit affective responses, but it is unknown whether they also elicit freezing-like defense responses. To test whether this is the case, 50 participants watched neutral, pleasant and unpleasant film fragments while standing on a stabilometric platform and wearing a polar band to assess heart rate. Freezing-like responses (indicated by overall reduced body sway and heart rate deceleration) were observed for the unpleasant film only. The unpleasant film also elicited early reduced body sway (1-2 s after stimulus onset). Heart rate and body sway were correlated during the unpleasant film only. The results suggest that ecologically valid stimuli like films are adequate stimuli in evoking defense responses. The results also underscore the importance of including time courses in human experimental research on defense reactions in order to delineate different stages in the defense response. PMID:23805855

  3. Physiological Health Challenges for Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norsk, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the next decades, manned space missions are expected to be aiming at the Lagrange points, near Earth asteroids, and Mars flyby and/or landing. The question is therefore: Are we ready to go? To answer this with a yes, we are currently using the International Space Station to develop an integrated human physiological countermeasure suite. The integrated countermeasure suite will most likely encounter: 1) Exercise devices for aerobic, dynamic and resistive exercise training; 2) sensory-motor computer training programs and anti-motion sickness medication for preparing EVAs and G-transitions; 3) lower limb bracelets for preventing and/or treating the VIIP (vision impairment and intracranial pressure) syndrome; 4) nutritional components for maintenance of bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system and preventing oxidative stress and damage and immune deficiencies (e. g. omega-3 fatty acids, PRO/K, anti-oxidants and less salt and iron); 5) bisphosphonates for preventing bone degradation.; 6) lower body compression garment and oral salt and fluid loading for landing on a planetary surface to combat orthostatic intolerance; 7) laboratory analysis equipment for individualized monitoring of biomarkers in blood, urine and saliva for estimation of health status in; 8) advanced ultrasound techniques for monitoring bone and cardiovascular health; and 9) computer modeling programs for individual health status assessments of efficiency and subsequent adjustments of countermeasures. In particular for future missions into deep space, we are concerned with the synergistic effects of weightlessness, radiation, operational constraints and other spaceflight environmental factors. Therefore, increased collaboration between physiological, behavioral, radiation and space vehicle design disciplines are strongly warranted. Another venue we are exploring in NASA's Human Research Program is the usefulness of artificial gravity for mitigating the health risks of long duration weightlessness.

  4. Young Children’s Affective Responses to Another’s Distress: Dynamic and Physiological Features

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Elian; Heathers, James A. J.; de Rosnay, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Two descriptive studies set out a new approach for exploring the dynamic features of children’s affective responses (sadness and interest-worry) to another’s distress. In two samples (Nstudy1 = 75; Nstudy2 = 114), Kindergarten children were shown a video-vignette depicting another child in distress and the temporal pattern of spontaneous expressions were examined across the unfolding vignette. Results showed, in both study 1 and 2, that sadness and interest-worry had distinct patterns of elicitation across the events of the vignette narrative and there was little co-occurrence of these affects within a given child. Temporal heart rate changes (study 2) were closely aligned to the events of the vignette and, furthermore, affective responses corresponded to distinctive physiological response profiles. The implications of distinct temporal patterns of elicitation for the meaning of sadness and interest-worry are discussed within the framework of emotion regulation and empathy. PMID:25874952

  5. Young children's affective responses to another's distress: dynamic and physiological features.

    PubMed

    Fink, Elian; Heathers, James A J; de Rosnay, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Two descriptive studies set out a new approach for exploring the dynamic features of children's affective responses (sadness and interest-worry) to another's distress. In two samples (N(study1) = 75; N(study2) = 114), Kindergarten children were shown a video-vignette depicting another child in distress and the temporal pattern of spontaneous expressions were examined across the unfolding vignette. Results showed, in both study 1 and 2, that sadness and interest-worry had distinct patterns of elicitation across the events of the vignette narrative and there was little co-occurrence of these affects within a given child. Temporal heart rate changes (study 2) were closely aligned to the events of the vignette and, furthermore, affective responses corresponded to distinctive physiological response profiles. The implications of distinct temporal patterns of elicitation for the meaning of sadness and interest-worry are discussed within the framework of emotion regulation and empathy. PMID:25874952

  6. Low physiological levels of prostaglandins E2 and F2α improve human sperm functions.

    PubMed

    Rios, Mariana; Carreño, Daniela V; Oses, Carolina; Barrera, Nelson; Kerr, Bredford; Villalón, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) have been reported to be present in the seminal fluid and cervical mucus, affecting different stages of sperm maturation from spermatogenesis to the acrosome reaction. This study assessed the effects of low physiological PGE2 and PGF2α concentrations on human sperm motility and on the ability of the spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida (ZP). Human spermatozoa were isolated from seminal samples with normal concentration and motility parameters and incubated with 1μM PGE2, 1μM PGF2α or control solution to determine sperm motility and the ability to bind to human ZP. The effects of both PGs on intracellular calcium levels were determined. Incubation for 2 or 18h with PGE2 or PGF2α resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in the percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility. In contrast with PGF2α, PGE2 alone induced an increase in sperm intracellular calcium levels; however, the percentage of sperm bound to the human ZP was doubled for both PGs. These results indicate that incubation of human spermatozoa with low physiological levels of PGE2 or PGF2α increases sperm functions and could improve conditions for assisted reproduction protocols. PMID:25123052

  7. Plasma levels of human neurotensin: methodological and physiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C F; George, J K; Eastwood, G; Potegal, M; Carraway, R E

    1991-01-01

    The ingestion of a meal high in fat content is known to increase circulating levels of neurotensin (NT) in humans. However, the magnitude of the postprandial rise of NT in the general circulation and its physiological significance have been subject of much debate. The present study examines circulating levels of NT in male volunteers prior to and following each of their three daily meals (ca. 31 g fat/meal). The response observed are also compared to that elicited by the direct instillation of intralipid (ca. 44 g fat) into the duodenum. NT levels were determined by radioimmunoassay of acid/acetone extracted plasma fractionated by high pressure liquid chromatography. Meals caused a significant but modest increase in NT levels, with the largest increment (ca. 4 fmol/ml) occurring after breakfast. In contrast, NT levels increased ca. 20 fmol/ml with intraduodenal instillation of lipid. The meal-stimulated increases in circulating NT measured here are 4- to 5-fold less than those reported by others, the difference most likely reflecting the lesser amount of lipid ingested. Previous studies provided subjects with single meals containing in excess of 120 g of fat; the 30 g of fat ingested by our subjects, ca. 33% of total caloric intake, is near that recommended by the U.S. Senate, Select Committee on Nutritional and Human Needs. These data show that diets with a reasonable fat content have only a modest effect on circulating levels of NT. PMID:2067972

  8. The physiology and pathophysiology of human breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Peter; Lundgren, Claes E G

    2009-01-01

    This is a brief overview of physiological reactions, limitations, and pathophysiological mechanisms associated with human breath-hold diving. Breath-hold duration and ability to withstand compression at depth are the two main challenges that have been overcome to an amazing degree as evidenced by the current world records in breath-hold duration at 10:12 min and depth of 214 m. The quest for even further performance enhancements continues among competitive breath-hold divers, even if absolute physiological limits are being approached as indicated by findings of pulmonary edema and alveolar hemorrhage postdive. However, a remarkable, and so far poorly understood, variation in individual disposition for such problems exists. Mortality connected with breath-hold diving is primarily concentrated to less well-trained recreational divers and competitive spearfishermen who fall victim to hypoxia. Particularly vulnerable are probably also individuals with preexisting cardiac problems and possibly, essentially healthy divers who may have suffered severe alternobaric vertigo as a complication to inadequate pressure equilibration of the middle ears. The specific topics discussed include the diving response and its expression by the cardiovascular system, which exhibits hypertension, bradycardia, oxygen conservation, arrhythmias, and contraction of the spleen. The respiratory system is challenged by compression of the lungs with barotrauma of descent, intrapulmonary hemorrhage, edema, and the effects of glossopharyngeal insufflation and exsufflation. Various mechanisms associated with hypoxia and loss of consciousness are discussed, including hyperventilation, ascent blackout, fasting, and excessive postexercise O(2) consumption. The potential for high nitrogen pressure in the lungs to cause decompression sickness and N(2) narcosis is also illuminated. PMID:18974367

  9. Communalism Predicts Maternal Affect, Stress, and Physiology Better than Ethnicity and SES

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Campos, Belinda; Hilmert, Clayton J.; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Hobel, Calvin J.; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relevance of communalism, operationalized as a cultural orientation emphasizing interdependence, to maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology and distinguished its effects from those of ethnicity and childhood and adult SES. African American and European American women (N=297) were recruited early in pregnancy and followed through 32 weeks gestation using interviews and medical chart review. Overall, African American women and women of lower socioeconomic backgrounds had higher levels of negative affect, stress and blood pressure, but these ethnic and socioeconomic disparities were not observed among women higher in communalism. Hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that communalism was a more robust predictor of prenatal emotional health than ethnicity, childhood SES, and adult SES. Communalism also interacted with ethnicity and SES, resulting in lower blood pressure during pregnancy for African American women and women who experienced socioeconomic disadvantage over the life course. The effects of communalism on prenatal affect, stress, and physiology were not explained by depressive symptoms at study entry, perceived availability of social support, self-esteem, optimism, mastery, nor pregnancy-specific factors, including whether the pregnancy was planned, desired after conception, or how frequently the woman felt happy to be pregnant. This suggests that a communal cultural orientation benefits maternal prenatal emotional health and physiology over and above its links to better-understood personal and social resources in addition to economic resources. Implications regarding culture as a determinant of maternal prenatal health and well-being and as a potentially important lens for examining ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in health are discussed. PMID:20658883

  10. Salivary enzymes and exhaled air affect Streptococcus salivarius growth and physiological state in complemented artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Roger, P; Harn-Arsa, S; Delettre, J; Béal, C

    2011-12-01

    To better understand the phenomena governing the establishment of the oral bacterium Streptococcus salivarius in the mouth, the effect of some environmental factors has been studied in complemented artificial saliva, under oral pH and temperature conditions. Three salivary enzymes at physiological concentrations were tested: peroxidase, lysozyme and amylase, as well as injection of exhaled air. Injection of air containing 5% CO2 and 16% O2 induced a deleterious effect on S. salivarius K12, mainly by increasing redox potential. Addition of lysozyme slightly affected the physiological state of S. salivarius by altering membrane integrity. In contrast, peroxidase was not detrimental as it made it possible to decrease the redox potential. The addition of amylase reduced the specific growth rate of S. salivarius by formation of a complex with amylase and mucins, but led to high final biomass, as a result of enzymatic degradation of some nutrients. Finally, this work demonstrated that salivary enzymes had a slight impact on S. salivarius behaviour. It can thus be concluded that this bacterium was well adapted to in-mouth conditions, as it was able to resist certain salivary enzymes, even if tolerance to expired air was affected, as a result of an increased redox potential. PMID:21892611

  11. Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

    PubMed

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2007-11-01

    Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening. PMID:18039047

  12. HuPSON: the human physiology simulation ontology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large biomedical simulation initiatives, such as the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH), are substantially dependent on controlled vocabularies to facilitate the exchange of information, of data and of models. Hindering these initiatives is a lack of a comprehensive ontology that covers the essential concepts of the simulation domain. Results We propose a first version of a newly constructed ontology, HuPSON, as a basis for shared semantics and interoperability of simulations, of models, of algorithms and of other resources in this domain. The ontology is based on the Basic Formal Ontology, and adheres to the MIREOT principles; the constructed ontology has been evaluated via structural features, competency questions and use case scenarios. The ontology is freely available at: http://www.scai.fraunhofer.de/en/business-research-areas/bioinformatics/downloads.html (owl files) and http://bishop.scai.fraunhofer.de/scaiview/ (browser). Conclusions HuPSON provides a framework for a) annotating simulation experiments, b) retrieving relevant information that are required for modelling, c) enabling interoperability of algorithmic approaches used in biomedical simulation, d) comparing simulation results and e) linking knowledge-based approaches to simulation-based approaches. It is meant to foster a more rapid uptake of semantic technologies in the modelling and simulation domain, with particular focus on the VPH domain. PMID:24267822

  13. Effects of Weightlessness on Human Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Johnson, Philip C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The changes that occur in human fluid and electrolyte physiology during the acute and adaptive phases of adaptation to spaceflight are summarized. A number of questions remain to be answered. At a time when plasma volume and extracellular fluid volume are contracted and salt and water intake is unrestricted. ADH does not correct the volume deficit and serum sodium decreases. Change in secretion or activity of a natriuretic factor during spaceflight is one possible explanation. Recent identification of a polypeptide hormone produced in cardiac muscle cells which is natiuretic, is hypotensive, and has an inhibitory effect on renin and aldosterone secretion has renewed interest in the role of a natriuretic factor. The role of this atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) in both long- and short-term variation in extracellular volumes and in the inability of the kidney to bring about an escape from the sodium-retaining state accompanying chronic cardiac dysfunction makes it reasonable to look for a role of ANF in the regulation of sodium during exposure to microgravity. Prostaglandin-E is another hormone that may antagonize the action of ADH. Assays of these hormones will be performed on samples from crew members in the future.

  14. Functional Neuroimaging Insights into the Physiology of Human Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Schabus, Manuel; Desseilles, Martin; Sterpenich, Virginie; Bonjean, Maxime; Maquet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    -Vu TT; Schabus M; Desseilles M; Sterpenich V; Bonjean M; Maquet P. Functional neuroimaging insights into the physiology of human sleep. SLEEP 2010;33(12):1589-1603. PMID:21120121

  15. Physiological Characterisation of Human iPS-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro Fernandes, Hugo J.; Vowles, Jane; James, William S.; Cowley, Sally A.; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer the potential to study otherwise inaccessible cell types. Critical to this is the directed differentiation of hiPSCs into functional cell lineages. This is of particular relevance to research into neurological disease, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons degenerate during disease progression but are unobtainable until post-mortem. Here we report a detailed study into the physiological maturation over time of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro. We first generated and differentiated hiPSC lines into midbrain dopaminergic neurons and performed a comprehensive characterisation to confirm dopaminergic functionality by demonstrating dopamine synthesis, release, and re-uptake. The neuronal cultures include cells positive for both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (Kir3.2, henceforth referred to as GIRK2), representative of the A9 population of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons vulnerable in PD. We observed for the first time the maturation of the slow autonomous pace-making (<10 Hz) and spontaneous synaptic activity typical of mature SNc dopaminergic neurons using a combination of calcium imaging and electrophysiology. hiPSC-derived neurons exhibited inositol tri-phosphate (IP3) receptor-dependent release of intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum in neuronal processes as calcium waves propagating from apical and distal dendrites, and in the soma. Finally, neurons were susceptible to the dopamine neuron-specific toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and altered mitochondrial morphology. Mature hiPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons provide a neurophysiologically-defined model of previously inaccessible vulnerable SNc dopaminergic neurons to bridge the gap between clinical PD and animal models. PMID:24586273

  16. Physiological characterisation of human iPS-derived dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Hartfield, Elizabeth M; Yamasaki-Mann, Michiko; Ribeiro Fernandes, Hugo J; Vowles, Jane; James, William S; Cowley, Sally A; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer the potential to study otherwise inaccessible cell types. Critical to this is the directed differentiation of hiPSCs into functional cell lineages. This is of particular relevance to research into neurological disease, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), in which midbrain dopaminergic neurons degenerate during disease progression but are unobtainable until post-mortem. Here we report a detailed study into the physiological maturation over time of human dopaminergic neurons in vitro. We first generated and differentiated hiPSC lines into midbrain dopaminergic neurons and performed a comprehensive characterisation to confirm dopaminergic functionality by demonstrating dopamine synthesis, release, and re-uptake. The neuronal cultures include cells positive for both tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 (Kir3.2, henceforth referred to as GIRK2), representative of the A9 population of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) neurons vulnerable in PD. We observed for the first time the maturation of the slow autonomous pace-making (<10 Hz) and spontaneous synaptic activity typical of mature SNc dopaminergic neurons using a combination of calcium imaging and electrophysiology. hiPSC-derived neurons exhibited inositol tri-phosphate (IP3) receptor-dependent release of intracellular calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum in neuronal processes as calcium waves propagating from apical and distal dendrites, and in the soma. Finally, neurons were susceptible to the dopamine neuron-specific toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) which reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and altered mitochondrial morphology. Mature hiPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons provide a neurophysiologically-defined model of previously inaccessible vulnerable SNc dopaminergic neurons to bridge the gap between clinical PD and animal models. PMID:24586273

  17. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  18. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  19. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  20. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  1. 40 CFR 230.76 - Actions affecting human use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions affecting human use. 230.76... Minimize Adverse Effects § 230.76 Actions affecting human use. Minimization of adverse effects on human use... aquatic areas; (c) Timing the discharge to avoid the seasons or periods when human recreational...

  2. Zebrafish Bone and General Physiology Are Differently Affected by Hormones or Changes in Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Aceto, Jessica; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Marée, Raphael; Dardenne, Nadia; Jeanray, Nathalie; Wehenkel, Louis; Aleström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Our understanding of the physiological consequences of altered gravity in an entire organism is still incomplete. We used altered gravity and drug treatment experiments to evaluate their effects specifically on bone formation and more generally on whole genome gene expression. By combining morphometric tools with an objective scoring system for the state of development for each element in the head skeleton and specific gene expression analysis, we confirmed and characterized in detail the decrease or increase of bone formation caused by a 5 day treatment (from 5dpf to 10 dpf) of, respectively parathyroid hormone (PTH) or vitamin D3 (VitD3). Microarray transcriptome analysis after 24 hours treatment reveals a general effect on physiology upon VitD3 treatment, while PTH causes more specifically developmental effects. Hypergravity (3g from 5dpf to 9 dpf) exposure results in a significantly larger head and a significant increase in bone formation for a subset of the cranial bones. Gene expression analysis after 24 hrs at 3g revealed differential expression of genes involved in the development and function of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Finally, we propose a novel type of experimental approach, the "Reduced Gravity Paradigm", by keeping the developing larvae at 3g hypergravity for the first 5 days before returning them to 1g for one additional day. 5 days exposure to 3g during these early stages also caused increased bone formation, while gene expression analysis revealed a central network of regulatory genes (hes5, sox10, lgals3bp, egr1, edn1, fos, fosb, klf2, gadd45ba and socs3a) whose expression was consistently affected by the transition from hyper- to normal gravity. PMID:26061167

  3. Zebrafish Bone and General Physiology Are Differently Affected by Hormones or Changes in Gravity.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Jessica; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Marée, Raphael; Dardenne, Nadia; Jeanray, Nathalie; Wehenkel, Louis; Aleström, Peter; van Loon, Jack J W A; Muller, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Our understanding of the physiological consequences of altered gravity in an entire organism is still incomplete. We used altered gravity and drug treatment experiments to evaluate their effects specifically on bone formation and more generally on whole genome gene expression. By combining morphometric tools with an objective scoring system for the state of development for each element in the head skeleton and specific gene expression analysis, we confirmed and characterized in detail the decrease or increase of bone formation caused by a 5 day treatment (from 5dpf to 10 dpf) of, respectively parathyroid hormone (PTH) or vitamin D3 (VitD3). Microarray transcriptome analysis after 24 hours treatment reveals a general effect on physiology upon VitD3 treatment, while PTH causes more specifically developmental effects. Hypergravity (3g from 5dpf to 9 dpf) exposure results in a significantly larger head and a significant increase in bone formation for a subset of the cranial bones. Gene expression analysis after 24 hrs at 3g revealed differential expression of genes involved in the development and function of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Finally, we propose a novel type of experimental approach, the "Reduced Gravity Paradigm", by keeping the developing larvae at 3g hypergravity for the first 5 days before returning them to 1g for one additional day. 5 days exposure to 3g during these early stages also caused increased bone formation, while gene expression analysis revealed a central network of regulatory genes (hes5, sox10, lgals3bp, egr1, edn1, fos, fosb, klf2, gadd45ba and socs3a) whose expression was consistently affected by the transition from hyper- to normal gravity. PMID:26061167

  4. The effect of choice on the physiology of emotion: An affective startle modulation study

    PubMed Central

    Genevsky, Alexander; Gard, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The affective startle modulation task has been an important measure in understanding physiological aspects of emotion and motivational responses. Research utilizing this method has relied primarily on a ‘passive’ viewing paradigm, which stands in contrast to everyday life where much of emotion and motivation involves some active choice or agency. The present study investigated the role of choice on the physiology of emotion. Eighty-four participants were randomized into ‘choice’ (n=44) or ‘no-choice’ (n=40) groups distinguished by the ability to choose between stimuli. EMG eye blink responses were recorded in both anticipation and stimulus viewing. Results indicated a significant attenuation of the startle magnitude in choice condition trials (relative to no-choice) across all picture categories and probe times. We interpret these findings as an indication that the act of choice may decrease one’s defensive response, or conversely, lacking choice may heighten the defensive response. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22285891

  5. Xenobiotics shape the physiology and gene expression of the active human gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Corinne Ferrier; Haiser, Henry Joseph; Turnbaugh, Peter James

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The human gut contains trillions of microorganisms that influence our health by metabolizing xenobiotics, including host-targeted drugs and antibiotics. Recent efforts have characterized the diversity of this host-associated community, but it remains unclear which microorganisms are active and what perturbations influence this activity. Here, we combine flow cytometry, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and metatranscriptomics to demonstrate that the gut contains a distinctive set of active microorganisms, primarily Firmicutes. Short-term exposure to a panel of xenobiotics significantly affected the physiology, structure, and gene expression of this active gut microbiome. Xenobiotic-responsive genes were found across multiple bacterial phyla, encoding antibiotic resistance, drug metabolism, and stress response pathways. These results demonstrate the power of moving beyond surveys of microbial diversity to better understand metabolic activity, highlight the unintended consequences of xenobiotics, and suggest that attempts at personalized medicine should consider inter-individual variations in the active human gut microbiome. PMID:23332745

  6. Breathing hypoxic gas affects the physiology as well as the diving behaviour of tufted ducks.

    PubMed

    Halsey, Lewis G; Butler, Patrick J; Woakes, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    We measured the effects of exposure to hypoxia (15% and 11% oxygen) and hypercapnia (up to 4.5% carbon dioxide) on rates of respiratory gas exchange both between and during dives in tufted ducks, Aythya fuligula, to investigate to what extent these may explain changes in diving behaviour. As found in previous studies, the ducks decreased dive duration (t(d)) and increased surface duration when diving from a hypoxic or hypercapnic gas mix. In the hypercapnic conditions, oxygen consumption during the dive cycle was not affected. Oxygen uptake between dives was reduced by only 17% when breathing a hypoxic gas mix of 11% oxygen. However, estimates of the rate of oxygen metabolism during the foraging periods of dives decreased nearly threefold in 11% oxygen. Given that tufted ducks normally dive well within their aerobic dive limits and that they significantly reduced their t(d) during hypoxia, it is not at all clear why they make this physiological adjustment. PMID:15778946

  7. acj6: a gene affecting olfactory physiology and behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, R K; Carlson, J

    1991-01-01

    Mutations affecting olfactory behavior provide material for use in molecular studies of olfaction in Drosophila melanogaster. Using the electroantennogram (EAG), a measure of antennal physiology, we have found an adult antennal defect in the olfactory behavioral mutant abnormal chemosensory jump 6 (acj6). The acj6 EAG defect was mapped to a single locus and the same mutation was found to be responsible for both reduction in EAG amplitude and diminished behavioral response, as if reduced antennal responsiveness to odorant is responsible for abnormal chemosensory behavior in the mutant. acj6 larval olfactory behavior is also abnormal; the mutation seems to alter cellular processes necessary for olfaction at both developmental stages. The acj6 mutation exhibits specificity in that visual system function appears normal in larvae and adults. These experiments provide evidence that the acj6 gene encodes a product required for olfactory signal transduction. Images PMID:1905022

  8. Cognitive, affective, and physiological expressions of anxiety symptomatology among Mexican migrant farmworkers: predictors and generational differences.

    PubMed

    Hovey, Joseph D; Magaña, Cristina G

    2002-06-01

    Scant research has examined the mental health of migrant farmworkers in the United States. The purposes of the present study were threefold: to assess the prevalence levels of anxiety symptoms in a sample of Mexican migrant farmworkers in the Midwest United States; to examine the relationship between acculturative stress and anxiety; and to determine the variables that significantly predict anxiety. High levels were found for overall anxiety and in the cognitive, affective, and physiological expressions of anxiety. Elevated acculturative stress, low self esteem, ineffective social support, lack of control and choice in the decision to live a migrant farmworker lifestyle, low religiosity, and high education were significantly related to high anxiety levels. The overall findings suggest that Mexican migrant farmworkers who experience high acculturative stress may be at risk for developing anxiety-related disorders. The findings highlight the necessity of establishing prevention and treatment services for migrant farmworkers that increase levels of emotional support, self esteem, and coping skills. PMID:12046676

  9. Human plasma kallikrein-kinin system: Physiological and biochemical parameters

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, J.W.; Shariat-Madar, z

    2016-01-01

    The plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) plays a critical role in human physiology. The KKS encompasses coagulation factor XII (FXII), the complex of prekallikrein (PK) and high molecular weight kininogen (HK). The conversion of plasma to kallikrein by the activated FXII and in response to numerous different stimuli leads to the generation of bradykinin (BK) and activated HK (HKa, an antiangiogenic peptide). BK is a proinflammatory peptide, a pain mediator and potent vasodilator, leading to robust accumulation of fluid in the interstitium. Systemic production of BK, HKa with the interplay between BK bound-BK receptors and the soluble form of HKa are key to angiogenesis and hemodynamics. KKS has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation, hypertension, endotoxemia, and coagulopathy. In all these cases increased BK levels is the hallmark. In some cases, the persistent production of BK due to the deficiency of the blood protein C1-inhibitor, which controls FXII, is detrimental to the survival of the patients with hereditary angioedema (HAE). In others, the inability of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to degrade BK leads to elevated BK levels and edema in patients on ACE inhibitors. Thus, the mechanisms that interfere with BK liberation or degradation would lead to blood pressure dysfunction. In contrast, anti-kallikrein treatment could have adverse effects in hemodynamic changes induced by vasoconstrictor agents. Genetic models of kallikrein deficiency are needed to evaluate the quantitative role of kallikrein and to validate whether strategies designed to activate or inhibit kallikrein may be important for regulating whole-body BK sensitivity. PMID:19689262

  10. Physiological characterization of human muscle acetylcholine receptors from ALS patients

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Eleonora; Inghilleri, Maurizio; Conti, Luca; Deflorio, Cristina; Frasca, Vittorio; Manteca, Alessia; Pichiorri, Floriana; Roseti, Cristina; Torchia, Gregorio; Limatola, Cristina; Grassi, Francesca; Miledi, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons leading to muscle paralysis. Research in transgenic mice suggests that the muscle actively contributes to the disease onset, but such studies are difficult to pursue in humans and in vitro models would represent a good starting point. In this work we show that tiny amounts of muscle from ALS or from control denervated muscle, obtained by needle biopsy, are amenable to functional characterization by two different technical approaches: “microtransplantation” of muscle membranes into Xenopus oocytes and culture of myogenic satellite cells. Acetylcholine (ACh)-evoked currents and unitary events were characterized in oocytes and multinucleated myotubes. We found that ALS acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) retain their native physiological characteristics, being activated by ACh and nicotine and blocked by α-bungarotoxin (α-BuTX), d-tubocurarine (dTC), and galantamine. The reversal potential of ACh-evoked currents and the unitary channel behavior were also typical of normal muscle AChRs. Interestingly, in oocytes injected with muscle membranes derived from ALS patients, the AChRs showed a significant decrease in ACh affinity, compared with denervated controls. Finally, riluzole, the only drug currently used against ALS, reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the ACh-evoked currents, indicating that its action remains to be fully characterized. The two methods described here will be important tools for elucidating the role of muscle in ALS pathogenesis and for developing drugs to counter the effects of this disease. PMID:22128328

  11. Human lead metabolism: Chronic exposure, bone lead and physiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, David Eric Berkeley

    Exposure to lead is associated with a variety of detrimental health effects. After ingestion or inhalation, lead may be taken up from the bloodstream and retained by bone tissue. X-ray fluorescence was used to make in vivo measurements of bone lead concentration at the tibia and calcaneus for 367 active and 14 retired lead smelter workers. Blood lead levels following a labour disruption were used in conjunction with bone lead readings to examine the endogenous release of lead from bone. Relations between bone lead and a cumulative blood lead index differed depending on time of hiring. This suggests that the transfer of lead from blood to bone has changed over time, possibly as a result of varying exposure conditions. A common polymorphism in the δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme may influence the distribution of lead in humans. Blood lead levels were higher for smelter workers expressing the more rare ALAD2 allele. Bone lead concentrations, however, were not significantly different. This implies that a smaller proportion of lead in blood is distributed to tissue for individuals expressing the ALAD2 allele. The O'Flaherty physiological model of lead metabolism was modified slightly and tested with input from the personal exposure histories of smelter workers. The model results were consistent with observation in tern of endogenous exposure to lead and accumulation of lead in cortical bone. Modelling the calcaneus as a trabecular bone site did not reproduce observed trends. variations in lead metabolism between different trabecular sites may therefore be significant. The model does not incorporate a genetic component, and its output did not reflect observed differences in this respect. This result provides further support for the influence of the ALAD polymorphism on lead metabolism. Experimental trials with a digital spectrometer revealed superior energy resolution and count throughput relative to the conventional X-ray fluorescence system. The associated

  12. Molecular clocks and the human condition: approaching their characterization in human physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, G A; Yang, G; Paschos, G K; Liang, X; Skarke, C

    2015-09-01

    Molecular clockworks knit together diverse biological networks and compelling evidence from model systems infers their importance in metabolism, immunological and cardiovascular function. Despite this and the diurnal variation in many aspects of human physiology and the phenotypic expression of disease, our understanding of the role and importance of clock function and dysfunction in humans is modest. There are tantalizing hints of connection across the translational divide and some correlative evidence of gene variation and human disease but most of what we know derives from forced desynchrony protocols in controlled environments. We now have the ability to monitor quantitatively ex vivo or in vivo the genome, metabolome, proteome and microbiome of humans in the wild. Combining this capability, with the power of mobile telephony and the evolution of remote sensing, affords a new opportunity for deep phenotyping, including the characterization of diurnal behaviour and the assessment of the impact of the clock on approved drug function. PMID:26332979

  13. The Fire-Walker’s High: Affect and Physiological Responses in an Extreme Collective Ritual

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Reddish, Paul; Tok, Penny; Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers). We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual. PMID:24586315

  14. The fire-walker's high: affect and physiological responses in an extreme collective ritual.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Mitkidis, Panagiotis; Reddish, Paul; Tok, Penny; Konvalinka, Ivana; Bulbulia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    How do people feel during extreme collective rituals? Despite longstanding speculation, few studies have attempted to quantify ritual experiences. Using a novel pre/post design, we quantified physiological fluctuations (heart rates) and self-reported affective states from a collective fire-walking ritual in a Mauritian Hindu community. Specifically, we compared changes in levels of happiness, fatigue, and heart rate reactivity among high-ordeal participants (fire-walkers), low-ordeal participants (non-fire-walking participants with familial bonds to fire-walkers) and spectators (unrelated/unknown to the fire-walkers). We observed that fire-walkers experienced the highest increase in heart rate and reported greater happiness post-ritual compared to low-ordeal participants and spectators. Low-ordeal participants reported increased fatigue after the ritual compared to both fire-walkers and spectators, suggesting empathetic identification effects. Thus, witnessing the ritualistic suffering of loved ones may be more exhausting than experiencing suffering oneself. The findings demonstrate that the level of ritual involvement is important for shaping affective responses to collective rituals. Enduring a ritual ordeal is associated with greater happiness, whereas observing a loved-one endure a ritual ordeal is associated with greater fatigue post-ritual. PMID:24586315

  15. [Affective computing--a mysterious tool to explore human emotions].

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Li, Honghong; Dou, Yi; Hou, Yongjie; Li, Changwu

    2013-12-01

    Perception, affection and consciousness are basic psychological functions of human being. Affection is the subjective reflection of different kinds of objects. The foundation of human being's thinking is constituted by the three basic functions. Affective computing is an effective tool of revealing the affectiveness of human being in order to understand the world. Our research of affective computing focused on the relation, the generation and the influent factors among different affections. In this paper, the affective mechanism, the basic theory of affective computing, is studied, the method of acquiring and recognition of affective information is discussed, and the application of affective computing is summarized as well, in order to attract more researchers into this working area. PMID:24645628

  16. Affective Learning: Environmental Ethics and Human Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Noel P.

    1977-01-01

    This discussion of home economics as a discipline which should focus on its affective foundations, covers the following areas: Affective context of home economics education, the adequacy of the home economics value complex for coping with environmental problems, and toward an acceptable environmental ethic. (SH)

  17. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    PubMed

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. PMID:26422775

  18. Habitat Quality Affects Early Physiology and Subsequent Neuromotor Development of Juvenile Black-Capped Chickadees

    PubMed Central

    Grava, Thibault; Fairhurst, Graham D.; Avey, Marc T.; Grava, Angelique; Bradley, James; Avis, Jillian L.; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Sturdy, Christopher B.; Otter, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    In songbirds, the ability to learn and render the species-specific song is influenced by the development of both the song nuclei in the brain and the syrinx (bird's vocal apparatus) early in the bird's life. In black-capped chickadees (Poecille atricapillus), habitat quality is known to affect song structure, with birds in high-quality habitat (mature forest) having a higher song consistency than birds in low-quality habitat (young forest). Although this difference is suspected to stem from differences in development, the developmental status of juvenile birds in either habitat remains unexplored. In this study, we used ptilochronology and feather corticosterone to compare the conditional state of juvenile chickadees in young and mature forest during two distinct periods of song learning - the sensory phase, which occurs prior to settlement, and the sensorimotor phase, which occurs post-settlement. A sample of juvenile males was captured and euthanized several weeks prior to their first breeding season to compare the development of song center nuclei and syrinx in both habitats. The corticosterone levels of natally-grown feathers were greater among birds that settled in mature than young forests - as these feathers were grown pre-settlement, they reflect differences in physiology during the sensory phase. This difference in conditional state is reflected by differences in syrinx and song center nuclei development later during the sensorimotor phase - birds in young forest have smaller syrinx, and moderately-larger RA, than birds in mature forest. Those differences could be responsible for the difference in consistency in song structure observed across habitats. The difference in physiological state across habitats, combined with potential compounding effect of differences in winter resources between habitats, could influence the difference in syrinx and neural development seen in juvenile males during the early spring, and influence the male's ability to learn and

  19. Habitat quality affects early physiology and subsequent neuromotor development of juvenile black-capped chickadees.

    PubMed

    Grava, Thibault; Fairhurst, Graham D; Avey, Marc T; Grava, Angelique; Bradley, James; Avis, Jillian L; Bortolotti, Gary R; Sturdy, Christopher B; Otter, Ken A

    2013-01-01

    In songbirds, the ability to learn and render the species-specific song is influenced by the development of both the song nuclei in the brain and the syrinx (bird's vocal apparatus) early in the bird's life. In black-capped chickadees (Poecille atricapillus), habitat quality is known to affect song structure, with birds in high-quality habitat (mature forest) having a higher song consistency than birds in low-quality habitat (young forest). Although this difference is suspected to stem from differences in development, the developmental status of juvenile birds in either habitat remains unexplored. In this study, we used ptilochronology and feather corticosterone to compare the conditional state of juvenile chickadees in young and mature forest during two distinct periods of song learning - the sensory phase, which occurs prior to settlement, and the sensorimotor phase, which occurs post-settlement. A sample of juvenile males was captured and euthanized several weeks prior to their first breeding season to compare the development of song center nuclei and syrinx in both habitats. The corticosterone levels of natally-grown feathers were greater among birds that settled in mature than young forests - as these feathers were grown pre-settlement, they reflect differences in physiology during the sensory phase. This difference in conditional state is reflected by differences in syrinx and song center nuclei development later during the sensorimotor phase - birds in young forest have smaller syrinx, and moderately-larger RA, than birds in mature forest. Those differences could be responsible for the difference in consistency in song structure observed across habitats. The difference in physiological state across habitats, combined with potential compounding effect of differences in winter resources between habitats, could influence the difference in syrinx and neural development seen in juvenile males during the early spring, and influence the male's ability to learn and

  20. Strategies for improving the physiological relevance of human engineered tissues

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Kaplan, David L

    2015-01-01

    This review examines important robust methods for sustained, steady state, in vitro culture. To achieve ‘physiologically relevant’ tissues in vitro additional complexity must be introduced to provide suitable transport, cell signaling, and matrix support for cells in 3D environments to achieve stable readouts of tissue function. Most tissue engineering systems draw conclusions on tissue functions such as responses to toxins, nutrition or drugs based on short term outcomes with in vitro cultures (2–14 days). However, short term cultures limit insight with physiological relevance, as the cells and tissues have not reached a steady state. PMID:25937289

  1. Affective Man-Machine Interface: Unveiling Human Emotions through Biosignals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Broek, Egon L.; Lisý, Viliam; Janssen, Joris H.; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; Schut, Marleen H.; Tuinenbreijer, Kees

    As is known for centuries, humans exhibit an electrical profile. This profile is altered through various psychological and physiological proce-sses, which can be measured through biosignals; e.g., electromyography (EMG) and electrodermal activity (EDA). These biosignals can reveal our emotions and, as such, can serve as an advanced man-machine interface (MMI) for empathic consumer products. However, such a MMI requires the correct classification of biosignals to emotion classes. This chapter starts with an introduction on biosignals for emotion detection. Next, a state-of-the-art review is presented on automatic emotion classification. Moreover, guidelines are presented for affective MMI. Subsequently, a research is presented that explores the use of EDA and three facial EMG signals to determine neutral, positive, negative, and mixed emotions, using recordings of 21 people. A range of techniques is tested, which resulted in a generic framework for automated emotion classification with up to 61.31% correct classification of the four emotion classes, without the need of personal profiles. Among various other directives for future research, the results emphasize the need for parallel processing of multiple biosignals.

  2. Human insulin dynamics in women: a physiologically based model.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael; Tura, Andrea; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Pacini, Giovanni; D'Argenio, David Z

    2016-02-01

    Currently available models of insulin dynamics are mostly based on the classical compartmental structure and, thus, their physiological utility is limited. In this work, we describe the development of a physiologically based model and its application to data from 154 patients who underwent an insulin-modified intravenous glucose tolerance test (IM-IVGTT). To determine the time profile of endogenous insulin delivery without using C-peptide data and to evaluate the transcapillary transport of insulin, the hepatosplanchnic, renal, and peripheral beds were incorporated into the circulatory model as separate subsystems. Physiologically reasonable population mean estimates were obtained for all estimated model parameters, including plasma volume, interstitial volume of the peripheral circulation (mainly skeletal muscle), uptake clearance into the interstitial space, hepatic and renal clearance, as well as total insulin delivery into plasma. The results indicate that, at a population level, the proposed physiologically based model provides a useful description of insulin disposition, which allows for the assessment of muscle insulin uptake. PMID:26608654

  3. Using Noninvasive Wearable Computers to Recognize Human Emotions from Physiological Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisetti, Christine Lætitia; Nasoz, Fatma

    2004-12-01

    We discuss the strong relationship between affect and cognition and the importance of emotions in multimodal human computer interaction (HCI) and user modeling. We introduce the overall paradigm for our multimodal system that aims at recognizing its users' emotions and at responding to them accordingly depending upon the current context or application. We then describe the design of the emotion elicitation experiment we conducted by collecting, via wearable computers, physiological signals from the autonomic nervous system (galvanic skin response, heart rate, temperature) and mapping them to certain emotions (sadness, anger, fear, surprise, frustration, and amusement). We show the results of three different supervised learning algorithms that categorize these collected signals in terms of emotions, and generalize their learning to recognize emotions from new collections of signals. We finally discuss possible broader impact and potential applications of emotion recognition for multimodal intelligent systems.

  4. Evidence that elevated water temperature affects the reproductive physiology of the European bullhead Cottus gobio.

    PubMed

    Dorts, Jennifer; Grenouillet, Gaël; Douxfils, Jessica; Mandiki, Syaghalirwa N M; Milla, Sylvain; Silvestre, Frédéric; Kestemont, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the average water temperature and alter the ecology and physiology of several organisms including fish species. To examine the effects of increased water temperature on freshwater fish reproduction, adult European bullhead Cottus gobio of both genders were maintained under three temperature regimes (T1: 6-10, T2: 10-14 and T3: 14-18°C) and assessed for gonad development (gonadosomatic index-GSI and gonad histology), sex steroids (testosterone-T, 17β-estradiol-E2 and 11-ketotestosterone-11-KT) and vitellogenin (alkali-labile phosphoprotein phosphorus-ALP) dynamics in December, January, February and March. The results indicate that a 8°C rise in water temperature (T3) deeply disrupted the gonadal maturation in both genders. This observation was associated with the absence of GSI peak from January to March, and low levels of plasma sex steroids compared with T1-exposed fish. Nevertheless, exposure to an increasing temperature of 4°C (T2) appeared to accelerate oogenesis with an early peak value in GSI and level of plasma T recorded in January relative to T1-exposed females. In males, the low GSI, reduced level of plasma 11-KT and the absence of GSI increase from January to March support the deleterious effects of increasing water temperature on spermatogenesis. The findings of the present study suggest that exposure to elevated temperatures within the context of climate warming might affect the reproductive success of C. gobio. Specifically, a 4°C rise in water temperature affects gametogenesis by advancing the spawning, and a complete reproductive failure is observed at an elevated temperature of 8°C. PMID:21638008

  5. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Deikumah, Justus P.; McAlpine, Clive A.; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  6. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded. PMID:26107179

  7. Ecological and physiological factors affecting brood patch area and prolactin levels in arctic-nesting geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.; Alisauskas, R.T.; Bluhm, C.K.; El Halawani, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated effects of ecological and physiological factors on brood patch area and prolactin levels in free-ranging Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter "Snow Geese") and Ross's Geese (C. rossii). On the basis of the body-size hypothesis, we predicted that the relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition would be stronger in Ross's Geese than in the larger Snow Geese. We found that brood patch area was positively related to clutch volume and inversely related to prolactin levels in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Nest size, nest habitat, and first egg date did not affect brood patch area in either species. Prolactin levels increased as incubation progressed in female Snow Geese, but this relationship was not significant in Ross's Geese. Prolactin levels and body condition (as indexed by size-adjusted body mass) were inversely related in Ross's Geese, but not in Snow Geese. Our findings are consistent with the prediction that relationships between prolactin levels, brood patch area, and body condition are relatively stronger in Ross's Geese, because they mobilize endogenous reserves at faster rates than Snow Geese. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006. Printed in USA.

  8. Host tree phenology affects vascular epiphytes at the physiological, demographic and community level

    PubMed Central

    Einzmann, Helena J. R.; Beyschlag, Joachim; Hofhansl, Florian; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zotz, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The processes that govern diverse tropical plant communities have rarely been studied in life forms other than trees. Structurally dependent vascular epiphytes, a major part of tropical biodiversity, grow in a three-dimensional matrix defined by their hosts, but trees differ in their architecture, bark structure/chemistry and leaf phenology. We hypothesized that the resulting seasonal differences in microclimatic conditions in evergreen vs. deciduous trees would affect epiphytes at different levels, from organ physiology to community structure. We studied the influence of tree leaf phenology on vascular epiphytes on the Island of Barro Colorado, Panama. Five tree species were selected, which were deciduous, semi-deciduous or evergreen. The crowns of drought-deciduous trees, characterized by sunnier and drier microclimates, hosted fewer individuals and less diverse epiphyte assemblages. Differences were also observed at a functional level, e.g. epiphyte assemblages in deciduous trees had larger proportions of Crassulacean acid metabolism species and individuals. At the population level a drier microclimate was associated with lower individual growth and survival in a xerophytic fern. Some species also showed, as expected, lower specific leaf area and higher δ13C values when growing in deciduous trees compared with evergreen trees. As hypothesized, host tree leaf phenology influences vascular epiphytes at different levels. Our results suggest a cascading effect of tree composition and associated differences in tree phenology on the diversity and functioning of epiphyte communities in tropical lowland forests. PMID:25392188

  9. The role of VEGF pathways in human physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In pre-clinical models VEGF is a potent stimulant of both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Conversely, anti-VEGF regimens have successfully inhibited angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that VEGF would stimulate both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis in a human-ba...

  10. Does Globalization Affect Human Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2007-01-01

    The prevailing theorizing of globalization's influence of human well-being suggests to assess both the favorable and unfavorable outcomes. This study formulates a dialectical model, adopts a comprehensive globalization measure and uses a three-wave panel data during 1980-2000 to empirically test direct and indirect effects of global flows' human…

  11. Predicting physiological capacity of human load carriage - a review.

    PubMed

    Drain, Jace; Billing, Daniel; Neesham-Smith, Daniel; Aisbett, Brad

    2016-01-01

    This review article aims to evaluate a proposed maximum acceptable work duration model for load carriage tasks. It is contended that this concept has particular relevance to physically demanding occupations such as military and firefighting. Personnel in these occupations are often required to perform very physically demanding tasks, over varying time periods, often involving load carriage. Previous research has investigated concepts related to physiological workload limits in occupational settings (e.g. industrial). Evidence suggests however, that existing (unloaded) workload guidelines are not appropriate for load carriage tasks. The utility of this model warrants further work to enable prediction of load carriage durations across a range of functional workloads for physically demanding occupations. If the maximum duration for which personnel can physiologically sustain a load carriage task could be accurately predicted, commanders and supervisors could better plan for and manage tasks to ensure operational imperatives were met whilst minimising health risks for their workers. PMID:26360198

  12. The physiological basis of human sexual arousal: neuroendocrine sexual asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L

    2005-04-01

    Normal sexual arousal and response suppose an integrated process involving both physiological and psychological processes. However, the current understanding of sexual arousal does not provide a coherent model that accounts for the integration of multiple physiological systems that subsequently generate a coordinated sexual response at both the spinal peripheral and cerebral central levels. Herein we suggest a model that involves both sympathetic and parasympathetic activation during sexual arousal via the two classes of gonadal hormones, androgens and oestrogens. We discuss the manner in which gonadal hormones may activate such a system, transforming pre-pubertal (non-erotic) genital stimulation to post-pubertal erogenization of stimulation and subsequent sexual arousal. Finally, we indicate that the different balance of androgens and oestrogens in men and women may generate asymmetric effects on each of the components of the autonomic nervous system, thereby explaining some of the differences in patterns of sexual arousal and the responses cycle across the sexes. PMID:15811068

  13. Geo-Effective Heliophysical Variations and Human Physiological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    2006-03-01

    A group of 86 volunteers was examined on each working day in autumn 2001 and in spring 2002. These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. There were 26 persons in the group on a drug treatment, mainly because of hypertension. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were registered. Pulse pressure was calculated. Data about subjective psycho-physiological complaints of the persons examined were also gathered. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and analyzed. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were as follows: 1) geomagnetic activity estimated by H-component of the local geomagnetic field and divided into five levels; 2) gender - males and females; 3) presence of medication. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors' levels. The average arterial blood pressure, pulse pressure and the percentage of the persons in the group with subjective psycho-physiological complaints were found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity. The maximal increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 10-11% and for pulse pressure 13.6%. Analyses revealed that females and persons on a medication were more sensitive to the increase of geomagnetic activity than respectively males and persons with no medication.

  14. Complexity analysis of human physiological signals based on case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelova, Maia; Holloway, Philip; Ellis, Jason

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on methods for investigation of physiological time series based on complexity analysis. It is a part of a wider programme to determine non-invasive markers for healthy ageing. We consider two case studies investigated with actigraphy: (a) sleep and alternations with insomnia, and (b) ageing effects on mobility patterns. We illustrate, using these case studies, the application of fractal analysis to the investigation of regulation patterns and control, and change of physiological function. In the first case study, fractal analysis techniques were implemented to study the correlations present in sleep actigraphy for individuals suffering from acute insomnia in comparison with healthy controls. The aim was to investigate if complexity analysis can detect the onset of adverse health-related events. The subjects with acute insomnia displayed significantly higher levels of complexity, possibly a result of too much activity in the underlying regulatory systems. The second case study considered mobility patterns during night time and their variations with age. It showed that complexity metrics can identify change in physiological function with ageing. Both studies demonstrated that complexity analysis can be used to investigate markers of health, disease and healthy ageing.

  15. Review of the physiology of human thermal comfort while exercising in urban landscapes and implications for bioclimatic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanos, Jennifer K.; Warland, Jon S.; Gillespie, Terry J.; Kenny, Natasha A.

    2010-07-01

    This review comprehensively examines scientific literature pertaining to human physiology during exercise, including mechanisms of heat formation and dissipation, heat stress on the body, the importance of skin temperature monitoring, the effects of clothing, and microclimatic measurements. This provides a critical foundation for microclimatologists and biometeorologists in the understanding of experiments involving human physiology. The importance of the psychological aspects of how an individual perceives an outdoor environment are also reviewed, emphasizing many factors that can indirectly affect thermal comfort (TC). Past and current efforts to develop accurate human comfort models are described, as well as how these models can be used to develop resilient and comfortable outdoor spaces for physical activity. Lack of suitable spaces plays a large role in the deterioration of human health due to physical inactivity, leading to higher rates of illness, heart disease, obesity and heat-related casualties. This trend will continue if urban designers do not make use of current knowledge of bioclimatic urban design, which must be synthesized with physiology, psychology and microclimatology. Increased research is required for furthering our knowledge on the outdoor human energy balance concept and bioclimatic design for health and well-being in urban areas.

  16. Effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual variables and performance of self-selected walking pace

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Flávia Angélica Martins; Nunes, Renan Felipe Hartmann; Ferreira, Sandro dos Santos; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklin; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual responses as well as the performance of self-selected walking pace. [Subjects] The study included 28 adult women between 29 and 51 years old. [Methods] The subjects were divided into three groups: no musical stimulation group (control), and 90 and 140 beats per minute musical tempo groups. Each subject underwent three experimental sessions: involved familiarization with the equipment, an incremental test to exhaustion, and a 30-min walk on a treadmill at a self-selected pace, respectively. During the self-selected walking session, physiological, perceptual, and affective variables were evaluated, and walking performance was evaluated at the end. [Results] There were no significant differences in physiological variables or affective response among groups. However, there were significant differences in perceptual response and walking performance among groups. [Conclusion] Fast music (140 beats per minute) promotes a higher rating of perceived exertion and greater performance in self-selected walking pace without significantly altering physiological variables or affective response. PMID:26180303

  17. A Study of the Physiological Factors Affecting the Nature of the Adult Learner in the Phoenix Air National Guard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, James Brison

    An investigation reviewed current literature in the field of physiological factors affecting the adult learning environment. These findings were compared to the academic learning environment at the Phoenix Air National Guard. The end product was a set of recommendations for management to implement in order to improve the learning climate for the…

  18. Effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual variables and performance of self-selected walking pace.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Flávia Angélica Martins; Nunes, Renan Felipe Hartmann; Ferreira, Sandro Dos Santos; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklin; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual responses as well as the performance of self-selected walking pace. [Subjects] The study included 28 adult women between 29 and 51 years old. [Methods] The subjects were divided into three groups: no musical stimulation group (control), and 90 and 140 beats per minute musical tempo groups. Each subject underwent three experimental sessions: involved familiarization with the equipment, an incremental test to exhaustion, and a 30-min walk on a treadmill at a self-selected pace, respectively. During the self-selected walking session, physiological, perceptual, and affective variables were evaluated, and walking performance was evaluated at the end. [Results] There were no significant differences in physiological variables or affective response among groups. However, there were significant differences in perceptual response and walking performance among groups. [Conclusion] Fast music (140 beats per minute) promotes a higher rating of perceived exertion and greater performance in self-selected walking pace without significantly altering physiological variables or affective response. PMID:26180303

  19. Acute Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Intranasal Methamphetamine in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Carl L; Gunderson, Erik W; Perez, Audrey; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Thurmond, Andrew; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Intranasal methamphetamine abuse has increased dramatically in the past decade, yet only one published study has investigated its acute effects under controlled laboratory conditions. Thus, the current study examined the effects of single-dose intranasal methamphetamine administration on a broad range of behavioral and physiological measures. Eleven nontreatment-seeking methamphetamine abusers (two females, nine males) completed this four-session, in-patient, within-participant, double-blind study. During each session, one of four intranasal methamphetamine doses (0, 12, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg) was administered and methamphetamine plasma concentrations, cardiovascular, subjective, and psychomotor/cognitive performance effects were assessed before drug administration and repeatedly thereafter. Following drug administration, methamphetamine plasma concentrations systematically increased for 4 h postdrug administration then declined. Methamphetamine dose dependently increased cardiovascular measures and ‘positive’ subjective effects, with peaks occurring approximately 5–15 min after drug administration, when plasma levels were still ascending. In addition, cognitive performance on less complicated tasks was improved by all active methamphetamine doses, whereas performance on more complicated tasks was improved only by the intermediate doses (12 and 25 mg). These results show that intranasal methamphetamine produced predictable effects on multiple behavioral and physiological measures before peak plasma levels were observed. Of interest is the dissociation between methamphetamine plasma concentrations with cardiovascular measures and positive subjective effects, which might have important implications for potential toxicity after repeated doses. PMID:17851535

  20. Allocation, stress tolerance and carbon transport in plants: how does phloem physiology affect plant ecology?

    PubMed

    Savage, Jessica A; Clearwater, Michael J; Haines, Dustin F; Klein, Tamir; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Sevanto, Sanna; Turgeon, Robert; Zhang, Cankui

    2016-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of carbon transport in whole plant physiology and its impact on plant-environment interactions and ecosystem function, relatively little research has tried to examine how phloem physiology impacts plant ecology. In this review, we highlight several areas of active research where inquiry into phloem physiology has increased our understanding of whole plant function and ecological processes. We consider how xylem-phloem interactions impact plant drought tolerance and reproduction, how phloem transport influences carbon allocation in trees and carbon cycling in ecosystems and how phloem function mediates plant relations with insects, pests, microbes and symbiotes. We argue that in spite of challenges that exist in studying phloem physiology, it is critical that we consider the role of this dynamic vascular system when examining the relationship between plants and their biotic and abiotic environment. PMID:26147312

  1. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-03-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states.

