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  1. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success. PMID:18410290

  2. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  3. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  4. Sexual experience affects reproductive behavior and preoptic androgen receptors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Swaney, William T.; Dubose, Brittany N.; Curley, James P.; Champagne, Frances A.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive behavior in male rodents is made up of anticipatory and consummatory elements which are regulated in the brain by sensory systems, reward circuits and hormone signaling. Gonadal steroids play a key role in the regulation of male sexual behavior via steroid receptors in the hypothalamus and preoptic area. Typical patterns of male reproductive behavior have been characterized, however these are not fixed but are modulated by adult experience. We assessed the effects of repeated sexual experience on male reproductive behavior of C57BL/6 mice; including measures of olfactory investigation of females, mounting, intromission and ejaculation. The effects of sexual experience on the number of cells expressing either androgen receptor (AR) or estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in the primary brain nuclei regulating male sexual behavior was also measured. Sexually experienced male mice engaged in less sniffing of females before initiating sexual behavior and exhibited shorter latencies to mount and intromit, increased frequency of intromission, and increased duration of intromission relative to mounting. No changes in numbers of ERα-positive cells were observed, however sexually experienced males had increased numbers of AR-positive cells in the medial preoptic area (MPOA); the primary regulatory nucleus for male sexual behavior. These results indicate that sexual experience results in a qualitative change in male reproductive behavior in mice that is associated with increased testosterone sensitivity in the MPOA and that this nucleus may play a key integrative role in mediating the effects of sexual experience on male behavior. PMID:22266118

  5. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  6. Genetically Determined Dosage of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Affects Male Reproductive Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Grigorova, Marina; Punab, Margus; Ẑilaitienė, Birutė; Erenpreiss, Juris; Ausmees, Kristo; Matuleviĉius, Valentinas; Tsarev, Igor; Jørgensen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Context: The detailed role of FSH in contributing to male testicular function and fertility has been debated. We have previously identified the association between the T-allele of the FSHB promoter polymorphism (rs10835638; G/T, −211 bp from the mRNA start) and significantly reduced male serum FSH. Objective: In the current study, the T-allele carriers of the FSHB −211 G/T single nucleotide polymorphism represented a natural model for documenting downstream phenotypic consequences of insufficient FSH action. Design and Subjects: We genotyped rs10835638 in the population-based Baltic cohort of young men (n = 1054; GG carriers, n = 796; GT carriers, n = 244; TT carriers, n = 14) recruited by Andrology Centres in Tartu, Estonia; Riga, Latvia; and Kaunas, Lithuania. Marker-trait association testing was performed using linear regression (additive, recessive models) adjusted by age, body mass index, smoking, and recruitment center. Results: Serum hormones directly correlated with the T-allele dosage of rs10835638 included FSH (additive model, P = 1.11 × 10−6; T-allele effect, −0.41 IU/liter), inhibin-B (P = 2.16 × 10−3; T-allele effect, −14.67 pg/ml), and total testosterone (P = 9.30 × 10−3; T-allele effect, −1.46 nmol/liter). Parameters altered only among TT homozygotes were reduced testicular volume (recessive model, P = 1.19 × 10−4; TT genotype effect, −9.47 ml) and increased serum LH (P = 2.25 × 10−2; TT genotype effect, 1.07 IU/liter). The carrier status of rs10835638 alternative genotypes did not affect sperm motility and morphology, calculated free testosterone, serum SHBG, and estradiol concentrations. Conclusion: We showed for the first time that genetically determined low FSH may have wider downstream effects on the male reproductive system, including impaired testes development, altered testicular hormone levels (inhibin-B, total testosterone, LH), and affected male reproductive potential. PMID:21733993

  7. DIBROMOACETIC ACID AFFECTS REPRODUCTIVE COMPETENCE AND SPERM QUALITY IN THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have recently shown that Dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) alters sperm quality in short duration tests. n this study, male rats were gavaged with 0, 2, 10, 50, 250 mg DBAA/kg/d for up to 49 d. Interim. and terminal measurements of sperm quality & reproductive outcome were made. BAA c...

  8. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  9. Sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide affected male reproduction by disturbing blood-testis barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhai; Li, Zhihui; Qie, Mingli; Zheng, Ruibo; Shetty, Jagathpala; Wang, Jundong

    2016-08-01

    Fluoride and sulfur dioxide (SO2), two well-known environmental toxicants, have been implicated to have adverse effects on male reproductive health in humans and animals. The objective of this study to investigate if the BTB is one of the pathways that lead to reproductive toxicity of sodium fluoride and sulfur dioxide alone or in combination, in view of the key role of blood testis barrier (BTB) in testis. The results showed that a marked decrease in sperm quality, and altered morphology and ultrastructure of BTB in testis of mice exposure to fluoride (100 mg NaF/L in drinking water) or/and sulfur dioxide (28 mg SO2/m(3), 3 h/day). Meanwhile, the mRNA expression levels of some vital BTB-associated proteins, including occluding, claudin-11, ZO-1, Ncadherin, α-catenin, and connexin-43 were all strikingly reduced after NaF exposure, although only the reduction of DSG-2 was statistically significant in all treatment groups. Moreover, the proteins expressions also decreased significantly in claudin-11, N-cadherin, α-catenin, connexin-43 and desmoglein-2 in mice treated with fluoride and/or SO2. These changes in BTB structure and constitutive proteins may therefore be connected with the low sperm quality in these mice. The role of fluoride should deserves more attention in this process. PMID:27237588

  10. Female access and diet affect insemination success, senescence, and the cost of reproduction in male Mexican fruit flies Anastrepha ludens

    PubMed Central

    HARWOOD, JAMES F.; CHEN, KEHUI; LIEDO, PABLO; MÜLLER, HANS-GEORG; WANG, JANE-LING; MORICE, AMY E.; CAREY, JAMES R.

    2014-01-01

    Hypotheses exploring the influence of dietary conditions on the life history trade-off between survival and reproductive success are extensively tested in female insects, but are rarely explored in males. Here, the impact of dietary quality and female access on age-specific reproduction and survival of male Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae), are examined. There is a clear cost of female access for males with access to dietary protein, measurable as a decrease in life expectancy, which is further influenced by the age when females are introduced. A protein deficient diet reduces the lifespan benefit of virginity and masks the detrimental effect of female access on male life expectancy. Dietary protein is not necessary for reproductive success, but access to protein at eclosion improves the lifetime reproductive success of males compared to when it is delayed. Overall, reproductive success diminishes as the male flies age, regardless of the dietary conditions, providing evidence for reproductive senescence in males. Delaying the males’ access to a protein source fails to influence the negative effect of age on reproductive ability. Because age specific reproductive rates decline with age, regardless of diet, male fitness does not benefit from lifespan extension. Therefore, males can be expected to allocate available resources towards reproductive effort in favour of extended lifespan, regardless of mate and protein availability. PMID:25709143

  11. Male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes use JH III transferred during copulation to influence previtellogenic ovary physiology and affect the reproductive output of female mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Mark E; Correa, Stefano; Rivera-Perez, Crisalejandra; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriega, Fernando G

    2014-05-01

    The effect of male accessory gland substances on female reproductive physiology has been previously described as "activating" egg development. However, no mechanism has been described that can explain how male mosquitoes are able to influence egg development in female mosquitoes. To investigate how male mosquitoes are able to influence ovarian physiology and reproductive output we explored three main questions: (1) Do mating and male accessory gland substances affect ovarian physiology and alter markers of oocyte quality during the previtellogenic resting stage? (2) Does the male accessory gland contain JH III and is JH III transferred to the female during copulation? (3) Finally, does the nutritional history of the male affect the amount of JH III transferred to the female and alter reproductive output? By answering these questions it is clear that male mosquitoes are able to alter the female's resource allocation priorities towards reproduction by transferring JH III during copulation; reducing the rate of previtellogenic resorption and increasing the amount of stored ovarian lipids. These changes improve an individual follicle's likelihood of development after a blood meal. In addition, males maintained under better nutritional conditions make and transfer more JH III, prevent more follicular resorption and realize higher fecundities than other males. Together these results illustrate one mechanism behind the "activating" effect of mating described as well as the role sugar feeding plays in male mosquitoes. PMID:24657670

  12. Quantitative Genomics of Male Reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the review was to establish the current status of quantitative genomics for male reproduction. Genetic variation exists for male reproduction traits. These traits are expensive and time consuming traits to evaluate through conventional breeding schemes. Genomics is an alternative to...

  13. THE ESTROGENIC AND ANTIANDROGENIC PESTICIDE METHOXYCHLOR ALTERS THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT AND BEHAVIOR WITHOUT AFFECTING PITUITARY SIZE OR LH AND PROLACTIN SECRETION IN MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The estrogenic and antiandrogenic pesticide methoxychlor alters the reproductive tract and behavior without affecting pituitary size or LH and prolactin secretion in male rats.

    Gray LE Jr, Ostby J, Cooper RL, Kelce WR.

    Endocrinology Branch, United States Environment...

  14. Male Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkington, B. A.

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of the human body with emphasis on the life process of reproduction. It is a learning activity included in high school biology or health education classes. The behavioral objectives are listed and the equipment and materials needed to help the student gain these objectives are also included in the…

  15. [Male reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-jiao; Qiao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    The reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine disruptors has attracted substantial attention from researchers in recent years. Bisphenol A (BPA) is among the most prominent environmental estrogens worldwide, demonstrated to be related with the impairment of male reproductive function as well as other health problems, such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. BPA acts primarily by mimicking antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects, disturbing the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and modulating gene expressions and enzyme activities in the hormone biosynthesis affecting steroids or its receptors. BPA is also involved in DNA methylation and the effects of epigenetics, resulting in dyszoospermia, oligoasthenoteratospermia/azoospermia and/or infertility in males. This review addresses the effects of BPA on male reproductive function, focusing on the mechanisms of its toxicity on spermatogenesis, semen quality, and the reproductive system. PMID:26738332

  16. Male reproductive health and yoga

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility. PMID:23930026

  17. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  18. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    PubMed

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context. PMID:12348800

  19. Male reproductive health and infertility.

    PubMed

    Frey, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Primary care physicians have an essential role and opportunity in positively impacting the reproductive health of men. Although men are less likely than women to consistently seek preventive services, an office visit for any reason should be seen as an opportunity to introduce the idea of reproductive health. Additionally, primary care physicians can and should initiate the diagnostic workup for infertile couples in their practices. The initial assessment for the male partner consists of a thorough history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests, including a semen analysis. PMID:20705204

  20. Male Reproductive Toxicology: Environmental Exposures vs Reproductive Competence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Like the lecture this chapter begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and transitions into male reproductive toxicology. It ends with a brief discussion of the strengths and weaknesses in male reproductive toxicology and epidemiology today. This chapter is highly il...

  1. Targeted disruption of the mouse prosaposin gene affects the development of the prostate gland and other male reproductive organs.

    PubMed

    Morales, C R; Zhao, Q; El-Alfy, M; Suzuki, K

    2000-01-01

    The prosaposin gene encodes a 65-70 kilodalton (kd) protein, which is secreted or targeted to lysosomes. In lysosomes, prosaposin is the precursor of 4 activator proteins, designated saposins A, B, C, and D, which promote by acidic hydrolases, the degradation of glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide chains. Mutations of the prosaposin gene have been linked to several lysosomal storage disorders. An animal model was recently developed by creating a null allele in embryonic stem cells through gene targeting in order to investigate the phenotypic diversity of prosaposin mutations, the involvement of this protein in lysosomal storage diseases, and to develop potential therapeutic approaches. Mutant homozygous mice die at 35-40 days of age and neurological disorders contribute to their early death. Secreted prosaposin is present in milk and in cerebrospinal and seminal fluids. In the nervous system, prosaposin exhibits a trophic activity. Examination of reproduc-tive organs in homozygous mutant males shows several abnormalities such as a decrease in testis size with reduced spermiogenesis, and an involution of the prostate, seminal vesicle, and epididymis, although levels of testosterone in blood remain normal. In the prostate of homozygous mutants, only basal cells appear to be present, whereas secretory cells are absent. The epithelia in efferent ducts is formed by ciliated cells, whereas heterozygotes exhibit a majority of nonciliated cells. Our data indicate that prosaposin is involved in the development and maintenance of male reproductive organs. In prostatic epithelium, targeted disruption of the prosaposin gene appears to inactivate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and to interfere with differentiation of secretory cells. PMID:11105903

  2. Ginseng and male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kar Wah; Wong, Alice ST

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is often referred to as the King of all herbs, and is found to be a promising agent to improve general well-being. Ginseng has also been reputed as an aphrodisiac, and is used to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behavior in traditional Chinese medical practices. Data from animal studies have shown a positive correlation among ginseng, libido, and copulatory performances, and these effects have been confirmed in case-control studies in human. In addition, ginseng is found to improve the sperm quality and count of healthy individuals as well as patients with treatment-related infertility. These actions are mostly attributed to ginsenosides, the major pharmacological active components of ginseng. This review compiles the current knowledge about the multifaceted effects of ginseng on male reproductive function, and also focuses on its mechanisms of action that may represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of male reproductive diseases or disorders. PMID:24381805

  3. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic and cognitive problems. Recent emerging evidences suggest that arsenic exposure affects the reproductive and developmental toxicity. Prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and children’s health problems. Some epidemiological studies have reported that arsenic exposure induces premature delivery, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth. In animal studies, inorganic arsenic also causes fetal malformation, growth retardation, and fetal death. These toxic effects depend on dose, route and gestation periods of arsenic exposure. In males, inorganic arsenic causes reproductive dysfunctions including reductions of the testis weights, accessory sex organs weights, and epididymal sperm counts. In addition, inorganic arsenic exposure also induces alterations of spermatogenesis, reductions of testosterone and gonadotrophins, and disruptions of steroidogenesis. However, the reproductive and developmental problems following arsenic exposure are poorly understood, and the molecular mechanism of arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity remains unclear. Thus, we further investigated several possible mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:26973968

  4. Arsenic Toxicity in Male Reproduction and Development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Jae; Kim, Jong-Min

    2015-12-01

    Arsenic is a toxic metalloid that exists ubiquitously in the environment, and affects global health problems due to its carcinogenicity. In most populations, the main source of arsenic exposure is the drinking water. In drinking water, chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with increased risks of various cancers including those of skin, lung, bladder, and liver, as well as numerous other non-cancer diseases including gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and neurologic and cognitive problems. Recent emerging evidences suggest that arsenic exposure affects the reproductive and developmental toxicity. Prenatal exposure to inorganic arsenic causes adverse pregnancy outcomes and children's health problems. Some epidemiological studies have reported that arsenic exposure induces premature delivery, spontaneous abortion, and stillbirth. In animal studies, inorganic arsenic also causes fetal malformation, growth retardation, and fetal death. These toxic effects depend on dose, route and gestation periods of arsenic exposure. In males, inorganic arsenic causes reproductive dysfunctions including reductions of the testis weights, accessory sex organs weights, and epididymal sperm counts. In addition, inorganic arsenic exposure also induces alterations of spermatogenesis, reductions of testosterone and gonadotrophins, and disruptions of steroidogenesis. However, the reproductive and developmental problems following arsenic exposure are poorly understood, and the molecular mechanism of arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity remains unclear. Thus, we further investigated several possible mechanisms underlying arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:26973968

  5. Peri-pubertal administration of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) affects reproductive organ development in male but not female Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Lent, Emily May; Crouse, Lee C B; Wallace, Shannon M; Carroll, Erica E

    2015-11-01

    Nitrotriazolone (3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one; NTO) is an insensitive munition that has demonstrated effects on reproductive organs in adult male rats. NTO was administered to male (0, 250, and 500milligrams per kilogram per day (mg/kg-day)) and female (0, 500, and 1000mg/kg-day) Sprague-Dawley rats (15/sex/group) via oral gavage from weaning through post-natal day 53/54 and 42/43, respectively. Age and body mass at vaginal opening (VO) and preputial separation (PPS), as well as all measures of estrous cyclicity were not affected by treatment with NTO. Males treated with NTO exhibited reductions in testis mass associated with tubular degeneration/atrophy. Less pronounced reductions in accessory sex organ masses were also observed in the 500mg/kg-day group. Treatment with NTO did not affect thyroid hormone or testosterone levels. These findings suggest that NTO is not acting as an estrogen or thyroid active compound, but may indicate effects on steroidogenesis and/or direct testicular toxicity. PMID:25962730

  6. Impact of Inflammation on Male Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Azenabor, Alfred; Ekun, Ayodele Oloruntoba; Akinloye, Oluyemi

    2015-01-01

    Fertility in the male is dependent on the proper production of sperm cells. This process, called spermatogenesis is very complex and involves the synchronization of numerous factors. The presence of pro–inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF–α), interleukin–1 alpha (IL–1 α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL–1 β) cytokines in the male reproductive tract (testis, epididymis and sperm) may have certain physiological functions. However, when the levels of these cytokines are higher than normal, as seen in conditions of inflammation, they become very harmful to sperm production. Moreover, inflammation is also associated with oxidative stress and the latter is well known to impair sperm function. Epidemiological studies regarding male infertility have revealed that more and more infertile men suffer from acute or chronic inflammation of the genitourinary tract, which often occurs without any symptoms. The inflammatory reactions within the male genital tract are inevitably connected with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, especially in sperm, is harmful because it damages sperm DNA and causes apoptosis in sperm. This article reviewed the suggested mechanisms and contribution of inflammation to male infertility. In addition, the review was further strengthened by discussing how inflammation affects both fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:26913230

  7. Effect of Oxidative Stress on Male Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Gurpriya; Ong, Chloe; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2014-01-01

    Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples trying to conceive, and a male factor contributes to roughly half of these cases. Oxidative stress (OS) has been identified as one of the many mediators of male infertility by causing sperm dysfunction. OS is a state related to increased cellular damage triggered by oxygen and oxygen-derived free radicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). During this process, augmented production of ROS overwhelms the body's antioxidant defenses. While small amounts of ROS are required for normal sperm functioning, disproportionate levels can negatively impact the quality of spermatozoa and impair their overall fertilizing capacity. OS has been identified as an area of great attention because ROS and their metabolites can attack DNA, lipids, and proteins; alter enzymatic systems; produce irreparable alterations; cause cell death; and ultimately, lead to a decline in the semen parameters associated with male infertility. This review highlights the mechanisms of ROS production, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system, and recent advances in diagnostic methods; it also explores the benefits of using antioxidants in a clinical setting. PMID:24872947

  8. Biological markers of male reproductive toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, L.L.; Mattison, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    Reproduction is a complex, stepwise series of processes that begins with gametogenesis, continues through gamete interaction, implantation, embryonic development, growth, parturition, and postnatal adaptation, and is completed with the development and sexual maturation of the newly formed organism. These reproductive processes do not take place in a chemically pristine environment, but rather in an environment increasingly contaminated with the products and by-products of the chemical age in which we live. Some environmental pollutants are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, or toxic to the reproductive system, but most have not been adequately tested for reproductive toxicity. Just as reproduction is complex, biological mechanisms underlying toxicology are similarly complex and involve absorption, distribution, metabolism (toxification and/or detoxification), excretion, and repair. The synthesis of these sciences into the relatively nascent science of reproductive toxicology includes teratology, pharmacology, epidemiology, and occupational and environmental health. Female reproductive function (especially pregnancy outcome) has historically been the focus of attention, but there is increasing interest in the effects of chemical exposure on male reproductive function. Several reports have documented the physiology, biochemistry, and toxicology of male mammalian reproduction, and evaluated susceptibility of the male to the effects of exogenous chemicals.

  9. Effect of pharmacological agents on male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A R

    1987-01-01

    The main groups of drugs that affect male libido, potency, sperm production, structure and function are summarized and their mechanisms described when known. About 15% of the 200 most commonly prescribed drugs can have adverse effects on male reproduction. Sedatives, tranquilizers, hypnotics, antiandrogens and the common antihypertensive methyldopa can depress libido. Spironoacetone has been reported to impair libido, potency, sperm count and motility, although reversibly. The phenothiazines and tricyclic antidepressants may induce prolactin secretion and consequent gynecomastia. Narcotics and hallucinogens influence male sexual performance. Morphine and methadone decrease LH and testosterone, and increase prolactin. Cannabis, hashish and marijuana initially increase libido and potency, but chronic use causes sexual inversion. Chronic alcoholism also may upset testosterone metabolism, causing testicular atrophy. Cyclophosphamide, used for nephrotic syndrome, and nitrofurans, used as food preservatives, cause direct damage to seminiferous tubules. Synthetic oganochlorine pesticides, especially DDT, have also been reported to damage spermatogenic cells directly, when injected in mice. Steroids such as ACTH, hydrocortisone and dexamethasone may inhibit steroidogenesis in animals. PMID:12341906

  10. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.; Al-Juburi, A.Z.; Gandy, J.; Malek, A. )

    1990-03-01

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation or ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.

  11. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, P; Giwercman, A; Grandjean, P; Guillette, L J; Jégou, B; Jensen, T K; Jouannet, P; Keiding, N; Leffers, H; McLachlan, J A; Meyer, O; Müller, J; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Scheike, T; Sharpe, R; Sumpter, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E Figure 3. F PMID:8880001

  12. Male reproductive biology of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-04-01

    Among Aedes mosquitoes are species responsible for transmission of serious pathogens to humans. To cope with the current threats to long-term effectiveness of the traditional vector control methods, non-conventional control strategies are being developed. These include autocidal control such as the release of sterile males (sterile insect technique) and the release of Wolbachia-infected males to induce sexual sterility (incompatible insect technique) and pathogen-refractory strain replacement variations using Wolbachia. Sterile male types of techniques particularly depend on released males' ability to successfully mate with wild females. For that reason, a good understanding of male mating biology, including a thorough understanding of the reproductive system and mating capacity, increases the likelihood of success of such genetic vector control programmes. Here we review the literature concerning the reproduction of Aedes mosquitoes with an emphasis on the male biology. We consider sexual maturation, mate finding, insemination, male reproductive capacity, and the occurrence of multiple matings. We also discuss which parameters are of greatest importance for the successful implementation of autocidal control methods and propose questions for future research. PMID:24308996

  13. Environmental toxicants and male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Elissa W.P; Lie, Pearl P.Y; Li, Michelle W.M; Su, Linlin; Siu, Erica R; Yan, Helen H.N; Mannu, Jayakanthan; Mathur, Premendu P; Bonanomi, Michele; Silvestrini, Bruno; Mruk, Dolores D

    2011-01-01

    Environmental toxicants, such as cadmium and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disruptors. In utero, perinatal or neonatal exposure of BPA to rats affect the male reproductive function, such as the blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity. This effect of BPA on BTB integrity in immature rats is likely mediated via a loss of gap junction function at the BTB, failing to coordinate tight junction and anchoring junction function at the site to maintain the immunological barrier integrity. This in turn activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (Erk1/2) downstream and an increase in protein endocytosis, destabilizing the BTB. The cadmium-induced disruption of testicular dysfunction is mediated initially via its effects on the occludin/ZO-1/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) complex at the BTB, causing redistribution of proteins at the Sertoli-Sertoli cell interface, leading to the BTB disruption. The damaging effects of these toxicants to testicular function are mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) downstream, which in turn perturbs the actin bundling and accelerates the actin-branching activity, causing disruption of the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-barrier function at the BTB and perturbing spermatid adhesion at the apical ectoplasmic specialization (apical ES, a testis-specific anchoring junction type) that leads to premature release of germ cells from the testis. However, the use of specific inhibitors against MAPK was shown to block or delay the cadmium-induced testicular injury, such as BTB disruption and germ cell loss. These findings suggest that there may be a common downstream p38 and/or Erk1/2 MAPK-based signaling pathway involving polarity proteins and actin regulators that is shared between different toxicants that induce male reproductive dysfunction. As such, the use of inhibitors and/or antagonists against specific MAPKs can possibly be used to “manage” the illnesses caused by these toxicants and/or “protect” industrial

  14. Impact of Metformin on Male Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carolina; Sousa, Mário; Rabaça, Ana; Oliveira, Pedro F; Alves, Marco G; Sá, Rosália

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility has been increasing over the last decades being nowadays a pressing health problem. Diabetes mellitus (DM) can contribute directly or indirectly to male infertility due to an abnormal spermatogenesis, which results in a decreased sperm quality. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is responsible for the vast majority of DM cases, being frequently treated with oral antidiabetic drugs. Metformin is the most cost-effective therapy for the treatment of T2DM. This biguanide is an oral insulin-sensitizing agent capable of increasing insulin sensitivity and decreasing plasma fasting insulin levels. The main metabolic action of this drug occurs in the liver. However, it has been shown that metformin acts on a variety of organs including the male reproductive system. With the rising numbers of diabetic individuals among younger populations, there is an increase in the consumption of metformin in individuals of this age group. As a result, it is important to discuss the role of metformin in male fertility. This review presents the most recent data available from studies on the effects of metformin on male reproductive system. Together with the discussion of these effects, their significance to male fertility is also debated. PMID:26166607

  15. Enhanced male coloration after immune challenge increases reproductive potential.

    PubMed

    Velando, A; Beamonte-Barrientos, R; Torres, R

    2014-08-01

    In many animal species, females select a mate on the basis of the expression of secondary sexual traits. A prevalent theory suggests that male ornaments are reliable indicators of immunocompetence, because the cost of immune function prevents cheating. However, sexual signalling is a component of male reproductive effort, and an immune challenge may also alter his perceived future prospects and hence signalling effort. In this study, blue-footed booby males (Sula nebouxii) were inoculated with a diphtheria-tetanus vaccine during courtship to investigate the consequences of mounting an immune response on signalling effort. We found that, after this immune challenge, on average, males increased their signalling effort but lost more body mass compared with control males. Importantly, vaccination affected the partner's reproductive decisions: compared with control females, females paired with vaccinated males laid eggs earlier and increased clutch volume in pairs that laid early. Overall, our results suggest that blue-footed booby males invest more in sexual signals when future breeding opportunities are at risk, eliciting a greater reproductive investment by their partners. Increased signalling effort by infected individuals may contrast the idea of sexual ornaments as signals of infection status. PMID:24846565

  16. Occupational mercury exposure and male reproductive health

    SciTech Connect

    Alcser, K.H.; Brix, K.A.; Fine, L.J.; Kallenbach, L.R.; Wolfe, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed to investigate the relationship of male occupational exposure to elemental mercury and several reproductive outcomes. All subjects worked at least 4 months between 1953 and 1966 at a plant that used elemental mercury; 247 white male employees who had the highest exposures were compared to 255 matched nonexposed employees. Individual exposure to mercury was estimated from urinary mercury measurement records. Information on reproductive history and potential confounding variables was obtained through personal interview with each of the employees and with a subset of their wives. No associations were demonstrated between mercury exposure and decreased fertility or increased rates of major malformations or serious childhood illnesses. After controlling for previous miscarriage history, mercury exposure was not a significant risk factor for miscarriage. Because of this study's potential problems with long-term recall, further studies of the effect of mercury on pregnancy outcome are warranted in other populations.

  17. Long-term effects of perinatal androgenization on reproductive parameters of male rat offspring androgenization and male rat reproduction.

    PubMed

    Guerra, M T; Perobelli, J E; Sanabria, M; Anselmo-Franci, J A; Kempinas, W De Grava

    2013-08-01

    It is known that during sex differentiation, fetal androgens are critical determinants of the male phenotype. Although testosterone is necessary for normal development of male sexual behavior, perinatal androgen treatment can result in disruption of normal male sexual reproduction. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered either corn oil (vehicle) or testosterone propionate at 0.2 mg/kg from gestational day 12 until the end of lactation and the reproductive function of male offspring was evaluated at 90 (adulthood) and 270 (middle age) days of age. Perinatal androgenization in the rat provoked a reduction in sperm production and reserves in adulthood that did not affect fertility and did not persist at more advanced ages, as shown by the results at post-natal day 270. If perinatal androgenization promotes similar effects in humans of reproductive age, the results of the present work can impact male reproduction health, given the less efficient spermatogenesis and lower sperm reserves in the human epididymis, compared to rodents. PMID:23549673

  18. GnRH-agonist implantation of prepubertal male cats affects their reproductive performance and testicular LH receptor and FSH receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Mehl, N S; Khalid, M; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S

    2016-03-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of GnRH-agonist implantation in prepubertal tomcats on sexual behavior, reproductive performance, and expression of testicular LH receptor (LHR) and FSH receptor (FSHR) and also to compare the testicular characteristics, LHR and FSHR expression between prepubertal and adult tomcats. In experiment 1, 3-month-old tomcats (n = 6/group) were either treated with or left without 4.7 mg deslorelin implants. Semen collection and evaluation were performed just before castration at 48 weeks after treatment; removed testes were analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. We were able to collect semen from six non-treated cats, whereas in treated cats, semen was uncollectable. The results revealed that sexual behavior was absent in the implanted cats throughout the study period. Testicular volume was found to decrease from 30 weeks after treatment onward in the implanted cats compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Semen production was found only in non-implanted cats. Testicular tissue score, seminiferous tubule diameter, and LHR protein expression were found lower in the implanted cats (P < 0.05), but no differences were observed in mRNA expression of LHR and protein expression of FSHR between groups. The mRNA expression of FSHR was higher in the implanted (P < 0.05) compared to control cats. In experiment 2, testes from prepubertal (n = 6) and adult (n = 6) male cats were collected after castration and analyzed for mRNA and protein expression of LHR and FSHR. No differences were observed in the protein expression of LHR and FSHR between the two groups, whereas mRNA expression of FSHR was higher in prepubertal cats (P < 0.05). Testicular and epididymal weight, diameter of seminiferous tubules, and the testicular grade were higher in the adult compared to prepubertal cats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, deslorelin implants suppressed protein expression of LHR and enhanced mRNA expression of FSHR along with suppression

  19. Variation in male reproductive longevity across traditional societies.

    PubMed

    Vinicius, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Most accounts of human life history propose that women have short reproductive spans relative to their adult lifespans, while men not only remain fertile but carry on reproducing until late life. Here we argue that studies have overlooked evidence for variation in male reproductive ageing across human populations. We apply a Bayesian approach to census data from Agta hunter-gatherers and Gambian farmers to show that long post-reproductive lifespans characterise not only women but also males in some traditional human populations. We calculate three indices of reproductive ageing in men (oldest age at reproduction, male late-life reproduction, and post-reproductive representation) and identify a continuum of male reproductive longevity across eight traditional societies ranging from !Kung, Hadza and Agta hunter-gatherers exhibiting low levels of polygyny, early age at last reproduction and long post-reproductive lifespans, to male Gambian agriculturalists and Turkana pastoralists showing higher levels of polygyny, late-life reproduction and shorter post-reproductive lifespans. We conclude that the uniquely human detachment between rates of somatic senescence and reproductive decline, and the existence of post-reproductive lifespans, are features of both male and female life histories, and therefore not exclusive consequences of menopause. PMID:25405763

  20. Male reproductive hormone profile in Rwandan students.

    PubMed

    Gahutu, J B

    2014-12-01

    To illustrate the male reproductive hormone profile, a study was conducted among healthy male university students living at Butare, Rwanda (altitude: 1 768 m, barometric pressure: 629 mm Hg). Venous blood was collected in the morning, after overnight fasting. Hormonal assays were performed by classical sandwich ELISA technique. Mean values (±standard deviation SD) were follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: 3.7 ± 1.6 IU l(-1) ; luteinising hormone LH: 3.6 ± 2.2 IU l(-1) ; and total testosterone: 21.0 ± 7.5 nm. The results compare well with findings of other studies. PMID:24313662

  1. Effect of endosulfan on male reproductive development.

    PubMed

    Saiyed, Habibullah; Dewan, Aruna; Bhatnagar, Vijay; Shenoy, Udyavar; Shenoy, Rathika; Rajmohan, Hirehall; Patel, Kumud; Kashyap, Rekha; Kulkarni, Pradip; Rajan, Bagalur; Lakkad, Bhadabhai

    2003-12-01

    There is experimental evidence of adverse effects of endosulfan on the male reproductive system, but there are no human data. Therefore, we undertook a study to examine the relationship between environmental endosulfan exposure and reproductive development in male children and adolescents. The study population was composed of 117 male schoolchildren (10-19 years of age) of a village situated at the foothills of cashew plantations, where endosulfan had been aerially sprayed for more than 20 years, and 90 comparable controls with no such exposure history. The study parameters included recording of clinical history, physical examination, sexual maturity rating (SMR) according to Tanner stages, and estimation of serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and endosulfan residues (70 study and 47 control subjects). Mean +/- SE serum endosulfan levels in the study group (7.47 +/- 1.19 ppb) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in controls (1.37 +/- 0.40 ppb). Multiple regression analysis showed that SMR scoring for development of pubic hair, testes, penis, and serum testosterone level was positively related to age and negatively related to aerial exposure to endosulfan (AEE; p < 0.01). Serum LH levels were significantly positively related to AEE after controlling for age (p < 0.01). The prevalence of congenital abnormalities related to testicular descent (congenital hydrocele, undescended testis, and congenital inguinal hernia) among study and controls subjects was 5.1% and 1.1%, respectively, but the differences were statistically nonsignificant. Our study results suggest that endosulfan exposure in male children may delay sexual maturity and interfere with sex hormone synthesis. Our study is limited by small sample size and nonparticipation. PMID:14644673

  2. REPRODUCTIVE SEASONALITY OF THE MALE FLORIDA GAR, LEPISOSTEUS PLATYRHINCUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to characterize the reproductive seasonality of a wild population of male Florida gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus. We measured the gonadosomatic index, reproductive stage of the testes, seminiferous tubule area, and plasma concentrations of testoster...

  3. Blockage of the Neonatal Leptin Surge Affects the Gene Expression of Growth Factors, Glial Proteins, and Neuropeptides Involved in the Control of Metabolism and Reproduction in Peripubertal Male and Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Mela, Virginia; Díaz, Francisca; Lopez-Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Vázquez, María Jesús; Gertler, Arieh; Argente, Jesús; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Viveros, María-Paz; Chowen, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Leptin (Lep) is important in the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control. Because both Lep and metabolism influence pubertal development, we hypothesized that early changes in Lep signaling could also modulate hypothalamic (HT) systems involved in reproduction. We previously demonstrated that a single injection of a Lep antagonist (Antag) on postnatal day (PND)9, coincident with the neonatal Lep peak, induced sexually dimorphic modifications in trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the HT on PND13. Here, our aim was to investigate whether the alterations induced by Lep antagonism persist into puberty. Accordingly, male and female rats were treated with a pegylated super Lep Antag from PND5 to PND9 and killed just before the normal appearance of external signs of puberty (PND33 in females and PND43 in males). There was no effect on body weight, but in males food intake increased, subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased and HT neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related peptide mRNA levels were reduced, with no effect in females. In both sexes, the Antag increased HT mRNA levels of the kisspeptin receptor, G protein-coupled recepter 54 (Gpr54). Expression of the Lep receptor, trophic factors, and glial markers were differently affected in the HT of peripubertal males and females. Lep production in adipose tissue was decreased in Antag-treated rats of both sexes, with production of other cytokines being differentially regulated between sexes. In conclusion, in addition to the long-term effects on metabolism, changes in neonatal Lep levels modifies factors involved in reproduction that could possibly affect sexual maturation. PMID:25856428

  4. Exaggerated male genitalia intensify interspecific reproductive interference by damaging heterospecific female genitalia.

    PubMed

    Kyogoku, D; Sota, T

    2015-06-01

    Male-male competition over fertilization can select for harmful male genital structures that reduce the fitness of their mates, if the structures increase the male's fertilization success. During secondary contact between two allopatrically formed, closely related species, harmful male genitalia may also reduce the fitness of heterospecific females given interspecific copulation. We performed a laboratory experiment to determine whether the extent of genital spine exaggeration in Callosobruchus chinensis males affects the fitness of C. maculatus females by injuring their reproductive organs. We found that males with more exaggerated genital spines were more likely to injure the females via interspecific copulation and that the genital injury translated into fecundity loss. Thus, as predicted, reproductive interference by C. chinensis males on C. maculatus females is mediated by exaggeration of the genital spine, which is the evolutionary consequence of intraspecific male-male competition. Harmful male traits, such as genital spines, might generally affect the extent of interaction between closely related species. PMID:25882439

  5. Male Reproductive Cancers and Infertility: A Mutual Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Tvrda, Eva; Agarwal, Ashok; Alkuhaimi, Nawaf

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive dysfunction and malignancies related to the male gender represent a serious health concern, whose incidence has significantly risen over the past years. Prior to treatment, testicular or prostate cancer patients often display poor semen characteristics similar to subfertile or infertile patients. This fact is underscored by cases where the malignancy is often diagnosed in males who undergo a general fertility screening. This review aims to examine the associations between male infertility and reproductive cancers focusing on common etiologies and biological mechanisms underlining these pathologies. Furthermore, we discuss compelling epidemiological data hypothesizing that male reproductive failure may act as a precursor of future andrological malignancies, including testicular or prostate cancer, thus providing a stimulus for a more specific research in male reproductive health and emphasizing the importance of this relation for physicians taking care of male patients with a reproductive disease. PMID:25837470

  6. Subordinate male cichlids retain reproductive competence during social suppression

    PubMed Central

    Kustan, Jacqueline M.; Maruska, Karen P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2012-01-01

    Subordinate males, which are excluded from reproduction often save energy by reducing their investment in sperm production. However, if their position in a dominance hierarchy changes suddenly they should also rapidly attain fertilization capability. Here, we asked how social suppression and ascension to dominance influences sperm quality, spermatogenesis and reproductive competence in the cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, where reproduction is tightly coupled to social status. Dominant territorial (T) males are reproductively active while subordinate non-territorial (NT) males are suppressed, but given the opportunity, NT males will perform dominance behaviours within minutes and attain T male testes size within days. Using the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label germ cell proliferation, we found that the spermatogenic cycle takes approximately 11–12 days, and social status had no effect on proliferation, suggesting that spermatogenesis continues during reproductive suppression. Although sperm velocity did not differ among social states, NT males had reduced sperm motility. Remarkably, males ascending in status showed sperm motility equivalent to T males within 24 h. Males also successfully reproduced within hours of social opportunity, despite four to five weeks of suppression and reduced testis size. Our data suggest that NT males maintain reproductive potential during suppression possibly as a strategy to rapidly improve reproductive fitness upon social opportunity. PMID:21733892

  7. MECHANISMS OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY: BED, BATH AND BEYOND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male reproductive function depends upon the integration of a great number of highly complex biological processes and their endocrine support. Therefore it is not surprising that male reproductive health can be impaired by exposures to drugs and environmental toxicants that impact...

  8. Effects of atrazine exposure on male reproductive performance in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Andrea; Jocque, Harper; Sirot, Laura K.; Fiumera, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine is a commonly utilized herbicide to control broadleaf weeds in the agricultural setting. It can, however, have negative effects on male reproductive performance in a variety of vertebrate species. Much less is known, however, about the effects of atrazine on invertebrates. In this study, we investigated the effects of several different concentrations of larval atrazine exposure on measures of reproductive performance in adult male Drosophila melanogaster. Atrazine exposure had significant effects on a male’s mating ability and the number of eggs his partner lays when he was successful at mating. Exposed males also sired a smaller proportion of the offspring under competitive conditions when they were the first male to mate to a doubly mated female. Atrazine exposure had no measurable effect on a male’s ability to prevent a mated female from mating to another male or on the proportion of offspring sired when the exposed males were the second male to mate. Exposure upregulated expression of one male reproductive gene, ovulin, but had no effect on expression of another, sex peptide. Exposed males produced and transferred more sex peptide protein to the female during mating but ovulin protein levels were not affected. In general, we observed non-monotonic responses such that the intermediate exposure levels showed the largest reduction in male reproductive performance. This study suggests that atrazine exposure affects male reproductive performance in insects and future studies should aim to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the fitness effects of exposure. PMID:25445663

  9. Pkd1 is Required for Male Reproductive tract Development

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xuguang; Arend, Lois J.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive tract abnormalities and male infertility have higher incidence in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients than in general population. In this work, we revealed that Pkd1, whose mutations account for 85% of ADPKD cases, is essential for male reproductive tract development. Disruption of Pkd1 caused a spectrum of defects in the murine male reproductive tract. The earliest visible defect in Pkd1-/- reproductive tract was cystic dilation of the efferent ducts, which are derivatives of the mesonephric tubules. Epididymis development was delayed or arrested in the Pkd1-/- mice. No sign of epididymal coiling was seen in the Pkd1 null mice. Disruption of Pkd1 in epithelia alone using the Pax2-cre mice was sufficient to cause efferent duct dilation and coiling defect in the epididymis, suggesting that Pkd1 is critical for epithelial development and maintenance in male reproductive tract. In-depth analysis showed that Pkd1 is required to maintain tubulin cytoskeleton and important for Tgf-β/Bmp signal transduction in the epithelia of male reproductive tract. Altogether, our results provide the first direct evidence for developmental roles of Pkd1 in male reproductive tract and provide new insights in reproductive tract abnormalities and infertility in ADPKD patients. PMID:23933588

  10. Chronic exposure to low levels of dibromoacetic acid, a water disinfection by-product, adversely affects reproductive function in male rabbits

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four groups (minimum of 10/dose group) of male Dutch-Belted rabbits were treated daily to dibromoacetic acid (DBA) via drinking water beginning in utero from gestation day 15 throughout life; target dosages were 1, 5, and 50 mg DBA /kg body weight. Developmental, prepubertal as ...

  11. Behavioural and physiological consequences of male reproductive trade-offs in edible dormice ( Glis glis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fietz, Joanna; Klose, Stefan M.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2010-10-01

    Testosterone mediates male reproductive trade-offs in vertebrates including mammals. In male edible dormice ( Glis glis), reproductivity linked to high levels of testosterone reduces their ability to express torpor, which may be expected to dramatically increase thermoregulatory costs. Aims of this study were therefore to analyse behavioural and physiological consequences of reproductive activity in male edible dormice under ecologically and evolutionary relevant conditions in the field. As we frequently encountered sleeping groups in the field, we hypothesized that social thermoregulation should be an important measure to reduce energy expenditure especially in sexually active male edible dormice. Our results revealed that the occurrence of sleeping groups was negatively influenced by male body mass but not by reproductive status or ambient temperature. In reproductive as in non-reproductive males, the number of individuals huddling together was negatively influenced by their body mass. Thus in general males with a high body mass were sitting in smaller groups than males with a low body mass. However, in reproductive males group size was further negatively affected by ambient temperature and positively by testes size. Thus breeders formed larger sleeping groups at lower ambient temperatures and males with larger testes were found in larger groups than males with smaller testes. Measurements of oxygen consumption demonstrated that grouping behaviour represents an efficient strategy to reduce energy expenditure in edible dormice as it reduced energy requirements by almost 40%. In summary, results of this field study showcase how sexually active male edible dormice may, through behavioural adjustment, counterbalance high thermoregulatory costs associated with reproductive activity.

  12. Novel roles of Pkd2 in male reproductive system development

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xuguang; Arend, Lois J

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is one of the most common inherited genetic diseases, caused by mutations in PKD1 and/ or PKD2. Infertility and reproductive tract abnormalities in male ADPKD patients are very common and have higher incidence than in the general population. In this work, we reveal novel roles of Pkd2 for male reproductive system development. Disruption of Pkd2 caused dilation of mesonephric tubules/efferent ducts, failure of epididymal coiling, and defective testicular development. Deletion of Pkd2 in the epithelia alone was sufficient to cause reproductive tract defects seen in Pkd2−/− mice, suggesting that epithelial Pkd2 plays a pivotal role for development and maintenance of the male reproductive tract. In the testis, Pkd2 also plays a role in interstitial tissue and testicular cord development. In-depth analysis of epithelial-specific knockout mice revealed that Pkd2 is critical to maintain cellular phenotype and developmental signaling in the male reproductive system. Taken together, our data for the first time reveal novel roles for Pkd2 in male reproductive system development and provide new insights in male reproductive system abnormality and infertility in ADPKD patients. PMID:24951251

  13. Reproductive interference between Rana dalmatina and Rana temporaria affects reproductive success in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Hettyey, Attila; Vági, Balázs; Kovács, Tibor; Ujszegi, János; Katona, Patrik; Szederkényi, Márk; Pearman, Peter B; Griggio, Matteo; Hoi, Herbert

    2014-10-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that reproductive interference between heterospecifics can seriously affect individual fitness; support from field studies for such an effect has, however, remained scarce. We studied reproductive interference in 25 natural breeding ponds in an area where two ranid frogs, Rana dalmatina and Rana temporaria, co-occur. The breeding seasons of the two species usually overlap and males of both species are often found in amplexus with heterospecific females, even though matings between heterospecifics produce no viable offspring. We estimated species abundance ratios based on the number of clutches laid and evaluated fertilization success. In ponds with low spatial complexity and a species abundance ratio biased towards R. temporaria, the average fertilization success of R. dalmatina eggs decreased, while this relationship was not detectable in spatially more complex ponds. Fertilization success of R. temporaria did not decrease with increasing relative numbers of heterospecifics. This asymmetry in fitness effects of reproductive interference may be attributed to R. temporaria males being more competitive in scramble competition for females than R. dalmatina males. Our study is among the first to demonstrate that in natural breeding populations of vertebrates interference among heterospecifics has the potential to substantially lower reproductive success at the population level, which may in turn affect population dynamics. PMID:25138258

  14. The role of dendritic cells in male reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Duan, Yong-Gang

    2016-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells. The central role of various DC subsets as bridges between innate and adaptive immunity has become more and more evident. However, the role of DC subsets in male reproductive tract remains largely unexplored, in particular distinct DC subsets (including myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs), their maturation stage, and tissue distribution, as well as state of health or disease. Furthermore, infection and inflammation of male genital tract are thought to be a primary etiological factor of male infertility. This review sheds some light on this complex and rapidly growing field. It summarized the recent findings and deals with the characterization and role of DCs in male reproductive tract, that is, testis, epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicle, semen, and foreskin, which might help to understand the immunopathological mechanisms of male infertility and design effective vaccines for male reproductive health. PMID:27353336

  15. Reproductive hacking. A male seminal protein acts through intact reproductive pathways in female Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, C Dustin; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2014-01-01

    Seminal proteins are critical for reproductive success in all animals that have been studied. Although seminal proteins have been identified in many taxa, and female reproductive responses to receipt of these proteins have been documented in several, little is understood about the mechanisms by which seminal proteins affect female reproductive physiology. To explore this topic, we investigated how a Drosophila seminal protein, ovulin, increases ovulation rate in mated females. Ovulation is a relatively simple physiological process, with known female regulators: previous studies have shown that ovulation rate is promoted by the neuromodulator octopamine (OA) in D. melanogaster and other insects. We found that ovulin stimulates ovulation by increasing OA signaling in the female. This finding supports a model in which a male seminal protein acts through "hacking" a well-conserved, regulatory system females use to adjust reproductive output, rather than acting downstream of female mechanisms of control or in parallel pathways altogether. We also discuss similarities between 2 forms of intersexual control of behavior through chemical communication: seminal proteins and pheromones. PMID:25483253

  16. Adhesion-GPCRs in the male reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Davies, Ben; Kirchhoff, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    The male reproductive tract expresses a diverse array of adhesion-GPCRs, many in a highly specific and regulated manner. Despite this specificity of expression, little is known about the function of this receptor family in male reproductive physiology. Insights into function are beginning to emerge with the increasing availability of genetically modified mice harbouring mutations in these genes. Gpr64 is the best characterised of the adhesion-GPCRs in the male reproductive system and the phenotype of Gpr64 knock-out mice implicates this receptor in the regulation of fluid absorption in the efferent ducts and proximal epididymis. This chapter summarizes recent data concerning this receptor and other family members in the male reproductive system. PMID:21618837

  17. Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Male Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can interfere with normal hormonal balance and may exert adverse consequences on humans. The male reproductive system may be susceptible to the effects of such environmental toxicants. This review discusses the recent progress in scientific data mainly from epidemiology studies on the associations between EDCs and male reproductive health and our understanding of possible mechanisms associated with the effects of EDCs on male reproductive health. Finally, the review provides recommendations on future research to enhance our understanding of EDCs and male reproductive health. The review highlights the need for (1) well-defined longitudinal epidemiology studies, with appropriately designed exposure assessment to determine potential causal relationships; (2) chemical and biochemical approaches aimed at a better understanding of the mechanism of action of xenoestrogens with regard to low-dose effects, and assessment of identify genetic susceptibility factors associated with the risk of adverse effects following exposure to EDCs. PMID:24926476

  18. Reproductive success in wild and hatchery male coho salmon

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Bryan D.; Garner, Shawn R.; Fleming, Ian A.; Gross, Mart R.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon produced by hatcheries have lower fitness in the wild than naturally produced salmon, but the factors underlying this difference remain an active area of research. We used genetic parentage analysis of alevins produced by experimentally mixed groups of wild and hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to quantify male paternity in spawning hierarchies. We identify factors influencing paternity and revise previously published behavioural estimates of reproductive success for wild and hatchery males. We observed a strong effect of hierarchy size and hierarchy position on paternity: in two-male hierarchies, the first male sired 63% (±29%; s.d.) of the alevins and the second male 37% (±29%); in three-male hierarchies, the first male sired 64% (±26%), the second male 24% (±20%) and the third male 12% (±10%). As previously documented, hatchery males hold inferior positions in spawning hierarchies, but we also discovered that hatchery males had only 55–84% the paternity of wild males when occupying the same position within a spawning hierarchy. This paternity difference may result from inferior performance of hatchery males during sperm competition, female mate choice for wild males, or differential offspring survival. Regardless of its cause, the combination of inferior hierarchical position and inferior success at a position resulted in hatchery males having only half (51%) the reproductive success of wild males. PMID:26361548

  19. Alternative reproductive tactics in male Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, M; Waterman, J M; Bennett, N C

    2008-06-01

    In some animal societies, males vary in the strategies and tactics that they use for reproduction. Explanations for the evolution of alternative tactics have usually focussed on extrinsic factors such as social status, the environment or population density and have rarely examined proximate differences between individuals. Anecdotal evidence suggests that two alternative reproductive tactics occur in cooperatively breeding male Cape ground squirrels. Here we show that there is strong empirical support for physiological and behavioural differences to uphold this claim. 'Dispersed' males have higher resting metabolic rates and a heightened pituitary activity, compared with philopatric 'natal' males that have higher circulating cortisol levels. Dispersed males also spend more time moving and less time feeding than natal males. Additionally, lone males spend a greater proportion of their time vigilant and less of their time foraging than those that were in groups. The choice of whether to stay natal or become a disperser may depend on a number of factors such as age, natal group kin structure and reproductive suppression, and the likelihood of successful reproduction whilst remaining natal. Measuring proximate factors, such as behavioural and endocrine function, may provide valuable insights into mechanisms that underlie the evolution of alternative reproductive tactics. PMID:18325548

  20. Neoplasia of the male reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Brinsko, S P

    1998-12-01

    Genital neoplasms in the male horse are relatively uncommon. Squamous cell carcinomas and squamous papillomas are the most commonly diagnosed neoplasms of the penis and prepuce. Geldings appear to be overrepresented for these types of neoplasms, and accumulation of smegma may be a contributing factor. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for salvaging these organs before lesions become excessively large and invasive or are allowed to metastasize. Newer treatment modalities such as 5-fluorouracil appear to be promising alternatives to surgical excision. Although generally considered to be uncommon, testicular tumors may occur more frequently than previously thought and have the potential for devastating effects on stallion fertility. Cryptorchidism appears to play a role in the development of equine testicular tumors, especially teratomas. Seminoma is by far the most common testicular tumor of the mature stallion. Seminomas are rapidly growing tumors with a greater potential to metastasize in the horse than in other domestic species. Leydig cell and Sertoli cell tumors have been reported but are relatively rare in the stallion. Orchiectomy is the standard treatment for most testicular tumors. In certain circumstances, however, such as neoplasia occurring in the only functional testis, local cryotherapy of testicular tumors may prolong the breeding career of an affected stallion. PMID:9891722

  1. Reproductive costs in terrestrial male vertebrates: insights from bird studies.

    PubMed

    Bleu, Josefa; Gamelon, Marlène; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2016-01-27

    Reproduction requires resources that cannot be allocated to other functions resulting in direct reproductive costs (i.e. trade-offs between current reproduction and subsequent survival/reproduction). In wild vertebrates, direct reproductive costs have been widely described in females, but their occurrence in males remains to be explored. To fill this gap, we gathered 53 studies on 48 species testing direct reproductive costs in male vertebrates. We found a trade-off between current reproduction and subsequent performances in 29% of the species and in every clade. As 73% of the studied species are birds, we focused on that clade to investigate whether such trade-offs are associated with (i) levels of paternal care, (ii) polygyny or (iii) pace of life. More precisely for this third question, it is expected that fast species (i.e. short lifespan, early maturity, high fecundity) pay a cost in terms of survival, whereas slow species (with opposite characteristics) do so in terms of fecundity. Our findings tend to support this hypothesis. Finally, we pointed out the potential confounding effects that should be accounted for when investigating reproductive costs in males and strongly encourage the investigation of such costs in more clades to understand to what extent our results are relevant for other vertebrates. PMID:26791619

  2. Reproductive costs in terrestrial male vertebrates: insights from bird studies

    PubMed Central

    Gamelon, Marlène; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction requires resources that cannot be allocated to other functions resulting in direct reproductive costs (i.e. trade-offs between current reproduction and subsequent survival/reproduction). In wild vertebrates, direct reproductive costs have been widely described in females, but their occurrence in males remains to be explored. To fill this gap, we gathered 53 studies on 48 species testing direct reproductive costs in male vertebrates. We found a trade-off between current reproduction and subsequent performances in 29% of the species and in every clade. As 73% of the studied species are birds, we focused on that clade to investigate whether such trade-offs are associated with (i) levels of paternal care, (ii) polygyny or (iii) pace of life. More precisely for this third question, it is expected that fast species (i.e. short lifespan, early maturity, high fecundity) pay a cost in terms of survival, whereas slow species (with opposite characteristics) do so in terms of fecundity. Our findings tend to support this hypothesis. Finally, we pointed out the potential confounding effects that should be accounted for when investigating reproductive costs in males and strongly encourage the investigation of such costs in more clades to understand to what extent our results are relevant for other vertebrates. PMID:26791619

  3. ATP binding cassette G transporters and plant male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guochao; Shi, Jianxin; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-01-01

    The function of ATP Binding Cassette G (ABCG) transporters in the regulation of plant vegetative organs development has been well characterized in various plant species. In contrast, their function in reproductive development particularly male reproductive development received considerably less attention till some ABCG transporters was reported to be associated with anther and pollen wall development in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa) during the past decade. This mini-review summarizes current knowledge of ABCG transporters regarding to their roles in male reproduction and underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms, which makes it evident that ABCG transporters represent one of those conserved and divergent components closely related to male reproduction in plants. This mini-review also discusses the current challenges and future perspectives in this particular field. PMID:26906115

  4. Hypoxaemia affects male reproduction: a case study of how to differentiate between primary and secondary hypoxic testicular toxicity due to chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Bomhard, Ernst M; Gelbke, Heinz-Peter

    2013-07-01

    Classification for fertility is based on two conditions, namely on evidence of an adverse effect on sexual function and fertility and that the effect is not secondary to other toxic effects. To decide on an adverse effect is a relatively simple day-to-day decision in toxicology but whether this effect is secondary often leads to serious controversy. As the seminiferous epithelium operates on the verge of hypoxia, oxygen deficit can lead to secondary impairment of testicular function. This is well known from healthy mountaineers exposing themselves to high altitude. They have reduced blood oxygen content that goes in parallel with impairment of testicular function and this effect remains for some time in spite of a compensatory polycythaemia. Similar findings are described for experimental animals exposed to hypobaric oxygen/high altitude. In addition, testicular function is affected in severe diseases in humans associated with systemic oxygen deficit like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sickle cell disease or beta-thalassaemia as well as in transgenic animals simulating haemolytic anaemia or sickle cell disease. The problem of insufficient oxygen supply as the underlying cause for testicular impairment has received relatively little attention in toxicology, mainly because blood oxygen content is generally not measured in these animal experiments. The difficulties associated with the decision whether testicular toxicity is primary or secondary to hypoxia are exemplified by the results of inhalation studies with nickel subsulphide and gallium arsenide (GaAs). Both of these particulate substances lead to severe lung toxicity that might impair oxygen uptake, but testicular toxicity is only observed with GaAs. This may first be explained by different effects on the blood: nickel subsulphide inhalation leads to a compensatory erythropoiesis that may mitigate pulmonary lack of oxygen uptake. In contrast, GaAs exposure is associated with microcytic haemolytic

  5. EFFECTS OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE EXPOSURE ON MALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study was designed to evaluate the influences of trichloroethylene (TCE) on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, information was obtained on the distribution and metabolism of TCE. At 100 days of age, male rats were allowed to copulate with ovariectomize...

  6. Developmental stress increases reproductive success in male zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Crino, Ondi L; Prather, Colin T; Driscoll, Stephanie C; Good, Jeffrey M; Breuner, Creagh W

    2014-11-22

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to stress during development can have sustained effects on animal phenotype and performance across life-history stages. For example, developmental stress has been shown to decrease the quality of sexually selected traits (e.g. bird song), and therefore is thought to decrease reproductive success. However, animals exposed to developmental stress may compensate for poor quality sexually selected traits by pursuing alternative reproductive tactics. Here, we examine the effects of developmental stress on adult male reproductive investment and success in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We tested the hypothesis that males exposed to developmental stress sire fewer offspring through extra-pair copulations (EPCs), but invest more in parental care. To test this hypothesis, we fed nestlings corticosterone (CORT; the dominant avian stress hormone) during the nestling period and measured their adult reproductive success using common garden breeding experiments. We found that nestlings reared by CORT-fed fathers received more parental care compared with nestlings reared by control fathers. Consequently, males fed CORT during development reared nestlings in better condition compared with control males. Contrary to the prediction that developmental stress decreases male reproductive success, we found that CORT-fed males also sired more offspring and were less likely to rear non-genetic offspring compared with control males, and thus had greater overall reproductive success. These data are the first to demonstrate that developmental stress can have a positive effect on fitness via changes in reproductive success and provide support for an adaptive role of developmental stress in shaping animal phenotype. PMID:25297860

  7. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Michelle W.M.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that male reproductive function is modulated via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. The MAPK cascade is involved in numerous male reproductive processes, including spermatogenesis, sperm maturation and activation, capacitation and acrosome reaction, before fertilization of the oocyte. In this review, we discuss the latest findings in this rapidly developing field regarding the role of MAPK in male reproduction in animal models and in human spermatozoa in vitro. This research will facilitate the design of future studies in humans, although much work is needed before this information can be used to manage male infertility and environmental toxicant-induced testicular injury in men, such as blood–testis-barrier disruption. PMID:19303360

  8. The Transcriptome of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) Male Reproductive Organs

    PubMed Central

    Bretãs, Jorge A. C.; Mazzoni, Camila J.; Souza, Nataly A.; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Wagner, Glauber; Davila, Alberto M. R.; Peixoto, Alexandre A.

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that genes involved in the reproductive biology of insect disease vectors are potential targets for future alternative methods of control. Little is known about the molecular biology of reproduction in phlebotomine sand flies and there is no information available concerning genes that are expressed in male reproductive organs of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis and a species complex. Methods/Principal Findings We generated 2678 high quality ESTs (“Expressed Sequence Tags”) of L. longipalpis male reproductive organs that were grouped in 1391 non-redundant sequences (1136 singlets and 255 clusters). BLAST analysis revealed that only 57% of these sequences share similarity with a L. longipalpis female EST database. Although no more than 36% of the non-redundant sequences showed similarity to protein sequences deposited in databases, more than half of them presented the best-match hits with mosquito genes. Gene ontology analysis identified subsets of genes involved in biological processes such as protein biosynthesis and DNA replication, which are probably associated with spermatogenesis. A number of non-redundant sequences were also identified as putative male reproductive gland proteins (mRGPs), also known as male accessory gland protein genes (Acps). Conclusions The transcriptome analysis of L. longipalpis male reproductive organs is one step further in the study of the molecular basis of the reproductive biology of this important species complex. It has allowed the identification of genes potentially involved in spermatogenesis as well as putative mRGPs sequences, which have been studied in many insect species because of their effects on female post-mating behavior and physiology and their potential role in sexual selection and speciation. These data open a number of new avenues for further research in the molecular and evolutionary reproductive biology of sand flies. PMID:22496818

  9. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... decreases. The level of the male sex hormone, testosterone stays the same or decreases gradually. There may ... less intense. This may be related to decreased testosterone level. It may also result from psychological or ...

