Lim, So Young; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Arang; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Hyun Jin
Dietary intake and nutritional status of individuals are important factors affecting mental health and the development of psychiatric disorders. Majority of scientific evidence relating to mental health focuses on depression, cognitive function, and dementia, and limited evidence is available about other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. As life span of human being is increasing, the more the prevalence of mental disorders is, the more attention rises. Lists of suggested nutritional components that may be beneficial for mental health are omega-3 fatty acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, niacin, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Saturated fat and simple sugar are considered detrimental to cognitive function. Evidence on the effect of cholesterol is conflicting; however, in general, blood cholesterol levels are negatively associated with the risk of depression. Collectively, the aims of this review are to introduce known nutritional factors for mental health, and to discuss recent issues of the nutritional impact on cognitive function and healthy brain aging. PMID:27482518
Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
Burgess, Rochelle Ann
How do practitioners respond to the mental distress of HIV-affected women and communities? And do their understandings of patients’ distress matter? The World Health Organization (WHO) along with advocates from the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) champion a primary mental health care model to address burgeoning mental health needs in resource-poor HIV-affected settings. Whilst a minority of studies have begun to explore interventions to target this group of women, there is a dearth of studies that explore the broader contexts that will likely shape service outcomes, such as health sector dynamics and competing definitions of mental ill-health. This study reports on an in-depth case study of primary mental health services in a rural HIV-affected community in Northern KwaZulu-Natal. Health professionals identified as the frontline staff working within the primary mental health care model (n = 14) were interviewed. Grounded thematic analysis of interview data highlighted that practitioners employed a critical and socially anchored framework for understanding their patients’ needs. Poverty, gender and family relationships were identified as intersecting factors driving HIV-affected patients’ mental distress. In a divergence from existing evidence, practitioner efforts to act on their understandings of patient needs prioritized social responses over biomedical ones. To achieve this whilst working within a primary mental health care model, practitioners employed a series of modifications to services to increase their ability to target the sociostructural realities facing HIV-affected women with mental health issues. This article suggests that beyond attention to the crucial issues of funding and human resources that face primary mental health care, attention must also be paid to promoting the development of policies that provide practitioners with increased and more consistent opportunities to address the complex social realities that frame the mental
Burgess, Rochelle Ann
How do practitioners respond to the mental distress of HIV-affected women and communities? And do their understandings of patients' distress matter? The World Health Organization (WHO) along with advocates from the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH) champion a primary mental health care model to address burgeoning mental health needs in resource-poor HIV-affected settings. Whilst a minority of studies have begun to explore interventions to target this group of women, there is a dearth of studies that explore the broader contexts that will likely shape service outcomes, such as health sector dynamics and competing definitions of mental ill-health. This study reports on an in-depth case study of primary mental health services in a rural HIV-affected community in Northern KwaZulu-Natal. Health professionals identified as the frontline staff working within the primary mental health care model (n = 14) were interviewed. Grounded thematic analysis of interview data highlighted that practitioners employed a critical and socially anchored framework for understanding their patients' needs. Poverty, gender and family relationships were identified as intersecting factors driving HIV-affected patients' mental distress. In a divergence from existing evidence, practitioner efforts to act on their understandings of patient needs prioritized social responses over biomedical ones. To achieve this whilst working within a primary mental health care model, practitioners employed a series of modifications to services to increase their ability to target the sociostructural realities facing HIV-affected women with mental health issues. This article suggests that beyond attention to the crucial issues of funding and human resources that face primary mental health care, attention must also be paid to promoting the development of policies that provide practitioners with increased and more consistent opportunities to address the complex social realities that frame the mental distress
Tsakiris, Manos; Critchley, Hugo
Interoception refers to the sensing of the internal state of one's body. Interoception is distinct from the processing of sensory information concerning external (non-self) stimuli (e.g. vision, hearing, touch and smell) and is the afferent axis to internal (autonomic and hormonal) physiological control. However, the impact of interoception extends beyond homeostatic/allostatic reflexes: it is proposed to be fundamental to motivation, emotion (affective feelings and behaviours), social cognition and self-awareness. This view is supported by a growing body of experimental evidence that links peripheral physiological states to mental processes. Within this framework, the representation of self is constructed from early development through continuous integrative representation of biological data from the body, to form the basis for those aspects of conscious awareness grounded on the subjective sense of being a unique individual. This theme issue of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B draws together state-of-the-art knowledge concerning theoretical, experimental and clinical facets of interoception with the emphasis on cognitive and affective neuroscience. The multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary perspectives represented in this theme issue disseminate and entrench knowledge about interoception across the scientific community and provide a reference for the conceptualization and further study of interoception across behavioural sciences. PMID:28080961
Stanton, Robert; Reaburn, Peter; Happell, Brenda
Acute exercise performed at a self-selected intensity improves affect and may improve long-term adherence. Similarly, in people with severe depression, acute aerobic exercise performed at self-selected intensity improves affect and arousal. However, the relationship between changes in affect and arousal and perceived exercise intensity in people with mental illness has not been evaluated. Affect and arousal were assessed immediately prior to, and immediately following, a group exercise program performed at a self-selected intensity in 40 inpatient mental health consumers who received a diagnosis of anxiety or bipolar or depressive disorders. Exercise intensity was assessed immediately after exercise. Postexercise affect was significantly improved for people with bipolar and depressive disorders but not for people with anxiety disorders. For the group as a whole, results showed a significant curvilinear relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and postexercise affect. These data will inform the development and delivery of future exercise interventions for inpatient mental health consumers.
Lee, Sungkyu; Matejkowski, Jason; Han, Woojae
Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined the extent to which the utilization of various mental health services was associated with racial-ethnic identity among people with major affective disorders who have a criminal history. Approximately 33.7 % of the sample received any type of mental health services in a given year. Multivariate models indicated that married Blacks and Latinos were less likely to use specialty mental health care than their white counterparts. To provide equitable mental health treatment for vulnerable subgroups of this population, mental health professionals should account for the heterogeneity of mental health care in diverse cultural contexts.
Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O
External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.
Greene, Carolyn J.; Morland, Leslie A.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Frueh, B. Christopher; Grubbs, Kathleen M.; Rosen, Craig S.
Objective: Video teleconferencing (VTC) is used for mental health treatment delivery to geographically remote, underserved populations. However, few studies have examined how VTC affects individual or group psychotherapy processes. This study compares process variables such as therapeutic alliance and attrition among participants receiving anger…
... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... mental health should be part of your complete medical evaluation before starting antiretroviral medications. And you should ...
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Charrow, Alexandra P.; Tol, Wietse A.
Background Children and adolescents exposed to armed conflict are at high risk of developing mental health problems. To date, a range of psychosocial approaches and clinical/psychiatric interventions has been used to address mental health needs in these groups. Aims To provide an overview of peer-reviewed psychosocial and mental health interventions designed to address mental health needs of conflict-affected children, and to highlight areas in which policy and research need strengthening. Methods We used standard review methodology to identify interventions aimed at improving or treating mental health problems in conflict-affected youth. An ecological lens was used to organize studies according to the individual, family, peer/school, and community factors targeted by each intervention. Interventions were also evaluated for their orientation toward prevention, treatment, or maintenance, and for the strength of the scientific evidence of reported effects. Results Of 2305 studies returned from online searches of the literature and 21 sources identified through bibliography mining, 58 qualified for full review, with 40 peer-reviewed studies included in the final narrative synthesis. Overall, the peer-reviewed literature focused largely on school-based interventions. Very few family and community-based interventions have been empirically evaluated. Only two studies assessed multilevel or stepped-care packages. Conclusions The evidence base on effective and efficacious interventions for conflict-affected youth requires strengthening. Postconflict development agendas must be retooled to target the vulnerabilities characterizing conflict-affected youth, and these approaches must be collaborative across bodies responsible for the care of youth and families. PMID:23656831
... Myths and Facts Recovery is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social ... mental health problems and where to find help . Mental Health and Wellness Positive mental health allows people to: ...
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Williams, Timothy
This paper reviews what is currently known from research about the effectiveness of interventions to address mental health problems in children and adolescents affected by armed conflict. The focus will be on interventions delivered in conflict affected countries either during active humanitarian emergencies or during the post conflict period. The paper will discuss two main paradigms of intervention dominating the field: psychosocial approaches and clinical/psychiatric approaches. The paper reviews some of the basic literature, theories and issues involved in assessment, programme planning, monitoring and evaluation of both approaches. In order to explore these issues in depth, the paper will draw from the author’s field experiences with research in the Russian Federation and in northern Uganda. The paper also presents a brief review of a handful of other published evaluations of mental health interventions for war affected children. We will close with a discussion of what future research is needed to build an evidence base regarding mental health interventions for children affected by armed conflict as well as the ethical and feasibility issues associated with carrying out this work. PMID:19997531
Smaldone, Arlene; Cullen-Drill, Mary
Although recognition and treatment of mental health disorders have become integrated into routine medical care, inequities remain regarding limits on mental health outpatient visits and higher copayments and deductibles required for mental health services when accessed. Two federal laws were passed by Congress in 2008: The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act and the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act. Both laws became effective on January 1, 2010. The purpose of this article is to discuss provisions of each act and provide clinical examples describing how patients are affected by lack of parity and may potentially benefit from implementation of these new laws. Using available evidence, we examine the potential strengths and limitations of mental health parity legislation from the health policy perspectives of health care access, cost, and quality and identify the important role of nurses as patient and mental health parity advocates.
Tello-Rodríguez, Tania; Alarcón, Renato D; Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin
Numerous biological, psychological, and social factors influence the mental health of elderly individuals to varying degrees. Apart from components related to the normal aging process and the co-occurrence of various medical conditions, events such as the death of a loved one, retirement, or disability significantly contribute to a variety of mental and emotional problems in this stage of the life cycle. The most frequent problems affect the neurocognitive, emotional, and oneiric spheres. Major neurocognitive disorders reduce one's overall performance and, thus, increase their need for close care. Affective disorders may be exacerbated by the lack of family support and decreased social interactions, which may lead to significant isolation result in suicidal behavior. The increased frequency of sleep disorders such as insomnia and daytime sleepiness and specific disorders such as obstructive apnea significantly alter the quality of life of this population.
Cosgrave, Catherine; Maple, Myfanwy; Hussain, Rafat
Objective The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the job satisfaction and subsequent retention of Aboriginal mental health workers (AMHWs).Methods Five AMHWs working in New South Wales (NSW) for NSW Health in rural and remote community mental health (CMH) services participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand how employment and rural living factors affected workers' decisions to stay or leave their CMH positions.Results Using a constructivist grounded theory analysis, three aspects negatively impacting the job satisfaction of AMHWs were identified: (1) difficulties being accepted into the team and organisation; (2) culturally specific work challenges; and (3) professional differences and inequality.Conclusions Policy and procedural changes to the AMHW training program may address the lower remuneration and limited career opportunities identified with regard to the Bachelor Health Sciences (Mental Health) qualification. Delivering training to increase levels of understanding about the AMHW training program, and cultural awareness generally, to CMH staff and NSW Health management may assist in addressing the negative team, organisational and cultural issues identified.What is known about the topic? The Bachelor Health Sciences (Mental Health) qualification and traineeship pathway undertaken by AMHWs differs significantly from that of other health professionals working in NSW Health's CMH services. The health workforce literature identifies that each health professional group has its own culture and specific values and that forming and maintaining a profession-specific identity is an extremely important aspect of job satisfaction for health workers.What does the paper add? AMHWs working in rural and remote NSW CMH services commonly experience low levels of job satisfaction, especially while undertaking the embedded training program. Of particular concern is the health sciences qualification not translating into NSW Health
Background Low-income urban working mothers face many challenges in their domestic, environmental, and working conditions that may affect their mental health. In India, a high prevalence of mental health disorders has been recorded in young women, but there has been little research to examine the factors that affect their mental health at home and work. Methods Through a primarily qualitative approach, we studied the relationship between work, caring for family, spousal support, stress relief strategies and mental health amongst forty eight low-income working mothers residing in urban slums across Bangalore, India. Participants were construction workers, domestic workers, factory workers and fruit and vegetable street vendors. Qualitative data analysis themes included state of mental health, factors that affected mental health positively or negatively, manifestations and consequences of stress and depression, and stress mitigators. Results Even in our small sample of women, we found evidence of extreme depression, including suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Women who have an alcoholic and/or abusive husband, experience intimate partner violence, are raising children with special needs, and lack adequate support for child care appear to be more susceptible to severe and prolonged periods of depression and suicide attempts. Factors that pointed towards reduced anxiety and depression were social support from family, friends and colleagues and fulfilment from work. Conclusion This qualitative study raises concerns that low-income working mothers in urban areas in India are at high risk for depression, and identifies common factors that create and mitigate stress in this population group. We discuss implications of the findings for supporting the mental health of urban working women in the Indian context. The development of the national mental health policy in India and its subsequent implementation should draw on existing research documenting factors associated
Caspi, A; Taylor, A; Moffitt, T E; Plomin, R
The possibility that neighborhood conditions affect children's development has captured much attention because of its implications for prevention. But does growing up in deprived neighborhoods matter above and beyond a genetic liability to behavior problems, if genetically vulnerable families tend to concentrate in poor neighborhoods? A nationwide study of 2-year-old twins shows that children in deprived neighborhoods were at increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems over and above any genetic liability. Environmental factors shared by members of a family accounted for 20% of the population variation in children's behavior problems, and neighborhood deprivation accounted for 5% of this family-wide environmental effect. The results suggest that the link between poor neighborhoods and children's mental health may be a true environmental effect, and demonstrate that genetic designs are environmentally informative and can be used to identify modifiable risk factors for promoting child health.
Betancourt, Theresa Stichick; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Beardslee, William R.; Stulac, Sara N.; Fayida, Ildephonse; Safren, Steven
In assessing the mental health of HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa, researchers often employ mental health measures developed in other settings. However, measures derived from standard Western psychiatric criteria are frequently based on conceptual models of illness or terminology that may or may not be an appropriate for diverse populations. Understanding local perceptions of mental health problems can aid in the selection or creation of appropriate measures. This study used qualitative methodologies (Free Listing [FL], Key Informant [KI] interviews, and Clinician Interviews [C-KIs]) to understand local perceptions of mental health problems facing HIV/AIDS-affected youth in Rwinkwavu, Rwanda. Several syndrome terms were identified by participants: agahinda kenshi, kwiheba, guhangayika, ihahamuka, umushiha and uburara. While these local syndromes share some similarities with Western mood, anxiety, and conduct disorders, they also contain important culture-specific features and gradations of severity. Our findings underscore the importance of understanding local manifestations of mental health syndromes when conducting mental health assessments and when planning interventions for HIV/AIDS-affected children and adolescents in diverse settings. PMID:21271393
Souza, Renato; Bernatsky, Sasha; Reyes, Rosalie; de Jong, Kaz
The authors determined the prevalence of severe emotional distress and depressive symptoms using the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-25 (HSCL; Derogatis, Lipman, Rickels, Uhlenhuth, & Covi, 1974) in tsunami-affected communities that had experienced armed conflict arising from the ongoing independence movement in Aceh Province, Indonesia. We also evaluated determinants of severe emotional distress. The data were collected for the purposes of a mental health assessment. In our sample (N = 262), 83.6% demonstrated severe emotional distress, and 77.1% demonstrated depressive symptoms. In multivariate regression models, severe emotional distress was positively associated with the number of tsunami-related deaths among household members. Our data suggests a need for effective interventions in this vulnerable population.
Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Byrne, Michelle L; Strikwerda-Brown, Cherie; Kerestes, Rebecca; Seal, Marc L; Olsson, Craig A; Dudgeon, Paul; Mundy, Lisa K; Patton, George C; Allen, Nicholas B
Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in children, has been associated with mental health and behavioral problems. However, little is known about effects of adreneracheal timing on brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early adrenarche (defined by high DHEA levels independent of age) on affective brain function and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood (N = 83, 43 females, M age 9.53 years, s.d. 0.34 years). Results showed that higher DHEA levels were associated with decreased affect-related brain activity (i) in the mid-cingulate cortex in the whole sample, and (ii) in a number of cortical and subcortical regions in female but not male children. Higher DHEA levels were also associated with increased externalizing symptoms in females, an association that was partly mediated by posterior insula activation to happy facial expressions. These results suggest that timing of adrenarche is an important moderator of affect-related brain function, and that this may be one mechanism linking early adrenarche to psychopathology.
Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G.; Byrne, Michelle L.; Strikwerda-Brown, Cherie; Kerestes, Rebecca; Seal, Marc L.; Olsson, Craig A.; Dudgeon, Paul; Mundy, Lisa K.; Patton, George C.
Early timing of adrenarche, associated with relatively high levels of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in children, has been associated with mental health and behavioral problems. However, little is known about effects of adreneracheal timing on brain function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of early adrenarche (defined by high DHEA levels independent of age) on affective brain function and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood (N = 83, 43 females, M age 9.53 years, s.d. 0.34 years). Results showed that higher DHEA levels were associated with decreased affect-related brain activity (i) in the mid-cingulate cortex in the whole sample, and (ii) in a number of cortical and subcortical regions in female but not male children. Higher DHEA levels were also associated with increased externalizing symptoms in females, an association that was partly mediated by posterior insula activation to happy facial expressions. These results suggest that timing of adrenarche is an important moderator of affect-related brain function, and that this may be one mechanism linking early adrenarche to psychopathology. PMID:25678548
Amaranto, Ernesto A.; Wepman, Barry J.
The five-year growth of an active Student Mental Health Service (SMHS) in an urban academic health center is described. The function of SMHS is limited strictly to therapeutic and consultative services for the students and operates as an outpatient treatment facility using a standard 12-session goal-oriented treatment plan. (LBH)
Betancourt, T.S.; Meyers-Ohki, S.E.; Charrow, A.; Hansen, N.
Background To date, research on mental health in HIV-affected children (children who have an HIV-positive caregiver or live with the virus themselves) has focused on risk factors associated with the disease. However, simultaneous identification of factors that contribute to resilience in the face of risks is also needed. A greater understanding of modifiable protective processes that contribute to resilience in the mental health of children affected by HIV can inform the design of interventions that bolster naturally-occurring supports and contribute to early prevention or better management of risks. Methods We reviewed the recent literature on mental health and resilience in children and adolescents affected by HIV/AIDS. Literature searches of PsycInfo and PubMed were conducted during July-December 2011 consistent with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards. Qualitative and quantitative studies were included for review if primary research questions pertained to mental health and coping or protective processes in children and families affected by HIV/AIDS. All studies subject to full review were evaluated for quality using a modified Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR) rating system. Results 171 unique studies were returned from online searches of the literature and bibliography mining. Of these, 29 were evaluated as pertaining directly to mental health and resilience in families and children living with HIV/AIDS. Eight studies presented qualitative analyses. Ten quantitative studies examined individual resources contributing to child resilience and four quantitative studies looked at family-level resources. Ten studies also investigated community-level interactions. Four presented findings from resilience-focused interventions. Conclusions There is a clear need for rigorous research on mental health and resilience in HIV-affected children and adolescents. The evidence base would greatly
Miller, Matthew J.; Yang, Minji; Farrell, Jerome A.; Lin, Li-Ling
In this study, we employed structural equation modeling to test the degree to which racism-related stress, acculturative stress, and bicultural self-efficacy were predictive of mental health in a predominantly community-based sample of 367 Asian American adults. We also tested whether bicultural self-efficacy moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and mental health. Finally, we examined whether generational status moderated the impact of racial and cultural predictors of mental health by testing our model across immigrant and U.S.-born samples. Results indicated that our hypothesized structural model represented a good fit to the total sample data. While racism-related stress, acculturative stress, and bicultural self-efficacy were significant predictors of mental health in the total sample analyses, our generational analyses revealed a differential predictive pattern across generational status. Finally, we found that the buffering effect of bicultural self-efficacy on the relationship between acculturative stress and mental health was significant for U.S.-born individuals only. Implications for research and service delivery are explored. PMID:21977934
Mental health is everyone's business the Australian College of Mental Health Nurses and the Wesley Mission affirmed last month. In the midst of a burgeoning demand for mental health services, the lack of funds allocated to mental health as part of a $7.3 billion health package in the federal budget does not add up.
War, Firdous Ahmad; Ved, Rifat Saroosh; Paul, Mohammad Altaf
The primary purpose of this paper was to compare the epidemiology of mental health problems and self-esteem of conflict hit adolescents living in charitable seminaries with their counterparts brought up in natural homes. Substantive body of the literature illustrates the emotional and behavioral issues experienced by these adolescents. In this study, 27 adolescents from a charitable Muslim seminary and 30 adolescents from a regular school were recruited. Self-report measures and clinical interview were used to measure mental health and self-esteem. The findings indicate that adolescents in institution setting may not be having mental health and self-esteem-related issues when compared to adolescents living in intact by parent homes. While the authors acknowledge the limitations of the study, these findings need further research to examine the causes for these differences.
Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi
This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.
Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark; Macedo, Ana; Croome, Natasha; Sherr, Lorraine
There is strong evidence that both adults and children infected with and affected by HIV have high levels of mental health burden. Yet there have been few studies investigating carer mental health outcomes in the context of HIV in Malawi and South Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the mental health of carers of children affected by HIV as a part of the Child Community Care study, which aims to generate evidence on the effectiveness of community-based organisation (CBO) services to improve child outcomes. In a cross sectional study, we interviewed 952 carers of children (aged 4 to 13 years) attending 28 randomly selected CBOs funded by 11 major donors in South Africa and Malawi. Psychological morbidity was measured using the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) and suicidal ideation was measured using an item from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Carers were asked about care-seeking for emotional problems. Overall, 28% of carers scored above the clinical cut-off for current psychological morbidity and 12.2% reported suicidal ideation. We used logistic regression models to test factors associated with poor outcomes. Household unemployment, living with a sick family member, and perceived lack of support from the community were associated with both psychological morbidity and suicidal ideation in carers. Reported child food insecurity was also associated with psychological morbidity. In addition, carers living in South Africa were more likely to present with psychological morbidity and suicidal ideation than carers in Malawi. Rates of help-seeking for mental health problems were low. Carers of children affected by HIV are at risk for mental health problems as a result of HIV, socio-economic, care-giving and community factors. We call for increased recognition of the potential role of CBOs in providing mental health care and support for families as a means to improve equity in mental health care. Specifically, we highlight the need for increased
Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol; Petit, Pilar; Ghitis, Frida; Sivilli, Teresa I.; Scholte, Willem F.; Ager, Alastair; Eriksson, Cynthia
In the aftermath of the civil war that extended from 1983–2009, humanitarian organizations provided aid to the conflict-affected population of the Vanni region in northern Sri Lanka. In August, 2010, a needs assessment was conducted to determine the mental-health status of Sri Lankan national humanitarian aid staff working in conditions of stress and hardship, and consider contextual and organizational characteristics influencing such status. A total of 398 staff members from nine organizations working in the Vanni area participated in the survey, which assessed stress, work characteristics, social support, coping styles, and symptoms of psychological distress. Exposure to traumatic, chronic, and secondary stressors was common. Nineteen percent of the population met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 53% of participants reported elevated anxiety symptoms, and 58% reported elevated depression symptoms. Those reporting high levels of support from their organizations were less likely to suffer depression and PTSD symptoms than those reporting lower levels of staff support (OR =.23, p < .001) and (OR =.26, p < .001), respectively. Participants who were age 55 or older were significantly less likely to suffer anxiety symptoms than those who were between 15 and 34 years of age (OR =.13, p = .011). Having experienced travel difficulties was significantly associated with more anxiety symptoms (OR = 3.35, p < .001). It was recommended that organizations provide stress-management training and increase support to their staff. PMID:27099648
Friborg, Oddgeir; Emaus, Nina; Rosenvinge, Jan H.; Bilden, Unni; Olsen, Jan Abel; Pettersen, Gunn
This general population-based study examined associations between violence and mental health, musculoskeletal pain, and early disability pension. The prevalence and consequences of good vs. poor adjustment (resilience vs. vulnerability) following encounters with violence were also examined. Data were based on the sixth wave of the “Tromsø Study” (N = 12,981; 65.7% response rate, 53.4% women, M-age = 57.5 years, SD-age = 12.7 years). Self-reported data on psychological (threats) and physical violence (beaten/kicked), mental health (anxiety/depression), musculoskeletal pain (MSP), and granting of disability pension (DP) were collected. Men suffered more violent events during childhood than women did, and vice versa during adulthood. Psychological violence implied poorer mental health and slightly more MSP than physical violence. The risk of MSP was highest for violence occurring during childhood in women and during the last year for men. A dose-response relationship between an increasing number of violent encounters and poorer health was observed. About 58% of individuals reported no negative impact of violence (hence, resilience group), whereas 42% considered themselves as more vulnerable following encounters with violence. Regression analyses indicated comparable mental health but slightly more MSP in the resilience group compared to the unexposed group, whereas the vulnerable group had significantly worse health overall and a higher risk of early granting of DP. Resilience is not an all-or-nothing matter, as physical ailments may characterize individuals adapting well following encounters with violence. PMID:26317970
Background Bangladesh has the highest natural disaster mortality rate in the world, with over half a million people lost to disaster events since 1970. Most of these people have died during floods or cyclones, both of which are likely to become more frequent due to global climate change. To date, the government’s post-disaster response strategy has focused, increasingly effectively, on the physical needs of survivors, through the provision of shelter, food and medical care. However, the serious and widespread mental health consequences of natural disasters in Bangladesh have not yet received the attention that they deserve. This Debate article proposes a practical model that will facilitate the provision of comprehensive and effective post-disaster mental health services for vulnerable Bangladeshis on a sustainable basis. Discussion A series of socially determined factors render the women and the poor of Bangladesh particularly vulnerable to dying in natural disasters; and, for those who survive, to suffering from some sort of disaster-related mental health illness. For women, this is largely due to the enforced gender separation, or purdah, that they endure; while for the poor, it is the fact that they are, by definition, only able to afford to live in the most climatically dangerous, and under-served parts of the country. Although the disasters themselves are brought by nature, therefore, social determinants increase the vulnerability of particular groups to mental illness as a result of them. While deeply entrenched, these determinants are at least partially amenable to change through policy and action. Summary In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the World Health Organisation developed a framework for providing mental health and psychosocial support after major disasters, which, we argue, could be adapted to Bangladeshi post-cyclone and post-flood contexts. The framework is community-based, it includes both medical and non-clinical components, and it
Foyle, M F; Beer, M D; Watson, J P
This paper reviews the historical aspects of expatriate mental health, and comments on the paucity of literature in the medical and psychiatric journals. Data obtained from 397 expatriate probands examined during overseas service are described. It was noted that there was a high incidence of affective and adjustment disorders. The results showed six areas significantly related to those with affective disorders at interview, namely a history of consultation for psychological problems in out-patient departments or with the patient's own doctor, a history of depressed mood, and a family history of suicide, psychosis or personality disorder. Subjects with adjustment disorders at interview showed a significant positive correlation with four stressors (occupational anxiety, home country anxieties, acculturation and physical ill-health), but showed a negative association with a past personal history of consultation for psychological problems at out-patient departments or with their own doctors. These findings are discussed and practical applications suggested for improving expatriate mental health.
Shah, Safieh; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Van Bellinghen, Benedicte; Severy, Nathalie; Sadiq, Sana; Afridi, Sher Ali; Akhtar, Asma; Maïkére, Jacob; Van Overloop, Catherine; Saeed-ur-Rehman; Khilji, Tahir Bashir-ud-Din; Saleem-ur-Rehman; van Griensven, Johan; Schneider, Serge; Bosman, Philippe; Guillergan, Erwin Lloyd D.; Dazzi, Francesca; Zachariah, Rony
Background North West Pakistan is an area ravaged by conflict and population displacement for over three decades. Recently, drone attacks and military operations have aggravated underlying mental disorders, while access to care is limited. Among patients attending a mental health clinic integrated in district hospital conducted by psychologists; we describe service utilization, patient characteristics, presenting complaints, morbidity patterns, and follow-up details. Methodology/Principal Findings A retrospective study using routinely collected programme data was conducted from February to December 2012. A total of 1545 consultations were conducted for 928 patients (86% females). There were 71(8%) children and adolescents. An increase was observed from February to July, followed by a decline. 163 new patients (18%) were on psychotropic medication at presentation. The most common morbidity in females (36%) were symptoms of adjustment disorders and acute reactions. Depression and anxiety were common in both genders while post traumatic disorder was frequent in males (21%). Out of the 928 new patients, 639(69%) had a follow up visit planned with their psychologist, but only 220(34%) new patients returned for a follow up visit. Conclusion In a district hospital, mental health services managed by psychologists were well attended. There is a need to consider widening the current package of care to cater to the diversity of mental health disorders, gender difference, children and adolescents. Standardized diagnostic and monitoring tools would also need to be adapted accordingly and to assess patient progress. Innovative approaches to tackle the problem of the low return rate are needed. PMID:24963793
Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Garza, Monica; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Medvedeva, Angela; Bogiaizian, Daniel; Robles, Zuzuky; Manning, Kara; Schmidt, Norman B
From a public health perspective, primary care medical settings represent a strategic location to address mental health disapirty among Latinos. Yet, there is little empirical work that addresses affective vulnerability processes for mental health problems in such settings. To help address this gap in knowledge, the present investigation examined an interactive model of negative affectivity (tendency to experience negative mood states) and anxiety sensitivity (fear of the negative consequences of aversive sensations) among a Latino sample in primary care in terms of a relatively wide range of anxiety/depression indices. Participants included 390 Latino adults (Mage=38.7, SD=11.3; 86.9% female; 95.6% reported Spanish as first language) from a primary care health clinic. Primary dependent measures included depressive, suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, number of mood and anxiety disorders, and disability. Consistent with prediction, the interaction between negative affectivity and anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to suicidal, social anxiety, and anxious arousal symptoms, as well as number of mood/anxiety diagnoses and disability among the primary care Latino sample. The form of the interactions indicated a synergistic effect, such that the greatest levels of each outcome were found among those with high negative affectivity and high anxiety sensitivity. There was a trending interaction for depressive symptoms. Overall, these data provide novel empirical evidence suggesting that there is a clinically-relevant interplay between anxiety sensitivity and negative affectivity in regard to the expression of anxiety and depressive symptoms among a Latino primary care sample.
Prieto-Welch, Susan L.
This chapter describes the mental health status of international students in institutions of higher education, unique challenges these students face and their impact on mental health, and suggestions for ways to address these challenges.
... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...
Sharma, Manasi; Fine, Shoshanna L; Brennan, Robert T; Betancourt, Theresa S
This study explored how coping with war-related traumatic events in Sierra Leone impacted mental health outcomes among 529 youth (aged 10-17 at baseline; 25% female) using longitudinal data from three time points (Time 1 in 2002, Time 2 in 2004, and Time 3 in 2008). We examined two types of coping items (approach and avoidance); used multiple regression models to test their relations with long-term mental health outcomes (internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, adaptive/prosocial behaviors, and posttraumatic stress symptoms); and used mediation analyses to test whether coping explained the relation between previous war exposures (being raped, death of parent(s), or killing/injuring someone during the war) and those outcomes. We found that avoidance coping items were associated with lower internalizing and posttraumatic stress behaviors at Time 3, and provided some evidence of mediating the relation between death of parent(s) during the war and the two outcomes mentioned above. Approach coping was associated with higher Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors, whereas avoidance coping was associated with lower Time 3 adaptive/prosocial behaviors. Avoidance coping may be a protective factor against mental illness, whereas approach coping may be a promotive factor for adaptive/prosocial behaviors in war-affected societies. This study has important implications for designing and implementing mental health interventions for youth in postconflict settings.
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Ng, Lauren C.; Kirk, Catherine M.; Munyanah, Morris; Mushashi, Christina; Ingabire, Charles; Teta, Sharon; Beardslee, William R.; Brennan, Robert T.; Zahn, Ista; Stulac, Sara; Cyamatare, Felix R.; Sezibera, Vincent
Objective The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an intervention to reduce mental health problems and bolster resilience among children living in households affected by caregiver HIV in Rwanda. Design Pre-post design, including 6-month follow-up. Methods The Family Strengthening Intervention (FSI) aims to reduce mental health problems among HIV-affected children through improved child–caregiver relationships, family communication and parenting skills, HIV psychoeducation and connections to resources. Twenty families (N=39 children) with at least one HIV-positive caregiver and one child 7–17 years old were enrolled in the FSI. Children and caregivers were administered locally adapted and validated measures of child mental health problems, as well as measures of protective processes and parenting. Assessments were administered at pre and postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Multilevel models accounting for clustering by family tested changes in outcomes of interest. Qualitative interviews were completed to understand acceptability, feasibility and satisfaction with the FSI. Results Families reported high satisfaction with the FSI. Caregiver-reported improvements in family connectedness, good parenting, social support and children's pro-social behaviour (P<0.05) were sustained and strengthened from postintervention to 6-month follow-up. Additional improvements in caregiver-reported child perseverance/self-esteem, depression, anxiety and irritability were seen at follow-up (P<.05). Significant decreases in child-reported harsh punishment were observed at postintervention and follow-up, and decreases in caregiver reported harsh punishment were also recorded on follow-up (P<0.05). Conclusion The FSI is a feasible and acceptable intervention that shows promise for improving mental health symptoms and strengthening protective factors among children and families affected by HIV in low-resource settings. PMID:24991909
DU, Hongfei; LI, Xiaoming; WEINSTEIN, Traci L.; CHI, Peilian; ZHAO, Junfeng; ZHAO, Guoxiang
Teachers are considered to be one of the most important influences in the lives of students. Teachers’ assessments of students may be a primary source of information on children’s mental and behavioral health; however, this topic has received little attention in research. We examined this issue through linking teachers’ ratings of students and mental and behavioral outcomes of children affected by HIV. The hypothesis is that teacher ratings will be predictive of specific child mental and behavioral health outcomes. A quantitative cross-sectional design with self-administered paper-and-pencil instruments was used. The sample included 1221 children (ages 6-18, grades 1-11) affected by HIV including 755 orphans who lost one or both parents to AIDS and 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents in a central province of China. The corresponding teacher sample included 185 participants. Each child completed an assessment inventory of demographic information, mental and behavioral health measures. Teachers completed a questionnaire about children’s school performance. SEM analyses revealed a good model fit according to all fit indices, CFI = .93, RMSEA = .07, SRMR = .04. Structural equation modeling revealed that problem ratings by teachers were positively associated with child loneliness and behavioral problems, social competence ratings by teachers were negatively related to child depression, and personal growth and social interaction ratings by teachers were negatively related to child loneliness, depression, and trauma. The current study represents a unique contribution to the field, in that it recognizes that teachers can be a valuable source of information on children’s psychological health. Results from this study have implications for health prevention and intervention for children and families suffering from HIV /AIDS. PMID:25703050
Fellinger, Johannes; Holzinger, Daniel; Pollard, Robert
Deafness is a heterogeneous condition with far-reaching effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Onset before language has been established happens in about seven per 10,000 people. Increased rates of mental health problems are reported in deaf people. Many regard themselves as members of a cultural minority who use sign language. In this Review, we describe discrepancies between a high burden of common mental health disorders and barriers to health care. About a quarter of deaf individuals have additional disabilities and a high probability of complex mental health needs. Research into factors affecting mental health of deaf children shows that early access to effective communication with family members and peers is desirable. Improved access to health and mental health care can be achieved by provision of specialist services with professionals trained to directly communicate with deaf people and with sign-language interpreters.
Eisenman, David; Weine, Stevan; Green, Bonnie; de Jong, Joop; Rayburn, Nadine; Ventevogel, Peter; Keller, Allen; Agani, Ferid
Mental health care for trauma-exposed populations in conflict-affected developing countries often is provided by primary healthcare providers (PHPs), including doctors, nurses, and lay health workers. The Task Force on International Trauma Training, through an initiative sponsored by the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies and the RAND Corporation, has developed evidence- and consensus-based guidelines for the mental health training of PHPs in conflict-affected developing countries. This article presents the Guidelines, which provide a conceptual framework and specific principles for improving the quality of mental health training for PHPs working with trauma-exposed populations.
Math, Suresh Bada; Nirmala, Maria Christine; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C.
Disaster mental health is based on the principles of ‘preventive medicine’ This principle has necessitated a paradigm shift from relief centered post-disaster management to a holistic, multi-dimensional integrated community approach of health promotion, disaster prevention, preparedness and mitigation. This has ignited the paradigm shift from curative to preventive aspects of disaster management. This can be understood on the basis of six ‘R’s such as Readiness (Preparedness), Response (Immediate action), Relief (Sustained rescue work), Rehabilitation (Long term remedial measures using community resources), Recovery (Returning to normalcy) and Resilience (Fostering). Prevalence of mental health problems in disaster affected population is found to be higher by two to three times than that of the general population. Along with the diagnosable mental disorders, affected community also harbours large number of sub-syndromal symptoms. Majority of the acute phase reactions and disorders are self-limiting, whereas long-term phase disorders require assistance from mental health professionals. Role of psychotropic medication is very limited in preventing mental health morbidity. The role of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) in mitigating the mental health morbidity appears to be promising. Role of Psychological First Aid (PFA) and debriefing is not well-established. Disaster management is a continuous and integrated cyclical process of planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures to prevent and to manage disaster effectively. Thus, now it is time to integrate public health principles into disaster mental health. PMID:26664073
... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...
Psychoanalytic thinkers have been writing about children's struggles with affect for many years (E. Furman, 1956; Katan, 1973; Chused, 1999; Gilmore, 2005). They have reported on mothers' inability to provide containment and fathers' use of physical punishment, attesting to their own affect intolerance and only making matters worse (Axelman, 2009; Bierman, Silverstein, Finesinger, 1958; Coen, 1998). So, what is different about this article? I'm certainly not the first to insist that we live in an affect-intolerant society, with many parents seeking psychotropic assistance rather than attempting to understand their children's feelings. Nor am I the only one who wags her finger at mental health professionals who freely prescribe. But there you have it. I am willing to report on my own countertransference--the villains who threatened to undermine my treatment with a boy named Joey.
Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Peeter; Värnik, Airi; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Balint, Maria; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Feldman, Dana; Haring, Christian; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Tubiana, Alexandra; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Camilla; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W.; Wasserman, Danuta
Objective: In support of a whole-school approach to mental health promotion, this study was conducted to find out whether and how significantly teachers' satisfaction with school and their subjective psychological well-being are related to the belief that they can help pupils with mental health problems. Design: Cross-sectional data were collected…
... Health > Women veterans and mental health Mental Health Women veterans and mental health Post-traumatic stress disorder ( ... hurt you. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and women veterans PTSD can occur after you have been ...
Behere, Prakash B.; Das, Anweshak; Yadav, Richa; Behere, Aniruddh P.
In this chapter, the relation between religion and mental health and vice versa has been described. From primitive times different religions have different beliefs and systems of worshipping. Every religion with their belief system has implications on mental health and illness. We described how Hindu system of beliefs and rituals may have an effect in causation of various mental illnesses. It is also described how religion can help an individual to sustain one's life in various domains. The relationship between different religion and symptomatology is described. The impact and outcome of religion on mental health have been highlighted. PMID:23858253
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Bartee, Edwin M.; Kelly, Jacquelyn M.
Critical reasons for frustration and circularity in the formulation and implementation of mental health policy are analyzed. The primary reason proposed is the lack of equal, systematic and structurally-reinforced participation of mental health services consumers and their communities in the planning and implementing of policy and programs. This…
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...
The poor physical health faced by people with mental illness has been the subject of growing attention, but there has been less focus on the issue of oral health even though it is an important part of physical health. This article discusses the two-way association between oral and mental health. In one direction, the prospect of dental treatment can lead to anxiety and phobia. In the other, many psychiatric disorders, such as severe mental illness, affective disorders, and eating disorders, are associated with dental disease: These include erosion, caries, and periodontitis. Left untreated, dental diseases can lead to teeth loss such that people with severe mental illness have 2.7 times the likelihood of losing all their teeth, compared with the general population. Possible interventions include oral health assessments using standard checklists that can be completed by nondental personnel, help with oral hygiene, management of iatrogenic dry mouth, and early dental referral. PMID:27254802
GUREJE, OYE; OLOWOSEGUN, OLUYOMI; ADEBAYO, KAZEEM; STEIN, DAN J.
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of non-affective psychosis among adult Nigerians. It was part of the Nigerian Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing and was conducted in 8 out of the 22 states in Nigeria, representing about 22% of the national population. Face-to-face interviews with adults aged 18 years and over were administered using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3 (CIDI.3). Clinical reappraisal was conducted by clinicians on a subsample of respondents. The CIDI.3 was found to have acceptable agreement with clinician-administered assessments, with kappa values ranging between 0.52 to 0.72, respectively, for narrowly-defined and broad categories of non-affective psychosis. The lifetime prevalence of non-affective psychosis was 2.1%, with visual hallucinations being the most commonly reported symptom and delusions of reference the least. Non-affective psy-chosis was significantly more common among urban dwellers. Persons with non-affective psychosis were at elevated risk to report both lifetime and 12-month comorbid DSM-IV disorders as well as to experience impairment in basic and instrumental role functioning. Only a minority had received any treatment. PMID:20148161
Francis, Karen Belinda
Background: Cultural and linguistic competence is widely viewed as a strategy for addressing disparities in health and mental health care. Organizational activities towards the integration and implementation of cultural and linguistic competence span the gamut to include training, workforce development, policy development and standards that inform…
Klebanov, Pamela Kato; And Others
Estimated effects of neighborhood and family poverty on maternal psychological and behavioral characteristics using data from 895 mothers. Neighborhood poverty was associated with poorer home physical environment and with less maternal warmth, controlling for family conditions. Home environment was adversely affected by family poverty, large…
Examined factors affecting the application of learning to practice in British mental health services, considering the role of administrators and emphasizing distance education. Data from administrators and health professionals indicated that workers who studied mental health often felt disempowered and isolated when introducing new practice ideas…
The exploration of the impact of religiosity on mental health is an enduring, if somewhat quiet, tradition. There has been virtually no exploration, however, of the influence of atheism on mental health. Though not a "religion," atheism can be an orienting worldview that is often consciously chosen by its adherents, who firmly believe in the "truth" of atheism-a phenomenon known as "positive atheism." Atheism, especially positive atheism, is currently enjoying something of a renaissance in the Western liberal democracies-a trend often referred to as the "new atheism." I argue that atheism, especially positive atheism, should be treated as a meaningful sociocultural variable in the study of mental health. I argue that atheism (just like theism) is an appropriate domain of study for social and cultural psychiatrists (and allied social scientists) interested in exploring socio-environmental stressors and buffers relating to mental health. Specifically, I argue that (1) atheism needs to be accurately measured as an individual-level exposure variable, with the aim of relating that variable to psychiatric outcomes, (2) there needs to be greater systematic investigation into the influence of atheism on psychiatry as an institution, and (3) the relation of atheism to mental health needs to be explored by examining atheistic theory and its practical application, especially as it relates to the human condition, suffering, and concepts of personhood.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
This volume, successor to the 1973 volume "Racism and Mental Health," presents a range of perspectives on mental health, prejudice, and discrimination. Contributors are of multiracial, multiethnic, and gender-diverse backgrounds. They use their existential experiences to analyze pressing mental health and mental illness issues. Contributions…
Betancourt, Theresa S.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Charrow, Alexandra; Hansen, Nathan
Background: To date, research on mental health in HIV-affected children (children who have an HIV-positive caregiver or live with the virus themselves) has focused on risk factors associated with the disease. However, simultaneous identification of factors that contribute to resilience in the face of risks is also needed. A greater understanding…
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Mental Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on mental health National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2013 Summary Tables [ ...