  2. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-01-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects' affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain's motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states. PMID:26996254

  3. Higher-order Multivariable Polynomial Regression to Estimate Human Affective States

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Chen, Tong; Liu, Guangyuan; Yang, Jiemin

    2016-01-01

    From direct observations, facial, vocal, gestural, physiological, and central nervous signals, estimating human affective states through computational models such as multivariate linear-regression analysis, support vector regression, and artificial neural network, have been proposed in the past decade. In these models, linear models are generally lack of precision because of ignoring intrinsic nonlinearities of complex psychophysiological processes; and nonlinear models commonly adopt complicated algorithms. To improve accuracy and simplify model, we introduce a new computational modeling method named as higher-order multivariable polynomial regression to estimate human affective states. The study employs standardized pictures in the International Affective Picture System to induce thirty subjects’ affective states, and obtains pure affective patterns of skin conductance as input variables to the higher-order multivariable polynomial model for predicting affective valence and arousal. Experimental results show that our method is able to obtain efficient correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.96 for estimation of affective valence and arousal, respectively. Moreover, the method may provide certain indirect evidences that valence and arousal have their brain’s motivational circuit origins. Thus, the proposed method can serve as a novel one for efficiently estimating human affective states. PMID:26996254

  4. Relationship Between Human Physiological Parameters And Geomagnetic Variations Of Solar Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    This study attempts to assess the influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pressure, heart rate and general well-being of 86 volunteers were measured (the latter by means of a standardized questionnaire) on work days in autumn 2001 (01/10 to 09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04 to 28/05). These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether, 2799 recordings were obtained and analysed. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The three factors were the following: 1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; 2) gender - males and females; 3) blood pressure degree - persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors' levels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure reached 9%, which deserves attention from a medical point of view. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pressure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity increase. During severe geomagnetic storms 30% of the persons examined reported subjective complaints and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females. The results obtained add further evidence that blood pressure seems to be affected by geomagnetic

  5. [Physiological basis of human mechanics and its application in the design of pressure suit].

    PubMed

    Jia, S G; Chen, J S

    1999-12-01

    Objective. To discuss the necessity that human mechanics and its physiological basis as applied to the research of human motion in many areas. Method. The motion performance of two aerospace [correction of areospace] pressure suit were studied. Human mechanics and its physiological basis was applied in the design of one suit only. Result. The result showed that good performance was obtained with the suit designed according to this principle which the stipulated actions couldn't be well performanced when wearing the suit not so designed. Conclusion. The research of the application of human mechanics and its physiological basis is necessary and it has better reality and is more scientific than applying biomechanics and robotics. PMID:12434811

  6. PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURES TO METHYL TERTIARY-BUTYL ETHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans can be exposed by inhalation, ingestion, or dermal absorption to methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), an oxygenated fuel additive, from contaminated water sources. The purpose of this research was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model describing in human...

  7. Study of Physiological Responses to Acute Carbon Monoxide Exposure with a Human Patient Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesari, Whitney A.; Caruso, Dominique M.; Zyka, Enela L.; Schroff, Stuart T.; Evans, Charles H., Jr.; Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K.

    2006-01-01

    Human patient simulators are widely used to train health professionals and students in a clinical setting, but they also can be used to enhance physiology education in a laboratory setting. Our course incorporates the human patient simulator for experiential learning in which undergraduate university juniors and seniors are instructed to design,…

  8. Low-field MRI for studies of human pulmonary physiology and traumatic brain injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Alyssa; Devience, Stephen; Rosen, Matthew; Walsworth, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    We describe recent progress on the development of an open-access low-magnetic-field MRI system for studies of human pulmonary physiology and traumatic brain injury. Low-field MRI benefits from reduced magnetic susceptibility effects and can provide high-resolution images of the human body when used with hyperpolarized media such as 3He and 129Xe.

  9. Validation of Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Vinyl Acetate Against Human Nasal Dosimetry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderliter, Paul M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Corley, Rick A.; Bloemen, Louis J.; Bogdanffy, M S.

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into thenasopharyngeal region sampled both 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13 C1 , 13 C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  10. Effects of foliage plants on human physiological and psychological responses at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumeno, Desto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    Escalation of task demands and time pressures tends to make a worker run into work stress, which leads to mental fatigue and depression. The mental fatigue can be reduced when attention capacity is restored. Nature can serve as a source of fascination which can restore the attention capacity. People bring plants indoors so they can experience nature in their workplace. The stress and fatigue are also affected by air temperatures. The increase or decrease of temperatures from the comfort zone may induce the stress and fatigue. The objective of this study is to investigate the intervention of using foliage plants placed inside a building at different air temperature levels. The effects of foliage plants on human stress and fatigue were measured by human physiological responses such as heart rate, amylase level, electroencephalography (EEG), and the secondary task-reaction time. Several different tasks, namely typing, math and logical sequences are included in the investigation of these studies. Fifteen subjects, with the age ranged from 22 to 38 years old have participated in the study using within subject design. From the study, it is revealed that the presence of foliage plants at several temperatures have different effects on meditation, secondary task reaction time and typing accuracy. This study also revealed that the presence of plants on several types of tasks has different effects of attention which are useful for increasing work performance.

  11. Matters of Taste: Bridging Molecular Physiology and the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangachari, P. K.; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple…

  12. USE OF PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC (PBPK) MODELS TO QUANTIFY THE IMPACT OF HUMAN AGE AND INTERINDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY PERTINENT TO RISK (FINAL REPORT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report, Use of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models to Quantify the Impact of Human Age and Interindividual Differences in Physiology and Biochemistry Pertinent to Risk Final R...

  13. Toward an Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Ruyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of Affective Pedagogy of Human Rights Education (APHRE) on a theoretical level and suggests a concept of curricular framework. APHRE highlights the significance of affectivity and body in the process of learning, factors usually neglected in the mainstream intellectualistic approach to learning, especially in areas…

  14. Physiology and relevance of human adaptive thermogenesis response.

    PubMed

    Celi, Francesco S; Le, Trang N; Ni, Bin

    2015-05-01

    In homoeothermic organisms, the preservation of core temperature represents a primal function, and its costs in terms of energy expenditure can be considerable. In modern humans, the endogenous thermoregulation mechanisms have been replaced by clothing and environmental control, and the maintenance of thermoneutrality has been successfully achieved by manipulation of the micro- and macroenvironment. The rediscovery of the presence and activity of brown adipose tissue in adult humans has renewed the interest on adaptive thermogenesis (AT) as a means to facilitate weight loss and improve carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of this review is to describe the recent advancements in the study of this function, and to assess the potential and limitations of exploiting AT for environmental/behavioral, and pharmacological interventions. PMID:25869212

  15. Cigarette smoke affects posttranslational modifications and inhibits capacitation-induced changes in human sperm proteins.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Vibha; Marmor, Hannah; Chernyak, Sholom; Goldstein, Marc; Feliciano, Miriam; Vigodner, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Sperm are highly dependent on posttranslational modifications of proteins. Massive phosphorylation on tyrosine residue is required for sperm capacitation. Sumoylation has also been recently implicated in spermatogenesis and sperm functions. Cigarette smoke is known to cause oxidative stress in different tissues, and several studies suggest that it causes oxidative stress in sperm. Whether tobacco affects posttranslational modifications in human sperm is currently unknown. In this study, we show that a short exposure of human sperm to physiological concentrations of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) causes the partial de-sumoylation of many sperm proteins. Furthermore, the presence of a low concentration of CSE in the human tubal fluid during an induction of in vitro capacitation inhibits the capacitation-associated increase in protein phosphorylation. Collectively, changes in posttranslational modifications may be one of the mechanisms through which exposure to tobacco can negatively affect sperm functions and cause fertility problems. PMID:24345728

  16. Study of physiological responses to acute carbon monoxide exposure with a human patient simulator.

    PubMed

    Cesari, Whitney A; Caruso, Dominique M; Zyka, Enela L; Schroff, Stuart T; Evans, Charles H; Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K

    2006-12-01

    Human patient simulators are widely used to train health professionals and students in a clinical setting, but they also can be used to enhance physiology education in a laboratory setting. Our course incorporates the human patient simulator for experiential learning in which undergraduate university juniors and seniors are instructed to design, conduct, and present (orally and in written form) their project testing physiological adaptation to an extreme environment. This article is a student report on the physiological response to acute carbon monoxide exposure in a simulated healthy adult male and a coal miner and represents how 1) human patient simulators can be used in a nonclinical way for experiential hypothesis testing; 2) students can transition from traditional textbook learning to practical application of their knowledge; and 3) student-initiated group investigation drives critical thought. While the course instructors remain available for consultation throughout the project, the relatively unstructured framework of the assignment drives the students to create an experiment independently, troubleshoot problems, and interpret the results. The only stipulation of the project is that the students must generate an experiment that is physiologically realistic and that requires them to search out and incorporate appropriate data from primary scientific literature. In this context, the human patient simulator is a viable educational tool for teaching integrative physiology in a laboratory environment by bridging textual information with experiential investigation. PMID:17108253

  17. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective

    PubMed Central

    de Borst, Aline W.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations. PMID:26029133

  18. Behavioral Avoidance - Will Physiological Insecticide Resistance Level of Insect Strains Affect Their Oviposition and Movement Responses?

    PubMed Central

    Nansen, Christian; Baissac, Olivier; Nansen, Maria; Powis, Kevin; Baker, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural organisms, such as insect herbivores, provide unique opportunities for studies of adaptive evolutionary processes, including effects of insecticides on movement and oviposition behavior. In this study, Brassica leaves were treated with one of two non-systemic insecticides and exposed to two individual strains (referred to as single or double resistance) of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) (DBM) exhibiting physiological resistance. Behavioral responses by these two strains were compared as part of characterizing the relative effect of levels of physiological resistance on the likelihood of insects showing signs of behavioral avoidance. For each DBM strain, we used choice bioassays to quantify two possible types of behavioral avoidance: 1) females ovipositing predominantly on leaf surfaces without insecticides, and 2) larvae avoiding insecticide-treated leaf surfaces. In three-choice bioassays (leaves with no pesticide, 50% coverage with pesticide, or 100% coverage with pesticide), females from the single resistance DBM strain laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% insecticide coverage (both gamma-cyhalothrin and spinetoram). Females from the double resistance DBM strain also laid significantly more eggs on water treated leaves compared to leaves with 100% gamma-cyhalothrin, while moths did not adjust their oviposition behavior in response to spinetoram. Larvae from the single resistance DBM strain showed a significant increase in mobility in response to both insecticides and avoided insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. On the other hand, DBM larvae from the double resistance strain showed a significant decrease in mobility in response to insecticides, and they did not avoid insecticide-treated portions of leaves when given a choice. Our results suggest that pest populations with physiological resistance may show behavioral avoidance, as resistant females avoided oviposition on

  19. Physiology and biochemistry of human subjects during entrapment.

    PubMed

    Agapiou, A; Mikedi, K; Karma, S; Giotaki, Z K; Kolostoumbis, D; Papageorgiou, C; Zorba, E; Spiliopoulou, C; Amann, A; Statheropoulos, M

    2013-03-01

    A classification of various categories of entrapped people under the ruins of collapsed buildings after earthquakes, technical failures or explosions is proposed. Type and degree of injury at the moment of building collapse and duration of entrapment are the two basic parameters in this classification. The aim is to provide sources and types of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can be used for establishing a new method for locating entrapped victims based on human chemical signatures. Potential target compounds, among others, are ammonia, acetone, isoprene, dimethylsulfide, dimethyldisulfide and trimethylamine. In this context, the possible neuroendocrine, metabolic and physical responses of potential victims during the different types of entrapment are correlated with the sources of VOCs such as expired air, urine, blood and sweat. The proposed classification scheme was developed as part of an integrated research project which investigates the use of combined audio, video and chemical methods for the early location of entrapped people under the ruins of collapsed buildings. PMID:23318246

  20. Trace elements in human physiology and pathology: zinc and metallothioneins.

    PubMed

    Tapiero, Haim; Tew, Kenneth D

    2003-11-01

    Zinc is one of the most abundant nutritionally essential elements in the human body. It is found in all body tissues with 85% of the whole body zinc in muscle and bone, 11% in the skin and the liver and the remaining in all the other tissues. In multicellular organisms, virtually all zinc is intracellular, 30-40% is located in the nucleus, 50% in the cytoplasm, organelles and specialized vesicles (for digestive enzymes or hormone storage) and the remainder in the cell membrane. Zinc intake ranges from 107 to 231 micromol/d depending on the source, and human zinc requirement is estimated at 15 mg/d. Zinc has been shown to be essential to the structure and function of a large number of macromolecules and for over 300 enzymic reactions. It has both catalytic and structural roles in enzymes, while in zinc finger motifs, it provides a scaffold that organizes protein sub-domains for the interaction with either DNA or other proteins. It is critical for the function of a number of metalloproteins, inducing members of oxido-reductase, hydrolase ligase, lyase family and has co-activating functions with copper in superoxide dismutase or phospholipase C. The zinc ion (Zn(++)) does not participate in redox reactions, which makes it a stable ion in a biological medium whose potential is in constant flux. Zinc ions are hydrophilic and do not cross cell membranes by passive diffusion. In general, transport has been described as having both saturable and non-saturable components, depending on the Zn(II) concentrations involved. Zinc ions exist primarily in the form of complexes with proteins and nucleic acids and participate in all aspects of intermediary metabolism, transmission and regulation of the expression of genetic information, storage, synthesis and action of peptide hormones and structural maintenance of chromatin and biomembranes. PMID:14652165

  1. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH.

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  2. Coralline algal physiology is more adversely affected by elevated temperature than reduced pH

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Elizondo, Román Manuel; Enríquez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the physiological responses of coralline algae to ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, by exposing algal thalli of three species with contrasting photobiology and growth-form to reduced pH and elevated temperature. The analysis aimed to discern between direct and combined effects, while elucidating the role of light and photosynthesis inhibition in this response. We demonstrate the high sensitivity of coralline algae to photodamage under elevated temperature and its severe consequences on thallus photosynthesis and calcification rates. Moderate levels of light-stress, however, were maintained under reduced pH, resulting in no impact on algal photosynthesis, although moderate adverse effects on calcification rates were still observed. Accordingly, our results support the conclusion that global warming is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA, in particular in highly illuminated habitats such as coral reefs. We provide in this study a quantitative physiological model for the estimation of the impact of thermal-stress on coralline carbonate production, useful to foresee the impact of global warming on coralline contribution to reef carbon budgets, reef cementation, coral recruitment and the maintenance of reef biodiversity. This model, however, cannot yet account for the moderate physiological impact of low pH on coralline calcification. PMID:26740396

  3. Human physiological responses to cold exposure: Acute responses and acclimatization to prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    Castellani, John W; Young, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Cold exposure in humans causes specific acute and chronic physiological responses. This paper will review both the acute and long-term physiological responses and external factors that impact these physiological responses. Acute physiological responses to cold exposure include cutaneous vasoconstriction and shivering thermogenesis which, respectively, decrease heat loss and increase metabolic heat production. Vasoconstriction is elicited through reflex and local cooling. In combination, vasoconstriction and shivering operate to maintain thermal balance when the body is losing heat. Factors (anthropometry, sex, race, fitness, thermoregulatory fatigue) that influence the acute physiological responses to cold exposure are also reviewed. The physiological responses to chronic cold exposure, also known as cold acclimation/acclimatization, are also presented. Three primary patterns of cold acclimatization have been observed, a) habituation, b) metabolic adjustment, and c) insulative adjustment. Habituation is characterized by physiological adjustments in which the response is attenuated compared to an unacclimatized state. Metabolic acclimatization is characterized by an increased thermogenesis, whereas insulative acclimatization is characterized by enhancing the mechanisms that conserve body heat. The pattern of acclimatization is dependent on changes in skin and core temperature and the exposure duration. PMID:26924539

  4. Matters of taste: bridging molecular physiology and the humanities.

    PubMed

    Rangachari, P K; Rangachari, Usha

    2015-12-01

    Taste perception was the focus of an undergraduate course in the health sciences that bridged the sciences and humanities. A problem-based learning approach was used to study the biological issues, whereas the cultural transmutations of these molecular mechanisms were explored using a variety of resources (novels, cookbooks, and films). Multiple evaluation procedures were used: problem summaries and problem-solving exercises (tripartite problem-solving exercise) for the problem-based learning component and group tasks and individual exercises for the cultural issues. Self-selected groups chose specific tasks from a prescribed list of options (setting up a journal in molecular gastronomy, developing an electronic tongue, designing a restaurant for synesthetes, organizing a farmers' market, marketing a culinary tour, framing hedonic scales, exploring changing tastes through works of art or recipe books, and crafting beers for space travel). Individual tasks were selected from a menu of options (book reviews, film reviews, conversations, creative writing, and oral exams). A few guest lecturers (wine making, cultural anthropology, film analysis, and nutritional epidemiology) added more flavor. The course was rated highly for its learning value (8.5 ± 1.2, n = 62) and helped students relate biological mechanisms to cultural issues (9.0 ± 0.9, n = 62). PMID:26628651

  5. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models in human exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, K.

    1995-12-31

    The potential dose received by an individual during defined exposure situations can be determined using personal dosimeters or estimated by combining information on exposure scenarios with the environmental concentration (C.) of chemicals. With the latter approach, not only the potential dose but also the internal dose (i.e., amount of chemical that has been absorbed and available for interaction with receptors) and biologically-effective dose (i.e., amount of chemical that actually reaches the cellular sites where interaction with macromolecules occur) can be estimated if C. is provided as an input to PBPK models. These models are mathematical representations of the interrelationships among the critical determinants of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of chemicals in biota. Since the compartments in this model correspond to biologically relevant tissues or tissue groups, the amount of chemical reaching specific target organ(s) can be estimated. Further, the PBPK models permit the use of biological monitoring data such as urinary levels of metabolites, hemoglobin adduct levels, and alveolar air concentrations, to reconstruct the exposure levels and scenarios for specific subgroups of populations. These models are also useful in providing estimates of target tissue dose in humans simultaneously exposed to chemicals in various media (air, water, soil, food) by different routes (oral, dermal, inhalation). Several examples of exposure assessment for volatile organic chemicals using PBPK models for mammals will be presented, and the strategies for development of these models for other classes of chemicals highlighted.

  6. Synchronization Analysis of Language and Physiology in Human Dyads.

    PubMed

    Orsucci, Franco F; Musmeci, Nicolò; Aas, Benjamin; Schiepek, Günter; Reda, Mario A; Canestri, Luca; Giuliani, Alessandro; de Felice, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    We studied the synchronization dynamics of a therapist and patient during a psychotherapy session. This investigation was developed in order to explore a new possible perspective and methodology for studying the expression of emotions. More specifically, literature concerning synchronization of in-session non-verbal variables emphasises its positive correlation with empathy and therapeutic outcomes. We compared the dynamics of galvanic skin response (GSR) and linguistic prosody, chosen as indicators of emotional expression in different domains. We studied their synchronization through complementary methodologies: Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Markov Transition Matrix (MTM) and Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQA). We investigated the nonlinearity of GSR in terms of self-similarity and power-law, as emerged in autocorrelation functions and signal variations. We considered time-lagged correlations as a measure of dynamical systems' memory. This article concludes by highlighting the importance of a deeper study of all variables related to the psychotherapeutic process and their synchronization in order to extend our knowledge of general human dynamics. PMID:27033132

  7. Human colorectal mucosal microbiota correlates with its host niche physiology revealed by endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Li, Ming; Li, Chang-Qing; Kou, Guan-Jun; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The human gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of health, but how the microbiota interacts with the host at the colorectal mucosa is poorly understood. We proposed that confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) might help to untangle this relationship by providing in vivo physiological information of the mucosa. We used CLE to evaluate the in vivo physiology of human colorectal mucosa, and the mucosal microbiota was quantified using 16 s rDNA pyrosequencing. The human mucosal microbiota agglomerated to three major clusters dominated by Prevotella, Bacteroides and Lactococcus. The mucosal microbiota clusters did not significantly correlate with the disease status or biopsy sites but closely correlated with the mucosal niche physiology, which was non-invasively revealed by CLE. Inflammation tilted two subnetworks within the mucosal microbiota. Infiltration of inflammatory cells significantly correlated with multiple components in the predicted metagenome, such as the VirD2 component of the type IV secretory pathway. Our data suggest that a close correlation exists between the mucosal microbiota and the colorectal mucosal physiology, and CLE is a clinically available tool that can be used to facilitate the study of the in vivo correlation between colorectal mucosal physiology and the mucosal microbiota. PMID:26916597

  8. Thermal imaging to detect physiological indicators of stress in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Carl B.; Skipper, Julie A.; Petkie, Douglas T.

    2013-05-01

    Real-time, stand-off sensing of human subjects to detect emotional state would be valuable in many defense, security and medical scenarios. We are developing a multimodal sensor platform that incorporates high-resolution electro-optical and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) cameras and a millimeter-wave radar system to identify individuals who are psychologically stressed. Recent experiments have aimed to: 1) assess responses to physical versus psychological stressors; 2) examine the impact of topical skin products on thermal signatures; and 3) evaluate the fidelity of vital signs extracted from thermal imagery and radar signatures. Registered image and sensor data were collected as subjects (n=32) performed mental and physical tasks. In each image, the face was segmented into 29 non-overlapping segments based on fiducial points automatically output by our facial feature tracker. Image features were defined that facilitated discrimination between psychological and physical stress states. To test the ability to intentionally mask thermal responses indicative of anxiety or fear, subjects applied one of four topical skin products to one half of their face before performing tasks. Finally, we evaluated the performance of two non-contact techniques to detect respiration and heart rate: chest displacement extracted from the radar signal and temperature fluctuations at the nose tip and regions near superficial arteries to detect respiration and heart rates, respectively, extracted from the MWIR imagery. Our results are very satisfactory: classification of physical versus psychological stressors is repeatedly greater than 90%, thermal masking was almost always ineffective, and accurate heart and respiration rates are detectable in both thermal and radar signatures.

  9. Convergence between Physiological, Facial and Verbal Self-Report Measures of Affective Empathy in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Warden, David

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the degree of convergence between three different measures of vicarious affective responsiveness (affective empathy)--verbal self-report, facial expression and change in heart rate--in typically developing children (N=29, aged 8-10 years), when presented with an emotionally evocative film. Although convergence…

  10. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  11. A Method of Ground Simulation of Physiological Effects of Hypogravity on Humans.

    PubMed

    Baranov, M V; Katuntsev, V P; Shpakov, A V; Baranov, V M

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of ground simulation in humans of physiological effects induced by the stay on the surface of celestial bodies with hypogravity was developed and successfully tested. This method is based on the change of gravity force angle, which decreases the gravitational component of the blood hydrostatic pressure characteristic of human vertical posture on the Earth and the load-weight onto the locomotor apparatus to the lower values expected at celestial bodies with hypogravity. The methodological requirements for ground simulation of the physiological effects of lunar gravity on human body are specified and substantiated by theoretical calculations. The experimental study revealed redistribution of liquid media in the human organism, functional changes in the cardiorespiratory system, and a decrease in the load-weight applied to the locomotor apparatus. PMID:26742752

  12. An Investigative Laboratory Course in Human Physiology Using Computer Technology and Collaborative Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A.

    2004-01-01

    Active investigative student-directed experiences in laboratory science are being encouraged by national science organizations. A growing body of evidence from classroom assessment supports their effectiveness. This study describes four years of implementation and assessment of an investigative laboratory course in human physiology for 65…

  13. Coursera's Introductory Human Physiology Course: Factors That Characterize Successful Completion of a MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Deborah; Mankoff, Chris; Carbrey, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Since Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are accessible by anyone in the world at no cost, they have large enrollments that are conducive to educational research. This study examines students in the Coursera MOOC, Introductory Human Physiology. Of the 33,378 students who accessed the course, around 15,000 students responded to items on the…

  14. Understanding Protein Synthesis: A Role-Play Approach in Large Undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Cole, Oladipo

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of role play in a large undergraduate science class. The targeted population consisted of 298 students enrolled in 2 sections of an undergraduate Human Anatomy and Physiology course taught by the same instructor. The section engaged in the role-play activity served as the study group, whereas the section…

  15. Physiological responses to prolonged bed rest in humans: A compendium of research, 1981-1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Phuong B.; Ortiz, Vanessa; Barnes, Paul R.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1990-01-01

    Clinical observations and results form more basic studies that help to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of the adaptation of humans to prolonged bed rest. If the authors' abstract or summary was appropriate, it was included. In some cases a more detailed synopsis was provided under the subheadings of purpose, methods, results, and conclusions.

  16. Physiological variables affecting surface film formation by native lamellar body-like pulmonary surfactant particles.

    PubMed

    Hobi, Nina; Siber, Gerlinde; Bouzas, Virginia; Ravasio, Andrea; Pérez-Gil, Jesus; Haller, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Pulmonary surfactant (PS) is a surface active complex of lipids and proteins that prevents the alveolar structures from collapsing and reduces the work of breathing by lowering the surface tension at the alveolar air-liquid interface (ALI). Surfactant is synthesized by the alveolar type II (AT II) cells, and it is stored in specialized organelles, the lamellar bodies (LBs), as tightly packed lipid bilayers. Upon secretion into the alveolar lining fluid, a large fraction of these particles retain most of their packed lamellar structure, giving rise to the term lamellar body like-particles (LBPs). Due to their stability in aqueous media, freshly secreted LBPs can be harvested from AT II cell preparations. However, when LBPs get in contact with an ALI, they quickly and spontaneously adsorb into a highly organized surface film. In the present study we investigated the adsorptive capacity of LBPs at an ALI under relevant physiological parameters that characterize the alveolar environment in homeostatic or in pathological conditions. Adsorption of LBPs at an ALI is highly sensitive to pH, temperature and albumin concentration and to a relatively lesser extent to changes in osmolarity or Ca(2+) concentrations in the physiological range. Furthermore, proteolysis of LBPs significantly decreases their adsorptive capacity confirming the important role of surfactant proteins in the formation of surface active films. PMID:24582711

  17. Modulation of histamine release from human basophils in vitro by physiological concentrations of zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Marone, G.; Findlay, S.R.; Lichtenstein, L.M.

    1981-05-01

    Zinc, at physiologic concentrations, inhibits in vitro histamine release from human basophils induced by several immunologic (i.e., antigen and anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) and nonimmunologic (Ca/sup + +/ ionophore A23187 and formylated tripeptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-met peptide)) stimuli in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition begins at about 10(-6) (ionophore A23187, anti-IgE and antigen) or 10(-5) M (f-met peptide) and is maximum at 10(-4) M (80--100% inhibition of histamine release). The activity of zinc is about 25-fold greater with respect to ionophore A23187 (ID50 . 1.1 x 10(-6) M) than to f-met peptide-induced (ID50 . 4 x 10(-5) M) histamine release. Its activity on IgE-mediated histamine release is intermediate between these two extremes (ID50 . 9.7 x 10(-6) M). Zinc does not affect the first stage of histamine release but acts on the calcium-dependent second stage. It is a competitive antagonist of the action of Ca/sup + +/ in histamine secretion induced by antigen, anti-IgE and f-met peptide (but not by A23187) with a dissociation constant of about 1.2 x 10(-5) M. The addition of colchicine with zinc fails to increase the inhibition caused by the ion alone, suggesting the two compounds work via a common mechanism of action. Deuterium oxide reversed, in a dose-dependent manner, the inhibition of histamine release caused by zinc. These results suggest that the effect of zinc on histamine release from human basophils may be related to its influence on the microtubule system, directly or via its interaction with calcium.

  18. Consensus and stratification in the affective meaning of human sociality

    PubMed Central

    Ambrasat, Jens; von Scheve, Christian; Conrad, Markus; Schauenburg, Gesche; Schröder, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    We investigate intrasocietal consensus and variation in affective meanings of concepts related to authority and community, two elementary forms of human sociality. Survey participants (n = 2,849) from different socioeconomic status (SES) groups in German society provided ratings of 909 social concepts along three basic dimensions of affective meaning. Results show widespread consensus on these meanings within society and demonstrate that a meaningful structure of socially shared knowledge emerges from organizing concepts according to their affective similarity. The consensus finding is further qualified by evidence for subtle systematic variation along SES differences. In relation to affectively neutral words, high-status individuals evaluate intimacy-related and socially desirable concepts as less positive and powerful than middle- or low-status individuals, while perceiving antisocial concepts as relatively more threatening. This systematic variation across SES groups suggests that the affective meaning of sociality is to some degree a function of social stratification. PMID:24843121

  19. Physiological evidence for a human-induced landscape of fear in brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Støen, Ole-Gunnar; Ordiz, Andres; Evans, Alina L; Laske, Timothy G; Kindberg, Jonas; Fröbert, Ole; Swenson, Jon E; Arnemo, Jon M

    2015-12-01

    Human persecution is a major cause of mortality for large carnivores. Consequently, large carnivores avoid humans, but may use human-dominated landscapes by being nocturnal and elusive. Behavioral studies indicate that certain ecological systems are "landscapes of fear", driven by antipredator behavior. Because behavior and physiology are closely interrelated, physiological assessments may provide insight into the behavioral response of large carnivores to human activity. To elucidate changes in brown bears' (Ursus arctos) behavior associated with human activity, we evaluated stress as changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in 12 GPS-collared, free-ranging bears, 7 males and 5 females, 3-11 years old, using cardiac-monitoring devices. We applied generalized linear regression models with HR and HRV as response variables and chest activity, time of day, season, distance traveled, and distance to human settlements from GPS positions recorded every 30 min as potential explanatory variables. Bears exhibited lower HRV, an indication of stress, when they were close to human settlements and especially during the berry season, when humans were more often in the forest, picking berries and hunting. Our findings provide evidence of a human-induced landscape of fear in this hunted population of brown bears. PMID:26476156

  20. Physiological and Pathological Aging Affects Chromatin Dynamics, Structure and Function at the Nuclear Edge

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jérôme D.; Magdinier, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are intermediate filaments that form a complex meshwork at the inner nuclear membrane. Mammalian cells express two types of Lamins, Lamins A/C and Lamins B, encoded by three different genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. Mutations in the LMNA gene are associated with a group of phenotypically diverse diseases referred to as laminopathies. Lamins interact with a large number of binding partners including proteins of the nuclear envelope but also chromatin-associated factors. Lamins not only constitute a scaffold for nuclear shape, rigidity and resistance to stress but also contribute to the organization of chromatin and chromosomal domains. We will discuss here the impact of A-type Lamins loss on alterations of chromatin organization and formation of chromatin domains and how disorganization of the lamina contributes to the patho-physiology of premature aging syndromes. PMID:27602048

  1. Physiological and Pathological Aging Affects Chromatin Dynamics, Structure and Function at the Nuclear Edge.

    PubMed

    Robin, Jérôme D; Magdinier, Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    Lamins are intermediate filaments that form a complex meshwork at the inner nuclear membrane. Mammalian cells express two types of Lamins, Lamins A/C and Lamins B, encoded by three different genes, LMNA, LMNB1, and LMNB2. Mutations in the LMNA gene are associated with a group of phenotypically diverse diseases referred to as laminopathies. Lamins interact with a large number of binding partners including proteins of the nuclear envelope but also chromatin-associated factors. Lamins not only constitute a scaffold for nuclear shape, rigidity and resistance to stress but also contribute to the organization of chromatin and chromosomal domains. We will discuss here the impact of A-type Lamins loss on alterations of chromatin organization and formation of chromatin domains and how disorganization of the lamina contributes to the patho-physiology of premature aging syndromes. PMID:27602048

  2. Ocean Acidification Affects Hemocyte Physiology in the Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes bairdi).

    PubMed

    Meseck, Shannon L; Alix, Jennifer H; Swiney, Katherine M; Long, W Christopher; Wikfors, Gary H; Foy, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    We used flow cytometry to determine if there would be a difference in hematology, selected immune functions, and hemocyte pH (pHi), under two different, future ocean acidification scenarios (pH = 7.50, 7.80) compared to current conditions (pH = 8.09) for Chionoecetes bairdi, Tanner crab. Hemocytes were analyzed after adult Tanner crabs were held for two years under continuous exposure to acidified ocean water. Total counts of hemocytes did not vary among control and experimental treatments; however, there were significantly greater number of dead, circulating hemocytes in crabs held at the lowest pH treatment. Phagocytosis of fluorescent microbeads by hemocytes was greatest at the lowest pH treatment. These results suggest that hemocytes were dying, likely by apoptosis, at a rate faster than upregulated phagocytosis was able to remove moribund cells from circulation at the lowest pH. Crab hemolymph pH (pHe) averaged 8.09 and did not vary among pH treatments. There was no significant difference in internal pH (pHi) within hyalinocytes among pH treatments and the mean pHi (7.26) was lower than the mean pHe. In contrast, there were significant differences among treatments in pHi of the semi-granular+granular cells. Control crabs had the highest mean semi-granular+granular pHi compared to the lowest pH treatment. As physiological hemocyte functions changed from ambient conditions, interactions with the number of eggs in the second clutch, percentage of viable eggs, and calcium concentration in the adult crab shell was observed. This suggested that the energetic costs of responding to ocean acidification and maintaining defense mechanisms in Tanner crab may divert energy from other physiological processes, such as reproduction. PMID:26859148

  3. Ocean Acidification Affects Hemocyte Physiology in the Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes bairdi)

    PubMed Central

    Meseck, Shannon L.; Alix, Jennifer H.; Swiney, Katherine M.; Long, W. Christopher; Wikfors, Gary H.; Foy, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    We used flow cytometry to determine if there would be a difference in hematology, selected immune functions, and hemocyte pH (pHi), under two different, future ocean acidification scenarios (pH = 7.50, 7.80) compared to current conditions (pH = 8.09) for Chionoecetes bairdi, Tanner crab. Hemocytes were analyzed after adult Tanner crabs were held for two years under continuous exposure to acidified ocean water. Total counts of hemocytes did not vary among control and experimental treatments; however, there were significantly greater number of dead, circulating hemocytes in crabs held at the lowest pH treatment. Phagocytosis of fluorescent microbeads by hemocytes was greatest at the lowest pH treatment. These results suggest that hemocytes were dying, likely by apoptosis, at a rate faster than upregulated phagocytosis was able to remove moribund cells from circulation at the lowest pH. Crab hemolymph pH (pHe) averaged 8.09 and did not vary among pH treatments. There was no significant difference in internal pH (pHi) within hyalinocytes among pH treatments and the mean pHi (7.26) was lower than the mean pHe. In contrast, there were significant differences among treatments in pHi of the semi-granular+granular cells. Control crabs had the highest mean semi-granular+granular pHi compared to the lowest pH treatment. As physiological hemocyte functions changed from ambient conditions, interactions with the number of eggs in the second clutch, percentage of viable eggs, and calcium concentration in the adult crab shell was observed. This suggested that the energetic costs of responding to ocean acidification and maintaining defense mechanisms in Tanner crab may divert energy from other physiological processes, such as reproduction. PMID:26859148

  4. Elementary Affective Education in Human Relations: Teachers Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. P. K. Yonge Lab. School.

    The activities and resources in this teacher's guide have been developed and field tested as part of the research and development mission of the P. K. Yonge Laboratory School of the College of Education of the University of Florida. The Elementary Affective Education for Human Relations Project utilized classroom teachers in a variety of settings…

  5. How Do Volcanoes Affect Human Life? Integrated Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Rebecca; Edwards, Carrie; Sisler, Michelle

    This packet contains a unit on teaching about volcanoes. The following question is addressed: How do volcanoes affect human life? The unit covers approximately three weeks of instruction and strives to present volcanoes in an holistic form. The five subject areas of art, language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies are integrated into…

  6. The comparative psychopathology of affective disorders in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Healy, D

    1987-01-01

    Reviews of animal models of affective disorders commonly concentrate on the behavioural features thereof, the supposed neurochemical substrates, the mode of production and the response to treatment of the state in question but ignore questions of psycho pathology. An attempt is made to deal critically with the psychopathology of human and animal affective disorders in the light of current operational criteria for the diagnosis of major depressive disorders. It is argued thatthe psychopathological tradition stemming from Jaspers may be more appropriate to a consideration of animal models of affective disorders than the psychopathological positions implicit in psychoanalysis, behaviourism or current cognitive psychologies and in addition more suited to meet these criteria. The adoption of such a perspective results in a shift of emphasis from abnormalities of psychological content to demonstrable neuropsychological deficits and a definition of affective disorders, whether in animals or humans, as psychosomatic illnesses, possibly involving a pathology of circadian rhythmicity. This perspective also suggests that animal models may be useful in the devel opment of more refined diagnostic criteria for affective disorders in humans. PMID:22158981

  7. Changing undergraduate human anatomy and physiology laboratories: perspectives from a large-enrollment course.

    PubMed

    Griff, Edwin R

    2016-09-01

    In the present article, a veteran lecturer of human anatomy and physiology taught several sections of the laboratory component for the first time and shares his observations and analysis from this unique perspective. The article discusses a large-enrollment, content-heavy anatomy and physiology course in relationship to published studies on learning and student self-efficacy. Changes in the laboratory component that could increase student learning are proposed. The author also points out the need for research to assess whether selective curricular changes could increase the depth of understanding and retention of learned material. PMID:27503898

  8. Negative affect and 24-hour ambulatory physiological recordings as predictors of spontaneous improvement of medically unexplained symptoms.

    PubMed

    Houtveen, Jan H; VAN Doornen, Lorenz J P

    2008-12-01

    The predictive value for spontaneous improvement in individuals suffering from medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) was explored of (1) anxiety and depression obtained from questionnaires, (2) negative affective states obtained from experience-sampling, and (3) ambulatory-assessed real-life physiological recordings. Sixty-seven individuals with MUS and 61 healthy controls were included. Twenty-four hour ambulatory recordings of cardiac autonomic activity, respiration, end-tidal CO(2) and saliva cortisol were combined with experience-sampling of somatic complaints and mood. Complaints were assessed again after one year. Although a reduction in symptoms (25%) was found, this could not be predicted from initial anxiety and depression. Improvement was somewhat related to relatively low diary reports of fatigue, especially in the late-afternoon and evening (3% variance explained). From the physiological measures only relatively high PetCO(2) values in the morning predicted improvement (5% explained). It was concluded that spontaneous recovery from MUS is hard to predict from self-reported distress and ambulatory physiological recordings. PMID:18771476

  9. Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Bokhorst, Stef; Asplund, Johan; Kardol, Paul; Wardle, David A

    2015-09-01

    While there has been much interest in the relationships between traits of primary producers and composition of associated invertebrate consumer communities, our knowledge is largely based on studies from vascular plants, while other types of functionally important producers, such as lichens, have rarely been considered. To address how physiological traits of lichens drive community composition of invertebrates, we collected thalli from 27 lichen species from southern Norway and quantified the communities of associated springtails, mites, and nematodes. For each lichen species, we measured key physiological thallus traits and determined whether invertebrate communities were correlated with these traits. We also explored whether invertebrate communities differed among lichen groups, categorized according to nitrogen-fixing ability, growth form, and substratum. Lichen traits explained up to 39% of the variation in abundances of major invertebrate groups. For many invertebrate groups, abundance was positively correlated with lichen N and P concentrations, N:P ratio, and the percentage of water content on saturation (WC), but had few relationships with concentrations of carbon-based secondary compounds. Diversity and taxonomic richness of invertebrate groups were sometimes also correlated with lichen N and N:P ratios. Nitrogen-fixing lichens showed higher abundance and diversity of some invertebrate groups than did non-N-fixing lichens. However, this emerged in part because most N-fixing lichens have a foliose growth form that benefits invertebrates, through, improving the microclimate, independently of N concentration. Furthermore, invertebrate communities associated with terricolous lichens were determined more by their close proximity to the soil invertebrate pool than by lichen traits. Overall, our results reveal that differences between lichen species have a large impact on the invertebrate communities that live among the thalli. Different invertebrate groups show

  10. Transport of root-derived CO2 via the transpiration stream affects aboveground tree physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemen, J.; McGuire, M. A.; Aubrey, D. P.; Teskey, R. O.; Steppe, K.

    2012-04-01

    Recent research on soil CO2 efflux has shown that belowground autotrophic respiration is largely underestimated using classical net CO2 flux measurements. Aubrey & Teskey (2009) found that in forest ecosystems a substantial portion of the CO2 released from root respiration remained within the root system and was transported aboveground in the stem via the transpiration stream. The magnitude of this upward movement of CO2 from belowground tissues suggested important implications for how we measure above- and belowground respiration. If a considerable fraction of root-respired CO2 is transported aboveground, where it might be fixed in woody and leaf tissues, then we are routinely underestimating the amount of C needed to sustain belowground tissues. In this study, we infused 13C labeled water into the base of field-grown poplar trees as a surrogate for root-respired CO2 to investigate the possible role of root-derived CO2 as substrate for carbon fixation. The label was transported upwards from the base of the tree toward the top. During its ascent, the 13C label was removed from the transpiration stream and fixed by chlorophyll-containing woody (young bark and xylem) and leaf (petiole) tissues. Moreover, based on 13C analysis of gas samples, we observed that up to 88 ± 0.10 % of the label applied was lost to the atmosphere by stem and branch efflux higher in the trees. Given that one-half of root-respired CO2 may follow this internal flux pathway (Aubrey & Teskey, 2009), we calculated that up to 44% of the root-respired CO2 could diffuse to the atmosphere once transported to the stem and branches. Thus, a large portion of CO2 that diffuses out of aboveground tissues may actually result from root respiration. Our results show that CO2 originating belowground can be transported internally to aboveground parts of trees, where it will have an important impact on tree physiology. Internal transport of CO2 indicates that the gas exchange approach to estimating above- and

  11. Low-shear modeled microgravity: a global environmental regulatory signal affecting bacterial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; LeBlanc, Carly L.; Honer zu Bentrup, Kerstin; Hammond, Timothy; Pierson, Duane L.

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria inhabit an impressive variety of ecological niches and must adapt constantly to changing environmental conditions. While numerous environmental signals have been examined for their effect on bacteria, the effects of mechanical forces such as shear stress and gravity have only been investigated to a limited extent. However, several important studies have demonstrated a key role for the environmental signals of low shear and/or microgravity in the regulation of bacterial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis [Chem. Rec. 1 (2001) 333; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 54 (2000) 33; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63 (1997) 4090; J. Ind. Microbiol. 18 (1997) 22; Curr. Microbiol. 34(4) (1997) 199; Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 56(3-4) (2001) 384; Infect Immun. 68(6) (2000) 3147; Cell 109(7) (2002) 913; Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68(11) (2002) 5408; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 99(21) (2002) 13807]. The response of bacteria to these environmental signals, which are similar to those encountered during prokaryotic life cycles, may provide insight into bacterial adaptations to physiologically relevant conditions. This review focuses on the current and potential future research trends aimed at understanding the effect of the mechanical forces of low shear and microgravity analogues on different bacterial parameters. In addition, this review also discusses the use of microgravity technology to generate physiologically relevant human tissue models for research in bacterial pathogenesis.

  12. Incorporating affective bias in models of human decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nygren, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    Research on human decision making has traditionally focused on how people actually make decisions, how good their decisions are, and how their decisions can be improved. Recent research suggests that this model is inadequate. Affective as well as cognitive components drive the way information about relevant outcomes and events is perceived, integrated, and used in the decision making process. The affective components include how the individual frames outcomes as good or bad, whether the individual anticipates regret in a decision situation, the affective mood state of the individual, and the psychological stress level anticipated or experienced in the decision situation. A focus of the current work has been to propose empirical studies that will attempt to examine in more detail the relationships between the latter two critical affective influences (mood state and stress) on decision making behavior.

  13. Surgical procedure affects physiological parameters in rat myocardial ischemia: need for mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Horstick, G; Berg, O; Heimann, A; Darius, H; Lehr, H A; Bhakdi, S; Kempski, O; Meyer, J

    1999-02-01

    Several surgical approaches are being used to induce myocardial ischemia in rats. The present study investigated two different operative procedures in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated rats under sham conditions. A snare around the left coronary artery (LCA) was achieved without occlusion. Left lateral thoracotomy was performed in spontaneously breathing and mechanically ventilated rats (tidal volume 8 ml/kg) with a respiratory rate of 90 strokes/min at different levels of O2 supplementation (room air and 30, 40, and 90% O2). All animals were observed for 60 min after thoracotomy. Rats operated with exteriorization of the heart through left lateral thoracotomy while breathing spontaneously developed severe hypoxia and hypercapnia despite an intrathoracic operation time of <1 min. Arterial O2 content decreased from 18.7 +/- 0.5 to 3.3 +/- 0.9 vol%. Lactate increased from 1.2 +/- 0.1 to 5.2 +/- 0.3 mmol/l. Significant signs of ischemia were seen in the electrocardiogram up to 60 min. Mechanically ventilated animals exhibited a spectrum ranging from hypoxia (room air) to hyperoxia (90% O2). In order not to jeopardize findings in experimental myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury models, stable physiological parameters can be achieved in mechanically ventilated rats at an O2 application of 30-40% at 90 strokes/min. PMID:9950847

  14. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic models help identifying the key factors affecting contaminant uptake during flood events.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Kammann, Ulrike; Hudjetz, Sebastian; Cofalla, Catrina; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Preuss, Thomas; Hollert, Henner

    2014-07-01

    As a consequence of global climate change, we will be likely facing an increasing frequency and intensity of flood events. Thus, the ecotoxicological relevance of sediment re-suspension is of growing concern. It is vital to understand contaminant uptake from suspended sediments and relate it to effects in aquatic biota. Here we report on a computational study that utilizes a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to predict uptake, metabolism and excretion of sediment-borne pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this end, data from two experimental studies were compared with the model predictions: (a) batch re-suspension experiments with constant concentration of suspended particulate matter at two different temperatures (12 and 24°C), and (b) simulated flood events in an annular flume. The model predicted both the final concentrations and the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene secretion into the gall bladder of exposed rainbow trout well. We were able to show that exhaustive exercise during exposure in simulated flood events can lead to increased levels of biliary metabolites and identified cardiac output and effective respiratory volume as the two most important factors for contaminant uptake. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the relevance and the necessity to investigate uptake of contaminants from suspended sediments under realistic exposure scenarios. PMID:24727214

  15. Radiative and Physiological Effects of Increased CO2: How Does This Interaction Affect Climate?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari

    2011-01-01

    Several climate models indicate that in a 2xCO2 environment, temperature and precipitation would increase and runoff would increase faster than precipitation. These models, however, did not allow the vegetation to increase its leaf density as a response to the physiological effects of increased CO2 and consequent changes in climate. Other assessments included these interactions but did not account for the vegetation downregulation to reduce plant's photosynthetic activity and as such resulted in a weak vegetation negative response. When we combine these interactions in climate simulations with 2xCO2, the associated increase in precipitation contributes primarily to increase evapotranspiration rather than surface runoff, consistent with observations, and results in an additional cooling effect not fully accounted for in previous 2xCO2 simulations. By accelerating the water cycle, this feedback slows but does not alleviate the projected warming, reducing the land surface warming by 0.6 C. Compared to previous studies, these results imply that long term negative feedback from CO2-induced increases in vegetation density could reduce temperature following a stabilization of CO2 concentration.