  10. Acoustic experience shapes alternative mating tactics and reproductive investment in male field crickets.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nathan W; Gray, Brian; Zuk, Marlene

    2010-05-11

    Developmental plasticity allows juvenile animals to assess environmental cues and adaptively shape behavioral and morphological traits to maximize fitness in their adult environment. Sexual signals are particularly conspicuous cues, making them likely candidates for mediating such responses. Plasticity in male reproductive traits is a common phenomenon, but empirical evidence for signal-mediated plasticity in males is lacking. We tested whether experience of acoustic sexual signals during juvenile stages influences the development of three adult traits in the continuously breeding field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus: male mating tactics, reproductive investment, and condition. All three traits were affected by juvenile acoustic experience. Males of this species produce a long-range calling song to attract receptive females, but they can also behave as satellites by parasitizing other males' calls. Males reared in an environment mimicking a population with many calling males were less likely to exhibit satellite behavior, invested more in reproductive tissues, and attained higher condition than males reared in a silent environment. These results contrast with other studies and demonstrate how the effects of juvenile social experience on adult male morphology, reproductive investment, and behavior may subsequently influence sexual selection and phenotypic evolution. PMID:20417103

  11. Increase in male reproductive success and female reproductive investment in invasive populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis.

    PubMed

    Laugier, Guillaume J M; Le Moguédec, Gilles; Tayeh, Ashraf; Loiseau, Anne; Osawa, Naoya; Estoup, Arnaud; Facon, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive strategy affects population dynamics and genetic parameters that can, in turn, affect evolutionary processes during the course of biological invasion. Life-history traits associated with reproductive strategy are therefore potentially good candidates for rapid evolutionary shifts during invasions. In a series of mating trials, we examined mixed groups of four males from invasive and native populations of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis mating freely during 48 hours with one female of either type. We recorded the identity of the first male to copulate and after the 48 h-period, we examined female fecundity and share of paternity, using molecular markers. We found that invasive populations have a different profile of male and female reproductive output. Males from invasive populations are more likely to mate first and gain a higher proportion of offspring with both invasive and native females. Females from invasive populations reproduce sooner, lay more eggs, and have offspring sired by a larger number of fathers than females from native populations. We found no evidence of direct inbreeding avoidance behaviour in both invasive and native females. This study highlights the importance of investigating evolutionary changes in reproductive strategy and associated traits during biological invasions. PMID:24204741

  12. The synthetic progestin megestrol acetate adversely affects zebrafish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Han, Jian; Wang, Qiangwei; Wang, Xianfeng; Li, Yonggang; Wen, Sheng; Liu, Shan; Ying, Guangguo; Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic progestins contaminate the aquatic ecosystem, and may cause adverse health effects on aquatic organisms. Megestrol acetate (MTA) is present in the aquatic environment, but its possible effects on fish reproduction are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the endocrine disruption and impact of MTA on fish reproduction. After a pre-exposure period of 14 days, reproductively mature zebrafish (Danio rerio) (F0) were exposed to MTA at environmental concentrations (33, 100, 333, and 666 ng/L) for 21 days. Egg production was decreased in F0 fish exposed to MTA, with a significant decrease at 666 ng/L. The exposure significantly decreased the circulating concentrations of estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) in female fish or 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) in male fish. MTA exposure significantly downregulated the transcription of certain genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. MTA did not affect early embryonic development or hatching success in the F1 generation. The present study showed that MTA is a potent endocrine disruptor in fish, and short-term exposure to MTA could significantly affect reproduction in fish and negatively impact the fish population. PMID:24647012

  13. Agonistic reciprocity is associated with reduced male reproductive success within haremic social networks

    PubMed Central

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Willis, Madelyne C.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    While individual variation in social behaviour is ubiquitous and causes social groups to differ in structure, how these structural differences affect fitness remains largely unknown. We used social network analysis of replicate bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) harems to identify the reproductive correlates of social network structure. In stable groups, we quantified agonistic behaviour, reproduction and steroid hormones, which can both affect and respond to social/reproductive cues. We identified distinct, optimal social structures associated with different reproductive measures. Male hatching success (HS) was negatively associated with agonistic reciprocity, a network structure that describes whether subordinates ‘reciprocated’ agonism received from dominants. Egg laying was associated with the individual network positions of the male and dominant female. Thus, males face a trade-off between promoting structures that facilitate egg laying versus HS. Whether this reproductive conflict is avoidable remains to be determined. We also identified different social and/or reproductive roles for 11-ketotestosterone, 17β-oestradiol and cortisol, suggesting that specific neuroendocrine mechanisms may underlie connections between network structure and fitness. This is one of the first investigations of the reproductive and neuroendocrine correlates of social behaviour and network structure in replicate, naturalistic social groups and supports network structure as an important target for natural selection. PMID:26156769

  14. Reproductive function in male patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Condorelli, R A; Di Mauro, M; Lo Presti, D; Mongioì, L M; Russo, G; Calogero, A E

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate conventional and some of the main bio-functional spermatozoa parameters, serum gonadal hormones and didymo-epididymal ultrasound features in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). DM1 affects an increasing number of men of reproductive age. Diabetes may affect male reproduction by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, causing sexual dysfunction or disrupting male accessory gland function. However, data on spermatozoa parameters and other aspects of the reproductive function in these patients are scanty. Thirty-two patients with DM1 [27.0 (25.0-30.0 years)] and 20 age-matched fertile healthy men [28.0 (27.25-30.75 years)] were enrolled. Patients with diabetic neuropathy, other endocrine disorders or conditions known to alter spermatozoa parameters were excluded. Each subject underwent semen analysis, blood withdrawal for fasting and post-prandial glycaemia, hormonal analysis and didymo-epididymal ultrasound evaluation before and after ejaculation. Patients with DM1 had a lower percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility [10.0 (7.0-12.75) vs. 45.0 (42.0-47.75) %; p < 0.01] and a higher percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal mitochondrial function than controls [47.0 (43.0-55.0) vs. 2.0 (1.0-5.0) %; p < 0.01]. Patients also had greater post-ejaculatory diameters of cephalic [11.5 (10.2-13.6) vs. 6.0 (4.0-7.0) mm; p < 0.01] and caudal epididymis [5.5 (4.00-7.55) vs. 3.0 (2.0-4.0) mm; p < 0.01] compared to controls, suggesting a lack of the physiological post-ejaculation epididymal shrinkage. Correlation analysis suggested that progressive motility was associated with fasting glucose (r = -0.68; p < 0.01). The other parameters did not show any significant difference. Patients with DM1 had a lower percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility, impaired mitochondrial function and epididymal post-ejaculatory dysfunction. These findings may explain why patients with DM1 experience fertility

  15. Male reproductive system neoplasms. Special listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This Special Listing of Current Cancer Research Projects is a publication of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute. Each Listing contains descriptions of ongoing projects in one selected cancer research area. The research areas include: Experimental prostate carcinogenesis and related biology; Epidemiology of prostatic neoplasms; Preclinical studies of prostatic cancers; Diagnosis and prognosis of prostatic cancer; Therapy of prostatic cancer; Experimental testicular carcinogenesis and related biology; Epidemiology of testicular cancer; Diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of testicular neoplasms; Penile and other reproductive system neoplasms.

  16. Vitamin C partially attenuates male reproductive deficits in hyperglycemic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hyperglycemia can impair the male reproductive system in experimental animals and in men during reproductive age. Studies have shown that vitamin C has some good effects on male reproductive system, and therefore vitamin C treatment could attenuate the dysfunctions in this system caused by hyperglycemia. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate whether vitamin C treatment could attenuate reproductive dysfunctions in hyperglycemic male rats. Methods Adult male rats were divided into 3 groups: a normoglycemic (n = 10) and two hyperglycemic (that received a single dose of streptozotocin - 40 mg/kg BW). The two last groups (n = 10 per group) were divided into: hyperglycemic control (Hy) and hyperglycemic + 150 mg of vitamin C (HyC), by gavage during 30 consecutive days. The normoglycemic and hyperglycemic control groups received the vehicle (water). The first day after the treatment, the rats were anesthetized and killed to evaluate oxidative stress biomarkers (TBARS, SOD, GSHt and GSH-Px) in the erythrocytes, body and reproductive organ weights, sperm parameters, plasma hormone levels (FSH, LH and testosterone), testicular and epididymal histo-morphometry and histopathology. Results Compared with the normoglycemic animals, hyperglycemic control rats showed reduced weight of the body and reproductive organ but testis weight was maintained. It was also observed reduction of testosterone and LH levels, seminiferous tubular diameter, sperm motility and sperm counts in the epididymis. In addition, there was an increase in morphological abnormalities on spermatozoa as well as in oxidative stress level. Vitamin C reduced the oxidative stress level, diminished the number of abnormal sperm, and increased testosterone and LH levels and seminiferous tubular diameter but did not show improvement of sperm motility in relation to the hyperglycemic control group. Hyperglycemia caused a rearrangement in the epididymal tissue components (stroma, ephitelium and lumen

  17. Life as a bachelor: quantifying the success of an alternative reproductive tactic in male blue monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Cords, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In species that live in one-male groups, resident males monopolize access to a group of females and are assumed to have higher reproductive success than bachelors. We tested this assumption using genetic, demographic, and behavioral data from 8 groups of wild blue monkeys observed over 10 years to quantify reproduction by residents and bachelors and compare the success of the two tactics. We used maximum-likelihood methods to assign sires to 104 offspring born in the study groups, 36 of which were sired by extra-group males, i.e., residents of neighboring groups and bachelors. Among these extra-group males, high-ranking males (many of whom were neighboring residents) were more likely to sire offspring than low-ranking males, but the time these visiting males spent in the mother’s group when she conceived (male presence) did not predict their relative success. When bachelors competed for reproduction with other bachelors, neither rank nor male presence during the mother’s conceptive period affected the probability of siring an offspring, suggesting that highly opportunistic mating with conceptive females is important in bachelor reproduction. In a second analysis, we used long-term data to estimate resident and bachelor reproductive success over the long term, and particularly to determine if there are any circumstances in which a typical bachelor may sire as many offspring as a typical resident during one or two periods of residency. Our findings generally support the assumption of a resident reproductive advantage because in most circumstances, a lifelong bachelor would be unable to sire as many offspring as a resident. However, a bachelor who performs at the average rate in the average number of groups for several years may have similar lifetime reproductive success as a male whose reproduction is limited to one short period of residency, especially in a small group. Our findings suggest that one should not assume a resident reproductive advantage for males

  18. Leg impairment magnifies reproductive costs in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata.

    PubMed

    Harwood, James F; Vargas, Roger I; Carey, James R

    2013-04-01

    Injuries frequently accumulate with age in nature. Despite the commonality of injury and the resulting impairment, there are limited experimental data for the effects of impairment on life history trade-offs between reproduction and survival in insects. We tested the effects of artificial injury and the resulting impairment on the reproductive costs and behavior of male medflies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Treatment flies were impaired by amputating tarsomere segments 2-5 from the right foreleg at either eclosion or age 22 days. The effect of impairment and age on the cost of reproduction was tested by varying the timing of female availability among the treatments. Courtship behavior and copulation rates were observed hourly from age 2-5 days to determine the effects of impairment on reproductive behavior. Female access combined with the impairment reduced the life expectancy of males more than the impairment alone, whereas the health effect of amputation was influenced by age. Conversely, the risk of death due to impairment was not influenced by the males' mating status prior to amputation. The males' copulation success was reduced due to impairment, whereas courtship behavior was not affected. Impairment does not reduce the males' impulse to mate but decreases the females' receptivity to copulation, while also increasing the cost of each successful mating. Overall, minor impairment lowers the reproductive success of males and reduces longevity. PMID:23525182

  19. Early growth, dominance acquisition and lifetime reproductive success in male and female cooperative meerkats.

    PubMed

    English, Sinead; Huchard, Elise; Nielsen, Johanna F; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2013-11-01

    In polygynous species, variance in reproductive success is higher in males than females. There is consequently stronger selection for competitive traits in males and early growth can have a greater influence on later fitness in males than in females. As yet, little is known about sex differences in the effect of early growth on subsequent breeding success in species where variance in reproductive success is higher in females than males, and competitive traits are under stronger selection in females. Greater variance in reproductive success has been documented in several singular cooperative breeders. Here, we investigated consequences of early growth for later reproductive success in wild meerkats. We found that, despite the absence of dimorphism, females who exhibited faster growth until nutritional independence were more likely to become dominant, whereas early growth did not affect dominance acquisition in males. Among those individuals who attained dominance, there was no further influence of early growth on dominance tenure or lifetime reproductive success in males or females. These findings suggest that early growth effects on competitive abilities and fitness may reflect the intensity of intrasexual competition even in sexually monomorphic species. PMID:24340181

  20. Effect of exposure to lead on reproduction in male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Piasek, M.; Kostial, K.

    1987-09-01

    The objective of present study was to determine the effect of chronic oral exposure to different levels of lead on male reproductive performance since oral exposure data are more relevant to human environmental exposure. Additionally, most previous results have been obtained after parenteral administration of lead. These experiments were performed on rats by using the incidence of pregnancy to assess male fertility and litter size and pup weight as indicators of the lead effect on perinatal development. Similar parameters were used in reproduction studies by other authors.

  1. Comparative reproductive output of androphilic and gynephilic males in samoa.

    PubMed

    Vasey, Paul L; Parker, Jessica L; VanderLaan, Doug P

    2014-02-01

    Debate exists in the behavioral sciences regarding the extent to which androphilic males reproduce compared to their gynephilic counterparts. Quantitative data that might speak to this debate are surprisingly rare. Here, we compared the reproductive output of 235 transgendered, exclusively androphilic Samoan males (known locally as fa'afafine) to that of 447 exclusively gynephilic Samoan males. Samoan gynephilic male participants fathered significantly more children than fa'afafine participants. In fact, none of the fa'afafine in our sample produced offspring. On the basis of this evidence and anecdotal accounts in the anthropological literature, we contend that absence of reproductive output is a near absolute cross-cultural universal characterizing non-Western, transgendered androphilic ("third-gender") males. Models for the evolution of male androphilia must account for how genes associated with this sexual orientation originated in the past and persisted in populations over time despite the fact that the vast majority of androphilic males have no direct reproductive success. PMID:24132776

  2. Fishery induces sperm depletion and reduction in male reproductive potential for crab species under male-biased harvest strategy.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Luis Miguel; Rosas, Yenifer; Fuentes, Juan Pablo; Riveros, Marcela Paz; Chaparro, Oscar Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Sperm depletion in males can occur when polygynous species are intensively exploited under a male-biased management strategy. In fisheries involving crabs species, the effects of this type of management on the reproductive potential is far from being understood. This study tests whether male-biased management of the principal Chilean crab fishery is able to affect the potential capacity of Metacarcinus edwardsii males to transfer sperm to females. Five localities in southern Chile, recording contrasting crab fishery landing, were selected to assess the potential of sperm depletion triggered by fishery. Seasonally, male crabs from each locality were obtained. Dry weight and histological condition of vasa deferentia and the Vaso-Somatic Index (VSI) were determined in order to use them as proxies for sperm depletion and male reproductive condition. A manipulative experiment was performed in the laboratory to estimate vasa deferentia weight and VSI from just-mated males in order to obtain a reference point for the potential effects of the fishery on sperm reserves. Sperm storage capacity is significantly affected by fisheries; during the mating season vasa deferentia from localities with low fishery intensity were heavier than those from high intensity fisheries, and these differences were even more evident in large males. Histological section showed that this disparity in vasa deferentia weight was explained principally by differences in the quantity of spermatophores rather than other seminal material. VSI was always higher in males from localities with low fishery intensity. Males from localities with high fishery intensity showed little capacity to recover sperm reserves and the VSI of these males remained below the values of the just-mated males. Detriment in the capacity of males to transfer sperm is the first step to sperm limitation in an exploited population, thus detection of sperm depletion can be an alert to introduce changes in the current management of

  3. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... a scarlike tissue. This condition, called benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), affects about 50% of men. BPH may ... Many physical age-related changes, such as prostate enlargement or testicular atrophy, are not preventable. Getting treated ...

  4. The influence of distinct pollinators on female and male reproductive success in the Rocky Mountain columbine.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Johanne; Holmquist, Karsten G A

    2009-09-01

    Although there are many reasons to expect distinct pollinator types to differentially affect a plant's reproductive success, few studies have directly examined this question. Here, we contrast the impact of two kinds of pollinators on reproductive success via male and female functions in the Rocky Mountain columbine, Aquilegia coerulea. We set up pollinator exclusion treatments in each of three patches where Aquilegia plants were visited by either day pollinators (majority bumble bees), by evening pollinators (hawkmoths), or by both (control). Day pollinators collected pollen and groomed, whereas evening pollinators collected nectar but did not groom. Maternal parents, potential fathers and progeny arrays were genotyped at five microsatellite loci. We estimated female outcrossing rate and counted seeds to measure female reproductive success and used paternity analysis to determine male reproductive success. Our results document that bumble bees frequently moved pollen among patches of plants and that, unlike hawkmoths, pollen moved by bumble bees sired more outcrossed seeds when it remained within a patch as opposed to moving between patches. Pollinator type differentially affected the outcrossing rate but not seed set, the number of outcrossed seeds or overall male reproductive success. Multiple visits to a plant and more frequent visits by bumble bees could help to explain the lack of impact of pollinator type on overall reproductive success. The increase in selfing rate with hawkmoths likely resulted from the abundant pollen available in experimental flowers. Our findings highlighted a new type of pollinator interactions that can benefit a plant species. PMID:19674307

  5. Effect of glyphosate on reproductive organs in male rat.

    PubMed

    Dai, Pengyuan; Hu, Ping; Tang, Juan; Li, Yansen; Li, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    Glyphosate as an active ingredient of Roundup(®) which is thought to be one of the most popular herbicide was used worldwide. Many studies have focused on reproductive toxicity on glyphosate-based herbicide, but few evidence exists to imply the male reproductive toxicity of glyphosate alone in vivo. In this study SD rats were Lavaged with glyphosate at doses of 5, 50, 500mg/kg to detect the toxicity of glyphosate on rat testis. Glyphosate significantly decreased the average daily feed intake at dose of 50mg/kg, and the weight of seminal vesicle gland, coagulating gland as well as the total sperm count at dose of 500mg/kg. Immunohistochemistry of androgen receptor (AR) has no difference among all groups. As to testosterone, estradiol, progesterone and oxidative stress parameters, the level of them has no differences amidst all doses. Taken together, we conclude that glyphosate alone has low toxicity on male rats reproductive system. PMID:27286640

  6. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING TO IDENTIFY MECHANISMS OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene Expression Profiling to Identify Mechanisms of Male Reproductive Toxicity
    David J. Dix
    National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711, USA.
    Ab...

  7. [Effect of ladasten on reproduction function in male rats].

    PubMed

    Khamidova, T V; Chigirinskiĭ, Iu L; Morozov, I S

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ladasten (bromantan) on the development of emotional stress and reproduction activity was studied in male rats. Ladasten administration led to restoration of the stress-violated orientational reactions and body weight, activation of the spermatogenesis (increase in the number and mobility of spermatozoas), normalization of the fertilizing capacity of spermatozoas, and reduction in the loss of embryos. PMID:16047676

  8. Male Involvement: Implications for Reproductive and Sexual Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Lena; Rink, Elizabeth; Zukoski, Ann P.

    2004-01-01

    The sexual health needs of young males have been largely ignored in the field of reproductive health. Until recently, the health care needs of females have received the vast majority of attention from public health professionals and organizations with services focused on the prevention of teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and…

  9. Differential effects of inbreeding and selection on male reproductive phenotype associated with the colonization and laboratory maintenance of Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective mating between laboratory-reared males and wild females is paramount to the success of vector control strategies aiming to decrease disease transmission via the release of sterile or genetically modified male mosquitoes. However mosquito colonization and laboratory maintenance have the potential to negatively affect male genotypic and phenotypic quality through inbreeding and selection, which in turn can decrease male mating competitiveness in the field. To date, very little is known about the impact of those evolutionary forces on the reproductive biology of mosquito colonies and how they ultimately affect male reproductive fitness. Methods Here several male reproductive physiological traits likely to be affected by inbreeding and selection following colonization and laboratory rearing were examined. Sperm length, and accessory gland and testes size were compared in male progeny from field-collected females and laboratory strains of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto colonized from one to over 25 years ago. These traits were also compared in the parental and sequentially derived, genetically modified strains produced using a two-phase genetic transformation system. Finally, genetic crosses were performed between strains in order to distinguish the effects of inbreeding and selection on reproductive traits. Results Sperm length was found to steadily decrease with the age of mosquito colonies but was recovered in refreshed strains and crosses between inbred strains therefore incriminating inbreeding costs. In contrast, testes size progressively increased with colony age, whilst accessory gland size quickly decreased in males from colonies of all ages. The lack of heterosis in response to crossing and strain refreshing in the latter two reproductive traits suggests selection for insectary conditions. Conclusions These results show that inbreeding and selection differentially affect reproductive traits in laboratory strains overtime and that

  10. Experimental food supplementation reveals habitat-dependent male reproductive investment in a migratory bird.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Sara A; Sillett, T Scott; Risk, Benjamin B; Webster, Michael S

    2015-03-22

    Environmental factors can shape reproductive investment strategies and influence the variance in male mating success. Environmental effects on extrapair paternity have traditionally been ascribed to aspects of the social environment, such as breeding density and synchrony. However, social factors are often confounded with habitat quality and are challenging to disentangle. We used both natural variation in habitat quality and a food supplementation experiment to separate the effects of food availability-one key aspect of habitat quality-on extrapair paternity (EPP) and reproductive success in the black-throated blue warbler, Setophaga caerulescens. High natural food availability was associated with higher within-pair paternity (WPP) and fledging two broods late in the breeding season, but lower EPP. Food-supplemented males had higher WPP leading to higher reproductive success relative to controls, and when in low-quality habitat, food-supplemented males were more likely to fledge two broods but less likely to gain EPP. Our results demonstrate that food availability affects trade-offs in reproductive activities. When food constraints are reduced, males invest in WPP at the expense of EPP. These findings imply that environmental change could alter how individuals allocate their resources and affect the selective environment that drives variation in male mating success. PMID:25673677

  11. Soy, phyto-oestrogens and male reproductive function: a review.

    PubMed

    Cederroth, Christopher R; Auger, Jacques; Zimmermann, Céline; Eustache, Florence; Nef, Serge

    2010-04-01

    There is growing interest in the possible health threat posed by the effects of endocrine disruptors on reproduction. Soy and soy-derived products contain isoflavones that mimic the actions of oestrogens and may exert adverse effects on male fertility. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding the potential detrimental effects of soy and phyto-oestrogens on male reproductive function and fertility in humans and animals. Overall, there are some indications that phyto-oestrogens, alone or in combination with other endocrine disruptors, may alter reproductive hormones, spermatogenesis, sperm capacitation and fertility. However, these results must be interpreted with care, as a result of the paucity of human studies and as numerous reports did not reveal any adverse effects on male reproductive physiology. Further investigation is needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn. In the meantime, caution would suggest that perinatal phyto-oestrogen exposure, such as that found in infants feeding on soy-based formula, should be avoided. PMID:19919579

  12. Male reproductive organs are at risk from environmental hazards.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Jens Peter

    2010-03-01

    Male reproductive disorders that are of interest from an environmental point of view include sexual dysfunction, infertility, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and testicular cancer. Several reports suggest declining sperm counts and increase of these reproductive disorders in some areas during some time periods past 50 years. Except for testicular cancer this evidence is circumstantial and needs cautious interpretation. However, the male germ line is one of the most sensitive tissues to the damaging effects of ionizing radiation, radiant heat and a number of known toxicants. So far occupational hazards are the best documented risk factors for impaired male reproductive function and include physical exposures (radiant heat, ionizing radiation, high frequency electromagnetic radiation), chemical exposures (some solvents as carbon disulfide and ethylene glycol ethers, some pesticides as dibromochloropropane, ethylendibromide and DDT/DDE, some heavy metals as inorganic lead and mercury) and work processes such as metal welding. Improved working conditions in affluent countries have dramatically decreased known hazardous workplace exposures, but millions of workers in less affluent countries are at risk from reproductive toxicants. New data show that environmental low-level exposure to biopersistent pollutants in the diet may pose a risk to people in all parts of the world. For other toxicants the evidence is only suggestive and further evaluation is needed before conclusions can be drawn. Whether compounds as phthalates, bisphenol A and boron that are present in a large number of industrial and consumer products entails a risk remains to be established. The same applies to psychosocial stressors and use of mobile phones. Finally, there are data indicating a particular vulnerability of the fetal testis to toxicants-for instance maternal tobacco smoking. Time has come where male reproductive toxicity should be addressed form entirely new angles including exposures very early

  13. [Reproductive toxicity of triptolide and its mechanism in male rats].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheng-jun; Que, Hui-qing; Peng, Hua-yi; Lin, Sui; Guo, Shim-min; Qian, Li-ping

    2015-12-01

    The arrenotokous toxicity of triptolide was evaluated, and the rate of sperm abnormality, the changes of the lipid peroxide, the enzyme activity and the hormone in male rats were observed. With the negative and positive control group, the healthy rats were respectively given by gavage triptolide suspension at the dose of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 mg x kg(-1) for 30 days. Then the rats were killed for the measurement of the indicators in testis and serum, as well as the study on the sperm abnormality. The results showed that the positive control group had significant difference, compared with the negative control group. The content of SOD, LDH, G-6-PD, Na+ -K+ -ATPase, Ca+ -Mg+ -ATPase decreased significantly in 0.05 mg x kg(-1) group, and reduced more obviously with exposure to the dose of 0.1 mg x kg(-1). The levels of GSH-Px and beta-G showed a significant decrease in the testis of rats only at the dose of 0.1 mg x kg(-1). Nevertheless, the MDA levels, the FSH levels and the LH levels showed no significant difference. The deformity rate of sperm increased significantly in 0.05 mg x kg(-1) group and 0.1 mg x kg(-1) group. The results indicated the triptolide had the effect of the lipid peroxidation to damage Spermatogenic cells, Sertolis cells and Leydig cells. At the same time, the triptolide interfered not only with the energy supply process of aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis,but also with the energy utilization in testis by affecting the activities of testis marker enzymes, and produced a damage chain of the male reproductive system PMID:27141679

  14. Oral administration of Kaempferia parviflora did not disturb male reproduction in rats.

    PubMed

    Trisomboon, Hataitip; Tohei, Atsushi; Malaivijitnond, Suchinda; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the androgenic effect of Kaempferia parviflora (KP), a Thai herbal plant, adult male rats were randomized into control and KP-treatment groups. Rats were treated orally with water in the control group and with 1,000 mg/kg/day of KP in the treatment group for 45 days. Blood samples were collected on days 10, 20, 30 and 45 for measurement of the serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, progesterone and corticosterone levels. The reproductive and non-reproductive organs were dissected on day 45 and weighed. Mating behavior was also observed on days 20 and 30. Body weight was measured throughout the study period. The results showed that KP induced an increase in body weight compared with the controls. There were no significant differences in the weights of either reproductive (testis, seminal vesicle plus coagulating gland, levator ani muscle plus bulbocarvernosus muscle and glans penis, except the prostate gland) or non-reproductive organs (kidney, adrenal gland and gastracnemius muscle). There were no significant differences in serum levels of either FSH or LH between the two groups. The serum testosterone and progesterone levels were insignificantly lower in the KP group during the first 30 days. The serum corticosterone levels in the KP group were lower than those in the controls throughout the study period and were significantly low on days 20 and 30. There were no significant changes in mating behavior in the rats treated with KP. Although KP affected the body weight and serum corticosterone level, it did not affect mating behavior, reproductive and non-reproductive organ weights or hormones related to the reproductive system in the adult male rats. Therefore, we conclude that the testosterone-like effect of KP did not disturb the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis or male reproduction. PMID:18594126

  15. Leptin: a possible metabolic signal affecting reproduction.

    PubMed

    Spicer, L J

    2001-11-01

    Since its discovery in 1994, leptin, a protein hormone synthesized and secreted by adipose tissue, has been shown to regulate feed intake in several species including sheep and pigs. Although a nimiety of information exists regarding the physiological role of leptin in rodents and humans, the regulation and action of leptin in domestic animals is less certain. Emerging evidence in several species indicates that leptin may also affect the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Leptin receptor mRNA is present in the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus of several species, including sheep. In rats, effects of leptin on GnRH, LH and FSH secretion have been inconsistent, with leptin exhibiting both stimulatory and inhibitory action in vivo and in vitro. Evidence to support direct action of leptin at the level of the gonad indicates that the leptin receptor and its mRNA are present in ovarian tissue of several species, including cattle. These leptin receptors are functional, since leptin inhibits insulin-induced steroidogenesis of both granulosa and thecal cells of cattle in vitro. Leptin receptor mRNA is also found in the testes of rodents. As with the ovary, these receptors are functional, at least in rats, since leptin inhibits hCG-induced testosterone secretion by Leydig cells in vitro. During pregnancy, placental production of leptin may be a major contributor to the increase in maternal leptin in primates but not rodents. However, in both primates and rodents, leptin receptors exist in placental tissues and may regulate metabolism of the fetal-placental unit. As specific leptin immunoassays are developed for domestic animals, in vivo associations may then be made among leptin, body energy stores, dietary energy intake and reproductive function. This may lead to a more definitive role of leptin in domestic animal reproduction. PMID:11872320

  16. Proteomic Changes Associated with Successive Reproductive Periods in Male Polychaetous Neanthes arenaceodentata

    PubMed Central

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H.; Reish, Donald; Zhang, Huoming; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Ravasi, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The polychaetous annelid Neanthes acuminata complex has a widespread distribution, with the California population referred to as N. arenaceodentata. The reproductive pattern in this complex is unique, in that the female reproduces once and then dies, whereas the male can reproduce up to nine times. The male incubates the embryos until the larvae leave the male’s tube 21–28 days later and commences feeding. Reproductive success and protein expression patterns were measured over the nine reproductive periods. The percent success of the male in producing juveniles increased during the first three reproductive periods and then decreased, but the number of juveniles produced was similar through all nine periods. iTRAQ based quantitative proteomics were used to analyze the dynamics of protein expression patterns. The expression patterns of several proteins were found to be altered. The abundant expression of muscular and contractile proteins may have affected body weight and reproductive success. Sperm have never been observed; fertilization occurs within the parent’s tube. Proteins associated with sperm maturation and fertilization were identified, including ATPase, clathrin, peroxiredoxins and enolase, which may provide clues to the molecular mechanisms enabling males to reproduce multiple times. PMID:26337980

  17. Implications of leptin in neuroendocrine regulation of male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Landry, David; Cloutier, Frank; Martin, Luc J

    2013-03-01

    Obesity is a major health problem contributing to increased subfertility in males, as well as increased morbidity for diseases related to a decline in testosterone production with aging. Leptin is a hormone produced by adipose tissue whose production increases with the amount of body fat. Several studies have supported a relationship between increased leptin production and regulation of reproductive function. Indeed, leptin acts at all levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in males. However, most of the obese individuals become insensitive to increased endogenous leptin production and develop a functional leptin resistance. This deregulation of leptin signaling might result in abnormal endocrine and reproductive functions. Altered leptin dynamics may contribute to male infertility in different ways, leading to hypogonadism. These include leptin resistance or leptin insufficiency at the hypothalamus and leptin modulation of testicular physiology. In this review, we address the mechanisms of action of leptin at different levels of the HPG axis. Moreover, the influences of leptin on steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, as well as seasonal variations of leptin's action on male reproduction are discussed. PMID:23522066

  18. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  19. Endocrine disruptors and estrogenic effects on male reproductive axis.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Suresh C; Wang, Run

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], dioxin, and some pesticides) are estrogen-like and anti-androgenic chemicals in the environment. They mimic natural hormones, inhibit the action of hormones, or alter the normal regulatory function of the endocrine system and have potential hazardous effects on male reproductive axis causing infertility. Although testicular and prostate cancers, abnormal sexual development, undescended testis, chronic inflammation, Sertoli-cell-only pattern, hypospadias, altered pituitary and thyroid gland functions are also observed, the available data are insufficient to deduce worldwide conclusions. The development of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is beyond doubt the most important recent breakthrough in the treatment of male infertility, but it does not necessarily treat the cause and may inadvertently pass on adverse genetic consequences. Many well-controlled clinical studies and basic scientific discoveries in the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular and cellular biology of the male reproductive system have helped in the identification of greater numbers of men with male factor problems. Newer tools for the detection of Y-chromosome deletions have further strengthened the hypothesis that the decline in male reproductive health and fertility may be related to the presence of certain toxic chemicals in the environment. Thus the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of male factor infertility remain a real challenge. Clinicians should always attempt to identify the etiology of a possible testicular toxicity, assess the degree of risk to the patient being evaluated for infertility, and initiate a plan to control and prevent exposure to others once an association between occupation/toxicant and infertility has been established. PMID:18087652

  20. Effects of aging on the male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Sezgin; Hekim, Gulgez Neslihan Taskurt; Arslan, Mehmet Alper; Asci, Ramazan

    2016-04-01

    The study aims to discuss the effects of aging on the male reproductive system. A systematic review was performed using PubMed from 1980 to 2014. Aging is a natural process comprising of irreversible changes due to a myriad of endogenous and environmental factors at the level of all organs and systems. In modern life, as more couples choose to postpone having a child due to various socioeconomic reasons, research for understanding the effects of aging on the reproductive system has gained an increased importance. Paternal aging also causes genetic and epigenetic changes in spermatozoa, which impair male reproductive functions through their adverse effects on sperm quality and count as, well as, on sexual organs and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Hormone production, spermatogenesis, and testes undergo changes as a man ages. These small changes lead to decrease in both the quality and quantity of spermatozoa. The offspring of older fathers show high prevalence of genetic abnormalities, childhood cancers, and several neuropsychiatric disorders. In addition, the latest advances in assisted reproductive techniques give older men a chance to have a child even with poor semen parameters. Further studies should investigate the onset of gonadal senesce and its effects on aging men. PMID:26867640

  1. Seminal fluid protein allocation and male reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Wigby, Stuart; Sirot, Laura K; Linklater, Jon R; Buehner, Norene; Calboli, Federico C F; Bretman, Amanda; Wolfner, Mariana F; Chapman, Tracey

    2009-05-12

    Postcopulatory sexual selection can select for sperm allocation strategies in males [1, 2], but males should also strategically allocate nonsperm components of the ejaculate [3, 4], such as seminal fluid proteins (Sfps). Sfps can influence the extent of postcopulatory sexual selection [5-7], but little is known of the causes or consequences of quantitative variation in Sfp production and transfer. Using Drosophila melanogaster, we demonstrate that Sfps are strategically allocated to females in response to the potential level of sperm competition. We also show that males who can produce and transfer larger quantities of specific Sfps have a significant competitive advantage. When males were exposed to a competitor male, matings were longer and more of two key Sfps, sex peptide [8] and ovulin [9], were transferred, indicating strategic allocation of Sfps. Males selected for large accessory glands (a major site of Sfp synthesis) produced and transferred significantly more sex peptide, but not more ovulin. Males with large accessory glands also had significantly increased competitive reproductive success. Our results show that quantitative variation in specific Sfps is likely to play an important role in postcopulatory sexual selection and that investment in Sfp production is essential for male fitness in a competitive environment. PMID:19361995

  2. Effect of altered reproductive function and lowered testosterone levels on bone density in male endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, Kim L; Brukner, Peter D; Malcolm, Susan A

    1996-01-01

    The effect of intense physical activity on female reproductive hormones is well recognised1–3 and there is evidence that menstrual disturbances associated with hypo-oestrogenism adversely affect bone density especially at the lumbar spine.4 5 Physical activity can also have a range of effects on male reproductive function depending upon the intensity and duration of the activity and the fitness of the individual.6 In particular, endurance training may be associated with reductions in circulating testosterone levels. Since testosterone has important anabolic roles, alterations in reproductive hormone profiles may have detrimental skeletal consequences similar to those seen in females with menstrual disturbances. The aim of this brief review is to present the limited literature on the relation between bone density and testosterone levels in male endurance athletes. PMID:8889111

  3. Environmental endocrine disruptors: Effects on the human male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M F; Hasan, N; Soto, A M; Sonnenschein, C

    2015-12-01

    Incidences of altered development and neoplasia of male reproductive organs have increased during the last 50 years, as shown by epidemiological data. These data are associated with the increased presence of environmental chemicals, specifically "endocrine disruptors," that interfere with normal hormonal action. Much research has gone into testing the effects of specific endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the development of male reproductive organs and endocrine-related cancers in both in vitro and in vivo models. Efforts have been made to bridge the accruing laboratory findings with the epidemiological data to draw conclusions regarding the relationship between EDCs, altered development and carcinogenesis. The ability of EDCs to predispose target fetal and adult tissues to neoplastic transformation is best explained under the framework of the tissue organization field theory of carcinogenesis (TOFT), which posits that carcinogenesis is development gone awry. Here, we focus on the available evidence, from both empirical and epidemiological studies, regarding the effects of EDCs on male reproductive development and carcinogenesis of endocrine target tissues. We also critique current research methodology utilized in the investigation of EDCs effects and outline what could possibly be done to address these obstacles moving forward. PMID:26847433

  4. Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. PMID:25044390

  5. Canalization of body size matters for lifetime reproductive success of male predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that highly fitness-relevant traits are canalized via past selection, resulting in low phenotypic plasticity and high robustness to environmental stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the level of phenotypic plasticity of male body size of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity) reflects the effects of body size variation on fitness, especially male lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We first generated small and standard-sized males of P. persimilis and N. californicus by rearing them to adulthood under limited and ample prey supply, respectively. Then, adult small and standard-sized males were provided with surplus virgin females throughout life to assess their mating and reproductive traits. Small male body size did not affect male longevity or the number of fertilized females but reduced male LRS of P. persimilis but not N. californicus. Proximately, the lower LRS of small than standard-sized P. persimilis males correlated with shorter mating durations, probably decreasing the amount of transferred sperm. Ultimately, we suggest that male body size is more strongly canalized in P. persimilis than N. californicus because deviation from standard body size has larger detrimental fitness effects in P. persimilis than N. californicus. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2014, 111, 889–899. PMID:25132689

  6. Multigeneration Reproduction and Male Developmental Toxicity Studies on Atrazine in Rats

    PubMed Central

    DeSesso, John M; Scialli, Anthony R; White, Tacey E K; Breckenridge, Charles B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Reproductive toxicity of Atrazine (ATR) was evaluated in two rat multigenerational studies. Development of male reproductive parameters was evaluated in separate studies after prenatal or postnatal exposure. METHODS In multigenerational studies, rats received dietary concentrations of 0, 10, 50, 100 or 500 ppm ATR. In separate studies in female rats, ATR was administered by gavage at 0, 1, 5, 25 or 125 mg/kg/day during pregnancy (GD6–21) or lactation (LD2–21). Plasma testosterone concentration, testicular and epididymal weights, and sperm counts were measured in male offspring on PND70 and 170. RESULTS In the multigenerational studies, parental systemic toxicity occurred at 500 ppm (38.7 mg/kg/day), but reproductive endpoints were unaffected. In the prenatal study, maternal toxicity and embryo-fetal mortality occurred at 125 mg/kg/day. In male offspring, testosterone levels and sperm counts were unaffected, although the percentage of abnormal sperm increased at 125 mg/kg/day (PND 70) and 25 mg/kg/day (PND170). In the postnatal study, maternal toxicity and reduced body weights of male offspring occurred at 125 mg/kg/day. Additionally, reduced testicular (PND70, PND170) and epididymal (PND70) weights and increased numbers of abnormal sperm (PND70, PND170) were seen, but no changes in plasma testosterone or sperm counts. CONCLUSIONS Dietary administration of ATR did not affect rat reproduction up to a parentally toxic dose of 38.7 mg/kg/day. Some effects on male reproductive system development occurred after high dose, bolus administration to dams, but doses were much higher than expected under normal use conditions. Thus, oral RfDs for ATR would be protective for reproductive effects PMID:24797874

  7. Variance in the reproductive success of dominant male mountain gorillas.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Andrew M; Gray, Maryke; Uwingeli, Prosper; Mburanumwe, Innocent; Kagoda, Edwin; Robbins, Martha M

    2014-10-01

    Using 30 years of demographic data from 15 groups, this study estimates how harem size, female fertility, and offspring survival may contribute to variance in the siring rates of dominant male mountain gorillas throughout the Virunga Volcano Region. As predicted for polygynous species, differences in harem size were the greatest source of variance in the siring rate, whereas differences in female fertility and offspring survival were relatively minor. Harem size was positively correlated with offspring survival, even after removing all known and suspected cases of infanticide, so the correlation does not seem to reflect differences in the ability of males to protect their offspring. Harem size was not significantly correlated with female fertility, which is consistent with the hypothesis that mountain gorillas have minimal feeding competition. Harem size, offspring survival, and siring rates were not significantly correlated with the proportion of dominant tenures that occurred in multimale groups versus one-male groups; even though infanticide is less likely when those tenures end in multimale groups than one-male groups. In contrast with the relatively small contribution of offspring survival to variance in the siring rates of this study, offspring survival is a major source of variance in the male reproductive success of western gorillas, which have greater predation risks and significantly higher rates of infanticide. If differences in offspring protection are less important among male mountain gorillas than western gorillas, then the relative importance of other factors may be greater for mountain gorillas. Thus, our study illustrates how variance in male reproductive success and its components can differ between closely related species. PMID:24818867

  8. Assessment of environmental factors affecting male fertility.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R L; Sherins, R J; Lee, I P

    1979-06-01

    Exposure to drinking water containing as much as 500 ppm aluminum chloride for periods of 30, 60, and 90 days had no apparent effect on male reproductive processes. In an attempt to correlate enzyme activity with particular spermatogenic cell types, postnatal development of testicular enzymes was studied. Eight enzymes were selected: hyaluronidase (H), lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-X (LDH-X), dehydrogenases of sorbitol (SDH), alpha-glycerophosphate (GPDH), glucose-6-phosphate (G6PDH), malate (MDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3PDH), and isocitrate (ICDH). Enzyme specific activities in testicular homogenates were determined. Two types of enzyme developmental patterns were observed. One was represented by H, LDH-X, SDH, and GPDH; and the other by G6PDH, MDH, G3PDH, and ICDH. The former was characterized by a change in enzyme activities from low in newborn to high in adult while in the latter this pattern was reversed. The two complementary enzyme systems crossed each other at puberty. Prior to puberty, only spermatogonial cells are present; sperm differentiation initiated at puberty adds spermatocytes and spermatids to the testicular cell population. Male rats were exposed to borax in their diet for periods of 30 and 60 days. Concentrations of boron were 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm. At the end of each experimental period, the specific activities of the selected enzymes were determined in the testis and prostate. Correlations of enzyme activity with testicular histology and androgen activities of the male accessory organs were sought. In addition, plasma FSH, LH, and testosterone levels were measured to assess pituitary-testicular interaction. Plasma and testicular boron concentrations were determined and a minimum boron concentration which induced germinal aplasia and male infertility was estimated. In both 30 and 60 day feeding studies, male rats receiving 500 ppm failed to demonstrate any significant adverse effects. In contrast, male rats receiving 100 and 2000

  9. The impact of reproduction on the stress axis of free-living male northern red backed voles (Myodes rutilus).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Quinn E; Dantzer, Ben; Boonstra, Rudy

    2015-12-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis culminates in the release of glucocorticoids (henceforth CORT), which have wide-reaching physiological effects. Three hypotheses potentially explain seasonal variation in CORT. The enabling hypothesis predicts that reproductive season CORT exceeds post-reproductive season CORT because CORT enables reproductive investment. The inhibitory hypothesis predicts the opposite because CORT can negatively affect reproductive function. The costs of reproduction hypothesis predicts that HPA axis condition declines over and following the reproductive season. We tested these hypotheses in wild male red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) during the reproductive and post-reproductive seasons. We quantified CORT levels in response to restraint stress tests consisting of three blood samples (initial, stress-induced, and recovery). Mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid (GR) receptor mRNA levels in the brain were also quantified over the reproductive season. Total CORT (tCORT) in the initial and stress-induced samples were greater in the post-reproductive than in the reproductive season, which supported the inhibitory hypothesis. Conversely, free CORT (fCORT) did not differ between the reproductive and post-reproductive seasons, which was counter to both the enabling and inhibitory hypotheses. Evidence for HPA axis condition decline in CORT as well as GR and MR mRNA over the reproductive season (i.e. costs of reproduction hypothesis) was mixed. Moreover, all of the parameters that showed signs of declining condition over the reproductive season did not also show signs of declining condition over the post-reproductive season suggesting that the costs resulting from reproductive investment had subsided. In conclusion, our results suggest that different aspects of the HPA axis respond differently to seasonal changes and reproductive investment. PMID:26188715

  10. Male reproductive strategy explains spatiotemporal segregation in brown bears

    PubMed Central

    Steyaert, Sam MJG; Kindberg, Jonas; Swenson, Jon E; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    1. Spatiotemporal segregation is often explained by the risk for offspring predation or by differences in physiology, predation risk vulnerability or competitive abilities related to size dimorphism. 2. Most large carnivores are size dimorphic and offspring predation is often intraspecific and related to nonparental infanticide (NPI). NPI can be a foraging strategy, a strategy to reduce competition, or a male reproductive strategy. Spatiotemporal segregation is widespread among large carnivores, but its nature remains poorly understood. 3. We evaluated three hypotheses to explain spatiotemporal segregation in the brown bear, a size-dimorphic large carnivore in which NPI is common; the ‘NPI – foraging/competition hypothesis', i.e. NPI as a foraging strategy or a strategy to reduce competition, the ‘NPI – sexual selection hypothesis’, i.e. infanticide as a male reproductive strategy and the ‘body size hypothesis’, i.e. body-size-related differences in physiology, predation risk vulnerability or competitive ability causes spatiotemporal segregation. To test these hypotheses, we quantified spatiotemporal segregation among adult males, lone adult females and females with cubs-of-the-year, based on GPS-relocation data (2006–2010) and resource selection functions in a Scandinavian population. 4. We found that spatiotemporal segregation was strongest between females with cubs-of-the-year and adult males during the mating season. During the mating season, females with cubs-of-the-year selected their resources, in contrast to adult males, in less rugged landscapes in relative close proximity to certain human-related variables, and in more open habitat types. After the mating season, females with cubs-of-the-year markedly shifted their resource selection towards a pattern more similar to that of their conspecifics. No strong spatiotemporal segregation was apparent between females with cubs-of-the-year and conspecifics during the mating and the postmating

  11. Sexual selection leads to a tenfold difference in reproductive success of alternative reproductive tactics in male Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tentelier, Cédric; Lepais, Olivier; Larranaga, Nicolas; Manicki, Aurélie; Lange, Frédéric; Rives, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    The precocious maturation of some male Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar L.) has become a textbook example of alternative mating tactics, but the only estimates of reproductive success available so far are either the collective contribution of precocious males to reproduction in the wild or individual reproductive success in oversimplified experimental conditions. Using genetic parentage analysis on anadromous and precocious potential spawners and their offspring, we quantified components of individual reproductive success of both tactics in a natural population. On average, precocious males produced 2.24 (variance 67.62) offspring, against 27.17 (3080) for anadromous males. For both tactics, most of the variance in reproductive success was due to mating success, with 83 % of precocious males having no mate, against 50 % for anadromous males. Body size increased reproductive success of anadromous males and tended to decrease precocious males' reproductive success. Although these results do not solve the coexistence of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in Atlantic salmon, their inclusion in comprehensive models of lifetime reproductive success should shed light on the evolution of precocious maturation in Atlantic salmon and its effect on the selection of phenotypic traits.

  12. Sexual selection leads to a tenfold difference in reproductive success of alternative reproductive tactics in male Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Tentelier, Cédric; Lepais, Olivier; Larranaga, Nicolas; Manicki, Aurélie; Lange, Frédéric; Rives, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    The precocious maturation of some male Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) has become a textbook example of alternative mating tactics, but the only estimates of reproductive success available so far are either the collective contribution of precocious males to reproduction in the wild or individual reproductive success in oversimplified experimental conditions. Using genetic parentage analysis on anadromous and precocious potential spawners and their offspring, we quantified components of individual reproductive success of both tactics in a natural population. On average, precocious males produced 2.24 (variance 67.62) offspring, against 27.17 (3080) for anadromous males. For both tactics, most of the variance in reproductive success was due to mating success, with 83 % of precocious males having no mate, against 50 % for anadromous males. Body size increased reproductive success of anadromous males and tended to decrease precocious males' reproductive success. Although these results do not solve the coexistence of alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in Atlantic salmon, their inclusion in comprehensive models of lifetime reproductive success should shed light on the evolution of precocious maturation in Atlantic salmon and its effect on the selection of phenotypic traits. PMID:27216174

  13. Reproductive toxic potential of panmasala in male Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Kumari, A; Mojidra, Bn; Gautam, Ak; Verma, Y; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-09-01

    Some ingredients of panmasala have the ability to penetrate the blood-testis barrier but the reproductive toxic potential of panmasala has not been studied. This study is aimed to assess the possible damage caused by panmasala to male reproductive system in mice. Swiss albino male mice were randomly divided into 7 groups receiving either standard control diet or panmasala-containing diet. Three doses (0.5%, 1.5% and 3%) of panmasala plain (PMP) as well as panmasala with tobacco (PMT)-gutkha were given for a period of 6 months. Assessment of organ weight, sperm count and morphology, spermatid count, sperm production, testicular 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity and histology were conducted. A nonsignificant decrease in absolute and relative weight of testis and epididymis was observed. Spermatid count, sperm count and production were significantly decreased and 17β-HSD activity was found considerably declined at 3% of both PMP- and PMT-treated groups as compared to control. The histological observations revealed panmasala induced testicular damage. Abnormal morphology of sperm head shape was significantly elevated in higher doses of both types of panmasala-treated groups than control. The results suggests that panmasala has reproductive toxic potential and more alteration is seen with gutkha as compared to panmasala plain, indicating that similar effects might also be possible in humans. PMID:21343226

  14. Male reproductive traits and their relationship to reproductive traits in their female progeny: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Burns, B M; Gazzola, C; Holroyd, R G; Crisp, J; McGowan, M R

    2011-06-01

    The overall objective of one of the major research programs in the Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) for Beef Genetic Technologies is to 'Improve female reproductive performance' in tropical, northern Australian beef cattle herds. To address this overall objective, a quantitative genetics project focused on investigation of male reproductive traits was designed and linked to three female reproduction-focussed projects, (i) discovery of genes associated with post-partum re-conception and age at puberty; (ii) expression of genes associated with post-partum re-conception; and (iii) early predictors of lifetime female reproductive performance. During the initial planning of this male reproductive traits project, the CRC Scientific Review Committee recommended that the research team investigate and evaluate potentially new, early-life (i.e able to be measured before 2 years of age) predictors of both male and female reproductive performance. To address this recommendation, the following was carried out: (i) criteria for selection of traditional and candidate traits were established; (ii) methodology for tabulation of potential traits/phenotypes that define male and female reproductive function was developed; and (iii) a systematic scientific review of early-life predictors of male and female fertility was prepared. This review concluded that although factors that might be useful in predicting male reproductive performance have been studied for many years, there was relatively little useful information available to meet the objectives of this review. It was also concluded that the direction of future research should be guided not only by previous research which was scarce, but also by speculative hypotheses arising from an understanding of the physiological, endocrinological and genetic processes active in reproduction. A small number of new traits were recommended in addition to traditional sperm morphology, sexual behaviour, anatomical structure and growth traits

  15. Reproductive health and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for increased male participation.

    PubMed

    Mbizvo, M T; Bassett, M T

    1996-03-01

    Reproduction is a dual commitment, but so often in much of the world, it is seen as wholly the woman's responsibility. She bears the burden not only of pregnancy and childbirth but also the threats from excessive child bearing, some responsibility for contraception, infertility investigation and often undiagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. Failure to target men in reproductive health interventions has weakened the impact of reproductive health care programmes. The paper proposes that sophisticated and dynamic strategies in Africa and elsewhere which target women's reproductive health and research (such as control of STDs including AIDS, family planning, infertility investigation) require complementary linkage to the study and education of men. Men's perceptions, as well as determinants of sexual behavioural change and the socioeconomic context in which STDs, including AIDS, become rife, should be reviewed. There is a need to study and foster change to reduce or prevent poor reproductive health outcomes; to identify behaviours which could be adversely affecting women's reproductive health. Issues of gender, identity and tolerance as expressed through sexuality and procreation need to be amplified in the context of present risks in reproductive health. Researchers and providers often ignore the social significance of men. This paper reviews the impact of male dominance, as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions, against the background of present reproductive health problems. A research agenda should define factors at both macro and micro levels that interact to adversely impinge on reproductive health outcomes. This should be followed up by well-developed causal models of the determinants of positive reproductive health-promoting behaviours. Behaviour specific influences in sexual partnership include the degree of interpersonal support towards prevention, for example, of STDs, unwanted pregnancy or maternal deaths

  16. Aniline Is Rapidly Converted Into Paracetamol Impairing Male Reproductive Development.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Chalmey, Clementine; Modick, Hendrik; Jensen, Lars Skovgaard; Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Borkowski, Kamil; Styrishave, Bjarne; Martin Koch, Holger; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Jegou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2015-11-01

    Industrial use of aniline is increasing worldwide with production estimated to surpass 5.6 million metric tons in 2016. Exposure to aniline occurs via air, diet, and water augmenting the risk of exposing a large number of individuals. Early observations suggest that aniline is metabolized to paracetamol/acetaminophen, likely explaining the omnipresence of low concentrations of paracetamol in European populations. This is of concern as recent studies implicate paracetamol as a disrupter of reproduction. Here, we show through steroidogenic profiling that exposure to aniline led to increased levels of the Δ4 steroids, suggesting that the activity of CYP21 was decreased. By contrast, paracetamol decreased levels of androgens likely through inhibition of CYP17A1 activity. We confirm that aniline in vivo is rapidly converted to paracetamol by the liver. Intrauterine exposure to aniline and paracetamol in environmental and pharmaceutical relevant doses resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in mice, a sensitive marker of fetal androgen levels that in humans is associated with reproductive malformations and later life reproductive disorders. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a scenario where aniline, through its conversion into antiandrogenic paracetamol, impairs male reproductive development. PMID:26259604

  17. Male dimorphism and alternative reproductive tactics in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Buzatto, Bruno A; Machado, Glauco

    2014-11-01

    Strong sexual selection may lead small males or males in poor condition to adopt alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) as a way to avoid the risk of being completely excluded from the mating pool. ARTs, sometimes accompanying morphological dimorphism among males, are taxonomically widespread, especially common in arthropods. Here we review the current knowledge on ARTs and male dimorphism in a diverse but relatively overlooked group of arachnids, the order Opiliones, popularly known as harvestmen or daddy long-legs. We begin with a summary of harvestman mating systems, followed by a review of the two lines of evidence for the presence of ARTs in the group: (1) morphological data from natural populations and museum collections; and (2) behavioral information from field studies. Despite receiving less attention than spiders, scorpions and insects, our review shows that harvestmen are an exciting group of organisms that are potentially great models for sexual selection studies focused on ARTs. We also suggest that investigating the proximate mechanisms underlying male dimorphism in the order would be especially important. New research on ARTs and male dimorphism will have implications for our understanding of the evolution of mating systems, sperm competition, and polyandry. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. PMID:24983786

  18. Dual reproductive cost of aging in male Medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Stella A; Diamantidis, Alexandros D; Nakas, Christos T; Carey, James R; Papadopoulos, Nikos T

    2011-10-01

    Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and nonmated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and nonmated males. PMID:21801728

  19. Dual reproductive cost of aging in male medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance

    PubMed Central

    Papanastasiou, Stella A.; Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Nakas, Christos T.; Carey, James R.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2011-01-01

    Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and non mated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and non mated males. PMID:21801728

  20. Roles of autophagy in male reproductive development in plants

    PubMed Central

    Hanamata, Shigeru; Kurusu, Takamitsu; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy, a major catabolic pathway in eukaryotic cells, is essential in development, maintenance of cellular homeostasis, immunity and programmed cell death (PCD) in multicellular organisms. In plant cells, autophagy plays roles in recycling of proteins and metabolites including lipids, and is involved in many physiological processes such as abiotic and biotic stress responses. However, its roles during reproductive development had remained poorly understood. Quantitative live cell imaging techniques for the autophagic flux and genetic studies in several plant species have recently revealed significant roles of autophagy in developmental processes, regulation of PCD and lipid metabolism. We here review the novel roles of autophagic fluxes in plant cells, and discuss their possible significance in PCD and metabolic regulation, with particular focus on male reproductive development during the pollen maturation. PMID:25309556

  1. You are what you eat: food limitation affects reproductive fitness in a sexually cannibalistic praying mantid.

    PubMed

    Barry, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  2. You Are What You Eat: Food Limitation Affects Reproductive Fitness in a Sexually Cannibalistic Praying Mantid

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    Resource limitation during the juvenile stages frequently results in developmental delays and reduced size at maturity, and dietary restriction during adulthood can affect longevity and reproductive output. Variation in food intake can also result in alteration to the normal pattern of resource allocation among body parts or life-history stages. My primary aim in this study was to determine how varying juvenile and/or adult feeding regimes affect particular female and male traits in the sexually cannibalistic praying mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata. Praying mantids are sit-and-wait predators whose resource intake can vary dramatically depending on environmental conditions within and across seasons, making them useful for studying the effects of feeding regime on various facets of reproductive fitness. In this study, there was a significant trend/difference in development and morphology for males and females as a result of juvenile feeding treatment, however, its effect on the fitness components measured for males was much greater than on those measured for females. Food-limited males were less likely to find a female during field enclosure experiments and smaller males were slower at finding a female in field-based experiments, providing some of the first empirical evidence of a large male size advantage for scrambling males. Only adult food limitation affected female fecundity, and the ability of a female to chemically attract males was also most notably affected by adult feeding regime (although juvenile food limitation did play a role). Furthermore, the significant difference/trend in all male traits and the lack of difference in male trait ratios between treatments suggests a proportional distribution of resources and, therefore, no trait conservation by food-limited males. This study provides evidence that males and females are under different selective pressures with respect to resource acquisition and is also one of very few to show an effect of juvenile

  3. Condition-dependent ejaculate production affects male mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Kaldun, Bettina; Otti, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Food availability in the environment is often low and variable, constraining organisms in their resource allocation to different life-history traits. For example, variation in food availability is likely to induce condition-dependent investment in reproduction. Further, diet has been shown to affect ejaculate size, composition and quality. How these effects translate into male reproductive success or change male mating behavior is still largely unknown. Here, we concentrated on the effect of meal size on ejaculate production, male reproductive success and mating behavior in the common bedbug Cimex lectularius. We analyzed the production of sperm and seminal fluid within three different feeding regimes in six different populations. Males receiving large meals produced significantly more sperm and seminal fluid than males receiving small meals or no meals at all. While such condition-dependent ejaculate production did not affect the number of offspring produced after a single mating, food-restricted males could perform significantly fewer matings than fully fed males. Therefore, in a multiple mating context food-restricted males paid a fitness cost and might have to adjust their mating strategy according to the ejaculate available to them. Our results indicate that meal size has no direct effect on ejaculate quality, but food availability forces a condition-dependent mating rate on males. Environmental variation translating into variation in male reproductive traits reveals that natural selection can interact with sexual selection and shape reproductive traits. As males can modulate their ejaculate size depending on the mating situation, future studies are needed to elucidate whether environmental variation affecting the amount of ejaculate available might induce different mating strategies. PMID:27066237

  4. DEHP Impairs Zebrafish Reproduction by Affecting Critical Factors in Oogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Carnevali, Oliana; Tosti, Luca; Speciale, Claudia; Peng, Chun; Zhu, Yong; Maradonna, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Public concerns on phthalates distributions in the environment have been increasing since they can cause liver cancer, structural abnormalities and reduce sperm counts in male reproductive system. However, few data are actually available on the effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) in female reproductive system. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of DEHP on zebrafish oogenesis and embryo production. Female Danio rerio were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP and a significant decrease in ovulation and embryo production was observed. The effects of DEHP on several key regulators of oocyte maturation and ovulation including bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP15), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (ptgs2) were determined by real time PCR. The expressions of BMP15 and mPR proteins were further determined by Western analyses to strengthen molecular findings. Moreover, plasma vitellogenin (vtg) titers were assayed by an ELISA procedure to determine the estrogenic effects of DEHP and its effects on oocyte growth. A significant reduction of fecundity in fish exposed to DEHP was observed. The reduced reproductive capacity was associated with an increase in ovarian BMP15 levels. This rise, in turn, was concomitant with a significant reduction in LHR and mPRβ levels. Finally, ptgs2 expression, the final trigger of ovulation, was also decreased by DEHP. By an in vitro maturation assay, the inhibitory effect of DEHP on germinal vesicle breakdown was further confirmed. In conclusion, DEHP affecting signals involved in oocyte growth (vtg), maturation (BMP15, LHR, mPRs,) and ovulation (ptgs2), deeply impairs ovarian functions with serious consequences on embryo production. Since there is a significant genetic similarity between D.rerio and humans, the harmful effects observed at oocyte level may be relevant for further molecular studies on humans. PMID:20419165

  5. Effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on reproductive parameters in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Jaafar, H; Sirajudeen, K N S

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of Malaysian honey on male reproductive parameters in adult rats. Thirty-two healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups (eight rats per group). Group 1 (control group) was given 0.5 ml of distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 were given 0.2, 1.2 and 2.4 g kg(-1) body weight of honey respectively. The rats were treated orally by gavage once daily for 4 weeks. Honey did not significantly alter body and male reproductive organs weights. The rats in Group 3 which received honey at 1.2 g kg(-1) had significantly higher epididymal sperm count than those in Groups 1, 2 and 4. No significant differences were found for the percentage of abnormal sperm, elongated spermatid count, reproductive hormonal levels as well as the histology of the testis among the groups. In conclusion, Malaysian honey at a dose of 1.2 g kg(-1) daily significantly increased epididymal sperm count without affecting spermatid count and reproductive hormones. These findings might suggest that oral administration of honey at this dose for 4 weeks may enhance spermiogenesis in adult rats. PMID:21592175

  6. Altered reproductive behaviours in male mosquitofish living downstream from a sewage treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Saaristo, Minna; Myers, Jackie; Jacques-Hamilton, Rowan; Allinson, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Allinson, Graeme; Pettigrove, Vincent; Wong, Bob B M

    2014-04-01

    Freshwater environments are common repositories for the discharge of large volumes of domestic and industrial waste, particularly through wastewater effluent. One common group of chemical pollutants present in wastewater are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can induce morphological and behavioural changes in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the reproductive behaviour and morphology of a freshwater fish, the mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), collected from two sites (wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and a putative pristine site). The mosquitofish is a sexually dimorphic livebearer with a coercive mating system. Males inseminate females using their modified anal fin as an intromittent organ. Despite this, females are able to exert some control over the success of male mating attempts by selectively associating with, or avoiding, certain males over others. Using standard laboratory assays of reproductive behaviour, we found that mosquitofish males living in close proximity to WWTP showed increased mating activity compared to those inhabiting a pristine site. More specifically, during behavioural trials in which males were allowed to interact with females separated by a transparent divider, we found that WWTP-males spent more time associating with females. Concordant with this, when males and females were subsequently allowed to interact freely, WWTP-males also spent more time chasing and orienting towards the females. As a result, females from both sites showed more interest towards the WWTP-site males. Male anal fin morphology, however, did not differ between sites. Our study illustrates that lifetime exposure to WWTP-effluents can greatly affect male behaviour. The results underscore the importance of behaviour as a potential tool for investigating unknown contaminants in the environment. PMID:24569133

  7. Studies on the male reproductive toxicity of Freon 22.

    PubMed

    Lee, I P; Suzuki, K

    1981-01-01

    Freons have been used extensively as refrigerants and as propellants in household products, and yet their possible effects on male reproduction have received little attention. In the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (nine weeks of age) were exposed to 50 000 ppm Freon 22, five hrs per day for eight weeks. The control group received filtered air at an identical flow rate. At the end of the eight week exposure period, body and organ weights, hematology, blood chemistry, plasma gonadotropins, and fertility parameters were not significantly different from controls, with the exception of serum cholesterol levels, which were slightly higher, and glucose and triglyceride levels which were lower. The weight of coagulating glands was also lower than those of controls, but did not interfere with fertility function. PMID:6820943

  8. Aging and male reproductive function: a mitochondrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Sandra; Amaral, Alexandra; Ramalho-Santos, Joao

    2013-01-01

    Researching the effects of aging in the male reproductive system is not trivial. Not only are multiple changes at molecular, cellular and endocrine levels involved, but any findings must be discussed with variable individual characteristics, as well as with lifestyle and environmental factors. Age-related changes in the reproductive system include any aspect of reproductive function, from deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and of local auto/paracrine interactions, to effects on testicular stem cells, defects in testicular architecture and spermatogenesis, or sperm with decreased functionality. Several theories place mitochondria at the hub of cellular events related to aging, namely regarding the accumulation of oxidative damage to cells and tissues, a process in which these organelles play a prominent role, although alternative theories have also emerged. However, oxidative stress is not the only process involved in mitochondrial-related aging; mitochondrial energy metabolism, changes in mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial-dependent testosterone production are also important. Crucially, all these issues are likely interdependent. We will review evidence that suggests that mitochondria constitute a common link between aging and fertility loss. PMID:23277044

  9. Essential role of platelet-activating factor in male reproduction: a review.

    PubMed

    Ali, Atef; Virirak Kattygnarath, Tiao; Benkhalifa, Moncef; Miron, Pierre

    2007-02-01

    The use of pharmacological adjuvants to enhance sperm function is a real possibility and a very attractive proposition. However, the role of such adjuvants must be well defined to maximize therapeutic outcome for specific patient populations. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a potent signalling phospholipid that has been implicated in a number of biological activities. In the field of reproductive biology, PAF has been shown to have an important role in ovulation, sperm function, embryo implantation, fetal lung maturation, and initiation and maintenance of parturition. Although the exact mechanisms are not clear, it has been demonstrated in several species that PAF can influence sperm function by affecting the motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction and fertility of spermatozoa. The reproductive significance of PAF activity in spermatozoa and fertilization and its role in the establishment of pregnancy requires further study. Understanding the role of PAF in a reproductive process, such as in intrauterine insemination, could eventually lead researchers to explore its role in more complex reproductive technologies. This review summarizes the current research on the significant role of PAF in male mammalian reproductive functions, as well as its possible application in some assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:17298732

  10. Effects of garlic fractions consumption on male reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Imen; Nahdi, Afef; Atig, Fatma; Kouidhi, Wided; Amri, Mohamed; Mokni, Mehrzia; May, Ahmed El; May, Michèle El

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers have focused on the preventive and curative effects of garlic (Allium sativum), particularly on cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, its impacts on the male reproductive system have not been clearly defined. In this study, the effect of chronic consumption of two garlic fractions was tested: one soluble in water (aqueous solution obtained by grinding and centrifugation) and the other one precipitated by ethanol (alcoholic precipitate obtained by precipitation of the aqueous solution), on different variables of male rats' reproductive functions. These two fractions were targeted to try to identify the nature of the active garlic compounds responsible for the different modifications observed on testicular parameters. The observation of seminiferous tubules of rats treated with garlic fractions showed an increased number of tubules deprived of spermatozoa. In addition, garlic fractions induced apoptosis of testicular germ cells (TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick-end labeling [TUNEL] approach) and a decrease of serum testosterone levels and seminiferous tubule DNA concentrations. In summary, our histological and molecular results suggest that one or several substances, soluble in water and precipitated by alcohol, impaired spermatogenesis. PMID:23297714

  11. Beyond lifetime reproductive success: the posthumous reproductive dynamics of male Trinidadian guppies

    PubMed Central

    López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Gordon, Swanne P.; Paterson, Ian G.; Bentzen, Paul; Reznick, David N.