South, Susan C; Jarnecke, Amber M
Researchers have long theorized that genetic influence on mental health may differ as a function of environmental risk factors. One likely moderator of genetic and environmental influences on psychopathological symptoms is parenting behavior, as phenotypic research shows that negative aspects of parent-child relationships are associated with greater likelihood of mental illness in adulthood. The current study examined whether levels of reported parental discipline and affection experienced in childhood act as a trigger, or buffer, for adult mental health problems. Results from a nationwide twin sample suggest level of father's discipline and affection, as reported by now-adult twins, moderated genetic and environmental influences on internalizing symptoms in adulthood, such that heritability was greatest at the highest levels of discipline and affection. Father's affection also moderated the etiological influences on alcohol use problems, with greater heritability at the lowest levels of affection. No moderating effect was found for mothers. Findings suggest relationships with fathers in childhood can have long-lasting effects on the etiological influences on adult mental health outcomes.
The concepts and management of mental health in Egypt are presented from the Pharaonic era through the Islamic Renaissance until today. Papyri from the Pharaonic period show that Soma and Psyche were not differentiated and mental disorders were described as symptoms of the heart and uterus. Although theories of causation were of a mystical nature, mental disorders were treated on a somatic basis. In the Islamic era, mental patients were neither maltreated nor tortured as a consequence of the belief that they may be possessed by a good Moslem genie. In the 14th century mental disorders was one of the four departments in Cairo's Kalawoon Hospital, a precursor of the place of psychiatry in general hospitals that was accepted in Europe six centuries later. The mental health services in Egypt today are described, and transcultural studies carried out in Egypt of the prevalence and phenomenology of anxiety, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, conversion and obsessive compulsive disorders are reviewed. The psychiatric services for children are in their infancy. Since 1983 the common and semi-accepted use of hashish has been joined by abuse by heroin and other substances.
Henderson, Joanna L.; MacKay, Sherri; Peterson-Badali, Michele
Despite the availability of effective interventions, they are not widely used in community mental health centers. This study examined the adoption and implementation of The Arson Prevention Program for Children (TAPP-C), a program for juvenile firesetters developed at a teaching hospital and disseminated to community settings. Questionnaire data…
Hossain, Munier; Parfitt, Daniel J; Beard, David J; Darrah, Clare; Nolan, John; Murray, David W; Andrew, John G
Preoperative psychological distress has been reported to predict poor outcome and patient dissatisfaction after total hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this study was to investigate if pre-operative psychological distress was associated with adverse functional outcome after primary THR. We analysed the database of a prospective multi-centre study undertaken between January 1999 and January 2002. We recorded the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and SF36 score preoperatively and up to five years after surgery for 1055 patients. We dichotomised the patients into the mentally distressed (Mental Health Scale score - MHS =56) and the not mentally distressed (MHS >56) groups based on their pre-operative MHS of the SF36. 762 (72.22%). Patients (595 not distressed and 167 distressed) were followed up at 5 years. Both pre and post-operative OHS and SF-36 scores were significantly worse in the distressed group (both p<0.001). However, both groups experienced statistically significant improvement in OHS and MHS, which was maximal at 1 year after surgery and was maintained over the follow up (p=0.00). There was a substantial improvement in mental distress in patients who reported mental distress prior to surgery. The results suggest that pre-operative psychological distress did not adversely compromise functional outcome gain after THA. Despite having worse absolute values both pre and post operatively, patients with mental distress did not have any less functional gain from THA as measured by improvement in OHS.
McMaster, Rose; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Andersson-Noorgard, Kurt; Cooper, Kerrie; McInnes, Elizabeth
The aims of this study were to identify research involvement and support needs of Mental Health Consultation Liaison Nurses (MHCLN) and the factors that affect participation in research. A self-administered, standardized, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of MHCLN. Frequencies and univariate analyses were calculated to examine relationships between: (i) involvement in a research study by highest qualification and job designation; and (ii) current enrolment in a higher degree study, research goals, and current research involvement by level of research skill. Open-ended responses were collated and summarized. Of the 34 workshop attendees, 32 participated in the survey (response rate 94%). Seventy-five percent of respondents agreed that involvement in research is an expectation of their role; 75% reported no current involvement in research. Over half (53%) of participants reported having research goals over the next 12 months. Those enrolled in postgraduate degrees were more likely to be currently involved in a research project (P=0.013). Commonly reported barriers to research participation were competing commitments and lack of support, resources, confidence, and motivation. This study showed that access to research support and resources, including mentorship and funding, are required to engage these MHCLN in research and to build capacity.
Parkar, Shubhangi R.
This paper highlights the mental health needs of the elderly. It tackles the issues of their institutionalisation and community care. Rapid urbanisation in Indian society throws up special problems in elderly care. There is great evidence of a raise in morbidity, mortality, hospitalisation and loss of functional status related to common mental disorders in the elderly patients. Overlap of depression and anxiety is very common with up to almost half of the elderly patients reporting significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. Also, depression is the most common psychiatric disorder in late life. Growth in the elderly population means a direct increase in age related diseases such as dementia and poor mental health outcomes such as depression, anxiety, suicide and serious constraints on the quality of life among elderly individuals. The need to identify new and unmet problem areas and develop efficient therapeutic outcomes for this special population is stressed. PMID:25838727
Karim, Salman; Saeed, Khalid; Rana, Mowaddat Hussain; Mubbashar, Malik Hussain; Jenkins, Rachel
The Republic of Pakistan is a South East Asian country with a population of over 140.7 million. Its population is fast growing and the majority (70%) live in rural areas with a feudal or tribal value system. The economy is dependent on agriculture and 35% of the population live below the poverty line. Islam is the main religion and 'mental illnesses' are stigmatized and widely perceived to have supernatural causes. The traditional healers along with psychiatric services are the main mental health service providers. The number of trained mental health professionals is small as compared to the population demands and specialist services are virtually non-existent. Lack of data on prevalence of various mental illnesses and monitory constraints are the major hurdles in the development of mental health services. A number of innovative programmes to develop indigenous models of care like the 'Community Mental Health Programme' and 'Schools Mental Health Programme' have been developed. These programmes have been found effective in reducing stigma and increase awareness of mental illness amongst the adults and children living in rural areas. Efforts by the government and mental health professionals have led to the implementation of a 'National Mental Health Policy' and 'Mental Health Act' in 2001. These aim at integrating mental health services with the existing health services, improving mental health care delivery and safeguarding the rights of mentally ill people. A favourable political will and the help of international institutions like the World Health Organization are required to achieve these aims.
SmithBattle, Lee; Freed, Patricia
Psychological distress is common in teen mothers. High rates of distress are attributed to teen mothers' childhood adversities and the challenges of parenting in the context of chronic stress, cumulative disadvantage, and limited social support. We describe the prevalence of psychological distress in teen mothers; what is known about its origins and impact on mothers and children; factors that promote teen mothers' mental health and resilience; and the many barriers that make it difficult to obtain traditional mental healthcare. We also briefly review the few studies that test interventions to improve teen mothers' mental health. Because barriers to traditional mental health treatment are ubiquitous and difficult to remedy, the second article in this two-part series calls for nurses in healthcare settings, schools, and home visiting programs to screen pregnant and parenting teens for adverse childhood experiences and psychological distress, and to integrate strength-based and trauma-based principles into their practice. Creating a supportive setting where past traumas and psychological distress are addressed with skill and sensitivity builds upon teen mothers' strengths and their aspirations to be the best parents they can be. These approaches facilitate the long-term health and development of mother and child.
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
Presented are approximately 2,300 abstracts on audio-visual Materials--films, filmstrips, audiotapes, and videotapes--related to mental health. Each citation includes material title; name, address, and phone number of film distributor; rental and purchase prices; technical information; and a description of the contents. Abstracts are listed in…
Towns, Kathryn; And Others
Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…
Mental health professionals have significantly underestimated the importance of lifestyle factors (a) as contributors to and treatments for multiple psychopathologies, (b) for fostering individual and social well-being, and (c) for preserving and optimizing cognitive function. Consequently, therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) are underutilized…
Kenney, Brigitte L.
Describes major uses of film, television, and video in mental health field and discusses problems in selection, acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, transfer, care of tapes, patients' rights, and copyright. A sample patient consent form for media recording, borrower's evaluation sheet, sources of audiovisuals and reviews, and 35 references…
... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children. Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...
Providing teacher candidates with a strong foundation in mental health literacy during their teacher education program is crucial in ensuring novice teachers are prepared to support the mental health needs of their students. In addition to responding to students, teacher candidates are typically at an age when mental health disorders are common…
In the last ten years the concepts of health and mental health have been considerably modified and mental health at work is becoming an important interest of the
Hodge, David R.; Moser, Stephanie E.; Shafer, Michael S.
Mothers are one of the fastest growing segments of the homeless population in the United States. Although mental health problems often contribute to homelessness, little is known about the factors that affect mothers' mental health. To help identify protective factors, this longitudinal study examined the relationship between spirituality and…
Following a March 27, 2012, incident in which a pilot of a major commercial airline experienced a serious disturbance in his mental health, the Aerospace Medical Association formed an Ad Hoc Working Group on Pilot Mental Health. The working group met several times and analyzed current medical standards for evaluating pilot mental health. The result of the working group was a letter sent to the FAA and other organizations worldwide interested in medical standards. The Committee found that it is neither productive nor cost effective to perform extensive psychiatric evaluations as part of the routine pilot aeromedical assessment. However it did recommend greater attention be given to mental health issues by aeromedical examiners, especially to the more common and detectable mental health conditions and life stressors that can affect pilots and flight performance. They encouraged this through increased education and global recognition of the importance of mental health in aviation safety.
... and Resources Clinical Trials Share Older Adults and Mental Health Overview It’s just as important for an older ... this helpline, sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), to receive immediate counseling. Calling ...
Segal, Julius, Ed.
The volume is reported to reflect the broad range of National Institute of Mental Health activities in areas of research, development of mental health manpower, and delivery of mental health services. Twenty papers examine, respectively, relationship of life histories and biochemistry of siblings and twins to schizophrenia, training of Navaho…
Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M; Andrews, Jeannette O; Ruggiero, Kenneth J
Summary African-Americans and Hispanics are disproportionally affected by disasters. We evaluated differences in the use and completion of a web-based mental health intervention, Disaster Recovery Web (DRW), by White, African-American and Hispanic adults in the aftermath of Hurricane Ike. Approximately one year after the hurricane, a telephone survey was carried out with adults from Galveston and Chambers counties. A total of 1249 adults participated in the survey (80% White, 14% African-American and 6% Hispanic). Mental health and mental health service utilization were assessed. Whites were more likely to have previously used the Internet to obtain general health information than African-Americans or Hispanics (P < 0.001). A logistic regression was used to identify differences in the use of the Internet intervention after controlling for covariates. There were no differences in rates of non-use and dropout attrition between Whites, African-Americans and Hispanics. Thus the findings suggest that web-based mental health interventions can be used to reach African-American, Hispanic and White adults at similar rates after a disaster. PMID:23514936
Price, Matthew; Davidson, Tatiana M; Andrews, Jeannette O; Ruggiero, Kenneth J
African-Americans and Hispanics are disproportionally affected by disasters. We evaluated differences in the use and completion of a web-based mental health intervention, Disaster Recovery Web (DRW), by White, African-American and Hispanic adults in the aftermath of Hurricane Ike. Approximately one year after the hurricane, a telephone survey was carried out with adults from Galveston and Chambers counties. A total of 1249 adults participated in the survey (80% White, 14% African-American and 6% Hispanic). Mental health and mental health service utilization were assessed. Whites were more likely to have previously used the Internet to obtain general health information than African-Americans or Hispanics (P < 0.001). A logistic regression was used to identify differences in the use of the Internet intervention after controlling for covariates. There were no differences in rates of non-use and dropout attrition between Whites, African-Americans and Hispanics. Thus the findings suggest that web-based mental health interventions can be used to reach African-American, Hispanic and White adults at similar rates after a disaster.
Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (NJ1), 2008
As knowledge of effective treatments for mental disorders has grown, so too has the field of mental health promotion and positive development. Studies completed during the last two decades have synthesized the state of mental health promotion and documented that universal mental health supports positively affect child and adolescent developmental…
Green, Jennifer Greif; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Alegria, Margarita; Costello, E. Jane; Gruber, Michael J.; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Leaf, Philip J.; Olin, Serene; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Objective: Although schools are identified as critical for detecting youth mental disorders, little is known about whether the number of mental health providers and types of resources that they offer influence student mental health service use. Such information could inform the development and allocation of appropriate school-based resources to…
Background Armed conflicts are associated with a wide range of impacts on the mental health of children and adolescents. We evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based intervention aimed at reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and anxiety (treatment aim); and improving a sense of hope and functioning (preventive aim). Methods We conducted a cluster randomized trial with 329 children in war-affected Burundi (aged 8 to 17 (mean 12.29 years, standard deviation 1.61); 48% girls). One group of children (n = 153) participated in a 15-session school-based intervention implemented by para-professionals, and the remaining 176 children formed a waitlist control condition. Outcomes were measured before, one week after, and three months after the intervention. Results No main effects of the intervention were identified. However, longitudinal growth curve analyses showed six favorable and two unfavorable differences in trajectories between study conditions in interaction with several moderators. Children in the intervention condition living in larger households showed decreases on depressive symptoms and function impairment, and those living with both parents showed decreases on posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms. The groups of children in the waitlist condition showed increases in depressive symptoms. In addition, younger children and those with low levels of exposure to traumatic events in the intervention condition showed improvements on hope. Children in the waitlist condition who lived on their original or newly bought land showed improvements in hope and function impairment, whereas children in the intervention condition showed deterioration on these outcomes. Conclusions Given inconsistent effects across studies, findings do not support this school-based intervention as a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms in conflict-affected children. The intervention appears to have more consistent
Durbeej, Natalie; Palmstierna, Tom; Berman, Anne H; Kristiansson, Marianne; Gumpert, Clara Hellner
Substance abuse is related to re-offending, and treatment of substance abuse may reduce criminal recidivism. Offender characteristics including problem severity, violence risk and psychopathic personality traits may be positively or negatively associated with participation in substance abuse treatment. We explored the relationships between such characteristics and participation in substance abuse interventions among Swedish offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use. Our analyses revealed that problem severity regarding drugs, employment, and family/social situations predicted intervention participation, and that affective psychopathic personality traits were negatively associated with such participation. Thus, affective psychopathic personality traits could be considered as potential barriers to participation in substance abuse interventions. Among offenders with mental health problems and problematic substance use, such personality traits should be taken into account in order to optimize treatment participation and treatment outcome. Approaches used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) could be applicable for these patients.
Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile
The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field.
Osofsky, Joy D.; Thomas, Kandace
Unfortunately, the term "infant mental health" can be confusing for some people because it may be understood as translating into "mental illness." Others may not appreciate that babies and toddlers have the capacity to experience complex emotions. The Guest Editors of this issue of the Journal explore the meaning of infant mental health.
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHHS), Rockville, MD.
This document presents timely statistical information on the nation's organized mental health service delivery system. Included are: (1) "Chronic Mental Disorder in the United States" (Howard H. Goldman and Ronald W. Manderscheid); (2) "Specialty Mental Health System Characteristics" (Michael J. Witkin, Joanne E. Atay, Adele S. Fell, and Ronald W.…
Vail, David J.
The guidebook is introduced by general observations on the Scandinavian countries concerning history, social policy, medicine, mental health, and psychiatric diagnosis. Discussed individually for Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are the following areas: mental health programs and statistics; mental illness programs, regional, hospital, aftercare,…
Rossen, Eric; Cowan, Katherine C.
Students do not leave their mental health at the front door when they come to school. From wellness to serious illness, a student's mental health status is integral to how they think, feel, interact, behave, and learn. Decades of research and experience have laid a solid foundation and framework for effectively providing mental health…
Mayadas, Nazneen S.; Ramanathan, Chathapuram S.; Suarez, Zulema
Explores how the lack of awareness of human diversity can adversely affect the mental health care of nondominant ethnic groups. Proposes a three-dimensional cultural-interface model for assessing and treating mental health problems. (SLD)
Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Weinstein, Traci L; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang
Teachers are considered to be one of the most important influences in the lives of students. Teachers' assessments of students may be a primary source of information on children's mental and behavioral health; however, this topic has received little attention in research. We examined this issue through linking teachers' ratings of students and mental and behavioral outcomes of children affected by HIV. The hypothesis is that teacher ratings will be predictive of specific child mental and behavioral health outcomes. A quantitative cross-sectional design with self-administered paper-and-pencil instruments was used. The sample included 1221 children (aged 6-18, grades 1-11) affected by HIV including 755 orphans who lost one or both parents to AIDS and 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents in a central province of China. The corresponding teacher sample included 185 participants. Each child completed an assessment inventory of demographic information and mental and behavioral health measures. Teachers completed a questionnaire about children's school performance. SEM analyses revealed a good model fit according to all fit indices: comparative fit index = 0.93, root mean square error of approximation = 0.07, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.04. Structural equation modeling revealed that problem ratings by teachers were positively associated with child loneliness and behavioral problems, social competence ratings by teachers were negatively related to child depression, and personal growth and social interaction ratings by teachers were negatively related to child loneliness, depression, and trauma. The current study represents a unique contribution to the field in that it recognizes that teachers can be a valuable source of information on children's psychological health. Results from this study have implications for health prevention and intervention for children and families suffering from HIV/AIDS.
Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...
Park, Crystal L; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A
Our earlier study of U.S. prisoners of war in Vietnam (King et al., 2011) examined personal and military demographics and aspects of the stressful experience of wartime imprisonment as they related to psychological well-being shortly after homecoming in 1973. Research with repatriated prisoners of war (RPWs) from other military eras suggests that the severity of captivity stressors might predict long-term distress. However, the extent to which effects of the captivity experience persisted for Vietnam-era RPWs is unknown. The present study extended our previous analyses by examining the associations of demographic factors, captivity stressors, and repatriation mental health with subsequent symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depressive symptoms (measured nearly 30 years later) in a sample of 292 Vietnam-era RPWs. Results indicated that although most of the men in our sample were within normal limits on anxiety and depressive symptoms, a substantial minority reported experiencing clinically significant levels. Levels of PTSD symptoms were generally low, with only a modest proportion demonstrating elevations. Multiple regression analyses showed that age at capture and posttraumatic stress symptoms at repatriation predicted all three long-term mental health outcomes. In addition, physical torture predicted long-term PTSD symptoms. Findings highlight the potential long-term effects of wartime captivity, and also suggest that most Vietnam-era RPWs demonstrate remarkable resilience to extraordinarily stressful life experiences.
Betancourt, Theresa S; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Layne, Christopher M; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Ellis, Heidi; Birman, Dina
There is an increasing need to deliver effective mental health services to refugee children and adolescents across the United States; however, the evidence base needed to guide the design and delivery of services is nascent. We investigated the trauma history profiles, psychopathology, and associated behavioral and functional indicators among war-affected refugee children presenting for psychological treatment. From the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set, 60 war-affected refugee children were identified (51.7% males, mean age = 13.1 years, SD = 4.13). Clinical assessments indicated high rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (30.4%), generalized anxiety (26.8%), somatization (26.8%), traumatic grief (21.4%), and general behavioral problems (21.4%). Exposure to war or political violence frequently co-occurred with forced displacement; traumatic loss; bereavement or separation; exposure to community violence; and exposure to domestic violence. Academic problems and behavioral difficulties were prevalent (53.6% and 44.6%, respectively); however, criminal activity, alcohol/drug use, and self-harm were rare (all < 5.45%). These findings highlight the complex trauma profiles, comorbid conditions, and functional problems that are important to consider in providing mental health interventions for refugee children and adolescents. Given the difficulties associated with access to mental health services for refugees, both preventive and community-based interventions within family, school, and peer systems hold particular promise.
Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Abas, Melanie; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert
Objective The concept of ‘resilience’ is of increasing interest in studies of mental health in populations facing adversity. However, lack of longitudinal data on the dynamics of resilience and non-usage of resilience-specific measurements have prevented a better understanding of resilience-mental health interactions. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the stability of levels of resilience and its associations with sociodemographic and mental health exposures in a conflict-affected internal-migrant population in Sri Lanka. Design A prospective follow-up study of 1 year. Setting Puttalam district of North Western province in postconflict Sri Lanka (baseline in 2011, follow-up in 2012). Participants An ethnic Muslim population internally displaced 20 years ago (in 1990) from Northern Sri Lanka, aged 18 or above and currently in the process of return migration. Measures It was hypothesised that levels of resilience would be associated with mental health outcomes. Resilience was measured on both occasions using the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14), social support by the Multidimensional Social Support Scale and Lubben Social Network Scale and common mental disorders by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Results Of 450 participants interviewed at baseline in 2011, 338 (75.1%) were re-interviewed in 2012 after a 1-year follow-up. The mean resilience scores measured by RS-14 were 80.2 (95% CI 78.6 to 81.9) at baseline and 84.9 (83.5 to 86.3) at follow-up. At both time points, lower resilience was independently associated with food insecurity, lower social support availability and social isolation. At both time points, there were significant associations with common mental disorders (CMDs) in unadjusted analyses, but they only showed independence at baseline. The CMD prevalence, maintenance and incidence at follow-up was 8.3%, 28.2% and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions In this displaced population facing a potential reduction in adversity
This supplement to ninth grade mental health units relates mental health to the following occupational clusters: agribusiness and natural resources, environment, health, marine science, communications and media, business and office, marketing and distribution, public service, transportation, personnel services, consumer and homemaking education,…
O'Reilly, Mary Linda
Spirituality is an important part of human existence but is often overlooked in the conceptualization of the person as a biopsychosocial entity. This article examines spirituality as a concept, relates it to the experience of mental health clients, proposes spiritual assessments and interventions within the role of advanced practice mental health nurses, and discusses the necessity of including spiritual interventions to support healing and wholeness for mental health clients.