  16. Physiological Effects Associated with Quinoa Consumption and Implications for Research Involving Humans: a Review.

    PubMed

    Simnadis, Thomas George; Tapsell, Linda C; Beck, Eleanor J

    2015-09-01

    Quinoa is a pseudo-grain consumed as a dietary staple in South America. In recent years, consumer demand for quinoa in the developed world has grown steadily. Its perceived health benefits have been cited as a driving force behind this trend, but there are very few human studies investigating the impact of quinoa consumption. The aim of this review was to identify physiological effects of quinoa consumption with potential for human health. A critical evaluation of animal model studies was conducted. The quality of identified studies was assessed using a methodological quality assessment tool and summative conclusions were drawn to guide the direction of future human research. The majority of studies were of fair quality. Purported physiological effects of quinoa consumption included decreased weight gain, improved lipid profile and improved capacity to respond to oxidative stress. These physiological effects were attributed to the presence of saponins, protein and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the quinoa seed. The implications of these findings are that human studies should investigate the impact of quinoa consumption on weight gain and lipid levels. The role of quinoa as an antioxidant is still unclear and requires further elucidation in animal models. PMID:26249220

  17. Hydroxyl density affects the interaction of fibrinogen with silica nanoparticles at physiological concentration.

    PubMed

    Marucco, Arianna; Turci, Francesco; O'Neill, Luke; Byrne, Hugh J; Fubini, Bice; Fenoglio, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    An increasing interest in the interaction between blood serum proteins and nanoparticles has emerged over the last years. In fact, this process plays a key role in the biological response to nanoparticles. The behavior of proteins at the biofluid/material interface is driven by the physico-chemical properties of the surface. However, much research is still needed to gain insight into the process at a molecular level. In this study, the effect of silanol density on the interaction of fibrinogen at physiological concentrations with silica nanoparticle/flat surfaces has been studied. Silica nanoparticles and silica wafers were modified and characterized to obtain a set of samples with different silanols density. The interaction with fibrinogen has been studied by evaluating the extent of coverage (bicinchoninic acid assay) and the irreversibility of adsorption (shift of the ζ potential). To clarify the molecular mechanism of fibrinogen/surface interactions, confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (nanoparticles) and atomic force microscopy (wafers) were used. Finally the effect of fibrinogen on the agglomeration of nanoparticles has been evaluated by Flow Particle Image Analysis. The data reported here show that a minimal variation in the state of the silica surface modifies the adsorption behavior of fibrinogen, which appears mediated by a competition between protein/protein and protein/surface interactions. By comparing the data obtained on nanoparticles and silicon-supported silica layers, we found that hydrophilicity increases the tendency of fibrinogen molecules to interact with the surface rather than with other molecules, thus inhibiting fibrinogen self-assembly. This study contributes to the knowledge of the processes occurring at the surface/biological fluids interface, needed for the design of new biocompatible materials. PMID:24491335

  18. Seminal plasma applied post-thawing affects boar sperm physiology: a flow cytometry study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gago, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Pastor, Felipe

    2013-09-01

    Cryopreservation induces extensive biophysical and biochemical changes in the sperm. In the present study, we used flow cytometry to assess the capacitation-like status of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa and its relationship with intracellular calcium, assessment of membrane fluidity, modification of thiol groups in plasma membrane proteins, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, viability, acrosomal status, and mitochondrial activity. This experiment was performed to verify the effect of adding seminal plasma on post-thaw sperm functions. To determine these effects after cryopreservation, frozen-thawed semen from seven boars was examined after supplementation with different concentrations of pooled seminal plasma (0%, 10%, and 50%) at various times of incubation from 0 to 4 hours. Incubation caused a decrease in membrane integrity and an increase in acrosomal damage, with small changes in other parameters (P > 0.05). Although 10% seminal plasma showed few differences with 0% (ROS increase at 4 hours, P < 0.05), 50% seminal plasma caused important changes. Membrane fluidity increased considerably from the beginning of the experiment, and ROS and free thiols in the cell surface increased by 2 hours of incubation. By the end of the experiment, viability decreased and acrosomal damage increased in the 50% seminal plasma samples. The addition of 50% of seminal plasma seems to modify the physiology of thawed boar spermatozoa, possibly through membrane changes and ROS increase. Although some effects were detrimental, the stimulatory effect of 50% seminal plasma could favor the performance of post-thawed boar semen, as showed in the field (García JC, Domínguez JC, Peña FJ, Alegre B, Gonzalez R, Castro MJ, Habing GG, Kirkwood RN. Thawing boar semen in the presence of seminal plasma: effects on sperm quality and fertility. Anim Reprod Sci 2010;119:160-5). PMID:23756043

  19. Habitat Degradation and Seasonality Affect Physiological Stress Levels of Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species. PMID:25229944

  20. Aging affects the cardiovascular responses to cold stress in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Kari L.; Wilson, Thad E.; Sauder, Charity L.; Gao, Zhaohui; Ray, Chester A.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular-related mortality peaks during cold winter months, particularly in older adults. Acute physiological responses, such as increases in blood pressure, in response to cold exposure may contribute to these associations. To determine whether the blood pressure-raising effect (pressor response) of non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress is greater with age, we measured physiological responses to 20 min of superficial skin cooling, via water-perfused suit, in 12 younger [25 ± 1 (SE) yr old] and 12 older (65 ± 2 yr old) adults. We found that superficial skin cooling elicited an increase in blood pressure from resting levels (pressor response; P < 0.05) in younger and older adults. However, the magnitude of this pressor response (systolic and mean blood pressure) was more than twofold higher in older adults (P < 0.05 vs. younger adults). The magnitude of the pressor response was similar at peripheral (brachial) and central (estimated in the aorta) measurement sites. Regression analysis revealed that aortic pulse wave velocity, a measure of central arterial stiffness obtained before cooling, was the best predictor of the increased pressor response to superficial skin cooling in older adults, explaining ∼63% of its variability. These results indicate that there is a greater pressor response to non-internal body temperature-reducing cold stress with age in humans that may be mediated by increased levels of central arterial stiffness. PMID:19679742

  1. Smart Sensors and Virtual Physiology Human Approach as a Basis of Personalized Therapies in Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Peruchena, Carlos M; Prado-Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has a growing incidence and prevalence in modern societies, pushed by the aging and change of life styles. Despite the huge resources dedicated to improve their quality of life, mortality and morbidity rates, these are still very poor. In this work, DM pathology is revised from clinical and metabolic points of view, as well as mathematical models related to DM, with the aim of justifying an evolution of DM therapies towards the correction of the physiological metabolic loops involved. We analyze the reliability of mathematical models, under the perspective of virtual physiological human (VPH) initiatives, for generating and integrating customized knowledge about patients, which is needed for that evolution. Wearable smart sensors play a key role in this frame, as they provide patient’s information to the models. A telehealthcare computational architecture based on distributed smart sensors (first processing layer) and personalized physiological mathematical models integrated in Human Physiological Images (HPI) computational components (second processing layer), is presented. This technology was designed for a renal disease telehealthcare in earlier works and promotes crossroads between smart sensors and the VPH initiative. We suggest that it is able to support a truly personalized, preventive, and predictive healthcare model for the delivery of evolved DM therapies. PMID:21625646

  2. Changes of pathological and physiological indicators affecting drug metabolism in rats after acute exposure to high altitude

    PubMed Central

    LI, WENBIN; WANG, RONG; XIE, HUA; ZHANG, JUANHONG; JIA, ZHENGPING

    2015-01-01

    High altitude environments cause the human body to undergo a series of pathological, physiological and biochemical changes, which have a certain effect on drug pharmacokinetics. The objective of the present study was to observe changes in factors affecting pharmacokinetics in rats following acute exposure to high altitude and return to low altitude. A total of 21 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to three groups. The rats in group A were maintained at low altitude in Shanghai, 55 m above sea level; those in group B were acutely exposed to high altitude in Maqu, Gansu, 4,010 m above sea level; and those in group C were acutely exposed to high altitude and then returned to low altitude. Blood was collected from the orbit for the analysis of significant biochemical indicators and from the abdominal aorta for blood gas analysis. Brain, lung and kidney tissues were removed to observe pathological changes. In group B, the pH, buffer base (BB), base excess (BE), total carbon dioxide content (ctCO2), oxygen saturation of arterial blood (sO2), oxygen tension of arterial blood (pO2), serum sodium (Na+) concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and total protein (TP) level were significantly reduced, and the carbon dioxide tension of arterial blood (pCO2), serum chloride (Cl−) concentration, serum total bilirubin (TBIL) level and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were significantly increased compared with those in group A (P<0.05). In group C, the pH, BB, BE, sO2, pO2, hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum Na+ concentration, LDH activity and TP level were significantly reduced, and the pCO2, serum Cl− concentration, alanine transaminase activity, TBIL and urea levels were significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with those in group A. The Hb and ALP levels in group C were significantly lower than those in group B (P<0.05); and the TP, TBIL and urea levels in group C were significantly higher than those in group B (P<0.05). Pathological observation revealed that

  3. Differential Muscle Involvement in Mice and Humans Affected by McArdle Disease.

    PubMed

    Krag, Thomas O; Pinós, Tomàs; Nielsen, Tue L; Brull, Astrid; Andreu, Antoni L; Vissing, John

    2016-05-01

    McArdle disease (muscle glycogenosis type V) is caused by myophosphorylase deficiency, which leads to impaired glycogen breakdown. We investigated how myophosphorylase deficiency affects muscle physiology, morphology, and glucose metabolism in 20-week-old McArdle mice and compared the findings to those in McArdle disease patients. Muscle contractions in the McArdle mice were affected by structural degeneration due to glycogen accumulation, and glycolytic muscles fatigued prematurely, as occurs in the muscles of McArdle disease patients. Homozygous McArdle mice showed muscle fiber disarray, variations in fiber size, vacuoles, and some internal nuclei associated with cytosolic glycogen accumulation and ongoing regeneration; structural damage was seen only in a minority of human patients. Neither liver nor brain isoforms of glycogen phosphorylase were upregulated in muscles, thus providing no substitution for the missing muscle isoform. In the mice, the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were invariably more damaged than the quadriceps muscles. This may relate to a 7-fold higher level of myophosphorylase in TA compared to quadriceps in wild-type mice and suggests higher glucose turnover in the TA. Thus, despite differences, the mouse model of McArdle disease shares fundamental physiological and clinical features with the human disease and could be used for studies of pathogenesis and development of therapies. PMID:27030740

  4. Context-dependent effects of steroid chemosignals on human physiology and mood.

    PubMed

    Jacob, S; Hayreh, D J; McClintock, M K

    We examined the physiological and psychological effects of nanomolar amounts of steroids applied directly under the nose (Delta4,16-androstadien-3-one and 1,3,5,(10),16-estratetraen-3-ol). These potential human chemosignals were not consciously discernible in a strong-odor carrier (clove oil and propylene glycol). In a double-blind, within-subject, repeated-measures experiment with 65 subjects, we demonstrated that both steroids produced sustained changes in digit skin temperature and palmar skin conductance (an indicator of sympathetic nervous system tone) while the subjects were completing psychological questionnaires or reading. These effects, however, did not follow the sex-stereotyped pattern predicted by a sex attractant function. Both androstadienone and estratetraenol raised the skin temperature of men's hands and lowered it in women. Likewise, each steroid increased skin conductance, with a significantly greater effect on women than men. Women's responses were observed only in the sessions run by the male tester, an effect that may or may not be solely attributable to tester sex. Men's responses, in contrast, were not affected by this difference in socioexperimental condition. Similarly, women experienced an immediate increase in positive mood only in the presence of the male tester, while men's responses were unaffected by this socioexperimental context. One source of this sex difference may be the fact that the majority of women were in the late follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Although it is premature to classify these steroids as pheromones, our data suggest that they function as chemosignals that modulate autonomic nervous system tone as well as psychological state. PMID:11564447

  5. The Physiological Period Length of the Human Circadian Clock In Vivo Is Directly Proportional to Period in Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Moriggi, Ermanno; Revell, Victoria L.; Hack, Lisa M.; Lockley, Steven W.; Arendt, Josephine; Skene, Debra J.; Meier, Fides; Izakovic, Jan; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Cajochen, Christian; Sergeeva, Oksana J.; Cheresiz, Sergei V.; Danilenko, Konstantin V.; Eckert, Anne; Brown, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Diurnal behavior in humans is governed by the period length of a circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the brain hypothalamus. Nevertheless, the cell-intrinsic mechanism of this clock is present in most cells of the body. We have shown previously that for individuals of extreme chronotype (“larks” and “owls”), clock properties measured in human fibroblasts correlated with extreme diurnal behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we have measured circadian period in human primary fibroblasts taken from normal individuals and, for the first time, compared it directly with physiological period measured in vivo in the same subjects. Human physiological period length was estimated via the secretion pattern of the hormone melatonin in two different groups of sighted subjects and one group of totally blind subjects, each using different methods. Fibroblast period length was measured via cyclical expression of a lentivirally delivered circadian reporter. Within each group, a positive linear correlation was observed between circadian period length in physiology and in fibroblast gene expression. Interestingly, although blind individuals showed on average the same fibroblast clock properties as sighted ones, their physiological periods were significantly longer. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the period of human circadian behaviour is mostly driven by cellular clock properties in normal individuals and can be approximated by measurement in peripheral cells such as fibroblasts. Based upon differences among sighted and blind subjects, we also speculate that period can be modified by prolonged unusual conditions such as the total light deprivation of blindness. PMID:21042402

  6. Widespread seasonal gene expression reveals annual differences in human immunity and physiology.

    PubMed

    Dopico, Xaquin Castro; Evangelou, Marina; Ferreira, Ricardo C; Guo, Hui; Pekalski, Marcin L; Smyth, Deborah J; Cooper, Nicholas; Burren, Oliver S; Fulford, Anthony J; Hennig, Branwen J; Prentice, Andrew M; Ziegler, Anette-G; Bonifacio, Ezio; Wallace, Chris; Todd, John A

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal variations are rarely considered a contributing component to human tissue function or health, although many diseases and physiological process display annual periodicities. Here we find more than 4,000 protein-coding mRNAs in white blood cells and adipose tissue to have seasonal expression profiles, with inverted patterns observed between Europe and Oceania. We also find the cellular composition of blood to vary by season, and these changes, which differ between the United Kingdom and The Gambia, could explain the gene expression periodicity. With regards to tissue function, the immune system has a profound pro-inflammatory transcriptomic profile during European winter, with increased levels of soluble IL-6 receptor and C-reactive protein, risk biomarkers for cardiovascular, psychiatric and autoimmune diseases that have peak incidences in winter. Circannual rhythms thus require further exploration as contributors to various aspects of human physiology and disease. PMID:25965853

  7. Widespread seasonal gene expression reveals annual differences in human immunity and physiology

    PubMed Central

    Dopico, Xaquin Castro; Evangelou, Marina; Ferreira, Ricardo C.; Guo, Hui; Pekalski, Marcin L.; Smyth, Deborah J.; Cooper, Nicholas; Burren, Oliver S.; Fulford, Anthony J.; Hennig, Branwen J.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Ziegler, Anette-G.; Bonifacio, Ezio; Wallace, Chris; Todd, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal variations are rarely considered a contributing component to human tissue function or health, although many diseases and physiological process display annual periodicities. Here we find more than 4,000 protein-coding mRNAs in white blood cells and adipose tissue to have seasonal expression profiles, with inverted patterns observed between Europe and Oceania. We also find the cellular composition of blood to vary by season, and these changes, which differ between the United Kingdom and The Gambia, could explain the gene expression periodicity. With regards to tissue function, the immune system has a profound pro-inflammatory transcriptomic profile during European winter, with increased levels of soluble IL-6 receptor and C-reactive protein, risk biomarkers for cardiovascular, psychiatric and autoimmune diseases that have peak incidences in winter. Circannual rhythms thus require further exploration as contributors to various aspects of human physiology and disease. PMID:25965853

  8. Pulmonary drug delivery. Part I: Physiological factors affecting therapeutic effectiveness of aerosolized medications

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, N R; Dolovich, M B

    2003-01-01

    As the end organ for the treatment of local diseases or as the route of administration for systemic therapies, the lung is a very attractive target for drug delivery. It provides direct access to disease in the treatment of respiratory diseases, while providing an enormous surface area and a relatively low enzymatic, controlled environment for systemic absorption of medications. As a major port of entry, the lung has evolved to prevent the invasion of unwanted airborne particles from entering into the body. Airway geometry, humidity, mucociliary clearance and alveolar macrophages play a vital role in maintaining the sterility of the lung and consequently are barriers to the therapeutic effectiveness of inhaled medications. In addition, a drug's efficacy may be affected by where in the respiratory tract it is deposited, its delivered dose and the disease it may be trying to treat. PMID:14616418

  9. The impact of natural odors on affective states in humans.

    PubMed

    Weber, Sandra T; Heuberger, Eva

    2008-06-01

    Laboratory studies have shown a significant influence of certain fragrances on affective as well as cognitive states in humans. The aim of the current study was to measure the relationship between complex, natural odors and affective states, that is, calmness, alertness, and mood, in the field. In 4 experiments, the emotional impact, intensity, and hedonics of complex, natural plant odors were assessed in 32 healthy human subjects and compared with control conditions involving a similar outdoor environment without the tested fragrant plants. In all experiments, the selected fragrances were evaluated as more intense than the odors in the control conditions but pleasantness ratings differed only in 2 of the 4 experiments. The fragrances improved subjective ratings of calmness, alertness, and mood depending on the sequence of the conditions but independent of visual features of the environment. In contrast, a fifth experiment which tested the influence of natural and artificial pleasant odors and an artificial unpleasant odor on calmness, alertness, and mood in 22 subjects showed that the unpleasant odor impaired these affective states in humans independent of the order of presentation. On the other hand, no effects of the pleasant odors on mood and calmness were observed in this experiment. PMID:18353767

  10. Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Losada, Marcial F.

    2011-01-01

    Extending B. L. Fredrickson’s (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada’s (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N = 188) completed an initial survey to identify flourishing mental health and then provided daily reports of experienced positive and negative emotions over 28 days. Results showed that the mean ratio of positive to negative affect was above 2.9 for individuals classified as flourishing and below that threshold for those not flourishing. Together with other evidence, these findings suggest that a set of general mathematical principles may describe the relations between positive affect and human flourishing. PMID:16221001

  11. Positive affect and the complex dynamics of human flourishing.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L; Losada, Marcial F

    2005-10-01

    Extending B. L. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada's (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N=188) completed an initial survey to identify flourishing mental health and then provided daily reports of experienced positive and negative emotions over 28 days. Results showed that the mean ratio of positive to negative affect was above 2.9 for individuals classified as flourishing and below that threshold for those not flourishing. Together with other evidence, these findings suggest that a set of general mathematical principles may describe the relations between positive affect and human flourishing. PMID:16221001

  12. A potential role for tissue kallikrein-related peptidases in human cervico-vaginal physiology.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Julie L V; Diamandis, Eleftherios P

    2008-06-01

    Human tissue kallikrein-related peptidases (KLK) are a family of 15 genes located on chromosome 19q13.4 that encode secreted serine proteases with trypsin- and/or chymotrypsin-like activity. Relatively large levels of many KLKs are present in human cervico-vaginal fluid (CVF) and in the supernatant of cultured human vaginal epithelial cells. Many KLKs are also hormonally regulated in vaginal epithelial cells, particularly by glucocorticoids and estrogens. The physiological role of KLK in the vagina is currently unknown; however, analysis of the CVF proteome has revealed clues for potential KLK functions in this environment. Here, we detail potential roles for KLKs in cervico-vaginal physiology. First, we suggest that KLKs play a role in the vagina similar to their role in skin physiology: (1) in the desquamation of vaginal epithelial cells, similar to their activity in the desquamation of skin corneocytes; and (2) in their ability to activate antimicrobial proteins in CVF as they do in sweat. Consequently, we hypothesize that dysregulated KLK expression in the vagina could lead to the development of pathological conditions such as desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. Second, we propose that KLKs may play a role in premature rupture of membranes and pre-term birth through their cleavage of fetal membrane extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:18627298

  13. A probabilistic model of human variability in physiology for future application to dose reconstruction and QIVIVE

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Kevin; Loizou, George D.

    2015-01-01

    The risk assessment of environmental chemicals and drugs is undergoing a paradigm shift in approach which seeks the full replacement of animal testing with high throughput, mechanistic, in vitro systems. This new approach will be reliant on the measurement in vitro, of concentration-dependent responses where prolonged excessive perturbations of specific biochemical pathways are likely to lead to adverse health effects in an intact organism. Such an approach requires a framework, into which disparate data generated by in vitro, in silico, and in chemico systems can be integrated and utilized for quantitative in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE), ultimately to the human population level. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are ideally suited to this and are needed to translate in vitro concentration- response relationships to an exposure or dose, route and duration regime in human populations. Thus, a realistic description of the variation in the physiology of the human population being modeled is critical. Whilst various studies in the past decade have made progress in describing human variability, the algorithms are typically coded in computer programs and as such are unsuitable for reverse dosimetry. In this report we overcome this limitation by developing a hierarchical statistical model using standard probability distributions for the specification of a virtual US and UK human population. The work draws on information from both population databases and cadaver studies. PMID:26528180

  14. Engineering physiologically stiff and stratified human cartilage by fusing condensed mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Sarindr; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, clinically sized and mechanically functional cartilage could be engineered from young animal chondrocytes, but not from adult human mesenchymal stem cells that are of primary clinical interest. The approaches developed for primary chondrocytes were not successful when used with human mesenchymal cells. The method discussed here was designed to employ a mechanism similar to pre-cartilaginous condensation and fusion of mesenchymal stem cells at a precisely defined time. The formation of cartilage was initiated by press-molding the mesenchymal bodies onto the surface of a bone substrate. By image-guided fabrication of the bone substrate and the molds, the osteochondral constructs were engineered in anatomically precise shapes and sizes. After 5 weeks of cultivation, the cartilage layer assumed physiologically stratified histomorphology, and contained lubricin at the surface, proteoglycans and type II collagen in the bulk phase, collagen type X at the interface with the bone substrate, and collagen type I within the bone phase. For the first time, the Young’s modulus and the friction coefficient of human cartilage engineered from mesenchymal stem cells reached physiological levels for adult human cartilage. We propose that this method can be effective for generating human osteochondral tissue constructs. PMID:25828645

  15. Population sex-ratio affecting behavior and physiology of overwintering bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Sipari, Saana; Haapakoski, Marko; Klemme, Ines; Palme, Rupert; Sundell, Janne; Ylönen, Hannu

    2016-05-15

    Many boreal rodents are territorial during the breeding season but during winter become social and aggregate for more energy efficient thermoregulation. Communal winter nesting and social interactions are considered to play an important role for the winter survival of these species, yet the topic is relatively little explored. Females are suggested to be the initiators of winter aggregations and sometimes reported to survive better than males. This could be due to the higher social tolerance observed in overwintering females than males. Hormonal status could also affect winter behavior and survival. For instance, chronic stress can have a negative effect on survival, whereas high gonadal hormone levels, such as testosterone, often induce aggressive behavior. To test if the winter survival of females in a boreal rodent is better than that of males, and to assess the role of females in the winter aggregations, we generated bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations of three different sex ratios (male-biased, female-biased and even density) under semi-natural conditions. We monitored survival, spatial behavior and hormonal status (stress and testosterone) during two winter months. We observed no significant differences in survival between the sexes or among populations with differing sex-ratios. The degree of movement area overlap was used as an indicator of social tolerance and potential communal nesting. Individuals in male biased populations showed a tendency to be solitary, whereas in female biased populations there was an indication of winter aggregation. Females living in male-biased populations had higher stress levels than the females from the other populations. The female-biased sex-ratio induced winter breeding and elevated testosterone levels in males. Thus, our results suggest that the sex-ratio of the overwintering population can lead to divergent overwintering strategies in bank voles. PMID:26976741

  16. Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior.

    PubMed

    Dufner, Michael; Arslan, Ruben C; Hagemeyer, Birk; Schönbrodt, Felix D; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2015-10-01

    According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested these assumptions. We presented participants with positive affiliative stimuli and used electromyography to record changes in facial muscular activity that are indicative of subtle smiling. We were thus able to physiologically measure positive affect following affiliative cues. Individual differences in these affective contingencies were internally consistent and temporally stable. They converged with affiliation motive self- and informant reports and picture story exercise scores, indicating that they are partly accessible to the self, observable to outsiders, and overlap with implicit systems. Finally, they predicted affiliative behavior in terms of situation selection and modification across a wide variety of contexts (i.e., in daily life, the laboratory, and an online social network). These findings corroborate the long-held assumption that affective contingencies represent a motivational core aspect of affiliation. PMID:26280840

  17. Low-frequency sound affects active micromechanics in the human inner ear.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Kathrin; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Grothe, Benedikt; Kössl, Manfred; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike; Drexl, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common auditory pathologies, resulting from overstimulation of the human cochlea, an exquisitely sensitive micromechanical device. At very low frequencies (less than 250 Hz), however, the sensitivity of human hearing, and therefore the perceived loudness is poor. The perceived loudness is mediated by the inner hair cells of the cochlea which are driven very inadequately at low frequencies. To assess the impact of low-frequency (LF) sound, we exploited a by-product of the active amplification of sound outer hair cells (OHCs) perform, so-called spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. These are faint sounds produced by the inner ear that can be used to detect changes of cochlear physiology. We show that a short exposure to perceptually unobtrusive, LF sounds significantly affects OHCs: a 90 s, 80 dB(A) LF sound induced slow, concordant and positively correlated frequency and level oscillations of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions that lasted for about 2 min after LF sound offset. LF sounds, contrary to their unobtrusive perception, strongly stimulate the human cochlea and affect amplification processes in the most sensitive and important frequency range of human hearing. PMID:26064536

  18. Low-frequency sound affects active micromechanics in the human inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Kugler, Kathrin; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Grothe, Benedikt; Kössl, Manfred; Gürkov, Robert; Krause, Eike; Drexl, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is one of the most common auditory pathologies, resulting from overstimulation of the human cochlea, an exquisitely sensitive micromechanical device. At very low frequencies (less than 250 Hz), however, the sensitivity of human hearing, and therefore the perceived loudness is poor. The perceived loudness is mediated by the inner hair cells of the cochlea which are driven very inadequately at low frequencies. To assess the impact of low-frequency (LF) sound, we exploited a by-product of the active amplification of sound outer hair cells (OHCs) perform, so-called spontaneous otoacoustic emissions. These are faint sounds produced by the inner ear that can be used to detect changes of cochlear physiology. We show that a short exposure to perceptually unobtrusive, LF sounds significantly affects OHCs: a 90 s, 80 dB(A) LF sound induced slow, concordant and positively correlated frequency and level oscillations of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions that lasted for about 2 min after LF sound offset. LF sounds, contrary to their unobtrusive perception, strongly stimulate the human cochlea and affect amplification processes in the most sensitive and important frequency range of human hearing. PMID:26064536

  19. Low-dose radiation affects cardiac physiology: gene networks and molecular signaling in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Matthew A; Sasi, Sharath P; Onufrak, Jillian; Natarajan, Mohan; Manickam, Krishnan; Schwab, John; Muralidharan, Sujatha; Peterson, Leif E; Alekseyev, Yuriy O; Yan, Xinhua; Goukassian, David A

    2015-12-01

    There are 160,000 cancer patients worldwide treated with particle radiotherapy (RT). With the advent of proton, and high (H) charge (Z) and energy (E) HZE ionizing particle RT, the cardiovascular diseases risk estimates are uncertain. In addition, future deep space exploratory-type missions will expose humans to unknown but low doses of particle irradiation (IR). We examined molecular responses using transcriptome profiling in left ventricular murine cardiomyocytes isolated from mice that were exposed to 90 cGy, 1 GeV proton ((1)H) and 15 cGy, 1 GeV/nucleon iron ((56)Fe) over 28 days after exposure. Unsupervised clustering analysis of gene expression segregated samples according to the IR response and time after exposure, with (56)Fe-IR showing the greatest level of gene modulation. (1)H-IR showed little differential transcript modulation. Network analysis categorized the major differentially expressed genes into cell cycle, oxidative responses, and transcriptional regulation functional groups. Transcriptional networks identified key nodes regulating expression. Validation of the signal transduction network by protein analysis and gel shift assay showed that particle IR clearly regulates a long-lived signaling mechanism for ERK1/2, p38 MAPK signaling and identified NFATc4, GATA4, STAT3, and NF-κB as regulators of the response at specific time points. These data suggest that the molecular responses and gene expression to (56)Fe-IR in cardiomyocytes are unique and long-lasting. Our study may have significant implications for the efforts of National Aeronautics and Space Administration to develop heart disease risk estimates for astronauts and for patients receiving conventional and particle RT via identification of specific HZE-IR molecular markers. PMID:26408534

  20. Estimating psycho-physiological state of a human by speech analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronzhin, A. L.

    2005-05-01

    Adverse effects of intoxication, fatigue and boredom could degrade performance of highly trained operators of complex technical systems with potentially catastrophic consequences. Existing physiological fitness for duty tests are time consuming, costly, invasive, and highly unpopular. Known non-physiological tests constitute a secondary task and interfere with the busy workload of the tested operator. Various attempts to assess the current status of the operator by processing of "normal operational data" often lead to excessive amount of computations, poorly justified metrics, and ambiguity of results. At the same time, speech analysis presents a natural, non-invasive approach based upon well-established efficient data processing. In addition, it supports both behavioral and physiological biometric. This paper presents an approach facilitating robust speech analysis/understanding process in spite of natural speech variability and background noise. Automatic speech recognition is suggested as a technique for the detection of changes in the psycho-physiological state of a human that typically manifest themselves by changes of characteristics of voice tract and semantic-syntactic connectivity of conversation. Preliminary tests have confirmed that the statistically significant correlation between the error rate of automatic speech recognition and the extent of alcohol intoxication does exist. In addition, the obtained data allowed exploring some interesting correlations and establishing some quantitative models. It is proposed to utilize this approach as a part of fitness for duty test and compare its efficiency with analyses of iris, face geometry, thermography and other popular non-invasive biometric techniques.

  1. Emotional contagion: dogs and humans show a similar physiological response to human infant crying.

    PubMed

    Yong, Min Hooi; Ruffman, Ted

    2014-10-01

    Humans respond to an infant crying with an increase in cortisol level and heightened alertness, a response interpreted as emotional contagion, a primitive form of empathy. Previous results are mixed when examining whether dogs might respond similarly to human distress. We examined whether domestic dogs, which have a long history of affiliation with humans, show signs of emotional contagion, testing canine (n=75) and human (n=74) responses to one of three auditory stimuli: a human infant crying, a human infant babbling, and computer-generated "white noise", with the latter two stimuli acting as controls. Cortisol levels in both humans and dogs increased significantly from baseline only after listening to crying. In addition, dogs showed a unique behavioral response to crying, combining submissiveness with alertness. These findings suggest that dogs experience emotional contagion in response to human infant crying and provide the first clear evidence of a primitive form of cross-species empathy. PMID:25452080

  2. A Mathematical Model of Human Semicircular Canal Geometry: A New Basis for Interpreting Vestibular Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Curthoys, Ian S.; Todd, Michael J.; Magnussen, John S.; Taubman, David S.; Aw, Swee T.; Halmagyi, G. Michael

    2009-01-01

    We report a precise, simple, and accessible method of mathematically measuring and modeling the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of semicircular canals (SCCs) in living humans. Knowledge of this geometry helps understand the development and physiology of SCC stimulation. We developed a framework of robust techniques that automatically and accurately reconstruct SCC geometry from computed tomography (CT) images and are directly validated using micro-CT as ground truth. This framework measures the 3D centroid paths of the bony SCCs allowing direct comparison and analysis between ears within and between subjects. An average set of SCC morphology is calculated from 34 human ears, within which other geometrical attributes such as nonplanarity, radius of curvature, and inter-SCC angle are examined, with a focus on physiological implications. These measurements have also been used to critically evaluate plane fitting techniques that reconcile many of the discrepancies in current SCC plane studies. Finally, we mathematically model SCC geometry using Fourier series equations. This work has the potential to reinterpret physiology and pathophysiology in terms of real individual 3D morphology. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10162-009-0195-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19949828

  3. Physiological activity of irradiated green tea polyphenol on the human skin.

    PubMed

    An, Bong-Jeun; Kwak, Jae-Hoon; Son, Jun-Ho; Park, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jin-Young; Park, Tae Soon; Kim, So-Yeun; Kim, Yeoung-Sun; Jo, Cheorun; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2005-01-01

    Physiological activity of irradiated green tea polyphenol on the human skin was investigated for further industrial application. The green tea polyphenol was separated and irradiated at 40 kGy by y-ray. For an anti-wrinkle effect, the collagenase inhibition effect was higher in the irradiated sample (65.3%) than that of the non-irradiated control (56.8%) at 200 ppm of the concentration (p < 0.05). Collagen biosynthesis rates using a human fibroblast were 19.4% and 16.3% in the irradiated and the non-irradiated polyphenols, respectively. The tyrosinase inhibition effect, which is related to the skin-whitening effect, showed a 45.2% and 42.9% in the irradiated and the non-irradiated polyphenols, respectively, at a 100 ppm level. A higher than 90% growth inhibition on skin cancer cells (SK-MEL-2 and G361) was demonstrated in both the irradiated and the non-irradiated polyphenols. Thus, the irradiation of green tea polyphenol did not change and even increased its anti-wrinkle, skin-whitening and anticancer effects on the human skin. The results indicated that irradiated green tea polyphenol can be used as a natural ingredient with excellent physiological functions for the human skin through cosmetic or food composition. PMID:16173528

  4. Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress in Term Human Labor: Physiological and Methodological Issues

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Edward R.; Tanner, Charles J.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Literature on the use of plasma cortisol to quantify psychophysiological stress in humans is extensive. However, in parturition at term gestation the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress is particularly complex. Plasma cortisol levels increase as labor progresses. This increase seems to be important for maintenance of maternal/fetal wellbeing and facilitation of normal labor progress. Unique physiological and methodological issues involved in the use of cortisol as a biomarker of stress in labor present challenges for researchers. This review examines these issues, suggests mixed methods and within-subject repeated measures designs, and offers recommendations for assay procedures for parturient sampling. Documentation of clinical interventions and delivery outcomes may elucidate relationships among psychophysiological stressors, cortisol and normal labor progress. With attention to these methodological issues, analysis of plasma cortisol may lead to clinical interventions that support normal labor physiology. PMID:23338011

  5. Measurements, modeling, control and simulation - as applied to the human left ventricle for purposeful physiological monitoring.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghista, D. N.; Rasmussen, D. N.; Linebarger, R. N.; Sandler, H.

    1971-01-01

    Interdisciplinary engineering research effort in studying the intact human left ventricle has been employed to physiologically monitor the heart and to obtain its 'state-of-health' characteristics. The left ventricle was selected for this purpose because it plays a key role in supplying energy to the body cells. The techniques for measurement of the left ventricular geometry are described; the geometry is effectively displayed to bring out the abnormalities in cardiac function. Methods of mathematical modeling, which make it possible to determine the performance of the intact left ventricular muscle, are also described. Finally, features of a control system for the left ventricle for predicting the effect of certain physiological stress situations on the ventricle performance are discussed.

  6. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology.

    PubMed

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; de Jager, Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-06-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems. In relation to appetite regulation, plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 are similar in pigs and humans, while peptide YY in pigs is ten to twenty times higher and ghrelin two to five times lower than in humans. Pigs are an excellent model for human studies for vagal nerve function related to the hormonal regulation of food intake. Similarly, the study of gut barrier functions reveals conserved defence mechanisms between the two species particularly in functional permeability. However, human data are scant for some of the defence systems and nutritional programming. The pig model has been valuable for studying the changes in human microbiota following nutritional interventions. In particular, the use of human flora-associated pigs is a useful model for infants, but the long-term stability of the implanted human microbiota in pigs remains to be investigated. The similarity of the pig and human brain anatomy and development is paradigmatic. Brain explorations and therapies described in pig, when compared with available human data, highlight their value in nutritional neuroscience, particularly regarding functional neuroimaging techniques. PMID:27176552

  7. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change.

    PubMed

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-03-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275

  8. Global water resources affected by human interventions and climate change

    PubMed Central

    Haddeland, Ingjerd; Heinke, Jens; Biemans, Hester; Eisner, Stephanie; Flörke, Martina; Hanasaki, Naota; Konzmann, Markus; Ludwig, Fulco; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Schewe, Jacob; Stacke, Tobias; Tessler, Zachary D.; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Humans directly change the dynamics of the water cycle through dams constructed for water storage, and through water withdrawals for industrial, agricultural, or domestic purposes. Climate change is expected to additionally affect water supply and demand. Here, analyses of climate change and direct human impacts on the terrestrial water cycle are presented and compared using a multimodel approach. Seven global hydrological models have been forced with multiple climate projections, and with and without taking into account impacts of human interventions such as dams and water withdrawals on the hydrological cycle. Model results are analyzed for different levels of global warming, allowing for analyses in line with temperature targets for climate change mitigation. The results indicate that direct human impacts on the water cycle in some regions, e.g., parts of Asia and in the western United States, are of the same order of magnitude, or even exceed impacts to be expected for moderate levels of global warming (+2 K). Despite some spread in model projections, irrigation water consumption is generally projected to increase with higher global mean temperatures. Irrigation water scarcity is particularly large in parts of southern and eastern Asia, and is expected to become even larger in the future. PMID:24344275

  9. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-10-01

    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse herbicide and nitrate pollution. Based on the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's diversity indices the diversity in the microbial communities was high. The response from the EcoPlates™ showed which substrates support groundwater bacteria, and all 31 carbon sources were utilized by organisms from at least one water sample. However, only nine carbon sources were utilized by all water samples: D-Mannitol, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, putrescine, D-galacturonic acid, itaconic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, tween 40, tween 80, and L-asparagine. In all water samples the microorganisms preferred D-mannitol, D-galacturonic acid, tween 40, and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid as substrates, whereas none preferred 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, α-D-lactose, D,L-α-glycerol phosphate, α-ketobutyric acid, L-threonine and glycyl-L-glutamic acid. Principal Component Analysis of the CLPP's clustered the most agriculturally affected groundwater samples, indicating that the agricultural land use affects the groundwater microbial communities. Furthermore, the ability to mineralize atrazine and isoproturon, which have been used in the catchment, was also associated with this cluster.

  10. Acaricide treatment affects viral dynamics in Varroa destructor-infested honey bee colonies via both host physiology and mite control.

    PubMed

    Locke, Barbara; Forsgren, Eva; Fries, Ingemar; de Miranda, Joachim R

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are declining, and a number of stressors have been identified that affect, alone or in combination, the health of honey bees. The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, honey bee viruses that are often closely associated with the mite, and pesticides used to control the mite population form a complex system of stressors that may affect honey bee health in different ways. During an acaricide treatment using Apistan (plastic strips coated with tau-fluvalinate), we analyzed the infection dynamics of deformed wing virus (DWV), sacbrood virus (SBV), and black queen cell virus (BQCV) in adult bees, mite-infested pupae, their associated Varroa mites, and uninfested pupae, comparing these to similar samples from untreated control colonies. Titers of DWV increased initially with the onset of the acaricide application and then slightly decreased progressively coinciding with the removal of the Varroa mite infestation. This initial increase in DWV titers suggests a physiological effect of tau-fluvalinate on the host's susceptibility to viral infection. DWV titers in adult bees and uninfested pupae remained higher in treated colonies than in untreated colonies. The titers of SBV and BQCV did not show any direct relationship with mite infestation and showed a variety of possible effects of the acaricide treatment. The results indicate that other factors besides Varroa mite infestation may be important to the development and maintenance of damaging DWV titers in colonies. Possible biochemical explanations for the observed synergistic effects between tau-fluvalinate and virus infections are discussed. PMID:22020517

  11. Development of a human physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for dermal permeability for lindane.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Megan E; Evans, Marina V; Wilson, Charles A; Beesley, Lauren J; Leon, Lider S; Eklund, Chris R; Croom, Edward L; Pegram, Rex A

    2016-03-14

    Lindane is a neurotoxicant used for the treatment of lice and scabies present on human skin. Due to its pharmaceutical application, an extensive pharmacokinetic database exists in humans. Mathematical diffusion models allow for calculation of lindane skin permeability coefficients using human kinetic data obtained from in vitro and in vivo experimentation as well as a default compound-specific calculation based on physicochemical characteristics used in the absence of kinetic data. A dermal model was developed to describe lindane diffusion into the skin, where the skin compartment consisted of homogeneous dermal tissue. This study utilized Fick's law of diffusion along with chemical binding to protein and lipids to determine appropriate dermal absorption parameters which were then incorporated into a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to describe in vivo kinetics. The estimation of permeability coefficients using chemical binding in combination with in vivo data demonstrates the advantages of combining physiochemical properties with a PBPK model to predict dermal absorption. PMID:26794662

  12. Triclosan and bisphenol a affect decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Forte, Maurizio; Mita, Luigi; Cobellis, Luigi; Merafina, Verdiana; Specchio, Raffaella; Rossi, Sergio; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Mosca, Lavinia; Castaldi, Maria Antonietta; De Falco, Maria; Laforgia, Vincenza; Crispi, Stefania

    2016-02-15

    In recent years, impaired fertility and endometrium related diseases are increased. Many evidences suggest that environmental pollution might be considered a risk factor for endometrial physiopathology. Among environmental pollutants, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) act on endocrine system, causing hormonal imbalance which, in turn, leads to female and male reproductive dysfunctions. In this work, we studied the effects of triclosan (TCL) and bisphenol A (BPA), two widespread EDCs, on human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), derived from endometrial biopsies from woman not affected by endometriosis. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration and decidualization mechanisms were investigated. Treatments have been performed with both the EDCs separately or in presence and in absence of progesterone used as decidualization stimulus. Both TCL and BPA did not affect cell proliferation, but they arrested ESCs at G2/M phase of cell cycle enhancing cell migration. TCL and BPA also increased gene expression and protein levels of some decidualization markers, such as insulin growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and prolactin (PRL), amplifying the effect of progesterone alone. All together, our data strongly suggest that TCL and BPA might alter human endometrium physiology so affecting fertility and pregnancy outcome. PMID:26604029

  13. Physiology of SLC12 transporters: lessons from inherited human genetic mutations and genetically engineered mouse knockouts

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Among the over 300 members of the solute carrier (SLC) group of integral plasma membrane transport proteins are the nine electroneutral cation-chloride cotransporters belonging to the SLC12 gene family. Seven of these transporters have been functionally described as coupling the electrically silent movement of chloride with sodium and/or potassium. Although in silico analysis has identified two additional SLC12 family members, no physiological role has been ascribed to the proteins encoded by either the SLC12A8 or the SLC12A9 genes. Evolutionary conservation of this gene family from protists to humans confirms their importance. A wealth of physiological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical studies have revealed a great deal of information regarding the importance of this gene family to human health and disease. The sequencing of the human genome has provided investigators with the capability to link several human diseases with mutations in the genes encoding these plasma membrane proteins. The availability of bacterial artificial chromosomes, recombination engineering techniques, and the mouse genome sequence has simplified the creation of targeting constructs to manipulate the expression/function of these cation-chloride cotransporters in the mouse in an attempt to recapitulate some of these human pathologies. This review will summarize the three human disorders that have been linked to the mutation/dysfunction of the Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl, and K-Cl cotransporters (i.e., Bartter's, Gitleman's, and Andermann's syndromes), examine some additional pathologies arising from genetically modified mouse models of these cotransporters including deafness, blood pressure, hyperexcitability, and epithelial transport deficit phenotypes. PMID:23325410

  14. Inference of human affective states from psychophysiological measurements extracted under ecologically valid conditions

    PubMed Central

    Betella, Alberto; Zucca, Riccardo; Cetnarski, Ryszard; Greco, Alberto; Lanatà, Antonio; Mazzei, Daniele; Tognetti, Alessandro; Arsiwalla, Xerxes D.; Omedas, Pedro; De Rossi, Danilo; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Compared to standard laboratory protocols, the measurement of psychophysiological signals in real world experiments poses technical and methodological challenges due to external factors that cannot be directly controlled. To address this problem, we propose a hybrid approach based on an immersive and human accessible space called the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM), that incorporates the advantages of a laboratory within a life-like setting. The XIM integrates unobtrusive wearable sensors for the acquisition of psychophysiological signals suitable for ambulatory emotion research. In this paper, we present results from two different studies conducted to validate the XIM as a general-purpose sensing infrastructure for the study of human affective states under ecologically valid conditions. In the first investigation, we recorded and classified signals from subjects exposed to pictorial stimuli corresponding to a range of arousal levels, while they were free to walk and gesticulate. In the second study, we designed an experiment that follows the classical conditioning paradigm, a well-known procedure in the behavioral sciences, with the additional feature that participants were free to move in the physical space, as opposed to similar studies measuring physiological signals in constrained laboratory settings. Our results indicate that, by using our sensing infrastructure, it is indeed possible to infer human event-elicited affective states through measurements of psychophysiological signals under ecological conditions. PMID:25309310

  15. An investigative laboratory course in human physiology using computer technology and collaborative writing.

    PubMed

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A

    2004-12-01

    Active investigative student-directed experiences in laboratory science are being encouraged by national science organizations. A growing body of evidence from classroom assessment supports their effectiveness. This study describes four years of implementation and assessment of an investigative laboratory course in human physiology for 65 second-year students in sports medicine and biology at a small private comprehensive college. The course builds on skills and abilities first introduced in an introductory investigations course and introduces additional higher-level skills and more complex human experimental models. In four multiweek experimental modules, involving neuromuscular, reflex, and cardiovascular physiology, by use of computerized hardware/software with a variety of transducers, students carry out self-designed experiments with human subjects and perform data collection and analysis, collaborative writing, and peer editing. In assessments, including standard course evaluations and the Salgains Web-based evaluation, student responses to this approach are enthusiastic, and gains in their skills and abilities are evident in their comments and in improved performance. PMID:15319194

  16. Dynamic OCT for physiological functions of micro organs in human fingers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Masamitsu; Ohmi, Masato; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Fuji, Toshie; Yamada, Akihiro; Saigusa, Hiroyuki; Kuwabara, Mitsuo

    2007-11-01

    OCT is a powerful tool for detection of physiological functions of micro organs underneath the human skin surface, besides the clinical application to ophthalmology, as recently demonstrated by the authors' group. In particular, dynamics of peripheral vessels and eccrin sweat glands can be observed clearly in the time-sequential OCT images. The physiological functions of these micro organs, sweating and blood circulation, are controlled by the skin sympathetic nerve in response to externally applied stress. In this paper, we present microscopically analytical results based on the dynamic OCT of the micro organs in human fingers. In sweating dynamics, it is found that a spiral sweat duct is expanded by abrupt increase of sweat due to application of stress to a volunteer, resulting in remarkable increase of the reflection light intensity of the spiral duct in OCT. Mental-stress-induced sweating in each eccrin sweat gland, therefore, is analyzed quantitatively. Furthermore, dynamic OCT observation of peripheral vessels is interesting. A small vein of a human finger is observed clearly by the TD-OCT, where the vein expands and contracts repeatedly even in the resting state for temperature control on the fingertip. A change in the cross-sectional area of the vein exceeds 80 % for a young volunteer. The dynamic OCT will allow us to propose novel diagnoses of excessive sweating and diseases related to the sympathetic nerve.

  17. Commentary: a practical guide for translating basic research on affective science to implementing physiology in clinical child and adolescent assessments.

    PubMed

    Aldao, Amelia; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health recently launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). RDoC is a framework that facilitates the dimensional assessment and classification of processes relevant to mental health (e.g., affect, regulation, cognition, social affiliation), as reflected in measurements across multiple units of analysis (e.g., physiology, circuitry, genes, self-reports). A key focus of RDoC involves opening new lines of research examining patients' responses on biological measures, with the key goal of developing new therapeutic techniques that effectively target mechanisms of mental disorders. Yet applied researchers and practitioners rarely use biological measures within mental health assessments, which may present challenges in translating RDoC-guided research into improvements in patient care. Thus, if RDoC is to result in research that yields clinical tools that reduce the burden of mental illness and improve public health, we ought to develop strategies for effectively implementing biological measures in the context of clinical assessments. In this special issue, we sought to provide an initial step in this direction by assembling a collection of articles from leading research teams carrying out pioneering work on implementing multimodal assessments (biological, subjective, behavioral) of affective processes in applied settings. In this commentary, we expand upon the work presented in this special issue by making a series of suggestions for how to most parsimoniously conduct multimodal assessments of affective processes in applied research and clinical settings. We hope that this approach will facilitate translations of the RDoC framework into applied research and clinic settings. PMID:25664768

  18. Physiologic response of human brain death and the use of vasopressin for successful organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Tang, Julin F

    2011-03-01

    The dynamic physiologic response of human brain death and the impact of vasopressin on successful organ transplantation is reported. A 60-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit after severe traumatic brain injury resulting in brain death. Initial Cushing reflex was followed by a precipitous decrease in systemic blood pressure that was refractory to the alpha-agonist phenylephrine. After intravenous vasopressin was given, hemodynamic stability was restored and maintained until successful organ transplantation. Vasopressin, a catecholamine-sparing vasopressor and antidiuretic agent, may be an effective agent in the treatment of refractory hypotension after brain death prior to organ transplantation. PMID:21377081

  19. Perinatal Oxidative Stress May Affect Fetal Ghrelin Levels in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Bilodeau, Jean-François; Monique Nuyt, Anne; Fraser, William D.; Julien, Pierre; Audibert, Francois; Xiao, Lin; Garofalo, Carole; Levy, Emile

    2015-01-01

    In vitro cell model studies have shown that oxidative stress may affect beta-cell function. It is unknown whether oxidative stress may affect metabolic health in human fetuses/newborns. In a singleton pregnancy cohort (n = 248), we studied maternal (24–28 weeks gestation) and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA), F2-isoprostanes] in relation to fetal metabolic health biomarkers including cord plasma glucose-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of insulin sensitivity), proinsulin-to-insulin ratio (an indicator of beta-cell function), insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II, leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations. Strong positive correlations were observed between maternal and cord plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress (r = 0.33 for MDA, r = 0.74 for total F2-isoprostanes, all p < 0.0001). Adjusting for gestational age at blood sampling, cord plasma ghrelin concentrations were consistently negatively correlated to oxidative stress biomarkers in maternal (r = −0.32, p < 0.0001 for MDA; r = −0.31, p < 0.0001 for F2-isoprostanes) or cord plasma (r = −0.13, p = 0.04 for MDA; r = −0.32, p < 0.0001 for F2-isoprostanes). Other fetal metabolic health biomarkers were not correlated to oxidative stress. Adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, similar associations were observed. Our study provides the first preliminary evidence suggesting that oxidative stress may affect fetal ghrelin levels in humans. The implications in developmental “programming” the vulnerability to metabolic syndrome related disorders remain to be elucidated. PMID:26643495

  20. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. I: auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring, or not requiring, selective auditory attention. Appended to each stimulus presentation, and included in the calculation of each nSFOAE response, was a 30-ms silent period that was used to estimate the level of the inherent physiological noise in the ear canals of our subjects during each behavioral condition. Physiological-noise magnitudes were higher (noisier) for all subjects in the inattention task, and lower (quieter) in the selective auditory-attention tasks. These noise measures initially were made at the frequency of our nSFOAE probe tone (4.0 kHz), but the same attention effects also were observed across a wide range of frequencies. We attribute the observed differences in physiological-noise magnitudes between the inattention and attention conditions to different levels of efferent activation associated with the differing attentional demands of the behavioral tasks. One hypothesis is that when the attentional demand is relatively great, efferent activation is relatively high, and a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier leads to lower-amplitude cochlear activity, and thus a smaller measure of noise from the ear. PMID:24732069

  1. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. II: visual attention.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kyle P; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-06-01

    Human subjects performed in several behavioral conditions requiring, or not requiring, selective attention to visual stimuli. Specifically, the attentional task was to recognize strings of digits that had been presented visually. A nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emission (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was collected during the visual presentation of the digits. The segment of the physiological response discussed here occurred during brief silent periods immediately following the SFOAE-evoking stimuli. For all subjects tested, the physiological-noise magnitudes were substantially weaker (less noisy) during the tasks requiring the most visual attention. Effect sizes for the differences were >2.0. Our interpretation is that cortico-olivo influences adjusted the magnitude of efferent activation during the SFOAE-evoking stimulation depending upon the attention task in effect, and then that magnitude of efferent activation persisted throughout the silent period where it also modulated the physiological noise present. Because the results were highly similar to those obtained when the behavioral conditions involved auditory attention, similar mechanisms appear to operate both across modalities and within modalities. Supplementary measurements revealed that the efferent activation was spectrally global, as it was for auditory attention. PMID:24732070

  2. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. I: Auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring, or not requiring, selective auditory attention. Appended to each stimulus presentation, and included in the calculation of each nSFOAE response, was a 30-ms silent period that was used to estimate the level of the inherent physiological noise in the ear canals of our subjects during each behavioral condition. Physiological-noise magnitudes were higher (noisier) for all subjects in the inattention task, and lower (quieter) in the selective auditory-attention tasks. These noise measures initially were made at the frequency of our nSFOAE probe tone (4.0 kHz), but the same attention effects also were observed across a wide range of frequencies. We attribute the observed differences in physiological-noise magnitudes between the inattention and attention conditions to different levels of efferent activation associated with the differing attentional demands of the behavioral tasks. One hypothesis is that when the attentional demand is relatively great, efferent activation is relatively high, and a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier leads to lower-amplitude cochlear activity, and thus a smaller measure of noise from the ear. PMID:24732069

  3. Physiological cognitive state assessment: applications for designing effective human-machine systems.

    PubMed

    Estepp, Justin R; Christensen, James C

    2011-01-01

    Significant growth in the field of neuroscience has occurred over the last decade such that new application areas for basic research techniques are opening up to practitioners in many other areas. Of particular interest to many is the principle of neuroergonomics, by which the traditional work in neuroscience and its related topics can be applied to non-traditional areas such as human-machine system design. While work in neuroergonomics certainly predates the use of the term in the literature (previously identified by others as applied neuroscience, operational neuroscience, etc.), there is great promise in the larger framework that is represented by the general context of the terminology. Here, we focus on the very specific concept that principles in brain-computer interfaces, neural prosthetics and the larger realm of machine learning using physiological inputs can be applied directly to the design and implementation of augmented human-machine systems. Indeed, work in this area has been ongoing for more than 25 years with very little cross-talk and collaboration between clinical and applied researchers. We propose that, given increased interest in augmented human-machine systems based on cognitive state, further progress will require research in the same vein as that being done in the aforementioned communities, and that all researchers with a vested interest in physiologically-based machine learning techniques can benefit from increased collaboration. We thereby seek to describe the current state of cognitive state assessment in human-machine systems, the problems and challenges faced, and the tightly-coupled relationship with other research areas. This supports the larger work of the Cognitive State Assessment 2011 Competition by setting the stage for the purpose of the session by showing the need to increase research in the machine learning techniques used by practitioners of augmented human-machine system design. PMID:22255837

  4. Animal models and their importance to human physiological responses in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipton, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    Two prominent theories to explain the physiological effects of microgravity relate to the cascade of changes associated with the cephalic shifts of fluids and the absence of tissue deformation forces. One-g experiments for humans used bed rest and the head-down tilt (HDT) method, while animal experiments have been conducted using the tail-suspended, head-down, and hindlimbs non-weightbearing model. Because of the success of the HDT approach with rats to simulate the gravitational effects on the musculoskeletal system exhibited by humans, the same model has been used to study the effects of gravity on the cardiopulmonary systems of humans and other vertebrates. Results to date indicate the model is effective in producing comparable changes associated with blood volume, erythropoiesis, cardiac mass, baroreceptor responsiveness, carbohydrate metabolism, post-flight VO2max, and post-flight cardiac output during exercise. Inherent with these results is the potential of the model to be useful in investigating responsible mechanisms. The suspension model has promise in understanding the capillary blood PO2 changes in space as well as the arterial PO2 changes in subjects participating in a HDT experiment. However, whether the model can provide insights on the up-or-down regulation of adrenoreceptors remains to be determined, and many investigators believe the HDT approach should not be followed to study gravitational influences on pulmonary function in either humans or animals. It was concluded that the tail-suspended animal model had sufficient merit to study in-flight and post-flight human physiological responses and mechanisms.

  5. Relationship between human physiological parameters and geomagnetic variations of solar origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, S.

    Results presented concern influence of increased geomagnetic activity on some human physiological parameters. The blood pressure and heart rate of 86 volunteers were measured on working days in autumn 2001 (01/10 09/11) and in spring 2002 (08/04 28/05). These periods were chosen because of maximal expected geomagnetic activity. Altogether 2799 recordings were obtained and analysed. Questionnaire information about subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also gathered. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters under consideration. The factors were the following: (1) planetary geomagnetic activity level estimated by Ap-index and divided into five levels; (2) gender males and females; (3) blood pressure degree persons in the group examined were divided into hypotensive, normotensive and hypertensive. Post hoc analysis was performed to elicit the significance of differences in the factors’ levels. The average arterial blood pressure of the group was found to increase significantly with the increase of geomagnetic activity level. The average increment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the group examined reached 9%. This effect was present irrespectively of gender. Results obtained suppose that hypertensive persons have the highest sensitivity and the hypotensive persons have the lowest sensitivity of the arterial blood pressure to increase of geomagnetic activity. The results did not show significant changes in the heart rate. The percentage of the persons who reported subjective psycho-physiological complaints was also found to increase significantly with the geomagnetic activity increase and the highest sensitivity was revealed for the hypertensive females.