    2013-01-01

    In semelparous populations, dormant germ banks (e.g. seeds) have been proposed as important in maintaining genotypes that are adaptive at different times in fluctuating environments. Such hidden storage of genetic diversity need not be exclusive to dormant banks. Genotype diversity may be preserved in many iteroparous animals through sperm-storage mechanisms in females. This allows males to reproduce posthumously and increase the effective sizes of seemingly female-biased populations. Although long-term sperm storage has been demonstrated in many organisms, the understanding of its importance in the wild is very poor. We here show the prevalence of male posthumous reproduction in wild Trinidadian guppies, through the combination of mark–recapture and pedigree analyses of a multigenerational individual-based dataset. A significant proportion of the reproductive population consisted of dead males, who could conceive up to 10 months after death (the maximum allowed by the length of the dataset), which is more than twice the estimated generation time. Demographic analysis shows that the fecundity of dead males can play an important role in population growth and selection. PMID:23740786

  12. Condition dependence of male and female reproductive success: insights from a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    PubMed

    Janicke, Tim; Chapuis, Elodie

    2016-02-01

    Sexually selected traits are predicted to show condition dependence by capturing the genetic quality of its bearer. In separate-sexed organisms, this will ultimately translate into condition dependence of reproductive success of the sex that experiences sexual selection, which is typically the male. Such condition dependence of reproductive success is predicted to be higher in males than females under conditions promoting intense sexual selection. For simultaneous hermaphrodites, however, sex allocation theory predicts that individuals in poor condition channel relatively more resources into the male sex function at the expense of the female function. Thus, male reproductive success is expected to be less condition dependent than female reproductive success. We subjected individuals of the simultaneously hermaphroditic snail Physa acuta to two feeding treatments to test for condition dependence of male and female reproductive success under varying levels of male-male competition. Condition dependence was found for female, but not for male, reproductive success, meaning that selection on condition is relatively stronger through the female sex function. This effect was consistent over both male-male competition treatments. Decomposition of male and female reproductive performance revealed that individuals in poor condition copulated more in their male role, indicating an increased male allocation to mate acquisition. These findings suggest that sex-specific condition dependence of reproductive success is at least partially driven by condition-dependent sex allocation. We discuss the implications of condition-dependent sex allocation for the evolution of sexually selected traits in simultaneous hermaphrodites. PMID:26865970

  13. Sublethal effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on male reproductive cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Cheng; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Hui; Mo, Yiqun; Tollerud, David J; Gu, Aihua; Zhang, Qunwei

    2016-09-01

    Environmental exposure to nanomaterials is inevitable as nanomaterials become part of our daily life, and as a result, nanotoxicity research is gaining attention. Most investigators focused on the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) on human health, while limited information was available on the male reproductive system. Herein, mouse Sertoli cell line (TM-4) and spermatocyte cell line (GC2-spd) were used as in vitro models to explore the reproductive effects of ZnO NPs at sublethal dose and its underlying mechanisms. Cells were treated with different concentrations of ZnO NPs. By cell viability assay, a dose of 8μg/mL was found as a sublethal dose and increased the ROS levels in both cells. The decreased glutathione level and increased MDA level were also found in ZnO NPs treated group. In TM4 cells, the expressions of BTB proteins (ZO-1, occludin, claudin-5, and connexin-43) were lower in the ZnO NPs group. The increased cell permeability and increased TNF-α secretion were also observed in ZnO NPs group. In GC2-spd cells, S phase arrest and DNA damage occurred in ZnO NPs group, which could be partially rescued by NAC. Our findings demonstrated that exposure to ZnO NPs induced ROS generation, caused DNA damage of germ cells, and down-regulated the expression of BTB proteins in Sertoli cells which could compromise the integrity of the blood-testis barrier. All these contributed to the male reproductive cytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs that could be partially rescued by anti-oxidants. PMID:27247145

  14. [Evaluation of ivermectin's reproductive toxicity to male Carassius auratus].

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Li, Shao-wu; Geng, Long-wu; Liu, Tong-yan

    2015-10-01

    As a new type of antiparasitic drugs, ivermectin (IVM) has been widely applied in agriculture, stock raising and aquaculture in China because of its broad spectrum and high efficiency. In order to evaluate the IVM' s reproductive toxicity to male Crucian carp (Carassius auratus), IVM was orally given to the experimental fish with different dosages and the gonadosomatic index (GSI), sexual hormone contents (including testosterone and estradiol) in serum and testis, γ-aminobutyric acid content in serum and brain tissues, ultra-structure of spermatozoa and gonadal tissue in fish were determined in this study. The experimental fish were classified into A, B, C and D groups corresponding to the different dosages of IVM (0, 0.3, 0.9 and 1.5 mg . kg-1, respectively once a day for 3 days continuously). Several indices in fish were detected after 8 days self-purification. The results indicated that GSI gradually decreased with the increase of drug dosage, and GSI in groups C and D was significantly lower than that in group A. The contents of testosterone, estradiol and y-aminobutyric acid exhibited a trend of first increasing and then decreasing and reached the peak at group B. Sperm longevity gradually decreased and the motion time also decreased in II, III and IV level sperms with the increasing dosage of IVM, which appeared to be especially obvious in group C and D. No obvious differences were found in the ultra-structure of spermatozoa and gonadal tissues. In conclusion, this study suggested that IVM had no obvious reproductive toxicity to male Crucian carp at the normal therapeutic dosage but could cause serious potential reproductive toxicity to fish at a high concentration. PMID:26995928

  15. Variance in male lifetime reproductive success and estimation of the degree of polygyny in a primate

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina; Widdig, Anja

    2014-01-01

    The degree of polygyny is predicted to influence the strength of direct male–male competition, leading to a high variance in male lifetime reproductive success and to reproduction limited to the prime period of adulthood. Here, we explore the variance in male lifetime reproductive success and reproductive time in an anthropoid primate forming multimale–multifemale groups. Males of this species form dominance hierarchies, which are expected to skew reproduction toward few high-ranking males. At the same time, however, females mate with multiple males (polygynandry), which should limit the degree of polygyny. Using 20 years of genetic and demographic data, we calculated lifetime reproductive success for the free-ranging rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) population of Cayo Santiago for subjects that died naturally or reached senescence. Our results show that 1) male lifetime reproductive success was significantly skewed (range: 0–47 offspring; males reproducing below average: 62.8%; nonbreeders: 17.4%), 2) variance in male lifetime reproductive success was 5 times larger than in females, and 3) male lifetime reproductive success was more influenced by variation in fecundity (60%) than longevity (25%), suggesting that some direct male–male competition takes place. However, the opportunity for selection (i.e., standardized variance in male lifetime reproductive success) is low compared with that in other large mammal species characterized by a high degree of polygyny. Moreover, male reproductive life extended much beyond the prime period, showing that physical strength was not required to acquire mates. We conclude that rhesus macaques exhibit a moderate degree of polygyny and, therefore, low levels of direct male–male competition for fertile females, despite the fact that males form linear dominance hierarchies. PMID:25024637

  16. The sterile male technique: irradiation negatively affects male fertility but not male courtship.

    PubMed

    Magris, Martina; Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2015-04-01

    The sterile male technique is a common method to assign paternity, widely adopted due to its relative simplicity and low cost. Male sterility is induced by exposure to sub lethal doses of chemosterilants or irradiation, the dosage of which has to be calibrated for every species to provide successful male sterilisation, without affecting male physiology and behaviour. While the physiological effects of sterilisation are usually assessed for each study, the behavioural ones are rarely analysed in detail. Using the orb web spider Argiope keyserlingi as a model we first tested (1) the validity of the thread assay, which simulates male courtship behaviour in a standardised context, as a proxy representing courtship on a female web. We then investigated (2) the effectiveness of male sterilisation via irradiation and (3) its consequences on male courtship behaviour. Our results validate the thread assay and the sterile male technique as legitimate tools for the study of male courtship behaviour and fertilisation success. We show that these techniques are time and cost effective and reduce undesirable variation, thereby creating opportunities to study and understand the mechanisms underlying sexual selection. PMID:25794431

  17. Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

  18. Residency Time as an Indicator of Reproductive Restraint in Male Burying Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashlee N.; Belk, Mark C.; Creighton, J. Curtis

    2014-01-01

    The cost of reproduction theory posits that there are trade-offs between current and future reproduction because resources that are allocated to current offspring cannot be used for future reproductive opportunities. Two adaptive reproductive strategies have been hypothesized to offset the costs of reproduction and maximize lifetime fitness. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that as individuals age they will allocate more resources to current reproduction as a response to decreasing residual reproductive value. The reproductive restraint hypotheses predicts that as individuals age they will allocate fewer resources to current reproduction to increase the chance of surviving for an additional reproductive opportunity. In this study, we test for adaptive responses to advancing age in male burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis. Burying beetles use facultative biparental care, but the male typically abandons the brood before the female. Previous work in male burying beetles has suggested several factors to explain variation in male residency time, but no study has observed male behavior throughout their entire reproductive lifetimes to determine whether males change residency time in an adaptive way with age. We compared residency time of males that reproduced biparentally, uniparentally, and on different-sized carcasses to determine if they used an adaptive reproductive strategy. Males did not increase residency time as they aged when reproducing biparentally, but decreased residency time with age when reproducing uniparentally. A decrease in parental care with age is consistent with a reproductive restraint strategy. When female age increased over time, males did not increase their residency time to compensate for deteriorating female condition. To our knowledge, this is the first test of adaptive reproductive allocation strategies in male burying beetles. PMID:25295755

  19. [Celiac disease and its endocrine and nutritional implications on male reproduction].

    PubMed

    Stazi, A V; Mantovani, A

    2004-06-01

    The problem of the interference of celiac disease (CD) with the male reproductive system is made evident both by the recognized adverse effects on female reproduction and by the multifactorial nature of the disease. It is important to consider CD as a multifactorial condition since its diverse effects can be modulated, besides gluten, by different concurrent genetic and environmental factors. The male CD patient has a greater risk of infertility and other reproductive disturbances, as well as a greater incidence of hypoandrogenism. In this paper the problems of CD associated to endocrine disorders and to deficiencies of micronutrients are discussed. Affected males show a picture of tissue resistance to androgens. Moreover, attention should be paid to increases of FSH and prolactin; these are not associated to infertility and/or impotence, but they may indicate an imbalance at hypothalamus-pituitary level, with general effects on health: an example is the increased risk of male osteoporosis in CD patients. Hormone alterations are reversible upon start of the gluten-free diet, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis; this should be performed in the case of clinical suspicion, e.g., unexplained hypoandrogenism. As regards nutritional aspects, the folic acid deficiency of CD can affect rapidly proliferating tissues, such as the embryo and the seminiferous epithelium. More attention should be paid to deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins, such as A and E, observed in CD. Vitamin A is important for Sertoli cell function as well as for early spermatogenetic phases. Vitamin E supports the correct differentiation and function of epidydimal epithelium, spermatid maturation and secretion of proteins by the prostate. Therefore, CD male patients should be considered as vulnerable subjects; thus, the detection of early biomarkers of andrological or endocrinological dysfunctions should trigger timely strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:15289752

  20. Male function for ensuring pollination and reproductive success in Berberis lycium Royle: A novel mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Supriya; Verma, Susheel

    2016-03-01

    In Berberis lycium anthers on alternate stamens dehisce, thus prolonging the male function so that pollination is affected and reproduction is ensured. The large pollen sac of each bithecous anther after the appearance of longitudinal dehiscence slit moves away from the filament while remaining attached at the tip of the connective and then orients in such a way that pollen-laden surface faces the stigma. No pollen is available to receptive stigma as pollen grains remain stuck to the anther sac. They do not get dispersed even by wind. Pollination and consequently reproduction is ensured through the intervention of insect, which does not affect pollen transfer to the stigma directly but by touching the base of the staminal filament while foraging nectar secreted by nectaries at the base of corolla, thus leading to staminal movement. This makes the dehisced anthers stick to the stigma and deposit pollen there. PMID:26949084

  1. Rutin Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abarikwu, S. O.; Otuechere, C. A.; Ekor, M.; Monwuba, K.; Osobu, D.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CYC) as an anticancer alkylating agent has been known as a male reproductive toxicant. This study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of rutin (RUT) on CYC-induced reproductive toxicity. Sexually mature Wistar rats (weighing 199 ± 10 g with five animals in each group) were given CYC (15 mg/kg) and/or RUT (30 mg/kg) twice a week via gavage for 4 weeks. The sperm counts, sperm motility, sperm morphology, daily sperm production (DSP), testicular, and epididymal antioxidant systems: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), and testicular steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-HSD and spermatogenesis marker enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) in the testes, epididymis and seminal vesicles were investigated at the end of the fourth week. By the end of the fourth week, RUT prevented lower sperm counts, sperm motility, DSP, and higher abnormal sperm numbers induced by CYC. In testes, RUT decreased SOD, LDH, and SDH and increased CAT, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, ALP, and ACP induced by CYC. In epididymis, RUT increased SOD, CAT, GSH, GSH-Px, GR, GST SDH, ALP and ACP and decreased MDA and LDH induced by CYC. In seminal vesicles, marker enzymes were unchanged in rats given CYC alone or in combination with RUT. It appears that RUT ameliorates CYC reproductive toxicity at the investigated dose. PMID:22778522

  2. A shortage of males causes female reproductive failure in yellow ground squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Vasilieva, Nina; Tchabovsky, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    Sexual conflict theory suggests that female breeding success is strongly influenced by individual life history and environmental conditions and is much less affected by mate availability. Female mating failure due to a shortage of males remains poorly studied and understood. We present data on the effects of male availability on female breeding success in a wild colony of yellow ground squirrels (Spermophilus fulvus). A female’s probability of breeding increased with the local density of males and was higher with higher male-biased operational sex ratio (OSR) but was independent of local female density, female age, and body condition, which are factors commonly assumed to influence female reproduction. The positive effect of male availability (as measured by OSR) on female breeding success was consistent across the years, and we conclude that male limitation contributes to female mating failure. This pattern, which is not commonly recorded in species with conventional sex roles, can be explained by a combination of sociodemographic and life history traits (sex differences in age of maturation, female-skewed adult sex ratio and seasonally varying OSR, solitary living at low population density, and low mobility of females combined with mate-searching tactics of males) that are not confined to S. fulvus. Our findings indicate that the role of female mating failure (due to a shortage of males) in shaping mammalian life history may be underestimated. PMID:26601284

  3. A shortage of males causes female reproductive failure in yellow ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Vasilieva, Nina; Tchabovsky, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    Sexual conflict theory suggests that female breeding success is strongly influenced by individual life history and environmental conditions and is much less affected by mate availability. Female mating failure due to a shortage of males remains poorly studied and understood. We present data on the effects of male availability on female breeding success in a wild colony of yellow ground squirrels (Spermophilus fulvus). A female's probability of breeding increased with the local density of males and was higher with higher male-biased operational sex ratio (OSR) but was independent of local female density, female age, and body condition, which are factors commonly assumed to influence female reproduction. The positive effect of male availability (as measured by OSR) on female breeding success was consistent across the years, and we conclude that male limitation contributes to female mating failure. This pattern, which is not commonly recorded in species with conventional sex roles, can be explained by a combination of sociodemographic and life history traits (sex differences in age of maturation, female-skewed adult sex ratio and seasonally varying OSR, solitary living at low population density, and low mobility of females combined with mate-searching tactics of males) that are not confined to S. fulvus. Our findings indicate that the role of female mating failure (due to a shortage of males) in shaping mammalian life history may be underestimated. PMID:26601284

  4. [Suppression of sexual activity and reproduction in male small ruminants].

    PubMed

    Mihsler, Lisa; Wagner, Henrik; Wehrend, Axel

    2016-06-16

    Handling and husbandry of male small ruminants after sexual maturity often become difficult. Castration is currently the most reliable solution to this problem. Medicinal procedures for temporary inhibition of the gonad function could provide an alternative. Following a short overview of surgical castration, the current knowledge on the application of vaccines against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH agonist in rams and billy goats is presented in a literature overview. In rams, GnRH vaccination has been used successfully for temporary suppression of the reproduction function, regardless of an animal's age at the time of therapy initiation. Fewer investigations are available for the billy goat. A complete suppression of spermatogenesis was not achieved in all cases. Currently, treatment with GnRH agonists does not represent a relible method for the suppression of gonad function. PMID:27189125

  5. Male reproductive skew, paternal relatedness, and female social relationships.

    PubMed

    Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2008-07-01

    Female social relationships among primates are thought to be shaped by socio-ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. We suggest that patterns of paternal relatedness among females influence measures of social tolerance that have been used to classify species into different social relationship categories. As kin support and kin preference have only been measured for matrilineal kin and related individuals exchange less aggression and have a higher conciliatory tendency, the observed low nepotism levels and high tolerance levels may be an artifact of hidden paternal relatedness among the nonkin category. Using comparative data on macaques, we investigate this hypothesis using male reproductive skew as a proxy for paternal relatedness. Within the limitations of the study we show that populations classified as being less nepotistic, and more tolerant exhibit higher levels of reproductive skew. This first result and the reasoning behind may motivate future students of social relationships to take paternal relatedness into consideration. Potential implications of this finding if repeated with larger samples include that variation in aspects of macaque social relationships may be explained without considering phylogeny or the strength of between-group contest competition for food. PMID:18421769

  6. Structural alterations in the male reproductive system of the freshwater crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus (Decapoda, Parastacidae).

    PubMed

    Bugnot, Ana B; López Greco, Laura S

    2009-10-01

    No diseases affecting reproductive performance have been previously reported in freshwater crayfishes. This study aims to characterise one reproductive system abnormality found in males of Cherax quadricarinatus reared in captivity. Fifteen adult males of C. quadricarinatus (70-110 g) were purchased from San Mateo S.A. farm (Entre Ríos, Argentina) each season during 2007. Macroscopic analysis showed that 26.6% of the animals sacrificed in winter presented brownish distal vasa deferentia. Histological analysis showed different levels of structural abnormality in the epithelium of the vasa deferentia and spermatophore. Granular and hyaline haemocytes were identified within the vasa deferentia but no significant differences were found in the sperm count between normal and brownish vas deferens. Histological analysis of the crayfishes sacrificed in autumn also showed these modifications in 22% of the animals, however, they did not show the brownish colour under macroscopic analysis. The similarities between the male reproductive system syndrome in shrimps and the abnormalities found in C. quadricarinatus are notable. An unspecific response to thermic stress is a possible explanation of these structural alterations. PMID:19682455

  7. TOXICOLOGY OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT: PROFILING 774 CHEMICALS FOR MOLECULAR TARGETS AND ADVERSE OUTCOMES (SOT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male...

  8. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development: Profiling 774 Chemicals for Molecular Targets and Adverse Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male...

  9. Sperm investment in male meadow voles is affected by the condition of the nearby male conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Sperm competition occurs when 2 or more males copulate with a particular female during the same reproductive cycle, and their sperm compete to fertilize the female's available eggs. One strategy that male voles use to assess the risk and intensity of sperm competition involves responding to the presence of scent marks of conspecific males found near a sexually receptive female. Previously, we have shown that if a male vole copulated with a female while he was in the presence of the odors of another male he increased his sperm investment relative to his investment if another male's odors were not present. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that males assess differences in the relative quality of competing males and adjust their sperm investment accordingly. We did so by allowing males to copulate when they were exposed to the scent mark of a 24-h food-deprived male (low-quality male) or the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived (high-quality male). The data indicate that male meadow voles did not increase their sperm investment during copulation when exposed to the scent mark of a food-deprived male but did so when they were exposed to the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived. The results support the hypothesis that male voles are able to adjust sperm investment when they encounter the scent marks of males that differ in quality. PMID:19529815

  10. Effects of male social status on reproductive success and on behavior in mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    D'Amato, F R

    1988-06-01

    Differences in reproduction as well as in behavior in the presence of females were evaluated according to dominant and subordinate male rank in albino mice, in the temporary absence of each male's antagonist. Dominant males reproduced more successfully than subordinate males. Subordinate males were generally inactive, except for displacement activities, during the first 15 min they were exposed to female partners. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than male-male interference or mating order may be operating or influencing behavior and reproductive results. PMID:3396312

  11. Methoprene and protein supplements accelerate reproductive development and improve mating success of male tephritid flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been studying the physiological mechanisms responsible for coordination of reproductive maturity and sex pheromone communication in males of tephritid flies in order to develop methods for acceleration of reproductive maturity among sterilized males. Our studies revealed that the juvenile ho...

  12. Social context and reproductive potential affect worker reproductive decisions in a eusocial insect.

    PubMed

    Yagound, Boris; Blacher, Pierre; Chameron, Stéphane; Châline, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Context-dependent decision-making conditions individual plasticity and is an integrant part of alternative reproductive strategies. In eusocial Hymenoptera (ants, bees and wasps), the discovery of worker reproductive parasitism recently challenged the view of workers as a homogeneous collective entity and stressed the need to consider them as autonomous units capable of elaborate choices which influence their fitness returns. The reproductive decisions of individual workers thus need to be investigated and taken into account to understand the regulation of reproduction in insect societies. However, we know virtually nothing about the proximate mechanisms at the basis of worker reproductive decisions. Here, we test the hypothesis that the capacity of workers to reproduce in foreign colonies lies in their ability to react differently according to the colonial context and whether this reaction is influenced by a particular internal state. Using the bumble bee Bombus terrestris, we show that workers exhibit an extremely high reproductive plasticity which is conditioned by the social context they experience. Fertile workers reintroduced into their mother colony reverted to sterility, as expected. On the contrary, a high level of ovary activity persisted in fertile workers introduced into a foreign nest, and this despite more frequent direct contacts with the queen and the brood than control workers. Foreign workers' reproductive decisions were not affected by the resident queen, their level of fertility being similar whether or not the queen was removed from the host colony. Workers' physiological state at the time of introduction is also of crucial importance, since infertile workers failed to develop a reproductive phenotype in a foreign nest. Therefore, both internal and environmental factors appear to condition individual reproductive strategies in this species, suggesting that more complex decision-making mechanisms are involved in the regulation of worker

  13. Reproductive toxicity in male mice after exposure to high molybdenum and low copper concentrations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Bian-Hua; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Er-Jie

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of dietary high molybdenum (HMo) and low copper (LCu) concentrations on reproductive toxicity of male mice, 80 mice were divided into 4 groups of 20. These groups were fed with the following: (1) normal control (NC) diet (NC group); (2) NC and HMo diets (HMo group); (3) LCu diet (LCu group); and (4) HMo and LCu diets (HMoLCu group). On the 50th and 100th day, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were analyzed to determine oxidative stress states. Morphological changes in testicular tissue were evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin staining and ultrastructural changes were monitored by transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that administration of HMo, LCu, and HMoLCu not only decreased sperm density and motility but also increased the rate of teratosperm occurrence. A significant increase in MDA content and a decrease in SOD, GSH-Px, and T-AOC contents were observed in LCu, HMo, and HMoLCu groups. Testicular tissues and cells of mice were damaged by HMo and the damages were more serious in the case of Cu deficiency. Exposure to HMo adversely affected the reproductive system of male mice, and dietary LCu plays key roles in HMo-induced reproductive toxicity. PMID:25691499

  14. The Recreational Drug Ecstasy Disrupts the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Reproductive Axis in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Walker, Deena M.; Reveron, Maria E.; Duvauchelle, Christine L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    Reproductive function involves an interaction of three regulatory levels: hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonad. The primary drive upon this system comes from hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory cells, which receive afferent inputs from other neurotransmitter systems in the central nervous system to result in the proper coordination of reproduction and the environment. Here, we hypothesized that the recreational drug ±-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “ecstasy”), which acts through several of the neurotransmitter systems that affect GnRH neurons, suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) reproductive axis of male rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered saline or MDMA or saline either once (acute) or for 20 days (chronic), and were euthanized 7 days following last administration. We quantified hypothalamic GnRH mRNA, serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, and serum testosterone levels, as indices of hypothalamic, pituitary, and gonadal functions, respectively. The results indicate that the hypothalamic and gonadal levels of the HPG axis are significantly altered by MDMA, with GnRH mRNA and serum testosterone levels suppressed in rats administered MDMA compared to saline. Furthermore, our finding that hypothalamic GnRH mRNA levels are suppressed in the context of low testosterone concentrations suggests that the central GnRH neurosecretory system may be a primary target of inhibitory regulation by MDMA usage. PMID:18309234

  15. Disrupting Immune Regulation Incurs Transient Costs in Male Reproductive Function

    PubMed Central

    Belloni, Virginia; Sorci, Gabriele; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Guerreiro, Romain; Bellenger, Jérôme; Faivre, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Background Immune protection against pathogenic organisms has been shown to incur costs. Previous studies investigating the cost of immunity have mostly focused on the metabolic requirements of immune maintenance and activation. In addition to these metabolic costs, the immune system can induce damage to the host if the immune response is mis-targeted or over-expressed. Given its non-specific nature, an over-expressed inflammatory response is often associated with substantial damage for the host. Here, we investigated the cost of an over-expressed inflammatory response in the reproductive function of male mice. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally blocked the receptors of an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in male mice exposed to a mild inflammatory challenge, with each treatment having an appropriate control group. The experiment was conducted on two age classes, young (3 month old) and old (15 month old) mice, to assess any age-related difference in the cost of a disrupted immune regulation. We found that the concomitant exposure to an inflammatory insult and the blockade of IL-10 induced a reduction in testis mass, compared to the three other groups. The frequency of abnormal sperm morphology was also higher in the group of mice exposed to the inflammatory challenge but did not depend on the blockade of the IL-10. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that immune regulation confers protection against the risk of inflammation-induced infertility during infection. They also suggest that disruption of the effectors involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response can have serious fitness consequences even under mild inflammatory insult and benign environmental conditions. PMID:24400103

  16. Characterization of male reproductive anatomy of the endangered Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    PubMed

    Eljarah, A; Al-Zghoul, M B; Jawasreh, K; Ababneh, M; Alsumadi, M; Alhalah, A; Ismail, Z Bani

    2012-07-01

    Reproductive tracts of four male Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Shaumari Nature Reserve in Jordan were examined to characterize their reproductive anatomy. Animals were allocated into two groups based on their age: Group 1 (n = 2, males were 12 and 14 mo old) and Group 2 (n = 2, males were 7 and 9 yrs old). Observations regarding the morphology, position and orientation of different reproductive organs were made. The external and internal genital organs of male oryx were similar to other domestic ruminant species with minor differences. PMID:22444562

  17. Transinfected Wolbachia have minimal effects on male reproductive success in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that manipulate the reproductive success of their insect hosts. Uninfected females that mate with Wolbachia infected males do not reproduce due to cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI results in the increased frequency of Wolbachia-infected individuals in populations. Recently, two Wolbachia strains, the benign wMel and virulent wMelPop have been artificially transinfected into the primary vector of dengue virus, the mosquito Ae. aegypti where they have formed stable infections. These Wolbachia infections are being developed for a biological control strategy against dengue virus transmission. While the effects of Wolbachia on female Ae. aegypti have been examined the effects on males are less well characterised. Here we ascertain and compare the effects of the two strains on male fitness in resource-limited environments that may better approximate the natural environment. Methods A series of population mating trials were conducted to examine the effect of Wolbachia infection status (with strains wMel and wMelPop) and male larval nutrition on insemination frequency, remating rates, the fecundity of females, the hatch rates of eggs and the wing length and fertility of males. Results wMel and wMelPop infections reduce the fecundity of infected females and wMelPop reduces the viability of eggs. Low nutrition diets for males in the larval phase affects the fecundity of wMel-infected females. Neither strain of Wolbachia affected sperm quality or viability or the ability of males to successfully mate multiple females. Conclusions The benign strain of Wolbachia, wMel causes similar reductions in fecundity as the more virulent, wMelPop, and neither are too great that they should not still spread given the action of CI. The ability of Wolbachia-infected males to repeat mate as frequently as wildtype mosquitoes indicates that they will be very good agents of delivering CI in field release populations. PMID

  18. Experimental reproduction of enterococcal spondylitis in male broiler breeder chickens.

    PubMed

    Martin, Leslie T; Martin, Michael P; Barnes, H John

    2011-06-01

    There has been a recent emergence of epidemic spinal infections with necrosis causing lameness and mortality in male broilers and broiler breeders. Mortality in affected flocks may be as high as 15%. The disease has been called enterococcal spondylitis (ES), based on the frequent isolation of Enterococcus cecorum from the lesions and necrosis and inflammation observed in the free thoracic vertebrae (FTV) of affected birds. Male broiler breeders in an experimental setting were challenged with pure E. cecorum isolates obtained from ES-affected commercial flocks. Challenge routes included oral gavage (10(8)), intravenous (i.v.; 10(3)), and air sac (AS; 10(3)). Half the study birds in each group were chemically immunosuppressed with dexamethasone. Spinal lesions were observed grossly in birds challenged intravenously (2.9%) and birds challenged orally (6.1%). Microscopic spinal lesions consistent with ES were more frequently identified compared with gross lesions in the orally challenged group (30.3%). Chemical immunosuppression with dexamethasone was not associated with a greater incidence of ES in this study. By recreating the disease experimentally, the study design reported here may help in the further development of an experimental challenge model for future studies on risk factors, prevention, and therapeutic intervention of ES. PMID:21793445

  19. CYP7B1 Enzyme Deletion Impairs Reproductive Behaviors in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oyola, Mario G.; Zuloaga, Damian G.; Carbone, David; Malysz, Anna M.; Acevedo-Rodriguez, Alexandra; Handa, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to androgenic properties mediated via androgen receptors, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) also regulates estrogenic functions via an alternate pathway. These estrogenic functions of DHT are mediated by its metabolite 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3β-diol) binding to estrogen receptor β (ERβ). CYP7B1 enzyme converts 3β-diol to inactive 6α- or 7α-triols and plays an important role as a regulator of estrogenic functions mediated by 3β-diol. Using a mutant mouse carrying a null mutation for the CYP7B1 gene (CYP7B1KO), we examined the contribution of CYP7B1 on physiology and behavior. Male, gonadectomized (GDX) CYP7B1KO and their wild type (WT) littermates were assessed for their behavioral phenotype, anxiety-related behavioral measures, and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis reactivity. No significant effects of genotype were evident in anxiety-like behaviors in open field (OFA), light-dark (L/D) exploration, and elevated plus maze (EPM). T significantly reduced open arm time on the EPM while not affecting L/D exploratory and OFA behaviors in CYP7B1KO and WT littermates. T also attenuated the corticosterone response to EPM in both genotypes. In GDX animals, T was able to reinstate male-specific reproductive behaviors (latencies and number of mounts, intromission, and ejaculations) in the WT but not in the CYP7B1KO mice. The male reproductive behavior defect in CYP7B1KO seems to be due to their inability to distinguish olfactory cues from a behavioral estrus female. CYP7B1KO mice also showed a reduction in androgen receptor mRNA expression in the olfactory bulb. Our findings suggest a novel role for the CYP7B1 enzyme in the regulation of male reproductive behaviors. PMID:25849728

  20. Effects of cocaine hydrochloride on the male reproductive system

    SciTech Connect

    Berul, C.I.; Harclerode, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The reproductive system effects of cocaine were studied in male rats. The analysis included measurements of circulating levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The weights of the testes and sex accessory organs were also assessed and compared with control animals. Dosage level, duration of treatment, and interval between injection and sacrifice were the parameters examined. Following a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection, LH levels decreased over a 3-hour period. At a high dosage, cocaine caused a significant elevation in serum T followed by a significant depression of T for at least 2 hours. When administered chronically for 15 days, the low dose group did not vary significantly from the vehicle controls. However, the high dose group had lower LH and T levels, as well as correspondingly lighter weight seminal vesicles and epididymus. No changes were noted in the weights of the ventral prostate or testes. This research suggests that cocaine acts primarily at the hypothalamic-hypophyseal axis with a possible secondary action at the gonadal level.

  1. Male reproductive success increases with alliance size in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus).

    PubMed

    Wiszniewski, Joanna; Corrigan, Shannon; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Möller, Luciana M

    2012-03-01

    1. Determining the extent of variation in male mating strategies and reproductive success is necessary to understand the fitness benefits of social and cooperative behaviour. 2. This study assesses the reproductive success of male Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in a small embayment population where different behavioural strategies of males have previously been identified. Parentage for 44 sampled calves was examined using 23 microsatellite loci and one mitochondrial DNA marker. Our candidate parent pool of 70 males and 64 females contained individuals sampled from both the embayment and adjacent coastal populations. 3. A moderate level of polygyny was detected in our sample. We assigned paternity of 23 calves to 12 males at the strict 95% confidence level and an additional nine calves to two males at the 80% confidence level. The majority (92%) of successful males were identified as residents to the embayment, and 46% of offspring were located within the same social group or community as their father. 4. Our results suggest that the size of alliances was the best predictor of reproductive success for males in this population, while the strength of association among allied males, alliance stability and male ranging patterns had little influence. In line with predictions for male alliances formed between unrelated individuals, we found that reproductive skew within alliances was not large. 5. Together, our genetic and behavioural analyses demonstrate that alliance formation between male dolphins is a successful strategy to enhance reproductive output. PMID:21981240

  2. Male reproductive senescence: the price of immune-induced oxidative damage on sexual attractiveness in the blue-footed booby.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Velando, Alberto

    2007-11-01

    In animals, male reproduction is commonly a function of sexual attractiveness, based on the expression of sexually dimorphic traits that advertise genuinely the male's quality. Male performance may decline with age because physiological functions underlying sexual attractiveness may be affected by senescence. Here we show that a sexual signal (foot colour) declines with age, due probably to the deleterious effects of oxidative damage. We found that in the blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii foot colour during courtship was less attractive in senescent than in middle-aged males. In addition, we increased reactive oxygen species experimentally by immunizing males with lipopolysaccharide, a bacterial cell wall component that induces marked oxidative stress in animals. The immune system activation induced greater lipid peroxidation and invoked changes on colour expression (less attractive), particularly in senescent males. These results support the idea that oxidative stress affects reproductive senescence, and suggest that oxidative damage might be a proximal mechanism underlying age-reproductive patterns in long-lived animals. PMID:17922712

  3. The effects of perceived mating opportunities on patterns of reproductive investment by male guppies.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Luke T; Evans, Jonathan P; Gasparini, Clelia

    2014-01-01

    Males pay considerable reproductive costs in acquiring mates (precopulatory sexual selection) and in producing ejaculates that are effective at fertilising eggs in the presence of competing ejaculates (postcopulatory sexual selection). Given these costs, males must balance their reproductive investment in a given mating to optimise their future reproductive potential. Males are therefore expected to invest in reproduction prudently according to the likelihood of obtaining future matings. In this study we tested this prediction by determining whether male reproductive investment varies with expected future mating opportunities, which were experimentally manipulated by visually exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to high or low numbers of females in the absence of competing males. Our experiment did not reveal consistent effects of perceived future mating opportunity on either precopulatory (male mate choice and mating behaviour) or postcopulatory (sperm quality and quantity) investment. However, we did find that male size and female availability interacted to influence mating behaviour; large males visually deprived of females during the treatment phase became more choosy and showed greater interest in their preferred female than those given continuous visual access to females. Overall, our results suggest males tailor pre- rather than postcopulatory traits according to local female availability, but critically, these effects depend on male size. PMID:24705713

  4. Exposure to hazardous substances and male reproductive health: a research framework.

    PubMed Central

    Moline, J M; Golden, A L; Bar-Chama, N; Smith, E; Rauch, M E; Chapin, R E; Perreault, S D; Schrader, S M; Suk, W A; Landrigan, P J

    2000-01-01

    The discovery in the mid-1970s that occupational exposures to pesticides could diminish or destroy the fertility of workers sparked concern about the effects of hazardous substances on male reproductive health. More recently, there is evidence that sperm quantity and quality may have declined worldwide, that the incidence of testicular cancer has progressively increased in many countries, and that other disorders of the male reproductive tract such as hypospadias and cryptorchidism may have also increased. There is growing concern that occupational factors and environmental chemical exposures, including in utero and childhood exposures to compounds with estrogenic activity, may be correlated with these observed changes in male reproductive health and fertility. We review the evidence and methodologies that have contributed to our current understanding of environmental effects on male reproductive health and fertility and discuss the methodologic issues which confront investigators in this area. One of the greatest challenges confronting researchers in this area is assessing and comparing results from existing studies. We elaborate recommendations for future research. Researchers in the field of male reproductive health should continue working to prioritize hazardous substances; elucidate the magnitude of male reproductive health effects, particularly in the areas of testicular cancer, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism; develop biomarkers of exposure to reproductive toxins and of reproductive health effects for research and clinical use; foster collaborative interdisciplinary research; and recognize the importance of standardized laboratory methods and sample archiving. PMID:11017884

  5. Reproductive success in the Lusitanian toadfish: Influence of calling activity, male quality and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Amorim, M Clara P; Conti, Carlotta; Sousa-Santos, Carla; Novais, Bruno; Gouveia, Maria D; Vicente, Joana R; Modesto, Teresa; Gonçalves, Amparo; Fonseca, Paulo J

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic signals are sexual ornaments with an established role on mate choice in several taxa, but not in fish. Recent studies have suggested that fish vocal activity may signal male quality and influence male's reproductive success but experimental evidence is lacking. Here we made two experiments to test the hypothesis that vocal activity is essential for male breeding success in a highly vocal fish, the Lusitanian toadfish. We first compared the reproduction success between muted and vocal males. In a second experiment we related male reproduction success with acoustic activity and male quality, including biometric, condition and physiological features. As a proxy for reproductive success we tallied both total number and number of sired eggs, which were correlated. Muting experiments showed that successful mating was dependent on vocalizing. In addition, the number of eggs was positively associated with the male's maximum calling rate. In the second experiment male's reproductive success was positively associated with male condition and negatively related with circulating androgen levels and relative gonad mass, but was not associated with vocal activity. Differences in results may be related with nest design which could have influenced mate choice costs and intra-sexual competition. In the muting experiment nests had a small opening that restrained the large nest-holder but allowed smaller fish, such as females, to pass while in the second experiment fish could move freely. These experiments suggest that a combination of factors, including vocal activity, influence reproductive success in this highly vocal species. PMID:26656765

  6. Correlation between body mass index of Chinese males and assisted reproductive technology outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhengmu; Lu, Xiang; Wang, Min; Cheng, Huaijin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between male’s body mass index (BMI) and the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART). In this retrospective study, we analyzed the data from 729 cycles of female patients aged 38 years or less, with normal BMI and who received IVF treatments between January, 2013 and June, 2014. The patients were divided into normal weight (n = 358), overweight (n = 267), and obese (n = 104) groups according to the BMI of their male partners. Embryonic development and pregnancy outcomes in these three groups were compared. Results: With increasing BMI, fertilization rates decreased proportionately (P < 0.05); but embryonic cleavage rates and effective embryo rates were not significantly affected (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in implantation rates, pregnancy rates, or early miscarriage rates (P > 0.05) among the three groups. Conclusions: High male BMI affects fertilization rate with ART; and we recommend that men of reproductive age adjust their lifestyles accordingly and make efforts to control their weight. PMID:26885094

  7. Influence of chronic exposure to uranium on male reproduction in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Llobet, J.M.; Sirvent, J.J.; Ortega, A.; Domingo, J.L. )

    1991-05-01

    Relatively few data are available concerning the reproductive and developmental toxicity of uranium. The present study was designed to evaluate the reproductive effects of this metal in male Swiss mice. The animals were treated with uranyl acetate dihydrate at doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg/day given in the drinking water for 64 days. To evaluate the fertility of the uranium-treated males, mice were mated with untreated females for 4 days. There was a significant but non-dose-related decrease in the pregnancy rate of these animals. Body weights were significantly depressed only in the 80 mg/kg/day group. Testicular function/spermatogenesis was not affected by uranium at any dose, as evidenced by normal testes and epididymis weights and normal spermatogenesis, whereas interstitial alterations and vacuolization of Leydig cells were seen at 80 mg/kg/day. The results of this investigation indicate that uranium does not cause any adverse effect on testicular function in mice at the concentrations usually ingested in the diet and drinking water, with a safety factor of more than 1000. However, although spermatogenesis was not affected by uranium administration, uranium produces a significant decrease in the pregnancy rate at 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg/day.

  8. Repeated administrations of carbon nanotubes in male mice cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yuhong; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Jingping; Mu, Qingxin; Zhang, Weidong; Butch, Elizabeth R.; Snyder, Scott E.; Yan, Bing

    2010-09-01

    Soluble carbon nanotubes show promise as materials for in vivo delivery and imaging applications. Several reports have described the in vivo toxicity of carbon nanotubes, but their effects on male reproduction have not been examined. Here, we show that repeated intravenous injections of water-soluble multiwalled carbon nanotubes into male mice can cause reversible testis damage without affecting fertility. Nanotubes accumulated in the testes, generated oxidative stress and decreased the thickness of the seminiferous epithelium in the testis at day 15, but the damage was repaired at 60 and 90 days. The quantity, quality and integrity of the sperm and the levels of three major sex hormones were not significantly affected throughout the 90-day period. The fertility of treated male mice was unaffected; the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those that mated with untreated male mice.

  9. Male Reproductive Disorders and Fertility Trends: Influences of Environment and Genetic Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Buck Louis, Germaine M; Toppari, Jorma; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Eisenberg, Michael L; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H; Sapra, Katherine J; Ziebe, Søren; Priskorn, Lærke; Juul, Anders

    2016-01-01

    It is predicted that Japan and European Union will soon experience appreciable decreases in their populations due to persistently low total fertility rates (TFR) below replacement level (2.1 child per woman). In the United States, where TFR has also declined, there are ethnic differences. Caucasians have rates below replacement, while TFRs among African-Americans and Hispanics are higher. We review possible links between TFR and trends in a range of male reproductive problems, including testicular cancer, disorders of sex development, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low testosterone levels, poor semen quality, childlessness, changed sex ratio, and increasing demand for assisted reproductive techniques. We present evidence that several adult male reproductive problems arise in utero and are signs of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). Although TDS might result from genetic mutations, recent evidence suggests that it most often is related to environmental exposures of the fetal testis. However, environmental factors can also affect the adult endocrine system. Based on our review of genetic and environmental factors, we conclude that environmental exposures arising from modern lifestyle, rather than genetics, are the most important factors in the observed trends. These environmental factors might act either directly or via epigenetic mechanisms. In the latter case, the effects of exposures might have an impact for several generations post-exposure. In conclusion, there is an urgent need to prioritize research in reproductive physiology and pathophysiology, particularly in highly industrialized countries facing decreasing populations. We highlight a number of topics that need attention by researchers in human physiology, pathophysiology, environmental health sciences, and demography. PMID:26582516

  10. Abnormal secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status involved in quinestrol-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Wang, Hongwei; Zhang, Jiliang; Zhou, Bianhua; Si, Lifang; Wei, Lan; Li, Xiang

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of quinestrol, a synthetic oestrogen homologue with reproductive toxicity, on the secretion of reproductive hormones and antioxidant status in adult male rat. Our results showed that quinestrol exposure significantly decreased the weight of the testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle, and prostate, as well as the sperm counts in the cauda epididymis of rats. Quinestrol significantly reduced the size of seminiferous tubules and the total number of spermatogenic cells. Serum testosterone, follitropin, and lutropin were also significantly reduced in a dose-related manner after quinestrol exposure. Meanwhile, the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxide capacity significantly decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde and nitric oxide concentrations significantly increased in the testes. These findings revealed that endocrine disorders of reproductive hormones and oxidative stress may be involved in reproductive toxicity induced by quinestrol in adult male rats. PMID:24183492

  11. Reproductive consequences of exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens in male fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Louise M; Brown, Alexandria C; Montgomery, Tracy M; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2011-04-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant compounds that can act as endocrine disruptors in vertebrates. Biologically active levels of phytoestrogens have been found in aquatic habitats near wood pulp and paper mills, biofuel manufacturing plants, sewage-treatment plants, and agricultural fields. Phytoestrogens are known to cause hormonal and gonadal changes in male fish, but few studies have connected these effects to outcomes relevant to reproductive success. In one experiment, we exposed sexually mature male fighting fish Betta splendens to environmentally relevant (1 μg L(-1)) and pharmacological concentrations (1000 μg L(-1)) of the phytoestrogen genistein as well as to a positive control of waterborne 17β-estradiol (E2; 1 μg L(-1)), and a negative control of untreated water. In a second experiment, we exposed male B. splendens to environmentally relevant concentrations (1 μg L(-1)) of genistein and β-sitosterol singly and in combination as well as to the positive and negative controls. All exposures were 21 days in duration. We measured sex-steroid hormone levels, gonadosomatic index (GSI), sperm concentration and motility, and fertilization success in these fish. We found that exposure to genistein did not affect circulating levels of the androgen 11-ketotestosterone or the estrogen E2 relative to negative-control fish. We also found that neither of the compounds nor their mixture affected GSI, sperm concentration or motility, or fertilization success in exposed fish relative to negative-control fish. However, fish exposed to phytoestrogens showed some evidence of fewer but more motile sperm than fish exposed to the positive control E2. We conclude that sexually mature male B. splendens are relatively immune to reproductive impairments from short-term exposure to waterborne phytoestrogens. PMID:20589370

  12. Overexpression of PRL7D1 in Leydig Cells Causes Male Reproductive Dysfunction in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaping; Su, Xingyu; Hao, Jie; Chen, Maoxin; Liu, Weijia; Liao, Xiaogang; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin family 7, subfamily d, member 1 (PRL7D1) is found in mouse placenta. Our recent work showed that PRL7D1 is also present in mouse testis Leydig cells, and the expression of PRL7D1 in the testis exhibits an age-related increase. In the present study, we generated transgenic mice with Leydig cell-specific PRL7D1 overexpression to explore its function during male reproduction. Prl7d1 male mice exhibited subfertility as reflected by reduced sperm counts and litter sizes. The testes from Prl7d1 transgenic mice appeared histologically normal, but the frequency of apoptotic germ cells was increased. Prl7d1 transgenic mice also had lower testosterone concentrations than wild-type mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that Prl7d1 transgenic mice have defects in the testicular expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) and hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase cluster (HSD3B). Further studies revealed that PRL7D1 overexpression affected the expression of transferrin (TF) in Sertoli cells. These results suggest that PRL7D1 overexpression could lead to increased germ cell apoptosis and exert an inhibitory effect on testosterone production in Leydig cells by reducing the expression of certain steroidogenic-related genes. In addition, PRL7D1 appears to have important roles in the function of Sertoli cells, which, in turn, affects male fertility. We conclude that the expression level of PRL7D1 is associated with the reproductive function of male mice. PMID:26771609

  13. Overexpression of PRL7D1 in Leydig Cells Causes Male Reproductive Dysfunction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaping; Su, Xingyu; Hao, Jie; Chen, Maoxin; Liu, Weijia; Liao, Xiaogang; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Prolactin family 7, subfamily d, member 1 (PRL7D1) is found in mouse placenta. Our recent work showed that PRL7D1 is also present in mouse testis Leydig cells, and the expression of PRL7D1 in the testis exhibits an age-related increase. In the present study, we generated transgenic mice with Leydig cell-specific PRL7D1 overexpression to explore its function during male reproduction. Prl7d1 male mice exhibited subfertility as reflected by reduced sperm counts and litter sizes. The testes from Prl7d1 transgenic mice appeared histologically normal, but the frequency of apoptotic germ cells was increased. Prl7d1 transgenic mice also had lower testosterone concentrations than wild-type mice. Mechanistic studies revealed that Prl7d1 transgenic mice have defects in the testicular expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) and hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta- and steroid delta-isomerase cluster (HSD3B). Further studies revealed that PRL7D1 overexpression affected the expression of transferrin (TF) in Sertoli cells. These results suggest that PRL7D1 overexpression could lead to increased germ cell apoptosis and exert an inhibitory effect on testosterone production in Leydig cells by reducing the expression of certain steroidogenic-related genes. In addition, PRL7D1 appears to have important roles in the function of Sertoli cells, which, in turn, affects male fertility. We conclude that the expression level of PRL7D1 is associated with the reproductive function of male mice. PMID:26771609

  14. Leptin inhibits the reproductive axis in adult male Syrian hamsters exposed to long and short photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Boggio, Veronica; Cutrera, Rodolfo; Carbone, Silvia; Scacchi, Pablo; Ponzo, Osvaldo J

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of acute leptin treatment of adult Syrian hamsters exposed to a long (LP, eugonadal males) and short photoperiod (SP, hypogonadal males). Animals were exposed to LP (L:D 14:10) or SP (L:D 10:14) for 10 weeks. Afterwards, both LP and SP hamsters were allocated to a control (SP-C, LP-C) or leptin-treated group (SP 3, SP 10, SP 30 or LP3, LP 10, LP 30). One hour before sacrifice, a single dose of leptin (3, 10 or 30 μg/kg) or vehicle was administered (i.p.) to the males. Testis weight, serum and pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, as well as the hypothalamic concentration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were recorded. Histological analysis of the testis was performed and GnRH concentration in the culture medium of hypothalamic explants was examined. A dramatic regression of testicular weight and histological atrophy of seminiferous tubules, as well as a decrease in serum and pituitary LH concentrations were found in SP males. All doses of leptin significantly reduced serum LH levels and medium GnRH concentrations in both photoperiod groups. Pituitary LH and hypothalamic GnRH concentrations were not affected by leptin. In conclusion, we demonstrated that leptin inhibited the reproductive axis of Syrian male hamsters exposed to LP and SP and fed ad libitum. PMID:24011191

  15. Early life expenditure in sexual competition is associated with increased reproductive senescence in male red deer

    PubMed Central

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Pemberton, Josephine M.; Clutton-Brock, Tim H.; Nussey, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary theories of senescence predict that investment in reproduction in early life should come at the cost of reduced somatic maintenance, and thus earlier or more rapid senescence. There is now growing support for such trade-offs in wild vertebrates, but these exclusively come from females. Here, we test this prediction in male red deer (Cervus elaphus) using detailed longitudinal data collected over a 40-year field study. We show that males which had larger harems and thereby allocated more resources to reproduction during early adulthood experienced higher rates of senescence in both harem size and rut duration. Males that carried antlers with more points during early life did not show more pronounced declines in reproductive traits in later life. Overall, we demonstrate that sexual competition shapes male reproductive senescence in wild red deer populations and provide rare empirical support for the disposable soma theory of ageing in males of polygynous vertebrate species. PMID:25122226

  16. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, Kyle M.; Head, Megan L.; Williams, Camellia A.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity–parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity. PMID:23782889

  17. Male adaptations to minimize sexual cannibalism during reproduction in the funnel-web spider Hololena curta.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong-Hong; Zunic-Kosi, Alenka; Zhang, Long-Wa; Prentice, Thomas R; McElfresh, J Steven; Chinta, Satya P; Zou, Yun-Fan; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2015-12-01

    Males of many spider species risk being attacked and cannibalized while searching for, courting, and mating with conspecific females. However, there are exceptions. We show that the funnel-web spider, Hololena curta, has 3 adaptations that minimize risk to males during courtship and mating, and enhance reproductive success. First, males detected chemical or tactile signals associated with webs of virgin females, and differentiated them from webs of mated females, enabling males to increase encounter rates with virgin females and avoid aggressive mated females. Second, males produced stereotyped vibrational signals during courting which induced female quiescence and suppressed female aggression. Third, when touched by males, sexually receptive females entered a cataleptic state, allowing males to safely approach and copulate. Because males can mate multiple times and the sex ratio in natural populations of H. curta is female biased, overall reproductive output is likely increased by males of this species avoiding sexual cannibalism. PMID:26033974

  18. No Need to Discriminate? Reproductive Diploid Males in a Parasitoid with Complementary Sex Determination

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Jan; Mazzi, Dominique; Dorn, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Diploid males in hymenopterans are generally either inviable or sterile, thus imposing a severe genetic load on populations. In species with the widespread single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD), sex depends on the genotype at one single locus with multiple alleles. Haploid (hemizygous) individuals are always males. Diploid individuals develop into females when heterozygous and into males when homozygous at the sex determining locus. Our comparison of the mating and reproductive success of haploid and diploid males revealed that diploid males of the braconid parasitoid Cotesia glomerata sire viable and fertile diploid daughters. Females mated to diploid males, however, produced fewer daughters than females mated to haploid males. Nevertheless, females did not discriminate against diploid males as mating partners. Diploid males initiated courtship display sooner than haploid males and were larger in body size. Although in most species so far examined diploid males were recognized as genetic dead ends, we present a second example of a species with sl-CSD and commonly occurring functionally reproductive diploid males. Our study suggests that functionally reproductive diploid males might not be as rare as hitherto assumed. We argue that the frequent occurrence of inbreeding in combination with imperfect behavioural adaptations towards its avoidance promote the evolution of diploid male fertility. PMID:19551142

  19. Reciprocal relationships between behaviour and parasites suggest that negative feedback may drive flexibility in male reproductive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Vanessa O; Snider, Matthew H

    2016-05-25

    Parasites are ubiquitous components of the environment that contribute to behavioural and life-history variation among hosts. Although it is well known that host behaviour can affect parasite infection risk and that parasites can alter host behaviour, the potential for dynamic feedback between these processes is poorly characterized. Using Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) as a model, we tested for reciprocal effects of behaviour on parasites and parasites on behaviour to understand whether behaviour-parasite feedback could play a role in maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour. Adult male gazelles either defend territories to attract mates or reside in bachelor groups. Territoriality is highly variable both within- and between-individuals, suggesting that territory maintenance is costly. Using a combination of longitudinal and experimental studies, we found that individual males transition frequently between territorial and bachelor reproductive status, and that elevated parasite burdens are a cost of territoriality. Moreover, among territorial males, parasites suppress aspects of behaviour related to territory maintenance and defence. These results suggest that territorial behaviour promotes the accumulation of parasites in males, and these parasites dampen the very behaviours required for territory maintenance. Our findings suggest that reciprocal feedback between host behaviour and parasitism could be a mechanism maintaining variation in male reproductive behaviour in the system. PMID:27194703

  20. Male sexual ornament size is positively associated with reproductive morphology and enhanced fertility in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Exaggerated male ornaments and displays often evolve in species where males only provide females with ejaculates during reproduction. Although "good genes" arguments are typically invoked to explain this phenomenon, a simpler alternative is possible if variation in male reproductive quality (e.g. sperm number, ejaculate content, mating rate) is an important determinant of female reproductive success. The "phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis" states that female preference for male ornaments or displays has been selected to ensure higher levels of fertility and has driven the evolution of exaggerated male traits. Females of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni must mate frequently to maintain high levels of fertility and prefer to mate with males exhibiting large eyespan, a condition-dependent sexual ornament. If eyespan indicates male reproductive quality, females could directly increase their reproductive success by mating with males with large eyespan. Here we investigate whether male eyespan indicates accessory gland and testis length, and then ask whether mating with large eyespan males affects female fertility. Results Male eyespan was a better predictor of two key male reproductive traits – accessory gland and testis length – than was body size alone. This positive relationship held true over three levels of increasing environmental stress during the maturation of the adult accessory glands and testes. Furthermore, females housed with a large eyespan male exhibited higher levels of fertility than those with small eyespan males. Conclusion Male eyespan in stalk-eyed flies is subject to strong directional mate preference and is a reliable indicator of male reproductive quality – both because males with larger eyespan have bigger accessory glands and testes, and also as they confer higher fertility on females. Fertility enhancement may have arisen because males with larger eyespan mated more often and/or because they transferred more sperm or

  1. Effects of environmental endocrine disruptors, including insecticides used for malaria vector control on reproductive parameters of male rats.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Sean M; Bornman, Maria S; Joubert, Annie M; Pitts, Neville; Naidoo, Vinny; de Jager, Christiaan

    2016-06-01

    The male reproductive system is sensitive to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during critical developmental windows. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in utero-, during lactation- and directly to 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) and a mixture of DDT, deltamethrin (DM), p-nonylphenol (p-NP) and phytoestrogens, at concentrations found in a malaria-area. After dosing for 104 days, histological assessments and reproductive-endpoints were assessed. The anogenital distance (AGD) (P=0.005) was shorter in the mixture-exposed group, while the prostate mass (P=0.018) was higher in the DDT-exposed group. A higher testicular mass and abnormal histology was observed in the DDT-(P=0.019), DDE-(P=0.047) and mixture-exposed (P<0.005) groups. This study shows that in utero-, lactational- and direct exposure to EDCs present in a malaria-area negatively affects male reproductive parameters in rats. These findings raise concerns to EDC-exposures to mothers living in malaria-areas and the reproductive health of their male offspring. PMID:26928317

  2. The Effect of Diet Quality and Wing Morph on Male and Female Reproductive Investment in a Nuptial Feeding Ground Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew D.; Bussière, Luc F.; Brooks, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A common approach in the study of life-history trade-off evolution is to manipulate the nutrient content of diets during the life of an individual in order observe how the acquisition of resources influences the relationship between reproduction, lifespan and other life-history parameters such as dispersal. Here, we manipulate the quality of diet that replicate laboratory populations received as a thorough test of how diet quality influences the life-history trade-offs associated with reproductive investment in a nuptial feeding Australian ground cricket (Pteronemobius sp.). In this species, both males and females make significant contributions to the production of offspring, as males provide a nuptial gift by allowing females to chew on a modified tibial spur during copulation and feed directing on their haemolymph. Individuals also have two distinct wing morphs, a short-winged flightless morph and a long-winged morph that has the ability to disperse. By manipulating the quality of diet over seven generations, we found that the reproductive investment of males and females were affected differently by the diet quality treatment and wing morph of the individual. We discuss the broader implications of these findings including the differences in how males and females balance current and future reproductive effort in nuptial feeding insects, the changing nature of sexual selection when diets vary, and how the life-history trade-offs associated with the ability to disperse are expected to differ among populations. PMID:18927614

  3. Prenatal di-n-butyl phthalate exposure alters reproductive functions at adulthood in male rats.

    PubMed

    Giribabu, Nelli; Sainath, Sri Bhashyam; Sreenivasula Reddy, Pamanji

    2014-05-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the reproductive health in adult male rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) during embryonic development. Pregnant rats were injected with DBP and F1 male rats were weaned and on postnatal day 100, used for mating with normal cycling females to assess reproductive performance. After completion of cohabitation period, rats were analyzed for other reproductive end points. Transplacental exposure to DBP significantly decreased fertility in adult male rats. Prenatal exposure to DBP significantly decreased sperm density, number of motile sperms, viable sperms, and hypoosmotic swelling tail coiled sperms with an increase in morphological abnormalities in sperms. Testicular steroidogenic enzyme activity levels and serum testosterone levels were significantly decreased in rats exposed to DBP during embryonic development. In conclusion, transplacental exposure to DBP impairs male reproductive performance by decreasing steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. PMID:22489061

  4. Effect of restraint stress on lead-induced male reproductive toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Priya, P Hari; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2012-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether chronic immobilization stress interferes with lead-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Early pubertal male Wistar rats were subjected to either restraint stress (5 hr/day) or maintained on lead (0.15%) containing water or both for 60 days. Restraint stress or lead treatment significantly decreased the weight of the testes and epididymis. The daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, and sperm viability were also decreased after exposure to lead or subjected to restraint stress. The levels of serum testosterone and also activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased with a significant increase in the serum follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormone levels in rats exposed to lead or restraint stress indicating decreased steroidogenesis. A significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels and decrease in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity levels were observed in the testes of rats subjected to restraint stress or exposed to lead indicating increased oxidative stress. Extensive histopathological malformations were observed in the testis of the treated rats. From the findings, the study suggests that restraint stress or exposure to lead affects male reproduction in rats by inducing oxidative stress followed by decreasing steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis. A significant decrease in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis was also observed in rats subjected to both restraint stress and lead treatment as compared to lead alone treated rats indicating immobilization stress augments lead-induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in rats. PMID:22753343

  5. [Male reproductive behavior in Drosophila melanogaster strains with different alleles of the flamenco gene].