Children constitute nearly 40% of India's population, a significant portion of whom suffer mental ailments. Ways to sensitize those who work with children to various aspects associated with child mental health are explored in this book. The focus is not on mental handicap but on the internal or external distress which warps the psychosocial…
Hollister, William G.; And Others
Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this guide deals with programming school mental health in Vance and Franklin counties. Detailing both successes and failures, this booklet presents the following program activities: (1)…
Jiang, Shu-Qiang; Zhang, Jian-Ling
Objective: To observe the influences of mental health promotion and mental intervention on mental health status of professionals. Method: 2878 professionals for physical examination were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 1443 professionals and 1435 professionals, respectively. Then, the difference of mental health status before and after mental intervention between two groups was compared. Results: In treatment group, the proportion of people with healthy mental and modest pressure after mental intervention was higher than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.01); the proportion of people with psychological sub-heath and moderate pressure after mental intervention was significantly lower than that before mental intervention and that in control group after mental intervention (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in mental health status in control group before and after mental intervention (P>0.05). Mental health consciousness, health status, self pressure-relief capability, job satisfaction, and happiness index of professionals were up to 63.3%~78.8%. Conclusions: Mental health promotion and mental intervention may significantly improve mental health status of professionals. PMID:26221385
Parales-Quenza, Carlos J
This article uses the concept of anomie for understanding public mental-health issues and constructing strategies aimed at promoting health and preventing disease. Studying anomie involves many definitions and approaches; this article conceptualises anomie as dérréglement or derangement and as a total social fact as its effects and consequences are pervasive across all areas of human experience. The article suggests the pertinence of the concept to public health based on several authors' observations depicting Latin-America as being a set of anomic societies and Colombia as the extreme case. Current definitions of mental health in positive terms (not just as being the absence of mental illness) validate the need for considering anomie as an indicator of public mental health. The article proposes that if anomie expresses itself through rules as basic social structure components, then such rules should also be considered as the point of intervention in promoting mental health.
Nizamie, S. Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N. A.
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health. PMID:23858257
Nizamie, S Haque; Katshu, Mohammad Zia Ul Haq; Uvais, N A
Human experience in, health and disease, always has a spiritual dimension. pirituality is accepted as one of the defining determinants of health and it no more remains a sole preserve of religion and mysticism. In recent years, pirituality has been an area of research in neurosciences and both in the nderstanding of psychiatric morbidity and extending therapeutic interventions it seems to be full of promises. Sufism has been a prominent spiritual tradition in Islam deriving influences from major world religions, such as, Christianity and Hinduism and contributing substantially toward spiritual well-being of a large number of people within and outside Muslim world. Though Sufism started in early days of Islam and had many prominent Sufis, it is in the medieval period it achieved great height culminating in many Sufi orders and their major proponents. The Sufism aims communion with God through spiritual realization; soul being the agency of this communion, and propounding the God to be not only the cause of all existence but the only real existence. It may provide a vital link to understand the source of religious experience and its impact on mental health.
van Ommeren, M; Hanna, F; Weissbecker, I; Ventevogel, P
Armed conflicts and natural disasters impact negatively on the mental health and well-being of affected populations in the short- and long-term and affect the care of people with pre-existing mental health conditions. This paper outlines specific actions for mental health and psychosocial support by the health sector in the preparedness, response and recovery phases of emergencies. Broad recommendations for ministries of health are to: (1) embed mental health and psychosocial support in national health and emergency preparedness plans; (2) put in place national guidelines, standards and supporting tools for the provision of mental health and psychosocial support during emergencies; (3) strengthen the capacity of health professionals to identify and manage priority mental disorders during emergencies; and (4) utilize opportunities generated by the emergency response to contribute to development of sustainable mental health-care services.
The Five Year Forward View could be a turning point in the battle to get mental health parity with physical health, address long waiting times and unmet need, and ensure people get care close to home.
This paper offers tips for working with interpreters in mental health settings. These tips include: (1) Using trained interpreters, not bilingual staff or community members; (2) Explaining "interpreting procedures" to the providers and clients; (3) Addressing the stigma associated with mental health that may influence interpreters; (4) Defining…
A description is provided of a course, "Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing," designed to teach students at Level 3 of a two-year college nursing program about the role of the nurse in a psychiatric setting and about concepts of mental health and psychiatric disorders, using both classroom and clinical instruction. The first section of the course…
Brown, Bertram S., Ed.; Torrey, E. Fuller, Ed.
Presented in five parts on research, services, training, drug abuse, and alcohol abuse are 31 reports of mental health studies and programs supported by the U.S. and other countries. Explained in the introduction are reasons the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has supported international collaboration. The following are among subjects…
Manderscheid, Ronald W., Ed.; Henderson, Marilyn J., Ed.
In recent years, the mental health community has made great strides in understanding more about the delivery of mental health services, improving efficiency and quality in services, and also about how to build strengths and resilience in the face of lifes stresses. This volume adds to the knowledge base so that the important task of system change…
Weist, Mark D.; Rubin, Marcia; Moore, Elizabeth; Adelsheim, Steven; Wrobel, Gordon
Background: This article discusses the importance of screening students in schools for emotional/behavioral problems. Methods: Elements relevant to planning and implementing effective mental health screening in schools are considered. Screening in schools is linked to a broader national agenda to improve the mental health of children and…
Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Sawyer, Anne-Maree
Since the early 2000s, reports of increased rates of mental ill health among young people worldwide have received much attention. Several studies indicate a greater incidence of mental health problems among tertiary students, compared with the general population, and higher levels of anxiety, in particular, among international students compared…
Radovic, Ana; Vona, Pamela L; Santostefano, Antonella M; Ciaravino, Samantha; Miller, Elizabeth; Stein, Bradley D
Many adolescents and adults do not seek treatment for mental health symptoms. Smartphone applications (apps) may assist individuals with mental health concerns in alleviating symptoms or increasing understanding. This study seeks to characterize apps readily available to smartphone users seeking mental health information and/or support. Ten key terms were searched in the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores: mental health, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, bipolar, trauma, trauma in schools, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), child trauma, and bullying. A content analysis of the first 20 application descriptions retrieved per category was conducted. Out of 300 nonduplicate applications, 208 (70%) were relevant to search topic, mental health or stress. The most common purported purpose for the apps was symptom relief (41%; n = 85) and general mental health education (18%; n = 37). The most frequently mentioned approaches to improving mental health were those that may benefit only milder symptoms such as relaxation (21%; n = 43). Most app descriptions did not include information to substantiate stated effectiveness of the application (59%; n = 123) and had no mention of privacy or security (89%; n = 185). Due to uncertainty of the helpfulness of readily available mental health applications, clinicians working with mental health patients should inquire about and provide guidance on application use, and patients should have access to ways to assess the potential utility of these applications. Strategic policy and research developments are likely needed to equip patients with applications for mental health, which are patient centered and evidence based.
Mesgarani, Mohsen; Hosseinbor, Mohsen; Shafiee, Shahla; Sarkoubi, Roghayeh
Background Today, ensuring people’s health and well-being has become a concern for societies. Health status results from an interaction of an individuals’ various psychological, social, and physical aspects. Objectives This study aims to investigate the relationship of parental mental health and dietary pattern with adolescent mental health. Patients and Methods In this study, 250 high school students in Shiraz were selected using random cluster sampling. The samples were analyzed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Results According to the findings, parental mental health explains 22% of the variance in children’s mental health, so that in simultaneous regression, physical dimensions, anxiety, social functioning, and depression predicted 13%, 24%, 11%, and 24% of the variance of criterion variables, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between dietary pattern and adolescent mental health dimensions. There was a significant negative relationship only between depression and vegetable intake. Moreover, fruit (r = 0.15, P < 0.05) and vegetable (r = 0.16, P < 0.05) intake had a significant relationship with parental mental health dimensions. Conclusions Parents’ mental health and their psychological characteristics can be related to children’s mental health and affect their dietary intake patterns. PMID:27218068
Butts, Hugh F.
This paper correlates economic stress with minority status, resource allocations for mental health programs, and vulnerability to mental disability. Several hypotheses are advanced: 1. A major and recurring psychological pattern of the American national character is prowhite, antiblack paranoia. 2. Mental health fiscal allocations and programmatic determinations in ghetto, lower socioeconomic, minority-populated urban areas are predicated on political and racist considerations, the underlying motivation being to keep minorities at greater risk of mental disability. 3. Economic privation and stress increase vulnerability to mental illness, especially in a minority population for whom health, mental health, educational, and social services are grossly inadequate. 4. Poverty and economic stress combine with health systems that are unresponsive to the needs of blacks and other minorities, resulting in the perpetuation of disabilities and other conditions in blacks that are potentially preventable. 5. Health and mental health resources should be increased rather than diminished during periods of economic stress, especially in the public sector. 6. In order to provide each citizen with access to quality health and mental health care regardless of race and/or economic status, there must be enacted a national health insurance program based on tax-levy monies that will cover all aspects of health and mental health care. 7. Racism and social status will continue to be powerful determinants of the quality of service that white professionals render to black patients and to poor white patients, unless our training institutions mount a massive campaign to train appropriately and to include significant numbers of minority candidates and trainees in the effort. To date this effort is virtually nonexistent. PMID:439171
Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V
As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth . The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services . Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system
Schultz, Jon-Hakon; Sorensen, Peer Moller; Waaktaar, Trine
The objective of this study was to assess trauma-related symptoms and mental health among war-exposed Ugandan adolescents (n = 81) as a basis for planning their re-attendance at school. Self-reports of exposure to traumatic events, trauma-related symptoms, and indicators of mental health were collected. While about half of the youths (51.9%)…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
Facts about college mental health are presented in response to frequently asked questions. Areas of concern include common conditions interfering with student effectiveness, why students seek help and where they can get it, the frequency of severe mental illness in college students, the suicide problem, the limitations of nonprofessional help, the…
Garai, Josef E.
The roles that mental health professionals must play to facilitate the prevention of mental illness and the introduction of mentally healthy attitudes in our society is discussed. Mental health professionals must re-examine the meaning of mental health in the context of the current world situation and ask themselves to what extent they are…
David, H P
It is known that unwanted pregnancies have damaging consequences. Despite the fact that 97% of fecund U.S. women have used or expect to use contraception, more than 1/2 of the births were reported by married couples in 1965 as unplanned. The circular relationship between excess fertility and conditions of poverty and their relevance for mental health has been studied; results have shown that in large families there is a great likelihood that the last-born child is unwanted. It is also true that in families with 4 or more children, those in the last half of the birth order are more likely to develop mental illness than their older siblings. One way to reduce unwanted pregnancies is to enable couples to have children only with their own informed consent. Induced abortion must be among the available alternatives for the women desiring it. The role of unregulated fertility in the etiology of mental disorder is seldon explored. Systematic observations of the mental health consequences of unwanted pregnancies are rare. Similarly, the appropriateness of applying family planning concepts in preventive mental health programs has received little attention. Sex education and contraceptive information should be introduced when a girl reaches menarche. Closer work between mental health association, medical schools, general practitioners, etc., is needed urgently. The author maintains that the prevalence of unwanted pregnancies and the appalling numbers of unwanted births in the U.S today represent a mental health problem of undefined but clearly immense proportions.
Krebs, Teri S.; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan
Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. Method Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale), mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive), symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis), and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. Results 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted) reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote), or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. Conclusion We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems. PMID:23976938
Bains, Ranbir Mangat; Diallo, Ana F.
Mental health issues affect 20-25% of children and adolescents, of which few receive services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide access to mental health services to children and adolescents within their schools. A systematic review of literature was undertaken to review evidence on the effectiveness of delivery of mental health services…
... Chats with Experts Clinical Trials Share Child and Adolescent Mental Health Overview Teen Depression Study: Understanding Depression ... Continue reading Recruitment Begins for Landmark Study of Adolescent Brain Development September 13, 2016 • Press Release The ...
Mangala, R; Thara, R
Tamil cinema is a vibrant part of the lives of many in south India. A chequered history and a phenomenal growth have made this medium highly influential not only in Tamil Nadu politics, but also in the social lives of the viewers. This paper provides an overview of the growth of Tamil cinema, and discusses in detail the way mental health has been handled by Tamil films. Cinema can be used very effectively to improve awareness about mental health issues.
Parameshvara Deva, M
Malaysia is a tropical country in the heart of south east Asia with a population of 24 million people of diverse ethnic, cultural and religious backgrounds living in harmony in 330,000 km(2) of land on the Asian mainland and Borneo. Malaysia, which lies on the crossroads of trade between east and west Asia, has an ancient history as a centre of trading attracting commerce between Europe, west Asia, India and China. It has had influences from major powers that dominated the region throughout its history. Today the country, after independence in 1957, has embarked on an ambitious development project to make it a developed country by 2020. In this effort the economy has changed from one producing raw material to one manufacturing consumer goods and services and the colonial health system has been overhauled and social systems strengthened to provide better services for its people. The per capita income, which was under 1,000 US dollars at independence, has now passed 4,000 US dollars and continues to grow, with the economy largely based on strong exports that amount to over 100 billion US dollars. The mental health system that was based on institutional care in four mental hospitals at independence from British colonial rule in 1957 with no Malaysian psychiatrists is today largely based on over 30 general hospital psychiatric units spread throughout the country. With three local postgraduate training programmes in psychiatry and 12 undergraduate departments of psychiatry in the country--all started after independence--there is now a healthy development of mental health services. This is being supplemented by a newly established primary care mental health service that covers community mental health by integrating mental health into primary health care. Mental health care at the level of psychiatrists rests with about 140 psychiatrists most of whom had undertaken a four-year masters course in postgraduate psychiatry in Malaysia since 1973. However, there continues to be
Selix, Nancy; Henshaw, Erin; Barrera, Alinne; Botcheva, Luba; Huie, Erin; Kaufman, Gabrielle
One out of every five to seven births is affected by postpartum depression, making it the most common maternal health problem in the first year after childbirth. Early identification and treatment are essential, though screening and treatment rates are low. Factors that inhibit effective screening and treatment include lack of uniform screening policies in all maternal health settings, poor coordination of care between primary care and mental health services, coordination of community education efforts and resources, social stigma surrounding mental health treatment, and ineffective application of research and technology in the clinical setting. An interdisciplinary model that includes primary care providers, mental health professionals, community resources, policy makers, researchers, and technological innovators addresses these gaps in care and enhances screening and treatment efforts that improve overall maternal and child health. We present a promising interdisciplinary cross-organizational approach coalescing diverse perspectives from those working across policy, research, training, primary care, and mental health in various disciplines to practice collaboratively to improve perinatal mental healthcare.
Palermo, George B
The deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill which started in the 1960s greatly contributed to the overcrowding of judicial systems throughout the world. In the ensuing years, the actors involved in the adversarial system present in United States courts, a system that is primarily interested in assessing the culpability of the offender, have come to realize that the system is lacking therapeutic and reintegrative approaches to offenders, especially those who are mentally ill. Therapeutic jurisprudence, an interdisciplinary science, addresses this problematic situation of the mentally ill. It offers a fresh insight into the potentially beneficial and detrimental effects of legal decisions and views one of the roles of law as that of a healing agent. At present, many states have instituted mental health courts based on these concepts, incorporating previous drug court experiences. Their goal is to avoid the criminalization of the mentally ill and their recidivism through the creation of special programs. This article describes the mental health court programs of Washoe County and Clark County, Nevada, their organization, their therapeutic goals, and their success in keeping mentally ill offenders out of the correctional system, while improving their mental condition. In so doing, the program has lightened the load of the overburdened courts and has greatly diminished the financial burden incurred for court trials and jail and prison stays.
Rew, Karl T; Clarke, S Lindsey; Gossa, Weyinshet; Savin, Daniel
Immigrants leave their homes for unfamiliar destinations in search of better lives for themselves and their families. Many immigrants experience profound loss and emotional distress as they adjust to life in different societies. Despite these challenges, the prevalence of mental health conditions among immigrants is low, whereas children of immigrants have rates equal to those of native populations. The prevalence of mental health conditions is high among refugees, who comprise a specific subgroup of immigrants who have been displaced forcibly and often have experienced severe trauma. Cultural factors, such as stigma and somatization of emotional symptoms, make it less likely that immigrants and refugees from certain groups will ever present to mental health subspecialists. Strong therapeutic relationships, cultural sensitivity, involvement of family members, judicious use of medications, and knowledge of available community resources are important tools that can aid clinicians who treat immigrants and refugees with mental health conditions.
Padhy, Susanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sidharth; Panigrahi, Mahima; Paul, Surender
We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.
Cernuda Martínez, José Antonio; Arcos González, Pedro; Castro Delgado, Rafael
The study on the impact of disasters on the mental health is a relatively recent research field. Despite this, there are a significant number of studies showing the epidemiological data of the psychiatric pathology present in survivors and those affected by disasters This review attempts to summarize current knowledge and give an integrated vision of the effects of the disasters on the mental health, either natural or manmade disasters, as well as identify the effects prevalence and differences in each type of disaster. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation or suicide attempts are some of the pathologies observed in people affected by disasters and with an ineffective adaptation, jointly with an increase in the consumption of toxic substances, generating an additional public health problem within another problem. The consequences will be different depending on the type of population and its cultural pattern, sex and gender of the affected people and type of disasters.
Moore, Alan; Cross, Wendy
How might the unconscious part of the mind affect mental health patients' emotions or behaviour? How might the unconscious motivations of mental health nurses affect their patients? The discovery of "the unconscious" two centuries ago has allowed philosophers and scientists, such as C. G. Jung, to explore the field. Contemporary mental health care subscribes to a dominance of neurobiological approaches, neglecting the unconscious or relegating it to that of a merely biological process. Approaching this subject from the perspective of Jung, we make a case for the inclusion of theoretical concepts about the unconscious in the discourse of mental health nursing. Such awareness may help mental health nurses to better understand the mental disease, disorder, and distress found in patients. It also may help them understand their own conflicts and motivations that, in turn, can have an affect on their patients.
Frank, Richard G; Conti, Rena M; Goldman, Howard H
The pace of innovation in psychotropic drugs has been rapid over the past 15 years. There also have been unprecedented increases in spending on prescription drugs generally and psychotropic medications specifically. Psychotropic medications are playing a more central role in treatment. They also are receiving close scrutiny from health insurers, state budget makers, and ordinary citizens. Public policy actions regarding prescription drugs have the potential to significantly affect clinical care for mental disorders, the costs of this care to individuals and society at large, and the prospects for future scientific advances. This article outlines the policy issues related to psychotropic drugs with respect to their role in determining access to mental health treatment and the cost and quality of mental health care.
Tran, Linda Diem; Grant, David; Aydin, May
Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) from 2011--2013 showed approximately 90,000 veterans had mental health needs and 200,000 reported serious thoughts of suicide during the 12 months prior to participating in CHIS. Although the proportion of veterans reporting mental health need or serious psychological distress was no higher than the general population, California veterans were more likely to report lifetime suicide ideation. This policy brief uses CHIS data to examine the mental health status, needs, and barriers to care among veterans in California. Veterans were more likely to receive mental health or substance use treatment than nonveterans, yet three of four veterans with mental health needs received either inadequate or no mental health care. Integrating mental and physical health services, increasing access to care, retaining veterans who seek mental health treatment, and reducing stigma are among the strategies that might improve the mental health of California's veterans.
When developing accessible, affordable and effective mental health systems, exchange of data between countries is an important moving force towards better mental health care. Unfortunately, health information systems in most countries are weak in the field of mental health, and comparability of data is low. Special international data collection exercises, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) Atlas Project and the WHO Baseline Project have provided valuable insights in the state of mental health systems in countries, but such single-standing data collections are not sustainable solutions. Improvements in routine data collection are urgently needed. The European Commission has initiated major improvements to ensure harmonized and comprehensive health data collection, by introducing the European Community Health Indicators set and the European Health Interview Survey. However, both of these initiatives lack strength in the field of mental health. The neglect of the need for relevant and valid comparable data on mental health systems is in conflict with the importance of mental health for European countries and the objectives of the 'Europe 2020' strategy. The need for valid and comparable mental health services data is today addressed only by single initiatives, such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development work to establish quality indicators for mental health care. Real leadership in developing harmonized mental health data across Europe is lacking. A European Mental Health Observatory is urgently needed to lead development and implementation of monitoring of mental health and mental health service provision in Europe.
Witt, Whitney P.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Hampton, John M.; Creswell, Paul; Hagen, Erika W.; Spear, Hilary A.; Maddox, Torsheika; DeLeire, Thomas
Purpose Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. However, there is a paucity of research on the determinants of postpartum mental health problems using representative US populations. Taking a life course perspective, we determined the potential risk factors for postpartum mental health problems, with a particular focus on the role of mental health before and during pregnancy. Methods We examined data on 1,863 mothers from eleven panels of the 1996-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Poor postpartum mental health was defined using self-reports of mental health conditions, symptoms of mental health conditions, or global mental health ratings of “fair” or “poor.” Results 9.5% of women reported experiencing postpartum mental health problems, with over half of these women reporting a history of poor mental health. Poor pre-pregnancy mental health and poor antepartum mental health both independently increased the odds of having postpartum mental health problems. Staged multivariate analyses revealed that poor antepartum mental health attenuated the relationship between pre-pregnancy and postpartum mental health problems. Additionally, significant disparities exist in women's report of postpartum mental health status. Conclusions While poor antepartum mental health is the strongest predictor of postpartum mental health problems, pre-pregnancy mental health is also important. Accordingly, health care providers should identify, treat, and follow women with a history of poor mental health, as they are particularly susceptible to postpartum mental health problems. This will ensure that women and their children are in the best possible health and mental health during the postpartum period and beyond. PMID:21349740
Friedman, Ann Lorentson; Hughes, Rosemary B.
Complex HIV and AIDS related legal issues confronting mental health professionals are addressed, specifically: living will, statutes, durable power of attorney, durable power of attorney for health care, rational suicide, euthanasia, workplace discrimination, and laws affecting minors. (JBJ)
Pickett, Treven; Rothman, David; Crawford, Eric F; Brancu, Mira; Fairbank, John A; Kudler, Harold S
This commentary describes the prevalence of mental health problems affecting military service members and veterans in North Carolina and the rest of the nation, with a special emphasis on those who served in the recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Approximately 1.9 million of these veterans have become eligible for Veterans Affairs health care since 2002, and an estimated 1.16 million veterans have registered for this care.
Beletsky, Vadim; Mirsattari, Seyed M.
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), a subset of the seizure disorder family, represents a complex neuropsychiatric illness, where the neurological presentation may be complemented by varying severity of affective, behavioral, psychotic, or personality abnormalities, which, in turn, may not only lead to misdiagnosis, but also affect the management. This paper outlines a spectrum of mental health presentations, including psychosis, mood, anxiety, panic, and dissociative states, associated with epilepsy that make the correct diagnosis a challenge. PMID:22934158
Autism is not a mental health disorder, but it sometimes is misdiagnosed as one--and can bring its own mental health issues. Dr Judith Gould explains how a mental health problem may mask an undiagnosed autistic spectrum disorder.