  6. Sex Differences in Human Fatigability: Mechanisms and Insight to Physiological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    Sex-related differences in physiology and anatomy are responsible for profound differences in neuromuscular performance and fatigability between men and women. Women are usually less fatigable than men for similar intensity isometric fatiguing contractions. This sex difference in fatigability, however, is task specific because different neuromuscular sites will be stressed when the requirements of the task are altered, and the stress on these sites can differ for men and women. Task variables that can alter the sex difference in fatigue include the type, intensity and speed of contraction, the muscle group assessed, and the environmental conditions. Physiological mechanisms that are responsible for sex-based differences in fatigability may include activation of the motor neuron pool from cortical and subcortical regions, synaptic inputs to the motor neuron pool via activation of metabolically-sensitive small afferent fibres in the muscle, muscle perfusion, and skeletal muscle metabolism and fibre type properties. Non-physiological factors such as the sex bias of studying more males than females in human and animal experiments can also mask a true understanding of the magnitude and mechanisms of sex-based differences in physiology and fatigability. Despite recent developments, there is a tremendous lack of understanding of sex differences in neuromuscular function and fatigability, the prevailing mechanisms and the functional consequences. This review emphasises the need to understand sex-based differences in fatigability in order to shed light on the benefits and limitations that fatigability can exert for men and women during daily tasks, exercise performance, training and rehabilitation in both health and disease. PMID:24433272

  7. Exercise and gene expression: physiological regulation of the human genome through physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Frank W; Chakravarthy, Manu V; Spangenburg, Espen E

    2002-01-01

    The current human genome was moulded and refined through generations of time. We propose that the basic framework for physiologic gene regulation was selected during an era of obligatory physical activity, as the survival of our Late Palaeolithic (50 000–10 000 BC) ancestors depended on hunting and gathering. A sedentary lifestyle in such an environment probably meant elimination of that individual organism. The phenotype of the present day Homo sapiens genome is much different from that of our ancient ancestors, primarily as a consequence of expressing evolutionarily programmed Late Palaeolithic genes in an environment that is predominantly sedentary. In this sense, our current genome is maladapted, resulting in abnormal gene expression, which in turn frequently manifests itself as clinically overt disease. We speculate that some of these genes still play a role in survival by causing premature death from chronic diseases produced by physical inactivity. We also contend that the current scientific evidence supports the notion that disruptions in cellular homeostasis are diminished in magnitude in physically active individuals compared with sedentary individuals due to the natural selection of gene expression that supports the physically active lifestyle displayed by our ancestors. We speculate that genes evolved with the expectation of requiring a certain threshold of physical activity for normal physiologic gene expression, and thus habitual exercise in sedentary cultures restores perturbed homeostatic mechanisms towards the normal physiological range of the Palaeolithic Homo sapiens. This hypothesis allows us to ask the question of whether normal physiological values change as a result of becoming sedentary. In summary, in sedentary cultures, daily physical activity normalizes gene expression towards patterns established to maintain the survival in the Late Palaeolithic era. PMID:12205177

  8. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for assessment of human exposure to bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Doerge, Daniel R; Teeguarden, Justin G; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2015-12-15

    A previously developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for bisphenol A (BPA) in adult rhesus monkeys was modified to characterize the pharmacokinetics of BPA and its phase II conjugates in adult humans following oral ingestion. Coupled with in vitro studies on BPA metabolism in the liver and the small intestine, the PBPK model was parameterized using oral pharmacokinetic data with deuterated-BPA (d6-BPA) delivered in cookies to adult humans after overnight fasting. The availability of the serum concentration time course of unconjugated d6-BPA offered direct empirical evidence for the calibration of BPA model parameters. The recalibrated PBPK adult human model for BPA was then evaluated against published human pharmacokinetic studies with BPA. A hypothesis of decreased oral uptake was needed to account for the reduced peak levels observed in adult humans, where d6-BPA was delivered in soup and food was provided prior to BPA ingestion, suggesting the potential impact of dosing vehicles and/or fasting on BPA disposition. With the incorporation of Monte Carlo analysis, the recalibrated adult human model was used to address the inter-individual variability in the internal dose metrics of BPA for the U.S. general population. Model-predicted peak BPA serum levels were in the range of pM, with 95% of human variability falling within an order of magnitude. This recalibrated PBPK model for BPA in adult humans provides a scientific basis for assessing human exposure to BPA that can serve to minimize uncertainties incurred during extrapolations across doses and species. PMID:26522835

  9. Altered serotonin physiology in human breast cancers favors paradoxical growth and cell survival

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The breast microenvironment can either retard or accelerate the events associated with progression of latent cancers. However, the actions of local physiological mediators in the context of breast cancers are poorly understood. Serotonin (5-HT) is a critical local regulator of epithelial homeostasis in the breast and other organs. Herein, we report complex alterations in the intrinsic mammary gland serotonin system of human breast cancers. Methods Serotonin biosynthetic capacity was analyzed in human breast tumor tissue microarrays using immunohistochemistry for tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1). Serotonin receptors (5-HT1-7) were analyzed in human breast tumors using the Oncomine database. Serotonin receptor expression, signal transduction, and 5-HT effects on breast cancer cell phenotype were compared in non-transformed and transformed human breast cells. Results In the context of the normal mammary gland, 5-HT acts as a physiological regulator of lactation and involution, in part by favoring growth arrest and cell death. This tightly regulated 5-HT system is subverted in multiple ways in human breast cancers. Specifically, TPH1 expression undergoes a non-linear change during progression, with increased expression during malignant progression. Correspondingly, the tightly regulated pattern of 5-HT receptors becomes dysregulated in human breast cancer cells, resulting in both ectopic expression of some isoforms and suppression of others. The receptor expression change is accompanied by altered downstream signaling of 5-HT receptors in human breast cancer cells, resulting in resistance to 5-HT-induced apoptosis, and stimulated proliferation. Conclusions Our data constitutes the first report of direct involvement of 5-HT in human breast cancer. Increased 5-HT biosynthetic capacity accompanied by multiple changes in 5-HT receptor expression and signaling favor malignant progression of human breast cancer cells (for example, stimulated proliferation

  10. Factors Affecting the Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretion of Cocoa Flavanols in Humans.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Gonzalez-Salvador, Isidro; Alañon, María Elena; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-09-01

    Cocoa is rich in a subclass of flavonoids known as flavanols, the cardiovascular health benefits of which have been extensively reported. The appearance of flavanol metabolites in the systemic circulation after flavanol-rich food consumption is likely to mediate the physiological effects on the vascular system, and these levels are influenced by numerous factors, including food matrix, processing, intake, age, gender, or genetic polymorphisms, among others. This review will focus on our current understanding of factors affecting the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of cocoa flavanols in humans. Second, it will identify gaps in these contributing factors that need to be addressed to conclusively translate our collective knowledge into the context of public health, dietary guidelines, and evidence-based dietary recommendations. PMID:25711140

  11. Central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity: a rebreathing demonstration illustrating integrative human physiology.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Christina M; Skow, Rachel J; Tymko, Michael M; Boulet, Lindsey M; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D; Ainslie, Philip N; Lemieux, Chantelle C M; Day, Trevor A

    2016-03-01

    One of the most effective ways of engaging students of physiology and medicine is through laboratory demonstrations and case studies that combine 1) the use of equipment, 2) problem solving, 3) visual representations, and 4) manipulation and interpretation of data. Depending on the measurements made and the type of test, laboratory demonstrations have the added benefit of being able to show multiple organ system integration. Many research techniques can also serve as effective demonstrations of integrative human physiology. The "Duffin" hyperoxic rebreathing test is often used in research settings as a test of central respiratory chemosensitivity and cerebrovascular reactivity to CO2. We aimed to demonstrate the utility of the hyperoxic rebreathing test for both respiratory and cerebrovascular responses to increases in CO2 and illustrate the integration of the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems. In the present article, methods such as spirometry, respiratory gas analysis, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound are described, and raw data traces can be adopted for discussion in a tutorial setting. If educators have these instruments available, instructions on how to carry out the test are provided so students can collect their own data. In either case, data analysis and quantification are discussed, including principles of linear regression, calculation of slope, the coefficient of determination (R(2)), and differences between plotting absolute versus normalized data. Using the hyperoxic rebreathing test as a demonstration of the complex interaction and integration between the respiratory and cerebrovascular systems provides senior undergraduate, graduate, and medical students with an advanced understanding of the integrative nature of human physiology. PMID:26873894

  12. Toward Scalable Trustworthy Computing Using the Human-Physiology-Immunity Metaphor

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, Lee M; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2011-01-01

    The cybersecurity landscape consists of an ad hoc patchwork of solutions. Optimal cybersecurity is difficult for various reasons: complexity, immense data and processing requirements, resource-agnostic cloud computing, practical time-space-energy constraints, inherent flaws in 'Maginot Line' defenses, and the growing number and sophistication of cyberattacks. This article defines the high-priority problems and examines the potential solution space. In that space, achieving scalable trustworthy computing and communications is possible through real-time knowledge-based decisions about cyber trust. This vision is based on the human-physiology-immunity metaphor and the human brain's ability to extract knowledge from data and information. The article outlines future steps toward scalable trustworthy systems requiring a long-term commitment to solve the well-known challenges.

  13. Simulation of monoclonal antibody pharmacokinetics in humans using a minimal physiologically based model.

    PubMed

    Li, Linzhong; Gardner, Iain; Dostalek, Miroslav; Jamei, Masoud

    2014-09-01

    Compared to small chemical molecules, monoclonal antibodies and Fc-containing derivatives (mAbs) have unique pharmacokinetic behaviour characterised by relatively poor cellular permeability, minimal renal filtration, binding to FcRn, target-mediated drug disposition, and disposition via lymph. A minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to describe the pharmacokinetics of mAbs in humans was developed. Within the model, the body is divided into three physiological compartments; plasma, a single tissue compartment and lymph. The tissue compartment is further sub-divided into vascular, endothelial and interstitial spaces. The model simultaneously describes the levels of endogenous IgG and exogenous mAbs in each compartment and sub-compartment and, in particular, considers the competition of these two species for FcRn binding in the endothelial space. A Monte-Carlo sampling approach is used to simulate the concentrations of endogenous IgG and mAb in a human population. Existing targeted-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) models are coupled with the minimal PBPK model to provide a general platform for simulating the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic antibodies using primarily pre-clinical data inputs. The feasibility of utilising pre-clinical data to parameterise the model and to simulate the pharmacokinetics of adalimumab and an anti-ALK1 antibody (PF-03446962) in a population of individuals was investigated and results were compared to published clinical data. PMID:25004823

  14. The EuroPhysiome, STEP and a roadmap for the virtual physiological human.

    PubMed

    Fenner, J W; Brook, B; Clapworthy, G; Coveney, P V; Feipel, V; Gregersen, H; Hose, D R; Kohl, P; Lawford, P; McCormack, K M; Pinney, D; Thomas, S R; Van Sint Jan, S; Waters, S; Viceconti, M

    2008-09-13

    Biomedical science and its allied disciplines are entering a new era in which computational methods and technologies are poised to play a prevalent role in supporting collaborative investigation of the human body. Within Europe, this has its focus in the virtual physiological human (VPH), which is an evolving entity that has emerged from the EuroPhysiome initiative and the strategy for the EuroPhysiome (STEP) consortium. The VPH is intended to be a solution to common infrastructure needs for physiome projects across the globe, providing a unifying architecture that facilitates integration and prediction, ultimately creating a framework capable of describing Homo sapiens in silico. The routine reliance of the biomedical industry, biomedical research and clinical practice on information technology (IT) highlights the importance of a tailor-made and robust IT infrastructure, but numerous challenges need to be addressed if the VPH is to become a mature technological reality. Appropriate investment will reap considerable rewards, since it is anticipated that the VPH will influence all sectors of society, with implications predominantly for improved healthcare, improved competitiveness in industry and greater understanding of (patho)physiological processes. This paper considers issues pertinent to the development of the VPH, highlighted by the work of the STEP consortium. PMID:18559316

  15. Human Peripheral Clocks: Applications for Studying Circadian Phenotypes in Physiology and Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Camille; Brown, Steven A.; Dibner, Charna

    2015-01-01

    Most light-sensitive organisms on earth have acquired an internal system of circadian clocks allowing the anticipation of light or darkness. In humans, the circadian system governs nearly all aspects of physiology and behavior. Circadian phenotypes, including chronotype, vary dramatically among individuals and over individual lifespan. Recent studies have revealed that the characteristics of human skin fibroblast clocks correlate with donor chronotype. Given the complexity of circadian phenotype assessment in humans, the opportunity to study oscillator properties by using cultured primary cells has the potential to uncover molecular details difficult to assess directly in humans. Since altered properties of the circadian oscillator have been associated with many diseases including metabolic disorders and cancer, clock characteristics assessed in additional primary cell types using similar technologies might represent an important tool for exploring the connection between chronotype and disease, and for diagnostic purposes. Here, we review implications of this approach for gathering insights into human circadian rhythms and their function in health and disease. PMID:26029154

  16. Possible psycho-physiological consequences of human long-term space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belisheva, N. K.; Lammer, H.; Biernat, H. K.; Kachanova, T. L.; Kalashnikova, I. V.

    Experiments carried out on the Earth s surface during different years and under contrast periods of solar activity have shown that the functional state of biosystems including the human organisms are controlled by global and local geocosmical agents Our finding have a close relation to space research because they demonstrate the reactions of biosystems on variations of global and local geocosmical agents and the mechanisms of modulations of biosystems state by geocosmical agents We revealed the role of variations of the geomagnetic field for the stimulation of immune systems functional state of peripheral blood human brain growth of microflora skin covers and pathogenic microorganisms The study of the psycho-physiological state of the human organism has demonstrated that an increase of the neutron intensity near the Earth s surface is associated with anxiety decrease of normal and increase of paradox reactions of examinees The analysis of the human brain functional state in dependent on the geomagnetic variation structure dose under exposure to the variations of geomagnetic field in a certain amplitude-frequency range and also the intensity of the nucleon component of secondary cosmic rays showed that the stable and unstable states of the human brain are determined by geomagnetic field variations and the intensity of the nucleon component The stable state of the brain manifested under the periodic oscillations of the geomagnetic field in a certain amplitude-frequency range The low level of geomagnetic activity associated with an

  17. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of squalene-containing adjuvant in human vaccines.

    PubMed

    Tegenge, Million A; Mitkus, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Squalene is used in the oil phase of certain emulsion vaccine adjuvants, but its fate as a vaccine component following intramuscular (IM) injection in humans is unknown. In this study, we constructed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for intramuscularly injected squalene-in-water (SQ/W) emulsion, in order to make a quantitative estimation of the tissue distribution of squalene following a single IM injection in humans. The PBPK model incorporates relevant physicochemical properties of squalene; estimates of the time course of cracking of a SQ/W emulsion; anatomical and physiological parameters at the injection site and beyond; and local, preferential lymphatic transport. The model predicts that a single dose of SQ/W emulsion will be removed from human deltoid muscle within six days following IM injection. The major proportion of the injected squalene will be distributed to draining lymph nodes and adipose tissues. The model indicates slow decay from the latter compartment most likely due to partitioning into neutral lipids and a low rate of squalene biotransformation there. Parallel pharmacokinetic modeling for mouse muscle suggests that the kinetics of SQ/W emulsion correspond to the immunodynamic time course of a commercial squalene-containing adjuvant reported in that species. In conclusion, this study makes important pharmacokinetic predictions of the fate of a squalene-containing emulsion in humans. The results of this study may be relevant for understanding the immunodynamics of this new class of vaccine adjuvants and may be useful in future quantitative risk analyses that incorporate mode-of-action data. PMID:23912214

  18. Genotype-environment interactions affecting preflowering physiological and morphological traits of Brassica rapa grown in two watering regimes.

    PubMed

    El-Soda, Mohamed; Boer, Martin P; Bagheri, Hedayat; Hanhart, Corrie J; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G M

    2014-02-01

    Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by drought, which is likely to become more threatening with the predicted global temperature increase. Understanding the genetic architecture of complex quantitative traits and their interaction with water availability may lead to improved crop adaptation to a wide range of environments. Here, the genetic basis of 20 physiological and morphological traits is explored by describing plant performance and growth in a Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line (RIL) population grown on a sandy substrate supplemented with nutrient solution, under control and drought conditions. Altogether, 54 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified, of which many colocated in 11 QTL clusters. Seventeen QTL showed significant QTL-environment interaction (Q×E), indicating genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity. Of the measured traits, only hypocotyl length did not show significant genotype-environment interaction (G×E) in both environments in all experiments. Correlation analysis showed that, in the control environment, stomatal conductance was positively correlated with total leaf dry weight (DW) and aboveground DW, whereas in the drought environment, stomatal conductance showed a significant negative correlation with total leaf DW and aboveground DW. This correlation was explained by antagonistic fitness effects in the drought environment, controlled by a QTL cluster on chromosome A7. These results demonstrate that Q×E is an important component of the genetic variance and can play a great role in improving drought tolerance in future breeding programmes. PMID:24474811

  19. Does acute exposure to mobile phones affect human attention?

    PubMed

    Russo, Riccardo; Fox, Elaine; Cinel, Caterina; Boldini, Angela; Defeyter, Margaret A; Mirshekar-Syahkal, Dariush; Mehta, Amit

    2006-04-01

    Recent studies have indicated that acute exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones affects human cognition. However, the relatively small samples used, in addition to methodological problems, make the outcomes of these studies difficult to interpret. In our study we tested a large sample of volunteers (168) using a series of cognitive tasks apparently sensitive to RF exposure (a simple reaction task, a vigilance task, and a subtraction task). Participants performed those tasks twice, in two different sessions. In one session they were exposed to RFs, with half of subjects exposed to GSM signals and the other half exposed to CW signals, while in the other session they were exposed to sham signals. No significant effects of RF exposure on performance for either GSM or CW were found, independent of whether the phone was positioned on the left or on the right side. PMID:16304701

  20. Environmental layout complexity affects neural activity during navigation in humans.

    PubMed

    Slone, Edward; Burles, Ford; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Navigating large-scale surroundings is a fundamental ability. In humans, it is commonly assumed that navigational performance is affected by individual differences, such as age, sex, and cognitive strategies adopted for orientation. We recently showed that the layout of the environment itself also influences how well people are able to find their way within it, yet it remains unclear whether differences in environmental complexity are associated with changes in brain activity during navigation. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how the brain responds to a change in environmental complexity by asking participants to perform a navigation task in two large-scale virtual environments that differed solely in interconnection density, a measure of complexity defined as the average number of directional choices at decision points. The results showed that navigation in the simpler, less interconnected environment was faster and more accurate relative to the complex environment, and such performance was associated with increased activity in a number of brain areas (i.e. precuneus, retrosplenial cortex, and hippocampus) known to be involved in mental imagery, navigation, and memory. These findings provide novel evidence that environmental complexity not only affects navigational behaviour, but also modulates activity in brain regions that are important for successful orientation and navigation. PMID:26990572

  1. A primate-specific, brain isoform of KCNH2 affects cortical physiology, cognition, neuronal repolarization and risk of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Huffaker, Stephen J; Chen, Jingshan; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Sambataro, Fabio; Yang, Feng; Mattay, Venkata; Lipska, Barbara K; Hyde, Thomas M; Song, Jian; Rujescu, Dan; Giegling, Ina; Mayilyan, Karine; Proust, Morgan J; Soghoyan, Armen; Caforio, Grazia; Callicott, Joseph H; Bertolino, Alessandro; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Chang, Jay; Ji, Yuanyuan; Egan, Michael F; Goldberg, Terry E; Kleinman, Joel E; Lu, Bai; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2009-05-01

    Organized neuronal firing is crucial for cortical processing and is disrupted in schizophrenia. Using rapid amplification of 5' complementary DNA ends in human brain, we identified a primate-specific isoform (3.1) of the ether-a-go-go-related K(+) channel KCNH2 that modulates neuronal firing. KCNH2-3.1 messenger RNA levels are comparable to full-length KCNH2 (1A) levels in brain but three orders of magnitude lower in heart. In hippocampus from individuals with schizophrenia, KCNH2-3.1 expression is 2.5-fold greater than KCNH2-1A expression. A meta-analysis of five clinical data sets (367 families, 1,158 unrelated cases and 1,704 controls) shows association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in KCNH2 with schizophrenia. Risk-associated alleles predict lower intelligence quotient scores and speed of cognitive processing, altered memory-linked functional magnetic resonance imaging signals and increased KCNH2-3.1 mRNA levels in postmortem hippocampus. KCNH2-3.1 lacks a domain that is crucial for slow channel deactivation. Overexpression of KCNH2-3.1 in primary cortical neurons induces a rapidly deactivating K(+) current and a high-frequency, nonadapting firing pattern. These results identify a previously undescribed KCNH2 channel isoform involved in cortical physiology, cognition and psychosis, providing a potential new therapeutic drug target. PMID:19412172

  2. Human Spirometry: Computerized Data Acquisition in the Undergraduate Human Physiology Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Bradley T.; Mulstay, Richard E.

    1993-01-01

    Applies microcomputer technology to the development of a data acquisition and analysis system for the study of measuring the human lung capacity and metabolism. Discusses the chain-compensated spirometer, interfacing hardware, data acquisition hardware and software, and the applicability of the system to other biological measurements. (MDH)

  3. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  4. Screening of chemicals for human bioaccumulative potential with a physiologically based toxicokinetic model.

    PubMed

    Tonnelier, Arnaud; Coecke, Sandra; Zaldívar, José-Manuel

    2012-03-01

    Human bioaccumulative potential is an important element in the risk assessment of chemicals. Due to the high number of synthetic chemicals, there exists the need to develop prioritisation strategies. The purpose of this study was to develop a predictive tool for human bioaccumulation risk assessment that incorporates not only the chemical properties of the compounds, but also the processes that tend to decrease the concentration of the compound such as metabolisation. We used a generic physiologically based toxicokinetic model that based on in vitro human liver metabolism data, minimal renal excretion and a constant exposure was able to assess the bioaccumulative potential of a chemical. The approach has been analysed using literature data on well-known bioaccumulative compounds and liver metabolism data from the ECVAM database and a subset of the ToxCast phase I chemical library-in total 94 compounds covering pharmaceuticals, plant protection products and industrial chemicals. Our results provide further evidence that partitioning properties do not allow for a reliable screening criteria for human chemical hazard. Our model, based on a 100% intestinal absorption assumption, suggests that metabolic clearance, plasma protein-binding properties and renal excretion are the main factors in determining whether bioaccumulation will occur and its amount. It is essential that in vitro metabolic clearance tests with metabolic competent cell lines as well as plasma protein-binding assays be performed for suspected bioaccumulative compounds. PMID:22089525

  5. Elaboration of a new culture medium for physiological studies on human sperm motility and capacitation.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, D

    1986-06-01

    The formulation of a new medium based upon published data on human tubal fluid and blood plasma is described. Sperm motility was well maintained for periods of up to 6 h in this 'synthetic tubal fluid' (STF), and movement characteristics (velocity of progression and amplitude of lateral head displacement) were quantitatively and qualitatively similar to values previously reported for other complex media. STF also supported human sperm capacitation and the spontaneous acrosome reaction as determined using the zona-free hamster egg penetration test. Spermatozoa pre-incubated in STF containing blood plasma levels of taurine (86 microM) for 3 h penetrated significantly more oocytes than parallel sperm populations pre-incubate in STF lacking taurine (P less than 0.001). This difference was no longer significant after 5 h of pre-incubation. These findings indicate a possible role for taurine in human sperm capacitation, and demonstrate the potential value of STF for performing more physiological invitro studies on human sperm function. PMID:3558765

  6. MicroRNAs: Control and Loss of Control in Human Physiology and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Marin-Muller, Christian; Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Chow, Kwong-Hon; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the human genome indicated that a large fraction of the genome sequences are RNAs that do not encode any proteins, also known as non-coding RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNA molecules, with 20–22-nucleotide (nt) in length, and are predicted to control the activity of approximately 30% of all protein-coding genes in mammals. miRNAs play important roles in many diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and immune disorders. The expression of miRNAs can be regulated by epigenetic modification, DNA copy number change, and genetic mutations. miRNAs can serve as a valuable therapeutic target for a large number of diseases. For miRNAs with oncogenic capabilities, potential therapies include miRNA silencing, antisense blocking, and miRNA modifications. For miRNAs with tumor suppression functions, over-expression of those miRNAs might be a useful strategy to inhibit tumor growth. In this review, we discuss the current progress of miRNA research, regulation of miRNA expression, prediction of miRNA targets, and regulatory role of miRNAs in human physiology and diseases, with a specific focus on miRNAs in pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, colon rectal cancer, cardiovascular disease, immune system, and infectious disease. This review provides valuable information for clinicians and researchers who want to recognize the newest advances in this new field and identify possible lines of investigation in miRNAs as important mediators in human physiology and diseases. PMID:19030926

  7. Physiological Evidence for a Midline Spatial Channel in Human Auditory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Briley, Paul M; Goman, Adele M; Summerfield, A Quentin

    2016-08-01

    Studies with humans and other mammals have provided support for a two-channel representation of horizontal ("azimuthal") space in the auditory system. In this representation, location-sensitive neurons contribute activity to one of two broadly tuned channels whose responses are compared to derive an estimate of sound-source location. One channel is maximally responsive to sounds towards the left and the other to sounds towards the right. However, recent psychophysical studies of humans, and physiological studies of other mammals, point to the presence of an additional channel, maximally responsive to the midline. In this study, we used electroencephalography to seek physiological evidence for such a midline channel in humans. We measured neural responses to probe stimuli presented from straight ahead (0 °) or towards the right (+30 ° or +90 °). Probes were preceded by adapter stimuli to temporarily suppress channel activity. Adapters came from 0 ° or alternated between left and right (-30 ° and +30 ° or -90 ° and +90 °). For the +90 ° probe, to which the right-tuned channel would respond most strongly, both accounts predict greatest adaptation when the adapters are at ±90 °. For the 0 ° probe, the two-channel account predicts greatest adaptation from the ±90 ° adapters, while the three-channel account predicts greatest adaptation when the adapters are at 0 ° because these adapters stimulate the midline-tuned channel which responds most strongly to the 0 ° probe. The results were consistent with the three-channel account. In addition, a computational implementation of the three-channel account fitted the probe response sizes well, explaining 93 % of the variance about the mean, whereas a two-channel implementation produced a poor fit and explained only 61 % of the variance. PMID:27164943

  8. The use of computers to teach human anatomy and physiology to allied health and nursing students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Valerie J.

    Educational institutions are under tremendous pressure to adopt the newest technologies in order to prepare their students to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century. For the last twenty years huge amounts of money have been spent on computers, printers, software, multimedia projection equipment, and so forth. A reasonable question is, "Has it worked?" Has this infusion of resources, financial as well as human, resulted in improved learning? Are the students meeting the intended learning goals? Any attempt to develop answers to these questions should include examining the intended goals and exploring the effects of the changes on students and faculty. This project investigated the impact of a specific application of a computer program in a community college setting on students' attitudes and understanding of human anatomy and physiology. In this investigation two sites of the same community college with seemingly similar students populations, seven miles apart, used different laboratory activities to teach human anatomy and physiology. At one site nursing students were taught using traditional dissections and laboratory activities; at the other site two of the dissections, specifically cat and sheep pluck, were replaced with the A.D.A.M.RTM (Animated Dissection of Anatomy for Medicine) computer program. Analysis of the attitude data indicated that students at both sites were extremely positive about their laboratory experiences. Analysis of the content data indicated a statistically significant difference in performance between the two sites in two of the eight content areas that were studied. For both topics the students using the computer program scored higher. A detailed analysis of the surveys, interviews with faculty and students, examination of laboratory materials, and observations of laboratory facilities in both sites, and cost-benefit analysis led to the development of seven recommendations. The recommendations call for action at the level of the

  9. Macromolecular crowding meets oxygen tension in human mesenchymal stem cell culture - A step closer to physiologically relevant in vitro organogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigognini, Daniela; Gaspar, Diana; Kumar, Pramod; Satyam, Abhigyan; Alagesan, Senthilkumar; Sanz-Nogués, Clara; Griffin, Matthew; O’Brien, Timothy; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I.

    2016-08-01

    Modular tissue engineering is based on the cells’ innate ability to create bottom-up supramolecular assemblies with efficiency and efficacy still unmatched by man-made devices. Although the regenerative potential of such tissue substitutes has been documented in preclinical and clinical setting, the prolonged culture time required to develop an implantable device is associated with phenotypic drift and/or cell senescence. Herein, we demonstrate that macromolecular crowding significantly enhances extracellular matrix deposition in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell culture at both 20% and 2% oxygen tension. Although hypoxia inducible factor - 1α was activated at 2% oxygen tension, increased extracellular matrix synthesis was not observed. The expression of surface markers and transcription factors was not affected as a function of oxygen tension and macromolecular crowding. The multilineage potential was also maintained, albeit adipogenic differentiation was significantly reduced in low oxygen tension cultures, chondrogenic differentiation was significantly increased in macromolecularly crowded cultures and osteogenic differentiation was not affected as a function of oxygen tension and macromolecular crowding. Collectively, these data pave the way for the development of bottom-up tissue equivalents based on physiologically relevant developmental processes.

  10. Macromolecular crowding meets oxygen tension in human mesenchymal stem cell culture - A step closer to physiologically relevant in vitro organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cigognini, Daniela; Gaspar, Diana; Kumar, Pramod; Satyam, Abhigyan; Alagesan, Senthilkumar; Sanz-Nogués, Clara; Griffin, Matthew; O’Brien, Timothy; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I.

    2016-01-01

    Modular tissue engineering is based on the cells’ innate ability to create bottom-up supramolecular assemblies with efficiency and efficacy still unmatched by man-made devices. Although the regenerative potential of such tissue substitutes has been documented in preclinical and clinical setting, the prolonged culture time required to develop an implantable device is associated with phenotypic drift and/or cell senescence. Herein, we demonstrate that macromolecular crowding significantly enhances extracellular matrix deposition in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell culture at both 20% and 2% oxygen tension. Although hypoxia inducible factor - 1α was activated at 2% oxygen tension, increased extracellular matrix synthesis was not observed. The expression of surface markers and transcription factors was not affected as a function of oxygen tension and macromolecular crowding. The multilineage potential was also maintained, albeit adipogenic differentiation was significantly reduced in low oxygen tension cultures, chondrogenic differentiation was significantly increased in macromolecularly crowded cultures and osteogenic differentiation was not affected as a function of oxygen tension and macromolecular crowding. Collectively, these data pave the way for the development of bottom-up tissue equivalents based on physiologically relevant developmental processes. PMID:27478033

  11. Macromolecular crowding meets oxygen tension in human mesenchymal stem cell culture - A step closer to physiologically relevant in vitro organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cigognini, Daniela; Gaspar, Diana; Kumar, Pramod; Satyam, Abhigyan; Alagesan, Senthilkumar; Sanz-Nogués, Clara; Griffin, Matthew; O'Brien, Timothy; Pandit, Abhay; Zeugolis, Dimitrios I

    2016-01-01

    Modular tissue engineering is based on the cells' innate ability to create bottom-up supramolecular assemblies with efficiency and efficacy still unmatched by man-made devices. Although the regenerative potential of such tissue substitutes has been documented in preclinical and clinical setting, the prolonged culture time required to develop an implantable device is associated with phenotypic drift and/or cell senescence. Herein, we demonstrate that macromolecular crowding significantly enhances extracellular matrix deposition in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell culture at both 20% and 2% oxygen tension. Although hypoxia inducible factor - 1α was activated at 2% oxygen tension, increased extracellular matrix synthesis was not observed. The expression of surface markers and transcription factors was not affected as a function of oxygen tension and macromolecular crowding. The multilineage potential was also maintained, albeit adipogenic differentiation was significantly reduced in low oxygen tension cultures, chondrogenic differentiation was significantly increased in macromolecularly crowded cultures and osteogenic differentiation was not affected as a function of oxygen tension and macromolecular crowding. Collectively, these data pave the way for the development of bottom-up tissue equivalents based on physiologically relevant developmental processes. PMID:27478033

  12. Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang Claire; Boen, Courtney; Gerken, Karen; Li, Ting; Schorpp, Kristen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-01-19

    Two decades of research indicate causal associations between social relationships and mortality, but important questions remain as to how social relationships affect health, when effects emerge, and how long they last. Drawing on data from four nationally representative longitudinal samples of the US population, we implemented an innovative life course design to assess the prospective association of both structural and functional dimensions of social relationships (social integration, social support, and social strain) with objectively measured biomarkers of physical health (C-reactive protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index) within each life stage, including adolescence and young, middle, and late adulthood, and compare such associations across life stages. We found that a higher degree of social integration was associated with lower risk of physiological dysregulation in a dose-response manner in both early and later life. Conversely, lack of social connections was associated with vastly elevated risk in specific life stages. For example, social isolation increased the risk of inflammation by the same magnitude as physical inactivity in adolescence, and the effect of social isolation on hypertension exceeded that of clinical risk factors such as diabetes in old age. Analyses of multiple dimensions of social relationships within multiple samples across the life course produced consistent and robust associations with health. Physiological impacts of structural and functional dimensions of social relationships emerge uniquely in adolescence and midlife and persist into old age. PMID:26729882

  13. Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang Claire; Boen, Courtney; Gerken, Karen; Li, Ting; Schorpp, Kristen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-01-01

    Two decades of research indicate causal associations between social relationships and mortality, but important questions remain as to how social relationships affect health, when effects emerge, and how long they last. Drawing on data from four nationally representative longitudinal samples of the US population, we implemented an innovative life course design to assess the prospective association of both structural and functional dimensions of social relationships (social integration, social support, and social strain) with objectively measured biomarkers of physical health (C-reactive protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index) within each life stage, including adolescence and young, middle, and late adulthood, and compare such associations across life stages. We found that a higher degree of social integration was associated with lower risk of physiological dysregulation in a dose–response manner in both early and later life. Conversely, lack of social connections was associated with vastly elevated risk in specific life stages. For example, social isolation increased the risk of inflammation by the same magnitude as physical inactivity in adolescence, and the effect of social isolation on hypertension exceeded that of clinical risk factors such as diabetes in old age. Analyses of multiple dimensions of social relationships within multiple samples across the life course produced consistent and robust associations with health. Physiological impacts of structural and functional dimensions of social relationships emerge uniquely in adolescence and midlife and persist into old age. PMID:26729882

  14. Inhibition of human gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase: development of more potent, physiologically relevant, uncompetitive inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Stephanie; Regan, Nicholas; West, Matthew B.; Thai, Justin; Cook, Paul F.; Terzyan, Simon S.; Li, Pui Kai; Hanigan, Marie H.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is an essential enzyme for maintaining cysteine homeostasis, leukotriene synthesis, metabolism of glutathione-conjugates and catabolism of extracellular glutathione. Overexpression of GGT has been implicated in many pathologies, and clinical inhibitors of GGT are under development for use in the treatment of asthma, cancer and other diseases. Inhibitors are generally characterized using synthetic GGT substrates. This study of uncompetitive inhibitors of GGT, has revealed that the potency with which compounds inhibit GGT activity in the standard biochemical assay does not correlate with the potency with which they inhibit the physiological reaction catalyzed by GGT. Kinetic studies provided insight into the mechanism of inhibition. Modifications to the sulfobenzene or distal benzene ring of the uncompetitive inhibitor, OU749, affected activity. One of the most potent inhibitors was identified among a novel group of analogs with an amine group para on the benzosulfonamide ring. New, more potent uncompetitive inhibitors of the physiological GGT reaction were found to be less toxic than the glutamine-analogs that have been tested clinically. Development of non-toxic inhibitors is essential for exploiting GGT as a therapeutic target. PMID:23301618

  15. Molecular Crowding Favors Reactivity of a Human Ribozyme Under Physiological Ionic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Strulson, Christopher A.; Yennawar, Neela H.; Rambo, Robert P.; Bevilacqua, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to relate RNA folding to function under cellular-like conditions, we monitored the self-cleavage reaction of the human hepatitis delta virus (HDV)-like CPEB3 ribozyme in the background of physiological ionic concentrations and various crowding and cosolute agents. We found that under physiological free Mg2+ concentrations (~0.1 to 0.5 mM Mg2+), both crowders and cosolutes stimulate the rate of self-cleavage, up to ~6-fold, but that in 10 mM Mg2+—conditions widely used for in vitro ribozyme studies—these same additives have virtually no effect on self-cleavage rate. We further observe a dependence of self-cleavage rate on crowder size, wherein rate stimulation is diminished for crowders larger than the size of the unfolded RNA. Monitoring effects of crowding and cosolute agents on rates in biological amounts of urea revealed additive-promoted increases in both low and high Mg2+ concentrations, with a maximal stimulation of more than 10-fold and a rescue of the rate to its urea-free values. Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) experiments reveal a structural basis for this stimulation in that higher molecular weight crowding agents favor a more compact form of the ribozyme in 0.5 mM Mg2+ that is essentially equivalent to the form under standard ribozyme conditions of 10 mM Mg2+ and no crowder. This finding suggests that at least a portion of the rate enhancement arises from favoring the native RNA tertiary structure. We conclude that cellular-like crowding supports ribozyme reactivity by favoring a compact form of the ribozyme, but only under physiological ionic and cosolute conditions. PMID:24187989

  16. Cross-Species Affective Neuroscience Decoding of the Primal Affective Experiences of Humans and Related Animals

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-01-01

    Background The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. Principal Findings The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1) It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB); these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2) These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3) All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4) Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as ‘rewards’ and ‘punishments’ in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5) Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned) emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1), which are regulated by higher

  17. How salinity and temperature combine to affect physiological state and performance in red knots with contrasting non-breeding environments.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Soriano-Redondo, Andrea; Dekinga, Anne; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Masero, José A; Piersma, Theunis

    2015-08-01

    Migratory shorebirds inhabit environments that may yield contrasting salinity-temperature regimes-with widely varying osmoregulatory demands, even within a given species-and the question is: by which physiological means and at which organisational level do they show adjustments with respect to these demands? Red knots Calidris canutus winter in coastal areas over a range of latitudes. The nominal subspecies winters in salty areas in the tropics, whereas the subspecies Calidris canutus islandica winters in north-temperate regions of comparatively lower salinities and temperatures. In this study, both subspecies of red knot were acclimated to different salinity (28/40‰)-temperature (5/35 °C) combinations for 2-week periods. We then measured food/salt intakes, basal metabolic rate (BMR), body mass and temperature, fat and salt gland scores, gizzard mass, heat-shock proteins, heterophils/lymphocytes (H/L) ratio and plasma Na(+) to assess the responses of each taxon to osmoregulatory challenges. High salinity (HS)-warm-acclimated birds reduced food/salt intake, BMR, body mass, fat score and gizzard mass, showing that salt/heat loads constrained energy acquisition rates. Higher salt gland scores in saltier treatments indicated that its size was adjusted to higher osmoregulatory demands. Elevated plasma Na(+) and H/L ratio in high-salinity-warm-acclimated birds indicated that salt/heat loads might have a direct effect on the water-salt balance and stress responses of red knots. Subspecies had little or no effect on most measured parameters, suggesting that most adjustments reflect phenotypic flexibility rather than subspecific adaptations. Our results demonstrate how salinity and temperature affect various phenotypic traits in a migrant shorebird, highlighting the importance of considering these factors jointly when evaluating the environmental tolerances of air-breathing marine taxa. PMID:25851406

  18. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Shahnoor S; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R; Mateiu, Ramona V; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed relatively little effect, AO showed significant reduction in starch accumulation with re-direction to protein and β-glucan (BG) accumulation. Metabolite profiling indicated significantly higher sugar accumulation in AO, with re-partitioning of carbon to accumulate amino acids, and interestingly it also had high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences in starch granule morphology at maturity. The results demonstrate that decreasing the storage starch branching resulted in metabolic adjustments and re-directions, tuning to evade deleterious effects on caryopsis physiology and plant performance while only little effect was evident by increasing starch-bound phosphate as a result of overexpressing GWD. PMID:26891365

  19. Starch Granule Re-Structuring by Starch Branching Enzyme and Glucan Water Dikinase Modulation Affects Caryopsis Physiology and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Shahnoor S.; Obata, Toshihiro; Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Schwahn, Kevin; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Mateiu, Ramona V.; Blennow, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Starch is of fundamental importance for plant development and reproduction and its optimized molecular assembly is potentially necessary for correct starch metabolism. Re-structuring of starch granules in-planta can therefore potentially affect plant metabolism. Modulation of granule micro-structure was achieved by decreasing starch branching and increasing starch-bound phosphate content in the barley caryopsis starch by RNAi suppression of all three Starch Branching Enzyme (SBE) isoforms or overexpression of potato Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD). The resulting lines displayed Amylose-Only (AO) and Hyper-Phosphorylated (HP) starch chemotypes, respectively. We studied the influence of these alterations on primary metabolism, grain composition, starch structural features and starch granule morphology over caryopsis development at 10, 20 and 30 days after pollination (DAP) and at grain maturity. While HP showed relatively little effect, AO showed significant reduction in starch accumulation with re-direction to protein and β-glucan (BG) accumulation. Metabolite profiling indicated significantly higher sugar accumulation in AO, with re-partitioning of carbon to accumulate amino acids, and interestingly it also had high levels of some important stress-related metabolites and potentially protective metabolites, possibly to elude deleterious effects. Investigations on starch molecular structure revealed significant increase in starch phosphate and amylose content in HP and AO respectively with obvious differences in starch granule morphology at maturity. The results demonstrate that decreasing the storage starch branching resulted in metabolic adjustments and re-directions, tuning to evade deleterious effects on caryopsis physiology and plant performance while only little effect was evident by increasing starch-bound phosphate as a result of overexpressing GWD. PMID:26891365

  20. MRI-based three-dimensional thermal physiological characterization of thyroid gland of human body.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chao; He, Zhi Zhu; Yang, Yang; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This article is dedicated to present a MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) based three-dimensional finite element modeling on the thermal manifestations relating to the pathophysiology of thyroid gland. An efficient approach for identifying the metabolic dysfunctions of thyroid has also been demonstrated through tracking the localized non-uniform thermal distribution or enhanced dynamic imaging. The temperature features over the skin surface and thyroid domain have been characterized using the numerical simulation and experimental measurement which will help better interpret the thermal physiological mechanisms of the thyroid under steady-state or water-cooling condition. Further, parametric simulations on the hypermetabolism symptoms of hyperthyroidism and thermal effects within thyroid domain caused by varying breathing airflow in the trachea and blood-flow in artery and vein were performed. It was disclosed that among all the parameters, the airflow volume has the largest effect on the total heat flux of thyroid surface. However, thermal contributions caused by varying the breathing frequency and blood-flow velocity are negligibly small. The present study suggests a generalized way for simulating the close to reality physiological behavior or process of human thyroid, which is of significance for disease diagnosis and treatment planning. PMID:23999383

  1. Physiological evidence consistent with reduced neuroplasticity in human adolescents born preterm.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Julia B; Riley, Alysha M; Doeltgen, Sebastian H; Kurylowicz, Lisa; Rothwell, John C; McAllister, Suzanne M; Smith, Ashleigh E; Clow, Angela; Kennaway, David J; Ridding, Michael C

    2012-11-14

    Preterm-born children commonly experience motor, cognitive, and learning difficulties that may be accompanied by altered brain microstructure, connectivity, and neurochemistry. However, the mechanisms linking the altered neurophysiology with the behavioral outcomes are unknown. Here we provide the first physiological evidence that human adolescents born preterm at or before 37 weeks of completed gestation have a significantly reduced capacity for cortical neuroplasticity, the key overall mechanism underlying learning and memory. We examined motor cortex neuroplasticity in three groups of adolescents who were born after gestations of ≤32 completed weeks (early preterm), 33-37 weeks (late preterm), and 38-41 weeks (term) using a noninvasive transcranial magnetic brain stimulation technique to induce long-term depression (LTD)-like neuroplasticity. Compared with term-born adolescents, both early and late preterm adolescents had reduced LTD-like neuroplasticity in response to brain stimulation that was also associated with low salivary cortisol levels. We also compared neuroplasticity in term-born adolescents with that in term-born young adults, finding that the motor cortex retains a relatively enhanced neuroplastic capacity in adolescence. These findings provide a possible mechanistic link between the altered brain physiology of preterm birth and the subsequent associated behavioral deficits, particularly in learning and memory. They also suggest that altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function due to preterm birth may be a significant modulator of this altered neuroplasticity. This latter finding may offer options in the development of possible therapeutic interventions. PMID:23152623

  2. A single-nucleotide variation in a p53-binding site affects nutrient-sensitive human SIRT1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Asma; Hoffman, Timothy A.; DeRicco, Jeremy; Kumar, Ajay; Kim, Cuk-Seong; Jung, Saet-Byel; Yamamori, Tohru; Kim, Young-Rae; Mehdi, Fardeen; Kumar, Santosh; Rankinen, Tuomo; Ravussin, Eric; Irani, Kaikobad

    2010-01-01

    The SIRTUIN1 (SIRT1) deacetylase responds to changes in nutrient availability and regulates mammalian physiology and metabolism. Human and mouse SIRT1 are transcriptionally repressed by p53 via p53 response elements in their proximal promoters. Here, we identify a novel p53-binding sequence in the distal human SIRT1 promoter that is required for nutrient-sensitive SIRT1 transcription. In addition, we show that a common single-nucleotide (C/T) variation in this sequence affects nutrient deprivation-induced SIRT1 transcription, and calorie restriction-induced SIRT1 expression. The p53-binding sequence lies in a region of the SIRT1 promoter that also binds the transcriptional repressor Hypermethylated-In-Cancer-1 (HIC1). Nutrient deprivation increases occupancy by p53, while decreasing occupancy by HIC1, of this region of the promoter. HIC1 and p53 compete with each other for promoter occupancy. In comparison with the T variation, the C variation disrupts the mirror image symmetry of the p53-binding sequence, resulting in decreased binding to p53, decreased nutrient sensitivity of the promoter and impaired calorie restriction-stimulated tissue expression of SIRT1 and SIRT1 target genes AMPKα2 and PGC-1β. Thus, a common SNP in a novel p53-binding sequence in the human SIRT1 promoter affects nutrient-sensitive SIRT1 expression, and could have a significant impact on calorie restriction-induced, SIRT1-mediated, changes in human metabolism and physiology. PMID:20693263

  3. The physiological relevance of the intestinal microbiota--contributions to human health.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, Kelly A; Deutsch, Andrew S

    2007-12-01

    The intestinal commensal microbiota is a dynamic mixture of essential microbes that develops under key influences of genetics, environment, diet and disease. Population profiles differ along the gastrointestinal tract, from the lumen to the mucosa, and among individuals. The total microbiota population outnumbers the cells in the human body and accounts for 35-50% of the volume of the colonic content. Key physiological functions of the commensal microbiota include protective effects exerted directly by specific bacterial species, control of epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, production of essential mucosal nutrients, such as short-chain fatty acids and amino acids, prevention of overgrowth of pathogenic organisms, and stimulation of intestinal immunity. Oral probiotics are living microorganisms that upon ingestion in specific numbers exert health benefits beyond those of inherent basic nutrition. Emerging evidence indicates prophylactic and therapeutic utility for probiotic consumption in gastrointestinal health and disease. PMID:18187433

  4. Audited credential delegation: a usable security solution for the virtual physiological human toolkit.

    PubMed

    Haidar, Ali N; Zasada, Stefan J; Coveney, Peter V; Abdallah, Ali E; Beckles, Bruce; Jones, Mike A S

    2011-06-01

    We present applications of audited credential delegation (ACD), a usable security solution for authentication, authorization and auditing in distributed virtual physiological human (VPH) project environments that removes the use of digital certificates from end-users' experience. Current security solutions are based on public key infrastructure (PKI). While PKI offers strong security for VPH projects, it suffers from serious usability shortcomings in terms of end-user acquisition and management of credentials which deter scientists from exploiting distributed VPH environments. By contrast, ACD supports the use of local credentials. Currently, a local ACD username-password combination can be used to access grid-based resources while Shibboleth support is underway. Moreover, ACD provides seamless and secure access to shared patient data, tools and infrastructure, thus supporting the provision of personalized medicine for patients, scientists and clinicians participating in e-health projects from a local to the widest international scale. PMID:22670214

  5. Human physiological adaptation to extended Space Flight and its implications for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyna, F. A.; Shumate, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    Current work evaluating short-term space flight physiological data on the homeostatic changes due to weightlessness is presented as a means of anticipating Space Station long-term effects. An integrated systems analysis of current data shows a vestibulo-sensory adaptation within days; a loss of body mass, fluids, and electrolytes, stabilizing in a month; and a loss in red cell mass over a month. But bone demineralization which did not level off is seen as the biggest concern. Computer algorithms have been developed to simulate the human adaptation to weightlessness. So far these paradigms have been backed up by flight data and it is hoped that they will provide valuable information for future Space Station design. A series of explanatory schematics is attached.

  6. A vision and strategy for the virtual physiological human in 2010 and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Peter; Coveney, Peter V.; de Bono, Bernard; Diaz, Vanessa; Fenner, John; Frangi, Alejandro F.; Harris, Peter; Hose, Rod; Kohl, Peter; Lawford, Pat; McCormack, Keith; Mendes, Miriam; Omholt, Stig; Quarteroni, Alfio; Skår, John; Tegner, Jesper; Randall Thomas, S.; Tollis, Ioannis; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; van Beek, Johannes H. G. M.; Viceconti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    European funding under framework 7 (FP7) for the virtual physiological human (VPH) project has been in place now for nearly 2 years. The VPH network of excellence (NoE) is helping in the development of common standards, open-source software, freely accessible data and model repositories, and various training and dissemination activities for the project. It is also helping to coordinate the many clinically targeted projects that have been funded under the FP7 calls. An initial vision for the VPH was defined by framework 6 strategy for a European physiome (STEP) project in 2006. It is now time to assess the accomplishments of the last 2 years and update the STEP vision for the VPH. We consider the biomedical science, healthcare and information and communications technology challenges facing the project and we propose the VPH Institute as a means of sustaining the vision of VPH beyond the time frame of the NoE. PMID:20439264

  7. Audited credential delegation: a usable security solution for the virtual physiological human toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Haidar, Ali N.; Zasada, Stefan J.; Coveney, Peter V.; Abdallah, Ali E.; Beckles, Bruce; Jones, Mike A. S.

    2011-01-01

    We present applications of audited credential delegation (ACD), a usable security solution for authentication, authorization and auditing in distributed virtual physiological human (VPH) project environments that removes the use of digital certificates from end-users' experience. Current security solutions are based on public key infrastructure (PKI). While PKI offers strong security for VPH projects, it suffers from serious usability shortcomings in terms of end-user acquisition and management of credentials which deter scientists from exploiting distributed VPH environments. By contrast, ACD supports the use of local credentials. Currently, a local ACD username–password combination can be used to access grid-based resources while Shibboleth support is underway. Moreover, ACD provides seamless and secure access to shared patient data, tools and infrastructure, thus supporting the provision of personalized medicine for patients, scientists and clinicians participating in e-health projects from a local to the widest international scale. PMID:22670214

  8. Development of a Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Toolkit for Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Patricia; Ray, Meredith; Fisher, Jeffrey; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2011-01-01

    Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models can be used to determine the internal dose and strengthen exposure assessment. Many PBPK models are available, but they are not easily accessible for field use. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has conducted translational research to develop a human PBPK model toolkit by recoding published PBPK models. This toolkit, when fully developed, will provide a platform that consists of a series of priority PBPK models of environmental pollutants. Presented here is work on recoded PBPK models for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and metals. Good agreement was generally obtained between the original and the recoded models. This toolkit will be available for ATSDR scientists and public health assessors to perform simulations of exposures from contaminated environmental media at sites of concern and to help interpret biomonitoring data. It can be used as screening tools that can provide useful information for the protection of the public. PMID:22174611

  9. HUMAN PARAOXONASE-1 (PON1): GENE STRUCTURE AND EXPRESSION, PROMISCUOUS ACTIVITIES AND MULTIPLE PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLES

    PubMed Central

    Mackness, Mike; Mackness, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Human PON1 is a HDL-associated lipolactonase capable of preventing LDL and cell membrane oxidation and is therefore considered to be atheroprotective. PON1 contributes to the antioxidative function of HDL and reductions in HDL-PON1 activity, prevalent in a wide variety of diseases with an inflammatory component, is believed to lead to dysfunctional HDL which can promote inflammation and atherosclerosis. However, PON1 is multifunctional and may contribute to other HDL functions such as in innate immunity, preventing infection by quorum sensing gram negative bacteria by destroying acyl lactone mediators of quorum sensing, and putative new roles in cancer development and the promotion of healthy ageing. In this review we explore the physiological roles of PON1 in disease development, as well as PON1 gene and protein structure, promiscuous activities and the roles of SNPs and ethnicity in determining PON1 activity. PMID:25965560

  10. Proliferation and plasticity of human beta cells on physiologically occurring laminin isoforms.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Meenal; Virtanen, Ismo; Palgi, Jaan; Korsgren, Olle; Otonkoski, Timo

    2012-05-15

    We have previously characterized the molecular composition of human islet basement membranes and shown that human beta cells bind to laminin 511 (LM511) through integrin α3β1 and Lutheran glycoprotein. We have now investigated the impact of physical contact between cultured human beta cells and the laminin isoforms occurring in their natural niche. Human islet preparations derived from 15 donors were used, beta cells and duct cells were purified by magnetic sorting. Overall beta-cell proliferation was low or undetectable. However, in many experiments the only proliferating beta cells were detected in contact with the laminin isoforms that are found in the human islets in vivo (511 and 411). Purified ductal and beta cells underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). LM511 partially blocked this dedifferentiation of purified beta cells, and did not affect purified duct cells. Interactions with the surrounding basement membrane are important for the growth and function of human beta cells. However, only a very limited level of beta-cell proliferation can be induced by exogenous factors. LM511 may be a useful substrate for human beta-cell maintenance in vitro. PMID:22314207

  11. Sensing human physiological response using wearable carbon nanotube-based fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Long; Loh, Kenneth J.; Koo, Helen S.