    PubMed

    Subocheva, E A; Romanova, N I; Karpova, N N; Iuneva, A O; Kim, A I

    2003-05-01

    The allelic state of gene flamenco has been determined in a number of Drosophila melanogaster strains using the ovoD test. The presence of an active copy of gypsy in these strains was detected by restriction analysis. Then male reproduction behavior was studied in the strains carrying a mutation in gene flamenco. In these experiments mating success has been experimentally estimated in groups of flies. It has been demonstrated that the presence of mutant allele flamMS decreases male mating activity irrespective of the presence or absence of mutation white. The active copy of gypsy does not affect mating activity in the absence of the mutation in gene flamenco. Individual analysis has demonstrated that that mutation flamMS results in characteristic changes in courtship: flamMS males exhibit a delay in the transition from the orientation stage to the vibration stage (the so-called vibration delay). The role of locus flamenco in the formation of male mating behavior in Drosophila is discussed. PMID:12838614

  6. Lack of Reproductive Toxicity in Adult Male Rats Exposed to Interferon-Alpha.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Josiane de Lima; Cavariani, Marilia Martins; Borges, Cibele dos Santos; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Kempinas, Wilma De Grava

    2015-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN- α), a type I IFN, is a protein with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunoregulatory activities, widely used in the treatment of several types of cancers as well as hepatitis B and C. Decrease of libido and erectile dysfunction are commonly reported by male patients during treatment of chronic hepatitis C with IFN- α . However, IFN therapy-associated underlying factors attributed to sexual dysfunction are still not well defined. Currently, there are few studies investigating the effects of IFN on male reproductive system functions. Given that, the aim of the present investigation was to examine effects of subchronic exposure to IFN- α (5 × 10(4) U/kg and 10 × 10(4) U/kg, 30 d) on serum hormones, sperm parameters, fertility, and testicular and epididymal hystopathology and morphometry in adult male Wistar rats. None of the evaluated parameters was markedly altered by IFN- α . Thus, our results suggest that exposure to IFN- α , in this experimental design, did not adversely affect sperm quality and fertile capacity of male rats. PMID:26488366

  7. Familiarity affects the assessment of female facial signals of fertility by free-ranging male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Higham, James P.; Hughes, Kelly D.; Brent, Lauren J. N.; Dubuc, Constance; Engelhardt, Antje; Heistermann, Michael; Maestriperi, Dario; Santos, Laurie R.; Stevens, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Animals signal their reproductive status in a range of sensory modalities. Highly social animals, such as primates, have access not only to such signals, but also to prior experience of other group members. Whether this experience affects how animals interpret reproductive signals is unknown. Here, we explore whether familiarity with a specific female affects a male's ability to assess that female's reproductive signals. We used a preferential looking procedure to assess signal discrimination in free-ranging rhesus macaques, a species in which female facial luminance covaries with reproductive status. We collected images of female faces throughout the reproductive cycle, and using faecal hormone analysis to determine ovulation, categorized images as coming from a female's pre-fertile, ovulating, or post-fertile period. We printed colour-calibrated stimuli of these faces, reproducing stimuli perceptually the same in colour and luminance to the original appearance of females. These images were presented to males who were either unfamiliar or familiar with stimuli females. Overall, males distinguished ovulatory from pre-ovulatory faces. However, a significant proportion of males did so only among males familiar with stimuli females. These experiments demonstrate that familiarity may increase a receiver's ability to use a social partner's signals to discern their reproductive status. PMID:21471112

  8. EFFECTS OF SELECTED ORGANIC DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS ON MALE REPRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of the recent increase in exposure of individuals to potentially harmful chemicals, it has become increasingly important to test the potential of environmental chemicals to cause adverse reproductive effects. The Division of Toxicology within the Department of Pharmacolog...

  9. Contrasting reproductive strategies of triploid hybrid males in vertebrate mating systems.

    PubMed

    Pruvost, N B M; Mikulíček, P; Choleva, L; Reyer, H-U

    2015-01-01

    The scarcity of parthenogenetic vertebrates is often attributed to their 'inferior' mode of clonal reproduction, which restricts them to self-reproduce their own genotype lineage and leaves little evolutionary potential with regard to speciation and evolution of sexual reproduction. Here, we show that for some taxa, such uniformity does not hold. Using hybridogenetic water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus) as a model system, we demonstrate that triploid hybrid males from two geographic regions exhibit very different reproductive modes. With an integrative data set combining field studies, crossing experiments, flow cytometry and microsatellite analyses, we found that triploid hybrids from Central Europe are rare, occur in male sex only and form diploid gametes of a single clonal lineage. In contrast, triploid hybrids from north-western Europe are widespread, occur in both sexes and produce recombined haploid gametes. These differences translate into contrasting reproductive roles between regions. In Central Europe, triploid hybrid males sexually parasitize diploid hybrids and just perpetuate their own genotype--which is the usual pattern in parthenogens. In north-western Europe, on the other hand, the triploid males are gamete donors for diploid hybrids, thereby stabilizing the mixed 2n-3n hybrid populations. By demonstrating these contrasting roles in male reproduction, we draw attention to a new significant evolutionary potential for animals with nonsexual reproduction, namely reproductive plasticity. PMID:25411907

  10. Operational sex ratio and density do not affect directional selection on male sexual ornaments and behavior.

    PubMed

    Head, Megan L; Lindholm, Anna K; Brooks, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Demographic parameters including operational sex ratio (OSR) and population density may influence the opportunity for, and strength of sexual selection. Traditionally, male-biased OSRs and high population densities have been thought to increase the opportunity for sexual selection on male sexual traits due to increased male competition for mates. Recent experimental evidence, however, suggests that male-biased OSRs might reduce the opportunity for sexual selection due to increased sexual coercion experienced by females. How OSR, density, and any resultant changes in the opportunity for sexual selection actually affect selection on male sexual traits is unclear. In this study, we independently manipulated OSR and density in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) without altering the number of males present. We recorded male and female behavior and used DNA microsatellite data to assign paternity to offspring and estimate male reproductive success. We then used linear selection analyses to examine the effects of OSR and density on directional sexual selection on male behavioral and morphological traits. We found that females were pursued more by males in male-biased treatments, despite no change in individual male behavior. There were no differences in sexual behavior experienced by females or performed by males in relation to density. Neither OSR nor density significantly altered the opportunity for sexual selection. Also, Although there was significant multivariate linear selection operating on males, neither OSR nor density altered the pattern of sexual selection on male traits. Our results suggest that differences in either OSR or density (independent of the number of males present) are unlikely to alter directional evolutionary change in male sexual traits. PMID:18067568

  11. PMRD: a curated database for genes and mutants involved in plant male reproduction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Male reproduction is an essential biological event in the plant life cycle separating the diploid sporophyte and haploid gametophyte generations, which involves expression of approximately 20,000 genes. The control of male reproduction is also of economic importance for plant breeding and hybrid seed production. With the advent of forward and reverse genetics and genomic technologies, a large number of male reproduction-related genes have been identified. Thus it is extremely challenging for individual researchers to systematically collect, and continually update, all the available information on genes and mutants related to plant male reproduction. The aim of this study is to manually curate such gene and mutant information and provide a web-accessible resource to facilitate the effective study of plant male reproduction. Description Plant Male Reproduction Database (PMRD) is a comprehensive resource for browsing and retrieving knowledge on genes and mutants related to plant male reproduction. It is based upon literature and biological databases and includes 506 male sterile genes and 484 mutants with defects of male reproduction from a variety of plant species. Based on Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and literature, information relating to a further 3697 male reproduction related genes were systematically collected and included, and using in text curation, gene expression and phenotypic information were captured from the literature. PMRD provides a web interface which allows users to easily access the curated annotations and genomic information, including full names, symbols, locations, sequences, expression patterns, functions of genes, mutant phenotypes, male sterile categories, and corresponding publications. PMRD also provides mini tools to search and browse expression patterns of genes in microarray datasets, run BLAST searches, convert gene ID and generate gene networks. In addition, a Mediawiki engine and a forum have been integrated within the

  12. Green Tea Polyphenols Extend the Lifespan of Male Drosophila melanogaster While Impairing Reproductive Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Terry; Schriner, Samuel E.; Okoro, Michael; Lu, David; Chiang, Beatrice T.; Huey, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Green tea is a popular beverage believed to have many health benefits, including a reduction in the risks of heart disease and cancer. Rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, green tea and its components have been shown to increase the lifespan of various animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the gender-specific effects of green tea on the lifespan of fruit flies and observed that green tea extended the lifespan of male flies only. This effect was found to be independent of typical aging interventions, such as dietary restriction, modulation of oxidative energy metabolism, and improved tolerance to environmental stresses. The one exception was that green tea did protect male flies against iron toxicity. Since there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and reproduction, the impact of green tea on male reproductive fitness was also investigated. We found that green tea negatively impacted male fertility as shown by a reduced number of offspring produced and increased mating latency. We further identified that the lifespan extension properties of green tea was only observed in the presence of females which alludes to a reproductive (or mating) dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that green tea extends the lifespan of male flies by inhibiting reproductive potential, possibly by limiting iron uptake. To our knowledge, our study is the first to report the negative impact of green tea on Drosophila male reproduction. Our results also support previous studies that suggest that green tea might have a negative effect on reproductive fitness in humans. PMID:25058464

  13. Reproductive tactics of male bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus) in anoxic and hypoxic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seivåg, Maria Larsen; Salvanes, Anne Gro Vea; Utne-Palm, Anne Christine; Kjesbu, Olav Si'gurd

    2016-03-01

    The bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus), a key species in the northern Benguela Upwelling Ecosystem, tolerates extremely low levels of oxygen. Yet little is known about how its reproduction is affected by these harsh living conditions. The distribution patterns of alternative reproductive tactics of male bearded goby across the continental shelf off Namibia were investigated. Histology and stereology were for the first time used to validate macroscopic maturity development by estimating volume fraction of the different stages of spermatogenesis using "Delesse principle", an approach so far for teleosts barely used in studies on testes but applied in advanced oocyte estimation. The macroscopic scale appeared suitable for the purpose, and the prevalence of territorial and sneaker tactics could therefore be documented. The sneakers had relative large testes and small seminal vesicles (SV), with the opposite being the case for the territorials. A third, numerous category with intermediate sized testes and SV was also recognized with unclear underlying tactical rationale, although regression analyses indicated similar investment in testes weight in relation to somatic weight as for the territorials. Low oxygen levels were the most important factor limiting spawning activity in territorial males. Our data suggested the existence of a spawning site on the outer shelf of the central Namibian shelf where the bottom water is hypoxic (oxygen saturation of 6.2-6.7%) while the anoxic middle shelf area (oxygen saturation of 1.7-2.9%) appeared to show too low oxygen levels for spawning to take place. Hence, significant parts of this large shelf area appear unsuited for successful reproduction of the bearded goby, in particular for nest building by the territorials.

  14. Evaluation of possible toxic effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Nozhat, Fatemeh; Alaee, Sanaz; Behzadi, Khodabakhsh; Azadi Chegini, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In this study we investigated the effects of spearmint (Mentha spicata Labiatae) on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats. Materials and Methods: Adult Wistar male rats in one control (C) and three experimental groups (I, II and III) received 0, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg spearmint extract orally for 45 days, respectively. Following this treatment, the animals’ weights, and the standard weight of reproductive tissues, sperm count, sperm motility and serum testosterone concentration were measured, and reproductive tissues were examined histopathologically. To evaluate the effects of spearmint on fertility of male rats and growth of their offspring, male rats of the control and experimental groups mated with untreated female rats. Results: Results showed that spearmint did not affect the rats’ body and reproductive tissue weights. The sperm count, fast and slow progressive motility of sperm and serum testosterone concentration decreased while number of non-progressive sperm and immotile sperm increased in the experimental groups compared to the control group, but none of these changes were statistically significant. Histopathological studies showed no severe changes in reproductive tissues between control and experimental groups. Number and growth of offspring born from mating of male rats with untreated female rats showed no difference. Conclusion: We concluded that spearmint has no significant toxic effect on the reproductive system, fertility and number of offspring in adult male rats at the above mentioned dose levels. However high levels of this extract may have adverse effects on male fertility. PMID:25386406

  15. The model anti-androgen flutamide suppresses the expression of typical male stickleback reproductive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Marion; Allen, Yvonne; Bersuder, Philippe; Katsiadaki, Ioanna

    2008-10-20

    Over the past 15 years considerable attention has been given to the presence in the environment of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that may have harmful effects on organisms. Specific test guidelines for the detection of EDCs used for short-term fish screening assays have been developed by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Compared to the core species used in the OECD guidelines, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has an additional and unique endpoint for (anti-)androgenic substances through the androgen-dependent glue protein (spiggin) used in the nest building. Here we describe a specific behavioural assay that was developed in parallel to the OECD protocol, utilising unique behavioural features of sticklebacks. In the assay, a photoperiod of 16L:8D (light:dark) and a temperature of 17+/-1 degrees C was used to induce breeding in quiescent male sticklebacks that were simultaneously exposed for a 21-day period to the mammalian anti-androgen flutamide (FL) at 100, 500 and 1000 microg/l (plus a water control). Spiggin production and the reproductive behaviour (nest building and courtship) of male sticklebacks were the main measured endpoints. The control fish entered an active breeding cycle including nest building and courtship behaviours as expected due to the stimulating temperature and photoperiodic conditions. The FL-exposed males showed significantly lower spiggin levels at 500 and 1000 microg/l. In addition, there was a significant decrease in the number of nests built by the FL-treated males at 100 microg/l with no nest built at 500 and 1000 microg/l. Finally, FL affected the courtship behaviour of the males with a significant reduction of the number of zigzags towards the female. When the breeding status of the stickleback males is controlled, the behavioural assay developed here is a suitable tool for the detection of androgen antagonists. PMID:18809216

  16. Size Dependent Male Reproductive Tactic in the Two-Spotted Goby (Gobiusculus flavescens)

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, K. H.; Mayer, I.; Jakobsen, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Male investment in testes and sperm duct gland in the polygamous nest breeding two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens (Fabricius) was investigated in relation to time in reproductive season and individual physical parameters. This small teleost fish is most likely the most abundant species found along the rocky shores of the North East Atlantic. The two-spotted goby has a single reproductive season, during which nest-caring males can raise several clutches of offspring. According to the literature the males are on average larger than the females. Here we report for the first time a population showing a reversal of this trend, with males on average being smaller than females, a difference likely caused by a large proportion of small males. Early in the breeding season these small males have typical sneaker characters, with relatively large testes and small seminal duct glands compared to the larger dominant territorial males. The presence of these two alternative male reproductive tactics is confirmed by histological studies, which shows the presence of sperm in the sperm duct glands (SDG) of smaller males, but not in the SDG of intermediate and larger males. To our knowledge, males with typical sneaker characters have not been reported in earlier studied populations of two-spotted goby. Interestingly we found that testes investment declined significantly over the course of the breeding season, and that this reduction was significantly more pronounced in small compared to the large males. Further, a significant increase in seminal duct gland (SDG) mass was observed for the smaller males over the breeding season. We propose that this indicates a possible shift in mating tactic by smaller males from a parasitic to a nest-holding tactic over the course of the breeding season. Thus, the observed size dependent plasticity in investment in SDG over time suggests that the reproductive tactic of G. flavescens is conditional, and possibly influenced by mate availability and

  17. Mechanisms of toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on the reproductive health of male zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Uren-Webster, Tamsyn M; Lewis, Ceri; Filby, Amy L; Paull, Gregory C; Santos, Eduarda M

    2010-09-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous in the aquatic environment and are known to adversely affect male reproductive health in mammals through interactions with multiple receptor systems. However, little is known about the risks they pose to fish. This project investigated the effects of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most commonly used phthalate, on the reproductive health of male zebrafish (Danio rerio). Males were treated with 0.5, 50 and 5000 mg DEHP kg(-1) (body weight) for a period of 10 days via intraperitoneal injection. The effects of the exposure were assessed by analysing fertilisation success, testis histology, sperm DNA integrity and transcript profiles of the liver and testis. A significant increase in the hepatosomatic index and levels of hepatic vitellogenin transcript were observed following exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg(-1). Exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg(-1) also resulted in a reduction in fertilisation success of oocytes spawned by untreated females. However, survival and development of the resulting embryos were unaffected by all treatments, and no evidence of DEHP-induced sperm DNA damage was observed. Exposure to 50 and 5000 mg DEHP kg(-1) caused alterations in the proportion of germ cells at specific stages of spermatogenesis in the testis, including a reduction in the proportion of spermatozoa and an increase in the proportion of spermatocytes, suggesting that DEHP may inhibit the progression of meiosis. In parallel, exposure to 5000 mg DEHP kg(-1) increased the levels of two peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) responsive genes (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (acox1) and enoyl-coenzyme A, hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (ehhadh). These data demonstrated that exposure to high concentrations of DEHP disrupts spermatogenesis in adult zebrafish with a consequent decrease in their ability to fertilise oocytes spawned by untreated females. Furthermore, our data suggest that the adverse effects caused by exposure to DEHP are

  18. Analgesic exposure in pregnant rats affects fetal germ cell development with inter-generational reproductive consequences

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Afshan; van den Driesche, Sander; Wang, Yili; McKinnell, Chris; Macpherson, Sheila; Eddie, Sharon L.; Kinnell, Hazel; Hurtado-Gonzalez, Pablo; Chambers, Tom J.; Stevenson, Kerrie; Wolfinger, Elke; Hrabalkova, Lenka; Calarrao, Ana; Bayne, Rosey AL; Hagen, Casper P.; Mitchell, Rod T.; Anderson, Richard A.; Sharpe, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics which affect prostaglandin (PG) pathways are used by most pregnant women. As germ cells (GC) undergo developmental and epigenetic changes in fetal life and are PG targets, we investigated if exposure of pregnant rats to analgesics (indomethacin or acetaminophen) affected GC development and reproductive function in resulting offspring (F1) or in the F2 generation. Exposure to either analgesic reduced F1 fetal GC number in both sexes and altered the tempo of fetal GC development sex-dependently, with delayed meiotic entry in oogonia but accelerated GC differentiation in males. These effects persisted in adult F1 females as reduced ovarian and litter size, whereas F1 males recovered normal GC numbers and fertility by adulthood. F2 offspring deriving from an analgesic-exposed F1 parent also exhibited sex-specific changes. F2 males exhibited normal reproductive development whereas F2 females had smaller ovaries and reduced follicle numbers during puberty/adulthood; as similar changes were found for F2 offspring of analgesic-exposed F1 fathers or mothers, we interpret this as potentially indicating an analgesic-induced change to GC in F1. Assuming our results are translatable to humans, they raise concerns that analgesic use in pregnancy could potentially affect fertility of resulting daughters and grand-daughters. PMID:26813099

  19. Effect of honey on the reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Haron, M N; Mohamed, M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to prenatal stress is associated with impaired reproductive function in male rat offspring. Honey is traditionally used by the Malays for enhancement of fertility. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of honey on reproductive system of male rat offspring exposed to prenatal restraint stress. Dams were divided into four groups (n = 10/group): control, honey, stress and honey + stress groups. Dams from honey and honey + stress groups received oral honey (1.2 g kg(-1) body weight) daily from day 1 of pregnancy, meanwhile dams from stress and honey + stress groups were subjected to restraint stress (three times per day) from day 11 of pregnancy until delivery. At 10 weeks old, each male rat offspring was mated with a regular oestrus cycle female. Male sexual behaviour and reproductive performance were evaluated. Then, male rats were euthanised for assessment on reproductive parameters. Honey supplementation during prenatal restraint stress significantly increased testis and epididymis weights as well as improved the percentages of abnormal spermatozoa and sperm motility in male rat offspring. In conclusion, this study might suggest that supplementation of honey during pregnancy seems to reduce the adverse effects of restraint stress on reproductive organs weight and sperm parameters in male rat offspring. PMID:26289766

  20. CO2 laser in treatment of condylomata acuminata of male reproductive organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, Jakub; Opala, Tomasz; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Wilczak, Maciej; Pisarski, Tadeusz

    1996-03-01

    The results of laser therapy in the treatment of condylomata acuminata of male reproductive organs are reported. Between November 1991 and February 1995 in the Department of Reproduction, Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Karol Marcinkowski University School of Medical Sciences, Poznan in 28 patients with condylomatous changes of reproductive organs carbon-dioxide laser therapy under colposcopic control was done. In 24 of them the healing was achieved. In four patients second laser therapy was done. All patients are still under control in the Department of Reproduction and there was no recurrence diagnosed.

  1. Male reproductive control of women who have experienced intimate partner violence in the United States.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Frohwirth, Lori; Miller, Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    Women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) are consistently found to have poor sexual and reproductive health when compared to non-abused women, but the mechanisms through which such associations occur are inadequately defined. Through face-to-face, semi-structured in-depth interviews, we gathered full reproductive histories of 71 women aged 18-49 with a history of IPV recruited from a family planning clinic, an abortion clinic and a domestic violence shelter in the United States. A phenomenon which emerged among 53 respondents (74%) was male reproductive control which encompasses pregnancy-promoting behaviors as well as control and abuse during pregnancy in an attempt to influence the pregnancy outcome. Pregnancy promotion involves male partner attempts to impregnate a woman including verbal threats about getting her pregnant, unprotected forced sex, and contraceptive sabotage. Once pregnant, male partners resort to behaviors that threaten a woman if she does not do what he desires with the pregnancy. Reproductive control was present in violent as well as non-violent relationships. By assessing for male reproductive control among women seeking reproductive health services, including antenatal care, health care providers may be able to provide education, care, and counseling to help women protect their reproductive health and physical safety. PMID:20359808

  2. Total reproductive values for females and for males in sexual diploids are not equal.

    PubMed

    Grafen, Alan

    2014-10-21

    A very simple mathematical exposition of reproductive value in an age- and sex-structured sexual diploid population employs reproductive value as the probability that a random gene in a distant generation traces its ancestry to a given individual or set of individuals today. Although the total reproductive values of all females and that of all males are not in general equal, but instead proportional to the average age of a new mother and a new father, respectively, Fisher׳s equal-investment conclusion for the sex ratio remains valid because the total reproductive value of age-zero females equals the total reproductive value of age-zero males. However, the conclusion is seen to require an extra assumption, namely stability of the age-distribution. PMID:24859413

  3. Early sexual maturity in male hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) and its reproductive implications.

    PubMed

    Zinner, Dietmar; Krebs, Ellen; Schrod, Annette; Kaumanns, Werner

    2006-04-01

    We present data on sexual maturity in young hamadryas baboon males (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) and its reproductive consequences in a large captive baboon colony. Hamadryas baboons live in a multilevel social system, with one-male units (OMUs) as the smallest social entity. Male leaders of OMUs are believed to monopolize matings within their OMUs; hence mating is believed to be polygynous and monandrous. In a captive colony of hamadryas baboons, we found evidence that young males less than 4 years old fathered at least 2.5% of 121 offspring born subsequent to vasectomy of all adult males, and males aged 4-5 years fathered at least 16.5% of the offspring. Additional evidence that these young males are able to sire offspring came from a morphological comparison of sperm from hamadryas males of different ages. The sperm of a 48-month-old hamadryas baboon were morphologically indistinguishable from viable sperm from adult males, whereas sperm from a 45-month-old male showed some aberrations. If successful copulations by adolescent males constitute a regular pattern even in free-ranging hamadryas baboons, a hamadryas male's chances to reproduce would not be limited to his role as an OMU leader as previously assumed, and a male's reproductive career would consist of two phases: the adolescent phase, and the OMU leader male phase. PMID:16331661

  4. ANDROGENS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGENS AFFECT REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT AND PLAY BEHAVIOR IN THE SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: In mammals, exposure to androgens early in development is essential for masculinization of the male reproductive phenotype. Male fetuses exposed to antiandrogens during perinatal life are permanently demasculinized in their morphology and physiology, whereas exposure to...

  5. Suppression of male reproduction in rats after exposure to sodium fluoride during early stages of development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. Sreedhar; Pushpalatha, T.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2007-07-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF), a widespread natural pollutant was given to sperm-positive female rats throughout gestation and lactation at a dose of 4.5 and 9.0 ppm via drinking water. The neonates were allowed to grow up to 90 days on tap water, and then sperm parameters, testicular steroidogenic marker enzyme activity levels, and circulatory hormone levels were studied. The sperm count, sperm motility, sperm coiling (hypoosmotic swelling test), and sperm viability were decreased in experimental rats when compared with controls. The activity levels of testicular steroidogenic marker enzymes (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) were significantly decreased in experimental animals indicating decreased steroidogenesis. The serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels were also significantly altered in experimental animals. Our data indicate that exposure to NaF during gestation and lactation affects male reproduction in adult rats by decreasing spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis.

  6. Male golden hamster in male reproductive toxicology testing: Assessment of protective activity of selenium in acute cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Wiodarczyk, B.; Biernacki, B.; Minta, M.; Juszkiewicz, T.; Kozaczynski, W.

    1995-06-01

    The golden hamster has a short history as a laboratory animal. In spite of this, it has been extensively used as a subject for biomedical research. The hamster has also been utilized in toxicological evaluations, especially in teratology studies. Results of these investigations reveal that laboratory hamsters are very sensitive to many chemical compounds, including: drugs, food additives, industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and other environmental contaminants. The animals most frequently used in toxicological investigations are rats and mice. This is also true in male reproductive toxicology. Apparent differences in species sensitivity to chemical compounds suggest a need to examine a new species in this field of toxicology. A good example of chemical specific differences in species sensitivity is the testicular toxicity of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), which was a testicular toxicant in humans and in rats, but it was not effective, even at relatively high dose levels, in the mouse. From our own vast experience in using hamsters in toxicological studies, we decided to use this laboratory animal in male reproductive toxicology screening tests. The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of golden hamsters as an experimental animal species for male reproductive toxicology testing. To this effect we have chosen selenium and cadmium as test agents as they were well known for their spectacular effect on the male reproductive system. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Social Regulation of Male Reproductive Plasticity in an African Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Maruska, Karen P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2013-01-01

    Social interactions with the outcome of a position in a dominance hierarchy can have profound effects on reproductive behavior and physiology, requiring animals to integrate environmental information with their internal physiological state; but how is salient information from the animal’s dynamic social environment transformed into adaptive behavioral, physiological, and molecular-level changes? The African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, is ideally suited to understand socially controlled reproductive plasticity because activity of the male reproductive (brain–pituitary–gonad) axis is tightly linked to social status. Males form hierarchies in which a small percentage of brightly colored dominant individuals have an active reproductive axis, defend territories, and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, drably colored, do not hold a territory, and have a suppressed reproductive system with minimal opportunities for spawning. These social phenotypes are plastic and quickly reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. Here, we review the rapid and remarkable plasticity that occurs along the entire reproductive axis when males rise in social rank, a transition that has important implications for the operational sex ratio of the population. When males rise in rank, transformations occur in the brain, pituitary, circulation, and testes over short time-scales (minutes to days). Changes are evident in overt behavior, as well as modifications at the physiological, cellular, and molecular levels that regulate reproductive capacity. Widespread changes triggered by a switch in rank highlight the significance of external social information in shaping internal physiology and reproductive competence. PMID:23613320

  8. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH ACRYLAMIDE TREATMENT IN MALE AND FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of acrylamide (ACR) on male and female reproductive function. Male rats received ACR in drinking water (50, 100, or 200 ppm) for up to 10 wk. Copulatory behavior, semen, and (for controls and 100 ppm only) fertility and fet...

  9. Social Variables Affecting Mate Preferences, Copulation and Reproductive Outcome in a Pack of Free-Ranging Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Paola; Natoli, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves. PMID:24905360

  10. Social variables affecting mate preferences, copulation and reproductive outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs.

    PubMed

    Cafazzo, Simona; Bonanni, Roberto; Valsecchi, Paola; Natoli, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Mating and reproductive outcome is often determined by the simultaneous operation of different mechanisms like intra-sexual competition, mating preferences and sexual coercion. The present study investigated how social variables affected mating outcome in a pack of free-ranging dogs, a species supposed to have lost most features of the social system of wolves during domestication. We found that, although the pack comprised multiple breeding individuals, both male copulation success and female reproductive success were positively influenced by a linear combination of dominance rank, age and leadership. Our results also suggest that mate preferences affect mating outcome by reinforcing the success of most dominant individuals. In particular, during their oestrous period bitches clearly searched for the proximity of high-ranking males who displayed affiliative behaviour towards them, while they were more likely to reject the males who intimidated them. At the same time, male courting effort and male-male competition for receptive females appeared to be stronger in the presence of higher-ranking females, suggesting a male preference for dominant females. To our knowledge, these results provide the first clear evidence of social regulation of reproductive activities in domestic dogs, and suggest that some common organizing mechanisms may contribute to shape the social organization of both dogs and wolves. PMID:24905360

  11. Chemosterilization of male sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) does not affect sex pheromone release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming

    2003-01-01

    Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.

  12. REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN MALE DEER MICE EXPOSED TO AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) were reared in a long photoperiod and housed individually from 3 weeks of age until they were killed 2, 4, or 6 weeks later. Males that were exposed to aggressive females for 2 min, three times per week, were of normal body weight a...

  13. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Brigitte M; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males' subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to. PMID:27576465

  14. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size. PMID:27420790

  15. Courtship attention in sagebrush lizards varies with male identity and female reproductive state

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Erica; Martins, Emília P.

    2008-01-01

    Previous experiments suggest that males spend more time with the more receptive of 2 novel females or the one with the higher fitness potential. However, males often court individual females repeatedly over a season; for example, male lizards sequentially visit familiar females as they patrol territorial boundaries. It may benefit males to vary display intensity as they move between multiple females. In this study, we explored the factors influencing amount of male courtship to familiar females in the sagebrush lizard, Sceloporus graciosus. We tested whether males vary the amount of courtship exhibited due to individual differences among males, female reproductive state, or female fitness potential. Each male was allowed to interact separately, but repeatedly, with 2 females until both females laid eggs. Male courtship behavior with each of the 2 females was assayed at an intermediate point, after 3 weeks of interaction. We found that individual differences among males were considerable. The number of male courtship displays was also positively correlated with female latency to lay eggs, with males displaying more often toward females with eggs that had not yet been fertilized. Courtship behavior was not well predicted by the number of eggs laid or by female width, both measures of female quality. Thus, male S. graciosus appear to alter courtship intensity more in response to signals of female reproductive state than in response to variation in potential female fitness. PMID:19458780

  16. Can Male Fertility Be Improved Prior to Assisted Reproduction through The Control of Uncommonly Considered Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    Male factor infertility or subfertility is responsible for up to 50% of infertility cases. A considerable body of recent studies indicates that lifestyle as well as environmental and psychological factors can negatively affect male fertility, more than previously thought. These negative effects have been shown in many cases to be reversible. This review aims to provide a rationale for early clinical attention to these factors and presents a non-exhaustive evidence-based collection of primary relevant conditions and recommendations, specifically with a view to making first line diagnostics and recommendations. The presently available evidence suggests that considering the high cost, success rates, and possible side effects of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), early efforts to improve male fertility appear to be an attainable and worthwhile primary goal. A series of searches was conducted of Medline, Cochrane and related databases from November 14th, 2010 to January 26th, 2012 with the following keywords: male, fertility, infertility, sperm defects, IVF, ICSI, healthy habits, and lifestyle. Subsequent follow-up searches were performed for upcoming links. The total number of studies contemplated were 1265; of these, 296 studies were reviewed with criteria of relevance; the date of study or review; study sample size and study type; and publishing journal impact status. Data were abstracted based upon probable general clinical relevancy and use. Only a selection of the references has been reflected here because of space limitations. The main results obtained were evidence-supported indications as to the other causes of male infertility, their early detection, and treatment. PMID:24520443

  17. Reproductive toxicity associated with acrylamide treatment in male and female rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zenick, H.; Hope, E.; Smith, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of acrylamide (ACR) on male and female reproductive function. Male rats received ACR in drinking water (50, 100, or 200 ppm) for up to 10 wk. Copulatory behavior, semen, and (for controls and 100 ppm only) fertility and fetal outcomes were evaluated. Females received ACR (25, 50, 100 ppm) for 2 wk prior to initiation of breeding and then throughout gestation and lactation. Hindlimb splaying was apparent in the 200-ppm males by wk 4; less severe splaying appeared in the 100-ppm group at wk 8. Disruptions in copulatory behavior preceded the appearance of this ataxia. These disruptions in mating performance interfered with ejaculatory processes and subsequent transport of sperm, since semen was found in the uterus of only 1 of the 15 females mated with the 100-ppm males at wk 9. Moreover, only 33% of the females mated with the 100-ppm males were pregnant. Postimplantation loss was also significantly increased in this group. Hindlimb splaying appeared in the females receiving 100 ppm ACR during wk 1-2 of pregnancy. Body weight and fluid intake were also depressed. Dams in the 50-ppm group showed depression in these parameters during the last 2 wk of lactation. ACR did not significantly affect mating performance of the females, pregnancy rates, litter size, or survival. However, ACR did significantly depress pup body weight at birth (100-ppm group) and weight gain during lactation through postweaning, d 42 (50- and 100-ppm groups). Vaginal patency was delayed in the 100-ppm group only.

  18. Effect of Long Term Reverse Feeding on the Reproductive and Non-reproductive Tissues in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Go, Eun Hye; Lee, Sung-Ho

    2014-09-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that the shift and/or restriction of feeding time during relatively short-term period (4 weeks) could alter the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the weights of seminal vesicle and prostate in rats. We also found that the reverse feeding (RF) schedule (up to 8 weeks) might induce an adaptable metabolic stress and cause impairment of androgen-dependent reproductive tissues. In the present study, we extended the RF time regimen up to 12 weeks, and measured the reproductive tissue weights. After 4 and 8 weeks of RF, the weights of epididymis were not significantly different. After 12 weeks, however, epididymis weights of RF animals were significantly different (CON 12W : RF 12W = 48.26±0.62 mg : 44.05±1.57 mg, p<0.05). After 4 and 12 weeks of feeding, seminal vesicle weights of RF animals were significantly decreased (CON 4W : RF 4W = 79.36±8.34 mg : 46.28±2.43 mg, p<0.001; CON 12W : RF 12W = 72.04±3.76 mg : 46.71±2.27 mg, p<0.001, respectively). Prostate weights were not changed by RF. Kidney and spleen weights of RF animals were significantly different on weeks 4 and 12 (Kidney, CON 4W : RF 4W = 249.72±4.20 mg : 228.41±3.03 mg, p<0.001; CON 12W : RF 12W = 309.15±7.49 mg : 250.72±6.13 mg, p<0.001, respectively, Spleen, CON 4W : RF 4W = 111.26±3.76 mg : 96.88±4.69 mg, p<0.05; CON 12W : RF 12W = 123.93±10.72 mg : 94.68±5.65 mg, p<0.05, respectively). Histology analysis of seminal vesicle revealed that the thinner epithelial cell layers, reduced complexities of swollen papilla folding in the exocrine glands on weeks 4 and 12 of RF. There was no histological difference between control and RF group on week 8. The present study indicates that up to 12 weeks RF induced differential changes in tissue weights of male mice. In particular, seminal vesicle, kidney and spleen seemed to temporarily adapted to the RF-induced metabolic stress on week 8 of feeding schedule. These results confirmed the our previous study that the RF might

  19. Toxic effects of citrinin on the male reproductive system in mice.

    PubMed

    Qingqing, Han; Linbo, Yu; Yunqian, Guo; Shuqiang, Liu

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effects of citrinin (CTN) on male mouse reproductive organs. Adult male mice were exposed to intraperitoneal injection of CTN at 0-6.25 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days, and then mated with sexually mature untreated female mice. Reproductive organ relative weights, semen quality, serum testosterone concentrations and fertility of treated mice were assessed. CTN significantly increased relative weights of the testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle and preputial gland, increased the number of abnormal spermatozoa and decreased the number of live spermatozoa. A significantly lower pregnancy rate was observed when females were mated with CTN-exposed males. The histological results indicated that distance of testicular seminiferus tubule increased. The sperm count and serum testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner in mice treated with CTN. The results suggest that CTN has adverse effects on the reproductive system of adult male mice. PMID:21095108

  20. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A.M.; Ramnarayan, K.; Nalini, K.; Bairy, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001) reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:21844991

  1. Novel function of LHFPL2 in female and male distal reproductive tract development

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fei; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rong; Dudley, Elizabeth A.; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    Congenital reproductive tract anomalies could impair fertility. Female and male reproductive tracts are developed from Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts, respectively, involving initiation, elongation and differentiation. Genetic basis solely for distal reproductive tract development is largely unknown. Lhfpl2 (lipoma HMGIC fusion partner-like 2) encodes a tetra-transmembrane protein with unknown functions. It is expressed in follicle cells of ovary and epithelial cells of reproductive tracts. A spontaneous point mutation of Lhfpl2 (LHFPL2G102E) leads to infertility in 100% female mice, which have normal ovarian development, ovulation, uterine development, and uterine response to exogenous estrogen stimulation, but abnormal upper longitudinal vaginal septum and lower vaginal agenesis. Infertility is also observed in ~70% mutant males, which have normal mating behavior and sperm counts, but abnormal distal vas deferens convolution resulting in complete and incomplete blockage of reproductive tract in infertile and fertile males, respectively. On embryonic day 15.5, mutant Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts have elongated but their duct tips are enlarged and fail to merge with the urogenital sinus. These findings provide a novel function of LHFPL2 and a novel genetic basis for distal reproductive tract development; they also emphasize the importance of an additional merging phase for proper reproductive tract development. PMID:26964900

  2. Novel function of LHFPL2 in female and male distal reproductive tract development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Zhou, Jun; Li, Rong; Dudley, Elizabeth A; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    Congenital reproductive tract anomalies could impair fertility. Female and male reproductive tracts are developed from Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts, respectively, involving initiation, elongation and differentiation. Genetic basis solely for distal reproductive tract development is largely unknown. Lhfpl2 (lipoma HMGIC fusion partner-like 2) encodes a tetra-transmembrane protein with unknown functions. It is expressed in follicle cells of ovary and epithelial cells of reproductive tracts. A spontaneous point mutation of Lhfpl2 (LHFPL2(G102E)) leads to infertility in 100% female mice, which have normal ovarian development, ovulation, uterine development, and uterine response to exogenous estrogen stimulation, but abnormal upper longitudinal vaginal septum and lower vaginal agenesis. Infertility is also observed in ~70% mutant males, which have normal mating behavior and sperm counts, but abnormal distal vas deferens convolution resulting in complete and incomplete blockage of reproductive tract in infertile and fertile males, respectively. On embryonic day 15.5, mutant Müllerian ducts and Wolffian ducts have elongated but their duct tips are enlarged and fail to merge with the urogenital sinus. These findings provide a novel function of LHFPL2 and a novel genetic basis for distal reproductive tract development; they also emphasize the importance of an additional merging phase for proper reproductive tract development. PMID:26964900

  3. The impact of environmental stress on male reproductive development in plants: biological processes and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    de Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2014-01-01

    In plants, male reproductive development is extremely sensitive to adverse climatic environments and (a)biotic stress. Upon exposure to stress, male gametophytic organs often show morphological, structural and metabolic alterations that typically lead to meiotic defects or premature spore abortion and male reproductive sterility. Depending on the type of stress involved (e.g. heat, cold, drought) and the duration of stress exposure, the underlying cellular defect is highly variable and either involves cytoskeletal alterations, tapetal irregularities, altered sugar utilization, aberrations in auxin metabolism, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS; oxidative stress) or the ectopic induction of programmed cell death (PCD). In this review, we present the critically stress-sensitive stages of male sporogenesis (meiosis) and male gametogenesis (microspore development), and discuss the corresponding biological processes involved and the resulting alterations in male reproduction. In addition, this review also provides insights into the molecular and/or hormonal regulation of the environmental stress sensitivity of male reproduction and outlines putative interaction(s) between the different processes involved. PMID:23731015

  4. Effects of furan on male rat reproduction parameters in a 90-day gavage study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Gerard M; Taylor, Marnie; Bourque, Christine; Curran, Ivan; Gurofsky, Susan; Gill, Santokh

    2014-07-01

    Furan is produced in foods during processing and preservation techniques that involve heat treatment. Previously, we reported that furan-exposed rats exhibited dose-dependent gross and histological changes in liver which correlated with changes in liver serum enzymes ALT, AST and ALP. Here we report the effects of furan on the male reproductive system. There were no histological or weight changes in the reproductive organs. Serum testosterone levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner whereas serum LH was decreased. There were no changes in 17-OHase, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activities or serum FSH. Furan did not alter mRNA expression levels for the LH receptor or Tspo but in contrast, mRNA levels of StAR were increased in all doses of furan. The mRNA for the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (Cyp11a1) was increased by furan at the high dose, as was the level of intratesticular testosterone. We conclude that subchronic furan exposure affects testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:24632374

  5. Parker's sneak-guard model revisited: why do reproductively parasitic males heavily invest in testes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Kohda, Masanori; Hori, Michio; Sato, Tetsu

    2011-10-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics are widespread in males and may cause intraspecific differences in testes investment. Parker's sneak-guard model predicts that sneaker males, who mate under sperm competition risk, invest in testes relatively more than bourgeois conspecifics that have lower risk. Given that sneakers are much smaller than bourgeois males, sneakers may increase testes investment to overcome their limited sperm productivity because of their small body sizes. In this study, we examined the mechanism that mediates differential testes investment across tactics in the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Lamprologus callipterus. In the Rumonge population of Burundi, bourgeois males are small compared with those in other populations and have a body size close to sneaky dwarf males. Therefore, if differences in relative testis investment depend on sperm competition, the rank order of relative testis investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge = bourgeois males in the other populations. If differences in relative testis investment depend on body size, the rank order of relative testes investment should be dwarf males > bourgeois males in Rumonge > bourgeois males in the other populations. Comparisons of relative testis investment among the three male groups supported the role of sperm competition, as predicted by the sneak-guard model. Nevertheless, the effects of absolute body size on testes investment should be considered to understand the mechanisms underlying intraspecific variation in testes investment caused by alternative reproductive tactics.

  6. Effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract on busulfan-induced dysfunction of the male reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Eun-Soo; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Lim, Kwang Yong; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Jang, Minhee; Park, Seong Kyu; Cho, Ik-Hyun; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Background Anticancer agents induce a variety of adverse effects when administered to cancer patients. Busulfan is a known antileukemia agent. When administered for treatment of leukemia in young patients, busulfan could cause damage to the male reproductive system as one of its adverse effects, resulting in sterility. Methods We investigated the effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) on busulfan-induced damage and/or dysfunction of the male reproductive system. Results We found that administration of busulfan to mice: decreased testis weight; caused testicular histological damage; reduced the total number of sperm, sperm motility, serum testosterone concentration; and eventually, litter size. Preadministration of KRGE partially attenuated various busulfan-induced damages to the male reproductive system. These results indicate that KRGE has a protective effect against busulfan-induced damage to the male reproduction system. Conclusion The present study shows a possibility that KRGE could be applied as a useful agent to prevent or protect the male reproductive system from the adverse side effects induced by administration of anticancer agents such as busulfan. PMID:26199556

  7. Evaluation of toxic effects of CdTe quantum dots on the reproductive system in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiangrong; Yuwen, Lihui; Yang, Wenjing; Weng, Lixing; Teng, Zhaogang; Wang, Lianhui

    2016-07-01

    Fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) are highly promising nanomaterials for various biological and biomedical applications because of their unique optical properties, such as robust photostability, strong photoluminescence, and size-tunable fluorescence. Several studies have reported the in vivo toxicity of QDs, but their effects on the male reproduction system have not been examined. In this study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs at a high dose of 2.0 nmol per mouse and a low dose of 0.2 nmol per mouse. Body weight measurements demonstrated there was no overt toxicity for both dose at day 90 after exposure, but the high dose CdTe affected body weight up to 15 days after exposure. CdTe QDs accumulated in the testes and damaged the tissue structure for both doses on day 90. Meanwhile, either of two CdTe QDs treatments did not significantly affect the quantity of sperm, but the high dose CdTe significantly decreased the quality of sperm on day 60. The serum levels of three major sex hormones were also perturbed by CdTe QDs treatment. However, the pregnancy rate and delivery success of female mice that mated with the treated male mice did not differ from those mated with untreated male mice. These results suggest that CdTe QDs can cause testes toxicity in a dose-dependent manner. The low dose of CdTe QDs is relatively safe for the reproductive system of male mice. Our preliminary result enables better understanding of the reproductive toxicity induced by cadmium-containing QDs and provides insight into the safe use of these nanoparticles in biological and environmental systems. PMID:27135714

  8. Pollen flow and effects of population structure on selfing rates and female and male reproductive success in fragmented Magnolia stellata populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fragmentation of plant populations may affect mating patterns and female and male reproductive success. To improve understanding of fragmentation effects on plant reproduction, we investigated the pollen flow patterns in six adjacent local populations of Magnolia stellata, an insect-pollinated, threatened tree species in Japan, and assessed effects of maternal plant (genet) size, local genet density, population size and neighboring population size on female reproductive success (seed production rates), and effects of mating distance, paternal genet size, population size and separation of populations on male reproductive success. Results The seed production rate, i.e. the proportion of ovules that successfully turned into seeds, varied between 1.0 and 6.5%, and increased with increasing population size and neighboring population size, and with decreasing maternal genet size and local genet density. The selfing rate varied between 3.6 and 28.9%, and increased with increasing maternal genet size and with declining local genet density. Male reproductive success increased with increasing paternal genet size, and decreased with increasing mating distance and separation of population. Pollen flow between the populations was low (6.1%) and highly leptocurtic. Conclusions Our results indicate that habitat fragmentation, separation and reduced size of populations, affected mating patterns and reproductive success of M. stellata. Local competition for pollinators and plant display size were likely to alter the reproductive success. PMID:23517612

  9. The effect of piroctone olamine on reproduction of male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Allgood, G S; Miller, J M; Schardein, J L

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of piroctone olamine, an antidandruff active, on reproductive performance, fertility, parturition, and neonatal viability and growth. Piroctone olamine was administered orally by gavage to three groups of 35 male Sprague-Dawley rats each beginning 64 days prior to mating and continuing until euthanized and to three groups of 35 female Sprague-Dawley rats each beginning 14 days prior to mating and continuing until euthanized. Animals in the treated groups received piroctone olamine in a combination of 1.0% methylcellulose and polyethylene glycol 400 as a single daily dose at levels of 0, 10, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day, at a volume of 2.5 ml/kg. The control group received the vehicle only. Ten randomly selected females/group were mated and underwent a uterine examination on Gestation Day 13; the remaining females were allowed to deliver. Because earlier studies reported hematological effects, blood samples were collected from all parental animals during acclimation and prior to euthanasia for hematological and blood chemistry (Gestation Day 13 females) characterization. The parental animals were necropsied and tissues were grossly examined. Systemic effects induced by the test article were seen at the mid- and high-dose levels but only among the male rats. These effects were reduced body weight and decreased liver weights. Hematological findings representative of anemia occurred at the high-dose level, as did rales in several animals. Offspring growth was inhibited for the high-dose group as evidenced by significantly reduced mean weight values throughout lactation. The remaining parameters assessed, including mating ability and reproductive performance, were not affected by treatment at any dosage level tested. In summary, the no observable effect level of piroctone olamine with respect to systemic toxicity was considered to be 10 mg/kg/day. Neonatal growth was not affected at 100 mg/kg/day or less, and the no

  10. Hippocampal morphology is differentially affected by reproductive experience in the mother.

    PubMed

    Pawluski, Jodi L; Galea, Liisa A M

    2006-01-01

    Pregnancy and mothering result in a number of hormonal, neurological, and behavioral changes that are necessary to ensure reproductive success. With subsequent reproductive experience (multiparity and mothering), further neurological and behavioral changes may result. Recent research has shown that previous motherhood enhances both hippocampus-dependent learning and memory and long-term potentiation (LTP); together with decreases in hippocampus volumes during pregnancy it is suggested that the hippocampus is affected by pregnancy and/or mothering. The present experiment aimed to investigate the effect of reproductive experience (nulli, primi-, and multiparity and mothering) on dendritic morphology in the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Brains were stained with a modified version of the single-section Golgi impregnation technique, and dendritic length, number of branch points, and spine density was analyzed for apical and basal regions of CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Primiparity and/or mothering resulted in dendritic remodeling in both the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal regions, and multiparity resulted in enhanced spine density in the basal CA1 region, which was positively correlated with number of male pups in a litter. These findings point to the effect of reproductive experience and offspring on plasticity in the hippocampus, an area not traditionally associated with motherhood. PMID:16216005

  11. The distribution of male and female reproductive success in a broadcast spawning marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Levitan, Don R

    2005-11-01

    Many studies have addressed sexual selection in animals, but few data are available on animals that release eggs and sperm into the environment for external fertilization. Although this reproductive mode represents the ancestral condition and is still a very common reproductive strategy, it is underrepresented in empirical studies and theoretical treatments. Here I present data on the pattern of reproductive success in male and female sea urchins. The results suggest that the strength of sexual selection and the differences between the sexes in the intensity of sexual selection depend on mate density. In general, despite the high degree of multiple paternity, the variance in reproductive success appears to be lower in males and higher in females than it is in polygamous species with internal fertilization. These results may provide insight into the patterns of effective population size in marine invertebrates and also more generally the evolutionary transition from sexual monomorphism to polymorphism in adult traits. PMID:21676836

  12. Effects of Kaempferia parviflora extracts on reproductive parameters and spermatic blood flow in male rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturapanich, G; Chaiyakul, S; Verawatnapakul, V; Pholpramool, C

    2008-10-01

    Krachaidum (KD, Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex. Baker), a native plant of Southeast Asia, is traditionally used to enhance male sexual function. However, only few scientific data in support of this anecdote have been reported. The present study investigated the effects of feeding three different extracts of KD (alcohol, hexane, and water extracts) for 3-5 weeks on the reproductive organs, the aphrodisiac activity, fertility, sperm motility, and blood flow to the testis of male rats. Sexual performances (mount latency, mount frequency, ejaculatory latency, post-ejaculatory latency) and sperm motility were assessed by a video camera and computer-assisted sperm analysis respectively, while blood flow to the testis was measured by a directional pulsed Doppler flowmeter. The results showed that all extracts of KD had virtually no effect on the reproductive organ weights even after 5 weeks. However, administration of the alcohol extract at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for 4 weeks significantly decreased mount and ejaculatory latencies when compared with the control. By contrast, hexane and water extracts had no influence on any sexual behavior parameters. All types of extracts of KD had no effect on fertility or sperm motility. On the other hand, alcohol extract produced a significant increase in blood flow to the testis without affecting the heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure. In a separate study, an acute effect of alcohol extract of KD on blood flow to the testis was investigated. Intravenous injection of KD at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg BW caused dose-dependent increases in blood flow to the testis. The results indicate that alcohol extract of KD had an aphrodisiac activity probably via a marked increase in blood flow to the testis. PMID:18614624

  13. Management of Male Reproductive Tract Injuries and Disease.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Richard M

    2016-07-01

    Medical and surgical management can be used to restore a bull that has suffered a reproductive tract malady. The economic cost of treatment weighed against the bull's replacement value as well as prognosis for recovery is of prime consideration. In turn, early recognition of a treatable condition and immediate initiation of action are factors that impact both treatment cost and prognosis in many cases. Common problems are penile hair rings, fibropapillomas, vesicular adenitis, penile hematoma, and traumatic injury to the prepuce. Less frequent problems are injuries that lead to denervation of the penis, penile shunts, and penile deviation. PMID:27039689

  14. Dominance, body size and internal relatedness influence male reproductive success in eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily J; Eldridge, Mark D B; Cooper, Desmond W; Herbert, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the determinants of reproductive success is essential for understanding the adaptive significance of particular traits. The present study examined whether particular behavioural, morphological, physiological or genetic traits were correlated with male dominance and reproductive success using three semi-free-ranging captive populations (n = 98) of the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). The morphological traits measured included bodyweight, head, forearm, tail, pes and leg length, forearm and bicep circumference, and testis size. Blood samples were collected to determine serum testosterone concentrations. All individuals were typed for 10 microsatellite loci and paternity determined for each pouch young. To determine the influence of relatedness and genetic diversity on male reproductive success, internal relatedness, standardised heterozygosity and mean d(2) were calculated. Dominant males sired a significantly higher proportion of offspring than smaller, lower-ranked males and had higher testosterone concentrations. Males that sired offspring were significantly heavier and had larger body size. Sires were significantly more heterozygous and genetically dissimilar to breeding females than non-sires. Despite the wealth of knowledge on the social organisation of kangaroos, this is the first study to assign parentage and male reproductive success using molecular evidence. PMID:20188027

  15. Male behaviour drives assortative reproduction during the initial stage of secondary contact.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, R J P; While, G M; MacGregor, H E A; Sciberras, J; Leroy, C; D'Ettorre, P; Uller, T

    2016-05-01

    Phenotypic divergence in allopatry can facilitate speciation by reducing the likelihood that individuals of different lineages hybridize during secondary contact. However, few studies have established the causes of reproductive isolation in the crucial early stages of secondary contact. Here, we establish behavioural causes of assortative reproduction between two phenotypically divergent lineages of the European wall lizard (Podarcis muralis), which have recently come into secondary contact. Parentage was highly assortative in experimental contact zones. However, despite pronounced divergence in male phenotypes, including chemical and visual sexual signals, there was no evidence that females discriminated between males of the two lineages in staged interactions or under naturalistic free-ranging conditions. Instead, assortative reproduction was driven by male mate preferences and, to a lesser extent, male-male competition. The effects were more pronounced when the habitat structure promoted high lizard densities. These results emphasize that assortative reproduction can occur in the absence of female choice and that male behaviour may play an important role in limiting hybridization during the initial stages of secondary contact. PMID:26848540

  16. Individual dispersal decisions affect fitness via maternal rank effects in male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Brigitte M.; Kulik, Lars; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V.; Widdig, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Natal dispersal may have considerable social, ecological and evolutionary consequences. While species-specific dispersal strategies have received much attention, individual variation in dispersal decisions and its fitness consequences remain poorly understood. We investigated causes and consequences of natal dispersal age in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), a species with male dispersal. Using long-term demographic and genetic data from a semi-free ranging population on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico, we analysed how the social environment such as maternal family, group and population characteristics affected the age at which males leave their natal group. While natal dispersal age was unrelated to most measures of group or population structure, our study confirmed earlier findings that sons of high-ranking mothers dispersed later than sons of low-ranking ones. Natal dispersal age did not affect males’ subsequent survival, but males dispersing later were more likely to reproduce. Late dispersers were likely to start reproducing while still residing in their natal group, frequently produced extra-group offspring before natal dispersal and subsequently dispersed to the group in which they had fathered offspring more likely than expected. Hence, the timing of natal dispersal was affected by maternal rank and influenced male reproduction, which, in turn affected which group males dispersed to. PMID:27576465

  17. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of male alternative reproductive tactics in ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Mank, Judith E; Avise, John C

    2006-06-01

    Using comparative phylogenetic analysis, we analyzed the evolution of male alternative reproductive tactics (MARTs) in ray-finned fishes (Actinopterygii). Numerous independent origins for each type of MART (involving sneaker males, female mimics, pirates, and satellite males) indicate that these behaviors have been highly labile across actinopterygiian evolution, consistent with a previous notion that convergent selection in fishes can readily mold the underlying suites of reproductive hormones into similar behaviors. The evolutionary appearance of MARTs was significantly correlated with the presence of sexually selected traits in bourgeois males (P = 0.001) but not with the presence of male parental care. This suggests that MARTs often arise from selection on some males to circumvent bourgeois male investment in mate monopolization, rather than to avoid male brood care per se. We found parsimony evidence for an evolutionary progression of MARTs wherein sneaking is usually the evolutionary precursor to the presumably more complex MARTs of female mimicry and cooperative satellite behavior. Nest piracy appears not to be part of this evolutionary progression, possibly because its late onset in the life cycle of most ray-finned fishes reduces the effects of selection on this reproductive tactic. PMID:16892981

  18. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  19. Psychosocial aspects of ejaculatory dysfunction and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wincze, John P

    2015-11-01

    This article provides a summary of the biopsychosocial model and the assessment and treatment of male sexual dysfunction as manifested in cases of infertility. In couples trying to get pregnant, a unique set of psychosocial and behavioral changes may evolve that directly interferes with a couple's usual pattern of sexual behavior, resulting in sexual dysfunction. The unique set of changes is discussed and how these changes impact on erectile and ejaculatory function. Strategies for assessing and managing male sexual dysfunction that compromise fertility are reviewed. PMID:26297900

  20. The Potential Regressive Role of Syzygium aromaticum on the Reproduction of Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Donchan; Roh, Hyun Soo; Kang, Dong Won; Lee, Jong Seok

    2014-01-01

    The flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (clove) have been used as traditional medicine for the treatment of male sexual disorders in Asian countries. Recently, there are some reports about the effects of the clove on reproductive activities in mammals. Therefore, its effect on testicular function was examined in male golden hamsters whose reproductive activity is inhibited by photoperiod such as winter climate. The male animals were given by daily oral administrations (56 consecutive days) in three doses (4 mg, 20 mg, and 100 mg/kg BW) of the alcoholic extract of the clove. Generally lower dose (4 mg) of the extract continued to keep the reproductive activities of testes. The both middle and high doses (20 mg and 100 mg) of the extract completely inhibited the testicular activity in some animals. Taken together, these results suggest a possible biphasic action of alcoholic extract of Syzygium aromaticum flower bud on testicular function. PMID:25949172

  1. Quaternary ammonium disinfectants cause subfertility in mice by targeting both male and female reproductive processes.