Killion, Cheryl; Cayetano, Claudina
Belize, Central America, the most sparsely populated country in Central America, has taken gigantic steps to improve the mental health of its citizens. This article profiles mental health in this country and explicates contextual factors circumscribing manifestations, treatment, and care of mental illness. An overview of mental health services is provided, with particular focus on the role of psychiatric nurse practitioners. Other innovative approaches in promoting mental health and providing care to the those who are mentally ill are highlighted. Current and future challenges for nursing care and mental health services are presented. Recommendations for future action are offered.
Yamashita, Jun; Shigemura, Jun
The Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 caused 2 other serious disasters: a tsunami and a nuclear power plant accident. A chronic shortage of mental health resources had been previously reported in the Tohoku region, and the triple disaster worsened the situation. Eventually a public health approach was implemented by providing a common room in temporary housing developments to build a sense of community and to approach evacuees so that they could be triaged and referred to mental health teams. Japan now advocates using psychological first aid to educate first responders. This article extracts key lessons from relevant literature.
Fritsch, Sandra L; Overton, Mark W; Robbins, Douglas R
Diabetes mellitus is a common childhood illness, and its management is often complicated by mental health challenges. Psychiatric comorbidities are common, including anxiety, depression, and eating disorders. The illness can profoundly affect the developing brain and family functioning and have lifelong consequences. The child mental health provider can provide valuable assistance to support the child and family and assessment and treatment of comorbid mental health problems and to promote positive family functioning and normal developmental progress.
Richmond, Georgia; Kenny, Conor; Ahmed, Jabed; Stephenson, Lucy; lindsay, jamie; Earls, Patrick; Mullin, Donncha; Ryland, Howard
Patients suffering from mental health illness have considerably more physical health disease burden than the rest of the population and are more likely to die 10 to 20 years younger compared with their peers. Diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory disease have been recognised as contributing factors to premature death. Furthermore patients with severe mental illness undertake lower levels of physical activity. The aim of the project was therefore to address the inequalities in physical health that affect patients with mental health illness through designing and implementing a sustainable, transferable, patient-centred education and activity intervention. The objective of the project was to increase patient motivation to change behaviour as a result of physical health interventions by increasing patients' physical health understanding, motivation to change their physical health behaviour, motivation to do exercise and by reducing their anxiety. The method used was a prospective cohort study in four eighteen bed psychosis inpatient units. The units were across two large London hospitals in one Hospital Trust involving male and female inpatients with a range of mental health issues. The intervention was comprised of two components. The first component was a weekly 45 minute teaching group designed in collaboration with patients focusing on the key domains that affect the physical health of mental health patients. Four discussion domains (heart health, diabetes and weight, smoking and lung disease, cancer screening and substance misuse) were undertaken, with each cycle lasting four weeks. The second component was a weekly 45 minute exercise group (‘normalisation activity’) in collaboration with patients and the multidisciplinary team. The intervention was evaluated at the end of each cycle and four cycles in total took place. Weekly pre and post intervention measures were undertaken comprising of a self reported change in understanding, motivation to change
Richmond, Georgia; Kenny, Conor; Ahmed, Jabed; Stephenson, Lucy; Lindsay, Jamie; Earls, Patrick; Mullin, Donncha; Ryland, Howard
Patients suffering from mental health illness have considerably more physical health disease burden than the rest of the population and are more likely to die 10 to 20 years younger compared with their peers. Diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory disease have been recognised as contributing factors to premature death. Furthermore patients with severe mental illness undertake lower levels of physical activity. The aim of the project was therefore to address the inequalities in physical health that affect patients with mental health illness through designing and implementing a sustainable, transferable, patient-centred education and activity intervention. The objective of the project was to increase patient motivation to change behaviour as a result of physical health interventions by increasing patients' physical health understanding, motivation to change their physical health behaviour, motivation to do exercise and by reducing their anxiety. The method used was a prospective cohort study in four eighteen bed psychosis inpatient units. The units were across two large London hospitals in one Hospital Trust involving male and female inpatients with a range of mental health issues. The intervention was comprised of two components. The first component was a weekly 45 minute teaching group designed in collaboration with patients focusing on the key domains that affect the physical health of mental health patients. Four discussion domains (heart health, diabetes and weight, smoking and lung disease, cancer screening and substance misuse) were undertaken, with each cycle lasting four weeks. The second component was a weekly 45 minute exercise group ('normalisation activity') in collaboration with patients and the multidisciplinary team. The intervention was evaluated at the end of each cycle and four cycles in total took place. Weekly pre and post intervention measures were undertaken comprising of a self reported change in understanding, motivation to change physical
personnel and volunteers to safeguard their mental health. However, programs on these subjects remain insufficient. We extend our utmost respect and appreciation to the disaster relief workforce for doing their best to save lives. We hope that this aids in the reconstruction process of such affected areas.
Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.
Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926
Herrera, Aubrey V.; Méndez, Enrique; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena
The normative process of autonomy development in adolescence involves changes in adolescents’ information management typically characterized by decreasing disclosure and increasing concealment. These changes may have an important impact on the early detection and timely treatment of mental health conditions and risky behavior. Therefore, the objective was to extend our understanding of how these developmental changes in adolescent disclosure might impact adolescent mental health interviews. Specifically, we estimated the effects of third party presence and type of third party presence (adult, child, or both) on adolescents’ reports of psychiatric symptoms, substance use, suicidal behavior, and childhood adversity. In this representative sample of 3005 adolescents from Mexico City (52.1 % female), administered the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-A), adult presence influenced reporting the most; in their presence, adolescents reported more ADHD, parental mental illness and economic adversity, but less panic disorder, PTSD, drug use and disorder, and suicidal behavior. The presence of children was associated with increased odds of reporting conduct disorder, opportunity for drug use, parental criminal behavior, neglect, and the death of a parent. While adolescent information management strategies are normative and even desirable as a means of gaining emotional autonomy, they may also interfere with timely detection and treatment or intervention for mental health conditions and risky behaviors. Research and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26792265
Herrera, Aubrey V; Benjet, Corina; Méndez, Enrique; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena
The normative process of autonomy development in adolescence involves changes in adolescents' information management typically characterized by decreasing disclosure and increasing concealment. These changes may have an important impact on the early detection and timely treatment of mental health conditions and risky behavior. Therefore, the objective was to extend our understanding of how these developmental changes in adolescent disclosure might impact adolescent mental health interviews. Specifically, we estimated the effects of third party presence and type of third party presence (adult, child, or both) on adolescents' reports of psychiatric symptoms, substance use, suicidal behavior, and childhood adversity. In this representative sample of 3005 adolescents from Mexico City (52.1 % female), administered the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI-A), adult presence influenced reporting the most; in their presence, adolescents reported more ADHD, parental mental illness and economic adversity, but less panic disorder, PTSD, drug use and disorder, and suicidal behavior. The presence of children was associated with increased odds of reporting conduct disorder, opportunity for drug use, parental criminal behavior, neglect, and the death of a parent. While adolescent information management strategies are normative and even desirable as a means of gaining emotional autonomy, they may also interfere with timely detection and treatment or intervention for mental health conditions and risky behaviors. Research and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Mental health trust chief executives are increasingly confident about recruiting crisis resolution and early intervention teams, according to the new HSJ Barometer survey. However, very few expect to gain foundation status in the next two years. The survey also shows that bed occupancy rates are increasing, with about a fifth of trusts showing rates above 100 per cent.
Discusses the prevalence and rise of poverty in the United States, which is found particularly among women, children, and those from minority groups. Discusses the positive association between poverty and mental health problems. Describes the impact of poverty on women, and the need for research to discover the psychological impact of poverty. (JS)
... degree in social work (M.S.W.); Licensed Clinical Social Workers (L.C.S.W.) have additional supervised training and clinical work experience. Licensed Professional Counselor: Master’s degree in psychology, counseling or a related field. Mental Health Counselor: ...
Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.
An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization. PMID:10212521
Weinstein, Henry C.
Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…
Plattner, Ilse Elisabeth; Haugen, Kirsten; Cohen, Alan; Levin, Diane E.
Presents four articles discussing mental health issues that pertain to early childhood education: "Granting Children Their Emotions" (Ilse Elisabeth Plattner); "Double Vision: Parent and Professional Perspectives on Our Family's Year in Crisis" (Kirsten Haugen); "Coping with Stress and Surviving Challenging Times" (Alan Cohen); and "When the World…
Valencia-Weber, Gloria, Ed.
This document presents two overview essays (one on the ethnic history of the United States and one on multicultural society) and seven articles on various aspects of the relationship between ethnic values and mental health. Articles were originally presented as papers at a series of seminars convened to encourage humanists from four ethnic groups…
This article provides insight and understanding into important issues of which nurses need to be aware when caring for men and boys with regard to their mental health. Inequalities in health care are discussed, and suggestions made concerning how all nurses can help redress these inequalities. The mental health of men and boys concerns all nurses; not just those working in mental health settings. The article focuses on a recent review published by the Men's Health Forum (Wilkins, 2010), and considers a number of gender-specific mental health issues that affect the health and wellbeing of men and boys. The role of the nurse is to protect and promote the health of people in their care and this article makes clear that this extends to and includes the mental health of men and boys. Labelling people and categorizing them into homogenous groups is not often helpful or strategically wise; this article does not wish to categorize, but merely attempts to explain.
Dixon, Decia Nicole
Latest research on the mental health status of children indicates that schools are key providers of mental health services (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2003). The push for school mental health services has only increased as stakeholders have begun to recognize the significance of sound mental health as an essential part of…
Prochaska, Judith J; Das, Smita; Young-Wolff, Kelly C
Tobacco remains the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. In particular, people with mental illness are disproportionately affected with high smoking prevalence; they account for more than 200,000 of the 520,000 tobacco-attributable deaths in the United States annually and die on average 25 years prematurely. Our review aims to provide an update on smoking in the mentally ill. We review the determinants of tobacco use among smokers with mental illness, presented with regard to the public health HAVE framework of "the host" (e.g., tobacco user characteristics), the "agent" (e.g., nicotine product characteristics), the "vector" (e.g., tobacco industry), and the "environment" (e.g., smoking policies). Furthermore, we identify the significant health harms incurred and opportunities for prevention and intervention within a health care systems and larger health policy perspective. A comprehensive effort is warranted to achieve equity toward the 2025 Healthy People goal of reducing US adult tobacco use to 12%, with attention to all subgroups, including smokers with mental illness. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Public Health Volume 38 is March 20, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Gettman, Dawn; Pena, Devon G.
Occupational social work in the United States-Mexico border region requires knowledge of how gender, cross-cultural factors, and systemic factors affect industrial workers' mental health. A major concern involves knowing when the very structure of the industrial organization must be challenged in order to promote mental health in the workplace.…
Beers, Lee; Southammakosane, Cathy; Lewin, Amy
Adolescent parenthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes for young mothers, including mental health problems such as depression, substance abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Teen mothers are also more likely to be impoverished and reside in communities and families that are socially and economically disadvantaged. These circumstances can adversely affect maternal mental health, parenting, and behavior outcomes for their children. In this report, we provide an overview of the mental health challenges associated with teen parenthood, barriers that often prevent teen mothers from seeking mental health services, and interventions for this vulnerable population that can be integrated into primary care services. Pediatricians in the primary care setting are in a unique position to address the mental health needs of adolescent parents because teens often turn to them first for assistance with emotional and behavioral concerns. Consequently, pediatricians can play a pivotal role in facilitating and encouraging teen parents’ engagement in mental health treatment. PMID:24298010
Menon, Koravangattu Valsraj; Ranjith, Gopinath
There is a tradition of using films to teach various aspects of psychiatry and we feel that Malayalam cinema can also be used suitably to teach effectively. These films can be an invaluable resource in cultural competency training as they depict the effects of culture on psychopathology and cultural and regional influences on attitudes to mental illness and stigma. We also note that the portrayal is often far from reality but this is not a barrier for using the films as an effective alternative to traditional and didactic teaching methods. This method of teaching can stimulate interest and discussion and demystify the myths of novice students and others about mental health.
Freed, Patricia; SmithBattle, Lee
In this second article in a two-part series, we call for the integration of strengths-based and trauma-informed care into services for teen mothers. Nurses working with teen mothers in health clinics, schools and home visiting programs can play a pivotal role in promoting their mental health. Many teen mothers have high levels of psychological distress and histories of adverse experiences that cannot be ignored, and cannot solely be addressed by referral to mental health services. Nurses must be prepared to assess for trauma and be open to listening to teen mothers' experiences. Principles of strengths-based and trauma-informed care are complementary and can be integrated in clinical services so that teen mothers' distress is addressed and their strengths and aspirations are supported. Potential screening tools, interviewing skills and basic strategies to alleviate teen mothers' distress are discussed.
Weeks, S M
1. Services that may be provided by psychiatric-mental health nurses following a disaster include education, intervention, problem solving, advocacy, and referral. 2. Nurses providing disaster mental health services must be flexible and creative. Strong observational skills and teamwork are also essential characteristics in disaster settings. 3. Psychiatric-mental health nurses who wish to receive training for disaster mental health volunteer opportunities should contact their local chapter of the American Red Cross.
The author reviews the psychosocial implications of immigration. Immigration is a complex, emotionally charged process which involves leaving behind old values, relationships, security, and resettling in an unknown culture with a new set of norms and boundaries. Some studies report a higher incidence of psychiatric illness in a migrant population than among the native born. Preventive and early therapeutic intervention is mandatory. In order to facilitate acculturation and eventual adaptation, the host society should promote easy access to the health-care systems, educational facilities, housing requirements and community organizations. PMID:21267172
Souza, Aline de Jesus Fontineli; Matias, Gina Nogueira; Gomes, Kenia de Fátima Alencar; Parente, Adriana da Cunha Menezes
A descriptive study whose objective was to identify the education and actions of the nurse in Mental Health (MH), in the Family Health Program. The sample consisted of 134 acting nurses at the Family Health Program in Teresina, Piauí The results show that 95.5% don't have the specified education in MH. Of those interviewed, 97% state that there are patients, in their assigned areas, that need this type of care. The referenced actions were home visits (60%) appointments (27.7%), referrals (21.5%), medication delivery (15.4%), inactivity (14.6%), ambulatory service (7.7%), community therapy (5.4%) and casework (0.8%). Methods and strategies of public policies related to this area should be revisited and instituted in order to (re)direct ways of reform in the actions and services of mental health.
Dykstra, Ralph R.; Dirr, Peter J.
The second in a series of bibliographies lists approximately 350 instructional materials for use in mental health education. It is noted that all of the materials listed were suggested by teachers after careful screening, including evaluation with handicapped children. Materials are grouped according to the following media forms: books (the major…
Ackerman, Nathan W.
This pamphlet explores the relationship among prejudice, mental health, and family life. Prejudice is learned behavior, initially within the family unit which sets the framework for good or bad mental health as well as for the development of positive or negative attitudes. The family also determines the degree and kind of mental health of each…
National Technical Assistance Center in Transition, 2016
Recently researchers have begun focusing on young adults with mental health disorders transitioning into adulthood. Research exploring the importance of mental health support in secondary transition have yielded positive outcomes. For example, strong collaboration between educational and mental health agencies ensuring academic, employment, and…
Stiffman, Arlene Rubin, Ed.; Davis, Larry E., Ed.
The essays collected in this book examine the effects of ethnicity on the mental health of adolescents. A dual set of issues emerges throughout the volume: the importance of adolescent mental health in contributing to adult well-being, and the necessity of understanding ethnicity in studying and treating mental health problems. The book is divided…
Zeanah, Charles H., Jr., Ed.
This revised edition offers an interdisciplinary analysis of the developmental, clinical, and social aspects of mental health from birth to age 3. Chapters are organized into five areas, covering the context of mental health, risk and protective factors, assessment, psychopathology, intervention, and applications of infant mental health. The…
McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.
This theme issue of a bulletin on family support and children's mental health focuses on managed care and the impact on children who are in need of mental health services. Articles include: "Private Sector Managed Care and Children's Mental Health" (Ira S. Lourie and others); "Just What Is Managed Care?" (Chris Koyanagi); "Managed Behavioral…
Babich, Karen S., Comp.
Five papers cover recent developments in rural mental health nursing. "Rural Mental Health Care: A Survey of the Research" (Karen Babich) chronicles recent interest in understanding the rural population's character and the nature of mental health services needed by and provided to rural America. Lauren Aaronson ("Using Health…
Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt
Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…
Cohen, Anjalee; Medlow, Sharon; Kelk, Norm; Hickie, Ian; Whitwell, Bradley
Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore young people's experiences of mental health care in Australia with the aim of informing the headspace National Youth Mental Health Foundation. The interviews revealed that significant numbers of respondents had been aware of their mental health problems for several years before seeking help and…
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.
Outcome evaluation assesses the results or benefits of mental health services received by clients or communities by comparing descriptive data on the mental health status of clients at different points in time. It aids clinicians and managers in planning programs and managing clinical services. A mental health center should establish goal-oriented…
Hispanic Research Center Research Bulletin, 1985
The objective of improving mental health care for Hispanics has been reviewed, most often, as dependent upon the provision of culturally sensitive mental health services. "Cultural sensitivity," however, is an imprecise term, especially when efforts are made to put it into operation when providing mental health services to Hispanic…
Busch, Susan H; Barry, Colleen L
State mental health parity laws improve equity in private insurance coverage for mental and physical health services, but prior research shows no effect on service use. We study whether state parity differentially affects individuals by employer size since large firms are often exempt from state health mandates due to the Employee Retirement Income Security Act. We also examine whether state parity laws differentially affect use among individuals with low incomes or in poor mental health. We find that individuals in smaller firms are more likely to use services post-parity implementation and that this effect is concentrated among low-income individuals.
Kraft, David P
Although the first student health service is credited to Amherst College in 1861, almost 50 years passed before Princeton University established the first mental health service in 1910. At that time, a psychiatrist was hired to help with student personality development. Although other schools subsequently established such services, the first 50 years of college mental health were marked by a series of national conferences. At the American Student Health Association's annual meeting in 1920, "mental hygiene" was identified as critical for college campuses to assist students to reach their highest potential. However, it took another 40 years before mental health and psychological counseling services became common on college and university campuses. The American College Health Association formed a Mental Health Section to serve mental health professionals in 1957, and most colleges and universities have now developed mental health and counseling programs commensurate with the size of their student bodies.
This paper discusses the use of bilingual workers who do not have formal mental health training as mediators and providers of mental health care for refugees. The introduction provides a background discussion of the need for refugee mental health services, the characteristics of bilingual mental health workers, and the work places and expectations…
Van Ness, Peter H.; Larson, David B.
The authors review epidemiological and survey research relevant to the relationships between religiousness/spirituality and mental health in people at the end of life, with the end of helping psychiatrists, psychologists, and other mental health professionals dealing with older Americans. They give special attention to well-being, religious coping, cognitive dysfunction, anxiety, depression, and suicide, and consider the extent to which hope is a mediator of the purported salutary effects of religiousness. Studies were selected from the comprehensive and systematic review of 20th-century scientific literature concerning religion and health. Authors also review current studies relevant to religion and end-of-life issues. Religious persons reported generally higher levels of well-being. The review also found fairly consistent inverse associations of religiousness with rates of depression and suicide. There was some negative association between religious participation and cognitive dysfunction, but the association with anxiety was inconsistent, with some studies showing a correlation between higher levels of religion and anxiety. Religion’s effects on mental health are generally protective in direction but modest in strength. PMID:12095898
Effects of the current global economic downturn on population mental health will emerge in the years ahead. Judging from earlier experience of financial crises in various parts of the world, stresses associated with rising unemployment, poverty and social insecurity will lead to upward trends in many national suicide rates, as well as to less readily charted increase in the prevalence of psychiatric illness, alcohol-related disorders and illicit drug use. At the same time, mental health services are being cut back as part of government austerity programs. Budget cuts will thus affect psychiatric services adversely just when economic stressors are raising the levels of need and demand in affected populations. Proactive fiscal and social policies could, however, help to mitigate the health consequences of recession. Evidence- based preventive measures include active labor market and family support programs, regulation of alcohol prices and availability, community care for known high-risk groups, and debt relief projects. Economic mental health care could best be achieved, not by decimating services but by planning and deploying these to meet the needs of defined area populations.
Hernandez, Elaine M.; Uggen, Christopher
Mental health parity laws require insurers to extend comparable benefits for mental and physical health care. Proponents argue that by placing mental health services alongside physical health services, such laws can help ensure needed treatment and destigmatize mental illness. Opponents counter that such mandates are costly or unnecessary. The authors offer a sociological account of the diffusion and spatial distribution of state mental health parity laws. An event history analysis identifies four factors as especially important: diffusion of law, political ideology, the stability of mental health advocacy organizations and the relative health of state economies. Mental health parity is least likely to be established during times of high state unemployment and under the leadership of conservative state legislatures. PMID:24353902
Wainer, J; Chesters, J
This paper explores the relationship between rural places and mental health. It begins with a definition of mental health and an outline of the data that have led to the current concern with promoting positive mental health. We then consider aspects of rural life and place that contribute to positive mental health or increase the likelihood of mental health problems. Issues identified include environment, place, gender identity, violence and dispossession and the influence of the effects of structural changes in rural communities. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the determinants of resilience in rural places, including social connectedness, valuing diversity and economic participation.
Trombley, Janna; Chalupka, Stephanie; Anderko, Laura
: Climate change is an enormous challenge for our communities, our country, and our world. Recently much attention has been paid to the physical impacts of climate change, including extreme heat events, droughts, extreme storms, and rising sea levels. However, much less attention has been paid to the psychological impacts. This article examines the likely psychological impacts of climate change, including anxiety, stress, and depression; increases in violence and aggression; and loss of community identity. Nurses can play a vital role in local and regional climate strategies by preparing their patients, health care facilities, and communities to effectively address the anticipated mental health impacts of climate change.
Alarcón, R. D.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. A.