    2016-04-01

    Flexible and wearable sensors for human monitoring have received increased attention. Besides detecting motion and physical activity, measuring human vital signals (e.g., respiration rate and body temperature) provide rich data for assessing subjects' physiological or psychological condition. Instead of using conventional, bulky, sensing transducers, the objective of this study was to design and test a wearable, fabric-like sensing system. In particular, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-latex thin films of different MWCNT concentrations were first fabricated using spray coating. Freestanding MWCNT-latex films were then sandwiched between two layers of flexible fabric using iron-on adhesive to form the wearable sensor. Second, to characterize its strain sensing properties, the fabric sensors were subjected to uniaxial and cyclic tensile load tests, and they exhibited relatively stable electromechanical responses. Finally, the wearable sensors were placed on a human subject for monitoring simple motions and for validating their practical strain sensing performance. Overall, the wearable fabric sensor design exhibited advances such as flexibility, ease of fabrication, light weight, low cost, noninvasiveness, and user comfort.

  12. Physiologically based Pharmacokinetic Modeling of 1,4-Dioxane in Rats, Mice, and Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Lisa M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Poet, Torka S.; Corley, Rick; Weber, Thomas J.; Locey, B. J.; Clarkson, Jacquelyn; Sager, S.; Gargas, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1,4-Dioxane (CAS No. 123-91-1) is used primarily as a solvent or as a solvent stabilizer. It can cause lung, liver and kidney damage at sufficiently high exposure levels. Two physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models of 1,4-dioxane and its major metabolite, hydroxyethoxyacetic acid (HEAA), were published in 1990. These models have uncertainties and deficiencies that could be addressed and the model strengthened for use in a contemporary cancer risk assessment for 1,4-dioxane. Studies were performed to fill data gaps and reduce uncertainties pertaining to the pharmacokinetics of 1,4-dioxane and HEAA in rats, mice, and humans. Three types of studies were performed:partition coefficient measurements, blood time course in mice, and in vitro pharmacokinetics using rat, mouse, and human hepatocytes. Updated PBPK models were developed based on these new data and previously available data. The optimized rate of metabolism for the mouse was significantly higher than the value previously estimated. The optimized rat kinetic parameters were similar to those in the 1990 models. Only two human studies were identified. Model predictions were consistent with one study, but did not fit the second as well. In addition, a rat nasal exposure was completed. The results confirmed water directly contacts rat nasal tissues during drinking water under bioassays. Consistent with previous PBPK models, nasal tissues were not specifically included in the model. Use of these models will reduce the uncertainty in future 1,4-dioxane risk assessments.

  13. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. PMID:26297692

  14. Physiological Content and Intrinsic Activities of 10 Cytochrome P450 Isoforms in Human Normal Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wang, Huan-Huan; Gao, Na; Wei, Jun-Ying; Tian, Xin; Zhao, Yan; Fang, Yan; Zhou, Jun; Wen, Qiang; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Yang-Jun; Qian, Xiao-Hong; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2016-07-01

    Due to a lack of physiologic cytochrome P450 (P450) isoform content, P450 activity is typically only determined at the microsomal level (per milligram of microsomal protein) and not at the isoform level (per picomole of P450 isoform), which could result in the misunderstanding of variations in P450 activity between individuals and further hinder development of personalized medicine. We found that there were large variations in protein content, mRNA levels, and intrinsic activities of the 10 P450s in 100 human liver samples, in which CYP2E1 and CYP2C9 showed the highest expression levels. P450 gene polymorphisms had different effects on activity at two levels: CYP3A5*3 and CYP2A6*9 alleles conferred increased activity at the isoform level but decreased activity at the microsomal level; CYP2C9*3 had no effect at the isoform level but decreased activity at the microsomal level. The different effects at each level stem from the different effects of each polymorphism on the resulting P450 protein. Individuals with CYP2A6*1/*4, CYP2A6*1/*9, CYP2C9*1/*3, CYP2D6 100C>T TT, CYP2E1 7632T>A AA, CYP3A5*1*3, and CYP3A5*3*3 genotypes had significantly lower protein content, whereas CYP2D6 1661G>C mutants had a higher protein content. In conclusion, we first offered the physiologic data of 10 P450 isoform contents and found that some single nucleotide polymorphisms had obvious effects on P450 expression in human normal livers. The effects of gene polymorphisms on intrinsic P450 activity at the isoform level were quite different from those at the microsomal level, which might be due to changes in P450 protein content. PMID:27189963

  15. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5–41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5–12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2–T1R3 transduction cascade. PMID:25963040

  16. Temperature Affects Human Sweet Taste via At Least Two Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    The reported effects of temperature on sweet taste in humans have generally been small and inconsistent. Here, we describe 3 experiments that follow up a recent finding that cooling from 37 to 21 °C does not reduce the initial sweetness of sucrose but increases sweet taste adaptation. In experiment 1, subjects rated the sweetness of sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions at 5-41 °C by dipping the tongue tip into the solutions after 0-, 3-, or 10-s pre-exposures to the same solutions or to H2O; experiment 2 compared the effects of temperature on the sweetness of 3 artificial sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, and saccharin); and experiment 3 employed a flow-controlled gustometer to rule out the possibility the effects of temperature in the preceding experiments were unique to dipping the tongue into a still taste solution. The results (i) confirmed that mild cooling does not attenuate sweetness but can increase sweet taste adaptation; (ii) demonstrated that cooling to 5-12 °C can directly reduce sweetness intensity; and (iii) showed that both effects vary across stimuli. These findings have implications for the TRPM5 hypothesis of thermal effects on sweet taste and raise the possibility that temperature also affects an earlier step in the T1R2-T1R3 transduction cascade. PMID:25963040

  17. Transcriptomics and proteomics show that selenium affects inflammation, cytoskeleton, and cancer pathways in human rectal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Méplan, Catherine; Johnson, Ian T; Polley, Abigael C J; Cockell, Simon; Bradburn, David M; Commane, Daniel M; Arasaradnam, Ramesh P; Mulholland, Francis; Zupanic, Anze; Mathers, John C; Hesketh, John

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies highlight the potential role of dietary selenium (Se) in colorectal cancer prevention. Our goal was to elucidate whether expression of factors crucial for colorectal homoeostasis is affected by physiologic differences in Se status. Using transcriptomics and proteomics followed by pathway analysis, we identified pathways affected by Se status in rectal biopsies from 22 healthy adults, including 11 controls with optimal status (mean plasma Se = 1.43 μM) and 11 subjects with suboptimal status (mean plasma Se = 0.86 μM). We observed that 254 genes and 26 proteins implicated in cancer (80%), immune function and inflammatory response (40%), cell growth and proliferation (70%), cellular movement, and cell death (50%) were differentially expressed between the 2 groups. Expression of 69 genes, including selenoproteins W1 and K, which are genes involved in cytoskeleton remodelling and transcription factor NFκB signaling, correlated significantly with Se status. Integrating proteomics and transcriptomics datasets revealed reduced inflammatory and immune responses and cytoskeleton remodelling in the suboptimal Se status group. This is the first study combining omics technologies to describe the impact of differences in Se status on colorectal expression patterns, revealing that suboptimal Se status could alter inflammatory signaling and cytoskeleton in human rectal mucosa and so influence cancer risk.-Méplan, C., Johnson, I. T., Polley, A. C. J., Cockell, S., Bradburn, D. M., Commane, D. M., Arasaradnam, R. P., Mulholland, F., Zupanic, A., Mathers, J. C., Hesketh, J. Transcriptomics and proteomics show that selenium affects inflammation, cytoskeleton, and cancer pathways in human rectal biopsies. PMID:27103578

  18. Cross-species affective functions of the medial forebrain bundle-implications for the treatment of affective pain and depression in humans.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Volker A; Schlaepfer, Thomas E; Maedler, Burkhard; Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-10-01

    Major depression (MD) might be conceptualized as pathological under-arousal of positive affective systems as parts of a network of brain regions assessing, reconciling and storing emotional stimuli versus an over-arousal of parts of the same network promoting separation-distress/GRIEF. In this context depression can be explained as an emotional pain state that is the result of a disregulation of several sub-systems that under physiological conditions are concerned with bodily or emotional homeostasis of the human organism in a social context. Physiologically, homeostasis is maintained by influences of the SEEKING system represented - amongst others - by the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Neuroimaging studies show that the MFB has a proven access to the GRIEF/Sadness system. A functional decoupling of these systems with a dysfunctional GRIEF pathway might result in MD. Therewith GRIEF and SEEKING/PLEASURE systems play important roles as opponents in maintenance of emotional homeostasis. Chronic electrical modulation of the reward SEEKING pathways with deep brain stimulation might show anti-depressive effects in humans suffering from MD by re-initiating an emotional equilibrium (of higher or lower activity) between these opposing systems. PMID:21184778

  19. Ethical, anatomical and physiological issues in developing vestibular implants for human use.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Gay, Annietta; Kos, Maria Izabel; Pelizzone, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Effort towards the development of a vestibular implant for human use are being made. This paper will summarize the first important steps conducted in Geneva towards this ambitious goal. Basically, we have faced three major issues. First, an ethical issue. While it was clear that such development would require the collaboration of human volunteers, it was also clear that stimulation of the vestibular system may produce periods of significant incomfort. We know today how to minimize (and potentially eliminate) this type of incomfort. The second issue was anatomical. The anatomical topology of the vestibular system is complex, and of potentially dangerous access (i.e. facial nerve damage). We choose not to place the electrodes inside the ampullae but close the vestibular nerve branches, to avoid any opening of the inner ear and limit the risk of hearing loss. Work on cadaver heads, confirmed by acute stimulations trials on patients undergoing ear surgery under local anesthesia, demonstrated that it is possible to stimulate selectively both the posterior and lateral ampullary nerves, and elicit the expected vertical and horizontal nystagmic responses. The third issue was physiological. One of the goal of a vestibular implant will be to produce smooth eye movements to stabilize gaze direction when the head is moving. Indeed, after restoring a baseline or "rest" activity in the vestibular pathways with steady-state electrical stimulation, we demonstrated that modulation of this stimulation is producing smooth eye movements. In conclusion, humans can adapt to electrical stimulation of the vestibular system without too much discomfort. Surgical access to the posterior and lateral ampullary nerves have been developed and, electrical stimulation of the vestibular system can be used to artificially elicit smooth eye movements of different speeds and directions, once the system is in adapted state. Therefore, the major prerequisites to develop a prototype vestibular implant

  20. Variability in cardiac electrophysiology: Using experimentally-calibrated populations of models to move beyond the single virtual physiological human paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Muszkiewicz, Anna; Britton, Oliver J.; Gemmell, Philip; Passini, Elisa; Sánchez, Carlos; Zhou, Xin; Carusi, Annamaria; Quinn, T. Alexander; Burrage, Kevin; Bueno-Orovio, Alfonso; Rodriguez, Blanca

    2016-01-01

    Physiological variability manifests itself via differences in physiological function between individuals of the same species, and has crucial implications in disease progression and treatment. Despite its importance, physiological variability has traditionally been ignored in experimental and computational investigations due to averaging over samples from multiple individuals. Recently, modelling frameworks have been devised for studying mechanisms underlying physiological variability in cardiac electrophysiology and pro-arrhythmic risk under a variety of conditions and for several animal species as well as human. One such methodology exploits populations of cardiac cell models constrained with experimental data, or experimentally-calibrated populations of models. In this review, we outline the considerations behind constructing an experimentally-calibrated population of models and review the studies that have employed this approach to investigate variability in cardiac electrophysiology in physiological and pathological conditions, as well as under drug action. We also describe the methodology and compare it with alternative approaches for studying variability in cardiac electrophysiology, including cell-specific modelling approaches, sensitivity-analysis based methods, and populations-of-models frameworks that do not consider the experimental calibration step. We conclude with an outlook for the future, predicting the potential of new methodologies for patient-specific modelling extending beyond the single virtual physiological human paradigm. PMID:26701222

  1. A human liver microphysiology platform for investigating physiology, drug safety, and disease models.

    PubMed

    Vernetti, Lawrence A; Senutovitch, Nina; Boltz, Robert; DeBiasio, Richard; Shun, Tong Ying; Gough, Albert; Taylor, D Lansing

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and characterization of a microphysiology platform for drug safety and efficacy in liver models of disease that includes a human, 3D, microfluidic, four-cell, sequentially layered, self-assembly liver model (SQL-SAL); fluorescent protein biosensors for mechanistic readouts; as well as a microphysiology system database (MPS-Db) to manage, analyze, and model data. The goal of our approach is to create the simplest design in terms of cells, matrix materials, and microfluidic device parameters that will support a physiologically relevant liver model that is robust and reproducible for at least 28 days for stand-alone liver studies and microfluidic integration with other organs-on-chips. The current SQL-SAL uses primary human hepatocytes along with human endothelial (EA.hy926), immune (U937) and stellate (LX-2) cells in physiological ratios and is viable for at least 28 days under continuous flow. Approximately, 20% of primary hepatocytes and/or stellate cells contain fluorescent protein biosensors (called sentinel cells) to measure apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or cell location by high content analysis (HCA). In addition, drugs, drug metabolites, albumin, urea and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are monitored in the efflux media. Exposure to 180 μM troglitazone or 210 μM nimesulide produced acute toxicity within 2-4 days, whereas 28 μM troglitazone produced a gradual and much delayed toxic response over 21 days, concordant with known mechanisms of toxicity, while 600 µM caffeine had no effect. Immune-mediated toxicity was demonstrated with trovafloxacin with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not levofloxacin with LPS. The SQL-SAL exhibited early fibrotic activation in response to 30 nM methotrexate, indicated by increased stellate cell migration, expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen, type 1, alpha 2. Data collected from the in vitro model can be integrated into a database with access to related

  2. A human liver microphysiology platform for investigating physiology, drug safety, and disease models

    PubMed Central

    Vernetti, Lawrence A.; Senutovitch, Nina; Boltz, Robert; DeBiasio, Richard; Shun, Tong Ying; Gough, Albert; Taylor, D. Lansing

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and characterization of a microphysiology platform for drug safety and efficacy in liver models of disease that includes a human, 3D, microfluidic, four-cell, sequentially layered, self-assembly liver model (SQL-SAL); fluorescent protein biosensors for mechanistic readouts; as well as a microphysiology system database (MPS-Db) to manage, analyze, and model data. The goal of our approach is to create the simplest design in terms of cells, matrix materials, and microfluidic device parameters that will support a physiologically relevant liver model that is robust and reproducible for at least 28 days for stand-alone liver studies and microfluidic integration with other organs-on-chips. The current SQL-SAL uses primary human hepatocytes along with human endothelial (EA.hy926), immune (U937) and stellate (LX-2) cells in physiological ratios and is viable for at least 28 days under continuous flow. Approximately, 20% of primary hepatocytes and/or stellate cells contain fluorescent protein biosensors (called sentinel cells) to measure apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or cell location by high content analysis (HCA). In addition, drugs, drug metabolites, albumin, urea and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are monitored in the efflux media. Exposure to 180μM troglitazone or 210μM nimesulide produced acute toxicity within 2–4 days, whereas 28μM troglitazone produced a gradual and much delayed toxic response over 21 days, concordant with known mechanisms of toxicity, while 600μM caffeine had no effect. Immune-mediated toxicity was demonstrated with trovafloxacin with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not levofloxacin with LPS. The SQL-SAL exhibited early fibrotic activation in response to 30nM methotrexate, indicated by increased stellate cell migration, expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen, type 1, alpha 2. Data collected from the in vitro model can be integrated into a database with access to related chemical

  3. Alliances in Human Biology: The Harvard Committee on Industrial Physiology, 1929-1939.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Jason

    2015-08-01

    In 1929 the newly-reorganized Rockefeller Foundation funded the work of a cross-disciplinary group at Harvard University called the Committee on Industrial Physiology (CIP). The committee's research and pedagogical work was oriented towards different things for different members of the alliance. The CIP program included a research component in the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and Elton May's interpretation of the Hawthorne Studies; a pedagogical aspect as part of Wallace Donham's curriculum for Harvard Business School; and Lawrence Henderson's work with the Harvard Pareto Circle, his course Sociology 23, and the Harvard Society of Fellows. The key actors within the CIP alliance shared a concern with training men for elite careers in government service, business leadership, and academic prominence. But the first communications between the CIP and the Rockefeller Foundation did not emphasize training in human biology. Instead, the CIP presented itself as a coordinating body that would be able to organize all the varied work going on at Harvard that did not fit easily into one department, and it was on this basis that the CIP became legible to the President of Harvard, A. Lawrence Lowell, and to Rockefeller's Division of Social Sciences. The members of the CIP alliance used the term human biology for this project of research, training and institutional coordination. PMID:26024783

  4. "Sebocytes' makeup": novel mechanisms and concepts in the physiology of the human sebaceous glands.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Balázs I; Oláh, Attila; Szöllosi, Attila G; Czifra, Gabriella; Bíró, Tamás

    2011-06-01

    The pilosebaceous unit of the human skin consists of the hair follicle and the sebaceous gland. Within this "mini-organ", the sebaceous gland has been neglected by the researchers of the field for several decades. Actually, it was labeled as a reminiscence of human development ("a living fossil with a past but no future"), and was thought to solely act as a producer of sebum, a lipid-enriched oily substance which protects our skin (and hence the body) against various insults. However, due to emerging research activities of the past two decades, it has now become evident that the sebaceous gland is not only a "passive" cutaneous "relic" to establish the physico-chemical barrier function of the skin against constant environmental challenges, but it rather functions as an "active" neuro-immuno-endocrine cutaneous organ. This review summarizes recent findings of sebaceous gland research by mainly focusing on newly discovered physiological functions, novel regulatory mechanisms, key events in the pathology of the gland, and future directions in both experimental and clinical dermatology. PMID:21384129

  5. A wireless capsule system with ASIC for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Li; Gao, Jinyang; Liu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule system for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary components of the system include a wireless capsule, a portable data recorder, and a workstation. Temperature, pH, and pressure sensors; an RF transceiver; a controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC); and batteries were applied in a wireless capsule. Decreasing capsule size, improving sensor precision, and reducing power needs were the primary challenges; these were resolved by employing micro sensors, optimized architecture, and an ASIC design that include power management, clock management, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an A/D converter (ADC), and a serial peripheral interface (SPI) communication unit. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18- μm CMOS technology with a die area of 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm. The wireless capsule integrating the ASIC controller measures Φ 11 mm × 26 mm. A data recorder and a workstation were developed, and 20 cases of human experiments were conducted in hospitals. Preprocessing in the workstation can significantly improve the quality of the data, and 76 original features were determined by mathematical statistics. Based on the 13 optimal features achieved in the evaluation of the features, the clustering algorithm can identify the patients who lack GI motility with a recognition rate reaching 83.3%. PMID:25608285

  6. Muscle sympathetic nerve responses to physiological changes in prostaglandin production in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerzbacher, K. J.; Ray, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that prostaglandins may contribute to exercise-induced increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). To test this hypothesis, MSNA was measured at rest and during exercise before and after oral administration of ketoprofen, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, or placebo. Twenty-one subjects completed two bouts of graded dynamic and isometric handgrip to fatigue. Each exercise bout was followed by 2 min of postexercise muscle ischemia. The second exercise bouts were performed after 60 min of rest in which 11 subjects were given ketoprofen (300 mg) and 10 subjects received a placebo. Ketoprofen significantly lowered plasma thromboxane B(2) in the drug group (from 36 +/- 6 to 22 +/- 3 pg/ml, P < 0.04), whereas thromboxane B(2) in the placebo group increased from 40 +/- 5 to 61 +/- 9 pg/ml from trial 1 to trial 2 (P < 0.008). Ketoprofen and placebo did not change sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to dynamic handgrip, isometric handgrip, and postexercise muscle ischemia. There was no relationship between thromboxane B(2) concentrations and MSNA or arterial pressure responses during both exercise modes. The data indicate that physiological increases or decreases in prostaglandins do not alter exercise-induced increases in MSNA and arterial pressure in humans. These findings suggest that contraction-induced metabolites other than prostaglandins mediate MSNA responses to exercise in humans.

  7. Simulating the physiology of athletes during endurance sports events: modelling human energy conversion and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Johannes H. G. M.; Supandi, Farahaniza; Gavai, Anand K.; de Graaf, Albert A.; Binsl, Thomas W.; Hettling, Hannes

    2011-01-01

    The human physiological system is stressed to its limits during endurance sports competition events. We describe a whole body computational model for energy conversion during bicycle racing. About 23 per cent of the metabolic energy is used for muscle work, the rest is converted to heat. We calculated heat transfer by conduction and blood flow inside the body, and heat transfer from the skin by radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, resulting in temperature changes in 25 body compartments. We simulated a mountain time trial to Alpe d'Huez during the Tour de France. To approach the time realized by Lance Armstrong in 2004, very high oxygen uptake must be sustained by the simulated cyclist. Temperature was predicted to reach 39°C in the brain, and 39.7°C in leg muscle. In addition to the macroscopic simulation, we analysed the buffering of bursts of high adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis by creatine kinase during cyclical muscle activity at the biochemical pathway level. To investigate the low oxygen to carbohydrate ratio for the brain, which takes up lactate during exercise, we calculated the flux distribution in cerebral energy metabolism. Computational modelling of the human body, describing heat exchange and energy metabolism, makes simulation of endurance sports events feasible. PMID:21969677

  8. Human-on-a-chip design strategies and principles for physiologically based pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling.

    PubMed

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Shuler, Michael L

    2015-04-01

    Advances in maintaining multiple human tissues on microfluidic platforms has led to a growing interest in the development of microphysiological systems for drug development studies. Determination of the proper design principles and scaling rules for body-on-a-chip systems is critical for their strategic incorporation into physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) model-aided drug development. While the need for a functional design considering organ-organ interactions has been considered, robust design criteria and steps to build such systems have not yet been defined mathematically. In this paper, we first discuss strategies for incorporating body-on-a-chip technology into the current PBPK modeling-based drug discovery to provide a conceptual model. We propose two types of platforms that can be involved in the different stages of PBPK modeling and drug development; these are μOrgans-on-a-chip and μHuman-on-a-chip. Then we establish the design principles for both types of systems and develop parametric design equations that can be used to determine dimensions and operating conditions. In addition, we discuss the availability of the critical parameters required to satisfy the design criteria, consider possible limitations for estimating such parameter values and propose strategies to address such limitations. This paper is intended to be a useful guide to the researchers focused on the design of microphysiological platforms for PBPK/PD based drug discovery. PMID:25739725

  9. Multicarotenoids at Physiological Levels Inhibit Metastasis in Human Hepatocarcinoma SK-Hep-1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huei-Yan; Yang, Chih-Min; Chen, Jen-Yin; Yueh, Te-Cheng; Hu, Miao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that single carotenoid, including lycopene, β-carotene, and α-carotene, exhibits antimetastatic effects; however, little is known whether multicarotenoids have similar effects. Herein, we investigated the antimetastatic effect of multicarotenoids at physiological serum levels in Taiwanese (MCT at 1.4 μM) and American (MCA at 1.8 μM) populations using human hepatocarcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells in comparison with single carotenoid, such as lycopene (0.3 or 0.6 μM, respectively), α-carotene (0.1 μM), β-carotene (0.4 μM), lutein (0.4 or 0.5 μM, respectively), and β-cryptoxanthin (0.2 μM). Results reveal that MCA treatment exhibited an additive inhibition on invasion, migration and adhesion at 24 and 48 h of incubation, whereas MCT treatment possessed additive inhibition at 48 h of incubation. The antimetastatic action of MCT and MCA involved additive reduction on activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and protein expression of Rho and Rac 1 but additive promotion on protein expression of tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP)-1 and -2. All of these effects were stronger in MCA than in MCT at 24 and 48 h of incubation. These results demonstrate that multi-carotenoids effectively inhibit metastasis of human hepatocarcinoma SK-Hep-1 cells. More in vivo studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25868689

  10. Factors affecting antimicrobial activity of MUC7 12-mer, a human salivary mucin-derived peptide

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guo-Xian; Campagna, Alexander N; Bobek, Libuse A

    2007-01-01

    affect the activity. Conclusion MUC7 12-mer peptide is effective anticandidal agent at physiological concentrations of variety of ions in the oral cavity. These results suggest that, especially in combination with EDTA, it could potentially be applied as an alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of human oral candidiasis. PMID:17996119

  11. Exposure to Phthalates Affects Calcium Handling and Intercellular Connectivity of Human Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Posnack, Nikki Gillum; Idrees, Rabia; Ding, Hao; Jaimes III, Rafael; Stybayeva, Gulnaz; Karabekian, Zaruhi; Laflamme, Michael A.; Sarvazyan, Narine

    2015-01-01

    Background The pervasive nature of plastics has raised concerns about the impact of continuous exposure to plastic additives on human health. Of particular concern is the use of phthalates in the production of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products. Di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) is a commonly used phthalate ester plasticizer that imparts flexibility and elasticity to PVC products. Recent epidemiological studies have reported correlations between urinary phthalate concentrations and cardiovascular disease, including an increased risk of high blood pressure and coronary risk. Yet, there is little direct evidence linking phthalate exposure to adverse effects in human cells, including cardiomyocytes. Methods and Results The effect of DEHP on calcium handling was examined using monolayers of gCAMP3 human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, which contain an endogenous calcium sensor. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to DEHP (5 – 50 μg/mL), and calcium transients were recorded using a Zeiss confocal imaging system. DEHP exposure (24 – 72 hr) had a negative chronotropic and inotropic effect on cardiomyocytes, increased the minimum threshold voltage required for external pacing, and modified connexin-43 expression. Application of Wy-14,643 (100 μM), an agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, did not replicate DEHP’s effects on calcium transient morphology or spontaneous beating rate. Conclusions Phthalates can affect the normal physiology of human cardiomyocytes, including DEHP elicited perturbations in cardiac calcium handling and intercellular connectivity. Our findings call for additional studies to clarify the extent by which phthalate exposure can alter cardiac function, particularly in vulnerable patient populations who are at risk for high phthalate exposure. PMID:25799571

  12. Dietary water affects human skin hydration and biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Lídia; Marques, Liliana Tavares; Bujan, Julia; Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro

    2015-01-01

    It is generally assumed that dietary water might be beneficial for the health, especially in dermatological (age preventing) terms. The present study was designed to quantify the impact of dietary water on major indicators of skin physiology. A total of 49 healthy females (mean 24.5±4.3 years) were selected and characterized in terms of their dietary daily habits, especially focused in water consumption, by a Food Frequency Questionnaire. This allowed two groups to be set – Group 1 consuming less than 3,200 mL/day (n=38), and Group 2 consuming more than 3,200 mL/day (n=11). Approximately 2 L of water were added to the daily diet of Group 2 individuals for 1 month to quantify the impact of this surplus in their skin physiology. Measurements involving epidermal superficial and deep hydration, transepidermal water loss, and several biomechanical descriptors were taken at day 0 (T0), 15 (T1), and 30 (T2) in several anatomical sites (face, upper limb, and leg). This stress test (2 L/day for 30 days) significantly modified superficial and deep skin hydration, especially in Group 1. The same impact was registered with the most relevant biomechanical descriptors. Thus, in this study, it is clear that higher water inputs in regular diet might positively impact normal skin physiology, in particular in those individuals with lower daily water consumptions. PMID:26345226

  13. Possible range of dioxin concentration in human tissues: simulation with a physiologically based model.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Wakae; Yoshida, Kikuo; Tanaka, Takayuki; Nakanishi, Junko

    2002-12-27

    In risk evaluation of dioxins, monitoring chemical concentrations in human tissues is an important step, and these concentration data can be utilized along with animal toxicity data for extrapolation of human manifestation. However large differences in dioxin concentrations usually exist even among individuals who have never been accidentally exposed to high quantities of dioxin, and this may cause problems in risk analysis. Body size, age, and history of food consumption are factors responsible for these interindividual differences in addition to exposure levels. Using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model, the influence of differences in body weight, gastrointestinal absorption, and half-life and intake of dioxin were examined on tissue chemical concentration. Dioxin concentrations over a 40-yr time course in human liver, kidneys, fat, blood, muscle and richly perfused tissue were simulated for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (CoPCBs). Model parameters such as tissue-blood partition coefficients for CoPCBs were prepared, and sensitivity analysis was also performed on these parameters. The range of tissue concentrations was approximately 0.17 to 4.1 times the standard concentration, which was calculated using standard model parameters. The simulated ranges included more than 80% of the individual anatomical data for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,2,3,7,-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl in liver, fat, and blood. These results suggest that differences in body weight, gastrointestinal absorption, and food intake behavior may partially explain variation in tissue concentrations among individuals, and the possible interindividual uncertainty, which is approximately 24 for the general Japanese population. PMID:12515586

  14. Evaluation of human interindividual variation in bioactivation of estragole using physiologically based biokinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Punt, Ans; Jeurissen, Suzanne M; Boersma, Marelle G; Delatour, Thierry; Scholz, Gabriele; Schilter, Benoît; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigates interindividual variation in liver levels of the proximate carcinogenic metabolite of estragole, 1'-hydroxyestragole, due to variation in two key metabolic reactions involved in the formation and detoxification of this metabolite, namely 1'-hydroxylation of estragole and oxidation of 1'-hydroxyestragole. Formation of 1'-hydroxyestragole is predominantly catalyzed by P450 1A2, 2A6, and 2E1, and results of the present study support that oxidation of 1'-hydroxyestragole is catalyzed by 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17beta-HSD2). In a first approach, the study defines physiologically based biokinetic (PBBK) models for 14 individual human subjects, revealing a 1.8-fold interindividual variation in the area under the liver concentration-time curve (AUC) for 1'-hydroxyestragole within this group of human subjects. Variation in oxidation of 1'-hydroxyestragole by 17beta-HSD2 was shown to result in larger effects than those caused by variation in P450 enzyme activity. In a second approach, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the extent of variation in liver levels of 1'-hydroxyestragole that could occur in the population as a whole. This analysis could be used to derive a chemical-specific adjustment factor (CSAF), which is defined as the 99th percentile divided by the 50th percentile of the predicted distribution of the AUC of 1'-hydroxyestragole in the liver. The CSAF was estimated to range between 1.6 and 4.0, depending on the level of variation that was taken into account for oxidation of 1'-hydroxyestragole. Comparison of the CSAF to the default uncertainty factor of 3.16 for human variability in biokinetics reveals that the default uncertainty factor adequately protects 99% of the population. PMID:19920071

  15. The human sperm acrosome reaction: physiology and regulatory mechanisms. An update.

    PubMed

    Brucker, C; Lipford, G B

    1995-01-01

    The acrosome reaction is a crucial step during gamete interaction in all species, including man. It allows spermatozoa to penetrate the zona pellucida and fuse with the oocyte membrane. Spermatozoa unable to undergo the acrosome reaction will not fertilize intact oocytes. This article concentrates on the characteristics and regulatory mechanisms of the acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa. During recent years, various entities found in the vicinity of the ovulated oocyte have been identified as stimulators of the acrosome reaction, of which zona protein is considered the prime physiological inducer in vivo. The steroid hormone progesterone has been shown to evoke critical responses in sperm cells leading to the acrosome reaction. Calcium has also been shown to play a central role during the acrosome reaction. Calcium flux is induced specifically by progesterone in capacitated and uncapacitated sperm cells, whereas only capacitated spermatozoa are able to subsequently complete the acrosome reaction. Progesterone as well as zona protein has been shown to evoke crucial responses within human spermatozoa, shedding light on the cascade of intracellular signalling events leading to the completion of the acrosome reaction. Furthermore, chemical agents which bring about the reaction in vitro, such as the ionophores ionomycin or A23187, have been used to shed light on its regulatory mechanisms. A number of molecules have been postulated to regulate the acrosome reaction in mammals, for example a galactosyl-transferase and a sperm protein tyrosine kinase. In addition, a novel protein, termed SAA-1, that was first detected on human spermatozoa is discussed with respect to its potential role as a regulatory protein closely involved in the initiation of the acrosome reaction. PMID:9080206

  16. A Human Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model for Chlorpyrifos: Development and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, M. J.; Poet, Torka S.

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity to chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to computationally predict disposition of CPF and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, age-dependent body weight was calculated from a generalized Gompertz function, and compartments (liver, brain, fat, blood, diaphragm, rapid, and slow) were scaled based on body weight from polynomial functions on a fractional body weight basis. Blood flows among compartments were calculated as a constant flow per compartment volume. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Model simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ≥ 0.55 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (significantly higher than environmental exposure levels), 6 mo old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent oral doses of chlorpyrifos. At lower doses that are more relevant to environmental exposures, the model predicts that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict CPF disposition and biological response over various postnatal life-stages.

  17. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  18. A DYNAMIC PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED TOXICOKINETIC (DPBTK) MODEL FOR SIMULATION OF COMPLEX TOLUENE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A GENERAL PHYSIOLOGICAL AND TOXICOKINETIC (GPAT) MODEL FOR SIMULATION OF COMPLEX TOLUENE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS IN HUMANS. E M Kenyon1, T Colemen2, C R Eklund1 and V A Benignus3. 1U.S. EPA, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, PKB, RTP, NC, USA; 2Biological Simulators, Inc., Jackson MS, USA, 3U.S. EP...

  19. Honey bee stock genotypes do not affect the level of physiological responses to chalkbrood fungus, Ascosphaera apis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding honey bees (Apis mellifera) for physiological resistance to diseases is a highly desirable and environmentally safe approach to increasing colony survival. Selection of desirable traits is a critical element of any breeding program. In this study we investigate whether honey bee stocks dif...

  20. Group housing during gestation affects the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of offspring piglets at weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to compare the behaviour of sows in stalls and group housing systems, and the physiological indices of their offspring, 28 sows were randomly distributed into 2 systems with 16 sows in stalls, and the other 12 sows were divided into 3 groups with 4 sows per pen. The area per sow in stalls a...

  1. Growth, Yield, and Physiology of Sugarcane as Affected by Soil and Foliar Application of Silicon on Organic and Mineral Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.), a Si accumulator plant, responds positively to application of Si in terms of cane and sucrose yield. However, data is limited on the response of sugarcane leaf physiology to Si application. Moreover, most of the published studies focused on soil (root) application with li...

  2. Using time-series intervention analysis to model cow heart rate affected by programmed audio and environmental/physiological cues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research is the first use of the Box-Jenkins time-series models to describe changes in heart rate (HR) of free-ranging crossbred cows (Bos taurus) receiving both programmed audio cues from directional virtual fencing (DVFTM) devices and non-programmed environmental/physiological cues. The DVFT...

  3. Using time-series intervention analysis to model cow heart rate affected by programmed audio and environmental/physiological

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research is the first use of the Box-Jenkins time-series models to describe changes in heart rate (HR) of free-ranging crossbred cows (Bos taurus) receiving both programmed audio cues from directional virtual fencing (DVFTM) devices and non-programmed environmental/physiological cues. The DVFT...

  4. How does human error affect safety in anesthesia?

    PubMed

    Gravenstein, J S

    2000-01-01

    Anesthesia morbidity and mortality, while acceptable, are not zero. Most mishaps have a multifactorial cause in which human error plays a significant part. Good design of anesthesia machines, ventilators, and monitors can prevent some, but not all, human error. Attention to the system in which the errors occur is important. Modern training with simulators is designed to reduce the frequency of human errors and to teach anesthesiologists how to deal with the consequences of such errors. PMID:10601526

  5. Transposable element insertions have strongly affected human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Britten, Roy J.

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of a full collection of the transposable element (TE) sequences of vertebrates with genome sequences shows that the human genome makes 655 perfect full-length matches. The cause is that the human genome contains many active TEs that have caused TE inserts in relatively recent times. These TE inserts in the human genome are several types of young Alus (AluYa5, AluYb8, AluYc1, etc.). Work in many laboratories has shown that such inserts have many effects including changes in gene expression, increases in recombination, and unequal crossover. The time of these very effective changes in the human lineage genome extends back about 4 million years according to these data and very likely much earlier. Rapid human lineage-specific evolution, including brain size is known to have also occurred in the last few million years. Alu insertions likely underlie rapid human lineage evolution. They are known to have many effects. Examples are listed in which TE sequences have influenced human-specific genes. The proposed model is that the many TE insertions created many potentially effective changes and those selected were responsible for a part of the striking human lineage evolution. The combination of the results of these events that were selected during human lineage evolution was apparently effective in producing a successful and rapidly evolving species. PMID:21041622

  6. A hyperspectral time resolved DOT system to monitor physiological changes of the human brain activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, F.; Peyrin, F.; Montcel, B.

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a growing area of research in the field of biomedical optics and neurosciences. Over the past 20 years, technical development allowed a more and more accurate detection of the brain activation, both spatially and in the calculation of the variations of chromophores's concentrations such as Hemoglobin, cytochrome c oxidase, etc. In particular, time resolved systems are able to distinguish between superficial layers (skin, skull) and deep layers (brain) allowing the differentiation between the systemic response and the response of the brain. In order to increase the accuracy of the brain's activation detection, we have developed a Hyperspectral Time Resolved DOT system. It is composed of a compact supercontinuum laser within the picosecond range for the source part and of an ICCD camera coupled with an imaging spectrometer for the detection part. This allows a simultaneous detection of the spatial and spectral dimension, as well as the time of flight of photons. Through the information acquired by our system, we've been able to retrieve, to our knowledge, the first spectrum of the physiology of the human brain activity as function as depth. Here we present the instrument and show our first in-vivo results that are demonstrating its capabilities to distinguish between the skin's response and the brain's responses during a cognitive task. We are also focused on the detection of the Fast Optical Signal.

  7. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor in the human heart evidenced under physiological conditions by positron emission tomography.

    PubMed Central

    Syrota, A; Comar, D; Paillotin, G; Davy, J M; Aumont, M C; Stulzaft, O; Maziere, B

    1985-01-01

    The muscarinic receptor was studied in vivo in the human heart by a noninvasive method, positron emission tomography (PET). The study showed that the binding sites of 11C-labeled methiodide quinuclidinyl benzilate [( 11C]-MQNB), a muscarinic antagonist, were mainly distributed in the ventricular septum (98 pmol/cm3 of heart) and in the left ventricular wall (89 pmol/cm3), while the atria were not visualized. A few minutes after a bolus intravenous injection, the concentration of [11C]MQNB in blood fell to a negligible level (less than 100th of the concentration measured in the ventricular septum). When injected at high specific radioactivity, the concentration of [11C]MQNB in the septum rapidly increased and then remained constant with time. This result was explained by rebinding of the ligand to receptors. It was the major difference observed between the kinetics of binding of [11C]MQNB to receptor sites after intravenous injection in vivo and that of [3H]MQNB to heart homogenates in vitro. The MQNB concentrations in the ventricular septum of different individuals were found to be highest when the heart rate at the time of injection was slow. This result suggests that the antagonist binding site is related to a low-affinity conformational state of the receptor under predominant vagal stimulation. Thus, positron emission tomography might be the ideal method to study the physiologically active form of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in man. Images PMID:3871527

  8. The effect of early experience on odor perception in humans: psychological and physiological correlates.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, Johan; Rinck, Fanny; Bourgeat, Fanny; Schaal, Benoist; Rouby, Catherine; Bensafi, Moustafa; Hummel, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The olfactory function in humans is characterized by wide variability between individuals. One of the prominent factors that contribute to this plasticity is early exposure. The present study examined how brain activity is modulated by such olfactory experience. To this end, two groups of people living in France but originating from different cultures ("European-French" (EF, 18 subjects) vs. "Algerian-French" (AF, 19 subjects)) were tested, and their perceptual and physiological responses to the smells of mint (presumed to be experienced earlier in life by "Algerian-French" subjects) and of rose (control odorant) were compared. Neurophysiological responses were obtained in the form of chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERP). The results confirmed that the AF group was exposed to Mint tea earlier than the EF group. On the perceptual level, when asked to associate the smell of mint with objects or events retrieved from memory, the discourse of AF subjects included more "experience-oriented" associations than that of EF subjects. This was associated with longer P2 latency in CSERPs in response to the smell of mint in the AF group. These findings highlight the plasticity of behavioral and neural olfactory processes as a result of differential lifetime exposure. PMID:20035792

  9. Ultrasensitive, passive and wearable sensors for monitoring human muscle motion and physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Cai, Feng; Yi, Changrui; Liu, Shichang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Lacheng; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Xuming; Wang, Li

    2016-03-15

    Flexible sensors have attracted more and more attention as a fundamental part of anthropomorphic robot research, medical diagnosis and physical health monitoring. Here, we constructed an ultrasensitive and passive flexible sensor with the advantages of low cost, lightness and wearability, electric safety and reliability. The fundamental mechanism of the sensor is based on triboelectric effect inducing electrostatic charges on the surfaces between two different materials. Just like a plate capacitor, current will be generated while the distance or size of the parallel capacitors changes caused by the small mechanical disturbance upon it and therefore the output current/voltage will be produced. Typically, the passive sensor unambiguously monitors muscle motions including hand motion from stretch-clench-stretch, mouth motion from open-bite-open, blink and respiration. Moreover, this sensor records the details of the consecutive phases in a cardiac cycle of the apex cardiogram, and identify the peaks including percussion wave, tidal wave and diastolic wave of the radial pulse wave. To record subtle human physiological signals including radial pulsilogram and apex cardiogram with excellent signal/noise ratio, stability and reproducibility, the sensor shows great potential in the applications of medical diagnosis and daily health monitoring. PMID:26520253

  10. Amyloid Formation by Human Carboxypeptidase D Transthyretin-like Domain under Physiological Conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Pardo, Javier; Graña-Montes, Ricardo; Fernandez-Mendez, Marc; Ruyra, Angels; Roher, Nerea; Aviles, Francesc X.; Lorenzo, Julia; Ventura, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Protein aggregation is linked to a growing list of diseases, but it is also an intrinsic property of polypeptides, because the formation of functional globular proteins comes at the expense of an inherent aggregation propensity. Certain proteins can access aggregation-prone states from native-like conformations without the need to cross the energy barrier for unfolding. This is the case of transthyretin (TTR), a homotetrameric protein whose dissociation into its monomers initiates the aggregation cascade. Domains with structural homology to TTR exist in a number of proteins, including the M14B subfamily carboxypeptidases. We show here that the monomeric transthyretin-like domain of human carboxypeptidase D aggregates under close to physiological conditions into amyloid structures, with the population of folded but aggregation-prone states being controlled by the conformational stability of the domain. We thus confirm that the TTR fold keeps a generic residual aggregation propensity upon folding, resulting from the presence of preformed amyloidogenic β-strands in the native state. These structural elements should serve for functional/structural purposes, because they have not been purged out by evolution, but at the same time they put proteins like carboxypeptidase D at risk of aggregation in biological environments and thus can potentially lead to deposition diseases. PMID:25294878

  11. Physiological modes of action of fluoxetine and its human metabolites in algae.

    PubMed

    Neuwoehner, Judith; Fenner, Kathrin; Escher, Beate I

    2009-09-01

    Fluoxetine, the active ingredient of many antidepressants, was identified as specifically toxic toward algae in a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis with literature data for algae, daphnia, and fish. The goal of this study was to elucidate the mode of action in algae and to evaluate the toxicity of the major human metabolites of fluoxetine using two different algae tests. The time dependence and sensitivity of thedifferenteffectendpointsyield information on the physiological mode of action. Baseline toxicity was predicted with QSARs based on measured liposome-water partition coefficients. The ratio of predicted baseline toxicity to experimental toxicity (toxic ratio TR) gives information on the intrinsic potency (extent of specificity of effect). The metabolite p-trifluoromethylphenol was classified to act as baseline toxicant Fluoxetine (TR 60-150) and its pharmacologically active metabolite norfluoxetine (TR 10-80) exhibited specific toxicity. By comparison with reference compounds we conclude that fluoxetine and norfluoxetine have an effect on the energy budget of algal cells since the time pattern of these two compounds is most similar to that observed for norflurazon, but they act less specifically as indicated by lower TR values and the similarity of the effect pattern to baseline toxicants. The mixture toxicity of fluoxetine and its human metabolites norfluoxetine and p-TFMP can be predicted using the model of concentration addition for practical purposes of risk assessment despite small deviations from this model for the specific endpoints like PSII inhibition because the integrative endpoints like growth rate and reproduction in all cases gave agreement with the predictions for concentration addition. PMID:19764256

  12. Crystal Structure of Human Senescence Marker Protein 30: Insights Linking Structural, Enzymatic, and Physiological Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborti, Subhendu; Bahnson, Brian J.

    2010-05-25

    Human senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30), which functions enzymatically as a lactonase, hydrolyzes various carbohydrate lactones. The penultimate step in vitamin-C biosynthesis is catalyzed by this enzyme in nonprimate mammals. It has also been implicated as an organophosphate hydrolase, with the ability to hydrolyze diisopropyl phosphofluoridate and other nerve agents. SMP30 was originally identified as an aging marker protein, whose expression decreased androgen independently in aging cells. SMP30 is also referred to as regucalcin and has been suggested to have functions in calcium homeostasis. The crystal structure of the human enzyme has been solved from X-ray diffraction data collected to a resolution of 1.4 {angstrom}. The protein has a 6-bladed {beta}-propeller fold, and it contains a single metal ion. Crystal structures have been solved with the metal site bound with either a Ca{sup 2+} or a Zn{sup 2+} atom. The catalytic role of the metal ion has been confirmed by mutagenesis of the metal coordinating residues. Kinetic studies using the substrate gluconolactone showed a k{sub cat} preference of divalent cations in the order Zn{sup 2+} > Mn{sup 2+} > Ca{sup 2+} > Mg{sup 2+}. Notably, the Ca{sup 2+} had a significantly higher value of K{sub d} compared to those of the other metal ions tested (566, 82, 7, and 0.6 {micro}m for Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+}, respectively), suggesting that the Ca{sup 2+}-bound form may be physiologically relevant for stressed cells with an elevated free calcium level.

  13. In vitro micro-physiological immune-competent model of the human skin.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Qasem; Ting, Fiona Chia Wan

    2016-05-21

    Skin allergy, in particular, allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis, are common occupational and environmental health problems affecting the quality of life of a significant proportion of the world population. Since all new ingredients to be incorporated into a product are potential skin allergens, it is essential that these ingredients be first tested for their allergenic potential. However, despite the considerable effort using animal models to understand the underlying mechanism of skin sensitization, to date, the molecular and cellular responses due to skin contact with sensitizers are still not fully understood. To replace animal testing and to improve the prediction of skin sensitization, significant attention has been directed to the use of reconstructed organotypic in vitro models of human skin. Here we describe a miniaturized immune competent in vitro model of human skin based on 3D co-culture of immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT) as a model of the epidermis barrier and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line (U937) as a model of human dendritic cells. The biological model was fitted in a microfluidic-based cell culture system that provides a dynamic cellular environment that mimics the in vivo environment of skin. The dynamic perfusion of culture media significantly improved the tight junction formation as evidenced by measuring higher values of TEER compared to static culture. This setting also maintained the high viability of cells over extended periods of time up to 17 days. The perfusion-based culture also allows growth of the cells at the air-liquid interface by exposing the apical side of the cells to air while providing the cell nutrients through a basolateral fluidic compartment. The microsystem has been evaluated to investigate the effect of the chemical and physical (UV irradiation) stimulation on the skin barrier (i.e. the TJ integrity). Three-tiered culture differential stimulation allowed the investigation of the

  14. Formaldehyde Crosses the Human Placenta and Affects Human Trophoblast Differentiation and Hormonal Functions

    PubMed Central

    Pidoux, Guillaume; Gerbaud, Pascale; Guibourdenche, Jean; Thérond, Patrice; Ferreira, Fatima; Simasotchi, Christelle; Evain-Brion, Danièle; Gil, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The chorionic villus of the human placenta is the source of specific endocrine functions and nutrient exchanges. These activities are ensured by the syncytiotrophobast (ST), which bathes in maternal blood. The ST arises and regenerates throughout pregnancy by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblasts (CT). Any anomaly of ST formation or regeneration can affect pregnancy outcome and fetal growth. Because of its direct interaction with maternal blood, the ST is sensitive to drugs, pollutants and xenohormones. Ex vivo assays of perfused cotyledon show that formaldehyde, a common pollutant present in furniture, paint and plastics, can accumulate in the human placenta and cross to the fetal compartment. By means of RT-qPCR, immunoblot and immunocytochemistry experiments, we demonstrate in vitro that formaldehyde exerts endocrine toxicity on human trophoblasts, including a decrease in the production of protein hormones of pregnancy. In addition, formaldehyde exposure triggered human trophoblast fusion by upregulating syncitin-1 receptor expression (ASC-type amino-acid transporter 2: ASCT2). Moreover, we show that formaldehyde-exposed trophoblasts present an altered redox status associated with oxidative stress, and an increase in ASCT2 expression intended to compensate for this stress. Finally, we demonstrate that the adverse effects of formaldehyde on trophoblast differentiation and fusion are reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (Nac), an antioxidant. PMID:26186596

  15. Clinical, Biomechanical, and Physiological Translational Interpretations of Human Resting Myofascial Tone or Tension

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Alfonse T.; Nair, Kalyani; Evans, Tyler; Ghandour, Yousef

    2010-01-01

    Background Myofascial tissues generate integrated webs and networks of passive and active tensional forces that provide stabilizing support and that control movement in the body. Passive [central nervous system (CNS)–independent] resting myofascial tension is present in the body and provides a low-level stabilizing component to help maintain balanced postures. This property was recently called “human resting myofascial tone” (HRMT). The HRMT model evolved from electromyography (EMG) research in the 1950s that showed lumbar muscles usually to be EMG-silent in relaxed gravity-neutral upright postures. Methods Biomechanical, clinical, and physiological studies were reviewed to interpret the passive stiffness properties of HRMT that help to stabilize various relaxed functions such as quiet balanced standing. Biomechanical analyses and experimental studies of the lumbar multifidus were reviewed to interpret its passive stiffness properties. The lumbar multifidus was illustrated as the major core stabilizing muscle of the spine, serving an important passive biomechanical role in the body. Results Research into muscle physiology suggests that passive resting tension (CNS-independent) is generated in sarcomeres by the molecular elasticity of low-level cycling cross-bridges between the actomyosin filaments. In turn, tension is complexly transmitted to intimately enveloping fascial matrix fibrils and other molecular elements in connective tissue, which, collectively, constitute the myofascial unit. Postural myofascial tonus varies with age and sex. Also, individuals in the population are proposed to vary in a polymorphism of postural HRMT. A few people are expected to have outlier degrees of innate postural hypotonicity or hypertonicity. Such biomechanical variations likely predispose to greater risk of related musculoskeletal disorders, a situation that deserves greater attention in clinical practice and research. Axial myofascial hypertonicity was hypothesized to

  16. Opportunities and constraints of presently used thermal manikins for thermo-physiological simulation of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psikuta, Agnes; Kuklane, Kalev; Bogdan, Anna; Havenith, George; Annaheim, Simon; Rossi, René M.

    2016-03-01

    Combining the strengths of an advanced mathematical model of human physiology and a thermal manikin is a new paradigm for simulating thermal behaviour of humans. However, the forerunners of such adaptive manikins showed some substantial limitations. This project aimed to determine the opportunities and constraints of the existing thermal manikins when dynamically controlled by a mathematical model of human thermal physiology. Four thermal manikins were selected and evaluated for their heat flux measurement uncertainty including lateral heat flows between manikin body parts and the response of each sector to the frequent change of the set-point temperature typical when using a physiological model for control. In general, all evaluated manikins are suitable for coupling with a physiological model with some recommendations for further improvement of manikin dynamic performance. The proposed methodology is useful to improve the performance of the adaptive manikins and help to provide a reliable and versatile tool for the broad research and development domain of clothing, automotive and building engineering.

  17. Advances in understanding of mammalian penile evolution, human penile anatomy and human erection physiology: Clinical implications for physicians and surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Geng-Long; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Molodysky, Eugen; Chen, Ying-Hui; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recent studies substantiate a model of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa as a bi-layered structure with a 360° complete inner circular layer and a 300° incomplete outer longitudinal coat spanning from the bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus proximally and extending continuously into the distal ligament within the glans penis. The anatomical location and histology of the distal ligament invites convincing parallels with the quadrupedal os penis and therefore constitutes potential evidence of the evolutionary process. In the corpora cavernosa, a chamber design is responsible for facilitating rigid erections. For investigating its venous factors exclusively, hemodynamic studies have been performed on both fresh and defrosted human male cadavers. In each case, a rigid erection was unequivocally attainable following venous removal. This clearly has significant ramifications in relation to penile venous surgery and its role in treating impotent patients. One deep dorsal vein, 2 cavernosal veins and 2 pairs of para-arterial veins (as opposed to 1 single vein) are situated between Buck’s fascia and the tunica albuginea. These newfound insights into penile tunical, venous anatomy and erection physiology were inspired by and, in turn, enhance clinical applications routinely encountered by physicians and surgeons, such as penile morphological reconstruction, penile implantation and penile venous surgery. PMID:22739749

  18. ANALYSIS OF DISCRIMINATING FACTORS IN HUMAN ACTIVITIES THAT AFFECT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurately modeling exposure to particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants ultimately involves the utilization of human location-activity databases to assist in understanding the potential variability of microenvironmental exposures. This paper critically considers and stati...