    PubMed

    Melin, Vanessa E; Melin, Travis E; Dessify, Brian J; Nguyen, Christina T; Shea, Caroline S; Hrubec, Terry C

    2016-01-01

    Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC) are common ingredients in household bathroom and kitchen cleaning sprays. ADBAC+DDAC cause reproductive toxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate gender-specific reproductive effects from ADBAC+DDAC. Female reproduction was assessed through ovulation, oocyte implantation, and estrus cycling. Male reproductive function was assessed by sperm concentration, motility, and viability. Numbers of corpora lutea were not different after 2 weeks, but decreased after 8 weeks of ADBAC+DDAC exposure. Dams exposed for 5 weeks to ADBAC+DDAC spent significantly less time in estrus. ADBAC+DDAC exposed males exhibited declines in both sperm concentration and motility, but not sperm viability. Subfertility in mice from ADBAC+DDAC exposure is, therefore, mediated through reproductive disturbances in both females and males. While the effect of ADBAC+DDAC exposure on human health is unclear, widespread exposure necessitates further consideration of their potential reproductive toxicity. PMID:26582257

  2. Growth and reproductive development of male piglets are more vulnerable to midgestation maternal stress than that of female piglets.

    PubMed

    Mack, L A; Lay, D C; Eicher, S D; Johnson, A K; Richert, B T; Pajor, E A

    2014-02-01

    In many mammalian species, prenatal stress masculinizes female and feminizes male offspring impairing their reproductive capacity. Regrouping gestating sows is a common, stressful production practice, but its impact on the developing pigs of the sow is not fully known. This study examined the effects of regrouping gestating sows and the administration of exogenous glucocorticoids on the growth and external reproductive morphology of pigs. At 37.2 ± 0.26 d of gestation, 6 cohorts of 18 sows (N = 108) were placed in 1 of 3 treatments: socially stable (Stable), hydrocortisone acetate (HCA), or mixed (Mixed). The HCA sows were administered 70 mg HCA, a synthetic glucocorticoid, twice daily during the 21 d experimental period. Each Mixed sow was penned with 2 companion sows (Companion) and regrouped on d 7 and 14 with 2 different Companion sows in a new pen. Stable and HCA sows were penned in treatment groups of 3 sows. Sow social rank was assessed weekly during feeding. After the 21 d experimental period, all sows were housed in gestation stalls for the duration of pregnancy. During the 21 d, Companion sows gained more weight than HCA and Mixed sows (P < 0.05) with Stable sows intermediate. High ranked sows gained more weight than middle and low ranked sows (P < 0.05). Mixed sows had greater head lesion scores than Stable and HCA sows (P < 0.05) with Companion sows intermediate. Head lesions increased with lower social rank (P < 0.001). Sow treatment did not affect farrowing rate, litter size, or sex ratio (P > 0.10). Social rank also had no effect on farrowing rate (P > 0.10), but affected total litter size (P = 0.03). High ranked sows bore and weaned more live females than low ranked sows (P < 0.05), in part due to differential preweaning mortality among female pigs (P = 0.01). Only male pigs were affected by sow treatment. Preweaning mortality was higher among male pigs from HCA than from Mixed sows (P = 0.04) with other treatments intermediate. Despite no weight

  3. Physically Challenging Song Traits, Male Quality, and Reproductive Success in House Wrens

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Emily R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Physically challenging signals are likely to honestly indicate signaler quality. In trilled bird song two physically challenging parameters are vocal deviation (the speed of sound frequency modulation) and trill consistency (how precisely syllables are repeated). As predicted, in several species, they correlate with male quality, are preferred by females, and/or function in male-male signaling. Species may experience different selective pressures on their songs, however; for instance, there may be opposing selection between song complexity and song performance difficulty, such that in species where song complexity is strongly selected, there may not be strong selection on performance-based traits. I tested whether vocal deviation and trill consistency are signals of male quality in house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), a species with complex song structure. Males’ singing ability did not correlate with male quality, except that older males sang with higher trill consistency, and males with more consistent trills responded more aggressively to playback (although a previous study found no effect of stimulus trill consistency on males’ responses to playback). Males singing more challenging songs did not gain in polygyny, extra-pair paternity, or annual reproductive success. Moreover, none of the standard male quality measures I investigated correlated with mating or reproductive success. I conclude that vocal deviation and trill consistency do not signal male quality in this species. PMID:23527137

  4. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review

    PubMed Central

    Dhanoa, Jasdeep Kaur; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar; Arora, Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility. PMID:27536043

  5. Y-chromosomal genes affecting male fertility: A review.

    PubMed

    Dhanoa, Jasdeep Kaur; Mukhopadhyay, Chandra Sekhar; Arora, Jaspreet Singh

    2016-07-01

    The mammalian sex-chromosomes (X and Y) have evolved from autosomes and are involved in sex determination and reproductive traits. The Y-chromosome is the smallest chromosome that consists of 2-3% of the haploid genome and may contain between 70 and 200 genes. The Y-chromosome plays major role in male fertility and is suitable to study the evolutionary relics, speciation, and male infertility and/or subfertility due to its unique features such as long non-recombining region, abundance of repetitive sequences, and holandric inheritance pattern. During evolution, many holandric genes were deleted. The current review discusses the mammalian holandric genes and their functions. The commonly encountered infertility and/or subfertility problems due to point or gross mutation (deletion) of the Y-chromosomal genes have also been discussed. For example, loss or microdeletion of sex-determining region, Y-linked gene results in XY males that exhibit female characteristics, deletion of RNA binding motif, Y-encoded in azoospermic factor b region results in the arrest of spermatogenesis at meiosis. The holandric genes have been covered for associating the mutations with male factor infertility. PMID:27536043

  6. The role of estradiol in male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Schulster, Michael; Bernie, Aaron M; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, testosterone and estrogen have been considered to be male and female sex hormones, respectively. However, estradiol, the predominant form of estrogen, also plays a critical role in male sexual function. Estradiol in men is essential for modulating libido, erectile function, and spermatogenesis. Estrogen receptors, as well as aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen, are abundant in brain, penis, and testis, organs important for sexual function. In the brain, estradiol synthesis is increased in areas related to sexual arousal. In addition, in the penis, estrogen receptors are found throughout the corpus cavernosum with high concentration around neurovascular bundles. Low testosterone and elevated estrogen increase the incidence of erectile dysfunction independently of one another. In the testes, spermatogenesis is modulated at every level by estrogen, starting with the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, followed by the Leydig, Sertoli, and germ cells, and finishing with the ductal epithelium, epididymis, and mature sperm. Regulation of testicular cells by estradiol shows both an inhibitory and a stimulatory influence, indicating an intricate symphony of dose-dependent and temporally sensitive modulation. Our goal in this review is to elucidate the overall contribution of estradiol to male sexual function by looking at the hormone's effects on erectile function, spermatogenesis, and libido. PMID:26908066

  7. The role of estradiol in male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Schulster, Michael; Bernie, Aaron M; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, testosterone and estrogen have been considered to be male and female sex hormones, respectively. However, estradiol, the predominant form of estrogen, also plays a critical role in male sexual function. Estradiol in men is essential for modulating libido, erectile function, and spermatogenesis. Estrogen receptors, as well as aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen, are abundant in brain, penis, and testis, organs important for sexual function. In the brain, estradiol synthesis is increased in areas related to sexual arousal. In addition, in the penis, estrogen receptors are found throughout the corpus cavernosum with high concentration around neurovascular bundles. Low testosterone and elevated estrogen increase the incidence of erectile dysfunction independently of one another. In the testes, spermatogenesis is modulated at every level by estrogen, starting with the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, followed by the Leydig, Sertoli, and germ cells, and finishing with the ductal epithelium, epididymis, and mature sperm. Regulation of testicular cells by estradiol shows both an inhibitory and a stimulatory influence, indicating an intricate symphony of dose-dependent and temporally sensitive modulation. Our goal in this review is to elucidate the overall contribution of estradiol to male sexual function by looking at the hormone's effects on erectile function, spermatogenesis, and libido. PMID:26908066

  8. Divergent evolution of male aggressive behaviour: another reproductive isolation barrier in extremophile poeciliid fishes?

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Klein, Moritz; Saßmannshausen, Vanessa; Schlupp, Ingo; Riesch, Rüdiger; Parzefall, Jakob; Plath, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-)sexual selection (female mate choice). We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S)]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile P. oecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H(2)S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from non-sulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H(2)S. PMID:22315695

  9. Inhibin activity in male rat reproductive organs during treatment with dihydrotestosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Gladkova, A.I.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the inhibin level in the male reproductive system is studied. Hormones were determined in the peripheral blood of the donor rats by radioimmunoassay. Inhibin activity in the male rats is shown. DHT caused a very small increase in inhibin activity in the testis. Further study of relations between androgens and inhibin at peripheral and central levels will facilitate fertility control.

  10. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development: Profiling 774 Chemicals for Molecular Targets and Adverse Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Maxwell C.K.; Phuong, Jimmy; Baker, Nancy C.; Sipes, Nisha S.; Klinefelter, Gary R.; Martin, Matthew T.; McLaurin, Keith W.; Setzer, R. Woodrow; Darney, Sally Perreault; Judson, Richard S.; Knudsen, Thomas B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumors, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias, which have been associated with prenatal environmental chemical exposure based on human and animal studies. Objective: In the present study we aimed to identify significant correlations between environmental chemicals, molecular targets, and adverse outcomes across a broad chemical landscape with emphasis on developmental toxicity of the male reproductive system. Methods: We used U.S. EPA’s animal study database (ToxRefDB) and a comprehensive literature analysis to identify 774 chemicals that have been evaluated for adverse effects on male reproductive parameters, and then used U.S. EPA’s in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) database (ToxCastDB) to profile their bioactivity across approximately 800 molecular and cellular features. Results: A phenotypic hierarchy of testicular atrophy, sperm effects, tumors, and malformations, a composite resembling the human testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) hypothesis, was observed in 281 chemicals. A subset of 54 chemicals with male developmental consequences had in vitro bioactivity on molecular targets that could be condensed into 156 gene annotations in a bipartite network. Conclusion: Computational modeling of available in vivo and in vitro data for chemicals that produce adverse effects on male reproductive end points revealed a phenotypic hierarchy across animal studies consistent with the human TDS hypothesis. We confirmed the known role of estrogen and androgen signaling pathways in rodent TDS, and importantly, broadened the list of molecular targets to include retinoic acid signaling, vascular remodeling proteins, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and cytochrome P450s. Citation: Leung MC, Phuong J, Baker NC, Sipes NS, Klinefelter GR, Martin MT, McLaurin KW, Setzer RW, Darney SP, Judson RS, Knudsen TB. 2016. Systems toxicology of male

  11. Subordinate male meerkats prospect for extra-group paternity: alternative reproductive tactics in a cooperative mammal.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew J; Spong, Goran; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2007-07-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, subordinates typically suffer strong constraints on within-group reproduction. While numerous studies have highlighted the additional fitness benefits that subordinates might accrue through helping, few have considered the possibility that subordinates may also seek extra-group matings to improve their chances of actually breeding. Here, we show that subordinate males in cooperative meerkat, Suricata suricatta, societies conduct frequent extraterritorial forays, during periods of peak female fertility, which give rise to matings with females in other groups. Genetic analyses reveal that extra-group paternity (EGP) accrued while prospecting contributes substantially to the reproductive success of subordinates: yielding the majority of their offspring (approx. 70%); significantly reducing their age at first reproduction and allowing them to breed without dispersing. We estimate that prospecting subordinates sire 20-25% of all young in the population. While recent studies on cooperative birds indicate that dominant males accrue the majority of EGP, our findings reveal that EGP can also arise from alternative reproductive tactics employed exclusively by subordinates. It is important, therefore, that future attempts to estimate the fitness of subordinate males in animal societies quantify the distribution of extra-group as well as within-group paternity, because a substantial proportion of the reproductive success of subordinates may otherwise go undetected. PMID:17456454

  12. Marsupial morphology of reproduction: South America opossum male model.

    PubMed

    De Barros, Michelle Andrade; Panattoni Martins, João Flávio; Samoto, Vivian Yochiko; Oliveira, Vanessa Cristina; Gonçalves, Natalia; Mançanares, Celina Almeida Furlaneto; Vidane, Atanasio; Carvalho, Ana Flávia; Ambrósio, Carlos Eduardo; Miglino, Maria Angélica

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to describe the morphology of Didelphis sp. male genital organs (penis, testes, epididymis, ductus deferens, prostate, and bulbourethral gland). Ten male animals were used, eight for macroscopic and light microscopy analysis, and two for scanning electron microscopy. The testes and epididymis showed similarity to other eutherian mammals. The bifid penis showed the urethra ending in the medial region where the bifurcation begins, occurring in each segment extension of the urethral groove until the beginning of the glans. Histologically, the penis consists of a cavernous and spongy body, covered by stratified squamous epithelium with loose connective tissue. The urethra was lined by transitional stratified epithelium. In the prostate, prostatic segments were found consisting of tubular glands in a radial arrangement around the urethra, coated externally by a dense connective tissue associated with a relatively thick layer of smooth muscle arranged in two layers that surround the glandular tissue. The animals had three pairs of bulbourethral glands placed at the membranous and cavernous urethra junction with descending and parallel excretory ducts ending caudally in the urethral lumen. PMID:23362127

  13. The role of oxytocin in male and female reproductive behavior.

    PubMed

    Veening, J G; de Jong, T R; Waldinger, M D; Korte, S M; Olivier, B

    2015-04-15

    Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide with an impressive variety of physiological functions. Among them, the 'prosocial' effects have been discussed in several recent reviews, but the direct effects on male and female sexual behavior did receive much less attention so far. As our contribution to honor the lifelong interest of Berend Olivier in the control mechanisms of sexual behavior, we decided to explore the role of OT in the present review. In the successive sections, some physiological mechanisms and the 'pair-bonding' effects of OT will be discussed, followed by sections about desire, female appetitive and copulatory behavior, including lordosis and orgasm. At the male side, the effects on erection and ejaculation are reviewed, followed by a section about 'premature ejaculation' and a possible role of OT in its treatment. In addition to OT, serotonin receives some attention as one of the main mechanisms controlling the effects of OT. In the succeeding sections, the importance of OT for 'the fruits of labor' is discussed, as it plays an important role in both maternal and paternal behavior. Finally, we pay attention to an intriguing brain area, the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHvl), apparently functioning in both sexual and aggressive behavior, which are at first view completely opposite behavioral systems. PMID:25088178

  14. Density affects mating mode and large male mating advantage in a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pablo D; Daleo, Pedro; Iribarne, Oscar O

    2010-12-01

    Fiddler crabs show two different mating modes: either females search and crabs mate underground in male burrows, or males search and crabs mate on the surface near female burrows. We explored the relationship between crab density, body size, the searching behavior of both sexes, and the occurrence of both mating modes in the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis. We found that crabs change their mating mode depending on their size and crab density. Crabs mated mostly on the surface at low densities, and underground at high densities. The proportion of wandering receptive females but not courting males accounted for the variation in mating modes. This suggests that whether crabs mate underground (or on the surface) is determined by the presence (or absence) of searching females. We found that the change in the mating mode affected the level of assortative mating; males mating underground were bigger than those mating on the surface, suggesting active female choice. Given that fiddler crabs experience multiple reproductive cycles, they are prone to showing behavioral plasticity in their mating strategy whenever the payoffs of using different mating modes differ between reproductive events. Our results suggest that the incorporation of different levels of environmental variability may be important in theoretical models aimed at improving our understanding of the evolution of alternative mating tactics and strategies. PMID:20931233

  15. Effects of androgenic gland ablation on growth and reproductive parameters of Cherax quadricarinatus males (Parastacidae, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Tropea, Carolina; Hermida, Gladys N; López Greco, Laura S

    2011-11-01

    This work investigates the effects of androgenic gland (AG) ablation on the structure of the reproductive system, development of secondary sexual characters and somatic growth in Cherax quadricarinatus males. The AG ablation, which was performed at an early developmental stage (initial weight: 1.85±0.03 g), had no effect on the somatic growth parameters (specific growth rate and growth increment), but it prevented the re-formation of male gonopores and appendices masculinae. However, the red patch differentiation and chelae size were similar to those in control males. All the ablated animals developed a male reproductive system. Testis structure was macroscopically and histologically normal. The distal portion of the vas deferens (DVD) was enlarged in some animals, with histological alterations of the epithelium and the structure of the spermatophore. Results suggest that the higher growth in males than in females may be due to an indirect effect of the AG on energy investment in reproduction rather than to a direct effect of an androgen. This is the first report of a potential action of the AG on the secretory activity of the distal VD and the structural organization of the spermatophore. Although the AG may play a role in the development of male copulatory organs, its association with the red patch development deserves further research. The results obtained in the present study support and complement those from intersexes of the same species. PMID:21925177

  16. Recovery of lead-induced suppressed reproduction in male rats by testosterone.

    PubMed

    Reshma Anjum, M; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of testosterone in recuperation of lead-induced suppressed reproduction in adult male rats. Lead acetate was administered orally to adult male rats (95 ± 5 days) at dosage level of 0.05 and 0.15% for 55 days through drinking water and injected intraperitoneally with either testoviron depot at a dose of 4.16 mg kg(-1) body weight or vehicle alone on days 1, 7 and 14 respectively. At the end of treatment, control and treated males were cohabited with untreated normal-cycling females. After cohabitation for 5 days, all the male rats were killed and weights of reproductive organs were determined. Significant increase in the indices of testis, epididymis, seminal vesicles, vas deferens and prostate glands was observed in testosterone (T)-treated rats when compared to those of lead-exposed rats. Testosterone treatment significantly increased epididymal sperm count, motile spermatozoa, viable spermatozoa and HOS tail-coiled spermatozoa and also the activity levels of testicular 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases when compared to those of lead-exposed males. From the results, it can be hypothesised that supplementation of testosterone mitigated lead-induced suppressed reproduction in male rats. PMID:24909355

  17. Effect of competitive cues on reproductive morphology and behavioral plasticity in male fruitflies

    PubMed Central

    Bretman, Amanda; Fricke, Claudia; Westmancoat, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity will be favored whenever there are significant fitness benefits of responding to environmental variation. The extent and nature of the plasticity that evolves depends on the rate of environmental fluctuations and the capacity to track and respond to that variability. Reproductive environments represent one arena in which changes can be rapid. The finding that males of many species show morphological, physiological, and behavioral plasticity in response to premating and postmating reproductive competition (RC) suggests that plasticity is broadly beneficial. The developmental environment is expected to accurately predict the average population level of RC but to be a relatively poor indicator of immediate RC at any particular mating. Therefore, we predict that manipulation of average RC during development should cause a response in plasticity “set” during development (e.g., size of adult reproductive structures), but not in flexible plasticity determined by the immediate adult environment (e.g., behavioral plasticity in mating duration). We tested this prediction in Drosophila melanogaster males by manipulating 2 independent cues of average RC during development: 1) larval density and 2) the presence or absence of adult males within larval culture vials. Consistent with the prediction, both manipulations resulted in the development of males with significantly larger adult accessory glands (although testis size decreased when males were added to culture vials). There was no effect on adult plasticity (mating duration, extended mating in response to rivals). The results suggest that males have evolved independent responses to long- and short-term variation in RC. PMID:27004011

  18. Effect of nonylphenol on male reproduction: Analysis of rat epididymal biochemical markers and antioxidant defense enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Aly, Hamdy A.A.; Domènech, Òscar; Banjar, Zainy M.

    2012-06-01

    The mechanism by which nonylphenol (NP) interferes with male reproduction is not fully elucidated. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of NP on male reproductive organ's weight, sperm characteristics, and to elucidate the nature and mechanism of action of NP on the epididymis. Adult male Wistar rats were gavaged with NP, dissolved in corn oil, at 0, 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day for 30 consecutive days. Control rats were gavaged with vehicle (corn oil) alone. Body weight did not show any significant change while, absolute testes and epididymides weights were significantly decreased. Sperm count in cauda and caput/corpus epididymides, and sperm motility was significantly decreased. Daily sperm production was significantly decreased in a dose-related manner. Sperm transit time in cauda epididymis was significantly decreased by 300 mg/kg, while in the caput/corpus epididymis it was significantly decreased by 200 and 300 mg/kg of NP. Plasma LDH was significantly increased while; plasma testosterone was significantly decreased in a dose-related pattern. In the epididymal sperm, NP decreased acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) production and LPO were significantly increased in a dose-related pattern. The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly decreased in the epididymal sperm. In conclusion, this study revealed that NP treatment impairs spermatogenesis and has a cytotoxic effect on epididymal sperm. It disrupts the prooxidant and antioxidant balance. This leads oxidative stress in epididymal sperms of rat. Moreover, the reduction in sperm transit time may affect sperm quality and fertility potential. -- Highlights: ► The nature and mechanism of action of NP on rat epididymis were elucidated. ► NP decreased sperm count, motility, daily sperm production and sperm transit time. ► NP decreased sperm acrosome integrity, Δψm and 5′-nucleotidase activity. ► Plasma LDH was

  19. Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta)

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, Patricia; Ewen, John G; Clucas, Gemma; Santure, Anna W

    2015-01-01

    Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders’ sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations. PMID:26366197

  20. Determinants of male floating behaviour and floater reproduction in a threatened population of the hihi (Notiomystis cincta).

    PubMed

    Brekke, Patricia; Ewen, John G; Clucas, Gemma; Santure, Anna W

    2015-09-01

    Floating males are usually thought of as nonbreeders. However, some floating individuals are able to reproduce through extra-pair copulations. Floater reproductive success can impact breeders' sex ratio, reproductive variance, multiple paternity and inbreeding, particularly in small populations. Changes in reproductive variance alter the rate of genetic drift and loss of genetic diversity. Therefore, genetic management of threatened species requires an understanding of floater reproduction and determinants of floating behaviour to effectively conserve species. Here, we used a pedigreed, free-living population of the endangered New Zealand hihi (Notiomystis cincta) to assess variance in male reproductive success and test the genetic (inbreeding and heritability) and conditional (age and size) factors that influence floater behaviour and reproduction. Floater reproduction is common in this species. However, floater individuals have lower reproductive success and variance in reproductive success than territorial males (total and extra-pair fledglings), so their relative impact on the population's reproductive performance is low. Whether an individual becomes a floater, and if so then how successful they are, is determined mainly by individual age (young and old) and to lesser extents male size (small) and inbreeding level (inbred). Floating males have a small, but important role in population reproduction and persistence of threatened populations. PMID:26366197

  1. Effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on male reproductive system during exposure to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havazhagan, G.; Riar, S. S.; Kain, A. K.; Bardhan, Jaya; Thomas, Pauline

    1989-09-01

    Two groups of male rats were exposed to simulated altitudes of 6060 m and 7576 m for 6 h/day for 7 days (intermittent exposure). In two additional groups of animals exposed to the same altitude, 100 mg of ascorbic acid (AA) was fed daily for 5 days prior to the exposure period and also during the exposure period. Rats that did not receive AA showed loss of body weight and weight of reproductive organs after exposure. Sex organs showed atrophy on histological examination and there was a deterioration in spermatozoal quality. There was an increase in alkaline and acid phosphatase, and decrease in protein, sialic acid and glyceryl phosphorylcholine content in various reproductive tissues after exposure. All the above changes in histology and biochemical composition could be partially prevented by AA supplementation. AA supplementation can therefore protect the male reproductive system from deleterious effects of hypoxia. The probable mechanism of action of AA is discussed.

  2. Selection on male sex pheromone composition contributes to butterfly reproductive isolation

    PubMed Central

    Bacquet, P. M. B.; Brattström, O.; Wang, H.-L.; Allen, C. E.; Löfstedt, C.; Brakefield, P. M.; Nieberding, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Selection can facilitate diversification by inducing character displacement in mate choice traits that reduce the probability of maladaptive mating between lineages. Although reproductive character displacement (RCD) has been demonstrated in two-taxa case studies, the frequency of this process in nature is still debated. Moreover, studies have focused primarily on visual and acoustic traits, despite the fact that chemical communication is probably the most common means of species recognition. Here, we showed in a large, mostly sympatric, butterfly genus, a strong pattern of recurrent RCD for predicted male sex pheromone composition, but not for visual mate choice traits. Our results suggest that RCD is not anecdotal, and that selection for divergence in male sex pheromone composition contributed to reproductive isolation within the Bicyclus genus. We propose that selection may target olfactory mate choice traits as a more common sensory modality to ensure reproductive isolation among diverging lineages than previously envisaged. PMID:25740889

  3. Cost of reproduction in male medflies: the primacy of sexual courting in extreme longevity reduction.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Liedo, Pablo; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Molleman, Freerk; Carey, James R

    2010-03-01

    In polygynous insect species, male reproductive success is directly related to lifetime mating success. However, the costs for males of sexual activities such as courting, signaling, and mating are largely unknown. We studied the cost of sexual activities in male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Tephritidae), a polygynous lekking species, by keeping cohorts of individual male flies under relaxed crowding conditions in the laboratory. We used 5 cohorts among which individuals differed in their opportunities to interact with con-specifics and recorded life span, and in one treatment, mating rate. We found that males kept singly lived more than twice as long as males that interacted intensively with mature virgin females, while male-male interactions caused a smaller reduction in longevity. Because longevity of males that could court but not mate was not significantly different from those that could court and mate, we conclude that courting (not mating) was responsible for the observed longevity reduction. Moreover, we detected high variability in male mating success, when 5 virgin females were offered daily. In contrast to the cohort level, individual males that mated at a high rate lived relatively long, thus indicating heterogeneity in quality or sexual strategy among males. PMID:19896949

  4. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE KINETICS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation a model for the hormonal regulation of the reproductive endocrine system in the adult male rat will be discussed. The model includes a description of the kinetics of the androgenic hormones testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, as well as the receptor-mediate...

  5. Effects of motor vehicle exhaust on male reproductive function and associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Rengaraj, Deivendran; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is consistently associated with various diseases and subsequent death among children, adult, and elderly people worldwide. Motor vehicle exhaust contributes to a large proportion of the air pollution present. The motor vehicle exhaust systems emit a variety of toxic components, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ozone, particulate matter, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Several epidemiological studies and laboratory studies have demonstrated that these components are potentially mutagenic, carcinogenic, and endocrine disrupting agents. However, their impact on male reproductive function and associated proteins is not very clear. Therefore, a comprehensive review on the effects of motor vehicle exhaust on male reproductive function and associated proteins is needed to better understand the risks of exhaust exposure for men. We found that motor vehicle exhaust can cause harmful effects on male reproductive functions by altering organ weights, reducing the spermatozoa qualities, and inducing oxidative stress. Remarkably, motor vehicle exhaust exposure causes significant changes in the expression patterns of proteins that are key components involved in spermatogenesis and testosterone synthesis. In conclusion, this review helps to describe the risks of vehicle exhaust exposure and its relationship to potential adverse effects on the male reproduction system. PMID:25329744

  6. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered. PMID:27585557

  7. Endocrine mediation of vertebrate male alternative reproductive tactics: the next generation of studies.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Rosemary

    2003-11-01

    In many species of animals, males may achieve reproductive success via one of several alternative reproductive tactics. Over the past decade or so, there has been a concerted effort to investigate endocrine mechanisms that underlie such discrete behavioral (and often morphological) variation. In vertebrates, the first generation of studies focused on potential organizational or activational effects of steroid hormones (Moore, 1991; Moore et al., 1998). Some of these studies have made it clear that, in addition to circulating hormone levels, one must also consider other aspects of the endocrine system, including hormone receptors, binding globulins and potential interactions among endocrine axes. In this paper, I review recent work on endocrine mechanisms and suggest possibilities for future investigation. I highlight how individual variation in sensitivity to environmental conditions, particularly with respect to various stressors, may account for the existence of alternative male reproductive phenotypes. Along these lines, I briefly explain the logic behind our work with male phenotypes of longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) that is aimed at determining the tissue-specific distribution and activity of two enzymes that are common to androgen and glucocorticoid metabolism. A major goal of our work is to examine the potential role of steroidogenic enzymes in the transduction of environmental information to influence the expression of alternative male reproductive phenotypes. PMID:21680474

  8. THE FUNGICIDE PROCHLORAZ: IN VITRO ANDROGEN ANTAGONISM, PARTURITION DELAYS, AND MALE REPRODUCTIVE MALFORMATIONS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fungicide Prochloraz: In vitro Androgen Antagonism, Parturition Delays, and Male Reproductive Malformations in Rats.
    Nigel C. Noriega, Joseph Ostby, Christy Lambright, Vickie S. Wilson, and L. Earl Gray Jr.,
    noriega.nigel@epa.gov
    US EPA
    Prochloraz (PZ) is an imid...

  9. Simvastatin reduces fetal testosterone production and permanently alters reproductive tract development in the male rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Androgen signaling by fetal Leydig cells is critical in the proper development of the male reproductive tract. As cholesterol is a precursor for hormone biosynthesis,inhibition of the cholesterol pathway during sex differentiation may reduce testosterone {T). We hypothesized tha...

  10. Integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis of rat testis: Mechanism of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyu; Luo, Lianzhong; Alamdar, Ambreen; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Liangpo; Tian, Meiping; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Shen, Heqing

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a widespread metalloid in environment, whose exposure has been associated with a broad spectrum of toxic effects. However, a global view of arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity is still lack, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. Our results revealed that arsenic exposure decreased testosterone level and reduced sperm quality in rats. By conducting an integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the present study aims to investigate the global influence of arsenic exposure on the proteome and metabolome in rat testis. The abundance of 70 proteins (36 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated) and 13 metabolites (8 increased and 5 decreased) were found to be significantly altered by arsenic treatment. Among these, 19 proteins and 2 metabolites were specifically related to male reproductive system development and function, including spermatogenesis, sperm function and fertilization, fertility, internal genitalia development, and mating behavior. It is further proposed that arsenic mainly impaired spermatogenesis and fertilization via aberrant modulation of these male reproduction-related proteins and metabolites, which may be mediated by the ERK/AKT/NF-κB-dependent signaling pathway. Overall, these findings will aid our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced male reproductive toxicity, and from such studies useful biomarkers indicative of arsenic exposure could be discovered. PMID:27585557

  11. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF LOW ACUTE DOSES OF CADMIUM CHLORIDE IN ADULT MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected sc with cadmium (Cd, as cadmium chloride) in doses ranging from 1.6 to 152 micromol Cd/kg body weight (body wt). Fourteen days after dosing, animals were evaluated for reproductive damage. Evaluations for each animal included tests, se...

  12. Assisted reproduction in a cohort of same-sex male couples and single men.

    PubMed

    Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L

    2013-08-01

    To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings. PMID:23768615

  13. Maybe she's NOT the boss: male-female crosstalk during sexual plant reproduction.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Hannes; Martinez-Bernardini, Andrea; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    New insights into the molecular dialogue between male and female during sexual plant reproduction show that even plant sex does not work without clear communication.Please see related Research article: http://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-016-0928-x. PMID:27159978

  14. Role of Low Exposure to Metals as Male Reproductive Toxicants

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, H. Anna; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Pan, Chih-Hong; Diawara, Norou

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the associations between environmentally relevant low metal concentrations and semen quality parameters in men. The concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and lead (Pb) in the seminal plasma and urine were measured from 196 male human subjects in Taiwan. Urinary Cd concentrations were negatively associated with sperm viability (P=0.006). Seminal plasma Cu concentrations of the normal group (≥15 × 106/ml) were significantly lower than those of the abnormal group (P=0.023). However, the linear regression analysis showed a weak association between Cu concentration and sperm concentration, along with other semen parameters. No significant relationship between other metals (As, Pb, Zn and Se) and semen quality was observed. PMID:25269935

  15. Effects of drugs on the male and female reproductive systems.

    PubMed

    Fody, E P; Walker, E M

    1985-01-01

    Infertility, permanent or temporary, resulting from drug-induced injury is an important clinical problem. Many common used drugs are potentially toxic to gonads. It is well-known that estrogens are toxic to the male genital system, but androgens may also produce infertility. Anovulation may also be a consequence of exposure to sex steroids. Cimetidine regularly produces hypospermia in men; phenytoin does so occasionally. Marijuana has been shown to be a gonadal toxin, while the effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) remain controversial. The most significant group of drugs that may injure the gonads is the cancer chemotherapeutic agents, of which the alkylating agents are the worst offenders. Prediction of infertility induced by these agents may be possible based on the duration of therapy and the patient's age and sex. PMID:4062226

  16. Effects of dimethoate in male mice reproductive parameters.

    PubMed

    Jallouli, Manel; Dhouib, Ines El Bini; Dhouib, Hanène; Gharbi, Najoua; El Fazaa, Saloua

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the ability of dimethoate (DMT) to induce reprotoxicity in male mice. The dose (20 mg/kg/day) was given orally for 30 days. A significant decrease in sperm count, motility and viability and a significant increase of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa percent in DMT treated mice was observed. Testicular Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were inhibited. Also, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation level and a significant decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were observed in testis of DMT mice. In addition, gene expression of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) was quantified in RNA samples extracted from the testis by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Compared with control, mRNA expression of GPx4 was slightly decreased after DMT-exposure. PMID:26482405

  17. Ductuli efferentes of the male Golden Syrian hamster reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Ford, J; Carnes, K; Hess, R A

    2014-07-01

    Efferent ductules are responsible for the transportation of spermatozoa from the testis to the epididymis and their epithelium is responsible for the reabsorption of over 90% of the luminal fluid. The purpose of this research was to characterize the gross morphology and histology of efferent ductules in the male Golden Syrian hamster. The efferent ductules emerge from rete testis with a unique polarity at the apex or cephalic pole of the testis. The number of efferent ductules varied from 3 to 10 with an average of 6.0 and blind ending ducts were observed in approximately 56% of the males. The ductules merged into a single common duct prior to entering the caput epididymidis. The proximal efferent ductule lumen was wider than the distal (conus and common ducts), consistent with reabsorption of most of the luminal fluid, as was morphology of the ductal epithelium. Non-ciliated cells in the proximal region had prominent endocytic apparatuses, showing both coated pits and apical tubules in the apical cytoplasm. Large basolateral, intercellular spaces were also present in the epithelium of the proximal region. Distal non-ciliated cells had an abundance of large endosomes and lysosomal granules. Localisation of sodium/hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3; SLC9A3) and aquaporins 1 and 9 (AQP1, AQP9) along the microvillus border was also consistent with ion transport and fluid reabsorption by this epithelium. In comparison, the caput epididymidis epithelium expressed only AQP9 immunostaining. Another unusual feature of the hamster efferent ductules was the presence of glycogen aggregates in the basal cytoplasm of small groups of epithelial cells, but only in the proximal ducts near the rete testis. Androgen (AR), estrogen (ESR1 and ESR2) and vitamin D receptors (VDR) were also abundant in epithelial nuclei of proximal and distal efferent ductules. In comparison, caput epididymidis showed very little immunostaining for ESR1. PMID:24677666

  18. An Alien in the Group: Eusocial Male Bees Sharing Nonspecific Reproductive Aggregations

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, C. F.; Ferreira-Caliman, M. J.; Nascimento, F. S.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection predicts that individuals competing for access to sexual partners should maximize their chances of mating by looking for sites where the chances of finding partners are more likely to occur. However, males of stingless bees have been observed sharing nonspecific reproductive aggregations. This uncommon behavior appears to confer no obvious increase of individual fitness. It has been suggested that this reproductive strategy is due to the similarity between male odors common to different stingless bee species. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are candidate odors of interest because their nonvolatile pheromone nature allows them to play an important role in sexual behavior and species recognition. Here, we review the literature to evaluate whether any phylogenetic patterns exist among male stingless bees that aggregate with closely or distantly related species. We also compared the CHC profiles of males of Neotropical stingless bee species (Plebeia sp. Schwarz, Trigona spinipes (F.), Tetragona clavipes (F.), Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier), Scaptotrigona aff. depilis (Moure), Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille), and Melipona subnitida (Ducke) to reveal any chemical similarities among their male odors. We found males of 21 stingless bee species involved in interspecific interactions mainly from Neotropical and Indo-Malayan/Australasian regions. Alien males did not necessarily visit host aggregations of closely related species. Furthermore, the CHC profiles of different studied species were very distinct from each other and do not overlapped at all. It is unclear yet why this apparently nonadaptive behavior carried out by some stingless bee males. PMID:26518220

  19. The Genetic Basis of Male Fertility in Relation to Haplodiploid Reproduction in Leptopilina clavipes (Hymenoptera: Figitidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pannebakker, Bart A.; Beukeboom, Leo W.; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Brakefield, Paul M.; Zwaan, Bas J.

    2004-01-01

    Traits under relaxed selection are expected to become reduced or disappear completely, a process called vestigialization. In parthenogenetic populations, traits historically involved in sexual reproduction are no longer under selection and potentially subject to such reduction. In Leptopilina clavipes, thelytokous (parthenogenetic) populations are infected by Wolbachia bacteria. Arrhenotokous populations do not harbor Wolbachia. When antibiotics are applied to infected females, they are cured from their infection and males arise. Such males are capable of producing offspring with uninfected females, but with lower fertilization success than sexual males. This can be attributed to the lack of selection on male fertility in thelytokous lines. In this study we used this variation in L. clavipes male fertility to determine the genetic basis of this trait. Males from cured thelytokous populations were crossed to females from uninfected populations. Using AFLP markers, a genetic linkage map was generated, consisting of five linkage groups and spanning a total distance of 219.9 cM. A single QTL of large effect (explaining 46.5% of the phenotypic variance) was identified for male fertility, which we call male fertility factor (mff). We discuss possible mechanisms underlying the effect of mff, as well as mechanisms involved in vestigialization of traits involved in sexual reproduction. PMID:15454547

  20. Dietary choice for a balanced nutrient intake increases the mean and reduces the variance in the reproductive performance of male and female cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Bunning, Harriet; Bassett, Lee; Clowser, Christina; Rapkin, James; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Archer, Catharine R; Hunt, John

    2016-07-01

    Sexual selection may cause dietary requirements for reproduction to diverge across the sexes and promote the evolution of different foraging strategies in males and females. However, our understanding of how the sexes regulate their nutrition and the effects that this has on sex-specific fitness is limited. We quantified how protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intakes affect reproductive traits in male (pheromone expression) and female (clutch size and gestation time) cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea). We then determined how the sexes regulate their intake of nutrients when restricted to a single diet and when given dietary choice and how this affected expression of these important reproductive traits. Pheromone levels that improve male attractiveness, female clutch size and gestation time all peaked at a high daily intake of P:C in a 1:8 ratio. This is surprising because female insects typically require more P than males to maximize reproduction. The relatively low P requirement of females may reflect the action of cockroach endosymbionts that help recycle stored nitrogen for protein synthesis. When constrained to a single diet, both sexes prioritized regulating their daily intake of P over C, although this prioritization was stronger in females than males. When given the choice between diets, both sexes actively regulated their intake of nutrients at a 1:4.8 P:C ratio. The P:C ratio did not overlap exactly with the intake of nutrients that optimized reproductive trait expression. Despite this, cockroaches of both sexes that were given dietary choice generally improved the mean and reduced the variance in all reproductive traits we measured relative to animals fed a single diet from the diet choice pair. This pattern was not as strong when compared to the single best diet in our geometric array, suggesting that the relationship between nutrient balancing and reproduction is complex in this species. PMID:27547307

  1. The effect of female quality on male ejaculatory expenditure and reproductive success in a praying mantid.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Anuradhi; Barry, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Strategic ejaculation is a behavioural strategy shown by many animals as a response to sperm competition and/or as a potential mechanism of cryptic male choice. Males invest more mating resources when the risk of sperm competition increases or they invest more in high quality females to maximize their reproductive output. We tested this hypothesis in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata, where females are capable of multiply mating and body condition is an indicator of potential reproductive fitness. We predicted male mantids would ejaculate strategically by allocating more sperm to high quality females. To determine if and how males alter their ejaculate in response to mate quality, we manipulated female food quantity so that females were either in good condition with many eggs (i.e. high quality) or poor condition with few eggs (i.e. low quality). Half of the females from each treatment were used in mating trials in which transferred sperm was counted before fertilisation occurred and the other half of females were used in mating trials where fertilisation occurred and ootheca mass and total eggs in the ootheca were recorded. Opposed to our predictions, the total number of sperm and the proportion of viable sperm transferred did not vary significantly between female treatments. Male reproductive success was entirely dependent on female quality/fecundity, rather than on the number of sperm transferred. These results suggest that female quality is not a major factor influencing postcopulatory male mating strategies in P. albofimbriata, and that sperm number has little effect on male reproductive success in a single mating scenario. PMID:25970459

  2. The Effect of Female Quality on Male Ejaculatory Expenditure and Reproductive Success in a Praying Mantid

    PubMed Central

    Jayaweera, Anuradhi; Barry, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic ejaculation is a behavioural strategy shown by many animals as a response to sperm competition and/or as a potential mechanism of cryptic male choice. Males invest more mating resources when the risk of sperm competition increases or they invest more in high quality females to maximize their reproductive output. We tested this hypothesis in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata, where females are capable of multiply mating and body condition is an indicator of potential reproductive fitness. We predicted male mantids would ejaculate strategically by allocating more sperm to high quality females. To determine if and how males alter their ejaculate in response to mate quality, we manipulated female food quantity so that females were either in good condition with many eggs (i.e. high quality) or poor condition with few eggs (i.e. low quality). Half of the females from each treatment were used in mating trials in which transferred sperm was counted before fertilisation occurred and the other half of females were used in mating trials where fertilisation occurred and ootheca mass and total eggs in the ootheca were recorded. Opposed to our predictions, the total number of sperm and the proportion of viable sperm transferred did not vary significantly between female treatments. Male reproductive success was entirely dependent on female quality/fecundity, rather than on the number of sperm transferred. These results suggest that female quality is not a major factor influencing postcopulatory male mating strategies in P. albofimbriata, and that sperm number has little effect on male reproductive success in a single mating scenario. PMID:25970459

  3. Reproduction of the Solenopsis Mealybug, Phenacoccus Solenopsis: Males Play an Important Role

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fang; Zhang, Jing-Ming; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Lu, Yao-Bin

    2013-01-01

    The solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is an aggressive pest threatening crops worldwide. The biology of P. solenopsis has been described in several studies, but detailed information on the reproduction of P. solenopsis has not been investigated. The results of our study showed: 1) no progeny could be produced by virgins; 2) apoptosis of follicle cells, which occurs when the eggs begin to develop, did not happen in virgins; and 3) oosorption occurred in the unfertilized eggs. This suggests that P. solenopsis is an obligate amphimictic species, and resorption of developed eggs fits the “wait to reproduce” oosorption hypothesis. Compared to females that mated when they were two days old, the females that mated 30 days after eclosion had lower reproductive output and longer adult lifespans, but had higher reproductive output and shorter lifespan than those of the unmated females. Such a phenomenon suggests that resources obtained from eggs can be allocated for survival until conditions for reproduction improve. The results of this study provide evidence for a trade-off between survival and future reproduction: delayed reproductive conditions trigger physiological states geared toward survival at the expense of reproduction. The mating history of the males had no effect on progeny production. PMID:24766493

  4. Evaluation of subacute bisphenol – A toxicity on male reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Karnam, S. S.; Ghosh, R. C.; Mondal, S.; Mondal, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of multiple oral administration of bisphenol A (BPA) for 28 days on seminal characteristic on mammal using Wistar rat as a model. Materials and Methods: Rats were randomly divided into five different groups having 6 male rats in each group. The doses chosen were 50, 200, and 600 mg/kg body weight for Groups III, IV and V, respectively, based on preliminary dose range finding study and Group II served as vehicle control and Group I was negative control. Results: Reproductive study in the BPA-treated rats on day 28 revealed that there was significant (p≤0.05) reduction in the epididymal sperm count of rats of Group IV and significant (p≤0.01) decrease in Group V. Sperm motility percentage, dead count percentage, head and tail abnormality percentage were found to be significantly (p≤0.01) increased in rats of BPA-treated groups as compared to rats of control groups. Testes showed necrosis of germinal layer and spermatogonial cells in the seminiferous tubules. Hematological examination revealed significant (p≤0.01) decrease in the mean values of total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and there was also significant (p≤0.05) lymphocytopenia in treated animals. Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that subacute toxicity of BPA caused a reduction in the epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, dead count, head and tail abnormality, as well as hematological indices such as TLC, TEC etc. Hence, it appears that BPA affects the germ cells leading to impairment in the spermatogenesis, and thus having its property as reproductive toxicant and it also suppresses bone marrow functioning, which leads to normocytic hypochromic anemia in rats. PMID:27065640

  5. Food availability affects onset of reproduction in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Simone; Hatch, Scott; Mangel, Marc; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that suboptimal developmental conditions may lead to faster life histories (younger age at recruitment and higher reproductive investment), but experimental testing of this prediction is still scarce in long-lived species. We report the effects of an experimental manipulation of food availability during early development and at recruitment on the onset of reproduction and reproductive performance (productivity at first breeding) in a long-lived seabird, the black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, breeding on Middleton Island, Alaska. Birds were born and raised in nests with supplemented food (‘fed’) or unsupplemented control nests (‘unfed’), and later recruited into either fed or unfed nests. Fed chicks grew faster than unfed chicks, and males grew faster than females. Birds were more likely to reproduce at younger ages when recruiting into fed nests. Faster growth during development tended to increase age at recruitment in all individuals. Social rank of individuals also affected age at recruitment: B-chicks recruited earlier than A-chicks and singletons recruited later than A- and B-chicks. Productivity increased with the age at recruitment and growth rate as chick, but much of the variability remained unexplained. We conclude that results of this study at least partially support predictions of life-history theory: younger age at first breeding for kittiwakes that experienced suboptimal natal conditions, as well as greater productivity of early recruiting kittiwakes that grew in control nests compared with those that grew in food-supplemented nests. PMID:23576791

  6. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF A SINGLE DOSE OF 1,3-DINITROBENZENE IN TWO AGES OF YOUNG ADULT MALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-Dinitrobenzene (M-DNB). oung adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24, ...

  7. Reproductive toxicity of a single dose of 1,3-dinitrobenzene in two ages of young adult male rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    These studies evaluated the reproductive response and the possible influence of testicular maturation on the reproductive parameters, in male rats treated with 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB). Young adult male rats (75 or 105 days of age) were given a single oral dose of 0, 8, 16, 24,...

  8. The male reproductive system of Hippolyte inermis Leach 1815 (Decapoda, Caridea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, Vanesa; Díaz, Vanessa; Raso, Jose Enrique García; Manjón-Cabeza, M. E.

    2011-03-01

    The present work completes a series of studies on the biology of the shrimp Hippolyte inermis Leach 1815, where we suggested the species to be gonochoristic. The morphology of the male reproductive system (testes, vasa deferentia, gonopores) and the different stages of male germ cell development are described for the first time in the genus Hippolyte, using TEM, SEM, and histological methods. All males from 1.70 to 3.42 mm in carapace length had active testes and well-developed vasa deferentia. No case of sex reversal could be found.

  9. Aging male bodies, health and the reproduction of age relations.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Ilkka; Ojala, Hanna; King, Neal; Calasanti, Toni

    2013-08-01

    This article explores the ways in which a group of male factory workers uses bodies as bases for hierarchical categorization of men by age in their talk of mundane aspects of their lives. Analysis of interviews about health (4 focus groups and 5 personal interviews) with Finnish working-class men under 40 years old shows that they portray age groups to which they do not belong as careless, even irresponsible toward health and its maintenance. As they categorize youth and old people by age, they leave themselves unmarked by it, providing no vocabulary to describe their own group. Despite their tendency to distance themselves particularly from old people, they also distinguish among older men by familiarity, providing relatively nuanced accounts of their fathers' aging. We discuss the marking of age groups in terms of social inequality and talk of fathers in terms of intergenerational relations. Even family ties among men of diverse ages involve ageism, which familiarity serves both to mitigate and to make less visible. This article documents the maintenance of age inequality in everyday, mundane behavior. PMID:23849422

  10. Male-female genotype interactions maintain variation in traits important for sexual interactions and reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Dean M; Delph, Lynda F

    2016-07-01

    Prezygotic reproductive isolation can evolve quickly when sexual selection drives divergence in traits important for sexual interactions between populations. It has been hypothesized that standing variation for male/female traits and preferences facilitates this rapid evolution and that variation in these traits is maintained by male-female genotype interactions in which specific female genotypes prefer specific male traits. This hypothesis can also explain patterns of speciation when ecological divergence is lacking, but this remains untested because it requires information about sexual interactions in ancestral lineages. Using a set of ancestral genotypes that previously had been identified as evolving reproductive isolation, we specifically asked whether there is segregating variation in female preference and whether segregating variation in sexual interactions is a product of male-female genotype interactions. Our results provide evidence for segregating variation in female preference and further that male-female genotype interactions are important for maintaining variation that selection can act on and that can lead to reproductive isolation. PMID:27271732

  11. Reproductive conflict in social insects: male production by workers in a slave-making ant.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Elisabeth; Trindl, Andreas; Falk, Karl H; Heinze, Juergen; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2005-11-01

    In insect societies, workers cooperate but may also pursue their individual interests, such as laying viable male eggs. The case of obligatory slave-making ants is of particular interest because workers do not engage in maintenance activities and foraging. Therefore, worker egg laying is expected to be less detrimental for colony efficiency than in related, nonparasitic species. Furthermore, as slave-making workers usually do not perform brood care and thus might have little power in manipulating sex allocation, they might be more strongly selected to increase their direct fitness by producing their own sons than workers in nonparasitic species. In this study we investigated worker reproduction in four natural colonies of the slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens, using highly variable microsatellite markers. Our results show that workers produce up to 100% of the males. This study thus presents the first direct evidence of an almost complete takeover of male reproduction by workers in ants. PMID:16396188

  12. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  13. Reproductive failure of dominant males in the poeciliid fish Limia perugiae determined by DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Schartl, M; Erbelding-Denk, C; Hölter, S; Nanda, I; Schmid, M; Schröder, J H; Epplen, J T

    1993-08-01

    Hierarchical structures among male individuals in a population are frequently reflected in differences in aggressive and reproductive behavior and access to the females. In general, social dominance requires large investments, which in turn then may have to be compensated for by high reproductive success. However, this hypothesis has so far only been sufficiently tested in small mating groups (one or two males with one or two females) due to the difficulties of determining paternity by conventional methods. DNA fingerprinting overcomes these problems by offering the possibility to determine genetic relationships and mating patterns within larger groups [Burke, T. (1989) Trends Ecol. Evol. 4, 139-144]. We show here that in the poeciliid fish Limia perugiae, in small mating groups the dominant male has a mating success of 100%, whereas in larger groups its contribution to the offspring unexpectedly drops to zero. PMID:8346218

  14. Switching photo-stimulated males between groups of goats does not improve the reproductive response during the male effect.

    PubMed

    Loya-Carrera, J; Bedos, M; Ponce-Covarrubias, J L; Hernández, H; Chemineau, P; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to determine whether the daily exchange of photo-stimulated males among subgroups of females improved the reproductive response of anestrous goats exposed to males. Bucks were rendered sexually active during the rest season by exposure to 2.5 months of long days from November 1st. In April, males (n=3) were put in contact with three subgroups of anestrous goats (one male per 12 females) where they remained throughout the study, constituting the fixed-group. Other males (n=3) were put in contact with three subgroups of females (one male per 11-12 females) and were rotated daily among them, constituting the rotated-group. The sexual behavior of all males was registered from 08:00 to 09:00 on days 0, 1, 2, and 8 after exchanging the males from the subgroups of females. Ovulation and pregnancy rates were determined by transrectal ultrasonography. The occurrences of ano-genital sniffing, nudging (days 1, 2, and 8), and mounting attempts (days 2 and 8) were greater in the rotated than in the fixed-group (P<0.01). The proportions of females that ovulated did not differ among goats from the fixed (92%) and rotated-group (94%; P>0.05). The proportion of pregnant females and the fertility at kidding did not differ between those from the rotated (79% and 59%) and fixed-group (83% and 61%; P>0.05). We conclude that the daily exchange of photo-stimulated males among subgroups induced an increase of their sexual behavior, but does not improve the pregnancy rates in seasonal anestrous goats. PMID:24602505

  15. Mechanism of toxicity of lead in the male reproductive system

    SciTech Connect

    Batarseh, L.I.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of lead acetate on the morphology and metabolism of primary cultures of Sertoli cells prepared from rat testis was studied. Lead acetate at concentrations as low as 0.05 mM was found to increase lactate production by Sertoli cells and to decrease glucose utilization, protein synthesis and secretion. These effects were accompanied by morphological changes. However, lead acetate exposure for 12 hrs. at concentrations as high as 0.10 mM did not kill the cells, as evaluated by viability tests. The effects of lead on carbohydrate metabolism of Sertoli cells were compared with its effects on isolated testicular mitochondria. Lead acetate (As low as 0.04 mM) stimulated State 4 respiration (in the absence of ADP) and inhibited State 3 respiration (in the presence of ADP). The respiratory control ration (State 3 divided by State 4) decreased from 1.82 to 1.06 at 0.08 mM lead acetate. Lead was shown to bind to calmodulin and to increase the phosphorylation of three Sertoli cell proteins. It is proposed that lead produces this effect by mimicking calcium, at least in part, or by disturbing calcium homeostasis. Lead was also shown to decrease lactate utilization by germ cells without affecting their viability. This also suggests that lead affects the integrity of mitochondrial structure and/or function.

  16. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. PMID:26688578

  17. Neither male gonadal androgens nor female reproductive costs drive development of sexual size dimorphism in lizards.

    PubMed

    Starostová, Zuzana; Kubička, Lukáš; Golinski, Alison; Kratochvíl, Lukáš

    2013-05-15

    Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is an extensively studied phenomenon in animals, including reptiles, but the proximate mechanism of its development is poorly understood. The most pervasive candidates are: (1) androgen-mediated control of growth, i.e. a positive effect of gonadal androgens (testosterone) on male growth in male-larger species, and a negative effect in female-larger species; and (2) sex-specific differences in energy allocation to growth, e.g. sex with larger reproductive costs should result in smaller body size. We tested these hypotheses in adults of the male-larger lizard Paroedura picta by conducting castrations with and without testosterone implants in males and manipulating reproductive status in females. Castration or testosterone replacement had no significant effect on final body length in males. High investment to reproduction had no significant effect on final body length in intact females. Interestingly, ovariectomized females and females with testosterone implants grew to larger body size than intact females. We did not find support for either of the above hypotheses and suggest that previously reported effects of gonadal androgens on growth in male lizards could be a consequence of altered behaviour or social status in manipulated individuals. Exogenous testosterone in females led to decreased size of ovaries; its effect on body size may be caused by interference with normal ovarian function. We suggest that ovarian factors, perhaps estrogens, not reproductive costs, can modify growth in female lizards and may thus contribute to the development of SSD. This hypothesis is largely supported by published results on the effect of testosterone treatment or ovariectomy on body size in female squamates. PMID:23393279

  18. Evolution under dietary restriction increases male reproductive performance without survival cost.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, Felix; Zajitschek, Susanne R K; Canton, Cindy; Georgolopoulos, Grigorios; Friberg, Urban; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-02-24

    Dietary restriction (DR), a reduction in nutrient intake without malnutrition, is the most reproducible way to extend lifespan in a wide range of organisms across the tree of life, yet the evolutionary underpinnings of the DR effect on lifespan are still widely debated. The leading theory suggests that this effect is adaptive and results from reallocation of resources from reproduction to somatic maintenance, in order to survive periods of famine in nature. However, such response would cease to be adaptive when DR is chronic and animals are selected to allocate more resources to reproduction. Nevertheless, chronic DR can also increase the strength of selection resulting in the evolution of more robust genotypes. We evolved Drosophila melanogaster fruit flies on 'DR', 'standard' and 'high' adult diets in replicate populations with overlapping generations. After approximately 25 generations of experimental evolution, male 'DR' flies had higher fitness than males from 'standard' and 'high' populations. Strikingly, this increase in reproductive success did not come at a cost to survival. Our results suggest that sustained DR selects for more robust male genotypes that are overall better in converting resources into energy, which they allocate mostly to reproduction. PMID:26911958

  19. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum).