New assessment guidelines for measuring the overall impact of mental health problems in Latin America have served as a catalyst for countries to review their mental health policies. Latin American countries have taken various steps to address long-standing problems such as structural difficulties, scarce financial and human resources, and social, political, and cultural obstacles in the implementation of mental health policies and legislation. These policy developments, however, have had uneven results. Policies must reflect the desire, determination, and commitment of policy-makers to take mental health seriously and look after people's mental health needs. This paper describes the development of mental health policies in Latin American countries, focusing on published data in peer-reviewed journals, and legislative change and its implementation. It presents a brief history of mental health policy developments, and analyzes the basis and practicalities of current practice. PMID:10885167
Lipman, E L; Offord, D R; Boyle, M H
OBJECTIVE: To examine the sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics of single mothers in Ontario. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Ontario residents aged 15 years or older who participated in the Ontario Health Supplement survey conducted between December 1990 and April 1991; of 9953 eligible participants, 1540 were mothers with at least 1 dependent child (less than 16 years of age). OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence rates of sociodemographic, physical and mental health characteristics. RESULTS: Single mothers were significantly more likely than the mothers in 2-parent families to be poor, to be 25 years of age or less, to have mental health problems (dissatisfaction with multiple aspects of life, affective disorder ever and 1 or more psychiatric disorders in the past year or ever) and to use mental health services. When compared by income level, poor single mothers had a higher prevalence of all mental health outcomes measured; the difference was significant for anxiety disorder in the past year or ever and for 1 or more psychiatric disorders in the past year or ever. In a logistic regression analysis, single-mother status was found to have the strongest independent effect on predicting mental health morbidity and utilization of mental health services; the next strongest was low income. CONCLUSIONS: Single mothers are more likely to be poor, to have an affective disorder and to use mental health services than mothers in 2-parent families. The risk of mental health problems is especially pronounced among poor single mothers. Further studies are needed to determine which aspects of single motherhood, apart from economic status, affect mental health outcomes. PMID:9068569
The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting
Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane
Introduction User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Methods An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4 years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9 months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6 months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. Ethics and dissemination The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN
Jones, Christian M; Scholes, Laura; Johnson, Daniel; Katsikitis, Mary; Carras, Michelle C
This paper is a review of the state of play of research linking videogaming and flourishing, and explores the role of videogames and technology to improve mental health and well-being. Its purpose is to develop understandings about the positive intersection of gaming and well-being, to document evidence regarding links between videogames and positive mental health, and to provide guidelines for use by other researchers as they design and use tools and games to improve mental health and well-being. Using Huppert's (Huppert and So, 2013) proposition that to flourish is more than the absence of mental disorder but rather a combination of feeling good and functioning effectively, resulting in high levels of mental well-being, and Seligman's (Seligman, 2011) PERMA theory of well-being, the paper identifies strengths in existing games that generate positive affect, positive functioning, and positive social functioning, contributing to, and supporting mental health and well-being.
Jones, Christian M.; Scholes, Laura; Johnson, Daniel; Katsikitis, Mary; Carras, Michelle C.
This paper is a review of the state of play of research linking videogaming and flourishing, and explores the role of videogames and technology to improve mental health and well-being. Its purpose is to develop understandings about the positive intersection of gaming and well-being, to document evidence regarding links between videogames and positive mental health, and to provide guidelines for use by other researchers as they design and use tools and games to improve mental health and well-being. Using Huppert's (Huppert and So, 2013) proposition that to flourish is more than the absence of mental disorder but rather a combination of feeling good and functioning effectively, resulting in high levels of mental well-being, and Seligman's (Seligman, 2011) PERMA theory of well-being, the paper identifies strengths in existing games that generate positive affect, positive functioning, and positive social functioning, contributing to, and supporting mental health and well-being. PMID:24744743
Bergin, M; Wells, John S G; Owen, Sara
This paper seeks to advance the debate that considers critical realism as an alternative approach for understanding gender and mental health and its relatedness to mental health research and practice. The knowledge base of how 'sex' and 'gender' affect mental health and illness is expanding. However, the way we conceptualize gender is significant and challenging as quite often our ability to think about 'gender' as independent of 'sex' is not common. The influences and interplay of how sex (biological) and gender (social) affect mental health and illness requires consideration. Critical realism suggests a shared ontology and epistemology for the natural and social sciences. While much of the debate surrounding gender is guided within a constructivist discourse, an exploration of the concept 'gender' is reflected on and some key realist propositions are considered for mental health research and practice. This is achieved through the works of some key realist theorists. Critical realism offers potential for research and practice in relation to gender and mental health because it facilitates changes in our understanding, while simultaneously, not discarding that which is already known. In so doing, it allows the biological (sex) and social (gender) domains of knowledge for mental health and illness to coexist, without either being reduced to or defined by the other. Arguably, greater depth and explanations for gender and mental health issues are presented within a realist metatheory.
Bennett, Rachel E.; Boulos, David; Garber, Bryan G.; Jetly, Rakesh; Sareen, Jitender
Objective: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. Methods: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system. The findings of recent population-based CAF mental health research are reviewed, with a focus on findings from the very similar mental health survey done in 2002. Finally, key aspects of the methods of the 2013 CFMHS are presented. Results: The findings of 20 peer-reviewed publications using the 2002 mental health survey data are reviewed, along with those of 25 publications from other major CAF mental health research projects executed over the past decade. Conclusions: More than a decade of population-based mental health research in the CAF has provided a detailed picture of its mental health and use of mental health services. This knowledge base and the homology of the 2013 survey with the 2002 CAF survey and general population surveys in 2002 and 2012 will provide an unusual opportunity to use the CFMHS to situate mental health in the CAF in a historical and societal perspective. PMID:27270738
Recent violence in schools and on college campuses has brought into sharp focus the need to address mental health issues in educational settings. Getting students with mental health problems the help they need, without stigmatizing mental illness, may help prevent future tragedies. Children with mental health problems face a host of challenges,…
Burke, M. M.; Griggs, M.; Dykens, E. M.; Hodapp, R. M.
Background: Begun in the late 1990s, mental health courts are specialty criminal courts developed to address the needs of persons with mental illness. Methods: As many persons with intellectual disabilities (IDs) may overlap in the mental health court system, we used mental health court records to examine the phenomenology and outcomes of 224…
Beck, Edward S.
Discusses the original dreams of the founders of the American Mental Health Counselors Association; looks at history and comments on the state of mental health counseling as it has struggled to evolve as a profession. Urges those in the counseling profession to consider an acquisitions and mergers corporate mentality to ensure and enhance the…
Nimmo, Margaret L.
This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…
East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations
Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Wardam, Lina A
The purpose of this study was to examine Jordanian mental health nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental illness. A descriptive correlational design was utilized to collect data from 92 mental health nurses in Jordan. Data was collected on nurses' attitudes toward mental illness and patients with mental disorder and their satisfaction with nursing care delivery. The Jordanian mental health nurses who participated in this study had negative attitudes toward mental illness and toward patients with mental disorders. About 60% of the mental health nurses had perceived patients with mental illness to be dangerous, immature, dirty, cold hearted, harmful, and pessimistic. In only two descriptions-being polite and adult-did nurses have positive perception about patients with mental illness. Mental health nurse were not satisfied with nursing care delivery. More than 70% of nurses were proud to be a mental health nurse. Age and gender were significant influential factors in forming the nurses' attitudes or satisfaction. Immediate intervention is needed to improve the quality of patient care provided by mental health nurses.
Sharma, Pulkit; Charak, Ruby; Sharma, Vibha
The paper strives to elucidate the complex yet intimate relation between spirituality and mental health from contemporary perspectives. The diverse and constantly evolving views that spiritualists and mental health professionals have held toward each other over last century are discussed with special accent on the transpersonal spiritual framework within psychology. The role of spirituality in promoting mental health and alleviating mental illness is highlighted. The paper is concluded with an increasing need to integrate spirituality within the mental health field albeit there are several impediments in achieving the same, which need to be worked through circumspectly. PMID:21938086
Hudson, Christopher G.; DeVito, Jo Anne
Reviews research pertinent to mental health services under health care reform proposals. Examines redistributional impact of inclusion of outpatient mental health benefits, optimal benefit packages, and findings that mental health services lower medical utilization costs. Argues that extending minimalist model of time-limited benefits to national…
Frierson, Richard L; Boyd, Mary S; Harper, Angela
As the number of state mental hospital beds declines, persons with persistent mental illness are increasingly encountered by those working in the legal system. Attorneys may have little experience in working with this population. This research involved a 32-item written survey of the 492 members of the criminal bar in South Carolina. Demographic variables were surveyed, and attorneys were asked to define two common terms describing mental illnesses (delusion and psychosis) and the legal criteria for verdicts of not guilty by reason of insanity and guilty but mentally ill. They were also asked to identify the most severe mental illness (schizophrenia). Attitudes about these verdicts and about working with defendants who are mentally ill were also surveyed. Results indicate that attorneys are fairly knowledgeable about mental illness, but not verdicts involving mental illness, particularly the verdict of guilty but mentally ill. Most attorneys prefer to work with clients who do not have mental illness. However, as they become more experienced interacting with defendants who are affected by mental illness, they become more knowledgeable and are more willing to defend them. A large majority believe that their law school education about mental illness was inadequate. When comparing attorney occupations, public defenders were the most knowledgeable about mental illness and mental health defenses, followed by prosecutors and private defense attorneys. Judges were the least knowledgeable group.
Immigrants represent a very heterogeneous population, with various stress factors for mental disorders. These individuals are confronted with numerous access barriers within the health care system, which are reflected in limited utilization of the mental health system and psychotherapy services. A particularly large gap in health service provision exists among refugees and asylum-seekers. There is an urgent need for action in terms of opening up of the mental health system, improving and simplifying routes of access, and facilitating treatment options.
Hojman, Daniel A; Miranda, Álvaro; Ruiz-Tagle, Jaime
In the last few decades, there was a marked increase in consumer debt in the United States, Latin America and other emerging countries, spurring a debate about the real costs and benefits of household credit. Using a unique longitudinal dataset with detailed health and balance sheet information from a large sample of 10,900 Chilean households we study the relationship between debt trajectories in a three-year time window and mental health. We find that depressive symptoms are higher for those who have been persistently over-indebted, followed by those who transit from moderate to high debt levels. We also find that those who transition from over-indebtedness to moderate debt levels have no additional depressive symptoms compared to those with trajectories of moderate debt throughout (never over-indebted). This suggests that the debt-related contribution to depressive symptoms vanishes as debt levels fall. The association between debt and depressive symptoms seems to be driven by non-mortgage debt -primarily consumer credit- or late mortgage payments; secured debt (secured by collateral) per se is not associated with depressive symptoms. Policy interventions to reduce the negative association of over-indebtedness on mental health are discussed.
Bolton, Declan J; Robertson, Lucy J
Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded. Despite this, it is generally accepted that there are several psychiatric disorders of unknown etiology that may be associated with microbial pathogens. Depression, autism, hypochondriasis and anxiety, schizophrenia, and Tourette syndrome probably have multiple contributing causes, among which foodborne pathogens may play a decisive or contributory role, possibly sharing pathophysiological pathways with other environmental triggers. This review focuses on foodborne parasites and bacterial pathogens. Some foodborne parasites, such as metacestodes of Taenia solium and tissue cysts (bradyzoites) of Toxoplasma gondii , may affect mental health by directly infecting the brain. In contrast, bacterial infections and other parasitic infections may contribute to mental illness via the immune system and/or by influencing neurotransmission pathways. Thus, cytokines, for example, have been associated with depression and schizophrenia. However, infectious disease models for psychiatry require a more complete understanding of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and microbial triggers. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the role of foodborne parasitic and bacterial pathogens in mental illness and identifies some of the gaps that should be addressed to improve diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues that are
Dokecki, Paul R.
Three revolutions in the history of mental health were identified by Nicholas Hobbs: the humane revolution, the scientific and therapeutic revolution, and the public health revolution. The shift of responsibilities for mental health and substance abuse services from the public to the private sector may constitute a fourth mental health revolution.…
Kakalik, J. S.; And Others
Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major mental health, and mental retardation, alcohol, and drug abuse services and programs in Nevada. Fourteen chapters are given to the following topics (sample subtopics are in parentheses): description of the survey (scope of the project); summary and recommendations…
Kupper, Lisa, Ed.
This bibliography for schools lists 49 print resources on mental health and mental illness published from 1989 through 1994. Resources are listed alphabetically by author within the categories of directories and bibliographies, and other print resources. The names, addresses, and telephone numbers of publishers are provided at the end of the…
Kupper, Lisa, Ed.
This bibliography for families lists 44 print resources on mental health and mental illness published from 1987 through 1994. The list is organized into the following categories: directories and bibliographies, other print resources, and information in Spanish. The names, addresses, and telephone numbers of publishers are provided at the end of…
Keyes, Corey L. M.
This article summarizes the conception and diagnosis of the mental health continuum, the findings supporting the two continua model of mental health and illness, and the benefits of flourishing to individuals and society. Completely mentally healthy adults--individuals free of a 12-month mental disorder and flourishing--reported the fewest missed…
Oram, Sian; Khalifeh, Hind; Howard, Louise M
Violence against women is widely recognised as a violation of human rights and a public health problem. In this Series paper, we argue that violence against women is also a prominent public mental health problem, and that mental health professionals should be identifying, preventing, and responding to violence against women more effectively. The most common forms of violence against women are domestic abuse and sexual violence, and victimisation is associated with an increased risk of mental disorder. Despite clinical guidance on the role of mental health professionals in identifying violence against women and responding appropriately, poor identification persists and can lead to non-engagement with services and poor response to treatment. We highlight that little research has been done on how to improve identification and treatment of victims and perpetrators in contact with mental health services, but that mental health services could play a major role in primary and secondary prevention of violence against women.
If you knew no one with a mental illness, what would mold your perceptions of someone with a mental illness? A movie character, a television actor, a description from a friend? Each of these explanations has been given to me by nursing students beginning their mental health nursing clinical rotation. Reconsideration of the limited amount of mental health education in nursing school is urgent. As we become more engrossed as a society in television and movies, the result appears to be a deceptive idea of what true mental illness entails. This piece shares personal insight from a mental health nursing educator and the transformation she witnesses in her students after a mental health clinical rotation.
... social activities or trouble finding housing Bullying, physical violence or harassment Health insurance that doesn't adequately cover your mental illness treatment The belief that you'll never be ...
Gureje, O.; Alem, A.
Mental health issues are usually given very low priority in health service policies. Although this is changing, African countries are still confronted with so many problems caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition that they have not waken up to the impact of mental disorders. Every country must formulate a mental health policy based on its own social and cultural realities. Such policies must take into account the scope of mental health problems, provide proven and affordable interventions, safeguard patients' rights, and ensure equity. PMID:10885166
Wasserman, Gail A; McReynolds, Larkin S; Whited, Andria L; Keating, Joseph M; Musabegovic, Hana; Huo, Yanling
We reviewed case records for 583 juvenile delinquency intakes in four county juvenile probation offices; 14.4% were receiving mental health or substance use services at case opening, and 24.9% were newly identified during probation contact. Youths were significantly more likely to be newly identified if they were repeat offenders, if their probation officer knew more about mental health and if they resided in a county without a shortage of available mental health professionals. Probation officers were especially likely to underidentify internalizing disorders. Policy implications for promoting identification of mental health needs and improving linkage to community service providers are discussed.
Taylor, Laura E; Taylor-Henley, Sharon; Doan, Lan
Later-life immigration and a lack of dominant language competency present many challenges to mental health for older adults. English as a Second Language (ESL) classes for seniors, often regarded as the sole domain of ESL teachers, offer mental health professionals opportunities for mental health promotion and education. This paper examines some of the mental health issues that emerged from stories written by older adults in an ESL for Seniors program. The program is presented as an example of best practices in an ESL for Seniors program because of its specific development to meet the needs of ESL older persons.
The World Federation for Mental Health was founded as an international apolitical organization concerned with quality of life rather than merely the absence or prevention of mental illness. An examination of the manner and extent to which mental problems arise in different cultural settings can provide data needed to understand the relationship…
Blai, Boris, Jr.
Facts about mental and emotional illness and implications for student mental health services in higher education are reviewed. Psychoses, which are types of mental illness that are usually quite severe, are discussed in terms of symptoms, as are neuroses, which cause severe distress and impair coping with living conditions but are not as…
Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona
This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert 'Think Tank' convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your 'cluster' of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development.
Thomas, Steve; Jenkins, Rachel; Burch, Tony; Calamos Nasir, Laura; Fisher, Brian; Giotaki, Gina; Gnani, Shamini; Hertel, Lise; Marks, Marina; Mathers, Nigel; Millington-Sanders, Catherine; Morris, David; Ruprah-Shah, Baljeet; Stange, Kurt; Thomas, Paul; White, Robert; Wright, Fiona
Abstract This paper calls for the routine integration of mental health promotion and prevention into UK General Practice in order to reduce the burden of mental and physical disorders and the ensuing pressure on General Practice. The proposals & the resulting document (https://ethicscharity.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/rcgp_keymsg_150925_v5.pdf) arise from an expert ‘Think Tank’ convened by the London Journal of Primary Care, Educational Trust for Health Improvement through Cognitive Strategies (ETHICS Foundation) and the Royal College of General Practitioners. It makes 12 recommendations for General Practice: (1) Mental health promotion and prevention are too important to wait. (2) Work with your community to map risk factors, resources and assets. (3) Good health care, medicine and best practice are biopsychosocial rather than purely physical. (4) Integrate mental health promotion and prevention into your daily work. (5) Boost resilience in your community through approaches such as community development. (6) Identify people at increased risk of mental disorder for support and screening. (7) Support early intervention for people of all ages with signs of illness. (8) Maintain your biopsychosocial skills. (9) Ensure good communication, interdisciplinary team working and inter-sectoral working with other staff, teams and agencies. (10) Lead by example, taking action to promote the resilience of the general practice workforce. (11) Ensure mental health is appropriately included in the strategic agenda for your ‘cluster’ of General Practices, at the Clinical Commissioning Groups, and the Health and Wellbeing Board. (12) Be aware of national mental health strategies and localise them, including action to destigmatise mental illness within the context of community development. PMID:28250821
Abstract During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction. PMID:25192305
During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction.
Pratt, Christina; Yanos, Philip T; Kopelovich, Sarah L; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane
Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants' perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of "negative pressures," a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and that
Infrequent use of and delayed presentation to professional services have increased the burden of mental illness in minority ethnic communities. Within the growing literature on informal carers, the Chinese remain relatively unstudied. This article reports a qualitative study of 14 carers to explore illness representations of affective disorders in British Chinese communities. Firstly, it places the study within a theoretical framework that permits an understanding of mental health and illness in different sociocultural belief systems. Next, it presents carers' narrative accounts in conceptualising mental illness, including its causes, manifestations and impact on patients and carers, and contextualises the findings within the existing literature. Finally, the article examines how the caring role may be constructed from the broader social experience of carers and their relationships within a community structure that values the group over the individual. Coping mechanisms are discussed in the context of the practice of caring as a moral obligation and of policy implications for more culturally appropriate support services for both Chinese carers and mental health patients.
Happell, Brenda; Wilson, Rhonda; McNamara, Paul
Mental Health First Aid training is designed to equip people with the skills to help others who may be developing mental health problems or experiencing mental health crises. This training has consistently been shown to increase: (1) the recognition of mental health problems; (2) the extent to which course trainees' beliefs about treatment align with those of mental health professionals; (3) their intentions to help others; and (4) their confidence in their abilities to assist others. This paper presents a discussion of the potential role of Mental Health First Aid training in undergraduate mental health nursing education. Three databases (CINAHL, Medline, and PsycINFO) were searched to identify literature on Mental Health First Aid. Although Mental Health First Aid training has strong benefits, this first responder level of education is insufficient for nurses, from whom people expect to receive professional care. It is recommended that: (1) Mental Health First Aid training be made a prerequisite of preregistration nurse education, (2) registered nurses make a larger contribution to addressing the mental health needs of Australians requiring care, and (3) current registered nurses take responsibility for ensuring that they can provided basic mental health care, including undertaking training to rectify gaps in their knowledge.
Burns, Jonathan Kenneth
Mental disability and mental health care have been neglected in the discourse around health, human rights, and equality. This is perplexing as mental disabilities are pervasive, affecting approximately 8% of the world population. Furthermore, the experience of persons with mental disability is one characterized by multiple interlinked levels of inequality and discrimination within society. Efforts directed toward achieving formal equality should not stand alone without similar efforts to achieve substantive equality for persons with mental disabilities. Structural factors such as poverty, inequality, homelessness, and discrimination contribute to risk for mental disability and impact negatively on the course and outcome of such disabilities. A human rights approach to mental disability means affirming the full personhood of those with mental disabilities by respecting their inherent dignity, their individual autonomy and independence, and their freedom to make their own choices. A rights-based approach requires us to examine and transform the language, terminology, and models of mental disability that have previously prevailed especially within health discourse. Such an approach also requires us to examine the multiple ways in which inequality and discrimination characterize the lives of persons with mental disabilities and to formulate a response based on a human rights framework. In this article, I examine issues of terminology, models of understanding mental disability, and the implications of international treaties such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for our response to the inequalities and discrimination that exist within society--both within and outside the health care system. Finally, while acknowledging that health care professionals have a role to play as advocates for equality, non-discrimination, and justice, I argue that it is persons with mental disabilities themselves who have the right to exercise agency
Quinn, Chris; Browne, Graeme
This article is a review of the literature examining the sexuality of mental health consumers and the role of mental health nurses. A search identified 72 English articles on the topic. The evidence clearly indicates that sexuality is a critical aspect of who we are as individuals, and of how we view ourselves, but discussion of this topic is neglected by mental health nurses. Discussion focuses upon the wide acceptance of sexuality as a legitimate area for nurses to address in their care, and addresses mental health nurses' lack of knowledge about sexuality, conservative attitudes, and anxiety when discussing sexual issues. Consumer sexuality is poorly assessed in mental health, and is infrequently explored by mental health nurses. The result is that issues of sexuality for the consumer continue to affect many areas of their lives, including their relationships and ongoing commitment to treatment. The nurse-consumer relationship provides an opportunity to take sexual history into consideration, promote safe sexual practices, discuss sexual problems, and educate clients about sexual issues. This literature review identifies the need for further discussion of this topic and for research to point the way ahead for this important but neglected area of mental health nursing.