  19. Immunosuppressive Drugs Affect High-Mannose/Hybrid N-Glycans on Human Allostimulated Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Pocheć, Ewa; Bocian, Katarzyna; Ząbczyńska, Marta; Korczak-Kowalska, Grażyna; Lityńska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    N-glycosylation plays an important role in the majority of physiological and pathological processes occurring in the immune system. Alteration of the type and abundance of glycans is an element of lymphocyte differentiation; it is also common in the development of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The N-glycosylation process is very sensitive to different environmental agents, among them the pharmacological environment of immunosuppressive drugs. Some results show that high-mannose oligosaccharides have the ability to suppress different stages of the immune response. We evaluated the effects of cyclosporin A (CsA) and rapamycin (Rapa) on high-mannose/hybrid-type glycosylation in human leukocytes activated in a two-way mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). CsA significantly reduced the number of leukocytes covered by high-mannose/hybrid N-glycans, and the synergistic action of CsA and Rapa led to an increase of these structures on the remaining leukocytes. This is the first study indicating that β1 and β3 integrins bearing high-mannose/hybrid structures are affected by Rapa and CsA. Rapa taken separately and together with CsA changed the expression of β1 and β3 integrins and, by regulating the protein amount, increased the oligomannose/hybrid-type N-glycosylation on the leukocyte surface. We suggest that the changes in the glycosylation profile of leukocytes may promote the development of tolerance in transplantation. PMID:26339568

  20. Using Stimulation of the Diving Reflex in Humans to Teach Integrative Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Julia K.; Denton, Kate M.; Evans, Roger G.; Hodgson, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    During underwater submersion, the body responds by conserving O[subscript 2] and prioritizing blood flow to the brain and heart. These physiological adjustments, which involve the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems, are known as the diving response and provide an ideal example of integrative physiology. The diving reflex can be…

  1. Human C-reactive protein impedes entry of leptin into the CNS and attenuates its physiological actions in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Wei, Dong; McCrory, Mark A; Szalai, Alexander J; Yang, Gangyi; Li, Ling; Li, Fanghong; Zhao, Allan Z

    2016-05-01

    Defective central leptin signalling and impaired leptin entry into the CNS (central nervous system) represent two important aspects of leptin resistance in obesity. In the present study, we tested whether circulating human CRP (C-reactive protein) not only diminishes signalling of leptin within the CNS, but also impedes this adipokine's access to the CNS. Peripheral infusion of human CRP together with co-infused human leptin was associated with significantly decreased leptin content in the CSF of ob/ob mice. Furthermore, following peripheral infusion of human leptin, the CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) concentration of leptin in transgenic mice overexpressing human CRP was sharply lower than that achieved in similarly infused wild-type mice. Administration of LPS (lipopolysaccharide) to human CRP-transgenic mice dramatically elevated the concentrations of human CRP in the CSF. The i.c.v. (intracerebroventricular) delivery of human CRP into the lateral ventricles of ob/ob mice blocked the satiety and weight-reducing actions of human leptin, but not those of mouse leptin. I.c.v. injection of human CRP abolished hypothalamic signalling by human leptin, and ameliorated the effects of leptin on the expression of NPY (neuropeptide Y), AgRP (Agouti-related protein), POMC (pro-opiomelanocortin) and SOCS-3 (suppressor of cytokine signalling 3). Human CRP can impede the access of leptin to the CNS, and elevation of human CRP within the CNS can have a negative impact on the physiological actions of leptin. PMID:26933237

  2. Human herpesvirus 6 and 7 are biomarkers for fatigue, which distinguish between physiological fatigue and pathological fatigue.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Ryo; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Go; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Shimada, Kazuya; Oka, Naomi; Takahashi, Mayumi; Yamadera, Wataru; Iwashita, Masayuki; Tokuno, Shinichi; Nibuya, Masashi; Tanichi, Masaaki; Mukai, Yasuo; Mitani, Keiji; Kondo, Kazuhiro; Ito, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue reduces productivity and is a risk factor for lifestyle diseases and mental disorders. Everyone experiences physiological fatigue and recovers with rest. Pathological fatigue, however, greatly reduces quality of life and requires therapeutic interventions. It is therefore necessary to distinguish between the two but there has been no biomarker for this. We report on the measurement of salivary human herpesvirus (HHV-) 6 and HHV-7 as biomarkers for quantifying physiological fatigue. They increased with military training and work and rapidly decreased with rest. Our results suggested that macrophage activation and differentiation were necessary for virus reactivation. However, HHV-6 and HHV-7 did not increase in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depressive disorder (MDD), which are thought to cause pathological fatigue. Thus, HHV-6 and HHV-7 would be useful biomarkers for distinguishing between physiological and pathological fatigue. Our findings suggest a fundamentally new approach to evaluating fatigue and preventing fatigue-related diseases. PMID:27396623

  3. The Trauma of Peer Abuse: Effects of Relational Peer Victimization and Social Anxiety Disorder on Physiological and Affective Reactions to Social Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Iffland, Benjamin; Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Catani, Claudia; Neuner, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social exclusion elicits emotional distress, negative mood, and physiological stress. Recent studies showed that these effects were more intense and persisting in socially anxious subjects. The present study examined whether the abnormal reactions of socially anxious subjects can be traced back to previous experiences of relational peer victimization during childhood and adolescence. Methods: Participants (N = 74) were patients with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder as well as healthy controls. The patient and control groups were subdivided into two subgroups according to the subject’s reports about previous relational peer victimization. Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate) and affective reactions to a simulated social exclusion in a ball-toss game (Cyberball) were recorded. Results: Overall, subjects’ immediate reactions to social exclusion were an increase in skin conductance and a reduction of positive affect. Regardless of the diagnostic status, subjects with a history of relational peer victimization showed a more intense self-reported affective change that was accompanied by a blunted skin conductance response. However, the mood of the subjects with a history of peer victimization recovered during a 15 min waiting period. A diagnosis of social anxiety disorder did not affect the reactions to social exclusion on any measure. Conclusion: Findings indicate that stress reactions to social exclusion depend more on previous experiences of peer victimization than on a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder. The findings indicate that memories of negative social experiences can determine the initial stress reaction to social threats. PMID:24672491

  4. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-05-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as "activating" egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: (1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? (2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? (3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female's resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle's likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the "activating" effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. PMID:24657670

  5. Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.; Losada, Marcial F.

    2005-01-01

    Extending B. L. Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions and M. Losada's (1999) nonlinear dynamics model of team performance, the authors predict that a ratio of positive to negative affect at or above 2.9 will characterize individuals in flourishing mental health. Participants (N=188) completed an initial survey to…

  6. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Children's Perception of Nonlinguistic Human Affective Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Seth D.; Holt, Lori L.; Fries, Alison B. Wismer

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, we developed a database of nonlinguistic sounds that mirror prosodic characteristics typical of language and thus carry affective information, but do not convey linguistic information. In a dichotic-listening task, we used these novel stimuli as a means of disambiguating the relative contributions of linguistic and affective…

  7. A preliminary analysis of human factors affecting the recognition accuracy of a discrete word recognizer for C3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellen, H. W.

    1983-03-01

    Literature pertaining to Voice Recognition abounds with information relevant to the assessment of transitory speech recognition devices. In the past, engineering requirements have dictated the path this technology followed. But, other factors do exist that influence recognition accuracy. This thesis explores the impact of Human Factors on the successful recognition of speech, principally addressing the differences or variability among users. A Threshold Technology T-600 was used for a 100 utterance vocubalary to test 44 subjects. A statistical analysis was conducted on 5 generic categories of Human Factors: Occupational, Operational, Psychological, Physiological and Personal. How the equipment is trained and the experience level of the speaker were found to be key characteristics influencing recognition accuracy. To a lesser extent computer experience, time or week, accent, vital capacity and rate of air flow, speaker cooperativeness and anxiety were found to affect overall error rates.

  8. Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared between humans and other animals. Discussion Here, we survey some fundamental topics regarding pleasure mechanisms and explicitly compare humans and animals. Conclusion Topics surveyed include liking, wanting, and learning components of reward; brain coding versus brain causing of reward; subjective pleasure versus objective hedonic reactions; roles of orbitofrontal cortex and related cortex regions; subcortical hedonic hotspots for pleasure generation; reappraisals of dopamine and pleasure-electrode controversies; and the relation of pleasure to happiness. PMID:18311558

  9. A vision and strategy for the virtual physiological human: 2012 update

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Peter; Chapman, Tara; Coveney, Peter V.; de Bono, Bernard; Diaz, Vanessa; Fenner, John; Frangi, Alejandro F.; Harris, Peter; Hose, Rod; Kohl, Peter; Lawford, Pat; McCormack, Keith; Mendes, Miriam; Omholt, Stig; Quarteroni, Alfio; Shublaq, Nour; Skår, John; Stroetmann, Karl; Tegner, Jesper; Thomas, S. Randall; Tollis, Ioannis; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; van Beek, Johannes H. G. M.; Viceconti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    European funding under Framework 7 (FP7) for the virtual physiological human (VPH) project has been in place now for 5 years. The VPH Network of Excellence (NoE) has been set up to help develop common standards, open source software, freely accessible data and model repositories, and various training and dissemination activities for the project. It is also working to coordinate the many clinically targeted projects that have been funded under the FP7 calls. An initial vision for the VPH was defined by the FP6 STEP project in 2006. In 2010, we wrote an assessment of the accomplishments of the first two years of the VPH in which we considered the biomedical science, healthcare and information and communications technology challenges facing the project (Hunter et al. 2010 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 368, 2595–2614 (doi:10.1098/rsta.2010.0048)). We proposed that a not-for-profit professional umbrella organization, the VPH Institute, should be established as a means of sustaining the VPH vision beyond the time-frame of the NoE. Here, we update and extend this assessment and in particular address the following issues raised in response to Hunter et al.: (i) a vision for the VPH updated in the light of progress made so far, (ii) biomedical science and healthcare challenges that the VPH initiative can address while also providing innovation opportunities for the European industry, and (iii) external changes needed in regulatory policy and business models to realize the full potential that the VPH has to offer to industry, clinics and society generally. PMID:24427536

  10. A vision and strategy for the virtual physiological human: 2012 update.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Peter; Chapman, Tara; Coveney, Peter V; de Bono, Bernard; Diaz, Vanessa; Fenner, John; Frangi, Alejandro F; Harris, Peter; Hose, Rod; Kohl, Peter; Lawford, Pat; McCormack, Keith; Mendes, Miriam; Omholt, Stig; Quarteroni, Alfio; Shublaq, Nour; Skår, John; Stroetmann, Karl; Tegner, Jesper; Thomas, S Randall; Tollis, Ioannis; Tsamardinos, Ioannis; van Beek, Johannes H G M; Viceconti, Marco

    2013-04-01

    European funding under Framework 7 (FP7) for the virtual physiological human (VPH) project has been in place now for 5 years. The VPH Network of Excellence (NoE) has been set up to help develop common standards, open source software, freely accessible data and model repositories, and various training and dissemination activities for the project. It is also working to coordinate the many clinically targeted projects that have been funded under the FP7 calls. An initial vision for the VPH was defined by the FP6 STEP project in 2006. In 2010, we wrote an assessment of the accomplishments of the first two years of the VPH in which we considered the biomedical science, healthcare and information and communications technology challenges facing the project (Hunter et al. 2010 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 368, 2595-2614 (doi:10.1098/rsta.2010.0048)). We proposed that a not-for-profit professional umbrella organization, the VPH Institute, should be established as a means of sustaining the VPH vision beyond the time-frame of the NoE. Here, we update and extend this assessment and in particular address the following issues raised in response to Hunter et al.: (i) a vision for the VPH updated in the light of progress made so far, (ii) biomedical science and healthcare challenges that the VPH initiative can address while also providing innovation opportunities for the European industry, and (iii) external changes needed in regulatory policy and business models to realize the full potential that the VPH has to offer to industry, clinics and society generally. PMID:24427536

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling in human sperm physiology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Li; Xian, Hua; Cao, Jing-Chen; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Miao-Miao; Qian, Yi; Jiang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the PPARs, which are transcription factors of the steroid receptor superfamily. PPARγ acts as an important molecule for regulating energy homeostasis, modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and is reciprocally regulated by HPG. In the human, PPARγ protein is highly expressed in ejaculated spermatozoa, implying a possible role of PPARγ signaling in regulating sperm energy dissipation. PPARγ protein is also expressed in Sertoli cells and germ cells (spermatocytes). Its activation can be induced during capacitation and the acrosome reaction. This mini-review will focus on how PPARγ signaling may affect fertility and sperm quality and the potential reversibility of these adverse effects. PMID:25851655

  12. Mevalonate availability affects human and rat resistance vessel function.

    PubMed Central

    Roullet, J B; Xue, H; Roullet, C M; Fletcher, W S; Cipolla, M J; Harker, C T; McCarron, D A

    1995-01-01

    Previous data in rat conductance vessels indicated that cellular mevalonate contributes to vascular tone and systemic blood pressure control. Using exogenous mevalonate (M) or lovastatin, a 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor (L), we characterized the role of mevalonate availability in resistance artery function, both in experimental animals and humans. Rat mesenteric artery resistance vessels (MARV, n = 9) were incubated for 48 h with either L, M, L + M, or vehicle (V) and tested for reactivity to NE, serotonin, acetylcholine, atrial natriuretic peptide, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Lovastatin increased sensitivity to NE (P < 0.03) and serotonin (P < 0.003), and significantly impaired the response to all three vasodilators. These effects were reversed by co-incubation with mevalonate. Mevalonate alone had no effect. In separate experiments, intravascular free Ca2+ concentration (ivfCa2+) was determined in fura-2AM loaded MARV. Basal ivfCa2+ was increased after a 48-h exposure to L (52.7 +/- 4.6 nM, L, vs. 29.7 +/- 2.4 nM, V, n = 12, P < 0.003), as were ivfCa2+ levels following stimulation with low (100 nM) NE concentrations. Similar ivfCa2+ concentrations were achieved during maximum contraction with NE (10 mM) in both groups. Human resistance arteries of human adipose tissue were also studied. Lovastatin increased the sensitivity to NE (ED50 = 372 +/- 56 nM, V, and 99 +/- 33 nM, L, P < 0.001) and significantly decreased the relaxation to acetylcholine and SNP of human vessels. We conclude that mevalonate availability directly contribute to resistance vessel function and vascular signal transduction systems in both experimental animals and humans. The study calls for the identification of non-sterol, mevalonate-derived vasoactive metabolites, and suggests that disorders of the mevalonate pathway can alter vascular tone and cause hypertension. PMID:7615793

  13. RPGR: Its role in photoreceptor physiology, human disease, and future therapies

    PubMed Central

    Megaw, Roly D.; Soares, Dinesh C.; Wright, Alan F.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian photoreceptors contain specialised connecting cilia that connect the inner (IS) to the outer segments (OS). Dysfunction of the connecting cilia due to mutations in ciliary proteins are a common cause of the inherited retinal dystrophy retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Mutations affecting the Retinitis Pigmentosa GTPase Regulator (RPGR) protein is one such cause, affecting 10–20% of all people with RP and the majority of those with X-linked RP. RPGR is located in photoreceptor connecting cilia. It interacts with a wide variety of ciliary proteins, but its exact function is unknown. Recently, there have been important advances both in our understanding of RPGR function and towards the development of a therapy. This review summarises the existing literature on human RPGR function and dysfunction, and suggests that RPGR plays a role in the function of the ciliary gate, which controls access of both membrane and soluble proteins to the photoreceptor outer segment. We discuss key models used to investigate and treat RPGR disease and suggest that gene augmentation therapy offers a realistic therapeutic approach, although important questions still remain to be answered, while cell replacement therapy based on retinal progenitor cells represents a more distant prospect. PMID:26093275

  14. Shoot ionome to predict the synergism and antagonism between nutrients as affected by substrate and physiological status.

    PubMed

    Pii, Youry; Cesco, Stefano; Mimmo, Tanja

    2015-09-01

    The elemental composition of a tissue or organism is defined as ionome. However, the combined effects on the shoot ionome determined by the taxonomic character, the nutrient status and different substrates have not been investigated. This study tests the hypothesis that phylogenetic variation of monocots and dicots grown in iron deficiency can be distinguished by the shoot ionome. We analyzed 18 elements in barley, cucumber and tomato and in two substrates (hydroponic vs soil) with different nutritional regimes. Multivariate analysis evidenced a clear separation between the species. In hydroponic conditions the main drivers separating the species are non essential-nutrients as Ti, Al, Na and Li, which were positively correlated with macro- (P, K) and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mo, B). The separation between species is confirmed when plants are grown on soil, but the distribution is determined especially by macronutrients (S, P, K, Ca, Mg) and micronutrients (B). A number of macro (Mg, Ca, S, P, K) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, B) contribute to plant growth and several other important physiological and metabolic plant activities. The results reported here confirmed that the synergism and antagonism between them and other non-essential elements (Ti, Al, Si, Na) define the plant taxonomic character. The ionome profile might thus be exploited as a tool for the diagnosis of plants physiological/nutritional status but also in defining biofortification strategies to optimize both mineral enrichment of staple food crops and the nutrient input as fertilizers. PMID:26004913

  15. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children. PMID:27215601

  16. A New Approach to Teaching Human Cardiovascular Physiology Using Doppler Ultrasound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looker, T.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the principles of the Doppler ultrasound technique and reviews its potential applications to the teaching of cardiovascular physiology. Identifies the instrumentation needed for this technique; provides examples and illustrations of the waveforms from the ultrasound blood velocimeter. (ML)

  17. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of deltamethrin: Development of a rat and human diffusion-limited model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mirfazaelian et al. (2006) developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin in the rat. This model describes gastrointestinal tract absorption as a saturable process mediated by phase III efflux transporters which pump delta...

  18. Development of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Triadimefon and Triadimenol in Rats and Humans

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for the conazole fungicide triadimefon and its primary metabolite, triadimenol. Rat tissue:blood partition coefficients and metabolic constants were measured in vitro for both compounds. Kinetic time course data...

  19. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  20. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  1. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M.; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants and

  2. Visualization and simulated surgery of the left ventricle in the virtual pathological heart of the Virtual Physiological Human.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, N J B; Lin, X; Zhao, Y; Clapworthy, G J; Dong, F; Redaelli, A; Parodi, O; Testi, D

    2011-06-01

    Ischaemic heart failure remains a significant health and economic problem worldwide. This paper presents a user-friendly software system that will form a part of the virtual pathological heart of the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH2) project, currently being developed under the European Commission Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) programme. VPH2 is an integrated medicine project, which will create a suite of modelling, simulation and visualization tools for patient-specific prediction and planning in cases of post-ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction. The work presented here describes a three-dimensional interactive visualization for simulating left ventricle restoration surgery, comprising the operations of cutting, stitching and patching, and for simulating the elastic deformation of the ventricle to its post-operative shape. This will supply the quantitative measurements required for the post-operative prediction tools being developed in parallel in the same project. PMID:22670207

  3. Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals does not affect cognitive functioning or physiological measures in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    PubMed

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Fox, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often report cognitive impairments that they believe are due to exposure to mobile phone technology. Previous research in this area has revealed mixed results, however, with the majority of research only testing control individuals. Two studies using control and self-reported sensitive participants found inconsistent effects of mobile phone base stations on cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether short-term (50 min) exposure at 10 mW/m(2) to typical Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station signals affects attention, memory, and physiological endpoints in sensitive and control participants. Data from 44 sensitive and 44 matched-control participants who performed the digit symbol substitution task (DSST), digit span task (DS), and a mental arithmetic task (MA), while being exposed to GSM, UMTS, and sham signals under double-blind conditions were analyzed. Overall, cognitive functioning was not affected by short-term exposure to either GSM or UMTS signals in the current study. Nor did exposure affect the physiological measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SC) that were taken while participants performed the cognitive tasks. PMID:19475647

  4. Mindfulness training modifies cognitive, affective, and physiological mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence: Results of a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Gaylord, Susan A.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness training may disrupt the risk chain of stress-precipitated alcohol relapse. In 2008, 53 alcohol-dependent adults (mean age = 40.3) recruited from a therapeutic community located in the urban southeastern U.S. were randomized to mindfulness training or a support group. Most participants were male (79.2%), African American (60.4%), and earned < $20,000 annually (52.8%). Self-report measures, psychophysiological cue-reactivity, and alcohol attentional bias were analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA. 37 participants completed the interventions. Mindfulness training significantly reduced stress and thought suppression, increased physiological recovery from alcohol cues, and modulated alcohol attentional bias. Hence, mindfulness training appears to target key mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence, and therefore may hold promise as an alternative treatment for stress-precipitated relapse among vulnerable members of society. PMID:20648913

  5. Pollen Contaminated With Field-Relevant Levels of Cyhalothrin Affects Honey Bee Survival, Nutritional Physiology, and Pollen Consumption Behavior.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Adam G; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W Allen; Bonning, Bryony C; Toth, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    Honey bees are exposed to a variety of environmental factors that impact their health, including nutritional stress, pathogens, and pesticides. In particular, there has been increasing evidence that sublethal exposure to pesticides can cause subtle, yet important effects on honey bee health and behavior. Here, we add to this body of knowledge by presenting data on bee-collected pollen containing sublethal levels of cyhalothrin, a pyrethroid insecticide, which, when fed to young honey bees, resulted in significant changes in lifespan, nutritional physiology,and behavior. For the first time, we show that when young, nest-aged bees are presented with pollen containing field-relevant levels of cyhalothrin, they reduce their consumption of contaminated pollen. This indicates that, at least for some chemicals, young bees are able to detect contamination in pollen and change their behavioral response, even if the contamination levels do not prevent foraging honey bees from collecting the contaminated pollen. PMID:26476556

  6. Velocity, safety, or both? How do balance and strength of goal conflicts affect drivers' behaviour, feelings and physiological responses?

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Daffy, Martin; Brandenburg, Stefan; Beliavski, Alina

    2013-06-01

    Motivational models of driving behaviour agree that choice of speed is modulated by drivers' goals. Whilst it is accepted that some goals favour fast driving and others favour safe driving, little is known about the interplay of these conflicting goals. In the present study, two aspects of this interplay are investigated: the balance of conflict and the strength of conflict. Thirty-two participants completed several simulated driving runs in which fast driving was rewarded with a monetary gain if the end of the track was reached. However, unpredictably, some runs ended with the appearance of a deer. In these runs, fast driving was punished with a monetary loss. The ratio between the magnitudes of gains and losses varied in order to manipulate the balance of conflict. The absolute magnitudes of both gains and losses altered the strength of conflict. Participants drove slower, reported an increase in anxiety-related feelings, and showed indications of physiological arousal if there was more money at stake. In contrast, only marginal effects of varying the ratio between gains and losses were observed. Results confirm that the strength of a safety-velocity conflict is an important determinant of drivers' behaviour, feelings, and physiological responses. The lack of evidence for the balance of conflict playing a role suggests that in each condition, participants subjectively weighted the loss higher than the gain (loss aversion). It is concluded that the interplay of the subjective values that drivers attribute to objective incentives for fast and safe driving is a promising field for future research. Incorporating this knowledge into motivational theories of driving behaviour might improve their contribution to the design of adequate road safety measures. PMID:23523895

  7. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  8. Molecular, Physiological, and Motor Performance Defects in DMSXL Mice Carrying >1,000 CTG Repeats from the Human DM1 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Huguet, Aline; Medja, Fadia; Nicole, Annie; Vignaud, Alban; Guiraud-Dogan, Céline; Ferry, Arnaud; Decostre, Valérie; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Metzger, Friedrich; Hoeflich, Andreas; Baraibar, Martin; Gomes-Pereira, Mário; Puymirat, Jack; Bassez, Guillaume; Furling, Denis; Munnich, Arnold; Gourdon, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by an unstable CTG repeat expansion in the 3′UTR of the DM protein kinase (DMPK) gene. DMPK transcripts carrying CUG expansions form nuclear foci and affect splicing regulation of various RNA transcripts. Furthermore, bidirectional transcription over the DMPK gene and non-conventional RNA translation of repeated transcripts have been described in DM1. It is clear now that this disease may involve multiple pathogenic pathways including changes in gene expression, RNA stability and splicing regulation, protein translation, and micro–RNA metabolism. We previously generated transgenic mice with 45-kb of the DM1 locus and >300 CTG repeats (DM300 mice). After successive breeding and a high level of CTG repeat instability, we obtained transgenic mice carrying >1,000 CTG (DMSXL mice). Here we described for the first time the expression pattern of the DMPK sense transcripts in DMSXL and human tissues. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that DMPK antisense transcripts are expressed in various DMSXL and human tissues, and that both sense and antisense transcripts accumulate in independent nuclear foci that do not co-localize together. Molecular features of DM1-associated RNA toxicity in DMSXL mice (such as foci accumulation and mild missplicing), were associated with high mortality, growth retardation, and muscle defects (abnormal histopathology, reduced muscle strength, and lower motor performances). We have found that lower levels of IGFBP-3 may contribute to DMSXL growth retardation, while increased proteasome activity may affect muscle function. These data demonstrate that the human DM1 locus carrying very large expansions induced a variety of molecular and physiological defects in transgenic mice, reflecting DM1 to a certain extent. As a result, DMSXL mice provide an animal tool to decipher various aspects of the disease mechanisms. In addition, these mice can be used to test the preclinical impact of systemic therapeutic

  9. A YAP/TAZ-miR-130/301 molecular circuit exerts systems-level control of fibrosis in a network of human diseases and physiologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bertero, Thomas; Cottrill, Katherine A; Annis, Sofia; Bhat, Balkrishen; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Osorio, Juan C; Rosas, Ivan; Haley, Kathleen J; Corey, Kathleen E; Chung, Raymond T; Nelson Chau, B; Chan, Stephen Y

    2015-01-01

    The molecular origins of fibrosis affecting multiple tissue beds remain incompletely defined. Previously, we delineated the critical role of the control of extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffening by the mechanosensitive microRNA-130/301 family, as activated by the YAP/TAZ co-transcription factors, in promoting pulmonary hypertension (PH). We hypothesized that similar mechanisms may dictate fibrosis in other tissue beds beyond the pulmonary vasculature. Employing an in silico combination of microRNA target prediction, transcriptomic analysis of 137 human diseases and physiologic states, and advanced gene network modeling, we predicted the microRNA-130/301 family as a master regulator of fibrotic pathways across a cohort of seemingly disparate diseases and conditions. In two such diseases (pulmonary fibrosis and liver fibrosis), inhibition of microRNA-130/301 prevented the induction of ECM modification, YAP/TAZ, and downstream tissue fibrosis. Thus, mechanical forces act through a central feedback circuit between microRNA-130/301 and YAP/TAZ to sustain a common fibrotic phenotype across a network of human physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Such re-conceptualization of interconnections based on shared systems of disease and non-disease gene networks may have broad implications for future convergent diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26667495

  10. A YAP/TAZ-miR-130/301 molecular circuit exerts systems-level control of fibrosis in a network of human diseases and physiologic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bertero, Thomas; Cottrill, Katherine A.; Annis, Sofia; Bhat, Balkrishen; Gochuico, Bernadette R.; Osorio, Juan C.; Rosas, Ivan; Haley, Kathleen J.; Corey, Kathleen E.; Chung, Raymond T.; Nelson Chau, B.; Chan, Stephen Y.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular origins of fibrosis affecting multiple tissue beds remain incompletely defined. Previously, we delineated the critical role of the control of extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffening by the mechanosensitive microRNA-130/301 family, as activated by the YAP/TAZ co-transcription factors, in promoting pulmonary hypertension (PH). We hypothesized that similar mechanisms may dictate fibrosis in other tissue beds beyond the pulmonary vasculature. Employing an in silico combination of microRNA target prediction, transcriptomic analysis of 137 human diseases and physiologic states, and advanced gene network modeling, we predicted the microRNA-130/301 family as a master regulator of fibrotic pathways across a cohort of seemingly disparate diseases and conditions. In two such diseases (pulmonary fibrosis and liver fibrosis), inhibition of microRNA-130/301 prevented the induction of ECM modification, YAP/TAZ, and downstream tissue fibrosis. Thus, mechanical forces act through a central feedback circuit between microRNA-130/301 and YAP/TAZ to sustain a common fibrotic phenotype across a network of human physiologic and pathophysiologic states. Such re-conceptualization of interconnections based on shared systems of disease and non-disease gene networks may have broad implications for future convergent diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. PMID:26667495

  11. The purinergic component of human bladder smooth muscle cells’ proliferation and contraction under physiological stretch

    SciTech Connect

    Wazir, Romel; Luo, De-Yi; Tian, Ye; Yue, Xuan; Li, Hong; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2013-07-26

    Highlights: •Stretch induces proliferation and contraction. •Optimum applied stretch in vitro is 5% and 10% equibiaxial stretching respectively. •Expression of P2X1 and P2X2 is upregulated after application of stretch. •P2X2 is possibly more susceptible to stretch related changes. •Purinoceptors functioning may explain conditions with atropine resistance. -- Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether cyclic stretch induces proliferation and contraction of human smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs), mediated by P2X purinoceptor 1 and 2 and the signal transduction mechanisms of this process. Methods: HBSMCs were seeded on silicone membrane and stretched under varying parameters; (equibiaxial elongation: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), (Frequency: 0.05 Hz, 0.1 Hz, 0.2 Hz, 0.5 Hz, 1 Hz). 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine assay was employed for proliferative studies. Contractility of the cells was determined using collagen gel contraction assay. After optimal physiological stretch was established; P2X1 and P2X2 were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot. Specificity of purinoceptors was maintained by employing specific inhibitors; (NF023 for P2X1, and A317491for P2X2), in some experiments. Results: Optimum proliferation and contractility were observed at 5% and 10% equibiaxial stretching respectively, applied at a frequency of 0.1 Hz; At 5% stretch, proliferation increased from 0.837 ± 0.026 (control) to 1.462 ± 0.023%, p < 0.05. Mean contraction at 10% stretching increased from 31.7 ± 2.3%, (control) to 78.28 ±1.45%, p < 0.05. Expression of P2X1 and P2X2 was upregulated after application of stretch. Inhibition had effects on proliferation (1.232 ± 0.051, p < 0.05 NF023) and (1.302 ± 0.021, p < 0.05 A314791) while contractility was markedly reduced (68.24 ± 2.31, p < 0.05 NF023) and (73.2 ± 2.87, p < 0.05 A314791). These findings shows that mechanical stretch can promote magnitude-dependent proliferative and contractile modulation of HBSMCs in

  12. Physiological responses and manual performance in humans following repeated exposure to severe cold at night.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, H; Nagai, Y; Tochihara, Y

    2001-04-01

    We evaluated human physiological responses and the performance of manual tasks during exposure to severe cold (-25 degrees C) at night (0300-0500 hours) and in the afternoon (1500-1700 hours). Thirteen male students wearing standard cold protective clothing occupied a severely cold room (-25 degrees C) for 20 min, and were then transferred to a cool room (10 degrees C) for 20 min. This pattern of exposure was repeated three times, for a total time of exposure to extreme cold of 60 min. The experiments were started either at 1500 hours or 0300 hours and measurements of rectal temperature, skin temperature, blood pressure, performance in a counting task, hand tremor, and subjective responses were made in each condition. At the end of the experiment at night the mean decrease in rectal temperature [0.68 (SEM 0.04) degree C] was significantly greater than that at the end of the experiment in the afternoon [0.55 (SEM 0.08) degree C, P < 0.01]. After the second cold exposure at night the mean increase in diastolic blood pressure [90 (SEM 2.0) mmHg] was significantly greater than that at the end of the second cold exposure in the afternoon [82 (SEM 2.8) mmHg, P < 0.01]. At the end of the second cold exposure at night, mean finger skin temperature [11.8 (SEM 0.8) degrees C] was significantly higher than that at the comparable time in the afternoon [9.0 (SEM 0.7) degrees C, P < 0.01]. Similarly for the toe, mean skin temperature at the start of the second cold exposure at night [25.6 (SEM 1.5) degrees C] was significantly higher than in the afternoon [20.1 (SEM 0.8) degrees C, P < 0.01]. The increased skin temperatures in the periphery resulted in increased heat loss. Since peripheral skin temperatures were highest at night, the subjects noted diminished sensations of thermal cold and pain at that time. Manual dexterity at the end of the first cold exposure at night [mean 83.7 (SEM 3.6) times.min-1] had decreased significantly more than at the end of the first cold exposure

  13. Unique gel-coupled acoustic sensor array monitors human voice and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The health and performance of soldiers, firefighters, and other first responders in strenuous and hazardous environments can be continuously and remotely monitored with body-worn acoustic sensors. The Army Research Laboratory's gel-coupled acoustic physiological monitoring sensor has acoustic impedance properties similar to the skin that facilitate the transmission of body sounds into the sensor pad, yet significantly repel ambient airborne noises due to an impedance mismatch. Acoustic signal processing detects physiological events such as heartbeats, breaths, wheezes, coughs, blood pressure, activity, motion, and voice for communication and automatic speech recognition. Acoustic sensors can be in a helmet or in a strap around the neck, chest, and wrist. Although the physiological sounds have high SNR, the acoustic sensor also responds to motion-induced artifacts that sometimes obscure meaningful physiology. A noise-canceling sensor array configuration helps remove motion noise by using two acoustic sensors on the front sides of the neck and 2 additional acoustic sensors on each wrist. The motion noise detected on all 4 sensors will be dissimilar and out of phase, yet the physiology on all 4 sensors is covariant. Pulse wave transit time between neck and wrist will indicate systolic blood pressure. Data from a firefighter experiment will be presented.

  14. Identification of differences in human and great ape phytanic acid metabolism that could influence gene expression profiles and physiological functions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that anatomical differences in human and great ape guts arose in response to species-specific diets and energy demands. To investigate functional genomic consequences of these differences, we compared their physiological levels of phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid that can be derived from the microbial degradation of chlorophyll in ruminant guts. Humans who accumulate large stores of phytanic acid commonly develop cerebellar ataxia, peripheral polyneuropathy, and retinitis pigmentosa in addition to other medical conditions. Furthermore, phytanic acid is an activator of the PPAR-alpha transcription factor that influences the expression of genes relevant to lipid metabolism. Results Despite their trace dietary phytanic acid intake, all great ape species had elevated red blood cell (RBC) phytanic acid levels relative to humans on diverse diets. Unlike humans, chimpanzees showed sexual dimorphism in RBC phytanic acid levels, which were higher in males relative to females. Cultured skin fibroblasts from all species had a robust capacity to degrade phytanic acid. We provide indirect evidence that great apes, in contrast to humans, derive significant amounts of phytanic acid from the hindgut fermentation of plant materials. This would represent a novel reduction of metabolic activity in humans relative to the great apes. Conclusion We identified differences in the physiological levels of phytanic acid in humans and great apes and propose this is causally related to their gut anatomies and microbiomes. Phytanic acid levels could contribute to cross-species and sex-specific differences in human and great ape transcriptomes, especially those related to lipid metabolism. Based on the medical conditions caused by phytanic acid accumulation, we suggest that differences in phytanic acid metabolism could influence the functions of human and great ape nervous, cardiovascular, and skeletal systems. PMID:20932325

  15. Functional TLR5 genetic variants affect human colorectal cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Klimosch, Sascha N; Försti, Asta; Eckert, Jana; Knezevic, Jelena; Bevier, Melanie; von Schönfels, Witigo; Heits, Nils; Walter, Jessica; Hinz, Sebastian; Lascorz, Jesus; Hampe, Jochen; Hartl, Dominik; Frick, Julia-Stefanie; Hemminki, Kari; Schafmayer, Clemens; Weber, Alexander N R

    2013-12-15

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) are overexpressed on many types of cancer cells, including colorectal cancer cells, but little is known about the functional relevance of these immune regulatory molecules in malignant settings. Here, we report frequent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the flagellin receptor TLR5 and the TLR downstream effector molecules MyD88 and TIRAP that are associated with altered survival in a large cohort of Caucasian patients with colorectal cancer (n = 613). MYD88 rs4988453, a SNP that maps to a promoter region shared with the acetyl coenzyme-A acyl-transferase-1 (ACAA1), was associated with decreased survival of patients with colorectal cancer and altered transcriptional activity of the proximal genes. In the TLR5 gene, rs5744174/F616L was associated with increased survival, whereas rs2072493/N592S was associated with decreased survival. Both rs2072493/N592S and rs5744174/F616L modulated TLR5 signaling in response to flagellin or to different commensal and pathogenic intestinal bacteria. Notably, we observed a reduction in flagellin-induced p38 phosphorylation, CD62L shedding, and elevated expression of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β mRNA in human primary immune cells from TLR5 616LL homozygote carriers, as compared with 616FF carriers. This finding suggested that the well-documented effect of cytokines like IL-6 on colorectal cancer progression might be mediated by TLR5 genotype-dependent flagellin sensing. Our results establish an important link between TLR signaling and human colorectal cancer with relevance for biomarker and therapy development. PMID:24154872

  16. Physiologically relevant plasma d,l-homocysteine concentrations mobilize Cd from human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Sagmeister, Peter; Gibson, Matthew A; McDade, Kyle H; Gailer, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Although low-level chronic exposure of humans to cadmium (Cd(2+)) can result in a variety of adverse health effects, little is known about the role that its interactions with plasma proteins and small molecular weight (SMW) ligands in the bloodstream may play in delivering this metal to its target organs. To gain insight, a Cd-human serum albumin (HSA) 1:1 (molar ratio) complex was analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled on-line to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). Using a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-buffer mobile phase, the stability of the Cd-HSA complex was investigated in the presence of 2.0mM of SMW ligands, including taurine, acetaminophen, l-methionine, l-cysteine (Cys), d,l-homocysteine (hCys) or l-cysteine methyl-ester (Cys-Me). While taurine, acetaminophen and l-methionine did not affect its integrity, Cys, hCys and Cys-Me completely abstracted Cd from HSA. Subsequent investigations into the effect of 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5mM Cys and hCys on the integrity of the Cd-HSA complex revealed clear differences with regard to the nature of the eluting SMW-Cd species between these structurally related endogenous thiols. Interestingly, the Cd-specific chromatograms that were obtained for 0.5mM hCys revealed the elution of an apparent mixture of the parent Cd-HSA complex with a significant contribution of a structurally uncharacterized CdxhCysy species. Since this hCys concentration is encountered in blood plasma of hyperhomocysteinemia patients and since previous studies by others have revealed that a SH-containing carrier mediates the uptake of Cd into hepatocytes, our results suggest that plasma hCys may play a role in the toxicologically relevant translocation of Cd from the bloodstream to mammalian target organs. PMID:27294530

  17. The Absence of Pupylation (Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-Like Protein Modification) Affects Morphological and Physiological Differentiation in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Seghezzi, Nicolas; Duchateau, Magalie; Gominet, Myriam; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Mazodier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein turnover is essential in all living organisms for the maintenance of normal cell physiology. In eukaryotes, most cellular protein turnover involves the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, in which proteins tagged with ubiquitin are targeted to the proteasome for degradation. In contrast, most bacteria lack a proteasome but harbor proteases for protein turnover. However, some actinobacteria, such as mycobacteria, possess a proteasome in addition to these proteases. A prokaryotic ubiquitination-like tagging process in mycobacteria was described and was named pupylation: proteins are tagged with Pup (prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein) and directed to the proteasome for degradation. We report pupylation in another actinobacterium, Streptomyces coelicolor. Both the morphology and life cycle of Streptomyces species are complex (formation of a substrate and aerial mycelium followed by sporulation), and these bacteria are prolific producers of secondary metabolites with important medicinal and agricultural applications. The genes encoding the pupylation system in S. coelicolor are expressed at various stages of development. We demonstrated that pupylation targets numerous proteins and identified 20 of them. Furthermore, we established that abolition of pupylation has substantial effects on morphological and metabolic differentiation and on resistance to oxidative stress. In contrast, in most cases, a proteasome-deficient mutant showed only modest perturbations under the same conditions. Thus, the phenotype of the pup mutant does not appear to be due solely to defective proteasomal degradation. Presumably, pupylation has roles in addition to directing proteins to the proteasome. IMPORTANCE Streptomyces spp. are filamentous and sporulating actinobacteria, remarkable for their morphological and metabolic differentiation. They produce numerous bioactive compounds, including antifungal, antibiotic, and antitumor compounds. There is therefore considerable interest in

  18. Human performance and physiological function during a 24-hr exposure to 1 percent bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. S.; Degioanni, J. J.; Tan, M. N.; Davis, J. R.; Pierson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Performance and physiological measurements were obtained from four pairs of men exposed for 24 hr to 1 percent (10,000 ppm) Halon 1301 (CBrF3) and to air with order counterbalanced using a double-blind protocol. Cognitive and motor performance was assessed before, during, and after the exposures, using seven scales of the Automated Portable Testing System, which produced 13 measures of performance. Halon inhalation induced decrements in 2 of the 13 measures, but actual and estimated magnitudes of the decrements were no greater than 5 percent of baseline values. Physiological data obtained before, during, and after the exposures revealed significant changes during Halon inhalation for 6 of the 52 variables assessed; however, all physiological values remained within clinically acceptable limits. No cardiovascular effects were noted. This study demonstrated that exposure to 1 percent Halon 1301 for 24 hr can produce minor disturbance of central nervous system function as assessed by cognitive tasks.

  19. Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance.

    PubMed

    Carter, Kirtigandha Salwe; Carter, Robert

    2016-04-16

    Stress can be associated with many physiological changes resulting in significant decrements in human performance. Due to growing interests in alternative and complementary medicine by Westerners, many of the traditions and holistic yogic breathing practices today are being utilized as a measure for healthier lifestyles. These state-of-the-art practices can have a significant impact on common mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the potential of yogic breathing on optimizing human performance and overall well-being is not well known. Breathing techniques such as alternate nostril, Sudarshan Kriya and bhastrika utilizes rhythmic breathing to guide practitioners into a deep meditative state of relaxation and promote self-awareness. Furthermore, yogic breathing is physiologically stimulating and can be described as a natural "technological" solution to optimize human performance which can be categorized into: (1) cognitive function (i.e., mind, vigilance); and (2) physical performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory, metabolism, exercise, whole body). Based on previous studies, we postulate that daily practice of breathing meditation techniques play a significant role in preserving the compensatory mechanisms available to sustain physiological function. This preservation of physiological function may help to offset the time associated with reaching a threshold for clinical expression of chronic state (i.e., hypertension, depression, dementia) or acute state (i.e., massive hemorrhage, panic attic) of medical conditions. However, additional rigorous biomedical research is needed to evaluate the physiological mechanisms of various forms of meditation (i.e., breath-based, mantra, mindfulness) on human performance. These efforts will help to define how compensatory reserve mechanisms of cardiovascular and immune systems are modulated by breath-based meditation. While it has been suggested that breath-based meditation is easier for

  20. Breath-based meditation: A mechanism to restore the physiological and cognitive reserves for optimal human performance

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Kirtigandha Salwe; Carter III, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Stress can be associated with many physiological changes resulting in significant decrements in human performance. Due to growing interests in alternative and complementary medicine by Westerners, many of the traditions and holistic yogic breathing practices today are being utilized as a measure for healthier lifestyles. These state-of-the-art practices can have a significant impact on common mental health conditions such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder. However, the potential of yogic breathing on optimizing human performance and overall well-being is not well known. Breathing techniques such as alternate nostril, Sudarshan Kriya and bhastrika utilizes rhythmic breathing to guide practitioners into a deep meditative state of relaxation and promote self-awareness. Furthermore, yogic breathing is physiologically stimulating and can be described as a natural “technological” solution to optimize human performance which can be categorized into: (1) cognitive function (i.e., mind, vigilance); and (2) physical performance (i.e., cardiorespiratory, metabolism, exercise, whole body). Based on previous studies, we postulate that daily practice of breathing meditation techniques play a significant role in preserving the compensatory mechanisms available to sustain physiological function. This preservation of physiological function may help to offset the time associated with reaching a threshold for clinical expression of chronic state (i.e., hypertension, depression, dementia) or acute state (i.e., massive hemorrhage, panic attic) of medical conditions. However, additional rigorous biomedical research is needed to evaluate the physiological mechanisms of various forms of meditation (i.e., breath-based, mantra, mindfulness) on human performance. These efforts will help to define how compensatory reserve mechanisms of cardiovascular and immune systems are modulated by breath-based meditation. While it has been suggested that breath-based meditation is easier

  1. Pregnancy does not affect human olfactory detection thresholds.

    PubMed

    Cameron, E Leslie

    2014-02-01

    Hyperosmia is suspected in pregnancy; however, no empirical study using validated measures of olfactory function has clearly confirmed the anecdotal reports of this phenomenon. The goal of the current study is to compare the olfactory sensitivity of pregnant women to that of nonpregnant women and men. All participants rated their sense of smell and pregnant women listed the odors to which they were most sensitive. Detection thresholds were measured using a well-validated protocol. A group of pregnant and nonpregnant women was studied longitudinally using a signal detection procedure designed to detect small differences in sensitivity. Pregnant women, particularly in the 1st trimester, rated their sense of smell to be higher than nonpregnant women and men and indicated many (primarily unpleasant) odors to which they were more sensitive. Women rated their sense of smell higher than men. However, there was no sex difference in thresholds and neither thresholds nor signal detection measures of sensitivity were significantly affected by either sex or pregnancy status. The implications of the lack of relationship between self-report and measures of olfactory sensitivity, particularly in pregnancy, are discussed. PMID:24302690

  2. Noisy human neighbours affect where urban monkeys live

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Marina H. L.; Vecci, Marco A.; Hirsch, André; Young, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Urban areas and many natural habitats are being dominated by a new selection pressure: anthropogenic noise. The ongoing expansion of urban areas, roads and airports throughout the world makes the noise almost omnipresent. Urbanization and the increase of noise levels form a major threat to living conditions in and around cities. Insight into the behavioural strategies of urban survivors may explain the sensitivity of other species to urban selection pressures. Here, we show that urban black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) living in noisy urban areas may select their home-range based primarily on ambient noise level. We have tested the hypothesis that the noise from vehicular traffic and visitors in an urban park in Brazil influences the use of home-range (space) by urban marmosets. Marmosets even avoided noisy areas with high food availability. In addition, they systematically preferred the quieter areas even with dynamic changes in the acoustic landscape of the park between weekdays and Sundays (no observations were made on Saturdays). These data provide evidence that the use of home-range by wild animals can be affected by a potential aversive stimulus such as noise pollution. PMID:21715396

  3. Noisy human neighbours affect where urban monkeys live.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marina H L; Vecci, Marco A; Hirsch, André; Young, Robert J

    2011-12-23

    Urban areas and many natural habitats are being dominated by a new selection pressure: anthropogenic noise. The ongoing expansion of urban areas, roads and airports throughout the world makes the noise almost omnipresent. Urbanization and the increase of noise levels form a major threat to living conditions in and around cities. Insight into the behavioural strategies of urban survivors may explain the sensitivity of other species to urban selection pressures. Here, we show that urban black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) living in noisy urban areas may select their home-range based primarily on ambient noise level. We have tested the hypothesis that the noise from vehicular traffic and visitors in an urban park in Brazil influences the use of home-range (space) by urban marmosets. Marmosets even avoided noisy areas with high food availability. In addition, they systematically preferred the quieter areas even with dynamic changes in the acoustic landscape of the park between weekdays and Sundays (no observations were made on Saturdays). These data provide evidence that the use of home-range by wild animals can be affected by a potential aversive stimulus such as noise pollution. PMID:21715396

  4. RNAi-mediated downregulation of poplar plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) changes plasma membrane proteome composition and affects leaf physiology.

    PubMed

    Bi, Zhen; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Uehlein, Norbert; Zimmer, Ina; Mühlhans, Stefanie; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Palme, Klaus; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Block, Katja

    2015-10-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are one subfamily of aquaporins that mediate the transmembrane transport of water. To reveal their function in poplar, we generated transgenic poplar plants in which the translation of PIP genes was downregulated by RNA interference investigated these plants with a comprehensive leaf plasma membrane proteome and physiome analysis. First, inhibition of PIP synthesis strongly altered the leaf plasma membrane protein composition. Strikingly, several signaling components and transporters involved in the regulation of stomatal movement were differentially regulated in transgenic poplars. Furthermore, hormonal crosstalk related to abscisic acid, auxin and brassinosteroids was altered, in addition to cell wall biosynthesis/cutinization, the organization of cellular structures and membrane trafficking. A physiological analysis confirmed the proteomic results. The leaves had wider opened stomata and higher net CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates as well as greater mesophyll conductance for CO2 (gm) and leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf). Based on these results, we conclude that PIP proteins not only play essential roles in whole leaf water and CO2 flux but have important roles in the regulation of stomatal movement. PMID:26248320

  5. MISR Satellite Observations of Aerosol Types Affecting Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnikova, O. V.; Franklin, M.; Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground-based observations of pollutants and concentrations of particulate matter (PM), that includes small particles designated PM2.5 and dust-dominated PM10, are the gold standard in studies of environmental impacts on human health. However, because monitoring stations are costly, they typically provide only limited spatial coverage, especially in rural and remote areas. We will demonstrate how data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument that has been flying on NASA's Terra Earth Observing System satellite since early 2000 can be used to provide estimates of surface PM types. The current MISR operational aerosol retrieval uses a combination of multi-spectral and multi-angle data to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property information (including dust AOD) globally at 17.6 km spatial resolution. Using the same algorithm with data collected in all 36-channels at 275 m resolution (Local Mode), which is available over greater Los Angeles area, and also was activated during 2013 DISCOVER-AQ California field campaign, high-resolution 4.4 km aerosol retrievals were performed in addition to the standard 17.6 km retrievals. The 4.4 km spatial resolution of the PM information data is fine enough to be able to resolve local differences in PM loading that may be important for understanding regional health effects of pollution in the region. In particular, we demonstrate that MISR high-resolution AOD retrievals are in better agreement with ground-based aerosol observations and reveal more details about the aerosol spatial variability compared to the MISR standard 17.6 km product. Then we will discuss techniques and show examples of the application of high-resolution MISR data to provide estimates of surface PM for the greater Los Angeles area in 2008 and for California San Joaquin Valley during the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ field campaign. Finally, we will discuss future NASA instruments that will provide new information allowing for better

  6. Different geomagnetic indices as an indicator for geo-effective solar storms and human physiological state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla

    2008-02-01

    A group of 86 healthy volunteers were examined on each working day during periods of high solar activity. Data about systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate and subjective psycho-physiological complaints were gathered. MANOVA was employed to check the significance of the influence of three factors on the physiological parameters. The factors were as follows: (1) geomagnetic activity estimated by daily amplitude of H-component of the local geomagnetic field, Ap- and Dst-index; (2) gender; and (3) the presence of medication. Average values of systolic, diastolic blood pressure, pulse pressure and subjective complaints of the group were found to increase significantly with geomagnetic activity increment.

  7. [Mechanisms of natural variability at adaptation of human physiological systems to conditions of space flight].