    PubMed

    Danmaigoro, A; Onu, J E; Sonfada, M L; Umaru, M A; Hena, S A; Mahmuda, A

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults n = 17 and juveniles n = 13) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31 ± 6.30 g, 12.14 ± 0.19 cm and 69.54 ± 7.68 g, 7.77 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology. PMID:24800105

  20. Analysis of male reproductive parameters in a murine model of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I)

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Cinthia Castro; Junior, Odair Aguiar; D’Almeida, Vânia

    2014-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I is a lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) that is characterised by alpha-L-iduronidase (Idua) deficiency and continuous deposition of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which consequently interferes with cell signalling mechanisms and results in multisystemic and progressive symptoms. The animal model of MPS I (Idua-/-) has been widely studied to elucidate the consequences and progression of the disorder; however, studies specifically assessing the male reproductive tract are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the reproductive characteristics of male MPS I mice in two phases of life. Reproductive organ biometry, sperm counts, sperm morphological evaluation, plasma testosterone measurements and histopathological, histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analysis were performed in 3- and 6-month-old C57BL/6 Idua+/+ and Idua-/- mice. Seminal vesicle weights were decreased in both the 3- and 6-month-old Idua-/- mice. Decrease in sperm counts and the majority of the histopathological signs were observed in the 6-month-old Idua-/- mice. No differences were detected in the sperm morphological analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed that seminiferous tubules from 3-month-old Idua-/- mice were more intensely stained with anti-caspase-3 than 3-month-old Idua+/+ mice, but no difference was found at 6 months. These results suggest that MPS I interferes with male reproductive parameters both in 3 and 6-month-old animals and histopathological signs are more pronounced in 6-month-old mice, indicating that the effects of the disorder may intensify with the disease progression. PMID:25031781

  1. Gross and Morphometric Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System of Bats (Eidolon helvum)

    PubMed Central

    Danmaigoro, A.; Onu, J. E.; Sonfada, M. L.; Umaru, M. A.; Hena, S. A.; Mahmuda, A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the gross and morphometry of the reproductive tract of the male bats (Eidolon helvum). Thirty male bats (adults n = 17 and juveniles n = 13) were captured using net, weighed, aged using relative ossification of the wing bone, and dissected for gross examination. Morphologically, the mean body weight and forearm length in both adults and juveniles were 235.31 ± 6.30 g, 12.14 ± 0.19 cm and 69.54 ± 7.68 g, 7.77 ± 0.29 cm, respectively. The testicles were completely descended in adults with the penis projected cranially. The epididymides were found at the median border of the testis and continues as vas deferens. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between right and left testicular weights in both adults and juveniles and also in lengths of different parts of the reproductive segments in both age groups assessed, respectively. This work has documented the gross anatomy of the male reproductive tract in bats. Ultrastructure and histochemistry are recommended for further insight into the reproductive biology. PMID:24800105

  2. Cellular Signaling by Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) and Their Receptors (FGFRs) in Male Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, Leanne M.; O’Bryan, Moira K.; Hinton, Barry T.

    2008-01-01

    The major function of the reproductive system is to ensure the survival of the species by passing on hereditary traits from one generation to the next. This is accomplished through the production of gametes and the generation of hormones that function in the maturation and regulation of the reproductive system. It is well established that normal development and function of the male reproductive system is mediated by endocrine and paracrine signaling pathways. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), their receptors (FGFRs), and signaling cascades have been implicated in a diverse range of cellular processes including: proliferation, apoptosis, cell survival, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, motility, and differentiation. The maintenance and regulation of correct FGF signaling is evident from human and mouse genetic studies which demonstrate that mutations leading to disruption of FGF signaling cause a variety of developmental disorders including dominant skeletal diseases, infertility, and cancer. Over the course of this review, we will provide evidence for differential expression of FGFs/FGFRs in the testis, male germ cells, the epididymis, the seminal vesicle, and the prostate. We will show that this signaling cascade has an important role in sperm development and maturation. Furthermore, we will demonstrate that FGF/FGFR signaling is essential for normal epididymal function and prostate development. To this end, we will provide evidence for the involvement of the FGF signaling system in the regulation and maintenance of the male reproductive system. PMID:18216218

  3. Prenatal or lactational exposure of male rats to lead acetate. Effect on reproductive function

    SciTech Connect

    Thoreux-Manlay, A.; Pinon-Lataillade, G.; Coffigny, H.; Masse, R.; Soufir, J.C.

    1995-02-01

    Lead is an environmental pollutant which has received much attention, partly because of the particular sensitivity of children to this element. As regards the consequences of exposure to lead during fetal life or childhood, epidemiological studies have so far focused on its neuropsychological effects and little is known about the consequences of fetal or childhood exposure for reproduction. With respect to animals, the reproductive toxicity of lead in males exposed during prenatal life or the suckling period has only been considered in a few studies. Four such studies concerned the rat, the most current model of lead toxicity for male reproduction; two of studies considered the long term effects (i.e. during adulthood) of moderate in utero lead exposure, another covered the prenatal and neonatal periods and focused on the possible impact of lead intoxication on steriodogenesis before weaning, while the remaining study dealt with pituitary hormone level at the end of lead gavage in newborns. None of these investigations compared the effects of exposure during prenatal life to those of exposure via lactation, or the early effects (at about weaning time) to the long-term consequences during adulthood. Because of the paucity of data on these points, we conducted two experiments: in one, rats were exposed to lead prenatally, and in the other via maternal milk. In both cases male reproductive function at weaning and adulthood was examined. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  4. Territory defense as a condition-dependent component of male reproductive success in Drosophila serrata.

    PubMed

    White, Alison J; Rundle, Howard D

    2015-02-01

    Sexual selection arises from both intrasexual competition and mate choice. With respect to the evolution of male traits, there is a vast literature documenting the existence of female choice and male-male competition, and both have been shown to co-occur in many species. Despite numerous studies of these two components of male reproductive success in isolation, few have investigated whether and how they interact to determine total sexual selection. To address this, we investigate male territoriality in Drosophila serrata, a species in which female preference for male sexual pheromones (cuticular hydrocarbons or CHCs) have been extensively studied. We demonstrate that territoriality occurs, that it involves direct male-male aggressive interactions, and that it contributes to variation in male mating success. Results from a phenotypic manipulation also indicate that territorial success is condition-dependent, although a genetic manipulation of condition, involving three generations of full-sib inbreeding, failed to find a significant effect. Finally, selection assays also suggest that territorial success depends on male body size but not on CHCs, whereas the opposite is true for mating success. PMID:25491256

  5. Citrus limon extract: possible inhibitory mechanisms affecting testicular functions and fertility in male mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of oral administration of 50% ethanolic leaf extract of Citrus limon (500 and 1,000 mg/kg body weight/day) for 35 days on fertility and various male reproductive endpoints was evaluated in Parkes strain of mice. Testicular indices such as histology, 3β- and 17β-HSD enzymes activity, immunoblot expression of StAR and P450scc, and germ cell apoptosis by TUNEL and CASP- 3 expression were assessed. Motility, viability, and number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymidis, level of serum testosterone, fertility indices, and toxicological parameters were also evaluated. Histologically, testes in extract-treated mice showed nonuniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules. Treatment had adverse effects on steroidogenic markers in the testis and induced germ cell apoptosis. Significant reductions were noted in epididymal sperm parameters and serum level of testosterone in Citrus-treated mice compared to controls. Fertility of the extract-treated males was also suppressed, but libido remained unaffected. By 56 days of treatment withdrawal, alterations induced in the above parameters returned to control levels suggesting that Citrus treatment causes reversible suppression of spermatogenesis and fertility in Parkes mice. Suppression of spermatogenesis may result from germ cell apoptosis because of decreased production of testosterone. The present work indicated that Citrus leaves can affect male reproduction. PMID:26787324

  6. Determining the pattern of cementum annuli and relationship to reproduction in male sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proper, Josh; von Biela, Vanessa R.; Burns, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, the southwestern Alaskan sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population has declined dramatically and the cause has yet to be determined. Population trajectories of large mammals are determined by three factors: survival rate, reproduction rate, and age of first reproduction (AFR). Of these three, AFR should respond first to environmental change. Life history theory predicts that AFR will be older with bottom-up causes (ie, food limitation) and younger when the cause of the decline is top-down (ie, predation), as there is usually abundant resources in this scenario. Traditionally, determining AFR required lethal sampling, which may not always be possible. Work on many mammalian species suggests that the width of annual cementum layers in teeth may decline when breeding begins. If so, examining teeth annuli may provide a nonlethal alternative for determining AFR. Ongoing research has shown this relationship in female sea otters, but male sea otters have not been tested. Sea otter testes and premolar teeth slides were collected by subsistence hunters working with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Sea Otter and Steller Sea Lion Commission from Alaska (1994– 2005). We determined the pattern in cementum annuli thickness for male sea otters across age by measuring annuli at three sites on each of the two slide sections available. We found that cementum annuli layers decreased with age, but found no correlation between cementum annuli and sexual maturity in male sea otters. This lack of correlation may be due to sampling error or different energy expenditures during reproduction for each sex. Since females expend large amounts of energy through gestation and lactation, we hypothesize that the width of female cementum annuli decreases at a much sharper rate when they reach AFR.The southwest Alaskan sea otter population has plummeted up to 90% since the early 1990s and the reason is unknown.1 Declines may be due to a bottom-up source caused by

  7. Role of Nesfatin-1 in the Reproductive Axis of Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Kaifa; Song, Min; Li, Xiumei; Luo, Lei; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Yunsheng; Zhang, Xiaorong; Ling, Yinghui; Fang, Fugui; Liu, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an important molecule in the regulation of reproduction. However, its role in the reproductive axis in male animals remains to be understood. Here, we found that nesfatin-1 was mainly distributed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), periventricular nucleus (PeN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the hypothalamus; adenohypophysis and Leydig cells in male rats. Moreover, the concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 and its mRNA in hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) vary with the age of the male rat. After intracerebroventricular injection of nesfatin-1, the hypothalamic genes for gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), kisspeptin (Kiss-1), pituitary genes for follicle-stimulate hormone β(FSHβ), luteinizing hormone β(LHβ), and genes for testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) expression levels were decreased significantly. Nesfatin-1 significantly increased the expression of genes for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), and cytochrome P450 cleavage (P450scc) in the testis of pubertal rats, but their levels decreased in adult rats (P < 0.05), along with the serum FSH, LH, and testosterone (T) concentrations. After nesfatin-1 addition in vitro, T concentrations of the supernatant were significantly higher than that in the control group. These results were suggestive of the role of nesfatin-1 in the regulation of the reproductive axis in male rats. PMID:27599613

  8. Role of Nesfatin-1 in the Reproductive Axis of Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Kaifa; Song, Min; Li, Xiumei; Luo, Lei; Tian, Yuan; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Yunsheng; Zhang, Xiaorong; Ling, Yinghui; Fang, Fugui; Liu, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an important molecule in the regulation of reproduction. However, its role in the reproductive axis in male animals remains to be understood. Here, we found that nesfatin-1 was mainly distributed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), periventricular nucleus (PeN), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of the hypothalamus; adenohypophysis and Leydig cells in male rats. Moreover, the concentrations of serum nesfatin-1 and its mRNA in hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPGA) vary with the age of the male rat. After intracerebroventricular injection of nesfatin-1, the hypothalamic genes for gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH), kisspeptin (Kiss-1), pituitary genes for follicle-stimulate hormone β(FSHβ), luteinizing hormone β(LHβ), and genes for testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) expression levels were decreased significantly. Nesfatin-1 significantly increased the expression of genes for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD), and cytochrome P450 cleavage (P450scc) in the testis of pubertal rats, but their levels decreased in adult rats (P < 0.05), along with the serum FSH, LH, and testosterone (T) concentrations. After nesfatin-1 addition in vitro, T concentrations of the supernatant were significantly higher than that in the control group. These results were suggestive of the role of nesfatin-1 in the regulation of the reproductive axis in male rats. PMID:27599613

  9. Reproduction in male Japanese quail exposed to microwave radiation during embryogeny

    SciTech Connect

    McRee, D.I.; Thaxton, J.P.; Parkhurst, C.R.

    1983-10-01

    Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) embryos were exposed continuously to 2.45 GHz CW microwave radiation during the first 12 days of embryogenesis. The incident power density was 5 mW/cm/sup 2/, and the specific absorption rate (SAR) was 4.03 mW/g. At 23 weeks of age an assessment of the reproductive capacity of the males was performed. Spermatozoal numbers and motility in semen samples which were collected manually were reduced significantly (P less than or equal to 0.01). However, spermatozoal viability and gross morphological characteristics in the exposed birds were not consistently different from the controls. Relative testicular weights were not altered significantly in the exposed males. Percentage of fertile eggs was significantly reduced when exposed males were mated to sham control females. The percentage of fertile eggs obtained from mating exposed males with sham control females was 72.5%, while the percentage of fertile eggs from mating of sham control males with sham control females was 80.4%. These data indicate that reproductive capacity in male Japanese quail is reduced when the birds are exposed to 2.45 GHz CW microwave radiation during embryogenesis.

  10. Urinary volatile compounds differ across reproductive phenotypes and following aggression in male Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Nikki M; Soini, Helena A; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Novotny, Milos V; Demas, Gregory E

    2016-10-01

    Chemical communication plays an integral role in social behavior by facilitating social encounters, allowing for the evaluation of social partners, defining territories and advertising information such as species and sex. Odors provide information about the social environment for rodents and other mammals; however, studies identifying chemical compounds and their functions have thus far focused primarily on a few species. In addition, considerably less attention has been focused on how environmental factors and behavioral context alter these compounds during periods of reproductive quiescence. We examined the effects of photoperiod and social context on chemical communication in the seasonally breeding Siberian hamster which displays modest territorial aggression during long "summer-like" days, but increased aggression in short "winter-like" days. We collected urine samples from long- and short-day male hamsters to investigate how photoperiod and subsequent changes in reproductive phenotype alter urinary volatile compound profiles. Next, we identified changes in urinary compounds before and after an aggressive encounter. Male hamsters exhibited a diverse urinary profile across photoperiods; however, long-day reproductive males showed higher levels of individual compounds when compared to short-day non-reproductive males. In addition, individual compounds were altered following an aggressive encounter; some changed only in long days whereas others changed regardless of photoperiod. Further, aggression and circulating levels of testosterone were positively correlated with urinary compounds in long-, but not short-day males. These findings suggest both photoperiod- and aggression-specific physiological regulation of urinary compounds in this species and contribute to a greater understanding of chemical communication more broadly. PMID:27212202

  11. Social, but not photoperiodic, influences on reproductive function in male Peromyscus aztecus.

    PubMed

    Demas, G E; Nelson, R J

    1998-02-01

    Nontropical rodents rely on environmental factors to restrict breeding to a specific time of the year. Among these factors, photoperiod appears to be the primary environmental cue used for predicting optimal breeding conditions. The purpose of the present study was to characterize reproductive function, as well as photoperiodic and social responsiveness in male Peromyscus aztecus, which occupy low-latitude, high-altitude habitats. In experiment 1, adult male P. aztecus were individually housed in either long (16L:8D) or short days (8L:16D) for 10 wk. Short-day mice did not differ from long-day mice on any reproductive or nonreproductive parameter. Comparisons to related Peromyscus species suggested that relative reproductive organ size and function were reduced in both long- and short-day males. Because ad libitum food and water were available, we reasoned that males in both photoperiodic conditions lacked social stimuli. To test this hypothesis, adult male P. aztecus were housed in long days either individually or with a female conspecific in experiment 2. Mice housed with females had significantly larger relative paired testes and epididymal masses, and higher testicular sperm counts and serum testosterone levels compared to those of individually housed mice. Taken together, these results suggest that social factors may play a more prominent role than photoperiod in stimulating reproductive development in laboratory-housed P. aztecus. These results are consistent with the results found for other low-latitude rodent species and suggest that P. aztecus uses a flexible rather than obligatory breeding strategy. PMID:9475393

  12. Male-female relatedness and patterns of male reproductive investment in guppies.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Luisa J; Gasparini, Clelia; Fitzpatrick, John L; Evans, Jonathan P

    2014-05-01

    Inbreeding can cause reductions in fitness, driving the evolution of pre- and postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. There is now considerable evidence for such processes in females, but few studies have focused on males, particularly in the context of postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance. Here, we address this topic by exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to either full-sibling or unrelated females and determining whether they adjust investment in courtship and ejaculates. Our results revealed that males reduce their courtship but concomitantly exhibit short-term increases in ejaculate quality when paired with siblings. In conjunction with prior work reporting cryptic female preferences for unrelated sperm, our present findings reveal possible sexually antagonistic counter-adaptations that may offset postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance by females. PMID:24806425

  13. Differential effects of male nutrient balance on pre- and post-copulatory traits, and consequences for female reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Juliano; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Male fitness depends on the expression of costly traits involved in obtaining mates (pre-copulatory) and fertilization (post-copulatory). However, very little is known about the nutrient requirements for these traits and whether males compromise their diet to maximize one trait at the expense of another. Here we used Nutritional Geometry to investigate macronutrient requirements for pre- and post-copulatory traits in Drosophila, when males were the first or second to mate with females. We found no significant effects of male diet on sperm competitiveness. However, although males self-regulate their macronutrient intake at a protein-to-carbohydrate ratio (“P:C ratio”) of 1:1.5, this ratio does not coincide with their optima for several key reproductive traits: both the short-term (~24 hr) rate of offspring production after a female’s first mating, as well as the total offspring number sired when males were second to mate were maximized at a P:C ratio of 1:9, whereas male attractiveness (latency to mate), were maximised at a P:C ratio of 1:1. These results suggest a compromised optimum diet, and no single diet that simultaneously maximizes all male reproductive traits. The protein intake of first males also negatively affected female offspring production following remating, suggesting a long-term intersexual effect of male nutrition. PMID:27270223

  14. Differential effects of male nutrient balance on pre- and post-copulatory traits, and consequences for female reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliano; Wigby, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Male fitness depends on the expression of costly traits involved in obtaining mates (pre-copulatory) and fertilization (post-copulatory). However, very little is known about the nutrient requirements for these traits and whether males compromise their diet to maximize one trait at the expense of another. Here we used Nutritional Geometry to investigate macronutrient requirements for pre- and post-copulatory traits in Drosophila, when males were the first or second to mate with females. We found no significant effects of male diet on sperm competitiveness. However, although males self-regulate their macronutrient intake at a protein-to-carbohydrate ratio ("P:C ratio") of 1:1.5, this ratio does not coincide with their optima for several key reproductive traits: both the short-term (~24 hr) rate of offspring production after a female's first mating, as well as the total offspring number sired when males were second to mate were maximized at a P:C ratio of 1:9, whereas male attractiveness (latency to mate), were maximised at a P:C ratio of 1:1. These results suggest a compromised optimum diet, and no single diet that simultaneously maximizes all male reproductive traits. The protein intake of first males also negatively affected female offspring production following remating, suggesting a long-term intersexual effect of male nutrition. PMID:27270223

  15. Sexual cannibalism increases male material investment in offspring: quantifying terminal reproductive effort in a praying mantis.

    PubMed

    Brown, William D; Barry, Katherine L

    2016-06-29

    Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism argue that males may offset the cost of cannibalism if components of the male body are directly allocated to the eggs that they fertilize. We tested this idea in the praying mantid Tenodera sinensis Males and females were fed differently radiolabelled crickets and allowed to mate. Half of the pairs progressed to sexual cannibalism and we prevented cannibalism in the other half. We assess the relative allocation of both male-derived somatic materials and ejaculate materials into the eggs and soma of the female. Our results show that male somatic investment contributes to production of offspring. The eggs and reproductive tissues of cannibalistic females contained significantly more male-derived amino acids than those of non-cannibalistic females, and there was an increase in the number of eggs produced subsequent to sexual cannibalism. Sexual cannibalism thus increases male material investment in offspring. We also show that males provide substantial investment via the ejaculate, with males passing about 25% of their radiolabelled amino acids to females via the ejaculate even in the absence of cannibalism. PMID:27358366

  16. Reproduction in male swamp wallabies (Wallabia bicolor): puberty and the effects of season

    PubMed Central

    Paplinska, Justyna Zofia; Moyle, Richard L C; Wreford, Nigel G; Temple-Smith, Peter D M; Renfree, Marilyn B

    2007-01-01

    This study describes pubertal changes in testes and epididymides and seasonal changes in the adult male reproductive organs and plasma androgen concentrations of the swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor). Pre-pubescent males had testes with solid seminiferous cords and spermatogenesis only to the stage of gonocytes. Their epididymides had empty lumina along their entire length. The testes of three males undergoing puberty had some lumen formation and mitotic activity. Their epididymides were similar in appearance to those of adult males but were entirely devoid of any cells within the lumen of the duct. Three other pubescent males showed full lumen formation in the testes and spermatogenesis up to the elongating spermatid stage. Their epididymides were similar in appearance to those of adult males but with no spermatozoa in the duct. However, cells of testicular origin were found in the lumen of the duct in all regions suggesting that testicular fluids and immature germ cells shed into the rete testes flow through the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis before the release of mature testicular spermatozoa. The weights of testes and epididymides of adult males showed no change throughout the year but prostate weight and plasma androgen concentrations varied significantly with season, with maximums in spring and summer and minimums in winter. The volume fraction of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules was significantly lower in winter than in summer; but, despite this, maturing spermatozoa were found in the testes throughout the year. Females in the area conceived year-round, suggesting that seasonal changes in the male reproductive tract did not prevent at least some males from breeding throughout the year. PMID:17764525

  17. Promoting Reproductive Options for HIV-Affected Couples in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mmeje, Okeoma; Cohen, Craig R.; Murage, Alfred; Ong’ech, John; Kiarie, James; van der Poel, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    HIV-affected couples have unique challenges that require access to information and reproductive services which prevent HIV transmission to the uninfected partner and offspring while allowing couples to fulfill their reproductive goals. In high HIV prevalent regions of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV-affected couples require multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) to enhance their reproductive healthcare options beyond contraception and prevention of HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to include assistance in childbearing. The unique characteristics of the condom and its accepted use in conjunction with safer conception interventions allow HIV-serodiscordant couples an opportunity to maintain reproductive health, prevent HIV/STI transmission, and achieve their reproductive goals while timing conception. Rethinking the traditional view of the condom and incorporating a broader reproductive health perspective of HIV-affected couples into MPT methodologies will impact demand, acceptability, and uptake of these future technologies. PMID:25335844

  18. Effects of reproductive and social variables on fecal glucocorticoid levels in a sample of adult male ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Beza Mahafaly Reserve, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Gould, Lisa; Ziegler, Toni E; Wittwer, Daniel J

    2005-09-01

    Glucocorticoids, a group of adrenal hormones, are secreted in response to stress. In male primates, variables such as breeding seasonality, dominance hierarchy stability, and aggressive and affiliative interactions can affect glucocorticoid levels. In this study, we examined interindividual differences in mean fecal glucocorticoid (fGC) levels among males in three groups of wild ring-tailed lemurs to better understand the physiological costs of group living for males in a female-dominant species that exhibits strict reproductive seasonality. Fecal and behavioral data samples were collected during one mating and two postmating seasons (2001 and 2003). The mean fGC levels were examined in relation to reproductive season, male rank, number of resident males, intermale and female-male agonism, and affiliative behavior with females. The mean fGC levels were not significantly elevated during mating season compared to the postmating period. During the mating season, male dominance hierarchies broke down and rank effects could not be tested; however, there was no relationship between male rank and fGC levels in the postmating periods. In 2001, males that resided in the group with the fewest males exhibited lower fGC levels during the postmating period. They also affiliated more with females than did males in the other groups. During the mating season of 2003, males engaged in more affiliative behaviors with females compared to the postmating season, but female-male agonism did not differ by season. However, rates of intermale agonism were significantly higher during mating compared to postmating periods, but such heightened agonism did not translate to a higher stress response. Thus, neither male-male competition for mates nor heightened agonism between males during the breeding season affected male fGC levels. Fewer males residing in a group, however, did have some effect on male-female affiliation and male fGC levels outside of the mating period. Males that live in a

  19. The effects of inbreeding, genetic dissimilarity and phenotype on male reproductive success in a dioecious plant

    PubMed Central

    Austerlitz, Frédéric; Gleiser, Gabriela; Teixeira, Sara; Bernasconi, Giorgina

    2012-01-01

    Pollen fate can strongly affect the genetic structure of populations with restricted gene flow and significant inbreeding risk. We established an experimental population of inbred and outbred Silene latifolia plants to evaluate the effects of (i) inbreeding depression, (ii) phenotypic variation and (iii) relatedness between mates on male fitness under natural pollination. Paternity analysis revealed that outbred males sired significantly more offspring than inbred males. Independently of the effects of inbreeding, male fitness depended on several male traits, including a sexually dimorphic (flower number) and a gametophytic trait (in vitro pollen germination rate). In addition, full-sib matings were less frequent than randomly expected. Thus, inbreeding, phenotype and genetic dissimilarity simultaneously affect male fitness in this animal-pollinated plant. While inbreeding depression might threaten population persistence, the deficiency of effective matings between sibs and the higher fitness of outbred males will reduce its occurrence and counter genetic erosion. PMID:21561968

  20. Evidence that elevated water temperature affects the reproductive physiology of the European bullhead Cottus gobio.

    PubMed

    Dorts, Jennifer; Grenouillet, Gaël; Douxfils, Jessica; Mandiki, Syaghalirwa N M; Milla, Sylvain; Silvestre, Frédéric; Kestemont, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase the average water temperature and alter the ecology and physiology of several organisms including fish species. To examine the effects of increased water temperature on freshwater fish reproduction, adult European bullhead Cottus gobio of both genders were maintained under three temperature regimes (T1: 6-10, T2: 10-14 and T3: 14-18°C) and assessed for gonad development (gonadosomatic index-GSI and gonad histology), sex steroids (testosterone-T, 17β-estradiol-E2 and 11-ketotestosterone-11-KT) and vitellogenin (alkali-labile phosphoprotein phosphorus-ALP) dynamics in December, January, February and March. The results indicate that a 8°C rise in water temperature (T3) deeply disrupted the gonadal maturation in both genders. This observation was associated with the absence of GSI peak from January to March, and low levels of plasma sex steroids compared with T1-exposed fish. Nevertheless, exposure to an increasing temperature of 4°C (T2) appeared to accelerate oogenesis with an early peak value in GSI and level of plasma T recorded in January relative to T1-exposed females. In males, the low GSI, reduced level of plasma 11-KT and the absence of GSI increase from January to March support the deleterious effects of increasing water temperature on spermatogenesis. The findings of the present study suggest that exposure to elevated temperatures within the context of climate warming might affect the reproductive success of C. gobio. Specifically, a 4°C rise in water temperature affects gametogenesis by advancing the spawning, and a complete reproductive failure is observed at an elevated temperature of 8°C. PMID:21638008

  1. Tracking Official Development Assistance for Reproductive Health in Conflict-Affected Countries

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Preeti; Roberts, Bayard; Guy, Samantha; Lee-Jones, Louise; Conteh, Lesong

    2009-01-01

    Background Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006. Methods and Findings The Creditor Reporting System and the Financial Tracking System databases were the chosen data sources for the study. ODA disbursement for reproductive health activities to 18 conflict-affected countries was analysed for 2003, 2004, 2005, and 2006. An average of US$20.8 billion in total ODA was disbursed annually to the 18 conflict-affected countries between 2003 and 2006, of which US$509.3 million (2.4%) was allocated to reproductive health. This represents an annual average of US$1.30 disbursed per capita in the 18 sampled countries for reproductive health activities. Non-conflict-affected least-developed countries received 53.3% more ODA for reproductive health activities than conflict-affected least-developed countries, despite the latter generally having greater reproductive health needs. ODA disbursed for HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment increased by 119.4% from 2003 to 2006. The ODA disbursed for other direct reproductive health activities declined by 35.9% over the same period. Conclusions This study provides evidence of inequity in disbursement of reproductive health ODA between conflict-affected countries and non-conflict-affected countries, and between different reproductive health activities. These findings and the study's recommendations seek to support initiatives to make aid financing more responsive to need in the context of armed conflict. PMID:19513098

  2. Exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during sexual development causes the feminization/demasculinization of the reproductive traits and a reduction in the reproductive success of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hua; Li, Yun; Wang, Wei; Wu, Peng; Ru, Shaoguo

    2012-09-01

    Monocrotophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide that has been confirmed to be an endocrine‐disrupting chemical. To evaluate the influence of this pollutant on the reproductive system of male fish, we studied the sex steroid levels, reproductive traits, sex ratio, and reproductive success in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) exposed to 40% monocrotophos pesticide at the nominal concentrations of 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00 mg/L for 90 days from birth to adulthood in a semi‐static exposure system. Radioimmunoassay and western blot analyses demonstrated that the long‐term exposure to monocrotophos pesticide during the sexual development of male guppies caused a significant increase in 17β‐estradiol levels and consequently induced vitellogenin synthesis, suggesting the feminization of the males. Monocrotophos pesticide also caused a significant decrease in testosterone levels, which consequently inhibited testis growth and reduced the sperm count and the area and intensity of their sexually attractive orange spots, which collectively indicated the significant demasculinization of the male sexual characteristics. Furthermore, these changes in the sexual characteristics at the cellular and organ levels translated into ecologically important effects on the reproductive success at the individual level, as measured by a decrease in offspring production and survival rate. The present study provides the first evidence that monocrotophos pesticide can cause severe reproductive abnormalities in fish due to its endocrine‐disrupting action. -- Highlights: ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused an increase in 17β‐estradiol levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide induced vitellogenin synthesis of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a decrease in testosterone levels of male guppies. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused demasculinization of male sexual characteristics. ► Monocrotophos pesticide caused a reduction in reproductive success of male

  3. Genetic covariance between components of male reproductive success: within-pair vs. extra-pair paternity in song sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Reid, J M; Arcese, P; Losdat, S

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary trajectories of reproductive systems, including both male and female multiple mating and hence polygyny and polyandry, are expected to depend on the additive genetic variances and covariances in and among components of male reproductive success achieved through different reproductive tactics. However, genetic covariances among key components of male reproductive success have not been estimated in wild populations. We used comprehensive paternity data from socially monogamous but genetically polygynandrous song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to estimate additive genetic variance and covariance in the total number of offspring a male sired per year outside his social pairings (i.e. his total extra-pair reproductive success achieved through multiple mating) and his liability to sire offspring produced by his socially paired female (i.e. his success in defending within-pair paternity). Both components of male fitness showed nonzero additive genetic variance, and the estimated genetic covariance was positive, implying that males with high additive genetic value for extra-pair reproduction also have high additive genetic propensity to sire their socially paired female's offspring. There was consequently no evidence of a genetic or phenotypic trade-off between male within-pair paternity success and extra-pair reproductive success. Such positive genetic covariance might be expected to facilitate ongoing evolution of polygyny and could also shape the ongoing evolution of polyandry through indirect selection. PMID:25186454

  4. A potential mate influences reproductive development in female, but not male, pine siskins.

    PubMed

    Watts, Heather E; Edley, Bruce; Hahn, Thomas P

    2016-04-01

    The role of photoperiod in avian reproductive timing has been well studied, and we are increasingly recognizing the roles of other environmental cues such as social cues. However, few studies have evaluated the extent to which males and females of the same species respond similarly to the same type of cue. Moreover, previous studies have rarely examined how variation in the quality or nature of a given social cue might modulate its effect. Here, we examine the sensitivity of male and female pine siskins (Spinus pinus) to a potential mate as a stimulatory cue for gonadal recrudescence, and we investigate whether variation in the relationship between a bird and its potential mate modulates the effect of that potential mate. Birds were initially housed without opposite sex birds on a 12L:12D photoperiod with ad libitum food. After gonadal recrudescence had begun males and females were randomly paired with an opposite sex bird or housed alone. An additional group of males was paired with estradiol-implanted females. In males, these social treatments had no effect on testis length, cloacal protuberance length, luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, or testosterone levels. In females, presence of a potential mate had a significant and positive effect on ovary score, defeathering of the brood patch, and LH levels. Among paired birds, the degree of affiliation within a pair corresponded to the extent of reproductive development in females, but not males. Thus, reproductive timing in females appears to be sensitive to both the presence of a potential mate and her relationship with him. PMID:26836771

  5. Impairment of male reproduction in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate in utero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Ramachandra Reddy, P.; Sreenivasula Reddy, P.

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate is one of the most effective and widely used drugs for the treatment of uterine bleeding and threatened miscarriage in women. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats in order to assess the effect of intraperitoneal exposure to supranormal levels of hydroxyprogesterone caproate on the male reproductive potential in the first generation. The cauda epididymal sperm count and motility decreased significantly in rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development, when compared with control rats. The levels of serum testosterone decreased with an increase in follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in adult rats exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during the embryonic stage. It was suggested that the impairment of male reproductive performance could be mediated through the inhibition of testosterone production.

  6. Modulation of diabetes-mellitus-induced male reproductive dysfunctions in experimental animal models with medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Gyan Chand; Jangir, Ram Niwas

    2014-01-01

    Today diabetes mellitus has emerged as a major healthcare problem throughout the world. It has recently broken the age barrier and has been diagnosed in younger people also. Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with many complications including male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of the diabetes mellitus in various traditional system of medicine and in folklore worldwide as they are a rich source of bioactive phytoconstituents, which lower blood glucose level and/or also act as antioxidants resulting in the amelioration of oxidative-stress-induced diabetic complications. The present review describes the ameliorative effects of medicinal plants or their products, especially on male reproductive dysfunctions, in experimental diabetic animal models. PMID:25125884

  7. Ultrastructure of male reproductive system of Eurydema ventrale Kolenati 1846 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Özyurt, Nurcan; Candan, Selami; Suludere, Zekiye

    2015-08-01

    The male reproductive system of Eurydema ventrale Kolenati 1846 is studied morphologically and histologically by using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopes. The reproductive system of the male E.ventrale consists of a pair of testis, a pair of vas deferens, a pair of seminal vesicles, accessory glands, a bulbus ejaculatorius, a pair of ectodermal sacs, and a ductus ejaculatorius. The testicular follicles have three different development zones (growth zone, maturation zone, and differentiation zone). The testes are connected to the seminal vesicles by the vas deferens that is a specialized in sperm storage. Sperm have an elongated head and a tail (flagellum) with an axonema and two mitochondrial derivatives. Vas deferens and seminal vesicles are fine, long, and cylindrical. The seminal vesicle is connected with bulbus ejaculatorius, which is balloon shaped and surrounded with accessory glands. The bulbus ejaculatorius is continuous with ductus ejaculatorius which is connected to the aedeagus. PMID:26031393

  8. Morphology of the Male Reproductive System of the Social Wasp, Polistes Versicolor Versicolor, with Phylogenetic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Vinícius Albano; Moreira, Jane; Lino-Neto, José

    2010-01-01

    Variation in the morphology of the adult male reproductive system among different groups of Hymenoptera offer characteristics that help studies of behavior and the evolutionary history of this group. The objective of this study was to describe the adult male reproductive system of the wasp Polistes versicolor versicolor Olivier (Vespidae: Polistini). The reproductive systems were dissected, fixed and embedded for light microscopy. In P. v. versicolor, the reproductive system includes a pair of testes, each one with three fusiform follicles. From each follicle emerges an efferent duct that later join together, forming a deferent duct. The first half of the deferent duct is enlarged and differentiated into a region specialized for sperm storage, the seminal vesicle. At the post-vesicular region of each of the deferent ducts an accessory gland emerges. The seminal vesicle and the accessory gland are covered with a capsule forming a vesicle-gland complex, also observed in some species of North American Polistes. Sperm are released from testes in bundles, which are disorganized inside seminal vesicles. In the testicular follicles, 95 spermatozoa were observed per cyst on average. PMID:20673189

  9. Notes on the Diet of Reproductively Active Male Rafinesque's Big Eared Bats

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Menzel, J.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diet examination through the use of fecal samples, of five reproductively active male Rafinesque's big-eared bats from the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September 1999. Diets of these individuals in upland pine stands were similar to diets of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in bottomland and upland hardwood habitats. Although fecal samples had three insect orders, the diet consisted primarily of lepidopterans.

  10. Reproductive responses of male Brandt's voles ( Lasiopodomys brandtii) to 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) under short photoperiod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xin; Jiang, Lian Yu; Han, Mei; Ye, Man Hong; Wang, Ai Qin; Wei, Wan Hong; Yang, Sheng Mei

    2016-04-01

    The plant secondary metabolite 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) can stimulate and enhance animal reproduction. This compound has been successfully detected in Leymus chinensis, which is the main diet of Brandt's voles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different 6-MBOA doses on the reproductive physiology of male Brandt's voles under a short photoperiod. The results showed that 6-MBOA administration increased relative testis weight, regardless of the dose, but it had little effect on the body mass. Low and middle doses of 6-MBOA increased the concentrations of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in the serum and the mRNA levels of StAR and CYP11a1 in the testes. However, 6-MBOA did not cause any significant increase in the mRNA levels of KiSS-1, GPR54, and GnRH compared to those in the control group. The mRNA level of KiSS-1 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was higher than that in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Collectively, our results demonstrated that the number of KiSS-1-expressing neurons located in the ARC was the highest, and that 6-MBOA, which might modulate the reproductive activity along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, had a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on the reproductive activity of Brandt's voles under a short photoperiod. Our study provided insights into the mechanism of 6-MBOA action and the factors influencing the onset of reproduction in Brandt's voles.

  11. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Jacques; Eustache, Florence; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie Chantal; Livera, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS) exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA) of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach) for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction. PMID:24369134

  12. Reproductive responses of male Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) to 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) under short photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xin; Jiang, Lian Yu; Han, Mei; Ye, Man Hong; Wang, Ai Qin; Wei, Wan Hong; Yang, Sheng Mei

    2016-04-01

    The plant secondary metabolite 6-methoxybenzoxazolinone (6-MBOA) can stimulate and enhance animal reproduction. This compound has been successfully detected in Leymus chinensis, which is the main diet of Brandt's voles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different 6-MBOA doses on the reproductive physiology of male Brandt's voles under a short photoperiod. The results showed that 6-MBOA administration increased relative testis weight, regardless of the dose, but it had little effect on the body mass. Low and middle doses of 6-MBOA increased the concentrations of luteinizing hormone and testosterone in the serum and the mRNA levels of StAR and CYP11a1 in the testes. However, 6-MBOA did not cause any significant increase in the mRNA levels of KiSS-1, GPR54, and GnRH compared to those in the control group. The mRNA level of KiSS-1 in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) was higher than that in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV). Collectively, our results demonstrated that the number of KiSS-1-expressing neurons located in the ARC was the highest, and that 6-MBOA, which might modulate the reproductive activity along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, had a dose-dependent stimulatory effect on the reproductive activity of Brandt's voles under a short photoperiod. Our study provided insights into the mechanism of 6-MBOA action and the factors influencing the onset of reproduction in Brandt's voles. PMID:26940061

  13. Effect of Sleep Deprivation on the Male Reproductive System in Rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Ho; Lee, Seung Hoon; Bae, Jae Hyun; Shim, Ji Sung; Park, Hong Seok; Kim, Young Sik; Shin, Chol

    2016-10-01

    There has been no study reporting on the influence of sleep deprivation on the male reproductive system including sperm quality. In this study, we hypothesized that sleep deprivation could lead to adverse effect on the male reproductive system. The rats were divided into three groups: 1) control (home-cage, n = 10); 2) SD4 (sleep deprivation for 4 days, n = 10); and 3) SD7 (sleep deprivation for 7 days, n = 10). Sleep deprivation was performed by a modified multiple platform method. Sperm quality (sperm motion parameters and counts), hormone levels (corticosterone and testosterone), and the histopathology of testis were evaluated and compared between the three groups. A statistically significant reduction (P = 0.018) was observed in sperm motility in the SD7 group compared to those of the control group. However, there were no significant differences in other sperm motion parameters, or in sperm counts of the testis and cauda epididymis between three groups. Compared with the control group, the SD4 (P = 0.033) and SD7 (P = 0.002) groups exhibited significant increases of corticosterone levels, but significant decreases of testosterone levels were found in the SD4 (P = 0.001) and SD7 (P < 0.001) groups. Seminiferous tubular atrophy and/or spermatid retention was partially observed in the SD4 and SD7 groups, compared with the normal histopathology of the control group. Sleep deprivation may have an adverse effect on the male reproductive system in rats. PMID:27550492

  14. Legal issues affecting confidentiality and informed consent in reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Rockett, L R

    2000-01-01

    The law governing confidentiality and informed consent has acquired unique characteristics in the area of reproductive health, as a consequence of both the establishment of a constitutional right to privacy in reproductive health matters and the reaction of those politically and morally opposed to the exercise of that right. The primary issues have involved: 1) the right of minors to receive reproductive health services without parental consent, which remains a political battleground; 2) laws requiring physicians to provide information to pregnant patients that is intended, not to inform them of the risks and benefits of the procedure, but to discourage them from obtaining abortions; 3) coerced and prohibited sterilizations; 4) court-ordered contraception and procedures to protect the fetus; and 5) restrictions on counseling about abortion, contraception, sterilization, and other reproductive health services authorized by state conscience or noncompliance clauses that shield such restrictions from the usual ethical, medical, and legal rules governing informed consent. The last area is of profound significance to the ability of women to make informed decisions about their reproductive health options. In the current economic environment, which fuels mergers and acquisitions involving sectarian and nonsectarian institutions, women are increasingly being put at risk as a result of such restrictions. PMID:11070641

  15. Effect of anosmia on reproduction in male and female wolves (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asa, C.S.; Seal, U.S.; Plotka, E.D.; Letellier, M.A.; Mech, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Anosmia was produced in two female and three male wolves by transection of the olfactory peduncle and was confirmed by their inability to detect meat, urine, feces, anal-gland secretions, and fish emulsion. All operated animals continued to investigate the environment with their noses, to interact normally with other pack members, and to feed at levels which maintained presurgical body weights. No effect was found on reproductive physiology (females: estradiol or progesterone concentrations, ovulation, pregnancy or parturition; males: testosterone, testicular recrudescence or sperm numbers, motility or maturation). One anosmic female became dominant and although she urine-marked with a flexed leg, the rate was lower than typical for dominant females and perhaps contributed to her failure to pair-bond with the dominant male. One anosmic male raised-leg-urinated while competing for pack dominance and when kenneled away from other males. Precopulatory, copulatory, and maternal behavior were observed for one anosmic female and appeared normal. However, neither male that was sexually naive before surgery showed interest in proestrous or estrous females. The possibility that secondary degeneration of brain regions mediating sexual behavior was responsible for the failure of these males to respond was not supported. Not only was the lack of male sexual response the only serious deficit following transection, but the male which was sexually experienced prior to surgery did copulate successfully during his second postoperative breeding season despite continued anosmia. Chemosensory priming from female urine during the protracted proestrous phase, as well as urinary and vaginal odors during estrus, appear to be critical for induction of full sexual potency in sexually naive males. The importance of urine and vaginal secretions in the sexual response of experienced males is uncertain.

  16. Maternal nutrition affects reproductive output and sex allocation in a lizard with environmental sex determination.

    PubMed

    Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2007-03-22

    Life-history traits such as offspring size, number and sex ratio are affected by maternal feeding rates in many kinds of animals, but the consequences of variation in maternal diet quality (rather than quantity) are poorly understood. We manipulated dietary quality of reproducing female lizards (Amphibolurus muricatus; Agamidae), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, to examine strategies of reproductive allocation. Females maintained on a poor-quality diet produced fewer clutches but massively (twofold) larger eggs with lower concentrations of yolk testosterone than did conspecific females given a high-quality diet. Although all eggs were incubated at the same temperature, and yolk steroid hormone levels were not correlated with offspring sex, the nutrient-deprived females produced highly male-biased sex ratios among their offspring. These responses to maternal nutrition generate a link between sex and offspring size, in a direction likely to enhance maternal fitness if large body size enhances reproductive success more in sons than in daughters (as seems plausible, given the mating system of this species). Overall, our results show that sex determination in these animals is more complex, and responsive to a wider range of environmental cues, than that suggested by the classification of 'environmental sex determination'. PMID:17251109

  17. Maternal nutrition affects reproductive output and sex allocation in a lizard with environmental sex determination

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Daniel A; Lovern, Matthew B; Shine, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Life-history traits such as offspring size, number and sex ratio are affected by maternal feeding rates in many kinds of animals, but the consequences of variation in maternal diet quality (rather than quantity) are poorly understood. We manipulated dietary quality of reproducing female lizards (Amphibolurus muricatus; Agamidae), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination, to examine strategies of reproductive allocation. Females maintained on a poor-quality diet produced fewer clutches but massively (twofold) larger eggs with lower concentrations of yolk testosterone than did conspecific females given a high-quality diet. Although all eggs were incubated at the same temperature, and yolk steroid hormone levels were not correlated with offspring sex, the nutrient-deprived females produced highly male-biased sex ratios among their offspring. These responses to maternal nutrition generate a link between sex and offspring size, in a direction likely to enhance maternal fitness if large body size enhances reproductive success more in sons than in daughters (as seems plausible, given the mating system of this species). Overall, our results show that sex determination in these animals is more complex, and responsive to a wider range of environmental cues, than that suggested by the classification of ‘environmental sex determination’. PMID:17251109

  18. Spring phenology does not affect timing of reproduction in the great tit (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Schaper, Sonja V; Rueda, Carolina; Sharp, Peter J; Dawson, Alistair; Visser, Marcel E

    2011-11-01

    Many seasonal breeders adjust the timing of reproduction in response to year-to-year variations in supplementary environmental cues, amongst which ambient temperature is thought to be most influential. However, it is possible that for species such as the great tit (Parus major L.), phenological cues from sprouting vegetation and the consequent abundance of invertebrate prey, although dependent on temperature, may provide supplementary environmental cues per se. This hypothesis was investigated in breeding pairs of great tits kept in outdoor aviaries. In spring, experimental pairs were provided with access to leafing birch branches and caterpillars as a visual food cue, while control pairs were provided with non-leafing branches. Observations were made on the onset of laying and on concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) at regular intervals to monitor changes in reproductive function. The onset of egg laying was not advanced by the presence of leafing branches and caterpillars. LH concentrations increased during the course of the study, but phenological cues did not affect plasma LH levels in females and males. Early spring vegetation, such as the leafing of birch branches, and the appearance of caterpillar prey do not appear to play a significant role in fine-tuning the onset of egg laying in great tits. PMID:21993796

  19. Allopregnanolone as a Mediator of Affective Switching in Reproductive Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Schiller, Crystal Edler; Schmidt, Peter J.; Rubinow, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Reproductive mood disorders, including premenstrual dysphoria (PMD) and postpartum depression (PPD), are characterized by affective dysregulation that occurs during specific reproductive states. The occurrence of illness onset during changes in reproductive endocrine function has generated interest in the role of gonadal steroids in the pathophysiology of reproductive mood disorders, yet the mechanisms by which the changing hormone milieu triggers depression in susceptible women remain poorly understood. Objectives This review focuses on one of the neurosteroid metabolites of progesterone – allopregnanolone (ALLO) – that acutely regulates neuronal function and may mediate affective dysregulation that occurs concomitant with changes in reproductive endocrine function. We describe the role of the ‘neuroactive’ steroids estradiol and progesterone in reproductive endocrine-related mood disorders to highlight the potential mechanisms by which ALLO might contribute to their pathophysiology. Finally, using existing data, we test the hypothesis that changes in ALLO levels may trigger affective dysregulation in susceptible women. Results Although there is no reliable evidence that basal ALLO levels distinguish those with PMD or PPD from those without, existing animal models suggest potential mechanisms by which specific reproductive states may unmask susceptibility to affective dysregulation. Consistent with these models, initially euthymic women with PMD and those with a history of PPD show a negative association between depressive symptoms and circulating ALLO levels following progesterone administration. Conclusions Existing animal models and our own preliminary data suggest that ALLO may play an important role in the pathophysiology of reproductive mood disorders by triggering affective dysregulation in susceptible women. PMID:24846476

  20. Female and Male Moths Display Different Reproductive Behavior when Facing New versus Previous Mates

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qin; Xu, Jin; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient) and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study. PMID:25290195

  1. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Ying; Yu, Jin-Feng; Lu, Qin; Xu, Jin; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient) and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study. PMID:25290195

  2. The effect of R-(-)-deprenyl administration on reproductive parameters of rat males.

    PubMed

    Mihalik, Jozef; Mašlanková, Jana; Solár, Peter; Horváthová, Františka; Hubková, Beáta; Almášiová, Viera; Šoltés, Ján; Švaňa, Martin; Rybárová, Silvia; Hodorová, Ingrid

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of R-(-)-deprenyl administration on the reproductive parameters of rat males. After 30 days of intraperitoneal administration of saline or 0.0025mg/kg (10(-5)mol/l) of R-(-)-deprenyl dissolved in saline, males were mated with females of the same strain. Subsequently, animals were killed by thiopental, and their blood and sperm were collected. We found that epididymis of males exposed to R-(-)-deprenyl had higher sperm count (P<0.05), and females who mated with these males gave birth to a greater number of offspring (P<0.05) compared to control. The blood of experimental animals contained higher levels of testosterone (P<0.05), FSH (P<0.01), and total antioxidants (P<0.01). We did not detect sperm DNA fragmentation in control or in experimental males. Interestingly, round spermatids were often observed inside seminiferous tubules of experimental animals, but obviously without any negative consequences on male fertility. Our findings could be verified on a sample of human male volunteers treated for infertility, because human organism tolerate higher doses of R-(-)-deprenyl, which is a selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase B employed in our experiment and used in the therapy of Parkinson׳s disease, rather well. PMID:25725114

  3. Morphology of the male reproductive duct system of Caiman crocodilus (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Sandra M; Calderón, Martha L; de Pérez, Gloria R; Ramírez Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2004-06-01

    The male reproductive duct system of Caiman crocodilus in different reproductive stages was studied using light and electron microscopy, to determine whether shared morphological features exist between Crocodylia and Aves, in concurrence with the Archosauria hypothesis. The sexual duct system of Caiman crocodilus is constituted of the rete testis, ductuli efferentes, ductuli epididymides, ductus epididymidis, and ductus deferens. The morphology and histochemical properties of these ducts suggest their involvement in seminal fluid production and/or its modification. Three types of non-ciliated cells were identified along the duct system. 1. The noncliated cells of the ductuli efferentes contain electron dense worm-like structures and coated vesicles, both related to absorptive processes, as has been suggested in Aves. 2. The non-ciliated cells of the ductuli epididymides have apical electron dense granules suggesting a secretory role, and 3. The non-ciliated cells of the ductus epididymidis and ductus deferens did not exhibit conspicuous storage of secretory material, but have a prominent rough endoplasmic reticulum content indicating active protein production. The occurrence of abundant secretory granules in the epithelial cells of the distal ductus deferens during non-reproductive stages suggests its participation in the removal of luminal debris when the reproductive season ends. Additional ducts were observed running along the ductus deferens; they shared morphological characteristics with the ductuli epididymides. The maximum diameter and therefore the greatest sperm accumulation of the excurrent ducts were observed during the initial testicular regression. The comparative analysis suggests that the male reproductive system of the Crocodylia exhibits structural characteristics nearer to those of Aves than to Lepidosauria, Testudines, and Mammalia, additional data that support an Aves and Crocodylia sister group relationship. PMID:15255300

  4. Protective effect of melatonin against zonisamide-induced reproductive disorders in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdu, Faiza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Zonisamide (ZNS) is a modern antiepileptic drug (AED) that is distinguished from other AEDs by its unique structure and broad mechanistic profile. The pineal hormone melatonin is involved in the regulation of reproductive function, including the timing of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. The aim of the present work was to study the protective effect of melatonin against the potential suppression impact of ZNS on reproductive activity. Material and methods Ninety adult albino male rats were allocated to several groups treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg BW), ZNS (10, 20 and 50 mg/kg BW) and 10 mg/kg of melatonin plus ZNS (10, 20 or 50 mg/kg BW, respectively). Reproductive hormones (testosterone, LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) levels were measured in animal serum. Sperm abnormalities and DNA fragmentation in testis tissues as well as expression alteration of several reproductive-related genes were analyzed. Results The results revealed that ZNS decreased the levels of serum free testosterone, LH, and FSH and expression of their encoding genes in male rats. In addition, ZNS treatment increased the sperm abnormalities and DNA fragmentation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in testis tissues as well as GABA level in liver tissues. However, melatonin supplementation inhibited the negative symptoms of ZNS in which it increased the levels of reproductive hormones and expression of their encoding genes in the ZNS-treated rats. Moreover, melatonin decreased the sperm abnormalities, DNA fragmentation, iNOS activity and GABA level in ZNS-treated rats. Conclusions The data obtained in this study suggest that melatonin administration confers protection against toxicity inflicted by ZNS, and support the contention that melatonin protection is achieved by its ability as a scavenger for free radicals generated by ZNS. PMID:26170862

  5. Behavioral variation and reproductive success of male baboons (Papio anubis x Papio hamadryas) in a hybrid social group.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Thore J; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Jolly, Clifford J

    2008-02-01

    We take advantage of an array of hybrid baboons (Papio anubis x Papio hamadryas) living in the same social group to explore the causes and consequences of different male mating strategies. Male hamadryas hold one-male units and exhibit a sustained, intense interest in adult females, regardless of the latter's reproductive state. Anubis baboons, by contrast, live in multi-male, multi-female groups where males compete for females only when the latter are estrous. These two taxa interbreed to form a hybrid zone in the Awash National Park, Ethiopia, where previous work has suggested that hybrid males have intermediate and ineffective behavior. Here, we first examine male mating strategies with respect to morphological and genetic measures of ancestry. We found significant relationships between behavioral measures and morphology; males with more hamadryas-like morphology had more hamadryas-like behavior. However, genetic ancestry was not related to behavior, and in both cases intermediates displayed a previously unreported level of behavioral variation. Furthermore, male behavior was unrelated to natal group. Second, we evaluated reproductive success by microsatellite-based paternity testing. The highest reproductive success was found for individuals exhibiting intermediate behaviors. Moreover, over nine years, some genetically and morphologically intermediate males had high reproductive success. We conclude that the behavior of hybrid males is therefore unlikely to be an absolute barrier to admixture in the region. PMID:17724672

  6. Reproductive seasonality and sperm cryopreservation in the male tufted deer (Elaphodus cephalophus).

    PubMed

    Panyaboriban, Saritvich; Singh, Ram P; Songsasen, Nucharin; Padilla, Luis; Brown, Janine; Reed, Dolores; Techakumphu, Mongkol; Pukazhenthi, Budhan

    2016-09-01

    The tufted deer is a small deer, listed as near threatened on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, and there is no information on the fundamental reproductive biology of this species. In this study, we report for the first time, characterization of male reproductive traits and cryopreservation of semen in this species. Males were subjected to electroejaculation during each season (autumn, winter, spring, and summer), and ejaculates were assessed for motility and quality traits. Fecal samples were collected 3 to 5 times weekly for 2 years and analyzed for androgen metabolites using enzyme immunoassay. Ejaculates with greater than 70% motility were cryopreserved using Beltsville extender (BF5F) or Triladyl. Straws were thawed and assessed subjectively as well as swim-up processed to isolate motile spermatozoa for computer-assisted sperm analysis and acrosome integrity at hourly interval. Tufted deer male reproductive and semen traits peaked in autumn. Mean fecal androgen concentrations were highest in the summer compared with baseline values during rest of the year. Sperm motility and acrosome integrity were lower immediately after thawing in both cryodiluents compared with raw ejaculates. Motility characteristics after swim-up were higher in BF5F compared with Triladyl. Four hours after thawing, both percent sperm motility and progression decreased further and were similar between BF5F and Triladyl. However, the proportion of spermatozoa with intact acrosomal membranes was higher in BF5F than Triladyl. Results indicate that tufted deer exhibit seasonal variations in reproductive traits and that BF5F better preserves sperm motility and acrosomal integrity after cryopreservation compared with Triladyl. PMID:27125695

  7. Expression of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the reproductive system of male mice.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Marcin; Chruścicka, Barbara; Lech, Tomasz; Burnat, Grzegorz; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Although the presence of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in the central nervous system is well documented, they have recently been found in peripheral and non-neuronal tissues. In the present study we investigated the expression of group III mGlu receptors in the reproductive system of male mice. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8 (but not mGlu4) receptor transcripts in testes and epididymides from adult mice. In addition, expression of mGlu6 (Grm6) and mGlu8 receptor (Grm8) mRNA was detected in spermatozoa isolated from the vas deferens. The vas deferens was found to contain only mGlu7 receptor (Grm7) mRNA, which was particularly intense in 21-day-old male mice. In penile homogenates, only the mGlu7 receptor signal was detected. Genetic ablation of the mGlu7 receptor in males led to fertility disorders manifested by decreased insemination capability as well as deterioration of sperm parameters, particularly sperm motility, vitality, sperm membrane integrity and morphology, with a simultaneous increase in sperm concentration. These results indicate that constitutively expressed mGlu receptors in the male reproductive system may play an important role in ejaculation and/or erection processes, as well as in the formation and maturation of spermatozoa. PMID:25066043

  8. Infertility among male UK veterans of the 1990-1 Gulf war: reproductive cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Maconochie, Noreen; Doyle, Pat; Carson, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To examine the hypothesis that, theoretically at least, exposure to toxicants of the type present in the Gulf war could affect spermatogenesis, which might be observed as increased levels of infertility. Design Retrospective reproductive cohort analysis. Setting Male UK Gulf war veterans and matched comparison group of non-deployed servicemen, surveyed by postal questionnaire. Participants 42 818 completed questionnaires were returned, representing response rates of 53% for Gulf veterans and 42% for non-Gulf veterans; 10 465 Gulf veterans and 7376 non-Gulf veterans reported fathering or trying to father pregnancies after the Gulf war. Main outcome measures Failure to achieve conceptions (type I infertility) or live births (type II infertility) after the Gulf war, having tried for at least a year and consulted a doctor; time to conception among pregnancies fathered by men not reporting fertility problems. Results Risk of reported infertility was higher among Gulf war veterans than among non-Gulf veterans (odds ratio for type I infertility 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.89; type II 1.50, 1.18 to 1.89). This small effect was constant over time since the war and was observed whether or not the men had fathered pregnancies before the war. Results were similar when analyses were restricted to clinically confirmed diagnoses. Pregnancies fathered by Gulf veterans not reporting fertility problems also took longer to conceive (odds ratio for > 1 year 1.18, 1.04 to 1.34). Conclusions We found some evidence of an association between Gulf war service and reported infertility. Pregnancies fathered by Gulf veterans with no fertility problems also reportedly took longer to conceive. PMID:15253919

  9. NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: II. EFFECTS ON THE MALE PUBERTY AND THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NEONATAL LOW- AND HIGH-DOSE EXPOSURE TO ESTRADIOL BENZOATE IN THE MALE RAT: II. EFFECTS ON MALE PUBERTY AND THE REPRODUCTIVE TRACT. Oliver Putz, Christian B. Schwartz, Gerald A. LeBlanc, Ralph L. Cooper, Gail S. Prins

    ABSTRACT
    Environmental contaminants with estrogen...