Link, Emerson A.
The Southwest Iowa Mental Health Center recently completed a 4-year project to increase use of mental health services by normally reluctant rural populations and to increase coping ability among persons affected by the farm crisis. During the first 2 years, program goals included aggressive outreach to potential patients, mental health education…
Kenny, Dianna T.; Lennings, Christopher J.; Nelson, Paul K.
Young offenders internationally have a higher incidence of mental health problems compared with adolescents in the general population. Mental health issues, particularly comorbid presentations, affect the response to and outcome of rehabilitation and hence recidivism of offending. Most information on the mental health of young offenders has…
Ashton, John R.
Mental health and the failings of the mental health services are in the spotlight as never before. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the often dire situation with regard to child and adolescent mental health. At the same time, there is a renewed interest in the scope for prevention of mental illness and distress, and in population approaches to mental well-being. It may come as a surprise to some that others have given such serious consideration to strategic approaches to public mental health as long ago as the 1950s. It appears that such consideration was squeezed out by the dominant concerns of serious and enduring mental illness and a prevailing biological view of psychiatry. The time is right to engage with this agenda in recognition of the importance of public mental health, not only for the individual and for families, but also for society as a whole and for the economy. The publication of a review of the subject by the Faculty of Public Health and the Mental Health Foundation is to be commended. Let us make sure it leads to action. PMID:28184309
Blackborow, May; Tuck, Christine; Lambert, Patrice; Disney, Jody; Porter, Jessica; Jordan, Alicia
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that mental health is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) serve a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mental health outcomes in students through school/community evidence-based programs and curricula. As members of interdisciplinary teams, school nurses collaborate with school personnel, community health care professionals, students, and families, in the assessment, identification, intervention, referral, and follow-up of children in need of mental health services. School nurses are uniquely qualified to identify students with potential mental health problems. In addition, school nurses serve as advocates, facilitators, and counselors of mental health services both within the school environment and in the community.
Taylor, Daniel J; Gardner, Christie E; Bramoweth, Adam D; Williams, Jacob M; Roane, Brandy M; Grieser, Emily A; Tatum, Jolyn I
Insomnia is strongly associated with certain mental health problems in the general population. However, there is little research examining this relation in young adults-an age group where many mental health problems first present. This study examined relations between insomnia and mental health symptoms in a college population (N = 373; 60.9% women; mean age of 21 years). Insomnia was assessed via self-report and sleep diaries, and mental health was assessed via the Symptom Check List-90. Analyses revealed insomnia was prevalent (9.4%), and these young adults had significantly more mental health problems than those without insomnia, although some significant results were lost after controlling for comorbid health problems.
Schools face increasing demands to support the mental health needs of students and families; some estimate that 80 percent of students receive mental health services at school. Thus, schools face two daunting challenges: (1) to provide effective mental health support to students and (2) to address how mental health needs affect other students,…
Noguchi, Masayuki; Moriya, Akira; Fujita, Kenzo
The community mental health system in Japan is being adversely affected by diminishing public mental health services, including those provided by public healthcare centers and the mental health divisions of municipal governments. It seems reasonable to expect that this will lead to the inadequate detection, assessment, and treatment of the population with mental health problems, and thus to the flooding of psychiatric hospitals with excessive numbers of severely mentally ill patients. In this article, the author suggests the utility of a 'network-based outreach team' as a possible remedy for the current situation. The Okayama Prefectural Mental Health & Welfare Center is running a network-based outreach team on a trial basis to work with individuals with serious mental illness who are disengaged from mental health services. The team is composed of members from the Mental Health & Welfare Center, public mental health services, and human service agencies. The main aims of this team are two-fold: to enhance support for clients with severe mental illness who are overwhelmed with multiple complex problems, through collaborative intervention within the framework of a network-based outreach team; and to develop the qualities and skills of public mental health service and human agency personnel in order that they better assist people with severe mental illness, by providing joint training with mental health specialists of the Mental Health & Welfare Center in community settings. The author suggests that the team structure of the network-based outreach team will benefit public mental health services by reintegrating currently fragmented services into coordinated ones.
Angier, J J
Consumer health information as applied to mental health includes areas such as the diagnosis, management, and treatment of mental illness, as well as self-help, emotional wellness, and the relationship between life events, stress, and disease. This paper presents issues specific to the provision of mental health information to the layperson, e.g., confidentiality, literacy, competence, the social stigma of mental illness, the state of the art in psychiatry, popular psychology, and treatment fads. The development of a community education pamphlet illustrates how one organization addressed these issues.
Collier, M T; Lambropoulos, A S; Williams-Glasser, G; Baron, S T; Birkmeyer, J
The Institute of Medicine's The Future of Public Health calls for a strengthening of linkages between public health and mental health, with a view to integrating the functions at the service delivery level. This paper details the history of the mental health/public health interface in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1977, mental health and addiction services were merged into the Department of Health. More recently, in 1988 adult mental health services were split off into a quasi-public corporation. Children's mental health, however, was retained as a distinct service within the Department of Health in order to enhance coordination with other health services for children. Replication of such coordinated-care models is certainly feasible.
Naughton, Michelle J.; Weaver, Kathryn E.
The physical and mental health of cancer patients needs to be addressed not only during active treatment but also throughout the continuum of survivorship care. This commentary provides an overview of issues pertinent to cancer survivors, with an emphasis on mental health issues and recommendations for annual clinical screening and monitoring using recently published guidelines from the American Society of Clinical Oncology. PMID:25046097
Trussell, Robert P.
Although schools are not traditionally designed to provide intensive mental health services to children, they are in a position to create systems that foster mental health. By creating school-wide systems in which students are academically, behaviorally and socially successful, schools can integrate those essential protective factors shown to…
Hiott, Ann E.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Davis, Stephen W.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.
Context: The number of Latinos in rural regions of the United States is increasing. Little is known about factors that undermine the mental health of this segment of the rural population. Purpose: The goal of this study is to determine which stressors inherent in farmwork and the farmworker lifestyle contribute to poor mental health. Methods: An…
Stone, T R; Warren, W E; Stevens, R E
The authors report the results of a segmentation study of the mental health care market. A random sample of 387 residents of a western city were interviewed by telephone. Cluster analysis of the data identified six market segments. Each is described according to the mental health care services to which it is most sensitive. Implications for targeting the segments are discussed.
The author, a superintendent of schools, discusses a rising tide of social and emotional needs among school children as educators struggle with the issue of whether to deal with students' mental health issues. Readers are asked to consider this statement from "Children's Mental Health: Developing a National Action Agenda," a report prepared by the…
Buxbaum, Carl B.
This critical review of the 1961 report of the Joint Commission on Mental Illness and Health concludes that the report and its adherents promised more than could be delivered and its claims regarding community mental health could not be supported by the available data. (Author)
Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus
The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…
As someone who has been involved in college mental health in three different roles, the author would say those who work in this field inhabit a strange space. College mental health centers are generally seen as somewhat peripheral to the core mission of universities by upper administration. Counseling centers do not reside within academic…
Stein, Dan J; He, Yanling; Phillips, Anthony; Sahakian, Barbara J; Williams, John; Patel, Vikram
Global mental health has emerged as an important specialty. It has drawn attention to the burden of mental illness and to the relative gap in mental health research and services around the world. Global mental health has raised the question of whether this gap is a developmental issue, a health issue, a human rights issue, or a combination of these issues-and it has raised awareness of the need to develop new approaches for building capacity, mobilising resources, and closing the research and treatment gap. Translational neuroscience has also advanced. It comprises an important conceptual approach to understanding the neurocircuitry and molecular basis of mental disorders, to rethinking how best to undertake research on the aetiology, assessment, and treatment of these disorders, with the ultimate aim to develop entirely new approaches to prevention and intervention. Some apparent contrasts exist between these fields; global mental health emphasises knowledge translation, moving away from the bedside to a focus on health systems, whereas translational neuroscience emphasises molecular neuroscience, focusing on transitions between the bench and bedside. Meanwhile, important opportunities exist for synergy between the two paradigms, to ensure that present opportunities in mental health research and services are maximised. Here, we review the approaches of global mental health and clinical neuroscience to diagnosis, pathogenesis, and intervention, and make recommendations for facilitating an integration of these two perspectives.
Texas Child Care, 2003
Highlights the concept of infant mental health and discusses what early care and education professionals can do to boost babies' emotional well-being. Offers steps for the following specific strategies: (1) developing trust; (2) being alert to risk conditions; (3) nurturing children's mental health; (4) creating supportive environments; and (5)…
In this article, the author contends that to understand the concern over student mental health, one must first consider what students are reporting about themselves. Students with mental health issues are intellectually capable; rising numbers of accepted students with diagnosed psychological conditions confirm this. However, many conditions…
Brown, Bertram S.
Presented is a speech by Bertram Brown, director of the National Institute of Mental Health, on the effects of decreased federal funding of mental health research. Brown notes that there has been a 56% slash in the purchasing power of the research grant program when inflation is accounted for. It is suggested that causes of the dwindling support…
Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique
Focused on mental health and protective factors in early adolescence. Significant relations between coping strategies and mental health were found, which are different according to gender: girls invest in more social relations, negative feelings, and consumption habits; boys often use sense of humor, or practice a hobby or sport. (JBJ)
Barman, Alicerose S.
In discussing the areas of mental health pertinent to the work of the school, the text defines mental health and elaborates upon the following: the healthy personality; the child and his family, his inner self, and his society; and the child and the teacher who send out distress signals. Also considered are the school's role in the promotion of…
Qualls, Sara Honn
Traditional models for defining mental health have used statistical definitions and symptom-based definitions. In a lifespan psychological approach, mental health in later life is defined as acceptance of the aging self as an active being who creates meaning, maintains maximum autonomy, and sustains positive relationships. (Contains 12…
Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network, Parramatta.
Each issue in the 2002 edition of the Australian Transcultural Mental Health Network (ATMHN) newsletter represents a theme critical to mental health practitioners. The Winter 2002 issue features articles on the psychological consequences of interpreters in relation to working with torture and trauma clients, addressing language issues on mental…
The purpose and approach of community mental health in the urban ghetto is discussed. Mental health service is viewed as an alien institution by the deprived citizen and institutions of the Kennedy era were naive the approaches from 1963 on were only new in ideals but not practice. Each center is meant to offer its community consultation and…
Simon, Ralph, Ed.; And Others
The report contains summaries of 176 pilot projects demonstrating new and innovative approaches for training mental health personnel. Projects were conducted under grants awarded by the Experimental and Special Training Branch of the Division of Manpower and Training Programs, National Institute of Mental Health. The projects have been developed…
Iqbal, Naved; Singh, Archana; Aleem, Sheema
Although traditional meditation has been found to be effective in improving physical and mental health of subjects, there was a paucity of research of the effect of active or dynamic meditation on these variables. Therefore, the present study was aimed at studying the effect of dynamic meditation on mental health of the subjects. Total sample of the present study comprised 60 subjects, 30 each in experimental and control group. Subjects in experimental group were given 21-day training in dynamic meditation. Mental health of the experimental and control group subjects was measured in pre- and post-condition with the help of Mental Health Inventory developed by Jagadish and Srivastava (Mental Health inventory, Manovaigyanik Parikshan Sansthan, Varanasi, 1983). Obtained data were analyzed with the help of ANCOVA. In post-condition, experimental group scored better than control group on integration of personality, autonomy and environmental mastery. Effect sizes of dynamic meditation on these dimensions of mental health were large. However, experimental group and control group did not differ significantly on positive self-evaluation, perception of reality and group-oriented attitude dimensions of mental health in post-condition. Overall, dynamic meditation training was effective in improving mental health of the subjects.
Clinton, J; Feller, AF; Williams, RC
A clear understanding of infant mental health will significantly assist a clinician’s ability to provide high-quality paediatric care for children and their families, given the new understanding of its role in overall development. The present commentary describes the mental health needs of children <3 years of age and provides practical suggestions for the office setting. PMID:27441014
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Ranta, Klaus; Fröjd, Sari
School performance, involvement in bullying and frequent absences from school are indicators of not only cognitive and social skills but also mental health. Mental disorders may interfere with learning and adjustment in many ways. Mental disorders may bring about problems in attention and motivation, and failure in schoolwork often makes an adolescent vulnerable to mental disorders. Early recognition of and prompt intervention in specific learning difficulties may prevent mental disorders. Adolescents involved in bullying present with increased risk of both internalising and externalising mental disorders, as do adolescents who are frequently absent from school, whether due to illness or due to truancy. Peer rejection is an important warning sign during adolescent development. These features can fairly easily be recognised at school, and school's psychosocial support systems should have plans for intervention. Mental health promotion in school should comprise approaches that make school safe and involving for all, and individual interventions for those at risk.
Hagenaars, Muriel A.; Mesbah, Rahele; Cremers, Henk
Automatic defense responses promote survival and appropriate action under threat. They have also been associated with the development of threat-related psychiatric syndromes. Targeting such automatic responses during threat may be useful in populations with frequent threat exposure. Here, two experiments explored whether mental imagery as a pre-trauma manipulation could influence fear bradycardia (a core characteristic of freezing) during subsequent analog trauma (affective picture viewing). Image-based interventions have proven successful in the treatment of threat-related disorders and are easily applicable. In Experiment 1, 43 healthy participants were randomly assigned to an imagery script condition. Participants executed a passive viewing task with blocks of neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures after listening to an auditory script that was either related (with a positive or a negative outcome) or unrelated to the unpleasant pictures from the passive viewing task. Heart rate was assessed during script listening and during passive viewing. Imagining negative related scripts resulted in greater bradycardia (neutral-unpleasant contrast) than imagining positive scripts, especially unrelated. This effect was replicated in Experiment 2 (n = 51), again in the neutral-unpleasant contrast. An extra no-script condition showed that bradycardia was not induced by the negative-related script, but rather that a positive script attenuated bradycardia. These preliminary results might indicate reduced vigilance after unrelated positive events. Future research should replicate these findings using a larger sample. Either way, the findings show that highly automatic defense behavior can be influenced by relatively simple mental imagery manipulations. PMID:26089801
Kohn, Robert; Saxena, Shekhar; Levav, Itzhak; Saraceno, Benedetto
Mental disorders are highly prevalent and cause considerable suffering and disease burden. To compound this public health problem, many individuals with psychiatric disorders remain untreated although effective treatments exist. We examine the extent of this treatment gap. We reviewed community-based psychiatric epidemiology studies that used standardized diagnostic instruments and included data on the percentage of individuals receiving care for schizophrenia and other non-affective psychotic disorders, major depression, dysthymia, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and alcohol abuse or dependence. The median rates of untreated cases of these disorders were calculated across the studies. Examples of the estimation of the treatment gap for WHO regions are also presented. Thirty-seven studies had information on service utilization. The median treatment gap for schizophrenia, including other non-affective psychosis, was 32.2%. For other disorders the gap was: depression, 56.3%; dysthymia, 56.0%; bipolar disorder, 50.2%; panic disorder, 55.9%; GAD, 57.5%; and OCD, 57.3%. Alcohol abuse and dependence had the widest treatment gap at 78.1%. The treatment gap for mental disorders is universally large, though it varies across regions. It is likely that the gap reported here is an underestimate due to the unavailability of community-based data from developing countries where services are scarcer. To address this major public health challenge, WHO has adopted in 2002 a global action programme that has been endorsed by the Member States. PMID:15640922
Braun, Sharon A.; Cox, Jane A.
In this article, the authors provide an overview of the effectiveness of managed health care systems and their impact on mental health counselors. They review ethical and legal dilemmas involving informed consent, confidentiality, client autonomy, competence, treatment plans, and termination that had not existed prior to the introduction of…
The demographic landscape of the United States is changing as the general population ages and the size of racial/ethnic minority groups grows. Most prior studies on mental health service use among Asians in America have overlooked older adults. A deeper understanding of the way acculturation factors impact help-seeking behaviors among older Asian Americans will inform behavioral health practice and program planners as they address the disparities affecting a diverse racial group. The California Health Interview Survey was used to examine the correlates of perceived mental health need among 980 older Asian immigrants. The study found that English proficiency and other covariates affected how Asian Americans perceived mental health need. Implications for understanding the help-seeking behaviors of older Asian immigrants are discussed.
Evaluation of Mood Disorder Patients in a Primary Care Practice: Measures of Affective Temperament, Mental Health Risk Factors, and Functional Health in a Retrospective, Descriptive Study of 35 Patients
Cunningham, Patricia D.; Connor, Pamela D.; Manning, J. Sloan; Stegbauer, Cheryl Cummings; Mynatt, Sarah L.
Objective: The purpose of this retrospective, descriptive study was to evaluate primary care patients diagnosed with a mood disorder on the basis of the following: (1) comorbid medical illnesses, (2) risk factors for mood disorders and longitudinal presence of symptoms, (3) presence of affective temperament, and (4) functional status and quality of life. Method: Patients (N = 35) were a convenience sample diagnosed in the Mood Disorder Clinic (MDC), a family practice site–based mental health treatment consultation service. All study patients were assessed using a semistructured interview and diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Data were collected using both chart review and secondary analysis of a computerized touch-screen mood disorders database that included the 36-item Short-Form Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey (SF-36) and an affective temperament survey. The study was conducted from January 2000 through August 2000. Results: A total of 62 comorbid medical illnesses were present in this group of patients; only 2 patients had no comorbid illnesses. Psychiatric diagnoses included 25 cases (78.1%) of bipolar depression, 5 cases (15.6%) of unipolar or dysthymic depression, and 2 cases (6.3%) of nonmood or anxiety disorders. All patients (100%) had a positive family history for mood disorders or substance abuse. Twenty-four patients (70.6%) had onset of their depressive symptoms prior to age 21, and 11 patients (35.5%) had a positive history of sexual abuse. Affective temperaments were positive in the 30 patients who completed this section. SF-36 scale scores were predominantly below national norms. Conclusion: The medical comorbidities in our study were expected; the positive family and individual histories for risk along with low SF-36 scores reflect the severity and chronicity of mood disorders in this population. PMID:19617935
Grants awarded by the Ontario Mental Health Foundation (OMHF) between 1986 and 1991 were analyzed for their relevance to male and female mental health topics following earlier research by Stark-Adamec in 1981. OMHF fellowships and scholarships, 1986 to 1991, National Health Research and Development Program funding, 1989 to 1990 and 1990 to 1991 funding by the Medical Research Council were also examined. Essentially, funding focused on neither gender; issues concerning gender and mental health were seldom involved in research funded by these agencies.
Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan
Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.
Background Mental fitness for work is the ability of workers to perform their work without risks for themselves or others. Mental fitness was a neglected area of practice and research. Mental ill health at work seems to be rising as a cause of disablement. Psychiatrists who may have had no experience in relating mental health to working conditions are increasingly being asked to undertake these examinations. This research was done to explore the relationship of mental ill health and fitness to work and to recognize the differences between fit and unfit mentally ill patients. Methods This study was cross sectional one. All cases referred to Al-Amal complex for assessment of mental fitness during a period of 12 months were included. Data collected included demographic and clinical characteristics, characteristics of the work environment and data about performance at work. All data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results Total number of cases was 116, the mean age was 34.5 ± 1.4. Females were 35.3% of cases. The highly educated patients constitute 50.8% of cases. The decision of the committee was fit for regular work for 52.5%, unfit for 19.8% and modified work for 27.7%. The decision was appreciated only by 29.3% of cases. There were significant differences between fit, unfit and modified work groups. The fit group had higher level of education, less duration of illness, and better performance at work. Patients of the modified work group had more physical hazards in work environment and had more work shift and more frequent diagnosis of substance abuse. The unfit group had more duration of illness, more frequent hospitalizations, less productivity, and more diagnosis of schizophrenia. Conclusion There are many factors affecting the mental fitness the most important are the characteristics of work environment and the most serious is the overall safety of patient to self and others. A lot of ethical and legal issues should be kept in mind during such assessment
Bonfiglio, Robert A.
The provision of college mental health services is undergoing a dynamic evolution. The ability of mental health practitioners and administrators to balance multiple and sometimes opposing trends may determine the future course of mental health services in higher education.
Orotaloa, Paul; Blignault, Ilse
The Solomon Islands comprise an archipelago of nearly 1,000 islands and coral atolls and have an estimated population of 549,574 people. Formal mental health services date back to 1950 when an asylum was established. Since then the process of mental health service development has been largely one of incremental change, with a major boost to community services in the last two decades. During the 1990s a mental health outpatient clinic was established in Honiara, together with attempts to recruit nursing staff as psychiatric coordinators in the provinces. In 1996, the Ministry commenced sending registered nurses for psychiatric training in Papua New Guinea. By 2010, there were 13 psychiatric nurses and one psychiatrist, with a second psychiatrist in training. A National Mental Health Policy was drafted in 2009 but is yet to be endorsed by Cabinet. A significant portion of the population still turns to traditional healers or church leaders for purposes of healing, seeking help from Western medicine only after all other alternatives in the community have been exhausted. There is still a long way to go before mental health services are available, affordable and accessible to the whole population, including people living in geographically remote areas. Realization of this vision requires increased resourcing for mental health services; improved communication and collaboration between the centrally-based, national mental health services and the provincial health services; and closer, ongoing relationships between all stakeholders and partners, both locally and internationally.
Smith, Allison L.; Cashwell, Craig S.
The authors explored attitudes toward adults with mental illness. Results suggest that mental health trainees and professionals had less stigmatizing attitudes than did non-mental-health trainees and professionals. Professionals receiving supervision had higher mean scores on the Benevolence subscale than did professionals who were not receiving…
Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C
Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes).
Potvin-Boucher, Jacqueline; Szumilas, Magdalena; Sheikh, Tabinda; Kutcher, Stan
Enhancement of mental health literacy is a mental health promotion strategy that may be effective at destigmatizing mental illness and increasing self-seeking behavior. Transitions is a mental health literacy program intended to heighten students' awareness and discussion of mental health problems and promote help-seeking behaviors. Transitions…
... Parents) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish Signs of Overload (American Academy of Pediatrics) What Is Child Traumatic ... of Mental Health Disclaimers MedlinePlus links to health information from the National Institutes of Health and other ...