    PubMed

    Larina, I M; Nosovskiĭ, A M; Grigor'ev, A I

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the physiological data using the principle of invariant relationships, to reveal the mechanisms of adaptive variability. It was used physical-chemical, biochemical, and hormonal blood parameters of cosmonauts who have committed short-term and long space flights. These results suggest that application of the methods of fractal geometry to quantitative estimates of homeostasis allows to allocate the processes depending on the increase/decrease of adaptive variability and fix the state of stability or instability of certain physiological regulatory subsystems, due to mobility and to reduce the level of stability which remains stable internal structure of relationships throughout the body. PMID:22679800

  8. Mimicry profiles are affected by human-induced habitat changes.

    PubMed Central

    Azmeh, S; Owen, J; Sørensen, K; Grewcock, D; Gilbert, F

    1998-01-01

    Mimicry theory predicts that mimics in a Batesian mimicry complex evolve to resemble models closely, and that there is a limit on the numbers of mimics relative to models. For hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae), supposed mimics of social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, neither of these is true; many mimics are imperfect and in the UK and Europe they outnumber their models manifold. We hypothesized that the high abundance of mimics relative to models in the UK may be the result not just of mimic model dynamics, but of habitat changes caused by humans. Most of the larvae of poor mimics are aphidophagous, and changes from ancient forest to agricultural and/or urban habitats may have vastly augmented aphid numbers. Using new and literature data, we compared mimicry profiles of habitats differing in their degree of habitat disturbance. In both cases more highly disturbed habitats had proportionally more poor mimics and fewer high-fidelity mimics than less disturbed habitats. This supports the hypothesis that habitat change has an effect on model to mimic ratios. PMID:9881474

  9. "Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior": Correction to Dufner et al. (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Reports an error in "Affective contingencies in the affiliative domain: Physiological assessment, associations with the affiliation motive, and prediction of behavior" by Michael Dufner, Ruben C. Arslan, Birk Hagemeyer, Felix D. Schönbrodt and Jaap J. A. Denissen (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 109[4], 662-676). In this article an erroneous statement was made regarding the high cutoff filter for the EMG raw signal. The high cutoff filter reported in Appendix B in the Technical Details of the EMG Recording Procedure section should be 300 Hz. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-37761-001.) According to classical motive disposition theory, individuals differ in their propensity to derive pleasure from affiliative experiences. This propensity is considered a core process underlying the affiliation motive and a pervasive cause of motivated behavior. In this study, we tested these assumptions. We presented participants with positive affiliative stimuli and used electromyography to record changes in facial muscular activity that are indicative of subtle smiling. We were thus able to physiologically measure positive affect following affiliative cues. Individual differences in these affective contingencies were internally consistent and temporally stable. They converged with affiliation motive self- and informant reports and picture story exercise scores, indicating that they are partly accessible to the self, observable to outsiders, and overlap with implicit systems. Finally, they predicted affiliative behavior in terms of situation selection and modification across a wide variety of contexts (i.e., in daily life, the laboratory, and an online social network). These findings corroborate the long-held assumption that affective contingencies represent a motivational core aspect of affiliation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27281355

  10. Family Poverty Affects the Rate of Human Infant Brain Growth

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G.; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  11. Family poverty affects the rate of human infant brain growth.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; Hair, Nicole; Shen, Dinggang G; Shi, Feng; Gilmore, John H; Wolfe, Barbara L; Pollak, Seth D

    2013-01-01

    Living in poverty places children at very high risk for problems across a variety of domains, including schooling, behavioral regulation, and health. Aspects of cognitive functioning, such as information processing, may underlie these kinds of problems. How might poverty affect the brain functions underlying these cognitive processes? Here, we address this question by observing and analyzing repeated measures of brain development of young children between five months and four years of age from economically diverse backgrounds (n = 77). In doing so, we have the opportunity to observe changes in brain growth as children begin to experience the effects of poverty. These children underwent MRI scanning, with subjects completing between 1 and 7 scans longitudinally. Two hundred and three MRI scans were divided into different tissue types using a novel image processing algorithm specifically designed to analyze brain data from young infants. Total gray, white, and cerebral (summation of total gray and white matter) volumes were examined along with volumes of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. Infants from low-income families had lower volumes of gray matter, tissue critical for processing of information and execution of actions. These differences were found for both the frontal and parietal lobes. No differences were detected in white matter, temporal lobe volumes, or occipital lobe volumes. In addition, differences in brain growth were found to vary with socioeconomic status (SES), with children from lower-income households having slower trajectories of growth during infancy and early childhood. Volumetric differences were associated with the emergence of disruptive behavioral problems. PMID:24349025

  12. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  13. Glycolytic pathway affects differentiation of human monocytes to regulatory macrophages.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Chiba, Sayako; Mori, Kiyoto; Kitazume, Mina T; Shimamura, Katsuyoshi; Nakamoto, Nobuhiro; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Ebinuma, Hirotoshi; Naganuma, Makoto; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-08-01

    Cellular metabolic state and individual metabolites have been reported to regulate the functional phenotype of immune cells. Cytokine production by regulatory and inflammatory macrophages is thought to mainly involve fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis, respectively, which fuel mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, the association between metabolic pathways and the acquisition of specific macrophage phenotypes remains unclear. This study assessed the relationship between glycolysis and the differentiation of regulatory macrophages. Human monocytes derived from peripheral blood were cultured in vitro in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor to yield regulatory macrophages (M-Mϕs). M-Mϕs had a regulatory macrophage phenotype and produced substantial IL-10 following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. To analyze the role of glycolysis, glycolysis inhibitors (2-deoxy-d-glucose or dichloroacetate) were added during M-Mϕ differentiation. These cells cultured with glycolysis inhibitors produced significantly lower amounts of IL-10, but produced significantly higher amounts of IL-6 compared to M-Mϕs differentiated without glycolysis inhibitors. Such phenotypic change of M-Mϕs differentiated with glycolysis inhibitors was associated with the alteration of the gene expression pattern related to macrophage differentiation, such as CSF1, MMP9 and VEGFA. M-Mϕs differentiated with glycolysis inhibitors seemed to retain plasticity to become IL-10 producing cells. Furthermore, increased level of pyruvate in culture medium was found to partially reverse the effects of glycolysis inhibitors on cytokine production of M-Mϕs. These results indicate the importance of glycolytic pathway in macrophage differentiation to a regulatory phenotype, and pyruvate may be one of the key metabolites in this process. PMID:27208804

  14. Using stimulation of the diving reflex in humans to teach integrative physiology.

    PubMed

    Choate, Julia K; Denton, Kate M; Evans, Roger G; Hodgson, Yvonne

    2014-12-01

    During underwater submersion, the body responds by conserving O2 and prioritizing blood flow to the brain and heart. These physiological adjustments, which involve the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems, are known as the diving response and provide an ideal example of integrative physiology. The diving reflex can be stimulated in the practical laboratory setting using breath holding and facial immersion in water. Our undergraduate physiology students complete a laboratory class in which they investigate the effects of stimulating the diving reflex on cardiovascular variables, which are recorded and calculated with a Finapres finger cuff. These variables include heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, and arterial pressures (mean, diastolic, and systolic). Components of the diving reflex are stimulated by 1) facial immersion in cold water (15°C), 2) breathing with a snorkel in cold water (15°C), 3) facial immersion in warm water (30°C), and 4) breath holding in air. Statistical analysis of the data generated for each of these four maneuvers allows the students to consider the factors that contribute to the diving response, such as the temperature of the water and the location of the sensory receptors that initiate the response. In addition to providing specific details about the equipment, protocols, and learning outcomes, this report describes how we assess this practical exercise and summarizes some common student misunderstandings of the essential physiological concepts underlying the diving response. PMID:25434020

  15. I Sing the Body Electric: Students Use Computer Simulations To Enhance their Understanding of Human Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Frances

    1998-01-01

    Describes how computer simulations can enhance students' learning of physiology. Discusses how computer models enhance experimentation; using computer modeling in high school science; three steps in students' writing of a simulation; and the value of simulations. Lists six software vendors who offer packages on the PC or Macintosh platforms. (AEF)

  16. Phase II Testing of Liquid Cooling Garments Using a Sweating Manikin, Controlled by a Human Physiological Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather; Trevino, Luis; Bue,Grant; Rugh, John

    2006-01-01

    An Advanced Automotive Manikin (ADAM) developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is used to evaluate NASA's liquid cooling garments (LCGs) used in advanced space suits for extravehicular applications. The manikin has 120 separate heated/sweating zones and is controlled by a finite element physiological model of the human thermoregulatory system. Previous testing showed the thermal sensation and comfort followed the expected trends as the LCG inlet fluid temperature was changed. The Phase II test data demonstrates the repeatability of ADAM by retesting the baseline LCG. Skin and core temperature predictions using ADAM in an LCG/Arctic suit combination are compared to NASA physiological data to validate the manikin/model. Additional LCG configurations are assessed using the manikin and compared to the baseline LCG. Results can extend to other personal protective clothing, including HAZMAT suits, nuclear/biological/chemical protective suits, and fire protection suits.

  17. The Child in the Process: Affecting His Human Potential through LIFE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Vivian A.; Spidal, David A.

    Language materials of the Language Improvement to Facilitate Education (LIFE) Project are described as carefully sequenced curriculum materials which use visuals to educate deaf children in the affective domain. The affective domain is defined as the area of human experiences related to interest, appreciation, attitudes, adjustments and values;…

  18. Physiological responses to prolonged bed rest and fluid immersion in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    For many centuries, physicians have used prolonged rest in bed and immersion in water in the treatment of ailments and disease. Both treatments have positive remedial effects. However, adverse physiological responses become evident when patients return to their normal daily activities. The present investigation is concerned with an analysis of the physiological changes during bed rest and the effects produced by water immersion. It is found that abrupt changes in body position related to bed rest cause acute changes in fluid compartment volumes. Attention is given to fluid shifts and body composition, renal function and diuresis, calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and orthostatic tolerance. In a discussion of water immersion, fluid shifts are considered along with cardiovascular-respiratory responses, renal function, and natriuretic and diuretic factors.

  19. A review of human physiological and performance changes associated with desynchronosis of biological rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Deroshia, C. W.; Markley, C. L.; Holley, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    This review discusses the effects, in the aerospace environment, of alterations in approximately 24-h periodicities (circadian rhythms) upon physiological and psychological functions and possible therapies for desynchronosis induced by such alterations. The consequences of circadian rhythm alteration resulting from shift work, transmeridian flight, or altered day lengths are known as desynchronosis, dysrhythmia, dyschrony, jet lag, or jet syndrome. Considerable attention is focused on the ability to operate jet aircraft and manned space vehicles. The importance of environmental cues, such as light-dark cycles, which influence physiological and psychological rhythms is discussed. A section on mathematical models is presented to enable selection and verification of appropriate preventive and corrective measures and to better understand the problem of dysrhythmia.

  20. System and method for leveraging human physiological traits to control microprocessor frequency

    DOEpatents

    Shye, Alex; Pan, Yan; Scholbrock, Benjamin; Miller, J. Scott; Memik, Gokhan; Dinda, Peter A; Dick, Robert P

    2014-03-25

    A system and method for leveraging physiological traits to control microprocessor frequency are disclosed. In some embodiments, the system and method may optimize, for example, a particular processor-based architecture based on, for example, end user satisfaction. In some embodiments, the system and method may determine, for example, whether their users are satisfied to provide higher efficiency, improved reliability, reduced power consumption, increased security, and a better user experience. The system and method may use, for example, biometric input devices to provide information about a user's physiological traits to a computer system. Biometric input devices may include, for example, one or more of the following: an eye tracker, a galvanic skin response sensor, and/or a force sensor.

  1. Some physiological aspects of artificial gravity. [gravitational effects on human orthostatic tolerance and physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. B.; Graybiel, A.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of increasing artificial gravity exposure on four aspects of physiological fitness are examined in four young men who, prior to exposure, were deconditioned with bed rest and water immersion. The four aspects of physiological fitness are orthostatic tolerance, exercise tolerance, forearm endurance, and maximum strength. Orthostatic tolerance was sharply reduced by deconditioning and was substantially improved by walking in simulated lunar gravity (1/6 g) for 2.5 hours daily for 7 days or by walking in 1/2 g and 1 g for 1 hour daily for 3 days. Exercise tolerance was also sharply reduced by deconditioning but did not significantly improve with increasing g-exposure. Walking in 1 g for 1 hour daily for 3 days raised exercise tolerance only a little above the low produced by deconditioning. Forearm endurance and maximum strength were relatively unaffected by deconditioning and subsequent g-exposure.

  2. Development of a Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetics (PBPK) Model For Dermal Permeability for Lindane

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lindane is a neurotoxicant used for the treatment of lice and scabies present on human skin. Due to its pharmaceutical application, an extensive pharmacokinetic database exists in humans. Mathematical diffusion models allow for calculation of lindane skin permeability coefficient...

  3. Reducing the size of the human physiological blind spot through training.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul A; Wallis, Guy; Bex, Peter J; Arnold, Derek H

    2015-08-31

    The physiological blind spot refers to a zone of functional blindness all normally sighted people have in each eye, due to an absence of photoreceptors where the optic nerve passes through the surface of the retina. Here we report that the functional size of the physiological blind spot can be shrunk through training to distinguish direction signals at the blind spot periphery. Training on twenty successive weekdays improved sensitivity to both direction and colour, suggesting a generalizable benefit. Training on one blind spot, however, did not transfer to the blind spot in the untrained eye, ruling out mediation via a generic practice effect; nor could training benefits be attributed to eye movements, which were monitored to ensure stable fixation. These data suggest that training enhances the response gains of neurons with receptive fields that partially overlap, or abut, the physiological blind spot, thereby enhancing sensitivity to weak signals originating primarily from within the functionally-defined region of blindness [1-3]. Our results have important implications for situations where localised blindness has been acquired through damage to components of the visual system [4,5], and support proposals that these situations might be improved through perceptual training [5-7]. PMID:26325131

  4. The Virtual Physiological Human: The Physiome Project Aims to Develop Reproducible, Multiscale Models for Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Physiome Project was initiated by the International Union of Physiological Sciences (IUPS; www.iups.org) in 1997 to bring multiscale engineering modeling approaches to the physiological interpretation of the wealth of molecular data that was becoming available at that time [1]. The discipline of physiology, which with anatomy underpins medical practice, had lost its traditional central position in the biological sciences (at least from a funding perspective) to molecular biology, despite the very small impact molecular biology has had on the diagnosis and treatment of disease. While diseases and drugs certainly operate at the molecular level, the regulation of genetic transcription and, hence, the expression of proteins (the building blocks of life) are both highly dependent on environmental factors governed by the physical world in which molecular biology operates. Engineering-in particular, the rapidly growing field of bioengineering-is the discipline that has the integrative skills and tools to put the molecular pieces of Humpty Dumpty back together again. PMID:27414633

  5. Human performance and physiological function during a 24-hr exposure to 1% bromotrifluoromethane (Halon 1301)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calkins, D. S.; Degioanni, J. J.; Tan, M. N.; Davis, J. R.; Pierson, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    Performance and physiological measurements were obtained from four pairs of men exposed for 24 hr to 1% (10,000 ppm) Halon 1301 (bromotrifluoromethane, CBrF3) and to air with order counterbalanced using a double-blind protocol. Cognitive and motor performance was assessed before, during, and after the exposures using seven scales of the Automated Portable Testing System, which produced 13 measures of performance. Halon inhalation induced decrements in 2 of the 13 measures, but actual and estimated magnitudes of the decrements were no greater than 5% of baseline values. Physiological data were obtained before, during, and after the exposures from clinical chemistry analyses of blood and urine samples, pulmonary function tests, and monitoring of vital signs. Significant change during Halon inhalation was observed for 6 of the 52 variables assessed; however, all physiological values remained within clinically acceptable limits. No cardiovascular effects were noted. This study demonstrated that exposure to 1% Halon 1301 for 24 hr can produce minor disturbance of central nervous system function as assessed by cognitive tasks.

  6. Passive acoustic monitoring of human physiology during activity indicates health and performance of soldiers and firefighters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Michael V.

    2003-04-01

    The Army Research Laboratory has developed a unique gel-coupled acoustic physiological monitoring sensor that has acoustic impedance properties similar to the skin. This facilitates the transmission of body sounds into the sensor pad, yet significantly repels ambient airborne noises due to an impedance mismatch. The sensor's sensitivity and bandwidth produce excellent signatures for detection and spectral analysis of diverse physiological events. Acoustic signal processing detects heartbeats, breaths, wheezes, coughs, blood pressure, activity, motion, and voice for communication and automatic speech recognition. The health and performance of soldiers, firefighters, and other first responders in strenuous and hazardous environments can be continuously and remotely monitored with body-worn acoustic sensors. Comfortable acoustic sensors can be in a helmet or in a strap around the neck, chest, and wrist. Noise-canceling sensor arrays help remove out-of-phase motion noise and enhance covariant physiology by using two acoustic sensors on the front sides of the neck and two additional acoustic sensors on each wrist. Pulse wave transit time between neck and wrist acoustic sensors will indicate systolic blood pressure. Larger torso-sized arrays can be used to acoustically inspect the lungs and heart, or built into beds for sleep monitoring. Acoustics is an excellent input for sensor fusion.

  7. Human thermoregulatory system state estimation using non-invasive physiological sensors.

    PubMed

    Buller, Mark J; Castellani, John; Roberts, Warren S; Hoyt, Reed W; Jenkins, Odest Chadwicke

    2011-01-01

    Small teams of emergency workers/military can often find themselves engaged in critical, high exertion work conducted under challenging environmental conditions. These types of conditions present thermal work strain challenges which unmitigated can lead to collapse (heat exhaustion) or even death from heat stroke. Physiological measurement of these teams provides a mechanism that could be an effective tool in preventing thermal injury. While indices of thermal work strain have been proposed they suffer from ignoring thermoregulatory context and rely on measuring internal temperature (IT). Measurement of IT in free ranging ambulatory environments is problematic. In this paper we propose a physiology based Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN) model that estimates internal temperature, heat production and heat transfer from observations of heart rate, accelerometry, and skin heat flux. We learn the model's conditional probability distributions from seven volunteers engaged in a 48 hour military field training exercise. We demonstrate that sum of our minute to minute heat production estimates correlate well with total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) measured using the doubly labeled water technique (r(2) = 0.73). We also demonstrate that the DBN is able to infer IT in new datasets to within ±0.5 °C over 85% of the time. Importantly, the additional thermoregulatory context allows critical high IT temperature to be estimated better than previous approaches. We conclude that the DBN approach shows promise in enabling practical real time thermal work strain monitoring applications from physiological monitoring systems that exist today. PMID:22255042

  8. Evidence of 5-HT components in human sperm: implications for protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the physiology of motility

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Trejo, Francisco; Tapia-Rodríguez, Miguel; Cerbón, Marco; Kuhn, Donald M; Manjarrez-Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Mendoza-Rodríguez, C Adriana; Picazo, Ofir

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; C10H12N2O (5-HT)) is produced in the CNS and in some cells of peripheral tissues. In the mammalian male reproductive system, both 5-HT and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) have been described in Leydig cells of the testis and in principal cells of the caput epididymis. In capacitated hamster sperm, it has been shown that 5-HT promotes the acrosomal reaction. The aim of this work was to explore the existence of components of the serotoninergic system and their relevance in human sperm physiology. We used both immunocytochemistry and western blot to detect serotoninergic markers such as 5-HT, TPH1, MAOA, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3, and 5HTT; HPLC for TPH enzymatic activity; Computer Assisted Semen Analysis assays to measure sperm motility parameters and pharmacological approaches to show the effect of 5-HT in sperm motility and tyrosine phosphorylation was assessed by western blot. We found the presence of serotoninergic markers (5-HT, TPH1, MAOA, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, 5-HTT, and TPH enzymatic activity) in human sperm. In addition, we observed a significant increase in tyrosine phosphorylation and changes in sperm motility after 5-HT treatment. In conclusion, our data demonstrate the existence of components of a serotoninergic system in human sperm and support the notion for a functional role of 5-HT in mammalian sperm physiology, which can be modulated pharmacologically. PMID:23028123

  9. Cognitive and physiological responses in humans exposed to a TETRA base station signal in relation to perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Denise; Eltiti, Stacy; Ridgewell, Anna; Garner, Kelly; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Walker, Stuart; Quinlan, Terence; Dudley, Sandra; Maung, Sithu; Deeble, Roger; Fox, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) technology ("Airwave") has led to public concern because of its potential interference with electrical activity in the brain. The present study is the first to examine whether acute exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on cognitive functioning and physiological responses. Participants were exposed to a 420 MHz TETRA signal at a power flux density of 10 mW/m(2) as well as sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions. Fifty-one people who reported a perceived sensitivity to electromagnetic fields as well as 132 controls participated in a double-blind provocation study. Forty-eight sensitive and 132 control participants completed all three sessions. Measures of short-term memory, working memory, and attention were administered while physiological responses (blood volume pulse, heart rate, skin conductance) were monitored. After applying exclusion criteria based on task performance for each aforementioned cognitive measure, data were analyzed for 36, 43, and 48 sensitive participants for these respective tasks and, likewise, 107,125, and 129 controls. We observed no differences in cognitive performance between sham and TETRA exposure in either group; physiological response also did not differ between the exposure conditions. These findings are similar to previous double-blind studies with other mobile phone signals (900-2100 MHz), which could not establish any clear evidence that mobile phone signals affect health or cognitive function. PMID:21647932

  10. Molecular and physiological properties of bacteriophages from North America and Germany affecting the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ina; Lurz, Rudi; Kube, Michael; Quedenau, Claudia; Jelkmann, Wilhelm; Geider, Klaus

    2011-11-01

    For possible control of fire blight affecting apple and pear trees, we characterized Erwinia amylovora phages from North America and Germany. The genome size determined by electron microscopy (EM) was confirmed by sequence data and major coat proteins were identified from gel bands by mass spectroscopy. By their morphology from EM data, φEa1h and φEa100 were assigned to the Podoviridae and φEa104 and φEa116 to the Myoviridae. Host ranges were essentially confined to E. amylovora, strains of the species Erwinia pyrifoliae, E. billingiae and even Pantoea stewartii were partially sensitive. The phages φEa1h and φEa100 were dependent on the amylovoran capsule of E. amylovora, φEa104 and φEa116 were not. The Myoviridae efficiently lysed their hosts and protected apple flowers significantly better than the Podoviridae against E. amylovora and should be preferred in biocontrol experiments. We have also isolated and partially characterized E. amylovora phages from apple orchards in Germany. They belong to the Podoviridae or Myoviridae with a host range similar to the phages isolated in North America. In EM measurements, the genome sizes of the Podoviridae were smaller than the genomes of the Myoviridae from North America and from Germany, which differed from each other in corresponding nucleotide sequences. PMID:21791029

  11. Developmental Exposure to Ethinylestradiol Affects Reproductive Physiology, the GnRH Neuroendocrine Network and Behaviors in Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Martini, Mariangela; Duittoz, Anne H.; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    During development, environmental estrogens are able to induce an estrogen mimetic action that may interfere with endocrine and neuroendocrine systems. The present study investigated the effects on the reproductive function in female mice following developmental exposure to pharmaceutical ethinylestradiol (EE2), the most widespread and potent synthetic steroid present in aquatic environments. EE2 was administrated in drinking water at environmentally relevant (ENVIR) or pharmacological (PHARMACO) doses [0.1 and 1 μg/kg (body weight)/day respectively], from embryonic day 10 until postnatal day 40. Our results show that both groups of EE2-exposed females had advanced vaginal opening and shorter estrus cycles, but a normal fertility rate compared to CONTROL females. The hypothalamic population of GnRH neurons was affected by EE2 exposure with a significant increase in the number of perikarya in the preoptic area of the PHARMACO group and a modification in their distribution in the ENVIR group, both associated with a marked decrease in GnRH fibers immunoreactivity in the median eminence. In EE2-exposed females, behavioral tests highlighted a disturbed maternal behavior, a higher lordosis response, a lack of discrimination between gonad-intact and castrated males in sexually experienced females, and an increased anxiety-related behavior. Altogether, these results put emphasis on the high sensitivity of sexually dimorphic behaviors and neuroendocrine circuits to disruptive effects of EDCs. PMID:26696819

  12. Regulatory physiology discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program is twofold. First, to determine and study how microgravity and associated factors of space flight affect the regulatory mechanisms by which humans adapt and achieve homeostasis and thereby regulate their ability to respond to internal and external signals; and, second, to study selected physiological systems that have been demonstrated to be influenced by gravity. The Regulatory Physiology discipline, as defined here, is composed of seven subdisciplines: (1) Circadian Rhythms, (2) Endocrinology, (3) Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation, (4) Hematology, (5) Immunology, (6) Metabolism and Nutrition, and (7) Temperature Regulation. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the area of regulatory physiology. It covers the research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in regulatory physiology. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  13. Advanced physiological roles of guanidinoacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M

    2015-12-01

    Dietary guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) seems to improve cellular bioenergetics by stimulating creatine biosynthesis. However, GAA could have other biological functions that might affect its possible use as a food ingredient in human nutrition. In this paper, we identified several alternative physiological roles of supplemental GAA, including the stimulation of hormonal release and neuromodulation, an alteration of metabolic utilization of arginine, and an adjustment of oxidant-antioxidant status. A better knowledge of how GAA affects human physiology may facilitate its use as an experimental nutritional intervention for novel purposes and conditions. PMID:26411433

  14. [Human atrial natriuretic peptide: a secretory product of the heart and its significance for physiology and clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Vierhapper, H; Waldhäusl, W

    1987-03-01

    This review deals with the physiological and clinical importance of human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP). This peptide, which is produced by the myocardial cells of the right atrium, induces a diuretic and natriuretic response and has an inhibitory effect on aldosterone secretion. Recent elucidation of the peptide's structure represents the latest achievement in the search for an endogenous, natriuretic and hypotensive substance and has resulted in the publication of much, partly only preliminary data of its role within the homeostatic control of body sodium and water, as well as in various pathological disorders. The extensive literature is reviewed. PMID:2953110

  15. Persistent overexpression of SERCA2a affects bladder functions under physiological conditions, but not in bladder outlet obstruction-induced sub-acute pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Atsushi; Torimoto, Kazumasa; Obata, Koji; Hirayama, Akihide; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Takaki, Miyako

    2014-01-01

    A functional impairment of the bladder and heart in a decompensated state caused by a pressure overload is accompanied by a decrease in the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2). The beneficial effects of SERCA2 overexpression in preserving cardiac functions have been previously reported. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of overexpressed SERCA2 on bladder functions under physiological and pathological conditions using partial bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in SERCA2a transgenic Wistar rats (TG). Bladder cystometry and western blot analysis were performed using the wild-type Wistar rats (WT), TG, and BOO models (WTBOO and TGBOO). Persistent overexpression of SERCA2 induces reduced bladder compliance without hypertrophy in TG. BOO induces reduced bladder compliance and hypertrophy in WT and TG in the sub-acute phase, but persistent overexpression of SERCA2a in TG does not aggravate the bladder compliance and hypertrophy. In conclusion, SERCA2a overexpression affects bladder functions under physiological conditions, but not in BOO-induced sub-acute pathological conditions. PMID:24037709

  16. The Use of Fermented Soybean Meals during Early Phase Affects Subsequent Growth and Physiological Response in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. K.; Kim, T. H.; Lee, S. K.; Chang, K. H.; Cho, S. J.; Lee, K. W.; An, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment was to evaluate the subsequent growth and organ weights, blood profiles and cecal microbiota of broiler chicks fed pre-starter diets containing fermented soybean meal products during early phase. A total of nine hundred 1-d-old chicks were randomly assigned into six groups with six replicates of 25 chicks each. The chicks were fed control pre-starter diet with dehulled soybean meal (SBM) or one of five experimental diets containing fermented SBM products (Bacillus fermented SBM [BF-SBM], yeast by product and Bacillus fermented SBM [YBF-SBM]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 1 [LF-SBM 1]; Lactobacillus fermented SBM 2 [LF-SBM 2]) or soy protein concentrate (SPC) for 7 d after hatching, followed by 4 wk feeding of commercial diets without fermented SBMs or SPC. The fermented SBMs and SPC were substituted at the expense of dehulled SBM at 3% level on fresh weight basis. The body weight (BW) during the starter period was not affected by dietary treatments, but BW at 14 d onwards was significantly higher (p<0.05) in chicks that had been fed BF-SBM and YBF-SBM during the early phase compared with the control group. The feed intake during grower and finisher phases was not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments. During total rearing period, the daily weight gains in six groups were 52.0 (control), 57.7 (BF-SBM), 58.5 (YBF-SBM), 52.0 (LF-SBM 1), 56.7 (LF-SBM 2), and 53.3 g/d (SPC), respectively. The daily weight gain in chicks fed diet containing BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 were significantly higher values (p<0.001) than that of the control group. Chicks fed BF-SBM, YBF-SBM, and LF-SBM 2 had significantly lower (p<0.01) feed conversion ratio compared with the control group. There were no significant differences in the relative weight of various organs and blood profiles among groups. Cecal microbiota was altered by dietary treatments. At 35 d, chicks fed on the pre-starter diets containing BF-SBM and YBF-SBM had significantly increased (p<0

  17. Deficiency in silicon uptake affects cytological, physiological, and biochemical events in the rice--Bipolaris oryzae interaction.

    PubMed

    Dallagnol, Leandro J; Rodrigues, Fabrício A; DaMatta, Fábio M; Mielli, Mateus V B; Pereira, Sandra C

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated how a defect in the active uptake of silicon (Si) affects rice resistance to brown spot. Plants from a rice mutant (low silicon 1 [lsi1]) and its wild-type counterpart (cv. Oochikara), growing in hydroponic culture with (+Si; 2 mM) or without (-Si) Si, were inoculated with Bipolaris oryzae. Si concentration in leaf tissue of cv. Oochikara and the lsi1 mutant increased by 381 and 263%, respectively, for the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. The incubation period was 6 h longer in the presence of Si. The area under brown spot progress curve for plants from cv. Oochikara and the lsi1 mutant was reduced 81 and 50%, respectively, in the presence of Si. The reduced number of brown epidermal cells on leaves from cv. Oochikara and the lsi1 mutant supplied with Si contributed to the lower lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage. The concentration of total soluble phenolics in cv. Oochikara supplied with Si (values of 4.2 to 15.4 μg g(-1) fresh weight) was greater compared with plants not supplied with Si (values of 1.9 to 11.5 μg g(-1) fresh weight). The concentration of lignin was also important to the resistance of cv. Oochikara and the lsi1 mutant. Polyphenoloxidase activity did not contribute to the resistance of cv. Oochikara and the lsi1 mutant to brown spot, regardless of Si supply. Peroxidase and chitinase activities were higher in cv. Oochikara and the lsi1 mutant supplied with Si. These results bring novel evidence of the involvement of Si in a more complex defense mechanism than simply the formation of a physical barrier to avoid or delay fungal penetration. PMID:20879842

  18. Effects of orbital spaceflight on human osteoblastic cell physiology and gene expression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, S. A.; Zhang, M.; Kidder, L. S.; Evans, G. L.; Spelsberg, T. C.; Turner, R. T.

    2000-01-01

    During long-term spaceflight, astronauts lose bone, in part due to a reduction in bone formation. It is not clear, however, whether the force imparted by gravity has direct effects on bone cells. To examine the response of bone forming cells to weightlessness, human fetal osteoblastic (hFOB) cells were cultured during the 17 day STS-80 space shuttle mission. Fractions of conditioned media were collected during flight and shortly after landing for analyses of glucose utilization and accumulation of type I collagen and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). Total cellular RNA was isolated from flight and ground control cultures after landing. Measurement of glucose levels in conditioned media indicated that glucose utilization occurred at a similar rate in flight and ground control cultures. Furthermore, the levels of type I collagen and PGE(2) accumulation in the flight and control conditioned media were indistinguishable. The steady-state levels of osteonectin, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin messenger RNA (mRNA) were not significantly changed following spaceflight. Gene-specific reductions in mRNA levels for cytokines and skeletal growth factors were detected in the flight cultures using RNase protection assays. Steady-state mRNA levels for interleukin (IL)-1alpha and IL-6 were decreased 8 h following the flight and returned to control levels at 24 h postflight. Also, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(2) and TGF-beta(1) message levels were modestly reduced at 8 h and 24 h postflight, although the change was not statistically significant at 8 h. These data suggest that spaceflight did not significantly affect hFOB cell proliferation, expression of type I collagen, or PGE(2) production, further suggesting that the removal of osteoblastic cells from the context of the bone tissue results in a reduced ability to respond to weightlessness. However, spaceflight followed by return to earth significantly impacted the expression of cytokines and skeletal growth factors

  19. Accelerated generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells with retroviral transduction and chemical inhibitors under physiological hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Nakada, Akira; Shigeno, Keiji; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2012-01-13

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by the forced expression of a defined set of pluripotency-associated transcription factors. Human iPS cells can be propagated indefinitely, while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into all cell types in the body except for extra-embryonic tissues. This technology not only represents a new way to use individual-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine but also constitutes a novel method to obtain large amounts of disease-specific cells for biomedical research. Despite their great potential, the long reprogramming process (up to 1month) remains one of the most significant challenges facing standard virus-mediated methodology. In this study, we report the accelerated generation of human iPS cells from adipose-derived stem (ADS) cells, using a new combination of chemical inhibitors under a setting of physiological hypoxia in conjunction with retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and L-Myc. Under optimized conditions, we observed human embryonic stem (ES)-like cells as early as 6 days after the initial retroviral transduction. This was followed by the emergence of fully reprogrammed cells bearing Tra-1-81-positive and DsRed transgene-silencing properties on day 10. The resulting cell lines resembled human ES cells in many respects including proliferation rate, morphology, pluripotency-associated markers, global gene expression patterns, genome-wide DNA methylation states, and the ability to differentiate into all three of the germ layers, both in vitro and in vivo. Our method, when combined with chemical inhibitors under conditions of physiological hypoxia, offers a powerful tool for rapidly generating bona fide human iPS cells and facilitates the application of iPS cell technology to biomedical research. PMID:22172948

  20. Human Physiological Responses to Cycle Ergometer Leg Exercise During +Gz Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, J. L.; Stad, N. J.; Barnes, P. R.; Leftheriotis, G. P. N.; Arndt, N. F.; Simonson, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    Spaceflight and bed-rest deconditioning decrease maximal oxygen uptake (aerobic power), strength, endurance capacity, and orthostatic tolerance. In addition to extensive use of muscular exercise conditioning as a countermeasure for the reduction in aerobic power (VO(sub 2max)), stimuli from some form of +Gz acceleration conditioning may be necessary to attenuate the orthostatic intolerance component of this deconditioning. Hypothesis: There will be no significant difference in the physiological responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  1. Insights into human colonic physiology obtained from the study of flatus composition.

    PubMed

    Suarez, F; Furne, J; Springfield, J; Levitt, M

    1997-05-01

    To better understand the physiology of colonic gas production, each flatus passage of 16 subjects over a 4-h period was analyzed by gas chromatography for N2, O2, H2, CO2, CH4, and for odoriferous sulfur-containing gases. Appreciable intraindividual and enormous interindividual variability was observed, indicating that each gas passage reflected the interaction of highly variable liberation and/or removal mechanisms. The predominant flatus gas was CO2, H2, and N2 in seven, six, and three subjects, respectively. Gases produced intraluminally (H2, CO2, and CH4) comprised approximately 74% of flatus, and rapid CO2 and H2 productions were responsible for high passage rates. A positive correlation between flatus H2 and CO2 suggested that CO2, like H2, mainly was a bacterial product. Whereas methanogens and H2S-producing bacteria usually are mutually exclusive in feces, CH4 and H2S did not negatively correlate, indicating coexistence of both organisms in the colon. We conclude that analysis of flatus composition provides a novel means of assessing colonic physiology, particularly ongoing bacterial metabolism throughout the unperturbed colon. PMID:9176210

  2. Physiological properties of retinal Muller glial cells from the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis--a comparison to human Muller cells.

    PubMed

    Pannicke, Thomas; Biedermann, Bernd; Uckermann, Ortrud; Weick, Michael; Bringmann, Andreas; Wolf, Sebastian; Wiedemann, Peter; Habermann, Gunnar; Buse, Eberhard; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2005-06-01

    Retinae from rabbits and laboratory rodents are often used as 'models' of the human retina, although there are anatomical differences. To test whether monkey eyes provide a better model, a physiological study of Muller glial cells was performed comparing isolated cells and retinal wholemounts from the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca fascicularis and from man. The membrane conductance of Muller cells from both species was dominated by inward and outward K(+) currents. Cells displayed glutamate uptake currents and responded to nucleotides by intracellular Ca(2+) increases. However, there were also species differences, such as a lack of GABA(A) receptors and of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) currents in monkey cells. Thus, the use of Muller cells from cynomolgus monkeys may be advantageous for investigating a few specific properties; in general, monkey cells are no more similar to human cells than those from standard laboratory animals. PMID:15797768

  3. Development of a Physiologically Based Model to Describe the Pharmacokinetics of Methylphenidate in Juvenile and Adult Humans and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Morris, Suzanne M.; Gearhart, Jeffery M.; Ruark, Christopher D.; Paule, Merle G.; Slikker, William; Mattison, Donald R.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Young, John F.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread usage of methylphenidate (MPH) in the pediatric population has received considerable attention due to its potential effect on child development. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has been developed in juvenile and adult humans and nonhuman primates to quantitatively evaluate species- and age-dependent enantiomer specific pharmacokinetics of MPH and its primary metabolite ritalinic acid. The PBPK model was first calibrated in adult humans using in vitro enzyme kinetic data of MPH enantiomers, together with plasma and urine pharmacokinetic data with MPH in adult humans. Metabolism of MPH in the small intestine was assumed to account for the low oral bioavailability of MPH. Due to lack of information, model development for children and juvenile and adult nonhuman primates primarily relied on intra- and interspecies extrapolation using allometric scaling. The juvenile monkeys appear to metabolize MPH more rapidly than adult monkeys and humans, both adults and children. Model prediction performance is comparable between juvenile monkeys and children, with average root mean squared error values of 4.1 and 2.1, providing scientific basis for interspecies extrapolation of toxicity findings. Model estimated human equivalent doses in children that achieve similar internal dose metrics to those associated with pubertal delays in juvenile monkeys were found to be close to the therapeutic doses of MPH used in pediatric patients. This computational analysis suggests that continued pharmacovigilance assessment is prudent for the safe use of MPH. PMID:25184666

  4. Development of a physiologically based model to describe the pharmacokinetics of methylphenidate in juvenile and adult humans and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Morris, Suzanne M; Gearhart, Jeffery M; Ruark, Christopher D; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Mattison, Donald R; Vitiello, Benedetto; Twaddle, Nathan C; Doerge, Daniel R; Young, John F; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    The widespread usage of methylphenidate (MPH) in the pediatric population has received considerable attention due to its potential effect on child development. For the first time a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model has been developed in juvenile and adult humans and nonhuman primates to quantitatively evaluate species- and age-dependent enantiomer specific pharmacokinetics of MPH and its primary metabolite ritalinic acid. The PBPK model was first calibrated in adult humans using in vitro enzyme kinetic data of MPH enantiomers, together with plasma and urine pharmacokinetic data with MPH in adult humans. Metabolism of MPH in the small intestine was assumed to account for the low oral bioavailability of MPH. Due to lack of information, model development for children and juvenile and adult nonhuman primates primarily relied on intra- and interspecies extrapolation using allometric scaling. The juvenile monkeys appear to metabolize MPH more rapidly than adult monkeys and humans, both adults and children. Model prediction performance is comparable between juvenile monkeys and children, with average root mean squared error values of 4.1 and 2.1, providing scientific basis for interspecies extrapolation of toxicity findings. Model estimated human equivalent doses in children that achieve similar internal dose metrics to those associated with pubertal delays in juvenile monkeys were found to be close to the therapeutic doses of MPH used in pediatric patients. This computational analysis suggests that continued pharmacovigilance assessment is prudent for the safe use of MPH. PMID:25184666

  5. Differentiation of human adipocytes at physiological oxygen levels results in increased adiponectin secretion and isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Famulla, Susanne; Schlich, Raphaela; Sell, Henrike; Eckel, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) hypoxia occurs in obese humans and mice. Acute hypoxia in adipocytes causes dysregulation of adipokine secretion with an increase in inflammatory factors and diminished adiponectin release. O2 levels in humans range between 3 and 11% revealing that conventional in vitro culturing at ambient air and acute hypoxia treatment (1% O2) are performed under non-physiological conditions. In this study, we mimicked physiological conditions by differentiating human primary adipocytes under 10% or 5% O2 in comparison to 21% O2. Induction of differentiation markers was comparable between all three conditions. Adipokine release by adipocytes differentiated at lower oxygen levels was altered, with a marked upregulation of adiponectin, IL-6 and DPP4 secretion, and reduced leptin levels compared with adipocytes differentiated at 21% O2. Isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly elevated in adipocytes differentiated at 10% and 5% compared with 21% O2. This effect was accompanied by increased protein expression of β-1 and -2 adrenergic receptor, HSL and perilipin. Conditioned medium (CM) of adipocytes differentiated at the three different conditions was generated for stimulation of human skeletal muscle cells (SkMC) or smooth muscle cells (SMC). CM-induced insulin resistance in SkMC was comparable for the different CMs. However, the SMC proliferative effect of CM from adipocytes differentiated at 10% O2 was significantly reduced compared with 21% O2. This study demonstrates that oxygen levels during adipogenesis are important factors altering adipocyte functionality such as adipokine release, in particular adiponectin secretion, as well as the hormone-induced lipolytic pathway. PMID:23700522

  6. Physiological Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Human Pregnancy: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity to acute stress are important predictors of health outcomes in non-pregnant populations. Greater magnitude and duration of physiological responses have been associated with increased risk of hypertensive disorders and diabetes, greater susceptibility to infectious illnesses, suppression of cell-mediated immunity as well as risk for depression and anxiety disorders. Stress reactivity during pregnancy has unique implications for maternal health, birth outcomes, and fetal development. However, as compared to the larger literature, our understanding of the predictors and consequences of exaggerated stress reactivity in pregnancy is limited. This paper reviews the current state of this literature with an emphasis on gaps in knowledge and future directions. PMID:22800930

  7. A 3D Toolbox to Enhance Physiological Relevance of Human Tissue Models.

    PubMed

    Picollet-D'hahan, Nathalie; Dolega, Monika E; Liguori, Lavinia; Marquette, Christophe; Le Gac, Séverine; Gidrol, Xavier; Martin, Donald K

    2016-09-01

    We discuss the current challenges and future prospects of flow-based organoid models and 3D self-assembling scaffolds. The existing paradigm of 3D culture suffers from a lack of control over organoid size and shape; can be an obstacle for cell harvesting and extended cellular and molecular analysis; and does not provide access to the function of exocrine glands. Moreover, existing organ-on-chip models are mostly composed of 2D extracellular matrix (ECM)-coated elastomeric membranes that do not mimic real organ architectures. A new comprehensive 3D toolbox for cell biology has emerged to address some of these issues. Advances in microfabrication and cell-culturing approaches enable the engineering of sophisticated models that mimic organ 3D architectures and physiological conditions, while supporting flow-based drug screening and secretomics-based diagnosis. PMID:27497676

  8. Weather and Death on Mount Everest: Is there a link between Storms and Human Physiology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, K.; Semple, J.

    2004-05-01

    Scientific interest in Mount Everest has been largely focused on the hypoxia caused by the summit's low barometric pressure. Although weather is recognized as a significant risk factor, it has not been extensively studied. Through the use of observations made at the mountain's South Col, elevation 7986m, and other datasets, we show that high impact weather events on Mount Everest, including the May 1996 storm in which 8 climbers perished, are often associated with continental-scale intrusions of stratospheric air into the upper-troposphere. The variability in wind speeds associated with these intrusions triggered convective activity that resulted in the high impact weather. In addition, the validation of existing meteorological data allows for useful insights into the possibility of forecasting these high impact weather events and their physiological impacts thereby mitigating deaths that occur on the exposed upper slopes of Mount Everest.

  9. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of hydrogen cyanide levels in human breath.

    PubMed

    Stamyr, Kristin; Mörk, Anna-Karin; Johanson, Gunnar

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a potent and fast-acting toxin increasingly recognized as an important cause of death in fire victims. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of cyanide poisoning are essential to avoid fatalities. Unfortunately, there are at present few rapid diagnostic methods. A noninvasive methodology would be to use HCN in exhaled air as a marker for systemic exposure. To explore this possibility, we developed a preliminary physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The model suggests that breath HCN levels following inhalation exposure at near-lethal and lethal conditions are 0.1-1 ppm, i.e., one to two orders of magnitude higher than the background breath level of about 0.01 ppm in unexposed subjects. Hence, our results imply that breath analysis may be used as a rapid diagnostic method for cyanide poisoning. PMID:25069802

  10. Human physiological problems in zero gravity - An attempt at understanding through systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. J.; Croston, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    When the experimental situation is that of man exposed to a gravitationless environment for varying periods of time, the possible importance and value of a related modeling effort is readily apparent. One of the main objectives of the Skylab Program, with its missions of 28, 59, and 85 day duration concerned biomedical investigations of various types, and large amounts of relevant experimental data have been gathered and are in the process of being sorted and interpreted. In order to be of eventual usefulness in forming and testing consistent physiological hypotheses concerning the effect of zero gravity on man, a modeling effort was established in 1972 through the General Electric Company, Space Division, Houston, Texas. An account is given of some of the developments completed or in progress as part of this modeling effort. A long-term cardiovascular model and a large model of the systemic circulation are discussed.

  11. Outdoor thermal physiology along human pathways: a study using a wearable measurement system.

    PubMed

    Nakayoshi, Makoto; Kanda, Manabu; Shi, Rui; de Dear, Richard

    2015-05-01

    An outdoor summer study on thermal physiology along subjects' pathways was conducted in a Japanese city using a unique wearable measurement system that measures all the relevant thermal variables: ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed (U) and short/long-wave radiation (S and L), along with some physio-psychological parameters: skin temperature (T skin), pulse rate, subjective thermal sensation and state of body motion. U, S and L were measured using a globe anemo-radiometer adapted use with pedestrian subjects. The subjects were 26 healthy Japanese adults (14 males, 12 females) ranging from 23 to 74 years in age. Each subject wore a set of instruments that recorded individual microclimate and physiological responses along a designated pedestrian route that traversed various urban textures. The subjects experienced varying thermal environments that could not be represented by fixed-point routine observational data. S fluctuated significantly reflecting the mixture of sunlit/shade distributions within complex urban morphology. U was generally low within urban canyons due to drag by urban obstacles such as buildings but the subjects' movements enhanced convective heat exchanges with the atmosphere, leading to a drop in T skin. The amount of sweating increased as standard effective temperature (SET*) increased. A clear dependence of sweating on gender and body size was found; males sweated more than females; overweight subjects sweated more than standard/underweight subjects. T skin had a linear relationship with SET* and a similarly clear dependence on gender and body size differences. T skin of the higher-sweating groups was lower than that of the lower-sweating groups, reflecting differences in evaporative cooling by perspiration. PMID:25011423

  12. Outdoor thermal physiology along human pathways: a study using a wearable measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayoshi, Makoto; Kanda, Manabu; Shi, Rui; de Dear, Richard

    2015-05-01

    An outdoor summer study on thermal physiology along subjects' pathways was conducted in a Japanese city using a unique wearable measurement system that measures all the relevant thermal variables: ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed ( U) and short/long-wave radiation ( S and L), along with some physio-psychological parameters: skin temperature ( T skin), pulse rate, subjective thermal sensation and state of body motion. U, S and L were measured using a globe anemo-radiometer adapted use with pedestrian subjects. The subjects were 26 healthy Japanese adults (14 males, 12 females) ranging from 23 to 74 years in age. Each subject wore a set of instruments that recorded individual microclimate and physiological responses along a designated pedestrian route that traversed various urban textures. The subjects experienced varying thermal environments that could not be represented by fixed-point routine observational data. S fluctuated significantly reflecting the mixture of sunlit/shade distributions within complex urban morphology. U was generally low within urban canyons due to drag by urban obstacles such as buildings but the subjects' movements enhanced convective heat exchanges with the atmosphere, leading to a drop in T skin. The amount of sweating increased as standard effective temperature (SET*) increased. A clear dependence of sweating on gender and body size was found; males sweated more than females; overweight subjects sweated more than standard/underweight subjects. T skin had a linear relationship with SET* and a similarly clear dependence on gender and body size differences. T skin of the higher-sweating groups was lower than that of the lower-sweating groups, reflecting differences in evaporative cooling by perspiration.

  13. On the role of numerical simulations in studies of reduced gravity-induced physiological effects in humans. Results from NELME.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Poch, Antoni

    Computer simulations are becoming a promising research line of work, as physiological models become more and more sophisticated and reliable. Technological advances in state-of-the-art hardware technology and software allow nowadays for better and more accurate simulations of complex phenomena, such as the response of the human cardiovascular system to long-term exposure to microgravity. Experimental data for long-term missions are difficult to achieve and reproduce, therefore the predictions of computer simulations are of a major importance in this field. Our approach is based on a previous model developed and implemented in our laboratory (NELME: Numercial Evaluation of Long-term Microgravity Effects). The software simulates the behaviour of the cardiovascular system and different human organs, has a modular archi-tecture, and allows to introduce perturbations such as physical exercise or countermeasures. The implementation is based on a complex electrical-like model of this control system, using inexpensive development frameworks, and has been tested and validated with the available experimental data. The objective of this work is to analyse and simulate long-term effects and gender differences when individuals are exposed to long-term microgravity. Risk probability of a health impairement which may put in jeopardy a long-term mission is also evaluated. . Gender differences have been implemented for this specific work, as an adjustment of a number of parameters that are included in the model. Women versus men physiological differences have been therefore taken into account, based upon estimations from the physiology bibliography. A number of simulations have been carried out for long-term exposure to microgravity. Gravity varying continuosly from Earth-based to zero, and time exposure are the two main variables involved in the construction of results, including responses to patterns of physical aerobic ex-ercise and thermal stress simulating an extra

  14. Human and nature-caused hazards: the affect heuristic causes biased decisions.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Sütterlin, Bernadette

    2014-08-01

    People are more concerned about the negative consequences of human hazards compared with natural hazards. Results of four experiments show that the same negative outcome (e.g., number of birds killed by an oil spill) was more negatively evaluated when caused by humans than when caused by nature. Results further show that when identical risk information was provided, participants evaluated nuclear power more negatively compared with solar power. The affect associated with the hazard per se influenced the interpretation of the new information. Furthermore, the affect experienced in the situation fully mediated the evaluation of the negative outcomes of a hazard. People's reliance on the affect heuristic is a challenge for acceptance of cost-benefit analyses because equally negative outcomes are differently evaluated depending on the cause. Symbolically significant information and the affect evoked by this information may result in biased and riskier decisions. PMID:24576178

  15. Examining dog-human play: the characteristics, affect, and vocalizations of a unique interspecific interaction.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Alexandra; Hecht, Julie

    2016-07-01

    Despite the growing interest in research on the interaction between humans and dogs, only a very few research projects focus on the routines between dogs and their owners. In this study, we investigated one such routine: dog-human play. Dyadic interspecific play is known to be a common interaction between owner and charge, but the details of what counts as play have not been thoroughly researched. Similarly, though people represent that "play" is pleasurable, no study has yet undertaken to determine whether different forms of play are associated with different affective states. Thus, we aimed to generate an inventory of the forms of dyadic play, the vocalizations within play, and to investigate the relationship of affect to elements of play. Via a global citizen science project, we solicited videotapes of dog-human play sessions from dog owners. We coded 187 play bouts via frame-by-frame video playback. We then assessed the relationship between various intra-bout variables and owner affect (positive or neutral) during play (dog affect was overwhelmingly positive). Amount of physical contact ("touch"), level of activity of owner ("movement"), and physical closeness of dog-owner dyad ("proximity") were highly correlated with positive affect. Owner vocalizations were found to contain different elements in positive- and neutral-affect play. One novel category of play, "tease", was found. We conclude that not all play is created equal: the experience of play to the owner participant is strongly related to a few identifiable characteristics of the interaction. PMID:27003698

  16. Accelerated generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells with retroviral transduction and chemical inhibitors under physiological hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Nakada, Akira; Shigeno, Keiji; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very rapid generation of human iPS cells under optimized conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five chemical inhibitors under hypoxia boosted reprogramming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. -- Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by the forced expression of a defined set of pluripotency-associated transcription factors. Human iPS cells can be propagated indefinitely, while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into all cell types in the body except for extra-embryonic tissues. This technology not only represents a new way to use individual-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine but also constitutes a novel method to obtain large amounts of disease-specific cells for biomedical research. Despite their great potential, the long reprogramming process (up to 1 month) remains one of the most significant challenges facing standard virus-mediated methodology. In this study, we report the accelerated generation of human iPS cells from adipose-derived stem (ADS) cells, using a new combination of chemical inhibitors under a setting of physiological hypoxia in conjunction with retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and L-Myc. Under optimized conditions, we observed human embryonic stem (ES)-like cells as early as 6 days after the initial retroviral transduction. This was followed by the emergence of fully reprogrammed cells bearing Tra-1-81-positive and DsRed transgene-silencing properties on day 10. The resulting cell lines resembled human ES cells in many respects including proliferation rate, morphology, pluripotency-associated markers, global gene expression patterns, genome-wide DNA methylation states, and the ability to differentiate into all three of the germ layers, both in vitro and in vivo. Our method, when combined with chemical inhibitors under conditions of physiological hypoxia, offers a powerful tool for rapidly

  17. Revisiting chronodisruption: when the physiological nexus between internal and external times splits in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erren, Thomas C.; Reiter, Russel J.

    2013-04-01

    In this Concepts & Synthesis paper, we expand the definition of chronodisruption in humans by proposing that it can be operationalized as the split nexus of internal and external times. With this premise, we suggest how chronotype may be used as a temporal marker (chronomarker) of exposure to chronodisruption in studies of cancer, and beyond, offer cancer risk predictions for observational research on the basis of a chronotype-related hypothesis and corollary, and point to first empirical data in humans. In an a priori way, we examine possible outcomes and perspectives for preventive measures following from our rationale and the suggested chronobiology-driven studies and close with overall advances of chronodisruption research.

  18. Verification of impact of morning showering and mist sauna bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency during the day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soomin; Fujimura, Hiroko; Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Katsuura, Tetsuo

    2015-09-01

    Recently, a growing number in Japan are switching to taking baths in the morning (morning bathing). However, the effects of the morning bathing on human physiological functions and work efficiency have not yet been revealed. Then, we hypothesized that the effect of morning bathing on physiological functions would be different from those of night bathing. In this study, we measured the physiological functions and work efficiency during the day following the morning bathing (7:10-7:20) including showering, mist sauna bathing, and no bathing as a control. Ten male healthy young adults participated in this study as the subjects. We evaluated the rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperature (Tsk), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), the relative power density of the alpha wave (α-wave ratio) of electroencephalogram, alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC), and the error rate of the task performance. As a result, we found that the HR after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing rest 3 (11:00). Furthermore, we verified that the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly lower than those after no bathing during the task 6 (15:00). On the other hand, the α-wave ratio of the Pz after the mist sauna bathing was significantly higher than those after showering during the rest 3 (11:00). Tsk after the mist sauna bathing was higher than those after the showering at 9:00 and 15:00. In addition, the error rate of the task performance after the mist sauna bathing was lower than those after no bathing and showering at 14:00. This study concludes that a morning mist sauna is safe and maintains both skin temperature compared to other bathing methods. Moreover, it is presumed that the morning mist sauna bathing improves work efficiency comparing other bathing methods during the task period of the day following the morning bathing.