  10. Effects of nickel exposure on testicular function, oxidative stress, and male reproductive dysfunction in Spodoptera litura Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongxia; Wu, Wenjing; Guo, Jixing; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Fengze; Zheng, Lingyan; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-01

    Nickel is an environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of nickel exposure on Spodoptera litura Fabricius were investigated by feeding larvae artificial diets containing different doses of nickel for three generations. Damage to testes and effects on male reproduction were examined. The amount of nickel that accumulated in the testes of newly emerged males increased as the nickel dose in the diet increased during a single generation. Nickel exposure increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased the amount of glutathione in treatment groups compared with the control. The activity levels of the antioxidant response indices superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the testes showed variable dose-dependent relationships with nickel doses and duration of exposure. Nickel doses also disrupted the development of the testes by decreasing the weight and volume of testes and the number of eupyrene and apyrene sperm bundles in treatment groups compared with the control. When the nickel-treated males mated with normal females, fecundity was inhibited by the higher nickel doses in all three generations, but fecundity significantly increased during the second generation, which received 5 mg kg(-1) nickel. Hatching rates in all treatments significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the three successive generations. The effects of nickel on these parameters correlated with the duration of nickel exposure. Results indicate assays of testes may be a novel and efficient means of evaluating the effects of heavy metals on phytophagous insects in an agricultural environment. PMID:26807937

  11. FEMALE AND MALE GENETIC EFFECTS ON OFFSPRING PATERNITY: ADDITIVE GENETIC (CO)VARIANCES IN FEMALE EXTRA-PAIR REPRODUCTION AND MALE PATERNITY SUCCESS IN SONG SPARROWS (MELOSPIZA MELODIA)

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Jane M; Arcese, Peter; Keller, Lukas F; Losdat, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing evolution of polyandry, and consequent extra-pair reproduction in socially monogamous systems, is hypothesized to be facilitated by indirect selection stemming from cross-sex genetic covariances with components of male fitness. Specifically, polyandry is hypothesized to create positive genetic covariance with male paternity success due to inevitable assortative reproduction, driving ongoing coevolution. However, it remains unclear whether such covariances could or do emerge within complex polyandrous systems. First, we illustrate that genetic covariances between female extra-pair reproduction and male within-pair paternity success might be constrained in socially monogamous systems where female and male additive genetic effects can have opposing impacts on the paternity of jointly reared offspring. Second, we demonstrate nonzero additive genetic variance in female liability for extra-pair reproduction and male liability for within-pair paternity success, modeled as direct and associative genetic effects on offspring paternity, respectively, in free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). The posterior mean additive genetic covariance between these liabilities was slightly positive, but the credible interval was wide and overlapped zero. Therefore, although substantial total additive genetic variance exists, the hypothesis that ongoing evolution of female extra-pair reproduction is facilitated by genetic covariance with male within-pair paternity success cannot yet be definitively supported or rejected either conceptually or empirically. PMID:24724612

  12. EFFECTS OF HEAT AND BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID ON MALE REPRODUCTION IN HEAT SHOCK FACTOR-1 GENE KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of heat and bromochloroacetic acid on male reproduction in heat shock factor-1 gene knockout mice.
    Luft JC1, IJ Benjamin2, JB Garges1 and DJ Dix1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, 27711 and 2Dept of Internal Medicine, Univ.of Texas Southwestern Med C...

  13. Histology and ultrastructure of male reproductive system of the Indian Spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Decapoda: Palinuridae).

    PubMed

    Pillai, S Lakshmi; Nasser, M; Sanil, N K

    2014-06-01

    The spiny lobster Panulirus homarus, distributed along the Southeast and Southwest coasts of India, is an important commercial species having mariculture potential. Despite its importance, the structural and ultrastructure features of male gonads from this species have received scarce attention. Hence this study was aimed to describe the male reproductive tract of the species, using standard histological and electron microscopy techniques. Gonads from 94 specimens of P. homarus ranging in carapace length 37mm-92mm from Vizhinjam (Southwest coast of India.) were obtained and processed for the study (Histology-70 numbers & ultrastructure-24 numbers). The male reproductive system consists of paired testis and vas deferens located in the cephalo-thoracic region. Macroscopically, the reproductive tract was observed in lobsters > 35mm carapace length. In immature testis, spermatogonia were seen which measured 6.9-13.8 microm in diameter and in the mature testis primary (5.4-5.9 microm) and secondary spermatocytes (2.8-3 microm) and spermatids (2.2-2.4 microm) were present. Each vas deferens consists of proximal and distal portions. The spermatophoric mass begins formation in the proximal vas deferens. In the distal vas deferens the spermatophoric mass containing the spermatozoa are arranged in packets towards the periphery by the gelatinous matrix produced by the typhlosole. Ultrastructurally, the spermatogonia have lamina, nucleus and mitochondria like bodies, the primary spermatocytes have nucleus, dense chromatin and vacuolated cytoplasm and the spermatids have mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and centrioles. The endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope in the spermatids form the acrosome. The radial arms with microtubules are formed in association with the dense endoplasmic reticulum, near the nucleus. The sperm has a spherical structure with the nucleus, lamellar region, spikes and acrosome. This is the first comprehensive report of the structure of the

  14. Androgen Receptors Expression in Pituitary of Male Viscacha in relation to Growth and Reproductive Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Filippa, Verónica Palmira; Rosales, Gabriela Judith; Cruceño, Albana Andrea Marina; Mohamed, Fabian Heber

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the androgen receptors (AR) expression in pituitary pars distalis (PD) of male viscachas in relation to growth and reproductive cycle. AR were detected by immunocytochemistry and quantified by image analysis. Pituitary glands from fetus, immature, prepubertal, and adult viscachas during their reproductive cycle were used. In the fetal PD, the immunoreactivity (ir) was mainly cytoplasmic. In immature and prepubertal animals, AR-ir was cytoplasmic (ARc-ir) and nuclear (ARn-ir) in medial region. In adult animals, ARn-ir cells were numerous at caudal end. AR regionalization varied between the PD zones in relation to growth. In immature animals, the ARn-ir increased whereas the cytoplasmic expression decreased in relation to the fetal glands. The percentage of ARc-ir cells increased in prepubertal animals whereas the nuclear AR expression was predominant in adult viscachas. The AR expression changed in adults, showing minimum percentage in the gonadal regression period. The variation of nuclear AR expression was directly related with testosterone concentration. These results demonstrated variations in the immunostaining pattern, regionalization, and number of AR-ir cells throughout development, growth, and reproductive cycle, suggesting the involvement of AR in the regulation of the pituitary activity of male viscacha. PMID:25945090

  15. Alternative male reproductive tactics drive asymmetrical hybridization between sunfishes (Lepomis spp.).

    PubMed

    Garner, Shawn R; Neff, Bryan D

    2013-01-01

    The potential role of alternative reproductive tactics in circumventing premating isolating mechanisms and driving hybridization between species has long been recognized, but to date there is little empirical support from natural systems. Hybridization occurs between bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) and it is known to be asymmetrical (male bluegill × female pumpkinseed). Here, we test whether this pattern is driven by a recognition failure by pumpkinseed females or by an alternative cuckolder reproductive tactic in bluegill males. Using genetic parentage data, we found that bluegill cuckolders fathered 24.9% of the larvae in bluegill nests, but no evidence that pumpkinseed females spawned in bluegill nests. Pumpkinseed cuckolders fathered 8.7% of the larvae in pumpkinseed nests, whereas bluegill cuckolders fathered 13.6% of the larvae in those nests. Bluegill cuckolders thus frequently spawn in pumpkinseed nests and are responsible for the asymmetrical hybridization between the species. We discuss the evolutionary consequences of interactions between bluegill and pumpkinseed and the role of alternative reproductive tactics in adaptation and introgression. PMID:24227044

  16. Effects of bisphenol-A on male reproductive success in adult Kadaknath chicken.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ram P; Shafeeque, Chathathayil M; Sharma, Sanjeev K; Singh, Renu; Kannan, Maharajan; Sastry, Kochiganti V H; Raghunandanan, Sajith; Mohan, Jag; Azeez, Parappurath A

    2016-06-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) adversely affects human and animal reproductive success in many ways, but this information is scant on birds. In the present study, we investigated the reproductive toxicity of BPA in adult Kadaknath chicken using two BPA dosages orally (1 or 5 mg/kg body weight) for seven weeks. In order to assess BPA toxicity, sperm functions, fertilizing ability, serum testosterone concentration and testis histopathology were measured in treated and control chickens. The semen volume was highest in birds exposed to 1mg/kg body weight BPA compared to other groups. 5 mg/kg body weight BPA reduced sperm concentration significantly more than other treatment and controls. However, overall fertility and testis histology were unaffected. These results indicate that BPA adversely affects sperm characteristics in adult kadaknath chicken without affecting fertilization potential. PMID:26895245

  17. Environmental exposure to metals and male reproductive hormones: Circulating testosterone is inversely associated with blood molybdenum

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Rossano, Mary G.; Protas, Bridget; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Diamond, Michael P.; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective To explore associations between exposure to metals and male reproductive hormone levels. Design Cross-sectional epidemiology study with adjustment for potential confounders. Setting Metal concentrations and reproductive hormone levels were measured in blood samples collected from 219 men. Patients: Men recruited through two Michigan, USA infertility clinics. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Serum FSH, LH, inhibin B, testosterone, and SHBG. Results Cadmium, copper and lead were all significantly or suggestively positively associated with testosterone when modeled individually (p-values = 0.1, 0.03, and 0.07, respectively), findings that are consistent with limited previous human and animal studies. Conversely, molybdenum was associated with reduced testosterone (p-value for trend = 0.001). A significant inverse trend between molybdenum and testosterone remained when additionally considering other metals in the model, where a positive association between testosterone and zinc was also found. Finally, in exploratory analysis there was evidence for an interaction between molybdenum and zinc, where high molybdenum was associated with a 37% reduction in testosterone (relative to the population median level) among men with low zinc. Conclusions While reductions in testosterone and reproductive toxicity following molybdenum exposure have been previously demonstrated in animal studies, more research is needed to determine whether molybdenum poses a risk to human reproductive health. PMID:18990371

  18. Reproductive traits and number of matings in males and females of Cerambyx welensii (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) an emergent pest of oaks.

    PubMed

    Torres-Vila, L M; Mendiola-Diaz, F J; Conejo-Rodríguez, Y; Sánchez-González, Á

    2016-06-01

    The longhorn beetle Cerambyx welensii is an emerging pest involved in oak decline episodes, whose damage is increasingly reported in dehesa open woodlands. Knowledge of the reproductive biology of C. welensii is a crucial goal due to its new pest status. In this study, we assess the reproductive traits of both sexes in the laboratory (25°C and 60% relative humidity ). In females, body length was 44.9 ± 0.9 mm (mean ± SE), fecundity 132 ± 12 eggs, fertility 70 ± 1 %, longevity 70 ± 3 days, preoviposition period 2 ± 0.2 days, oviposition period 44 ± 3 days and postoviposition period 19 ± 3 days. Fecundity was positively correlated with female size, longevity and oviposition period. Daily fecundity was 3.0 ± 0.2 eggs/day and showed a fluctuating synovigenic pattern with a slight decreasing trend over time. Egg length was 4.24 ± 0.01 mm and egg volume 8.14 ± 0.04 mm3. Egg size was correlated with female size but the relative size of eggs was larger in smaller females. Incubation time was 13.9 ± 0.1 days and hatching did not depend on egg size. Neonate size was positively correlated with egg length. Females were polyandrous (more than 20 lifetime matings) but multiple mating did not increase fecundity, fertility or longevity. In males, body length was 43.7 ± 0.6 mm and longevity 52 ± 3 days. Unlike with females, longevity was positively correlated with male size. Males were polygynous (up to 30 lifetime matings) but mating history did not affect male longevity. Rather to the contrary, long-lived males mated more times because they had more mating chances. Lastly, C. welensii reproductive traits were compared with those other Cerambycidae species and discussed from an adaptive perspective. Our data will be useful to improve management of C. welensii in order to prevent or mitigate its impact in dehesa woodlands and other oak forests. PMID:26490198

  19. Does male reproductive effort increase with age? Courtship in fiddler crabs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Catherine L; Booksmythe, Isobel; Jennions, Michael D; Backwell, Patricia R Y

    2013-04-23

    Theory suggests that reproductive effort generally increases with age, but life-history models indicate that other outcomes are possible. Empirical data are needed to quantify variation in actual age-dependence. Data are readily attainable for females (e.g. clutch per egg size), but not for males (e.g. courtship effort). To quantify male effort one must: (i) experimentally control for potential age-dependent changes in female presence; and, crucially, (ii) distinguish between the likelihood of courtship being initiated, the display rate, and the total time invested in courting before stopping ('courtship persistence'). We provide a simple experimental protocol, suitable for many taxa, to illustrate how to obtain this information. We studied courtship waving by male fiddler crabs, Uca annulipes. Given indeterminate growth, body size is correlated with age. Larger males were more likely to wave at females and waved more persistently. They did not, however, have a higher courtship rate (waves per second). A known female preference for males with higher display rates explains why, once waving is initiated, all males display at the same rate. PMID:23325736

  20. Does male reproductive effort increase with age? Courtship in fiddler crabs

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Catherine L.; Booksmythe, Isobel; Jennions, Michael D.; Backwell, Patricia R. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that reproductive effort generally increases with age, but life-history models indicate that other outcomes are possible. Empirical data are needed to quantify variation in actual age-dependence. Data are readily attainable for females (e.g. clutch per egg size), but not for males (e.g. courtship effort). To quantify male effort one must: (i) experimentally control for potential age-dependent changes in female presence; and, crucially, (ii) distinguish between the likelihood of courtship being initiated, the display rate, and the total time invested in courting before stopping (‘courtship persistence’). We provide a simple experimental protocol, suitable for many taxa, to illustrate how to obtain this information. We studied courtship waving by male fiddler crabs, Uca annulipes. Given indeterminate growth, body size is correlated with age. Larger males were more likely to wave at females and waved more persistently. They did not, however, have a higher courtship rate (waves per second). A known female preference for males with higher display rates explains why, once waving is initiated, all males display at the same rate. PMID:23325736

  1. Impact of 900 MHz electromagnetic field exposure on main male reproductive hormone levels: a Rattus norvegicus model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Saeb, Mehdi; Nazifi, Saeed; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Jelodar, Gholamali; Saeb, Saeedeh

    2014-09-01

    This work analyzes the effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure on the reproductive system of male rats, assessed by measuring circulating levels of FSH, LH, inhibin B, activin B, prolactin, and testosterone. Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180 ± 10 g) were exposed to 900 MHz RF-EMF in four equal separated groups. The duration of exposure was 1, 2, and 4 h/day over a period of 30 days and sham-exposed animals were kept under the same environmental conditions as the exposed group except with no RF-EMF exposure. Before the exposure, at 15 and 30 days of exposure, determination of the abovementioned hormone levels was performed using ELISA. At the end of the experiment, FSH and LH values of the long time exposure (LTE) group were significantly higher than the sham-exposed group ( p < 0.05). Serum activin B and prolactin in the LTE group showed significant increase and inhibin B showed significant decrease than sham and short time exposed (STE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure ( p < 0.05). Also, a significant decrease in serum testosterone levels in the LTE group was found compared to short and moderate time exposed (MTE) groups after 30 days RF-EMF exposure ( p < 0.05). Results suggest that reproductive hormone levels are disturbed as a result of RF-EMF exposure and it may possibly affect reproductive functions. However, testosterone and inhibin B concentrations as a fertility marker and spermatogenesis were decreased significantly.

  2. A Combined Approach to Heat Stress Effect on Male Fertility in Nasonia vitripennis: From the Physiological Consequences on Spermatogenesis to the Reproductive Adjustment of Females Mated with Stressed Males

    PubMed Central

    Chirault, Marlène; Lucas, Christophe; Goubault, Marlène; Chevrier, Claude

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several studies have shown a decline in reproductive success in males in both humans and wildlife. Research on male fertility has largely focused on vertebrates, although invertebrates constitute the vast majority of terrestrial biodiversity. The reduction of their reproductive capacities due to environmental stresses can have strong negative ecological impacts, and also dramatic consequences on world food production if it affects the reproductive success of biological control agents, such as parasitic wasps used to control crop pests. Here Nasonia vitripennis, a parasitic wasp of various fly species, was studied to test the effects of 24h-heat stress applied during the first pupal stage on male fertility. Results showed that only primary spermatocytes were present at the first pupal stage in all cysts of the testes. Heat stress caused a delay in spermatogenesis during development and a significant decrease in sperm stock at emergence. Females mated with these heat-stressed males showed a reduce sperm count stored in their spermatheca. Females did not appear to distinguish heat-stressed from control males and did not remate more frequently to compensate for the lack of sperm transferred. As a result, females mated with heat-stressed males produced a suboptimal lifetime offspring sex ratio compared to those mated with control males. This could further impact the population dynamics of this species. N. vitripennis appears to be an interesting biological model to study the mechanisms of subfertility and its consequence on female reproductive strategies and provides new research perspectives in both invertebrates and vertebrates. PMID:25807005

  3. Differential reproductive success and body dimensions in Kavango males from urban and rural areas in northern Namibia.

    PubMed

    Kirchengast, S; Winkler, E M

    1995-04-01

    We investigated differential sex-biased parental investment in relation to social status in 59 Kavango males from Rundu, the administrative and commercial center of the Kavango district in northern Namibia, and in 78 Kavango males from the rural areas around Rundu. Twenty-three body dimensions were used as indicators for the probands' social rank in the groups. The males from Rundu surpassed the males from rural areas in nearly all anthropometric features, but the urban males had significantly less offspring, especially fewer dead offspring. The association between the anthropometric variables and the number and sex of the offspring showed marked differences between the two proband groups. Although in the rural areas robust males had more children than smaller and leaner males, the taller and more robust males from Rundu had fewer offspring than smaller and more slender males. These results indicate that males from rural areas and males from urban areas follow different reproductive strategies. PMID:7729830

  4. Re-feeding food-deprived male meadow voles affects the sperm allocation of their rival males

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Ashlee A.; delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    An individual’s nutritional status affects the manner in which same- and opposite-sex conspecifics respond to that individual, which may affect their fitness. Male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm allocation if they encounter the scent mark of an unfamiliar male that is not nutritionally challenged. If, however, the scent mark comes from a male that has been food deprived for 24 hours, stud male voles do not increase their sperm allocation. Food deprived males may be viewed as being lower quality and a reduced risk of sperm competition by rival males. We hypothesized that stud males in promiscuous mating systems tailor their sperm allocations depending on whether rival males have been food deprived and then re-fed. We predicted that newly re-fed males will be considered a strong risk of sperm competition because of the potentially high fitness and survival costs associated with food deprivation in males, and that they will cause stud males to increase their sperm allocation. Our results, however, showed that the recovery period from 24 hours of food deprivation was a relatively slow process. It took between 96 hours and 336 hours of re-feeding male scent donors that were food deprived for 24 hours to induce stud males to increase their sperm allocation to levels comparable to when scent donors were not food deprived. Stud male voles may be conserving the amount of sperm allocated until the male scent donors have recovered from food deprivation and subsequent re-feeding. PMID:23185098

  5. Laying date and polygyny as determinants of annual reproductive success in male collared flycatchers ( Ficedula albicollis): a long-term study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herényi, Márton; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Hargitai, Rita; Hegyi, Gergely; Rosivall, Balázs; Szöllősi, Eszter; Török, János

    2014-04-01

    Annual reproductive success (ARS) is one of the main components of lifetime reproductive success, a reliable measure of individual fitness. Previous studies often dealt with ARS and variables potentially affecting it. Among them, long-term studies that consider multiple factors at the same time are particularly important in understanding the adaptive value of different phenotypes. Here, we used an 18-year dataset to quantify the ARS of male collared flycatchers ( Ficedula albicollis) on the basis of recruited offspring. We simultaneously assessed the effect of start of breeding, age, polygyny, body size and the expression of forehead patch (a sexually selected trait). The success of early breeding individuals was appreciably higher than late birds; however, breeding too early was also disadvantaged, and males that bred around the yearly median breeding date had the highest ARS. Polygynous males were more successful in years with good food supply, while in years with low food availability, they did not produce more recruits than monogamous males. The age of males, their forehead patch size and body size did not affect the number of recruits. Our findings support the importance of breeding date and suggest stabilizing selection on it in the long term. We also show that polygyny is not always advantageous for males, and its fitness pay-off may depend on environmental quality.

  6. Metabolomics reveals metabolic changes in male reproductive cells exposed to thirdhand smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Bo; Chen, Minjian; Yao, Mengmeng; Ji, Xiaoli; Mao, Zhilei; Tang, Wei; Qiao, Shanlei; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Mao, Jian-Hua; Hang, Bo; Xia, Yankai

    2015-10-22

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) is a new term for the toxins in cigarette smoke that linger in the environment long after the cigarettes are extinguished. The effects of THS exposure on male reproduction have not yet been studied. In this study, metabolic changes in male germ cell lines (GC-2 and TM-4) were analyzed after THS treatment for 24 h. THS-loaded chromatography paper samples were generated in a laboratory chamber system and extracted in DMEM. At a paper: DMEM ratio of 50 μg/ml, cell viability in both cell lines was normal, as measured by the MTT assay and markers of cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis and ROS production were normal as measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Metabolomic analysis was performed on methanol extracts of GC-2 and TM-4 cells. Furthermore, glutathione metabolism in GC-2 cells, and nucleic acid and ammonia metabolism in TM-4 cells, was changed significantly by THS treatment. RT-PCR analyses of mRNA for enzyme genes Gss and Ggt in GC-2 cells, and TK, SMS and Glna in TM-4 cells reinforced these findings, showing changes in the levels of enzymes involved in the relevant pathways. In conclusion, exposure to THS at very low concentrations caused distinct metabolic changes in two different types of male reproductive cell lines.

  7. Crocin Improves Damage Induced by Nicotine on A Number of Reproductive Parameters in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Khazaei, Mozafar; Jalili, Cyrus; Keivan, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Background Crocin, a carotenoid isolated from Crocus sativus L. (saffron), is a pharmacologically active component of saffron. Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility in males through induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of crocin on reproductive parameter damages in male mice exposed to nicotine. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided 48 mice into 8 groups (n=6 per group): control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg)+nicotine (2.5 mg/kg). Mice received once daily intraperitoneal injections of crocin, nicotine and crocin+nicotine for 4 weeks. Sperm parameters (count, motility, and viability), testis weight, seminiferous tube diameters, testosterone, and serum nitric oxide levels were analyzed and compared. Results Nicotine administration significantly decreased testosterone level; sperm count, viability, and motility; testis weight and seminiferous tubule diameters compared to the control group (P<0.05). However, increasing the dose of crocin in the crocin and crocin+nicotine groups significantly boosted sperm motility and viability; seminiferous tubule diameters; testis weight; and testosterone levels in all groups compared to the nicotine group (P<0.05). Conclusion Crocin improves nicotine-induced adverse effects on reproductive parameters in male mice. PMID:27123203

  8. Metabolomics reveals metabolic changes in male reproductive cells exposed to thirdhand smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bo; Chen, Minjian; Yao, Mengmeng; Ji, Xiaoli; Mao, Zhilei; Tang, Wei; Qiao, Shanlei; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Mao, Jian-Hua; Hang, Bo; Xia, Yankai

    2015-10-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) is a new term for the toxins in cigarette smoke that linger in the environment long after the cigarettes are extinguished. The effects of THS exposure on male reproduction have not yet been studied. In this study, metabolic changes in male germ cell lines (GC-2 and TM-4) were analyzed after THS treatment for 24 h. THS-loaded chromatography paper samples were generated in a laboratory chamber system and extracted in DMEM. At a paper: DMEM ratio of 50 μg/ml, cell viability in both cell lines was normal, as measured by the MTT assay and markers of cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis and ROS production were normal as measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Metabolomic analysis was performed on methanol extracts of GC-2 and TM-4 cells. Glutathione metabolism in GC-2 cells, and nucleic acid and ammonia metabolism in TM-4 cells, was changed significantly by THS treatment. RT-PCR analyses of mRNA for enzyme genes Gss and Ggt in GC-2 cells, and TK, SMS and Glna in TM-4 cells reinforced these findings, showing changes in the levels of enzymes involved in the relevant pathways. In conclusion, exposure to THS at very low concentrations caused distinct metabolic changes in two different types of male reproductive cell lines.

  9. Low dose 4-MBC effect on neuroendocrine regulation of reproductive axis in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Carou, Maria E; Ponzo, Osvaldo J; Cardozo Gutierrez, Romina P; Szwarcfarb, Berta; Deguiz, Maria L; Reynoso, Roxana; Carbone, Silvia; Moguilevsky, Jaime A; Scacchi, Pablo

    2008-09-01

    4-Methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) is an ultraviolet absorbent. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of 4-MBC low-dose exposure on the neuroendocrine reproductive regulation in male rats. Wistar male adult rats were injected sc. with 4-MBC during 5 days with a dose of 2 and 10mg/kg or during 2 days with a dose of 2 and 20mg/kg. In all rats serum prolactin, LH and FSH concentration were assayed. The hypothalamus of rats injected during 2 days were also dissected to study GnRH release. Rats that received 2 and 10mg/kg of 4-MBC during 5 days showed a decrease in the LH and FSH serum concentration. In rats injected during 2 days, serum LH decreased with 2 and 20mg/kg and FSH decreased with 2mg/kg of 4-MBC. In vitro hypothalamic GnRH release also decreased in these animals. These results show that low doses of 4-MBC inhibit the reproductive axis in adult male rats. PMID:21783915

  10. Effect of 17β-trenbolone on male and female reproduction in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henry, Paula F.P.; Akuffo, Valorie G.; Chen, Yu; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Sprague, Daniel T.; Bakst, Murray R.

    2012-01-01

    The anabolic steroid 17β trenbolone (17β-TB), a known endocrine disrupting chemical, may influence reproductive functions in avian wildlife. We evaluated the effects of dietary exposure to 17β-TB at 5 and 20 ppm on reproductive functional endpoints in Japanese quail during and after sexual maturation. In the male, 5 and 20 ppm treatments revealed no differences in body and testes weight, testes histology, plasma testosterone concentrations, or size and weight of the foam glands. However, the onset of foam production was significantly earlier (days of age) in the 20 ppm males. In females, dietary 17β-TB at 20 ppm caused a reduction in the number of maturing yellow yolk follicles and overall egg production. Plasma testosterone concentrations were reduced compared to controls. Histology of the oviductal sperm storage tubules was normal in all treatments. The number of sperm holes, sites on the perivitelline layer (PVL) where sperm bound and hydrolyzed a path through the PVL, was significantly greater in the 10th egg laid compared to the 1st egg laid in the 20 ppm treatment. Potential effects, albeit transient, on endpoints associated with male maturation warrant further investigation into the sensitivity of these measures in the event of embryonic and/or trans-generational exposure to 17β-TB.

  11. Inferred Paternity and Male Reproductive Success in a Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Population.

    PubMed

    Ford, Michael J; Hanson, M Bradley; Hempelmann, Jennifer A; Ayres, Katherine L; Emmons, Candice K; Schorr, Gregory S; Baird, Robin W; Balcomb, Kenneth C; Wasser, Samuel K; Parsons, Kim M; Balcomb-Bartok, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    We used data from 78 individuals at 26 microsatellite loci to infer parental and sibling relationships within a community of fish-eating ("resident") eastern North Pacific killer whales (Orcinus orca). Paternity analysis involving 15 mother/calf pairs and 8 potential fathers and whole-pedigree analysis of the entire sample produced consistent results. The variance in male reproductive success was greater than expected by chance and similar to that of other aquatic mammals. Although the number of confirmed paternities was small, reproductive success appeared to increase with male age and size. We found no evidence that males from outside this small population sired any of the sampled individuals. In contrast to previous results in a different population, many offspring were the result of matings within the same "pod" (long-term social group). Despite this pattern of breeding within social groups, we found no evidence of offspring produced by matings between close relatives, and the average internal relatedness of individuals was significantly less than expected if mating were random. The population's estimated effective size was <30 or about 1/3 of the current census size. Patterns of allele frequency variation were consistent with a population bottleneck. PMID:21757487

  12. Metabolomics reveals metabolic changes in male reproductive cells exposed to thirdhand smoke

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bo; Chen, Minjian; Yao, Mengmeng; Ji, Xiaoli; Mao, Zhilei; Tang, Wei; Qiao, Shanlei; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Mao, Jian-Hua; Hang, Bo; Xia, Yankai

    2015-01-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) is a new term for the toxins in cigarette smoke that linger in the environment long after the cigarettes are extinguished. The effects of THS exposure on male reproduction have not yet been studied. In this study, metabolic changes in male germ cell lines (GC-2 and TM-4) were analyzed after THS treatment for 24 h. THS-loaded chromatography paper samples were generated in a laboratory chamber system and extracted in DMEM. At a paper: DMEM ratio of 50 μg/ml, cell viability in both cell lines was normal, as measured by the MTT assay and markers of cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis and ROS production were normal as measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Metabolomic analysis was performed on methanol extracts of GC-2 and TM-4 cells. Glutathione metabolism in GC-2 cells, and nucleic acid and ammonia metabolism in TM-4 cells, was changed significantly by THS treatment. RT-PCR analyses of mRNA for enzyme genes Gss and Ggt in GC-2 cells, and TK, SMS and Glna in TM-4 cells reinforced these findings, showing changes in the levels of enzymes involved in the relevant pathways. In conclusion, exposure to THS at very low concentrations caused distinct metabolic changes in two different types of male reproductive cell lines. PMID:26489853

  13. Metabolomics reveals metabolic changes in male reproductive cells exposed to thirdhand smoke

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, Bo; Chen, Minjian; Yao, Mengmeng; Ji, Xiaoli; Mao, Zhilei; Tang, Wei; Qiao, Shanlei; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Mao, Jian-Hua; Hang, Bo; et al

    2015-10-22

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) is a new term for the toxins in cigarette smoke that linger in the environment long after the cigarettes are extinguished. The effects of THS exposure on male reproduction have not yet been studied. In this study, metabolic changes in male germ cell lines (GC-2 and TM-4) were analyzed after THS treatment for 24 h. THS-loaded chromatography paper samples were generated in a laboratory chamber system and extracted in DMEM. At a paper: DMEM ratio of 50 μg/ml, cell viability in both cell lines was normal, as measured by the MTT assay and markers of cytotoxicity, cellmore » cycle, apoptosis and ROS production were normal as measured by quantitative immunofluorescence. Metabolomic analysis was performed on methanol extracts of GC-2 and TM-4 cells. Furthermore, glutathione metabolism in GC-2 cells, and nucleic acid and ammonia metabolism in TM-4 cells, was changed significantly by THS treatment. RT-PCR analyses of mRNA for enzyme genes Gss and Ggt in GC-2 cells, and TK, SMS and Glna in TM-4 cells reinforced these findings, showing changes in the levels of enzymes involved in the relevant pathways. In conclusion, exposure to THS at very low concentrations caused distinct metabolic changes in two different types of male reproductive cell lines.« less

  14. Antiperoxidative Activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum Leaf Extract in Reproductive Organs of Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Akomolafe, Seun Funmilola; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Afolabi Akintunde; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg.) Hutch. & Dalz is one of the many medicinal plants used in folklore as male fertility enhancers. This research was aimed at evaluating the anti-peroxidative activity of the leaves of this plant by determining their capacity to reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) level in reproductive organs and accessory glands of rats. Adult male rats were administered orally with the aqueous leaf extract from T. conophorum at 50, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 21 consecutive days while clomiphene citrate (1.04 mg/kg body weight), a fertility drug was used as standard. The results of the study indicated that there was increase in relative organ weight, body weight, mean total food and water consumed by the treated groups. Testicular MDA level was highly significantly different from that of the control (p < 0.0001) although a tentatively decreased MDA level was observed. However, MDA levels in the reproductive accessory glands, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland were insignificantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of controls. The highest percentage decrease of MDA level (66.35, 42.68, 62.50 and 63.36%) was observed at the highest concentration of the extract (1000 mg/kg) in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland respectively. These values were two-fold greater than the values obtained for the standard drug. Interestingly, the treatment of rats with the extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the levels of GSH, vitamin C and total protein. Collectively, the results suggest that the extract from T. conophorum leaves had greater capacity to reduce lipid peroxidation in reproductive organs and accessory glands and thus, this plant may be useful in the treatment/management of reproductive cellular damage involving reactive oxygen species. PMID:26064173

  15. Peripheral and Central Mechanisms Involved in the Hormonal Control of Male and Female Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, L M; Bentley, G E; Calandra, R S; Paredes, A H; Tesone, M; Wu, T J; Micevych, P E

    2016-07-01

    Reproduction involves the integration of hormonal signals acting across multiple systems to generate a synchronised physiological output. A critical component of reproduction is the luteinising hormone (LH) surge, which is mediated by oestradiol (E2 ) and neuroprogesterone interacting to stimulate kisspeptin release in the rostral periventricular nucleus of the third ventricle in rats. Recent evidence indicates the involvement of both classical and membrane E2 and progesterone signalling in this pathway. A metabolite of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH-(1-5), has been shown to stimulate GnRH expression and secretion, and has a role in the regulation of lordosis. Additionally, gonadotrophin release-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) projects to and influences the activity of GnRH neurones in birds. Stress-induced changes in GnIH have been shown to alter breeding behaviour in birds, demonstrating another mechanism for the molecular control of reproduction. Peripherally, paracrine and autocrine actions within the gonad have been suggested as therapeutic targets for infertility in both males and females. Dysfunction of testicular prostaglandin synthesis is a possible cause of idiopathic male infertility. Indeed, local production of melatonin and corticotrophin-releasing hormone could influence spermatogenesis via immune pathways in the gonad. In females, vascular endothelial growth factor A has been implicated in an angiogenic process that mediates development of the corpus luteum and thus fertility via the Notch signalling pathway. Age-induced decreases in fertility involve ovarian kisspeptin and its regulation of ovarian sympathetic innervation. Finally, morphological changes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus influence female sexual receptivity in rats. The processes mediating these morphological changes have been shown to involve the rapid effects of E2 controlling synaptogenesis in this hypothalamic nucleus. In summary, this review highlights new

  16. Antiperoxidative Activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum Leaf Extract in Reproductive Organs of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akomolafe, Seun Funmilola; Akindahunsi, Afolabi Akintunde; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg.) Hutch. & Dalz is one of the many medicinal plants used in folklore as male fertility enhancers. This research was aimed at evaluating the anti-peroxidative activity of the leaves of this plant by determining their capacity to reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) level in reproductive organs and accessory glands of rats. Adult male rats were administered orally with the aqueous leaf extract from T. conophorum at 50, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 21 consecutive days while clomiphene citrate (1.04 mg/kg body weight), a fertility drug was used as standard. The results of the study indicated that there was increase in relative organ weight, body weight, mean total food and water consumed by the treated groups. Testicular MDA level was highly significantly different from that of the control (p < 0.0001) although a tentatively decreased MDA level was observed. However, MDA levels in the reproductive accessory glands, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland were insignificantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of controls. The highest percentage decrease of MDA level (66.35, 42.68, 62.50 and 63.36%) was observed at the highest concentration of the extract (1000 mg/kg) in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland respectively. These values were two-fold greater than the values obtained for the standard drug. Interestingly, the treatment of rats with the extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the levels of GSH, vitamin C and total protein. Collectively, the results suggest that the extract from T. conophorum leaves had greater capacity to reduce lipid peroxidation in reproductive organs and accessory glands and thus, this plant may be useful in the treatment/management of reproductive cellular damage involving reactive oxygen species. PMID:26064173

  17. Brca1 Mutations Enhance Mouse Reproductive Functions by Increasing Responsiveness to Male-Derived Scent

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Pike, Malcolm C.; Wu, Nancy; Lin, Yvonne G.; Mucowski, Sara; Punj, Vasu; Tang, Yuan; Yen, Hai-Yun; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Enbom, Elena; Austria, Theresa; Widschwendter, Martin; Maxson, Robert; Dubeau, Louis

    2015-01-01

    We compared the gene expression profiles of ovarian granulosa cells harboring either mutant or wild type Brca1 to follow up on our earlier observation that absence of a functional Brca1 in these important regulators of menstrual/estrous cycle progression leads to prolongation of the pre-ovulatory phase of the estrous cycle and to increased basal levels of circulating estradiol. Here we show that ovarian granulosa cells from mice carrying a conditional Brca1 gene knockout express substantially higher levels of olfactory receptor mRNA than granulosa cells from wild type littermates. This led us to hypothesize that reproductive functions in mutant female mice might be more sensitive to male-derived scent than in wild type female mice. Indeed, it is well established that isolation from males leads to complete cessation of mouse estrous cycle activity while exposure to olfactory receptor ligands present in male urine leads to resumption of such activity. We found that Brca1-/- female mice rendered anovulatory by unisexual isolation resumed ovulatory activity more rapidly than their wild type littermates when exposed to bedding from cages where males had been housed. The prime mediator of this increased responsiveness appears to be the ovary and not olfactory neurons. This conclusion is supported by the fact that wild type mice in which endogenous ovaries had been replaced by Brca1-deficient ovarian transplants responded to male-derived scent more robustly than mutant mice in which ovaries had been replaced by wild type ovarian transplants. Our findings not only have important implications for our understanding of the influence of olfactory signals on reproductive functions, but also provide insights into mechanisms whereby genetic risk factors for breast and extra uterine Müllerian carcinomas may influence menstrual activity in human, which is itself an independent risk factor for these cancers. PMID:26488398

  18. The Effect of Hindlimb Suspension on the Reproductive System of Young Male Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tou, Janet; Grindeland, R.; Baer, L.; Guran, G.; Fung, C.; Wade, C.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Colonization of space requires the ability to reproduce in reduced gravity. Following spaceflight, astronauts and male rats exhibit decreased testosterone (T). This has important implications as T effects the testes and accessory sex glands. To our knowledge no studies have examined the effects of spaceflight on accessory sex glands. Due to the rarity of spaceflight opportunities, ground models have been used to simulate weightlessness. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of long-term (21 d) weightlessness on the reproductive system of male rats. Weightlessness was simulated using the Morey-Holton hindlimb suspension (HLS) model. Age 10 week old, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (209.0 +9.7g) were randomly assigned (n=10/group) to either HLS or ambulatory control. In HLS rats, testes mass was 33% lower (p<0.05) than ambulatory controls. However, HLS had no effect on prostate (0.65 +0.09g vs 0.69 +0.12g) or seminal vesicles (1.01 +0.35g vs 0.75 +0.22g) weights compared to controls. The absence of effects on plasma T in this study contrasts previous reports of reduced plasma T in HLS male rats. This discrepancy may have been due to the age of animal and timing of sampling. T levels vary dramatically during testes development as well as within normal diurnal cycles. In young HLS rats, testes weight was reduced but not plasma T. Subsequently there was no effect on accessory sex glands. However, this may not be the case in older rats. More studies using standardized methods are needed to gain a better understanding of male reproduction function and capability in weightlessness. Funding provided by NASA.

  19. Current updates on laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of male reproductive failure

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Suresh C; Hellstrom, Wayne JG

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of male reproductive failure leading to infertility, whether due to delayed parenthood, environmental issues, genetic factors, drugs, etc., is increasing throughout the world. The diagnosis and prognosis of male subfertility have become a challenge. While the basic semen assessment has been performed for many years, a number of studies question the value of the traditional semen characteristics. This is partly due to inadequate methods and standardization, limited knowledge of technical requirements for quality assurance, and an incomplete understanding of what clinical information a semen assessment can provide. Laboratories currently performing semen and endocrine assessment show great variability. The World Health Organization (WHO) manual for the evaluation of semen has been the core of andrology and fertility evaluation that has helped in further development of this field over many years. These include the physical appearance of the ejaculate, assessments of sperm count, motility, vitality, morphology, and functional aspects of the sperm and semen sample. These tests also include male endocrine profile, biochemical evaluation of the semen, detection of antisperm antibodies in serum, the use of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA), sperm DNA integrity, and its damage due to oxidative stress. Assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF, ICSI) have shown great success but are too expensive. Further development in this field with newer techniques and extensive training/instructions can improve accuracy and reduce variability, thus maintaining the quality and standards of such an evaluation. There is an urgent need to have standardized training centers and increased awareness in this area of men's health for reproductive success. PMID:27056346

  20. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    SciTech Connect

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  1. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice.

    PubMed Central

    Chubb, C

    1987-01-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of our investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, we investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. We propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction. PMID:3319549

  2. Current updates on laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of male reproductive failure.

    PubMed

    Sikka, Suresh C; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of male reproductive failure leading to infertility, whether due to delayed parenthood, environmental issues, genetic factors, drugs, etc., is increasing throughout the world. The diagnosis and prognosis of male subfertility have become a challenge. While the basic semen assessment has been performed for many years, a number of studies question the value of the traditional semen characteristics. This is partly due to inadequate methods and standardization, limited knowledge of technical requirements for quality assurance, and an incomplete understanding of what clinical information a semen assessment can provide. Laboratories currently performing semen and endocrine assessment show great variability. The World Health Organization (WHO) manual for the evaluation of semen has been the core of andrology and fertility evaluation that has helped in further development of this field over many years. These include the physical appearance of the ejaculate, assessments of sperm count, motility, vitality, morphology, and functional aspects of the sperm and semen sample. These tests also include male endocrine profile, biochemical evaluation of the semen, detection of antisperm antibodies in serum, the use of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA), sperm DNA integrity, and its damage due to oxidative stress. Assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF, ICSI) have shown great success but are too expensive. Further development in this field with newer techniques and extensive training/instructions can improve accuracy and reduce variability, thus maintaining the quality and standards of such an evaluation. There is an urgent need to have standardized training centers and increased awareness in this area of men's health for reproductive success. PMID:27056346

  3. A longitudinal study of age-specific reproductive output and body condition among male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta.

    PubMed

    Bercovitch, Fred B; Widdig, Anja; Trefilov, Andrea; Kessler, Matt J; Berard, John D; Schmidtke, Jörg; Nürnberg, Peter; Krawczak, Michael

    2003-07-01

    In many mammalian species, male reproductive success appears to climb sharply at young adulthood, form a brief plateau during prime ages, and decline among older animals, a pattern often attributed to reduced physical condition with ageing. However, solid evidence to either substantiate or refute this profile among nonhuman primates is lacking. Here, we combine a decade of genetic analysis of paternity among free-ranging rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, with information about body condition in order to evaluate how changes in morphology might govern age-specific reproduction among males. We show that age-specific reproductive success traverses the same life history profile as found in other mammals, but reductions in reproductive output with advanced age were associated with reduced chances of survivorship rather than accompanied by diminished body condition. We demonstrate that variance in male age at onset of reproduction is three times greater than variance in female age at onset of reproduction. We provide the first evidence from primates that age-specific reproductive output among males is not a consequence of age-related changes in body condition, but reflects social and demographic factors. PMID:12883773

  4. Differential courtship activity and alterations of reproductive success of competing gupply males as an indicator for low concentrations of aquatic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.H.; Peters, K.

    1988-09-01

    Differential courtship activity of guppy males competing for the same females was used as a bioindicator for low concentrations of water-borne pollutants in a previous study. Patterns of male sexual activity were chosen because they determine reproductive success. The mean difference between courtship activities of two male competitors determines the relative fitness of the male in question. Accordingly, the decrease in mean differential courtship after exposure to aquatic contaminants was predicted to cause a corresponding change in the relative reproductive success. The present study completed the previous one by repeating the experiment with a 10% addition of wastewater drawn from the last clearing basin of a Munich purification plant this time using virgin (non-inseminated) females which were receptive to male courtship. The females subsequently were allowed to produce as many offspring as possible. The number of young guppies sired by individual male competitors could easily be traced by the use of sex-linked phenotypic color patterns as markers. The purpose of these two studies was to show that the quantification of sexual activities of male guppies is useful for monitoring environmental alterations which affect fitness characters.

  5. Larval exposure to environmentally relevant mixtures of alkylphenolethoxylates reduces reproductive competence in male fathead minnows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bistodeau, T.J.; Barber, L.B.; Bartell, S.E.; Cediel, R.A.; Grove, K.J.; Klaustermeier, J.; Woodard, J.C.; Lee, K.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence of nonylphenolethoxylate/octylphenolethoxylate (NPE/OPE) compounds in aquatic environments adjacent to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) warrants an assessment of the endocrine disrupting potential of these complex mixtures on aquatic vertebrates. In this study, fathead minnow larvae were exposed for 64 days to a mixture of NPE/OPE, which closely models the NPE/OPE composition of a major metropolitan WWTP effluent. Target exposure concentrations included a total NPE/OPE mixture load of 200% of the WWTP effluent concentration (148 ??g/L), 100% of the WWTP effluent concentration (74 ??g/L) and 50% of the WWTP effluent concentration (38 ??g/L). The NPE/OPE mixture contained 0.2% 4-t-octylphenol, 2.8% 4-nonylphenol, 5.1% 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxylate, 9.3% 4-nonylphenoldiethoxylate, 0.9% 4-t-octylphenolmonoethoxylate, 3.1% 4-t-octylphenoldiethoxylate, 33.8% 4-nonylphenolmonoethoxycarboxylate, and 44.8% 4-nonylphenoldiethoxycarboxylate. An additional exposure of 5 ??g/L 4-nonylphenol (nominal) was conducted. The exposure utilized a flow-through system supplied by ground water and designed to deliver consistent concentrations of applied chemicals. Following exposure, larvae were raised to maturity. Upon sexual maturation, exposed male fish were allowed to compete with control males in a competitive spawning assay. Nest holding ability of control and exposed fish was carefully monitored for 7 days. All male fish were then sacrificed and analyzed for plasma vitellogenin, developmental changes in gonadal tissues, alterations in the development of secondary sexual characters, morphometric changes, and changes to reproductive behavior. When exposed to the 200% NPE/OPE treatment most larvae died within the first 4 weeks of exposure. Both the 100% and 50% NPE/OPE exposures caused a significant decrease in reproductive behavior, as indicated by an inability of many of the previously exposed males to acquire and hold a nest site required for reproduction

  6. Reproductive toxicity of 2,4-toluenediamine in the rat. 1. Effect on male fertility

    SciTech Connect

    Thysen, B.; Varma, S.K.; Bloch, E.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of 2,4-toluenediamine (TDA) on reproduction in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated. Diets containing 0, 0.01 and 0.03% TDA were fed ad libitum to experimental animals for 10 wk. No signs of toxicity were found. Exposure to the high dose resulted in decreased mating frequency and an increase in infertile matings. Light-microscopic examination of the testes revealed reduced numbers of sperm in the seminiferous tubules and cauda epididymides. These results indicate that TDA is capable of reducing fertility and of exerting an inhibitory or toxic effect on spermatogenesis in the rat.

  7. Male takeovers are reproductively costly to females in hamadryas baboons: a test of the sexual coercion hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Polo, Pablo; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Colmenares, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    During male takeovers, in addition to fighting off the female's current mating partner, males may exhibit intense aggressive mate guarding of the newly acquired females. Recent studies indicate that coercive sexual aggression by males is an important strategy through which sexual conflict is expressed. Previous tests of the sexual coercion hypothesis in primates have focused on assessing if female mate choice is effectively reduced by male aggression, however, only one recent study has tested a critical prediction of this hypothesis, namely, that male coercion is reproductively costly to victim females. The present study uses 15 years of data on inter-birth intervals from a large multilevel colony of baboons, mostly Papio h. hamadryas, with a mating system based on harem-defence polygyny to examine if male takeovers impact the length of the abducted females' inter-birth intervals. Our analysis of 121 inter-birth intervals from 45 adult females indicates that male takeovers are reproductively costly to abducted females as they are associated with an increase in the time they take to conceive and a lengthening of the inter-birth intervals. We discuss how several factors may contribute to this reproductive cost, including male-female sexual conflict, male-male competition, and female-female competition. Our findings suggest that the male's aggressive herding is the main contributor to the abducted females' immediate reproductive cost. We argue that although some of the male's aggressive herding may be driven by male-male competition, nonetheless, it serves a coercive function as it both constrains the female's mate choice options and hampers her immediate breeding performance. This conclusion is backed up by results obtained in the only other study that has tested the same prediction and which has been carried out in a wild population of hamadryas baboons. PMID:24621865

  8. Ursodeoxycholic acid alleviates cholestasis-induced histophysiological alterations in the male reproductive system of bile duct-ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Saad, Ramadan A; Mahmoud, Yomna I

    2014-12-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid is the most widely used drug for treating cholestatic liver diseases. However, its effect on the male reproductive system alterations associated with cholestasis has never been studied. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on cholestasis-induced alterations in the male reproductive system. Cholestasis was induced by bile duct ligation. Bile duct-ligated rats had higher cholestasis biomarkers and lower levels of testosterone, LH and FSH than did the Sham rats. They also had lower reproductive organs weights, and lower sperm motility, density and normal morphology than those of Sham rats. Histologically, these animals suffered from testicular tubular atrophy, interstitial edema, thickening of basement membranes, vacuolation, and depletion of germ cells. After ursodeoxycholic acid administration, cholestasis-induced structural and functional alterations were significantly ameliorated. In conclusion, ursodeoxycholic acid can ameliorate the reproductive complications of chronic cholestasis in male patients, which represents an additional benefit to this drug. PMID:25461907

  9. The presence of macrophages and inflammatory responses in an in vitro testicular co-culture model of male reproductive development enhance relevance to in vivo conditions.

    PubMed

    Harris, Sean; Shubin, Sara Pacheco; Wegner, Susanna; Van Ness, Kirk; Green, Foad; Hong, Sung Woo; Faustman, Elaine M

    2016-10-01

    Our 3-dimensional testis co-culture system (3D-TCS) represents a promising model of male reproductive toxicity which captures sensitive processes of male reproductive development and contains the main testes cell types (germ, Leydig and Sertoli cells). Macrophages are another cell type important for testicular function and help to modulate immuno-endocrine processes during testes development. Chemicals such as phthalate esters (PE's) affect macrophage function and testosterone production in the testes in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether macrophages were present in the 3D-TCS and investigate responses in our model that may be related to immuno-endocrine functions. We observed consistent expression of the resident macrophage marker ED2 as well as increases in inflammatory cytokines produced by macrophages and testes cells (IL-6, TNF-α and KC/GRO) after exposure to toxic PE's. Pathway analysis of gene expression changes after exposure to PE's showed that IL-6 and TNF-α signaling pathways were enriched after treatment with reproductively toxic, but not non-reproductively toxic phthalates. These results indicate that macrophages and inflammatory processes are captured in the 3D-TCS and that these processes are impacted by exposure to reproductive toxicants. These processes represent a major mode of action for in vivo testis toxicity for a variety of compounds and our novel in vitro model is able to capture toxicant perturbation of immune function. PMID:27511800

  10. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics.

    PubMed

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L(-1)) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (-38%), diameter (-5%), and sperm velocity (-23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  11. Oyster reproduction is affected by exposure to polystyrene microplastics

    PubMed Central

    Sussarellu, Rossana; Suquet, Marc; Thomas, Yoann; Lambert, Christophe; Fabioux, Caroline; Pernet, Marie Eve Julie; Le Goïc, Nelly; Quillien, Virgile; Mingant, Christian; Epelboin, Yanouk; Corporeau, Charlotte; Guyomarch, Julien; Robbens, Johan; Paul-Pont, Ika; Soudant, Philippe; Huvet, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Plastics are persistent synthetic polymers that accumulate as waste in the marine environment. Microplastic (MP) particles are derived from the breakdown of larger debris or can enter the environment as microscopic fragments. Because filter-feeder organisms ingest MP while feeding, they are likely to be impacted by MP pollution. To assess the impact of polystyrene microspheres (micro-PS) on the physiology of the Pacific oyster, adult oysters were experimentally exposed to virgin micro-PS (2 and 6 µm in diameter; 0.023 mg·L−1) for 2 mo during a reproductive cycle. Effects were investigated on ecophysiological parameters; cellular, transcriptomic, and proteomic responses; fecundity; and offspring development. Oysters preferentially ingested the 6-µm micro-PS over the 2-µm-diameter particles. Consumption of microalgae and absorption efficiency were significantly higher in exposed oysters, suggesting compensatory and physical effects on both digestive parameters. After 2 mo, exposed oysters had significant decreases in oocyte number (−38%), diameter (−5%), and sperm velocity (−23%). The D-larval yield and larval development of offspring derived from exposed parents decreased by 41% and 18%, respectively, compared with control offspring. Dynamic energy budget modeling, supported by transcriptomic profiles, suggested a significant shift of energy allocation from reproduction to structural growth, and elevated maintenance costs in exposed oysters, which is thought to be caused by interference with energy uptake. Molecular signatures of endocrine disruption were also revealed, but no endocrine disruptors were found in the biological samples. This study provides evidence that micro-PS cause feeding modifications and reproductive disruption in oysters, with significant impacts on offspring. PMID:26831072

  12. Effects of Chronic Exposure to an Environmentally Relevant Mixture of Brominated Flame Retardants on the Reproductive and Thyroid System in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ernest, Sheila R.; Wade, Michael G.; Lalancette, Claudia; Ma, Yi-Qian; Berger, Robert G.; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F.

    2012-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are incorporated into a wide variety of consumer products, are readily released into home and work environments, and are present in house dust. Studies using animal models have revealed that exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may impair adult male reproductive function and thyroid hormone physiology. Such studies have generally characterized the outcome of acute or chronic exposure to a single BFR technical mixture or congener but not the impact of environmentally relevant BFR mixtures. We tested whether exposure to the BFRs found in house dust would have an adverse impact on the adult male rat reproductive system and thyroid function. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to a complex BFR mixture composed of three commercial brominated diphenyl ethers (52.1% DE-71, 0.4% DE-79, and 44.2% decaBDE-209) and hexabromocyclododecane (3.3%), formulated to mimic the relative congener levels in house dust. BFRs were delivered in the diet at target doses of 0, 0.02, 0.2, 2, or 20 mg/kg/day for 70 days. Compared with controls, males exposed to the highest dose of BFRs displayed a significant increase in the weights of the kidneys and liver, which was accompanied by induction of CYP1A and CYP2B P450 hepatic drug–metabolizing enzymes. BFR exposure did not affect reproductive organ weights, serum testosterone levels, testicular function, or sperm DNA integrity. The highest dose caused thyroid toxicity as indicated by decreased serum thyroxine (T4) and hypertrophy of the thyroid gland epithelium. At lower doses, the thickness of the thyroid gland epithelium was reduced, but no changes in hormone levels (T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone) were observed. Thus, exposure to BFRs affected liver and thyroid physiology but not male reproductive parameters. PMID:22387749

  13. Patterns of male reproductive success in a highly promiscuous whale species: the endangered North Atlantic right whale.

    PubMed

    Frasier, T R; Hamilton, P K; Brown, M W; Conger, L A; Knowlton, A R; Marx, M K; Slay, C K; Kraus, S D; White, B N

    2007-12-01

    Parentage analyses of baleen whales are rare, and although mating systems have been hypothesized for some species, little data on realized male reproductive success are available and the patterns of male reproductive success have remained elusive for most species. Here we combine over 20 years of photo-identification data with high-resolution genetic data for the majority of individual North Atlantic right whales to assess paternity in this endangered species. There was significant skew in male reproductive success compared to what would be expected if mating was random (P < 0.001). The difference was due to an excess of males assigned zero paternities, a deficiency of males assigned one paternity, and an excess of males assigned as fathers for multiple calves. The variance in male reproductive success was high relative to other aquatically mating marine mammals, but was low relative to mammals where the mating system is based on resource- and/or mate-defence polygyny. These results are consistent with previous data suggesting that the right whale mating system represents one of the most intense examples of sperm competition in mammals, but that sperm competition on its own does not allow for the same degree of polygyny as systems where males can control access to resources and/or mates. The age distribution of assigned fathers was significantly biased towards older males (P < 0.05), with males not obtaining their first paternity until approximately 15 years of age, which is almost twice the average age of first fertilization in females (8 years), suggesting that mate competition is preventing younger males from reproducing. The uneven distribution of paternities results in a lower effective population size in this species that already has one of the lowest reported levels of genetic diversity, which may further inhibit reproductive success through mate incompatibility of genetically similar individuals. PMID:17971086

  14. CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE AND DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE ON MALE RAT REPRODUCTIVE TRACT DEVELOPMENT: ALTERED FETAL STEROID HORMONES AND GENES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to the plasticizers diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di(n-butyl) phthalate (DBP) during sexual differentiation causes male reproductive tract malformations in rats and rabbits. In the fetal male rat, these two phthalate esters decrease testosterone (T) production and i...

  15. Gestational exposure to hydroxyprogesterone caproate suppresses reproductive potential in male rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpalatha, T.; Reddy, P. Ramachandra; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2005-08-01

    Hydroxyprogesterone caproate was administered to pregnant rats at a dose level of 10 and 25 mg/kg body weight on 1st, 7th and 14th gestational day and the male pups (F1 generation) were allowed to grow for 90 days. The effect of gestational exposure to hydroxyprogesterone caproate on fertility was assessed by breeding F1 male rats with control female rats besides analyzing sperm quality and quantity in F1 male rats. The number of implantation sites and viable fetuses was significantly reduced in females mated with F1 males that were exposed to hydroxyprogesterone caproate during embryonic development. The decrease in sperm function was associated with a decrease in sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm count in F1 rats. The study clearly indicates that in utero exposure to hydroxyprogesterone caproate affects fertility in male rats.

  16. The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott Smith, Emma A.; Newsome, Seth D.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in behavior and diet can have important consequences for population and ecosystem dynamics. Here, we examine how differences in reproductive investment and spatial ecology influence individual diet specialization in male and female southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). We hypothesize that greater reproductive constraints and smaller home ranges of females lead to more pronounced intraspecific competition and increased specialization. We integrate stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analysis of sea otter vibrissae with long-term observational studies of five subpopulations in California. We define individual diet specialization as low ratios of within-individual variation (WIC) to total population niche width (TNW). We compare isotopic and observational based metrics of WIC/TNW for males and females to data on population densities, and movement patterns using both general linear and linear mixed-effects models. Consistent with our hypothesis, increasing population density is associated with increased individual diet specialization by females but not by males. Additionally, we find the amount of coastline in a sea otter’s home range positively related with individual dietary variability, with increased range span resulting in weaker specialization for both males and females. We attribute our results to sex-based differences in movement, with females needing to specialize in their small ranges to maximize energy gain, and posit that the paradigm of individual prey specialization in sea otters with increased intraspecific competition may be a pattern driven largely by females. Our work highlights a potentially broader role of sex in the mechanistic pressures promoting and maintaining diet specialization.

  17. Chronic cadmium exposure: relation to male reproductive toxicity and subsequent fetal outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Zenick, H.; Hastings, L.; Goldsmith, M.; Niewenhuis, R.J.

    1982-03-01

    Acute injections of high doses of Cd induced marked testicular necrosis. However, the effects of low-dose, oral Cd exposure on a chronic basis are not well documented. The present investigation was designed to examine the effects of such exposure as reflected in parameters of spermatotoxicity and histology. Moreover, the impact on fetal outcome was measured by evaluating teratological and postnatal neurobehavior endpoints. Male Long-Evans hooded rats (100 d of age) were exposed to 0, 17.2, 34.4, or 68.8 ppm Cd for 70 d. During this period, the animals were maintained on a semipurified diet to control for the contribution of Zn and other trace elements. Near the end of exposure the males were mated to three female rats. One was sacrificed on d 21 of pregnancy for teratological assessment, including fetal weight, and determination of preimplantation and postimplantation loss. The other two dams were allowed to deliver, and their offspring were tested on tasks of exploratory behavior (d 21) and learning (d 90). Subsequently, the male parent was sacrified and a variety of measures recorded including weights of testes and caudae epididymides, sperm count and sperm morphology, and Cd content of liver and kidney. One of the testes was also evaluated histologically. No significant effects were observed on any of the parameters of reproductive toxicity or fetal outcome. These findings suggest that, at the doses employed in this study, Cd did not have signficant deleterious effects on the male reproductive system. Morever, the traditional view of Cd-related testicular insult, based on acute exposure, injection protocols, needs to be reevaluated in terms of environmental relevance.