  19. A study of student perceptions of learning transfer from a human anatomy and physiology course in an allied health program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrell, Leigh S.

    The purpose of this study was two-fold. First the study was designed to determine student perceptions regarding the perceived degree of original learning from a human anatomy and physiology course, and the student perception of the use of the knowledge in an allied health program. Second, the intention of the study was to establish student beliefs on the characteristics of the transfer of learning including those factors which enhance learning transfer and those that serve as barriers to learning transfer. The study participants were those students enrolled in any allied health program at a community college in a Midwest state, including: nursing, radiology, surgical technology, health information technology, and paramedic. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed from the responses to the survey. A sub-group of participants were chosen to participate in semi-structured formal interviews. From the interviews, additional qualitative data were gathered. The data collected through the study demonstrated student perception of successful transfer experiences. The students in the study were able to provide specific examples of learning transfer experienced from the human anatomy and physiology course in their allied health program. Findings also suggested students who earned higher grades in the human anatomy and physiology course perceived greater understanding and greater use of the course's learning objectives in their allied health program. The study found the students believed the following learning activities enhances the transfer of learning: (1) Providing application of the information or skills being learned during the instruction of the course content enhances the transfer of learning. (2) Providing resource materials and activities which allow the students to practice the content being taught facilitates the transfer of learning. The students made the following recommendations to remove barriers to the transfer of learning: (1

  20. Marijuana-laced brownies: behavioral effects, physiologic effects, and urinalysis in humans following ingestion.

    PubMed

    Cone, E J; Johnson, R E; Paul, B D; Mell, L D; Mitchell, J

    1988-01-01

    Five drug-free male subjects ingested marijuana-laced brownies in a double-blind crossover study designed to test for behavioral effects, physiologic effects, and urinary cannabinoid metabolites produced as a result of consumption of marijuana plant material cooked in foodstuff. On three separate occasions, each subject consumed two brownies which contained 1.6 g of marijuana plant material. Placebo marijuana plant material (0% THC) was mixed with marijuana plant material (2.8% THC) so that each subject ingested equivalent marijuana plant material of 0, 1, and 2 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% THC). Subjects scored significantly higher on behavioral measures after consumption of brownies containing THC than with placebo; however, the effects were slow to appear and variable. Peak effects occurred 2.5 to 3.5 h after dosing. Modest changes in pulse and blood pressure also were noted. Urinalyses by EMIT d.a.u. assay and Abuscreen RIA for cannabinoids and GC/MS assay for THCCOOH indicated that substantial amounts of marijuana-related metabolites were excreted over a period of 3 to 14 days. No positives were produced as a result of ingestion of placebo brownies. PMID:3184885

  1. Biomechanics of red blood cells in human spleen and consequences for physiology and disease

    PubMed Central

    Pivkin, Igor V.; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George E.; Buffet, Pierre A.; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) can be cleared from circulation when alterations in their size, shape, and deformability are detected. This function is modulated by the spleen-specific structure of the interendothelial slit (IES). Here, we present a unique physiological framework for development of prognostic markers in RBC diseases by quantifying biophysical limits for RBCs to pass through the IES, using computational simulations based on dissipative particle dynamics. The results show that the spleen selects RBCs for continued circulation based on their geometry, consistent with prior in vivo observations. A companion analysis provides critical bounds relating surface area and volume for healthy RBCs beyond which the RBCs fail the “physical fitness test” to pass through the IES, supporting independent experiments. Our results suggest that the spleen plays an important role in determining distributions of size and shape of healthy RBCs. Because mechanical retention of infected RBC impacts malaria pathogenesis, we studied key biophysical parameters for RBCs infected with Plasmodium falciparum as they cross the IES. In agreement with experimental results, surface area loss of an infected RBC is found to be a more important determinant of splenic retention than its membrane stiffness. The simulations provide insights into the effects of pressure gradient across the IES on RBC retention. By providing quantitative biophysical limits for RBCs to pass through the IES, the narrowest circulatory bottleneck in the spleen, our results offer a broad approach for developing quantitative markers for diseases such as hereditary spherocytosis, thalassemia, and malaria. PMID:27354532

  2. Human Serum Albumin Increases the Stability of Green Tea Catechins in Aqueous Physiological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zinellu, Angelo; Sotgia, Salvatore; Scanu, Bastianina; Forteschi, Mauro; Giordo, Roberta; Cossu, Annalisa; Posadino, Anna Maria; Carru, Ciriaco; Pintus, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechingallate (ECG) and epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) are antioxidants present in the green tea, a widely used beverage whose health benefits are largely recognized. Nevertheless, major physicochemical limitations, such as the high instability of catechins, pose important questions concerning their potential pharmacological use. Recent studies indicate that binding of catechins with plasmatic proteins may modulate their plasma concentration, tissue delivery and biological activity. After 5 minutes of incubation with HSA both ECG and EGCG were fully bound to HSA, while after 48h incubation only 41% of EC and 70% of EGC resulted linked. HSA had a strong stabilizing effect on all catechins, which could be found in solution between 29 and 85% even after 48h of incubation. In the absence of HSA, EGC and EGCG disappeared in less than 24h, while ECG and EC were found after 48h at 5 and 50%, respectively. The stabilizing effect of HSA toward EGCG, obtained in aqueous physiological conditions, resulted stronger in comparison to cysteine and HCl, previously reported to stabilize this polyphenol. Because of the multitude of contradictory data concerning in vivo and in vitro antioxidant-based experimentations, we believe our work may shed some light on this debated field of research. PMID:26230943

  3. Chemoreflex Physiology and Implications for Sleep Apnea – Insights from Studies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Mansukhani, Meghna P.; Wang, Shihan; Somers, Virend K.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of the chemoreflex in response to hypoxemia results in an increase in sympathetic neural outflow. This process is predominantly mediated by the peripheral chemoreceptors in the carotid bodies and is potentiated by the absence of the sympatho-inhibitory influence of ventilation during apnea, as is seen in patients with sleep apnea. In these patients, repetitive nocturnal hyoxemia and apnea elicit sympathetic activation, which may persist into wakefulness, and is thought to contribute to the development of systemic hypertension, and cardiac and vascular dysfunction. Chemoreflex activation could possibly lead to adverse cardiovascular outcomes such as nocturnal myocardial infarction, systolic and/or diastolic heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death in patients with sleep apnea. This review summarizes chemoreflex physiology in health and disease, with specific focus on chemoreflex-mediated pathophysiology in obstructive and central sleep apnea. Measurement of the chemoreflex response may serve as a potential avenue for individualized screening for cardiovascular disease. Whether modulation of this response in sleep apnea may aid in the prevention and treatment of adverse cardiovascular consequences will require further study. PMID:25398715

  4. Human Serum Albumin Increases the Stability of Green Tea Catechins in Aqueous Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zinellu, Angelo; Sotgia, Salvatore; Scanu, Bastianina; Forteschi, Mauro; Giordo, Roberta; Cossu, Annalisa; Posadino, Anna Maria; Carru, Ciriaco; Pintus, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechingallate (ECG) and epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) are antioxidants present in the green tea, a widely used beverage whose health benefits are largely recognized. Nevertheless, major physicochemical limitations, such as the high instability of catechins, pose important questions concerning their potential pharmacological use. Recent studies indicate that binding of catechins with plasmatic proteins may modulate their plasma concentration, tissue delivery and biological activity. After 5 minutes of incubation with HSA both ECG and EGCG were fully bound to HSA, while after 48h incubation only 41% of EC and 70% of EGC resulted linked. HSA had a strong stabilizing effect on all catechins, which could be found in solution between 29 and 85% even after 48h of incubation. In the absence of HSA, EGC and EGCG disappeared in less than 24h, while ECG and EC were found after 48h at 5 and 50%, respectively. The stabilizing effect of HSA toward EGCG, obtained in aqueous physiological conditions, resulted stronger in comparison to cysteine and HCl, previously reported to stabilize this polyphenol. Because of the multitude of contradictory data concerning in vivo and in vitro antioxidant-based experimentations, we believe our work may shed some light on this debated field of research. PMID:26230943

  5. Biomechanics of red blood cells in human spleen and consequences for physiology and disease.

    PubMed

    Pivkin, Igor V; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George E; Buffet, Pierre A; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2016-07-12

    Red blood cells (RBCs) can be cleared from circulation when alterations in their size, shape, and deformability are detected. This function is modulated by the spleen-specific structure of the interendothelial slit (IES). Here, we present a unique physiological framework for development of prognostic markers in RBC diseases by quantifying biophysical limits for RBCs to pass through the IES, using computational simulations based on dissipative particle dynamics. The results show that the spleen selects RBCs for continued circulation based on their geometry, consistent with prior in vivo observations. A companion analysis provides critical bounds relating surface area and volume for healthy RBCs beyond which the RBCs fail the "physical fitness test" to pass through the IES, supporting independent experiments. Our results suggest that the spleen plays an important role in determining distributions of size and shape of healthy RBCs. Because mechanical retention of infected RBC impacts malaria pathogenesis, we studied key biophysical parameters for RBCs infected with Plasmodium falciparum as they cross the IES. In agreement with experimental results, surface area loss of an infected RBC is found to be a more important determinant of splenic retention than its membrane stiffness. The simulations provide insights into the effects of pressure gradient across the IES on RBC retention. By providing quantitative biophysical limits for RBCs to pass through the IES, the narrowest circulatory bottleneck in the spleen, our results offer a broad approach for developing quantitative markers for diseases such as hereditary spherocytosis, thalassemia, and malaria. PMID:27354532

  6. The resonant component of human physiological hand tremor is altered by slow voluntary movements

    PubMed Central

    Lakie, Martin; Vernooij, Carlijn A; Osborne, Timothy M; Reynolds, Raymond F

    2012-01-01

    Limb resonance imparts a characteristic spectrum to hand tremor. Movement will alter the resonance. We have examined the consequences of this change. Rectified forearm extensor muscle EMG and physiological hand tremor were recorded. In postural conditions the EMG spectrum is relatively flat whereas the acceleration spectrum is sharply peaked. Consequently, the gain between EMG and acceleration is maximal at the frequency where the tremor is largest (∼8 Hz). The shape of the gain curve implies mechanical resonance. Substantial alterations in posture do not significantly change the characteristics of the tremor or the shape or size of the gain curve. By contrast, slow or moderately paced voluntary wrist flexion–extension movements dramatically increase the hand tremor size and lower its peak frequency. These changes in size and frequency of the tremor cannot be attributed to changes in the EMG. Instead they reflect a very large change in the size and shape of the gain curve relating EMG to acceleration. The gain becomes larger and the peak moves to a lower frequency (∼6 Hz). We suggest that a movement-related (thixotropic) alteration in resonant properties of the wrist provides a simple explanation for these changes. The mechanism is illustrated by a model. Our new findings confirm that resonance plays a major role in wrist tremor. We also demonstrate that muscles operate very differently under postural and dynamic conditions. The different coupling between EMG and movement in posture and when moving must pose a considerable challenge for neural predictive control of skeletal muscles. PMID:22431335

  7. Prediction modeling of physiological responses and human performance in the heat with application to space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Stroschein, Leander A.; Gonzalez, Richard R.; Sawka, Michael N.

    1994-01-01

    This institute has developed a comprehensive USARIEM heat strain model for predicting physiological responses and soldier performance in the heat which has been programmed for use by hand-held calculators, personal computers, and incorporated into the development of a heat strain decision aid. This model deals directly with five major inputs: the clothing worn, the physical work intensity, the state of heat acclimation, the ambient environment (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar load), and the accepted heat casualty level. In addition to predicting rectal temperature, heart rate, and sweat loss given the above inputs, our model predicts the expected physical work/rest cycle, the maximum safe physical work time, the estimated recovery time from maximal physical work, and the drinking water requirements associated with each of these situations. This model provides heat injury risk management guidance based on thermal strain predictions from the user specified environmental conditions, soldier characteristics, clothing worn, and the physical work intensity. If heat transfer values for space operations' clothing are known, NASA can use this prediction model to help avoid undue heat strain in astronauts during space flight.

  8. Physiological and biochemical markers of alveolar epithelial barrier dysfunction in perfused human lungs

    PubMed Central

    Frank, James A.; Briot, Raphael; Lee, Jae Woo; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Uchida, Tokujiro; Matthay, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    To study air space fluid clearance (AFC) under conditions that resemble the clinical setting of pulmonary edema in patients, we developed a new perfused human lung preparation. We measured AFC in 20 human lungs rejected for transplantation and determined the contribution of AFC to lung fluid balance. AFC was then compared with air space and perfusate levels of a biological marker of epithelial injury. The majority of human lungs rejected for transplant had intact basal (75%) and β2-adrenergic agonist-stimulated (70%) AFC. For lungs with both basal and stimulated AFC, the basal AFC rate was 19 ± 10%/h, and the β2-adrenergic-stimulated AFC rate was 43 ± 13%/h. Higher rates of AFC were associated with less lung weight gain (Pearson coefficient −0.90, P < 0.0001). Air space and perfusate levels of the type I pneumocyte marker receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) were threefold and sixfold higher, respectively, in lungs without basal AFC compared with lungs with AFC (P < 0.05). These data show that preserved AFC is a critical determinant of favorable lung fluid balance in the perfused human lung, raising the possibility that β2-agonist therapy to increase edema fluid clearance may be of value for patients with acute lung injury and pulmonary edema. Also, although additional studies are needed, a biological marker of alveolar epithelial injury may be useful clinically in predicting preserved AFC. PMID:17351061

  9. Regulation of lipid deposition in farm animals: Parallels between agriculture and human physiology.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Werner G; Brandebourg, Terry D

    2016-06-01

    For many years, clinically oriented scientists and animal scientists have focused on lipid metabolism and fat deposition in various fat depots. While dealing with a common biology across species, the goals of biomedical and food animals lipid metabolism research differ in emphasis. In humans, mechanisms and regulation of fat synthesis, accumulation of fat in regional fat depots, lipid metabolism and dysmetabolism in adipose, liver and cardiac tissues have been investigated. Further, energy balance and weight control have also been extensively explored in humans. Finally, obesity and associated maladies including high cholesterol and atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and health outcomes have been widely studied. In food animals, the emphasis has been on regulation of fatty acid synthesis and lipid deposition in fat depots and deposition of intramuscular fat. For humans, understanding the regulation of energy balance and body weight and of prevention or treatment of obesity and associated maladies have been important clinical outcomes. In production of food animals lowering fat content in muscle foods while enhancing intramuscular fat (marbling) have been major targets. In this review, we summarize how our laboratories have addressed the goal of providing lean but yet tasty and juicy muscle food products to consumers. In addition, we here describe efforts in the development of a new porcine model to study regulation of fat metabolism and obesity. Commonalities and differences in regulation of lipid metabolism between humans, rodents and food animals are emphasized throughout this review. PMID:27302175

  10. Psychological and Physiological Alternatives in the Control of Human Communicative Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springhorn, Ron G.

    The paper considers whether precise control over the actions, thoughts, emotions, and desires of individuals is desirable. New technological methods for controlling human behavior enable systematic manipulation of people and promise an even greater degree of manipulation in the near future. Arguments for and against behavior control are presented.…

  11. A functional genetic variation of adenosine deaminase affects the duration and intensity of deep sleep in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rétey, J. V.; Adam, M.; Honegger, E.; Khatami, R.; Luhmann, U. F. O.; Jung, H. H.; Berger, W.; Landolt, H.-P.

    2005-01-01

    Slow, rhythmic oscillations (<5 Hz) in the sleep electroencephalogram may be a sign of synaptic plasticity occurring during sleep. The oscillations, referred to as slow-wave activity (SWA), reflect sleep need and sleep intensity. The amount of SWA is homeostatically regulated. It is enhanced after sleep loss and declines during sleep. Animal studies suggested that sleep need is genetically controlled, yet the physiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show in humans that a genetic variant of adenosine deaminase, which is associated with the reduced metabolism of adenosine to inosine, specifically enhances deep sleep and SWA during sleep. In contrast, a distinct polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor gene, which was associated with interindividual differences in anxiety symptoms after caffeine intake in healthy volunteers, affects the electroencephalogram during sleep and wakefulness in a non-state-specific manner. Our findings indicate a direct role of adenosine in human sleep homeostasis. Moreover, our data suggest that genetic variability in the adenosinergic system contributes to the interindividual variability in brain electrical activity during sleep and wakefulness. PMID:16221767

  12. Physiological Levels of Virion-Associated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Induce Coreceptor-Dependent Calcium Flux▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Melar, Marta; Ott, David E.; Hope, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry into target cells requires the engagement of receptor and coreceptor by envelope glycoprotein (Env). Coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 are chemokine receptors that generate signals manifested as calcium fluxes in response to binding of the appropriate ligand. It has previously been shown that engagement of the coreceptors by HIV Env can also generate Ca2+ fluxing. Since the sensitivity and therefore the physiological consequence of signaling activation in target cells is not well understood, we addressed it by using a microscopy-based approach to measure Ca2+ levels in individual CD4+ T cells in response to low Env concentrations. Monomeric Env subunit gp120 and virion-bound Env were able to activate a signaling cascade that is qualitatively different from the one induced by chemokines. Env-mediated Ca2+ fluxing was coreceptor mediated, coreceptor specific, and CD4 dependent. Comparison of the observed virion-mediated Ca2+ fluxing with the exact number of viral particles revealed that the viral threshold necessary for coreceptor activation of signaling in CD4+ T cells was quite low, as few as two virions. These results indicate that the physiological levels of virion binding can activate signaling in CD4+ T cells in vivo and therefore might contribute to HIV-induced pathogenesis. PMID:17121788

  13. Postnatal - physiological research of the bronchial receptor system development on the isolated preparation of the human trachea in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sukalo, Aziz; Islami, Hilmi; Shabani, Ragib; Dauti, Hilmi; Kutllovci, Skender; Kastrati, Bashkim

    2006-08-01

    Research was done on pharmacological-physiological development of the bronchial receptor system on the smooth muscles of trachea in the newborn children, alive-born and stillborn children. Monitored was the response on: acetylcholine, dopamine, histamine and serotonin in different molar concentrations 10(-4), 10(-3), 10(-2), 10 mol/dm(-3), micromol/dm(-3)). Research was done on tonus of tracheal smooth muscles of 23 tracheal preparations taken by autopsy after death from different factors. Based on pharmacological-physiological research on the preparations of human isolated trachea it was find out that: acetylcholine stimulation effect is significant (p>0,01) in 38-41 weeks of pregnancy comparing with that in 30-37 weeks of pregnancy (p>0,01), while dopamine stimulation effect is significant (p>0,05) in 30-37 pregnancy weeks comparing with the effect of acetylcholine and dopamine on the still-born infants of the same pregnancy period (p<0,01). Histaminic receptors were developed during intrauterine life after 38 weeks of pregnancy (p>0,025). Serotonin has caused contraction of the bronchial smooth muscles after 30 pregnancy weeks, but response was not significant (p<0,01). This suggests that cholinergic and adrenergic system of the airways in alive newborn infants develops in parallel intrauterine, contrary to other systems which develop in certain extrauterine life phases. PMID:16995853

  14. The Role of Gap Junction Channels During Physiologic and Pathologic Conditions of the Human Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Basilio, Daniel; Sáez, Juan C.; Orellana, Juan A.; Raine, Cedric S.; Bukauskas, Feliksas; Bennett, Michael V. L.; Berman, Joan W.

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions (GJs) are expressed in most cell types of the nervous system, including neuronal stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, cells of the blood brain barrier (endothelial cells and astrocytes) and under inflammatory conditions in microglia/macrophages. GJs connect cells by the docking of two hemichannels, one from each cell with each hemichannel being formed by 6 proteins named connexins (Cx). Unapposed hemichannels (uHC) also can be open on the surface of the cells allowing the release of different intracellular factors to the extracellular space. GJs provide a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication between adjacent cells that enables the direct exchange of intracellular messengers, such as calcium, nucleotides, IP3, and diverse metabolites, as well as electrical signals that ultimately coordinate tissue homeostasis, proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, cell survival and death. Despite their essential functions in physiological conditions, relatively little is known about the role of GJs and uHC in human diseases, especially within the nervous system. The focus of this review is to summarize recent findings related to the role of GJs and uHC in physiologic and pathologic conditions of the central nervous system. PMID:22438035

  15. Development of an ex vivo retention model simulating bioadhesion in the oral cavity using human saliva and physiologically relevant irrigation media.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Katrine D; Sander, Camilla; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Pedersen, Anne Marie L; Jacobsen, Jette

    2013-05-20

    In recent years, there has been a particular interest in bioadhesive formulations for oromucosal drug delivery as this may promote prolonged local therapy and enhanced systemic effect. Saliva plays a vital role in oromucosal drug absorption by dissolving the drug and presenting it to the mucosal surface. However, the rheological, chemical, and interfacial properties of this complex biological fluid may strongly affect the adhesion of bioadhesive formulations. There is a need for well characterized in vitro models to assess the bioadhesive properties of oral dosage forms for administration in the oral cavity. Thus we aimed at developing an advanced ex vivo buccal retention model, with focus on choosing a physiologically relevant irrigation media closely resembling human saliva. Spray dried chitosan microparticles containing metformin hydrochloride as an example of a small hydrophilic drug, were employed as bioadhesive formulations. Chewing-stimulated human whole saliva was collected and characterized for use in retention studies in comparison with four artificial irrigation media; phosphate buffer, Saliva Orthana(®), porcine gastric mucin base media (PGM3), and xanthan gum based media (XG2). Retention of metformin, applied as spray dried microparticles on porcine buccal mucosa, greatly depended on the characteristics of the irrigation media. When rheology of the irrigation media was examined, changes in retention profiles could be interpreted, as irrigation media containing mucin and xanthan gum possessed a higher viscosity than phosphate buffer, which led to longer retention of the drug due to better hydration of the mucosa and the spray dried microparticles. Metformin retention profiles were comparable when human saliva, Saliva Orthana(®), or PGM3 were used as irrigation media. Moreover, PGM3 displayed physico-chemical properties closest to those of human saliva with regard to pH, protein content and surface tension. Saliva Orthana(®) and PGM3 are therefore

  16. Human sperm physiology: estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) influence sperm metabolism and may be involved in the pathophysiology of varicocele-associated male infertility.

    PubMed

    Guido, Carmela; Perrotta, Ida; Panza, Salvatore; Middea, Emilia; Avena, Paola; Santoro, Marta; Marsico, Stefania; Imbrogno, Pietro; Andò, Sebastiano; Aquila, Saveria

    2011-12-01

    The mechanisms by which varicocele affects fertility remain undetermined. Estrogens play a key role in the human male reproduction and human sperm expresses the estrogen receptors (ERs) and aromatase. In this study, by Western blotting we evidenced the ERs content concomitantly in healthy sperm and in oligoastenoteratozoospermic (OAT) samples without and with varicocele. In varicocele a strong reduction of the ERβ was observed, while the ERα was almost absent. Besides, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the reduction of ERs expression in "varicocele" sperm, indicating that varicocele has a detrimental effect on sperm structure at molecular level. To further define the estrogen significance in male gamete and the pathophysiology of varicocele we investigated both the expression of ERα and ERβ in normal and pathologic sperm samples as well as we evaluated estradiol (E2) action on lipid and glucose sperm metabolism. Responses to E2 treatments on cholesterol efflux, protein tyrosine phosphorylations, motility, and acrosin activity in varicocele sperm were reduced or absent. The evaluation of the triglycerides content, lipase and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities, suggest that E2 exerts a lipolytic effect on human sperm metabolism. Concerning glucose metabolism, it appears that E2 induces G6PDH activity concomitantly to the insulin secretion. In "varicocele" sperm, the E2 did not induce energy expenditure. OAT sperm had E2-responsiveness but in a lesser extent with respect healthy sperm. This study discovered a novel role for E2/ERs in human sperm physiology, since they modulate sperm metabolism and new detrimental effects related to the pathophysiology of the varicocele condition. PMID:21344398

  17. Low concentrations of Bisphenol A and para-Nonylphenol affect extravillous pathway of human trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Spagnoletti, Antonella; Paulesu, Luana; Mannelli, Chiara; Ermini, Leonardo; Romagnoli, Roberta; Cintorino, Marcella; Ietta, Francesca

    2015-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) and para-Nonylphenol (p-NP) are chemicals of industrial origin which may influence human reproductive health. The effects of these substances in the prenatal life is an important topic that is receiving greater attention in the developed countries. In this study, human trophoblast cells HTR-8/SVneo were exposed to BPA and p-NP (1 × 10(-15), 1 × 10(-13), 1 × 10(-11), 1 × 10(-9) and 1 × 10(-7) M) and incubated for 24, 48 and/or 72 h then, examined for the main physiological processes which characterize the extravillous trophoblast. Cell proliferation showed no changes while the processes of cell migration and invasion were both reduced by BPA and p-NP. For each chemical, the activity was higher at lower concentrations with a maximum activity between 1 × 10(-13) and 1 × 10(-11) M (p < 0.05 for 1 × 10(-9) and p < 0.001 for 1 × 10(-11) M). Co-culture studies with human umbilical cord endothelial cells (HUVEC) revealed that trophoblast/endothelial interaction was significantly reduced by p-NP at 1 × 10(-11) M. Moreover, both chemicals were inducing differentiation of HTR-8/SVneo toward polyploidy by the process of endoreduplication. The estrogen-receptor antagonist ICI significantly reduced p-NP action, while it had no effect on BPA treated cells. In conclusion, p-NP and BPA act on trophoblast cells altering key physiological processes in placenta development. The exact mechanism of action of the chemicals in human trophoblast still needs to be clarified. PMID:26027920

  18. Influence of Continuous Physiologic Hyperinsulinemia on Glucose Kinetics and Counterregulatory Hormones in Normal and Diabetic Humans

    PubMed Central

    Saccà, Luigi; Sherwin, Robert; Hendler, Rosa; Felig, Philip

    1979-01-01

    The effects of continuous infusions of insulin in physiologic doses on glucose kinetics and circulating counterregulatory hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone) were determined in normal subjects and diabetics. The normals received insulin at two dose levels (0.4 and 0.25 mU/kg per min) and the diabetics received the higher dose (0.4 mU/kg per min) only. In all three groups of studies, continuous infusion of insulin resulted in an initial decline in plasma glucose followed by stabilization after 60-180 min. In the normal subjects, with the higher insulin dose there was a fivefold rise in plasma insulin. Plasma glucose fell at a rate of 0.73±0.12 mg/min for 45 min and then stabilized at 55±3 mg/dl after 60 min. The initial decline in plasma glucose was a result of a rapid, 27% fall in glucose output and a 33% rise in glucose uptake. Subsequent stabilization was a result of a return of glucose output and uptake to basal levels. The rebound increment in glucose output was significant (P < 0.05) by 30 min after initiation of the insulin infusion and preceded, by 30-45 min, a significant rise in circulating counterregulatory hormones. With the lower insulin infusion dose, plasma insulin rose two- to threefold, plasma glucose initially fell at a rate of 0.37±0.04 mg/min for 75 min and stabilized at 67±3 mg/dl after 75 min. The changes in plasma glucose were entirely a result of a fall in glucose output and subsequent return to base line, whereas glucose uptake remained unchanged. Plasma levels of counterregulatory hormones showed no change from basal throughout the insulin infusion. In the diabetic group (plasma glucose levels 227±7 mg/dl in the basal state), the initial rate of decline in plasma glucose (1.01±0.15 mg/dl) and the plateau concentration of plasma glucose (59±5 mg/dl) were comparable to controls receiving the same insulin dose. However, the initial fall in plasma glucose was almost entirely a result of

  19. The Circulatory and Metabolic Responses to Hypoxia in Humans - With Special Reference to Adipose Tissue Physiology and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Ilkka H A; Boushel, Robert; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue metabolism and circulation play an important role in human health. It is well-known that adipose tissue mass is increased in response to excess caloric intake leading to obesity and further to local hypoxia and inflammatory signaling. Acute exercise increases blood supply to adipose tissue and mobilization of fat stores for energy. However, acute exercise during systemic hypoxia reduces subcutaneous blood flow in healthy young subjects, but the response in overweight or obese subjects remains to be investigated. Emerging evidence also indicates that exercise training during hypoxic exposure may provide additive benefits with respect to many traditional cardiovascular risk factors as compared to exercise performed in normoxia, but unfavorable effects of hypoxia have also been documented. These topics will be covered in this brief review dealing with hypoxia and adipose tissue physiology. PMID:27621722

  20. The Circulatory and Metabolic Responses to Hypoxia in Humans – With Special Reference to Adipose Tissue Physiology and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Heinonen, Ilkka H. A.; Boushel, Robert; Kalliokoski, Kari K.

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue metabolism and circulation play an important role in human health. It is well-known that adipose tissue mass is increased in response to excess caloric intake leading to obesity and further to local hypoxia and inflammatory signaling. Acute exercise increases blood supply to adipose tissue and mobilization of fat stores for energy. However, acute exercise during systemic hypoxia reduces subcutaneous blood flow in healthy young subjects, but the response in overweight or obese subjects remains to be investigated. Emerging evidence also indicates that exercise training during hypoxic exposure may provide additive benefits with respect to many traditional cardiovascular risk factors as compared to exercise performed in normoxia, but unfavorable effects of hypoxia have also been documented. These topics will be covered in this brief review dealing with hypoxia and adipose tissue physiology. PMID:27621722

  1. Physiologically based kinetic modeling of bioactivation and detoxification of the alkenylbenzene methyleugenol in human as compared with rat

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Subeihi, Ala' A.A.; Spenkelink, Bert; Punt, Ans; Boersma, Marelle G.; Bladeren, Peter J. van; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2012-05-01

    This study defines a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for methyleugenol (ME) in human based on in vitro and in silico derived parameters. With the model obtained, bioactivation and detoxification of methyleugenol (ME) at different doses levels could be investigated. The outcomes of the current model were compared with those of a previously developed PBK model for methyleugenol (ME) in male rat. The results obtained reveal that formation of 1′-hydroxymethyleugenol glucuronide (1′HMEG), a major metabolic pathway in male rat liver, appears to represent a minor metabolic pathway in human liver whereas in human liver a significantly higher formation of 1′-oxomethyleugenol (1′OME) compared with male rat liver is observed. Furthermore, formation of 1′-sulfooxymethyleugenol (1′HMES), which readily undergoes desulfonation to a reactive carbonium ion (CA) that can form DNA or protein adducts (DA), is predicted to be the same in the liver of both human and male rat at oral doses of 0.0034 and 300 mg/kg bw. Altogether despite a significant difference in especially the metabolic pathways of the proximate carcinogenic metabolite 1′-hydroxymethyleugenol (1′HME) between human and male rat, the influence of species differences on the ultimate overall bioactivation of methyleugenol (ME) to 1′-sulfooxymethyleugenol (1′HMES) appears to be negligible. Moreover, the PBK model predicted the formation of 1′-sulfooxymethyleugenol (1′HMES) in the liver of human and rat to be linear from doses as high as the benchmark dose (BMD{sub 10}) down to as low as the virtual safe dose (VSD). This study shows that kinetic data do not provide a reason to argue against linear extrapolation from the rat tumor data to the human situation. -- Highlights: ► A PBK model is made for bioactivation and detoxification of methyleugenol in human. ► Comparison to the PBK model in male rat revealed species differences. ► PBK results support linear extrapolation from high to low

  2. Affective Education: A Teacher's Manual to Promote Student Self-Actualization and Human Relations Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Thomas R.

    This teacher's manual presents affective education as a program to promote student self-actualization and human relations skills. Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Erik Erikson's life stages of psychosocial development form the conceptual base for this program. The goals and objectives of this manual are concerned with problem-solving…

  3. Definition and Measurement in the Affective Domain: Appreciation of Human Accomplishments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul B.; Beers, Joan S.

    The first three levels of the taxonomy in the affective domain guided the development of two inventories--the Pennsylvania Inventory of Cultural Appreciations (PICA) for 11th graders and Things People Do (TPD) for 5th graders--to measure appreciation of human accomplishments in seven areas: politics, sciences, sports, literature, visual arts,…

  4. Human-Computer Interaction: A Review of the Research on Its Affective and Social Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaudelin, Colette; Dussault, Marc; Brodeur, Monique

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a review of 34 qualitative and non-qualitative studies related to affective and social aspects of student-computer interactions. Highlights include the nature of the human-computer interaction (HCI); the interface, comparing graphic and text types; and the relation between variables linked to HCI, mainly trust, locus of control,…

  5. The Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Physiology of Human Steroidogenesis and Its Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Auchus, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Steroidogenesis entails processes by which cholesterol is converted to biologically active steroid hormones. Whereas most endocrine texts discuss adrenal, ovarian, testicular, placental, and other steroidogenic processes in a gland-specific fashion, steroidogenesis is better understood as a single process that is repeated in each gland with cell-type-specific variations on a single theme. Thus, understanding steroidogenesis is rooted in an understanding of the biochemistry of the various steroidogenic enzymes and cofactors and the genes that encode them. The first and rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis is the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone by a single enzyme, P450scc (CYP11A1), but this enzymatically complex step is subject to multiple regulatory mechanisms, yielding finely tuned quantitative regulation. Qualitative regulation determining the type of steroid to be produced is mediated by many enzymes and cofactors. Steroidogenic enzymes fall into two groups: cytochrome P450 enzymes and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. A cytochrome P450 may be either type 1 (in mitochondria) or type 2 (in endoplasmic reticulum), and a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may belong to either the aldo-keto reductase or short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase families. The activities of these enzymes are modulated by posttranslational modifications and by cofactors, especially electron-donating redox partners. The elucidation of the precise roles of these various enzymes and cofactors has been greatly facilitated by identifying the genetic bases of rare disorders of steroidogenesis. Some enzymes not principally involved in steroidogenesis may also catalyze extraglandular steroidogenesis, modulating the phenotype expected to result from some mutations. Understanding steroidogenesis is of fundamental importance to understanding disorders of sexual differentiation, reproduction, fertility, hypertension, obesity, and physiological homeostasis. PMID:21051590

  6. Human brain networks in physiological aging: a graph theoretical analysis of cortical connectivity from EEG data.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Modern analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms provides information on dynamic brain connectivity. To test the hypothesis that aging processes modulate the brain connectivity network, EEG recording was conducted on 113 healthy volunteers. They were divided into three groups in accordance with their ages: 36 Young (15-45 years), 46 Adult (50-70 years), and 31 Elderly (>70 years). To evaluate the stability of the investigated parameters, a subgroup of 10 subjects underwent a second EEG recording two weeks later. Graph theory functions were applied to the undirected and weighted networks obtained by the lagged linear coherence evaluated by eLORETA on cortical sources. EEG frequency bands of interest were: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). The spectral connectivity analysis of cortical sources showed that the normalized Characteristic Path Length (λ) presented the pattern Young > Adult>Elderly in the higher alpha band. Elderly also showed a greater increase in delta and theta bands than Young. The correlation between age and λ showed that higher ages corresponded to higher λ in delta and theta and lower in the alpha2 band; this pattern reflects the age-related modulation of higher (alpha) and decreased (delta) connectivity. The Normalized Clustering coefficient (γ) and small-world network modeling (σ) showed non-significant age-modulation. Evidence from the present study suggests that graph theory can aid in the analysis of connectivity patterns estimated from EEG and can facilitate the study of the physiological and pathological brain aging features of functional connectivity networks. PMID:24820018

  7. Ape Conservation Physiology: Fecal Glucocorticoid Responses in Wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following Human Visitation

    PubMed Central

    Muehlenbein, Michael P.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    results in these wild habituated orangutans suggest that low levels of predictable disturbance can likely result in low physiological impact on these animals. PMID:22438916

  8. Physiological cross-sectional area of human leg muscles based on magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukunaga, T.; Roy, R. R.; Shellock, F. G.; Hodgson, J. A.; Day, M. K.; Lee, P. L.; Kwong-Fu, H.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to determine the physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) of the major muscles or muscle groups of the lower leg. For 12 healthy subjects, the boundaries of each muscle or muscle group were digitized from images taken at 1-cm intervals along the length of the leg. Muscle volumes were calculated from the summation of each anatomical CSA (ACSA) and the distance between each section. Muscle length was determined as the distance between the most proximal and distal images in which the muscle was visible. The PCSA of each muscle was calculated as muscle volume times the cosine of the angle of fiber pinnation divided by fiber length, where published fiber length:muscle length ratios were used to estimate fiber lengths. The mean volumes of the major plantarflexors were 489, 245, and 140 cm3 for the soleus and medial (MG) and lateral (LG) heads of the gastrocnemius. The mean PCSA of the soleus was 230 cm2, about three and eight times larger than the MG (68 cm2) and LG (28 cm2), respectively. These PCSA values were eight (soleus), four (MG), and three (LG) times larger than their respective maximum ACSA. The major dorsiflexor, the tibialis anterior (TA), had a muscle volume of 143 cm2, a PCSA of 19 cm2, and an ACSA of 9 cm2. With the exception of the soleus, the mean fiber length of all subjects was closely related to muscle volume across muscles. The soleus fibers were unusually short relative to the muscle volume, thus potentiating its force potential.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. Ape conservation physiology: fecal glucocorticoid responses in wild Pongo pygmaeus morio following human visitation.

    PubMed

    Muehlenbein, Michael P; Ancrenaz, Marc; Sakong, Rosman; Ambu, Laurentius; Prall, Sean; Fuller, Grace; Raghanti, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    in these wild habituated orangutans suggest that low levels of predictable disturbance can likely result in low physiological impact on these animals. PMID:22438916

  10. Discriminative-Stimulus, Subject-rated and Physiological Effects of Methamphetamine in Humans Pretreated with Aripiprazole

    PubMed Central

    Sevak, Rajkumar J.; Vansickel, Andrea R.; Stoops, William W.; Glaser, Paul E. A.; Hays, Lon R.; Rush, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine is thought to produce its behavioral effects by releasing dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine. Results from animal studies support this notion, while results from human laboratory studies have not consistently demonstrated the importance of monoamine systems in the behavioral effects of methamphetamine. Human laboratory procedures of drug-discrimination are well suited to assess neuropharmacological mechanisms of the training drug by studying pharmacological manipulation. In this human laboratory study, six participants with a history of recreational stimulant use learned to discriminate 10 mg oral methamphetamine. After acquiring the discrimination (i.e., ≥80% correct responding on 4 consecutive sessions), the effects of a range of doses of methamphetamine (0, 2.5, 5, 10 and 15 mg), alone and in combination with 0 and 20 mg aripiprazole (a partial agonist at D2 and 5-HT1A receptors), were assessed. Methamphetamine alone functioned as a discriminative stimulus, produced prototypical stimulant-like subject-rated drug effects (e.g., increased ratings of Good Effects, Talkative-Friendly, and Willing to Pay For) and elevated cardiovascular indices. These effects were generally a function of dose. Aripiprazole alone did not occasion methamphetamine-appropriate responding or produce subject-rated effects, but modestly impaired performance. Administration of aripiprazole significantly attenuated the discriminative-stimulus and cardiovascular effects of methamphetamine, as well as some of the subject-rated drug effects. These results indicate that monoamine systems likely play a role in the behavioral effects of methamphetamine in humans. Moreover, given the concordance between past results with d-amphetamine and the present findings, d-amphetamine can likely serve as a model for the pharmacological effects of methamphetamine. PMID:21694622

  11. Physiological measurements of luminal stirring in the dog and human small bowel.

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, M D; Furne, J K; Strocchi, A; Anderson, B W; Levitt, D G

    1990-01-01

    The resistance to absorption resulting from poor stirring of luminal contents (RLum) is considered to be equivalent to an unstirred layer of greater than 600 microns in the human small intestine. We measured RLum in the jejunum of conscious dogs by assessing the absorption rate of two rapidly absorbed probes, glucose, and [14C]warfarin. When RLum was expressed as an unstirred layer, the maximal thickness of the unstirred layer (assuming negligible epithelial cell resistance) was only approximately 35 and 50 microns for perfusion rates of 26 and 5 ml/min, respectively. Maximal unstirred layer thickness for the human jejunum, calculated from previous studies of glucose absorption, yielded a mean value of only 40 microns (range: 23 to 65 microns). Since epithelial resistance appears to be negligible during absorption of low concentrations of glucose, the maximal unstirred layer of 40 microns should be close to the true value for glucose in the human small intestine. We conclude that the unstirred layer for rapidly absorbed compounds in dogs and man are less than one-tenth of previously reported values, but this layer still may remain the rate limiting step in absorption of rapidly transported compounds. Images PMID:2243130

  12. Population Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling for the Human Lactational Transfer of PCB 153 with Consideration of Worldwide Human Biomonitoring Results

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, Laurel E.; Sohn, Michael D.; McKone, Thomas E.; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Yang, Raymond S. H.

    2008-03-01

    We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model of PCB 153 in women, and predict its transfer via lactation to infants. The model is the first human, population-scale lactational model for PCB 153. Data in the literature provided estimates for model development and for performance assessment. Physiological parameters were taken from a cohort in Taiwan and from reference values in the literature. We estimated partition coefficients based on chemical structure and the lipid content in various body tissues. Using exposure data in Japan, we predicted acquired body burden of PCB 153 at an average childbearing age of 25 years and compare predictions to measurements from studies in multiple countries. Forward-model predictions agree well with human biomonitoring measurements, as represented by summary statistics and uncertainty estimates. The model successfully describes the range of possible PCB 153 dispositions in maternal milk, suggesting a promising option for back estimating doses for various populations. One example of reverse dosimetry modeling was attempted using our PBPK model for possible exposure scenarios in Canadian Inuits who had the highest level of PCB 153 in their milk in the world.

  13. Altered Cortical GABAA Receptor Composition, Physiology, and Endocytosis in a Mouse Model of a Human Genetic Absence Epilepsy Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chengwen; Huang, Zhiling; Ding, Li; Deel, M. Elizabeth; Arain, Fazal M.; Murray, Clark R.; Patel, Ronak S.; Flanagan, Christopher D.; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with generalized epilepsy exhibit cerebral cortical disinhibition. Likewise, mutations in the inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels, GABAA receptors (GABAARs), cause generalized epilepsy syndromes in humans. Recently, we demonstrated that heterozygous knock-out (Hetα1KO) of the human epilepsy gene, the GABAAR α1 subunit, produced absence epilepsy in mice. Here, we determined the effects of Hetα1KO on the expression and physiology of GABAARs in the mouse cortex. We found that Hetα1KO caused modest reductions in the total and surface expression of the β2 subunit but did not alter β1 or β3 subunit expression, results consistent with a small reduction of GABAARs. Cortices partially compensated for Hetα1KO by increasing the fraction of residual α1 subunit on the cell surface and by increasing total and surface expression of α3, but not α2, subunits. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Hetα1KO increased the fraction of α1 subunits, and decreased the fraction of α3 subunits, that associated in hybrid α1α3βγ receptors. Patch clamp electrophysiology studies showed that Hetα1KO layer VI cortical neurons exhibited reduced inhibitory postsynaptic current peak amplitudes, prolonged current rise and decay times, and altered responses to benzodiazepine agonists. Finally, application of inhibitors of dynamin-mediated endocytosis revealed that Hetα1KO reduced base-line GABAAR endocytosis, an effect that probably contributes to the observed changes in GABAAR expression. These findings demonstrate that Hetα1KO exerts two principle disinhibitory effects on cortical GABAAR-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission: 1) a modest reduction of GABAAR number and 2) a partial compensation with GABAAR isoforms that possess physiological properties different from those of the otherwise predominant α1βγ GABAARs. PMID:23744069

  14. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17β-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lerner, Darrren T.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2007-01-01

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 μg L-1 NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 μg L-1 17β-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K+-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long term, “organizational” effects on life-history events in salmonids.

  15. Larval exposure to 4-nonylphenol and 17beta-estradiol affects physiological and behavioral development of seawater adaptation in Atlantic salmon smolts.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Darren T; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; McCormick, Stephen D

    2007-06-15

    Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon yolk-sac larvae to waterborne 10 or 100 microg L(-1) NP (NP-L or NP-H, respectively), 2 microg L(-1) 17beta-estradiol (E2), or vehicle, for 21 days to investigate their effects on smolt physiology and behavior 1 year later. NP-H caused approximately 50% mortality during exposure, 30 days after exposure, and 60 days after exposure. Mortality rates of NP-L and E2 fish were not affected until 60 days after treatment, when they were 4-fold greater than those of controls. Treatment with NP-L or E2 as yolk-sac larvae decreased gill sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na+,K(+)-ATPase) activity and seawater (SW) tolerance during smolt development, 1 year after exposure. Exposure to NP-L and E2 resulted in a latency to enter SW and reduced preference for SW approximately 2- and 5-fold, respectively. NP-L-exposed fish had 20% lower plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels and 35% lower plasma triiodothyronine (T3). Plasma growth hormone and thyroxine (T4) were unaffected. Exposure to E2 did not affect plasma levels of IGF-I, GH, T3, or T4. Both treatment groups exhibited increased plasma cortisol and decreased osmoregulatory capacity in response to a handling stressor. These results suggest that early exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of NP, and other estrogenic compounds, can cause direct and delayed mortalities and that this exposure can have long-term, "organizational" effects on life-history events in salmonids. PMID:17626455

  16. 76 FR 65734 - Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human Consumption; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Evaluating the Safety of Flood-Affected Food Crops for Human...

  17. Expression and proliferation profiles of PKC, JNK and p38MAPK in physiologically stretched human bladder smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wazir, Romel; Luo, De-Yi; Dai, Yi; Yue, Xuan; Tian, Ye; Wang, Kun-Jie

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: •Stretch induces proliferation in human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMC). •5% Equibiaxial elongation produces maximum proliferation. •Physiologic stretch decreases apoptotic cell death. •PKC is involved in functional modulation of bladder. •JNK and p38 are not involved in proliferating HBSMC. -- Abstract: Objective: To determine protein kinase C (PKC), c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase (JNK) and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38MAPK) expression levels and effects of their respective inhibitors on proliferation of human bladder smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs) when physiologically stretched in vitro. Materials and methods: HBSMCs were grown on silicone membrane and stretch was applied under varying conditions; (equibiaxial elongation: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), (frequency: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1 Hz). Optimal physiological stretch was established by assessing proliferation with 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay and flow cytometry. PKC, JNK and p38 expression levels were analyzed by Western blot. Specificity was maintained by employing specific inhibitors; (GF109203X for PKC, SP600125 for JNK and SB203580 for p38MAPK), in some experiments. Results: Optimum proliferation was observed at 5% equibiaxial stretch (BrdU: 0.837 ± 0.026 (control) to 1.462 ± 0.023)%, (P < 0.05) and apoptotic cell death rate decreased from 16.4 ± 0.21% (control) to 4.5 ± 0.13% (P < 0.05) applied at 0.1 Hz. Expression of PKC was upregulated with slight increase in JNK and no change in p38MAPK after application of stretch. Inhibition had effects on proliferation (1.075 ± 0.024, P < 0.05 GF109203X); (1.418 ± 0.021, P > 0.05 SP600125) and (1.461 ± 0.01, P > 0.05 SB203580). These findings show that mechanical stretch can promote magnitude-dependent proliferative modulation through PKC and possibly JNK but not via p38MAPK in hBSMCs.

  18. A Nonhost Peptidase Inhibitor of ~14 kDa from Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub. Seeds Affects Negatively the Growth and Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Prabhash K.; Singh, Dushyant; Singh, Sangram; Khan, M. Y.; Jamal, Farrukh

    2014-01-01

    Helicoverpa armigera is one of the major devastating pests of crop plants. In this context a serine peptidase inhibitor purified from the seeds of Butea monosperma was evaluated for its effect on developmental physiology of H. armigera larvae. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor on 12% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis exhibited a single protein band of ~14 kDa with or without reduction. In vitro studies towards total gut proteolytic enzymes of H. armigera and bovine trypsin indicated measurable inhibitory activity. B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor dose for 50% mortality and weight reduction by 50% were 0.5% w/w and 0.10% w/w, respectively. The IC50 of B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor against total H. armigera gut proteinases activity was 2.0 µg/mL. The larval feeding assays suggested B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor to be toxic as reflected by its retarded growth and development, consequently affecting fertility and fecundity of pest and prolonging the larval-pupal duration of the insect life cycle of H. armigera. Supplementing B. monosperma peptidase inhibitor in artificial diet at 0.1% w/w, both the efficiencies of conversion of ingested as well as digested food were downregulated, whereas approximate digestibility and metabolic cost were enhanced. The efficacy of Butea monosperma peptidase inhibitor against progressive growth and development of H. armigera suggest its usefulness in insect pest management of food crops. PMID:24860667

  19. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  20. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  1. The optimized PWM driving for the lighting system based on physiological characteristic of human vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping-Chieh; Uang, Chii-Maw; Hong, Yi-Jian; Ho, Zu-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Saving energy, White-light LED plays a main role in solid state lighting system. Find the best energy saving driven solution is the engineer endless hard work. Besides DC and AC driving, LED using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) operation is also a valuable research topic. The most important issue for this work is to find the drive frequency and duty for achieving both energy saving and better feeling on the human vision sensation. In this paper, psychophysics of human vision response to the lighting effect, including Persistence of vision, Bloch's Law, Broca-Sulzer Law, Ferry-Porter Law, Talbot-Plateau Law, and Contrast Sensitivity, will be discussed and analyzed. From the human vision system, we found that there are three factors: the flash sensitivity, the illumination intensity and the background environment illumination, that are used to decide the frequency and duty of the PWM driving method. A set of controllable LED lamps with adjustable frequency and duty is fitted inside a non-closed box is constructed for this experiment. When the background environment illumination intensity is high, the variation of the flash sensitivity and illumination intensity is not easy to observe. Increasing PWM frequency will eliminate flash sensitivity. When the duty is over 70%, the vision sensitivity is saturated. For warning purpose, the better frequency range is between 7Hz to 15Hz and the duty cycle can be lower down to 70%. For general lighting, the better frequency range is between 200Hz to 1000Hz and the duty cycle can also be lower down to 70%.

  2. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for methyl mercury (MeHg) in monkey and human

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, J.M.; Clewall, H.J. III; Shipp, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    A PBPK model for MeHg was developed which coherently describes MeHg pharmacokinetics in the adult rat, monkey and man, and predicts fetal levels of MeHg from in utero exposure. The model includes a description of enterohepatic recirculation of MeHg, conversion to inorganic mercury in tissues and intestinal flora, slowly reversible incorporation of mercury in tissues, and excretion of both organic and inorganic mercury into urine, feces, and hair. The adult submodel includes compartments representing the red blood tells (RBC), plasma, brain, liver, kidney, gut intestinal lumen, gut tissue, hair, richly and slowly perfused tissues, and placenta. The fetal submodel includes compartments representing RBC`s, plasma, brain, and remaining body mass. Two features of the model structure which are critical to prediction of the kinetics of MeHg in different species is the use of separate RBC and plasma compartments, allowing the use of species specific RBC/plasma ratios, and biliary excretion with enterohepatic recirculation. Published tissue and blood MeHg concentrations were used to derive the partition coefficients and RBC/plasma ratios to adjust for species differences in MeHg distribution. Validation involved comparing the model simulations with data from repeated dosing studies in animals and humans, and from accidental human exposures. The model will be used to investigate maternal MeHg intake as it relates to measured blood and hair MeHg concentrations, and to fetal exposure.

  3. Olfactory Receptors Modulate Physiological Processes in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Kalbe, Benjamin; Knobloch, Jürgen; Schulz, Viola M; Wecker, Christine; Schlimm, Marian; Scholz, Paul; Jansen, Fabian; Stoelben, Erich; Philippou, Stathis; Hecker, Erich; Lübbert, Hermann; Koch, Andrea; Hatt, Hanns; Osterloh, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Pathophysiological mechanisms in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) significantly contribute to the progression of chronic inflammatory airway diseases with limited therapeutic options, such as severe asthma and COPD. These abnormalities include the contractility and hyperproduction of inflammatory proteins. To develop therapeutic strategies, key pathological mechanisms, and putative clinical targets need to be identified. In the present study, we demonstrated that the human olfactory receptors (ORs) OR1D2 and OR2AG1 are expressed at the RNA and protein levels in HASMCs. Using fluorometric calcium imaging, specific agonists for OR2AG1 and OR1D2 were identified to trigger transient Ca(2+) increases in HASMCs via a cAMP-dependent signal transduction cascade. Furthermore, the activation of OR2AG1 via amyl butyrate inhibited the histamine-induced contraction of HASMCs, whereas the stimulation of OR1D2 with bourgeonal led to an increase in cell contractility. In addition, OR1D2 activation induced the secretion of IL-8 and GM-CSF. Both effects were inhibited by the specific OR1D2 antagonist undecanal. We herein provide the first evidence to show that ORs are functionally expressed in HASMCs and regulate pathophysiological processes. Therefore, ORs might be new therapeutic targets for these diseases, and blocking ORs could be an auspicious strategy for the treatment of early-stage chronic inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:27540365

  4. Olfactory Receptors Modulate Physiological Processes in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kalbe, Benjamin; Knobloch, Jürgen; Schulz, Viola M.; Wecker, Christine; Schlimm, Marian; Scholz, Paul; Jansen, Fabian; Stoelben, E