  18. The cost of reproduction: differential resource specialization in female and male California sea otters.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emma A Elliott; Newsome, Seth D; Estes, James A; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-05-01

    Intraspecific variation in behavior and diet can have important consequences for population and ecosystem dynamics. Here, we examine how differences in reproductive investment and spatial ecology influence individual diet specialization in male and female southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). We hypothesize that greater reproductive constraints and smaller home ranges of females lead to more pronounced intraspecific competition and increased specialization. We integrate stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope analysis of sea otter vibrissae with long-term observational studies of five subpopulations in California. We define individual diet specialization as low ratios of within-individual variation (WIC) to total population niche width (TNW). We compare isotopic and observational based metrics of WIC/TNW for males and females to data on population densities, and movement patterns using both general linear and linear mixed-effects models. Consistent with our hypothesis, increasing population density is associated with increased individual diet specialization by females but not by males. Additionally, we find the amount of coastline in a sea otter's home range positively related with individual dietary variability, with increased range span resulting in weaker specialization for both males and females. We attribute our results to sex-based differences in movement, with females needing to specialize in their small ranges to maximize energy gain, and posit that the paradigm of individual prey specialization in sea otters with increased intraspecific competition may be a pattern driven largely by females. Our work highlights a potentially broader role of sex in the mechanistic pressures promoting and maintaining diet specialization. PMID:25669450

  19. Effects of Atrazine on Reproductive Health of Nondiabetic and Diabetic Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jestadi, Dinesh Babu; Phaniendra, Alugoju; Babji, Undru; Shanmuganathan, Bhavatharini

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of low dose of atrazine on reproductive system of male Wistar rats. 16 rats were divided into four groups of four animals each. Group I (nondiabetic) and group III (diabetic) animals served as controls that received safflower oil (300 μL/kg bw/day), respectively. Group II (nondiabetic) and group IV (diabetic) animals received atrazine (300 μg/kg bw/day). Nonsignificant decrease in the activities of antioxidant and steroidogenic enzymes and sperm parameters suggests that atrazine did not produce any effect on reproductive system of rats. Histological findings also revealed that atrazine at a dose of 300 μg/kg bw did not produce any testicular toxic effects in nondiabetic and diabetic atrazine treated rats. Low dose of atrazine did not show reproductive toxicity in rats. To know the effects of atrazine in diabetic rats further studies have to be carried out with increased concentration of atrazine.

  20. In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male

    PubMed Central

    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008–2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988–1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p′-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ΣPCBs (pmol/ml), Σdioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p′-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ΣPCB, ΣDL-PCB, and p,p′-DDE were 10.0 (2.1–35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2–2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7–55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ΣPCB, ΣDL-PCB, and p,p′-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p′-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. PMID:25190505

  1. In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male.

    PubMed

    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-12-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988-1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p'-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ΣPCBs (pmol/ml), Σdioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p'-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ΣPCB, ΣDL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE were 10.0 (2.1-35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2-2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7-55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ΣPCB, ΣDL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. PMID:25190505

  2. Prolyl Endopeptidase (PREP) is Associated With Male Reproductive Functions and Gamete Physiology in Mice.

    PubMed

    Dotolo, Raffaele; Kim, Jung Dae; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease which has been implicated in many biological processes, such as the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, learning and memory, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. A small number of reports have also suggested PREP participation in both male and female reproduction-associated processes. In the present work, we examined PREP distribution in male germ cells and studied the effects of its knockdown (Prep(gt/gt)) on testis and sperm in adult mice. The protein is expressed and localized in elongating spermatids and luminal spermatozoa of wild type (wt) mice, as well as Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular cells. PREP is also expressed in the head and midpiece of epididymal spermatozoa, whereas the remaining tail region shows a weaker signal. Furthermore, testis weight, histology of seminiferous tubules, and epididymal sperm parameters were assessed in wt and Prep(gt/gt) mice: wild type testes have larger average tubule and lumen diameter; in addition, lumenal composition of seminiferous tubules is dissimilar between wt and Prep(gt/gt), as the percentage of spermiated tubules is much higher in wt. Finally, total sperm count, sperm motility, and normal morphology are also higher in wt than in Prep(gt/gt). These results show for the first time that the expression of PREP could be necessary for a correct reproductive function, and suggest that the enzyme may play a role in mouse spermatogenesis and sperm physiology. PMID:26332268

  3. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nisarg R; Kesari, Kavindra K; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS) due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system). This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling. PMID:19849853

  4. Adverse Effects of Subchronic Dose of Aspirin on Reproductive Profile of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Archana; Ram, Heera; Purohit, Ashok; Jatwa, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is widely used for cardiovascular prophylaxis and as anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the influence of subchronic dose of aspirin on reproductive profile of male rats, if any. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: control and aspirin subchronic dose of 12.5 mg/kg for 30 days and 60 days, respectively, while alterations in sperm dynamics, testicular histopathological and planimetric investigations, body and organs weights, lipid profiles, and hematology were performed as per aimed objectives. Subchronic dose of aspirin reduced sperm density, count, and mobility in cauda epididymis and testis; histopathology and developing primary spermatogonial cells (primary spermatogonia, secondary spermatogonia, and mature spermatocyte) count were also significantly decreased in rats. Hematological investigations revealed hemopoietic abnormalities in 60-day-treated animals along with dysfunctions in hepatic and renal functions. The findings of the present study revealed that administration with subchronic dose of aspirin to male rats resulted in altered reproductive profiles and serum biochemistry. PMID:27190691

  5. Cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats: protective role of Tribulus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; Huq, Amir Ul; Singh, Rambir

    2013-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate role of ethanolic extract of Tribulus terrestris (EETT) against alpha-cypermethrin induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rats. 24 male Wistar rats weighing about 250-300g were divided in four groups. Group-I was control. alpha-cypermethrin (3.38 mg kg-1b.wt.) was given to group-IlI for 28 days. In Group-Ill, alpha-cypermethrin and EETT (100 mg kg -1b.wt.) were administered in combination for 28 days. Rats in group-IV were given EETT for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, rats were sacrificed, testes and epididymis were removed and sperm characteristics, sex hormones and various biochemical parameters were studied. Decrease in weight of testes and epididymis, testicular sperm head count, sperm motility, live sperm count, serum testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), leutinizing hormone (LH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total protein content and increase in sperm abnormalities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level was observed in rats exposed to cypermethrin. In combination group-Ill, EETT treatment ameliorated alpha-cypermethrin induced damage. EETT treatment in group-IV increased testes and epididymis weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, live sperm counts, testosterone, FSH, LH, GSH, CAT, SOD, GST, GR, GPx and total protein content. The study suggested that Tribulus terrestris plant possess reproductive system enhancement and antioxidant activity. PMID:24558798

  6. Erectile function and male reproduction in men with spinal cord injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadis, F; Karakitsios, K; Tsounapi, P; Tsambalas, S; Loutradis, D; Kanakas, N; Watanabe, N T; Saito, M; Miyagawa, I; Sofikitis, N

    2010-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) in men results in defects in erectile function, ejaculatory process and male reproductive potential. There are alterations in the capacity of men with SCI to achieve reflexogenic, psychogenic and nocturnal erections. The sexual function in different stages after SCI and the types of erections depend mainly on the completeness of the injury and the level of neurological damage. Furthermore, most of the SCI men demonstrate defects concerning the entrance of semen into the posterior urethra and the expulsion of the semen through the penile urethra and the urethral orifice. In addition, SCI men develop defects in the secretory function of the Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and the male accessory genital glands. The overall result is a decreased quality of the semen is recovered either with penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) or with electroejaculation. Nowadays the therapeutic andrological approach of SCI men focuses on achievement of erectile function, recovery of spermatozoa and assisted reproductive technology. The first line of therapy recommended for infertility in SCI men is collection of semen via PVS with concomitant evaluation of total motile sperm yields for assisted conception which may include intravaginal insemination, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Patients failing PVS may be referred for electroejaculation or surgical sperm retrieval. PMID:20500744

  7. Bill Redness Is Positively Associated with Reproduction and Survival in Male and Female Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Mirre J. P.; Briga, Michael; Koetsier, Egbert; Folkertsma, Remco; Wubs, Matthias D.; Dijkstra, Cor; Verhulst, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Sexual traits can serve as honest indicators of phenotypic quality when they are costly. Brightly coloured yellow to red traits, which are pigmented by carotenoids, are relatively common in birds, and feature in sexual selection. Carotenoids have been linked to immune and antioxidant function, and the trade-off between ornamentation and these physiological functions provides a potential mechanism rendering carotenoid based signals costly. Mutual ornamentation is also common in birds and can be maintained by mutual mate choice for this ornament or by a correlated response in one sex to selection on the other sex. When selection pressures differ between the sexes this can cause intralocus sexual conflict. Sexually antagonistic selection pressures have been demonstrated for few sexual traits, and for carotenoid-dependent traits there is a single example: bill redness was found to be positively associated with survival and reproductive output in male zebra finches, but negatively so in females. We retested these associations in our captive zebra finch population without two possible limitations of this earlier study. Contrary to the earlier findings, we found no evidence for sexually antagonistic selection. In both sexes, individuals with redder bills showed higher survival. This association disappeared among the females with the reddest bills. Furthermore, females with redder bills achieved higher reproductive output. We conclude that bill redness of male and female zebra finches honestly signals phenotypic quality, and discuss the possible causes of the differences between our results and earlier findings. PMID:22808243

  8. Does alcohol have any effect on male reproductive function? A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Balercia, Giancarlo; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol is widely used, its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial. Over the years, many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility. This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences. Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities, a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition, and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate. These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption. Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters. This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low–normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol. Nevertheless, alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies. Finally, the genetic background and other concomitant, alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage. In conclusion, alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation. PMID:23274392

  9. Heat-stress-induced metabolic changes and altered male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yuanlong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Lei, Zhihai; Ping, Jihui; Liu, Jiajian; Ma, Zhiyu; Zhang, Zheng; Jia, Cuicui; Jin, Mengmeng; Li, Xiang; Li, Xiaoliang; Chen, Shaoqiu; Lv, Yingfang; Gao, Yingdong; Jia, Wei; Su, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Heat stress can cause systemic physiological and biochemical alterations in living organisms. In reproductive systems, heat stress induces germ cell loss and poor quality semen. However, until now, little has been known about such a complex regulation process, particularly in the perspective of metabolism. In this study, serum, hypothalamus, and epididymis samples derived from male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats being exposed to high environmental temperature (40 °C) 2 h per day for 7 consecutive days were analyzed using metabonomics strategies based on GC/TOFMS. Differentially expressed metabolites reveal that the energy metabolism, amino acid neurotransmitters, and monoamine neurotransmitters pathways are associated with heat stress, in accordance with changes of the three upstream neuroendocrine system pathways in the SNS (sympathetic adrenergic system), hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), and hypothalamic pituitary testis axis (HPT) axis. Many of these metabolites, especially in the epididymis, were found to be up-regulated, presumably due to a self-preserving action to resist the environmental hot irritation to maintain normal functioning of the male reproductive system. PMID:25607524

  10. How Sexual Orientation and Physical Attractiveness Affect Impressions of Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elman, Donald; And Others

    Stereotyped impressions of male homosexuals and the underlying importance of sexuality in social attraction and perceptions were investigated. Male (N=80) and female (N=80) college students responded to either an attractive or an unattractive photo of a male stimulus person, who was identified to half of the subjects as a homosexual. Compared to…

  11. The Spermatophore in Glossina morsitans morsitans: Insights into Male Contributions to Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Scolari, Francesca; Benoit, Joshua B.; Michalkova, Veronika; Aksoy, Emre; Takac, Peter; Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.; Malacrida, Anna R.; Aksoy, Serap; Attardo, Geoffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Male Seminal Fluid Proteins (SFPs) transferred during copulation modulate female reproductive physiology and behavior, impacting sperm storage/use, ovulation, oviposition, and remating receptivity. These capabilities make them ideal targets for developing novel methods of insect disease vector control. Little is known about the nature of SFPs in the viviparous tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae), vectors of Human and Animal African trypanosomiasis. In tsetse, male ejaculate is assembled into a capsule-like spermatophore structure visible post-copulation in the female uterus. We applied high-throughput approaches to uncover the composition of the spermatophore in Glossina morsitans morsitans. We found that both male accessory glands and testes contribute to its formation. The male accessory glands produce a small number of abundant novel proteins with yet unknown functions, in addition to enzyme inhibitors and peptidase regulators. The testes contribute sperm in addition to a diverse array of less abundant proteins associated with binding, oxidoreductase/transferase activities, cytoskeletal and lipid/carbohydrate transporter functions. Proteins encoded by female-biased genes are also found in the spermatophore. About half of the proteins display sequence conservation relative to other Diptera, and low similarity to SFPs from other studied species, possibly reflecting both their fast evolutionary pace and the divergent nature of tsetse’s viviparous biology. PMID:26847001

  12. Inbreeding reveals mode of past selection on male reproductive characters in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Ala-Honkola, Outi; Hosken, David J; Manier, Mollie K; Lüpold, Stefan; Droge-Young, Elizabeth M; Berben, Kirstin S; Collins, William F; Belote, John M; Pitnick, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Directional dominance is a prerequisite of inbreeding depression. Directionality arises when selection drives alleles that increase fitness to fixation and eliminates dominant deleterious alleles, while deleterious recessives are hidden from it and maintained at low frequencies. Traits under directional selection (i.e., fitness traits) are expected to show directional dominance and therefore an increased susceptibility to inbreeding depression. In contrast, traits under stabilizing selection or weakly linked to fitness are predicted to exhibit little-to-no inbreeding depression. Here, we quantify the extent of inbreeding depression in a range of male reproductive characters and then infer the mode of past selection on them. The use of transgenic populations of Drosophila melanogaster with red or green fluorescent-tagged sperm heads permitted in vivo discrimination of sperm from competing males and quantification of characteristics of ejaculate composition, performance, and fate. We found that male attractiveness (mating latency) and competitive fertilization success (P2) both show some inbreeding depression, suggesting they may have been under directional selection, whereas sperm length showed no inbreeding depression suggesting a history of stabilizing selection. However, despite having measured several sperm quality and quantity traits, our data did not allow us to discern the mechanism underlying the lowered competitive fertilization success of inbred (f = 0.50) males. PMID:23919154

  13. Reproductive character displacement of female mate preferences for male cuticular hydrocarbons in Drosophila subquinaria.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Howard D; Dyer, Kelly A

    2015-10-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate sexual isolation in both initiating and completing the speciation process. Although its existence is straightforward to demonstrate, understanding the evolution of sexual isolation requires identifying the underlying phenotypes responsible so that we can determine how these have diverged. Here, we study geographic variation in female mate preferences for male sexual displays in the fly Drosophila subquinaria. Female D. subquinaria that are sympatric with its sister species D. recens discriminate strongly against both D. recens and allopatric conspecific males, whereas females from allopatric populations do not. Furthermore, female mate preferences target at least in part a suite of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in males and geographic variation in CHCs mirrors the pattern of mate discrimination. In this study, we quantify female mate preferences for male CHCs from populations that span the geographic range of D. subquinaria. We find that the direction of linear sexual selection varies significantly between populations that are sympatric versus allopatric with D. recens in a pattern of reproductive character displacement. Differences in preference partially align with existing differences in CHCs and patterns of sexual isolation, although discrepancies remain that suggest the involvement of additional traits and/or more complex, nonlinear preference functions. PMID:26299584

  14. Dose-Dependent Adverse Effects of Salinomycin on Male Reproductive Organs and Fertility in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, Olajumoke Omolara; Bhadauria, Smrati; Rath, Srikanta Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Salinomycin is used as an antibiotic in animal husbandry. Its implication in cancer therapy has recently been proposed. Present study evaluated the toxic effects of Salinomycin on male reproductive system of mice. Doses of 1, 3 or 5 mg/kg of Salinomycin were administered daily for 28 days. Half of the mice were sacrificed after 24 h of the last treatment and other half were sacrificed 28 days after withdrawal of treatment. Effects of SAL on body and reproductive organ weights were studied. Histoarchitecture of testis and epididymis was evaluated along with ultrastructural changes in Leydig cells. Serum and testicular testosterone and luteinizing hormones were estimated. Superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, catalase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were measured. Spermatozoa count, morphology, motility and fertility were evaluated. Expression patterns of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage proteins (CYP11A1) were assessed by Western blotting. Salinomycin treatment was lethal to few mice and retarded body growth in others with decreased weight of testes and seminal vesicles in a dose dependent manner. Seminiferous tubules in testes were disrupted and the epithelium of epididymis showed frequent occurrence of vacuolization and necrosis. Leydig cells showed hypertrophied cytoplasm with shrunken nuclei, condensed mitochondria, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum and increased number of lipid droplets. Salinomycin decreased motility and spermatozoa count with increased number of abnormal spermatozoa leading to infertility. The testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were decreased in testis but increased in serum at higher doses. Depletion of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione with increased lipid peroxidation in both testis and epididymis indicated generation of oxidative stress. Suppressed expression of StAR and CYP11A1 proteins indicates inhibition of steroidogenesis

  15. Comparative analysis of antioxidants against cadmium induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Khan, Mehreen; Ahmed, Shakeel; Ullah, Hizb

    2014-02-01

    The present study was conducted to compare and evaluate the potential benefits of three different antioxidants in reversing cadmium (Cd)-induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. Rats (n = 5) weighing 180 +/- 20 gm were divided into five groups (control, Cd, Cd + sulforaphane, Cd + vitamin E, and Cd + plant extract). Treated groups received CdCl2 (0.2 mg/kg), sulforaphane (25 µg/rat), vitamin E (75 mg/kg), and plant extract (100 mg/kg) for 15 days. Blood samples and testicular tissues were obtained for estimation of testosterone, Zn, and Cd concentration and daily sperm production/efficiency of sperm production. Cadmium exposure caused a significant decrease in final body weight (p < 0.0001). The plasma concentrations of Cd were significantly increased and Zn concentration decreased (p < 0.0001) in the Cd group as compared to the control group. The testicular concentrations of Cd were significantly increased and Zn concentration decreased (p < 0.0001) in the Cd group as compared to the control group. Cadmium exposure caused a significant decrease (p < 0.0001) in plasma testosterone concentrations and daily sperm production as compared to the control group. More significant effects were observed with Cd+sulforaphane, Cd + vitamin E, and Cd + plant extract treated groups in slashing Cd-induced toxicity. Present findings suggest that Ficus religiosa and sulforaphane are more powerful antioxidants as compared to vitamin E in reversing the oxidative stress and can have a protective role against Cd induced reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. Part of the mechanism involved in this protective role seems to be associated with the antioxidant properties of these agents in reducing reproductive damage. PMID:24156729

  16. Reproductive and sexual behaviour development of dam or artificially reared male lambs.

    PubMed

    Damián, Juan Pablo; Beracochea, Florencia; Hötzel, Maria José; Banchero, Georgget; Ungerfeld, Rodolfo

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if artificially reared male lambs differ from those reared by their mothers in their reproductive development and sexual behaviour during the first breeding season and in their serum testosterone to a GnRH challenge at the end of the first breeding season. Lambs were assigned to two experimental groups: 1) artificially reared lambs, separated from their dams 24-36h after birth (Week 0) and fed sheep milk until 10weeks of age (group AR, n=14); and 2) lambs reared by their dams until 10weeks of age (group DR, n=13). Reproductive parameters and sexual behaviour were recorded from Weeks 9 to 39. The GnRH challenge was performed on Week 40. Body weight, scrotal circumference, gonado-somatic index, testosterone concentration and sperm parameters were unaffected by group, but increased with age (P<0.0001). Lambs reared by their mothers had greater values of gonado-somatic index on Weeks 9, 16 and 19 (P<0.05), and tended to reach puberty earlier than AR (22.9±0.7 vs. 25.1±1.1weeks, respectively, P=0.087). Lambs reared by their mothers presented more lateral approaches and mount attempts than AR (P<0.05), and DR lambs presented more mounts on Weeks 32 and 39 than AR (P<0.05). Blood testosterone concentrations 3.5 and 4h after the GnRH challenge were higher in AR than in DR lambs (P<0.05). In conclusion mother rearing promoted sexual behaviour and reproductive performance of male lambs. PMID:25846838

  17. Assessment of Pradosia huberi effects on the reproductive system of male rats.

    PubMed

    Cristina Silva Dos Santos, Elane; Antunes, Priscylla Silva; Dos Santos, Flávia Luana Pereira; Rocha, Aldeíde de Oliveira Batista; Pita, João Carlos Lima Rodrigues; Xavier, Aline Lira; Macêdo, Cibério Landim; Jacob, Kerollayne Christtine; de Oliveira, Nayara Alves; de Medeiros, Alessandra Azevedo Nascimento; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; de Cássia da Silveira E Sá, Rita

    2016-03-01

    Pradosia huberi is a species found in the Amazon region and used as an antiulcerogenic and gastroprotective agent; however, phytochemical analysis has revealed the presence of compounds with potential toxic effects on the reproductive system. For the evaluation of the toxicity of P. huberi on male fertility, male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: one control (distilled water p.o.) and three treated (hydroalcoholic extract of the stem bark of P. Huberi (PH-HAE) at doses of 1.22, 6.1, and 30.5 mg/kg p.o.) once daily, for 63 days. In the last week of treatment (from the 57th to the 63rd day), the rats were mated with untreated virgin females (n = 30/group) and were killed on day 64. To investigate the toxic potential of PH-HAE on the reproductive system of rats the following parameters were evaluated: sperm production, genotoxicity, and general development. The production of gametes and their morphology did not differ between control and treated groups. Treatment with PH-HAE did not result in fewer vaginal plugs formed, indicating that the ability to mate was not impaired, but caused an increase of 14.3 and 10.8% in the preimplantation loss index, a reduction of 14.3 and 10.8% in the implantation index, and a reduction of 5.6 and 8.2% in the postimplantation loss index of female rats mated with rats treated with 6.1 and 30.5 mg/kg, respectively, indicating a possible toxic action of PH-HAE on the reproductive system of rats. PMID:26746900

  18. Effects of Exendin-4 on Male Reproductive Parameters of D-Galactose Induced Aging Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Heidari, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of exendin-4 on reproductive alteration in a D-galactose-induced aging mouse model. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 72 male Naval Medical Research Institute mice (20~25 g) were randomly divided into six groups: control, exendin-4 (1 nmol/kg), exendin-4 (10 nmol/kg), D-galactose (500 mg/kg), D-galactose+exendin-4 (1 nmol/kg), and D-galactose+exendin-4 (10 nmol/kg). The aging model animals were gavaged with D-galactose for six weeks, and exendin-4 was injected intraperitoneally in the last 10 days. At the end of treatment serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone levels were evaluated and the cauda epididymis and testis were removed to analyze the sperm count and testis morphology. Results The testis weight and volume decreased in the D-galactose group (p<0.01 and p<0.05) respectively. Exendin-4 (1, 10 nmol/kg) increased these parameters in the normal and aging mouse models. Serum LH and FSH levels increased and the sperm count decreased in the D-galactose group (p<0.05). Further, exendin-4 (1 nmol/kg) decreased LH and FSH levels and increased the serum testosterone level and sperm count in both normal and aging animals. Conclusions D-galactose can induce aging alternations in the male reproductive system such as decreased sperm count and increased serum LH and FSH levels through reactive oxygen species over production and reduced antioxidant enzyme activity. Further, co-administration of exendin-4 reduced reproductive complications of D-galactose in an aging mouse model. PMID:25606567

  19. Prey selectivity affects reproductive success of a corallivorous reef fish.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rohan M; Jones, Geoffrey P; Munday, Philip L

    2013-06-01

    Most animals consume a narrower range of food resources than is potentially available in the environment, but the underlying basis for these preferences is often poorly understood. Foraging theory predicts that prey selection should represent a trade-off between prey preferences based on nutritional value and prey availability. That is, species should consume preferred prey when available, but select less preferred prey when preferred prey is rare. We employed both field observation and laboratory experiments to examine the relationship between prey selection and preferences in the obligate coral-feeding filefish, Oxymonacanthus longirostris. To determine the drivers of prey selection, we experimentally established prey preferences in choice arenas and tested the consequences of prey preferences for key fitness-related parameters. Field studies showed that individuals fed almost exclusively on live corals from the genus Acropora. While diet was dominated by the most abundant species, Acropora nobilis, fish appeared to preferentially select rarer acroporids, such as A. millepora and A. hyacinthus. Prey choice experiments confirmed strong preferences for these corals, suggesting that field consumption is constrained by availability. In a longer-term feeding experiment, reproductive pairs fed on non-preferred corals exhibited dramatic reductions to body weight, and in hepatic and gonad condition, compared with those fed preferred corals. The majority of pairs fed preferred corals spawned frequently, while no spawning was observed for any pairs fed a non-preferred species of coral. These experiments suggest that fish distinguish between available corals based on their intrinsic value as prey, that reproductive success is dependent on the presence of particular coral species, and that differential loss of preferred corals could have serious consequences for the population success of these dietary specialists. PMID:23124333

  20. Male Takeovers Are Reproductively Costly to Females in Hamadryas Baboons: A Test of the Sexual Coercion Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Polo, Pablo; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Colmenares, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    During male takeovers, in addition to fighting off the female’s current mating partner, males may exhibit intense aggressive mate guarding of the newly acquired females. Recent studies indicate that coercive sexual aggression by males is an important strategy through which sexual conflict is expressed. Previous tests of the sexual coercion hypothesis in primates have focused on assessing if female mate choice is effectively reduced by male aggression, however, only one recent study has tested a critical prediction of this hypothesis, namely, that male coercion is reproductively costly to victim females. The present study uses 15 years of data on inter-birth intervals from a large multilevel colony of baboons, mostly Papio h. hamadryas, with a mating system based on harem-defence polygyny to examine if male takeovers impact the length of the abducted females’ inter-birth intervals. Our analysis of 121 inter-birth intervals from 45 adult females indicates that male takeovers are reproductively costly to abducted females as they are associated with an increase in the time they take to conceive and a lengthening of the inter-birth intervals. We discuss how several factors may contribute to this reproductive cost, including male-female sexual conflict, male-male competition, and female-female competition. Our findings suggest that the male’s aggressive herding is the main contributor to the abducted females’ immediate reproductive cost. We argue that although some of the male’s aggressive herding may be driven by male-male competition, nonetheless, it serves a coercive function as it both constrains the female’s mate choice options and hampers her immediate breeding performance. This conclusion is backed up by results obtained in the only other study that has tested the same prediction and which has been carried out in a wild population of hamadryas baboons. PMID:24621865

  1. Innate and adaptive immune responses in male and female reproductive tracts in homeostasis and following HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Philip V; Kafka, Jessica K; Ferreira, Victor H; Roth, Kristy; Kaushic, Charu

    2014-01-01

    The male and female reproductive tracts are complex microenvironments that have diverse functional demands. The immune system in the reproductive tract has the demanding task of providing a protective environment for a fetal allograft while simultaneously conferring protection against potential pathogens. As such, it has evolved a unique set of adaptations, primarily under the influence of sex hormones, which make it distinct from other mucosal sites. Here, we discuss the various components of the immune system that are present in both the male and female reproductive tracts, including innate soluble factors and cells and humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immunity under homeostatic conditions. We review the evidence showing unique phenotypic and functional characteristics of immune cells and responses in the male and female reproductive tracts that exhibit compartmentalization from systemic immunity and discuss how these features are influenced by sex hormones. We also examine the interactions among the reproductive tract, sex hormones and immune responses following HIV-1 infection. An improved understanding of the unique characteristics of the male and female reproductive tracts will provide insights into improving clinical treatments of the immunological causes of infertility and the design of prophylactic interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:24976268

  2. Reproduction and marriage among male survivors of cancer in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gunnes, M W; Lie, R T; Bjørge, T; Ghaderi, S; Ruud, E; Syse, A; Moster, D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased survival after cancer in young age has made long-term follow-up studies of high external validity important. In this national cohort study, we explored the impact of cancer in young age on reproduction and marital status in male survivors. Methods: Hazard ratios (HRs) and relative risks (RRs) of reproductive and marital outcomes were studied for male survivors of cancer in young age (<25 years) and cancer-free male comparisons, born during 1965–1985, by linking compulsory national registries in Norway. Results: Male cancer survivors (n=2687) had reduced paternity (HR: 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–0.76). This was most apparent in survivors of testicular cancer, brain tumours, lymphoma, leukemia and bone tumours, and when diagnosed with cancer before 15 years of age. Male cancer survivors were more likely to avail of assisted reproduction (RR: 3.32, 95% CI: 2.68–4.11). There was no increased risk of perinatal death, congenital malformations, being small for gestational age, of low birth weight or preterm birth in their first offspring. Male cancer survivors were less likely to marry (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86–1.00), in particular brain tumour survivors. Conclusions: In this national cohort study, we demonstrated reduced paternity and increased use of assisted reproduction among male cancer survivors, but no adverse outcome for their first offspring at birth. PMID:26794280

  3. Knowing your audience affects male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Matos, Ricardo J; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2014-03-01

    Aggressive interactions between animals often occur in the presence of third parties. By observing aggressive signalling interactions, bystanders may eavesdrop and gain relevant information about conspecifics without the costs of interacting. On the other hand, interactants may also adjust their behaviour when an audience is present. This study aimed to test how knowledge about fighting ability of an audience affects aggressive interactions in male Siamese fighting fish. Subjects were positioned between two dyads of non-interacting males and allowed to observe both dyads shortly before the view to one of the dyads was blocked, and the dyads were allowed to interact. Subjects were subsequently exposed to an unknown opponent in the presence of either the winner or the loser of the seen or unseen interaction. The results suggest a complex role of the characteristic of an audience in the agonistic behaviours of a subject engaged in an interaction. The presence of a seen audience elicited more aggressive displays towards the opponent if the audience was a loser. This response was different in the presence of an unseen audience. Subjects then directed a higher aggressiveness against their opponent if the audience was a winner. These results also suggest a potentially more complex and interesting process allowing individuals to gain information about the quality and threat level of an unknown audience while it is interacting with a third party. The importance of information acquisition for an individual to adapt its behaviour and the role of communication networks in shaping social interactions are discussed. PMID:23794074

  4. Type of intruder and reproductive phase influence male territorial defence in wild-caught Siamese fighting fish.

    PubMed

    Jaroensutasinee, Mullica; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej

    2003-08-29

    This study investigated how parental care increases with offspring age by examining the level of male aggressiveness toward potential intruders during egg guarding in a natural population of Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens Regan). The degree of aggressiveness was measured at two reproductive phases in response to three types of intruders: male, female and females that have laid eggs. The nest-holding males became more aggressive after their eggs hatched than after the eggs were laid. Nest-holding males displayed gill cover erection, biting, tail beating and attacking at the highest rate towards male intruders, intermediate towards female intruders and the least aggressive towards females, which have laid eggs. PMID:12914992

  5. Optimizing a Male Reproductive Aging Mouse Model by d-Galactose Injection

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Chen, Bing-Huei; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chen, Chiu-Wei; Chen, Mei-Feng; Ke, Chih-Chun; Wang, Ya-Yun; Lin, Wei-Ning; Wang, Chi-Chung; Lin, Ying-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The d-galactose (d-gal)-injected animal model, which is typically established by administering consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections to animals for approximately six or eight weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. In addition, this animal model has been demonstrated to accelerate aging in the brain, kidneys, liver and blood cells. However, studies on aging in male reproductive organs that have used this animal model remain few. Therefore, the current study aimed to optimize a model of male reproductive aging by administering d-gal injections to male mice and to determine the possible mechanism expediting senescence processes during spermatogenesis. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into five groups (each containing 8–10 mice according to the daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle control or 100 or 200 mg/kg dosages of d-gal for a period of six or eight weeks). First, mice subjected to d-gal injections for six or eight weeks demonstrated considerably decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and testis lysates compared to those in the control group. The lipid peroxidation in testis also increased in the d-gal-injected groups. Furthermore, the d-gal-injected groups exhibited a decreased ratio of testis weight/body weight and sperm count compared to the control group. The percentages of both immotile sperm and abnormal sperm increased considerably in the d-gal-injected groups compared to those of the control group. To determine the genes influenced by the d-gal injection during murine spermatogenesis, a c-DNA microarray was conducted to compare testicular RNA samples between the treated groups and the control group. The d-gal-injected groups exhibited RNA transcripts of nine spermatogenesis-related genes (Cycl2, Hk1, Pltp, Utp3, Cabyr, Zpbp2, Speer2, Csnka2ip and Katnb1) that were up- or down-regulated by at least two-fold compared to the control group. Several of these genes are critical for forming sperm-head morphologies

  6. Optimizing a Male Reproductive Aging Mouse Model by D-Galactose Injection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chun-Hou; Chen, Bing-Huei; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chen, Chiu-Wei; Chen, Mei-Feng; Ke, Chih-Chun; Wang, Ya-Yun; Lin, Wei-Ning; Wang, Chi-Chung; Lin, Ying-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The d-galactose (d-gal)-injected animal model, which is typically established by administering consecutive subcutaneous d-gal injections to animals for approximately six or eight weeks, has been frequently used for aging research. In addition, this animal model has been demonstrated to accelerate aging in the brain, kidneys, liver and blood cells. However, studies on aging in male reproductive organs that have used this animal model remain few. Therefore, the current study aimed to optimize a model of male reproductive aging by administering d-gal injections to male mice and to determine the possible mechanism expediting senescence processes during spermatogenesis. In this study, C57Bl/6 mice were randomized into five groups (each containing 8-10 mice according to the daily intraperitoneal injection of vehicle control or 100 or 200 mg/kg dosages of d-gal for a period of six or eight weeks). First, mice subjected to d-gal injections for six or eight weeks demonstrated considerably decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and testis lysates compared to those in the control group. The lipid peroxidation in testis also increased in the d-gal-injected groups. Furthermore, the d-gal-injected groups exhibited a decreased ratio of testis weight/body weight and sperm count compared to the control group. The percentages of both immotile sperm and abnormal sperm increased considerably in the d-gal-injected groups compared to those of the control group. To determine the genes influenced by the d-gal injection during murine spermatogenesis, a c-DNA microarray was conducted to compare testicular RNA samples between the treated groups and the control group. The d-gal-injected groups exhibited RNA transcripts of nine spermatogenesis-related genes (Cycl2, Hk1, Pltp, Utp3, Cabyr, Zpbp2, Speer2, Csnka2ip and Katnb1) that were up- or down-regulated by at least two-fold compared to the control group. Several of these genes are critical for forming sperm-head morphologies or

  7. Behavioural differences between male and female carpenter bees in nectar robbing and its effect on reproductive success in Glechoma longituba (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y-W; Zhao, J-M; Yang, C-F; Gituru, W R

    2011-01-01

    Male and female nectar robbers may show significantly different behaviour on host plants and thus have different impacts on reproductive fitness of the plants. A 4-year study in natural populations of Glechoma longituba has shown that male carpenter bees (Xylocopa sinensis) are responsible for most of the nectar robbing from these flowers, while female bees account for little nectar robbing, demonstrating distinct behavioural differentiation between male and female bees in visiting flowers. The smaller male bee spends less time visiting a single flower than the larger female bee, consequently, the male bee is capable of visiting more flowers per unit time and has a higher foraging efficiency. Moreover, the robbing behaviour of female carpenter bees is more destructive and affects flower structures (ovules and nectaries) and floral life-span more than that of the male bee. According to the energy trade-off hypothesis, the net energy gain for male bees during nectar robbing greatly surpasses energy payout (17.72 versus 2.43 J), while the female bee net energy gain is barely adequate to meet energy payout per unit time (3.78 versus 2.39 J). The differences in net energy gain for male and female bees per unit time in nectar robbing are the likely cause of observed behavioural differences between the sexes. The differences in food resource preference between male and female bees constitute an optimal resource allocation pattern that enables the visitors to utilise floral resources more efficiently. PMID:21134084

  8. Effect of current tobacco consumption on the male reproductive hormone profile.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente

    2012-06-01

    The knowledge about the effect of cigarette smoking on the male reproductive function is still limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between active exposure to tobacco smoke and the male reproductive hormone profile in a group of 136 Mexican flower growers. Serum levels of FSH, LH, prolactin, total testosterone, Inhibin B and estradiol were measured using enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Weight and height were also measured and a structured questionnaire was applied to get information on sociodemographic characteristics, clinical and work history and alcohol and tobacco consumption (current smoking habit and number of cigarettes smoked per day). Based on this information tobacco consumption was divided into four categories: never-smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers under five cigarettes/day and current smokers over or equal to five cigarettes/day. Using the group of never-smokers as reference and after adjusting for potential confounders, current smokers of five or more cigarettes/day showed significantly higher levels of LH (β=0.33, p=0.01), prolactin (β=0.18, p=0.03) and testosterone (β=0.21, p=0.02). Current smokers of less than five cigarettes/day also showed higher levels of prolactin (β=0.12, p=0.03) and testosterone (β=0.18, p<0.01). Hormone levels of ex-smokers were similar to those of never-smokers. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that tobacco consumption may act as an endocrine disruptor on the male hormone profile. PMID:22534361

  9. Long-Term Administration of Artesunate Induces Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Olumide, Stephen Akinsomisoye; Raji, Yinusa

    2011-01-01

    Background Artesunate is commonly used in malaria therapy. Many antimalarial drugs have been associated with male reproductive dysfunction. The effect of artesunate on male reproductive activities was studied using in–vivo and in-vitro experimental models. Methods Adult male rats (n=6) were orally given artesunate (2.9 mg/kg body weight) on daily basis for five days. Artesunate (2.9 mg/kg body weight) was administered to another group of rats daily for six weeks, while there was a recovery group of rats too. The control animals received the vehicle only. At the end of the treatment, sperm characteristics, serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels, testicular and epididymal histology and fertility were assessed. Cultured Sertoli cells were treated with 0.3 µM to 10 µM artesunate for five days after which Sertoli cell viability, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ds-DNA) integrity and genetic expression of Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and transferrin were assessed. The data were analyzed using Graphpad Instat Statistical software. A probability value of p <0.05 was considered significant. Results Artesunate did not cause any significant effects in short-term administration but significantly reduced the aforesaid parameters in long-term administration. There were visible lesions in the testicular and epididymal histological studies, although fertility was not significantly reduced. These changes were restored in the recovery experiment. In-vitro studies showed dose and duration dependent changes in Sertoli cell viability and ds-DNA integrity. However, transferrin and GDNF gene expressions were normal. Conclusion The results suggest that long-term administration of artesunate could induce reversible infertility in rats which may act via distortion of blood–testis barrier formed by Sertoli cells. PMID:23926511

  10. Male reproductive system and spermatophores production and storage in Histioteuthis bonnellii (Cephalopoda: Histioteuthidae): A look into deep-sea squids' reproductive strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuccu, Danila; Mereu, Marco; Agus, Blondine; Cau, Angelo; Culurgioni, Jacopo; Sabatini, Andrea; Jereb, Patrizia

    2014-09-01

    Coleoid cephalopods go through a single breeding period in their life cycle, i.e., they are semelparous, although a great flexibility has been observed in their reproductive strategies, which range from simultaneous terminal spawning over a short period at the end of the animal's life to continuous spawning over a long period of the animal's life. So far, the information available on deep-sea species reproductive strategies is still poor and most of our knowledge about squid reproduction relates to females. In particular, not much is known on what strategy male squids have evolved to store sperm into spermatophores and adapt to semelparity. In this study an investigation of male reproductive strategy of the deep-sea umbrella squid Histioteuthis bonnellii (Férussac, 1835) is presented. The reproductive system was examined in 119 males caught in the Sardinian waters (Central Western Mediterranean) and is described for the first time. Results indicate that this species produces and stores spermatophores over a considerable period of time. The total number of spermatophores found in the reproductive system ranged between 12 and 3097 and the size of spermatophores stored by a single individual varied greatly, up to over 300%. Spermatophore length (SpL) gradually decreased towards the distal end of the reproductive system, so that spermatophores found in the proximal part of Needham's Sac were larger than those found in the terminal organ. Body size and SpL of spermatophores from the proximal part of Needham's Sac were positively correlated. Both indices of the sperm mass and of the ejaculatory apparatus decreased with the increase of SpL, while the cement body index increased, indicating that larger spermatophores contain less sperm and are equipped with larger cement bodies. Up to 64 spermatangia were found, exclusively in the terminal organ. The large size range of mature males (ML: 60.0-198.0 mm; TW: 113.50-2409.00 g) and the variation in spermatophore number and

  11. The Reproduction of Family Life: Perspectives of Male and Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskell, Jane

    1983-01-01

    Capitalist, patriarchal, and sexist social structures and values affect how working class adolescents plan to allocate responsibility for domestic labor. Interviews with 83 Canadian male and female high school students revealed that they anticipate choosing patterns of domestic labor which perpetuate women's subordinate roles at home and work. (AM)

  12. Prenatal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) affects reproductive outcomes in female mice.

    PubMed

    Niermann, Sarah; Rattan, Saniya; Brehm, Emily; Flaws, Jodi A

    2015-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that prenatal DEHP exposure affects female reproduction. To test this hypothesis, pregnant female CD-1 mice were orally dosed daily with tocopherol-stripped corn oil (vehicle control) or DEHP (20 μg/kg/day-750 mg/kg/day) from gestation day 11-birth. Pups were counted, weighed, and sexed at birth, ovaries were subjected to evaluations of follicle numbers on postnatal days (PNDs) 8 and 21, and fertility was evaluated at 3-9 months. The results indicate that prenatal DEHP exposure increased male-to-female ratio compared to controls. Prenatal DEHP exposure also increased preantral follicle numbers at PND 21 compared to controls. Further, 22.2% of the 20 μg/kg/day treated animals took longer than 5 days to get pregnant at 3 months and 28.6% of the 750 mg/kg/day treated animals lost some of their pups at 6 months. Thus, prenatal DEHP exposure alters F1 sex ratio, increases preantral follicle numbers, and causes some breeding abnormalities. PMID:25765777

  13. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  14. The Magea gene cluster regulates male germ cell apoptosis without affecting the fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Hou, Siyuan; Xian, Li; Shi, Peiliang; Li, Chaojun; Lin, Zhaoyu; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    While apoptosis is essential for male germ cell development, improper activation of apoptosis in the testis can affect spermatogenesis and cause reproduction defects. Members of the MAGE-A (melanoma antigen family A) gene family are frequently clustered in mammalian genomes and are exclusively expressed in the testes of normal animals but abnormally activated in a wide variety of cancers. We investigated the potential roles of these genes in spermatogenesis by generating a mouse model with a 210-kb genomic deletion encompassing six members of the Magea gene cluster (Magea1, Magea2, Magea3, Magea5, Magea6 and Magea8). Male mice carrying the deletion displayed smaller testes from 2 months old with a marked increase in apoptotic germ cells in the first wave of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we found that Magea genes prevented stress-induced spermatogenic apoptosis after N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) treatment during the adult stage. Mechanistically, deletion of the Magea gene cluster resulted in a dramatic increase in apoptotic germ cells, predominantly spermatocytes, with activation of p53 and induction of Bax in the testes. These observations demonstrate that the Magea genes are crucial in maintaining normal testicular size and protecting germ cells from excessive apoptosis under genotoxic stress. PMID:27226137

  15. Clonal Patch Size and Ramet Position of Leymus chinensis Affected Reproductive Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive allocation is critically important for population maintenance and usually varies with not only environmental factors but also biotic ones. As a typical rhizome clonal plant in China's northern grasslands, Leymus chinensis usually dominates the steppe communities and grows in clonal patches. In order to clarify the sexual reproductive allocation of L. chinensis in the process of the growth and expansion, we selected L. chinensis clonal patches of a range of sizes to examine the reproductive allocation and allometric growth of the plants. Moreover, the effects of position of L. chinensis ramets within the patch on their reproductive allocation were also examined. Clonal patch size and position both significantly affected spike biomass, reproductive tiller biomass and SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio. From the central to the marginal zone, both the spike biomass and reproductive tiller biomass displayed an increasing trend in all the five patch size categories except for reproductive tiller biomass in 15–40m2 category. L. chinensis had significantly larger SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio in marginal zone than in central zone of clonal patches that are larger than 15 m2 in area. Regression analysis showed that the spike biomass and SPIKE/TILLER biomass ratio were negatively correlated with clonal patch size while patch size showed significantly positive effect on SEED/SPIKE biomass ratio, but the reproductive tiller biomass and SEED/TILLER biomass ratio were not dependent on clonal patch size. The relationships between biomass of spike and reproductive tiller, between mature seed biomass and spike biomass and between mature seed biomass and reproductive tiller biomass were significant allometric for all or some of patch size categories, respectively. The slopes of all these allometric relationships were significantly different from 1. The allometric growth of L. chinensis is patch size-dependent. This finding will be helpful for developing appropriate practices for

  16. Localization of /sup 3/H-estradiol in the reproductive organs of male and female baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Weaker, F.J.; Sheridan, P.J.

    1982-05-01

    The uptake and retention of radiolabeled estradiol by both the male and female reproductive organs were examined in the baboon. Two male and two female baboons were injected intracardially with 1 microgram/kg body weight of /sup 3/H-estradiol and two animals, one male and one female, were injected with both labeled and 100 micrograms/kg body weight of unlabeled estradiol. One and a half hours after the injections, the animals were sacrificed and the uterus, cervix, vagina, oviduct, seminal vesicles, and prostate gland were removed and processed for autoradiography. The stratified squamous epithelia of the cervix and vagina demonstrated a light uptake of the label in the germinative, but not in the superficial cell layers. The columnar cells lining the oviduct and uterine glands were labeled, whereas the luminal epithelium of the uterus and the glandular epithelia of the seminal vesicles and prostate gland did not sequester the tritiated steroid. The interstitial cells of all the organs studied demonstrated a moderate to heavy uptake of the radioactivity, whereas the smooth muscle cells were lightly labeled except in the vagina, in which these cells displayed a moderate number of silver grains.

  17. Male Reproductive Health After Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Lisa B.; Cohen, Laurie E.; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Metzger, Monika L.; Lockart, Barbara; Hijiya, Nobuko; Duffey-Lind, Eileen; Constine, Louis; Green, Daniel; Meacham, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    The majority of children, adolescents, and young adults diagnosed with cancer will become long-term survivors. Although cancer therapy is associated with many adverse effects, one of the primary concerns of young male cancer survivors is reproductive health. Future fertility is often the focus of concern; however, it must be recognized that all aspects of male health, including pubertal development, testosterone production, and sexual function, can be impaired by cancer therapy. Although pretreatment strategies to preserve reproductive health have been beneficial to some male patients, many survivors remain at risk for long-term reproductive complications. Understanding risk factors and monitoring the reproductive health of young male survivors are important aspects of follow-up care. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancer (COG-LTFU Guidelines) were created by the COG to provide recommendations for follow-up care of survivors at risk for long-term complications. The male health task force of the COG-LTFU Guidelines, composed of pediatric oncologists, endocrinologists, nurse practitioners, a urologist, and a radiation oncologist, is responsible for updating the COG-LTFU Guidelines every 2 years based on literature review and expert consensus. This review summarizes current task force recommendations for the assessment and management of male reproductive complications after treatment for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers. Issues related to male health that are being investigated, but currently not included in the COG-LTFU Guidelines, are also discussed. Ongoing investigation will inform future COG-LTFU Guideline recommendations for follow-up care to improve health and quality of life for male survivors. PMID:22649147

  18. Developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol affects transgenerationally sexual behavior and neuroendocrine networks in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Derouiche, Lyes; Keller, Matthieu; Duittoz, Anne Hélène; Pillon, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive behavior and physiology in adulthood are controlled by hypothalamic sexually dimorphic neuronal networks which are organized under hormonal control during development. These organizing effects may be disturbed by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). To determine whether developmental exposure to Ethinylestradiol (EE2) may alter reproductive parameters in adult male mice and their progeny, Swiss mice (F1 generation) were exposed from prenatal to peripubertal periods to EE2 (0.1–1 μg/kg/d). Sexual behavior and reproductive physiology were evaluated on F1 males and their F2, F3 and F4 progeny. EE2-exposed F1 males and their F2 to F4 progeny exhibited EE2 dose-dependent increased sexual behavior, with reduced latencies of first mount and intromission, and higher frequencies of intromissions with a receptive female. The EE2 1 μg/kg/d exposed animals and their progeny had more calbindin immunoreactive cells in the medial preoptic area, known to be involved in the control of male sexual behavior in rodents. Despite neuroanatomical modifications in the Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neuron population of F1 males exposed to both doses of EE2, no major deleterious effects on reproductive physiology were detected. Therefore EE2 exposure during development may induce a hypermasculinization of the brain, illustrating how widespread exposure of animals and humans to EDCs can impact health and behaviors. PMID:26640081

  19. The reproduction in women affected by cooley disease

    PubMed Central

    Pafumi, Carlo; Leanza, Vito; Coco, Luana; Vizzini, Stefania; Ciotta, Lilliana; Messina, Alessandra; Leanza, Gianluca; Zarbo, Giuseppe; D'Agati, Alfio; Palumbo, Marco Antonio; Iemmola, Alessandra; Gulino, Ferdinando Antonio; Teodoro, Maria Cristina; Attard, Matthew; Plesca, Alina Cristina; Soares, Catarina; Kouloubis, Nina; Chammas, Mayada

    2011-01-01

    The health background management and outcomes of 5 pregnancies in 4 women affected by Cooley Disease, from Paediatric Institute of Catania University, are described, considering the preconceptual guidances and cares for such patients. These patients were selected among a group of 100 thalassemic women divided into three subgroups, according to their first and successive menstruation characteristics: i) patients with primitive amenorrhoea, ii) patients with secondary amenorrhoea and iii) patients with normal menstruation. Only one woman, affected by primitive amenorrhoea, needed the induction of ovulation. A precise and detailed pre-pregnancy assessment was effected before each conception. This was constituted by a series of essays, including checks for diabetes and hypothyroidism, for B and C hepatitis and for blood group antibodies. Moreover were evaluated: cardiac function, rubella immunity and transaminases. Other pregnancy monitoring, and cares during labour and delivery were effected according to usual obstetrics practice. All the women were in labour when she were 38 week pregnant, and the outcome were five healthy babies born at term, weighting between 2600 and 3200gs. The only complication was the Caesarean section. The improvements of current treatments, especially in the management of iron deposits, the prolongation of survival rate, will result in a continuous increase of pregnancies in thalassemic women. Pregnancy is now a real possibility for women affected by such disease. We are furthermore studying the possibility to collect the fetus' umbilical cord blood, after the delivery, to attempt eterologus transplantation to his mother trying to get a complete marrow reconstitution. PMID:22184526

  20. A supergene determines highly divergent male reproductive morphs in the ruff.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Clemens; Stocks, Michael; Risse, Judith E; Dos Remedios, Natalie; Farrell, Lindsay L; McRae, Susan B; Morgan, Tawna C; Karlionova, Natalia; Pinchuk, Pavel; Verkuil, Yvonne I; Kitaysky, Alexander S; Wingfield, John C; Piersma, Theunis; Zeng, Kai; Slate, Jon; Blaxter, Mark; Lank, David B; Burke, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Three strikingly different alternative male mating morphs (aggressive 'independents', semicooperative 'satellites' and female-mimic 'faeders') coexist as a balanced polymorphism in the ruff, Philomachus pugnax, a lek-breeding wading bird. Major differences in body size, ornamentation, and aggressive and mating behaviors are inherited as an autosomal polymorphism. We show that development into satellites and faeders is determined by a supergene consisting of divergent alternative, dominant and non-recombining haplotypes of an inversion on chromosome 11, which contains 125 predicted genes. Independents are homozygous for the ancestral sequence. One breakpoint of the inversion disrupts the essential CENP-N gene (encoding centromere protein N), and pedigree analysis confirms the lethality of homozygosity for the inversion. We describe new differences in behavior, testis size and steroid metabolism among morphs and identify polymorphic genes within the inversion that are likely to contribute to the differences among morphs in reproductive traits. PMID:26569125

  1. Effects of repeated administration of methylphenidate on reproductive parameters in male rats.

    PubMed

    Montagnini, Bruno Garcia; Silva, Luiza Sienna; dos Santos, Alice Hartmann; Anselmo-Franci, Janete Aparecida; Fernandes, Glaura Scantamburlo Alves; Mesquita, Suzana de Fátima Paccola; Gerardin, Daniela Cristina Ceccatto

    2014-06-22

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant drug which acts by blocking the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters and is the main drug used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. During puberty, changes in neurotransmitter systems (including dopaminergic system) are engaged on the release of gonadal hormones and the development of cephalic structures responsible for reproductive function. This study investigated the effects of repeated treatment with methylphenidate during development on reproductive parameters of adult male rats. Wistar rats received MPH 2.5 mg/kg, MPH 5.0 mg/kg, or distilled water (gavage) from postnatal day (PND) 21 to PND 60. At PND 100, an increase in percentage of abnormal tail morphology sperm in MPH 2.5 and increase in testicular interstitial tissue volume in MPH groups as well as in the number of type A spermatogonia in MPH 5.0 group were observed. This study demonstrated that repeated administration of methylphenidate during periods corresponding childhood to early adulthood interfered on testicular function in rats at adult life. PMID:24866909

  2. Novel Partners of SPAG11B Isoform D in the Human Male Reproductive Tract1

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Yashwanth; Hamil, Katherine G.; Tan, Jiann-an; Grossman, Gail; Petrusz, Peter; Hall, Susan H.; French, Frank S.

    2009-01-01

    Human sperm-associated antigen 11 (SPAG11) is closely related to beta-defensins in structure, expression, and function. Like the beta-defensins, SPAG11 proteins are predominantly expressed in the male reproductive tract, where their best-known major roles are in innate host defense and reproduction. Although several hypotheses have emerged to describe the evolution of beta-defensin and SPAG11 multifunctionality, few describe these multiple functions in terms of defensin interactions with specific proteins. To gain insight into the protein interaction potentials of SPAG11 and the signaling pathways that SPAG11 may influence, we used a yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis-epididymis library. The results reveal human SPAG11B isoform D (SPAG11B/D) interactions with tryptase alpha/beta 1 (TPSAB1), tetraspanin 7 (TSPAN7), and attractin (ATRN). These interactions were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase affinity matrix binding. SPAG11B/D and the three interacting proteins are expressed in the proximal epididymis, and all function in immunity and fertility pathways. We analyzed the functional consequences of SPAG11B/D interaction with TPSAB1 and showed that SPAG11B/D is both a substrate and a potent inhibitor of TPSAB1 activity. Furthermore, we show that (like SPAG11B/D) TSPAN7 and ATRN are associated with spermatozoa. PMID:19535787

  3. Novel partners of SPAG11B isoform D in the human male reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Yashwanth; Hamil, Katherine G; Tan, Jiann-An; Grossman, Gail; Petrusz, Peter; Hall, Susan H; French, Frank S

    2009-10-01

    Human sperm-associated antigen 11 (SPAG11) is closely related to beta-defensins in structure, expression, and function. Like the beta-defensins, SPAG11 proteins are predominantly expressed in the male reproductive tract, where their best-known major roles are in innate host defense and reproduction. Although several hypotheses have emerged to describe the evolution of beta-defensin and SPAG11 multifunctionality, few describe these multiple functions in terms of defensin interactions with specific proteins. To gain insight into the protein interaction potentials of SPAG11 and the signaling pathways that SPAG11 may influence, we used a yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis-epididymis library. The results reveal human SPAG11B isoform D (SPAG11B/D) interactions with tryptase alpha/beta 1 (TPSAB1), tetraspanin 7 (TSPAN7), and attractin (ATRN). These interactions were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase affinity matrix binding. SPAG11B/D and the three interacting proteins are expressed in the proximal epididymis, and all function in immunity and fertility pathways. We analyzed the functional consequences of SPAG11B/D interaction with TPSAB1 and showed that SPAG11B/D is both a substrate and a potent inhibitor of TPSAB1 activity. Furthermore, we show that (like SPAG11B/D) TSPAN7 and ATRN are associated with spermatozoa. PMID:19535787

  4. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    studies revealed a significant decrease in the mating index in experimental rats with an increase in the pre- and post-implantation losses in rats mated with prenatal AfB1-exposed males, indicating poor male reproductive performance. These results indicate that in utero exposure to AfB1 severely compromised postnatal development of neonatal rats, and caused a delay in testes descent and reduction in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis that were accomplished by suppressed reproduction at adulthood.

  5. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats.

    PubMed

    Supriya, Ch; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    studies revealed a significant decrease in the mating index in experimental rats with an increase in the pre- and post-implantation losses in rats mated with prenatal AfB1-exposed males, indicating poor male reproductive performance. These results indicate that in utero exposure to AfB1 severely compromised postnatal development of neonatal rats, and caused a delay in testes descent and reduction in steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis that were accomplished by suppressed reproduction at adulthood. PMID:25911313

  6. Abnormalities in the male reproductive system after exposure to diesel and biodiesel blend.

    PubMed

    Kisin, Elena R; Yanamala, Naveena; Farcas, Mariana T; Gutkin, Dmitriy W; Shurin, Michael R; Kagan, Valerian E; Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Shvedova, Anna A

    2015-03-01

    Altering the fuel source from petroleum-based ultralow sulfur diesel to biodiesel and its blends is considered by many to be a sustainable choice for controlling exposures to particulate material. As the exhaust of biodiesel/diesel blends is composed of a combination of combustion products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatty acid methyl esters, we hypothesize that 50% biodiesel/diesel blend (BD50) exposure could induce harmful outcomes because of its ability to trigger oxidative damage. Here, adverse effects were compared in murine male reproductive organs after pharyngeal aspiration with particles generated by engine fueled with BD50 or neat petroleum diesel (D100). When compared with D100, exposure to BD50 significantly altered sperm integrity, including concentration, motility, and morphological abnormalities, as well as increasing testosterone levels in testes during the time course postexposure. Serum level of luteinizing hormone was significantly depleted only after BD50 exposure. Moreover, we observed that exposure to BD50 significantly increased sperm DNA fragmentation and the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in the serum and testes on Day 7 postexposure when compared with D100. Histological evaluation of testes sections from BD50 exposure indicated more noticeable interstitial edema, degenerating spermatocytes, and dystrophic seminiferous tubules with arrested spermatogenesis. Significant differences in the level of oxidative stress assessed by accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and depletion of glutathione were detected on exposure to respirable BD50 and D100. Taken together, these results indicate that exposure of mice to inhalable BD50 caused more pronounced adverse effects on male reproductive function than diesel. PMID:25327512

  7. Abnormalities in the Male Reproductive System After Exposure to Diesel and Biodiesel Blend

    PubMed Central

    Kisin, Elena R.; Yanamala, Naveena; Farcas, Mariana T.; Gutkin, Dmitriy W.; Shurin, Michael R.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Bugarski, Aleksandar D.; Shvedova, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Altering the fuel source from petroleum-based ultra-low sulfur diesel to biodiesel and its blends is considered by many to be a sustainable choice for controlling exposures to particulate material. As the exhaust of biodiesel/diesel blends is composed of a combination of combustion products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatty acid methyl esters, we hypothesize that 50% biodiesel/diesel blend (BD50) exposure could induce harmful outcomes because of its ability to trigger oxidative damage. Here, adverse effects were compared in murine male reproductive organs after pharyngeal aspiration with particles generated by engine fueled with BD50 or neat petroleum diesel (D100). When compared with D100, exposure to BD50 significantly altered sperm integrity, including concentration, motility, and morphological abnormalities, as well as increasing testosterone levels in testes during the time course postexposure. Serum level of luteinizing hormone was significantly depleted only after BD50 exposure. Moreover, we observed that exposure to BD50 significantly increased sperm DNA fragmentation and the upregulation of inflammatory cytokines in the serum and testes on Day 7 postexposure when compared with D100. Histological evaluation of testes sections from BD50 exposure indicated more noticeable interstitial edema, degenerating spermatocytes, and dystrophic seminiferous tubules with arrested spermatogenesis. Significant differences in the level of oxidative stress assessed by accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and depletion of glutathione were detected on exposure to respirable BD50 and D100. Taken together, these results indicate that exposure of mice to inhalable BD50 caused more pronounced adverse effects on male reproductive function than diesel. PMID:25327512