Small, Leigh; Aplasca, Alexis
Prevalence rates of childhood obesity have risen steeply over the last 3 decades. Given the increased national focus, the frequency of this clinical problem, and the multiple mental health factors that coexist with it, make obesity a public health concern. The complex relationships between mental health and obesity serve to potentiate the severity and interdependency of each. The purpose of this review is to create a contextual connection for the 2 conditions as outlined by the research literature and consider treatment options that affect both health problems.
Tsai, Alexander C.
Background The U.S. foreclosure crisis intensified markedly during the Great Recession of 2007-09, and currently an estimated five percent of U.S. residential properties are more than 90 days past due or in the process of foreclosure. Yet there has been no systematic assessment of the effects of foreclosure on health and mental health. Methods and Findings I applied systematic search terms to PubMed and PsycINFO to identify quantitative or qualitative studies about the relationship between home foreclosure and health or mental health. After screening the titles and abstracts of 930 publications and reviewing the full text of 76 articles, dissertations, and other reports, I identified 42 publications representing 35 unique studies about foreclosure, health, and mental health. The majority of studies (32 [91%]) concluded that foreclosure had adverse effects on health or mental health, while three studies yielded null or mixed findings. Only two studies examined the extent to which foreclosure may have disproportionate impacts on ethnic or racial minority populations. Conclusions Home foreclosure adversely affects health and mental health through channels operating at multiple levels: at the individual level, the stress of personally experiencing foreclosure was associated with worsened mental health and adverse health behaviors, which were in turn linked to poorer health status; at the community level, increasing degradation of the neighborhood environment had indirect, cross-level adverse effects on health and mental health. Early intervention may be able to prevent acute economic shocks from eventually developing into the chronic stress of foreclosure, with all of the attendant benefits this implies for health and mental health status. Programs designed to encourage early return of foreclosed properties back into productive use may have similar health and mental health benefits. PMID:25849962
Worley, N K; Lowery, B J
Directors of community mental health centers and superintendents of public mental health hospitals in one state were surveyed to gather data on interagency linkages. Implementation of affiliation agreements, exchange of staff training, and exchange of patient information were investigated. Affiliation agreements tended to be implemented with little difficulty and there was more interagency cooperation than that reported in earlier research. However, exchange of training and staff were still areas of minimal interaction. Geographic proximity was found to have a positive influence and competition a negative influence on cooperation. Further attempts at interagency linkages in the interest of continuity of patient care are recommended.
Lecointe, P; Bernoussi, A; Masson, J; Schauder, S
This literature review concerns affective mentalizing in borderline addictive personality. This concept postulates the group between addictions and borderline personalities may correspond to Personality Disorders (PDs). First, we will present conceptualizations and evaluations of affective mentalizing. The latter refers to one dimension of mentalization, a process by which an individual interprets his/her mental states and those of others. Lecours and Bouchard proposed a hierarchic model: the Élaboration verbale de l'affect (EVA). They also developed an empiric methodology: the Grille de l'élaboration verbale de l'affect (GEVA). The methodological approach of Lecours fulfils the requirements made by Cho-Kain, Gunderson and Luyten, involving a narrower operationalization of the mentalization concept through the evaluation of its dimensions. Conceptualizations and evaluations enabled focus on mentalization psychopathology. Fonagy and Bateman studied this latter in the subjects with PDs, particularly in Borderline Personality Disorders (BPD). We describe mentalization failure, its etiology and consequences in the BPD. Several forms of mentalization psychopathology are identified. Its etiology is largely environmental. Fonagy and Bateman developed the optimum developmental model of mentalization and referred to it to explain etiology of mentalization failure in BPD. Consequences of mentalization failure explicate its functioning. Mentalization may be considered as essential in their comprehension and their care. Research about mentalization of PDs does not integrate addiction as one comorbidity factor. However, Allen, Fonagy and Bateman describe a bidirectional interaction between mentalization failure and addiction. We propose to examine the mentalization of Borderline Addictive Personality. This concept groups addictions and borderline personalities in just one clinical entity other than their links of co-morbidities.
Berry, Helen L; Hogan, Anthony; Owen, Jennifer; Rickwood, Debra; Fragar, Lyn
Climate change is exacerbating climate variability, evident in more frequent and severe weather-related disasters, such as droughts, fires, and floods. Most of what is known about the possible effects of climate change on rural mental health relates to prolonged drought. But though drought is known to be a disproportionate and general stressor, evidence is mixed and inconclusive. Over time, like drought other weather-related disasters may erode the social and economic bases on which farming communities depend. Rural vulnerability to mental health problems is greatly increased by socioeconomic disadvantage. Related factors may compound this, such as reduced access to health services as communities decline and a "stoical" culture that inhibits help-seeking. Australia has the world's most variable climate and is a major global agricultural producer. Yet despite Australia's (and, especially, rural communities') dependence on farmers' well-being and success, there is very little-and inconclusive-quantitative evidence about farmers' mental health. The aim of this review is to consider, with a view to informing other countries, how climate change and related factors may affect farmers' mental health in Australia. That information is a prerequisite to identifying, selecting, and evaluating adaptive strategies, to lessen the risks of adverse mental health outcomes. The authors identify the need for a systematic epidemiology of the mental health of farmers facing increasing climate change- related weather adversity.
Soares, Amanda Gonçalves Simões; Estanislau, Gustavo; Brietzke, Elisa; Lefèvre, Fernando; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca
OBJECTIVE To examine public school teachers’ perceptions about general health and mental health, and the way in which they obtained this information. METHODS Qualitative research was conducted with 31 primary and secondary school teachers at a state school in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2010. The teachers responded to a questionnaire containing open-ended questions about mental health and general health. The following aspects were evaluated: Teachers’ understanding of the terms “health and “mental health,” the relevance of the need for information on the subject, the method preferred for obtaining information, their experience with different media regarding such matters, and perceptions about the extent to which this available information is sufficient to support their practice. The data were processed using the Qualiquantisoft software and analyzed according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject technique. RESULTS From the teachers’ perspective, general health is defined as the proper physiological functioning of the body and mental health is related to the balance between mind and body, as a requirement for happiness. Most of the teachers (80.6%) showed great interest in acquiring knowledge about mental health and receiving educational materials on the subject. For these teachers, the lack of information creates insecurity and complicates the management of everyday situations involving mental disorders. For 61.3% of the teachers, television is the medium that provides the most information on the topic. CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that there is little information available on mental health for teachers, showing that strategies need to be developed to promote mental health in schools. PMID:26039397
Heslop, Brett; Wynaden, Dianne; Tohotoa, Jenny; Heslop, Karen
Australian mental health policy is focused on providing mental health care in the community setting and community mental health teams provide services to clients in a shared model with primary care. The historical literature reports that community mental health nurses' experience high levels of stress and are often allocated the most complex and challenging clients managed by the team. Yet information on their specific roles remains limited. This paper reports on research conducted at one Australian public mental health service to identify the components of the community mental health nursing role and to quantify the time nurses spent in each component during the study period. Six focus groups were conducted with community mental health nurses to identify their perceived role within the team. Data analysis identified 18 components of which 10 were related to direct clinical contact with clients and eight covered administrative and care coordination activities. A data collection tool based on the findings of the focus groups was designed and nurses recorded workload data on the tool in 15-min intervals over a 4-week period. Seventeen nurses collected 1528 hours of data. Internal coordination of care was identified as the top workload item followed by clinical documentation and national data collection responsibilities supporting the complexity of the community mental health nursing role. The high rating attached to the internal coordination of care role demonstrates an important contribution that community mental health nurses make to the functioning of the team and the delivery of quality mental health care.
When facing mental health problems, many service members choose not to seek needed help because of the stigma associated with mental health disorders...and treatment. Not seeking appropriate mental healthcare can negatively impact the quality of life and the social, emotional, and cognitive...functioning of affected service members. The stigma of seeking mental health treatment in the military persists despite the efforts of both the U.S. Department
The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the specificity of mental health issues as experienced by ethnic minority groups' representatives. A substantial body of evidence clearly indicates the differences in incidence of psychosis, affective disorders and suicidal tendencies in members of minority groups compared to the rest of the population. Relevant statistical data will be presented and examined from both a biological and socio-cultural point of view. Hoffman's Social Deafferentation Hypothesis will be introduced as a possible explanation of high incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrants. Subsequently, socio-cultural factors will receive attention. Acculturation and identity issues will be taken into account with regards to the data suggesting that these are second generation immigrants that suffer from mental health disorders most. The fact of being discriminated against and being exposed to negative social messages regarding one's group of reference will also be taken into consideration. Moreover, ethnic minorities will be compared on this dimension with other groups discriminated against, such as women and sexual minorities.
Krishnaswamy, Saroja; Subramaniam, Kavitha; Indran, Tishya; Low, Wah-Yun
Disasters, natural or man-made, bring numerous health care challenges. In any crisis, mental health programs are a requirement during both the acute and postemergency phases. In the Asian tsunami on December 26, 2004, some of the northwestern coastal areas of Malaysia, particularly the island of Penang, were affected with devastating effects on the residents. Such disasters can predispose to mental health problems among the affected people. An early mental health intervention program was carried out in Balik Pulau, Penang, an area badly affected by the tsunami. The objective of the intervention program was to identify the victims, counsel them, make referrals if necessary, and provide help and resources to prevent the development of mental health problems. Penang residents identified as tsunami victims by the local health authorities were recruited. A group of health care workers, school teachers, village authorities, and volunteers were trained to carry out the crisis intervention program by health care workers experienced in crisis interventions. A total of 299 adults participated in the crisis intervention program, with follow-up assessments being made 4 to 6 weeks later. At the follow-up assessment, 1% of the victims had a problem and they were then referred for further medical assessment. This indicates that the intervention program in the first 2 weeks after the tsunami disaster with referrals to medical services may have helped stabilize the victims.
Phoenix, Bethany J; Hurd, Manton; Chapman, Susan A
Expansion of health insurance coverage under the Accountable Care Act has meant that millions of people are now insured for mental health treatment, but with no significant increase in the mental health workforce. Services of psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) may be best utilized to improve access to and quality of public mental health services if the financial, political, scope of practice, and treatment model barriers that limit their ability or willingness to practice in these settings are better understood. This article reports qualitative results from a study that assessed barriers and best practices in the use of PMHNPs in county mental health services in California. Results indicate that PMHNPs are valued for their "whole person" perspective, collaborative approach, and interpersonal communication skills, but that significant knowledge gaps, regulatory constraints, and bureaucratic barriers in public mental health systems inhibit PMHNPs from practicing at the top of their scope.
Gleason, Mary Margaret; Heller, Sherryl Scott; Nagle, Geoffrey A.; Boothe, Allison; Keyes, Angela; Rice, Janet
Child care settings may provide an optimal setting for identification of early childhood mental health problems. However, little is known about child care providers' attitudes or knowledge about screening for children's mental health problems. Both attitudes and perceived knowledge could affect the successful implementation of mental health…
McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.
The theme issue of this bulletin is a discussion of youth with emotional disturbances who are in the juvenile justice system and how to meet their needs. Articles include: (1) "Responding to the Mental Health Needs of Youth in the Juvenile Justice System" (Susan Rotenberg); (2) "Prevalence of Mental Disorders among Youth in the…
Carty, Lee; Burley, Christopher
The Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law is the nation's leading legal advocate for the rights of adults and children with mental disabilities. The Center uses a coordinated strategy of federal policy advocacy, legal support for a nationwide network of advocates, and creation of educational materials to help families, professionals,…
Willging, Cathleen E; Israel, Tania; Ley, David; Trott, Elise M; DeMaria, Catherine; Joplin, Aaron; Smiley, Verida
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) people are affected by mental health disparities, especially in rural communities. We trained peer advocates in rural areas in the fundamentals of mental health, outreach, education, and support for this population. The peer advocates were coached by licensed mental health professionals. We evaluated this process through iterative qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews and written logs from coaches and advocates. The six major themes comprising the results centered on (1) coaching support, (2) peer advocate skills and preparation, (3) working with help seekers, (4) negotiating diversity, (5) logistical challenges in rural contexts, and (6) systemic challenges. We concluded that peer advocacy for LGBTQ people with mental distress offers an affirmative, community-based strategy to assist the underserved. To be successful, however, peer advocates will likely require ongoing training, coaching, and infrastructural support to negotiate contextual factors that can influence provision of community resources and support to LGBTQ people within rural communities.
Although mental disorders are a major public health problem, the development of mental health services has been a low priority everywhere, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Recent years have seen a growing understanding of the importance of population mental health and increased attention to the need to developmental health systems for responding to population mental health service needs. In countries and regions where mental health services are all but nonexistent, and in postconflict and postdisaster settings, there are many impediments to establishing or scaling up mental health services. It is frequently necessary to act simultaneously on multiple fronts: generating local evidence that will inform decision makers; developing a policy framework; securing investment; determining the most appropriate service model for the context; training and supporting mental health workers; establishing or expanding existing services; putting in place systems for monitoring and evaluation; and strengthening leadership and governance capabilities. This article presents the approach of the Centre for International Mental Health in the Melbourne School of Population Health to mental health system development, and illustrates the way in which the elements of the program are integrated by giving a brief case example from Sri Lanka. (harv rev psychiatry 2012;20:37–46.) PMID:22335181
VAILLANT, GEORGE E.
Seven models for conceptualizing positive mental health are reviewed: mental health as above normal, epitomized by a DSM-IV’s Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score of over 80; mental health as the presence of multiple human strengths rather than the absence of weaknesses; mental health conceptualized as maturity; mental health as the dominance of positive emotions; mental health as high socio-emotional intelligence; mental health as subjective well-being; mental health as resilience. Safeguards for the study of mental health are suggested, including the need to define mental health in terms that are culturally sensitive and inclusive, and the need to empirically and longitudinally validate criteria for mental health. PMID:22654934
Peltonen, Kirsi; Ellonen, Noora; Larsen, Helmer B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
Being the target of parental violent acts decreases child adjustment and increases the likelihood of mental health problems in childhood and adolescence. Our study analyses how different types of parental violence ranging from verbal threats and swearing to hitting and kicking a child, are associated with child adjustment, indicated by strengths and difficulties scale (SDQ) total problem score, internalizing and externalizing problems as well as prosocial behaviour. We also study whether girls and boys and youths in two Nordic countries respond differently to parental violence. The data consists of a large-scale community sample of 15-16-year old Finnish (n = 5,762) and Danish (n = 3,943) adolescents. The representative data of continental Finland and its Finnish and Swedish speaking ninth graders as well as representative data of Danish ninth grade pupils were collected by the Police College of Finland and in Denmark by the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark. The results show a clear dose-response effect between parental violent behaviour and the adolescent's problems. The more severe forms of parental violence were associated with higher levels of SDQ total difficulties and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. There was also a connection between parental violence and the deterioration of prosocial behaviour. The association was gender and nationality specific. The findings imply a high prevalence of parental violence and adverse mental health among the affected Finnish and Danish adolescents. Though the laws have been set in motion to prevent the use of parental physical violence the challenges remain in several domains of child protection, general health care, prevention and intervention.
Shim, Ruth S; Compton, Michael T; Zhang, Shun; Roberts, Kristin; Rust, George; Druss, Benjamin G
Disparities in behavioral health treatment outcomes are multifactorial, but treatment engagement and dropout from treatment often contribute to unequal mental health outcomes in individuals with serious mental illnesses. Alcohol and other substance use disorders have been associated with poor treatment adherence and premature discontinuation of treatment, but few studies have examined these factors in a predominantly African American sample of individuals with serious mental illnesses. This study examined predictors of mental health treatment engagement and dropout in a sample of 90 African American individuals presenting for treatment at a community mental health treatment facility in Atlanta, Georgia. Having an alcohol use disorder was associated with being less likely to attend mental health follow up (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.88). Among African American individuals with alcohol use disorders, specific, targeted interventions may be necessary to help reach individuals that are at extremely high risk of poor health and poor adherence to treatment.
Fazel, Mina; Hoagwood, Kimberly; Stephan, Sharon; Ford, Tamsin
Mental health services embedded within school systems can create a continuum of integrative care that improves both mental health and educational attainment for children. To strengthen this continuum, and for optimum child development, a reconfiguration of education and mental health systems to aid implementation of evidence-based practice might be needed. Integrative strategies that combine classroom-level and student-level interventions have much potential. A robust research agenda is needed that focuses on system-level implementation and maintenance of interventions over time. Both ethical and scientific justifications exist for integration of mental health and education: integration democratises access to services and, if coupled with use of evidence-based practices, can promote the healthy development of children. PMID:26114092
There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)
Gold, S J
Despite their impressive progress in adapting to American life, many Vietnamese still suffer from wartime experiences, culture shock, the loss of loved ones, and economic hardship. Although this trauma creates substantial mental health needs, culture, experience, and the complexity of the American resettlement system often block obtaining assistance. Vietnamese mental health needs are best understood in terms of the family unit, which is extended, collectivistic, and patriarchal. Many refugees suffer from broken family status. They also experience role reversals wherein the increased social and economic power of women and children (versus men and adults) disrupts the traditional family ethos. Finally, cultural conflicts often make communication between practitioners and clients difficult and obscure central issues in mental health treatment. Rather than treating symptoms alone, mental health workers should acknowledge the cultural, familial, and historical context of Vietnamese refugees. PMID:1413772
Cox, Gary B.; And Others
Describes an ongoing research project designed to develop a computer model capable of simulating the service delivery activities of community mental health care centers and human service agencies. The goal and methodology of the project are described. (NB)
The author presents an overview of the role of existentialism in the training of counselors and mental health practitioners. Exercises and skill development techniques are also presented for existentially oriented training of psychotherapists, using a workshop format. (HLM)
Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah
Background Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. Objective To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. Methods We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). Results The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders—post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Limitations Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Conclusions Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. Implications We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical
The author points out that, with the development of technology in industry and the resultant more-technical roles demanded of workers, communication between them and between all persons in an industrial organization becomes of primary importance. This is particularly so because of the constant demands for change within an industrial organization. Any change, however minor, will inevitably involve a wide area of the organization, and special attention will therefore have to be paid to communication between persons. The author goes on to describe some of the investigations which have been made by the Institute of Preventive Medicine, Leyden, and indicates the extreme difficulty of obtaining accurate information. He shows also how the different attitudes of persons within a factory can lead to completely different perceptions of the field and of the attitudes of others within the same organization. He concludes that the main task of the mental health workers in industry lies in the prevention of tensions within it. One of the means of preventing tensions is to aim at a concept of “productive collaboration” within a factory. This task is seen as a special kind of therapy which must concern all levels of the factory. The author describes a procedure of investigation—diagnostic and therapeutic—within a factory, commencing with a phase of introduction, a pilot study, extensive individual interviewing, group interviewing, and a more specifically therapeutic phase, in which groups or specific individuals are enabled to talk their problems out. Finally, the investigating team must take steps to prevent situations of tension recurring, and, before leaving, must be certain that the plant is capable of maintaining a healthy equilibrium by itself. PMID:13276808
Lemke, Sonne; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Kearney, Lisa K; Krahn, Dean D; Neuman, Matthew J; Schmidt, Eric M; Trafton, Jodie A
We outline the development of a Mental Health Domain to track accessibility and quality of mental health care in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA) as part of a broad-based performance measurement system. This domain adds an important element to national performance improvement efforts by targeting regional and facility leadership and providing them a concise yet comprehensive measure to identify facilities facing challenges in their mental health programs. We present the conceptual framework and rationale behind measure selection and development. The Mental Health Domain covers three important aspects of mental health treatment: Population Coverage, Continuity of Care, and Experience of Care. Each component is a composite of existing and newly adapted measures with moderate to high internal consistency; components are statistically independent or moderately related. Development and dissemination of the Mental Health Domain involved a variety of approaches and benefited from close collaboration between local, regional, and national leadership and from coordination with existing quality-improvement initiatives. During the first year of use, facilities varied in the direction and extent of change. These patterns of change were generally consistent with qualitative information, providing support for the validity of the domain and its component measures. Measure maintenance remains an iterative process as the VHA mental health system and potential data resources continue to evolve. Lessons learned may be helpful to the broader mental health-provider community as mental health care consolidates and becomes increasingly integrated within healthcare systems. (PsycINFO Database Record
... body. Relaxation methods, such as meditation, listening to music, listening to guided imagery CD's or mp3's, yoga, ... Article >>Mental HealthPostpartum Depression (PPD)Postpartum depression affects women after childbirth. It includes feelings of sadness, loneliness, ...
Fedele, David A; Kirk, Katherine; Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Phillips, Timothy M; Mazur, Tom; Mullins, Larry L; Chernausek, Steven D; Wisniewski, Amy B
Purpose. To determine the relationship between having a child with a DSD including ambiguous external genitalia, as well as the decision of whether or not to have early genitoplasty for that child, on the mental health and parenting characteristics of caregivers. Materials and Methods. Caregivers were recruited from centers that specialize in DSD medicine and completed the Beck Depression Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2), Beck Anxiety Index (BAI), Parent Protection Scale (PPS), Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS) and Parenting Stress Index/Short Form (PSI/SF). Results and Conclusions. Sixty-eight caregivers provided informed consent and completed the study. Among female caregivers whose children never received genitoplasty, greater parenting stress was reported (F(1, 40) = 5.08, p = .03). For male caregivers, those whose children received genitoplasty within the first year of life reported more overprotective parenting and parenting stress than those whose children received genitoplasty later than 12 months of age (F(1, 13) = 6.16, p = 0.28); F(1, 15) = 6.70, p = .021), respectively).
Bohnenkamp, Jill H.; Stephan, Sharon H.; Bobo, Nichole
School nurses play a critical role in the provision of mental health services in the school environment and are valuable members of the coordinated student mental health team. They possess expertise to navigate in today's complicated educational and health care systems, and it is estimated that school nurses spend 33% of their time addressing…
Corrigan, Patrick W; Druss, Benjamin G; Perlick, Deborah A
Treatments have been developed and tested to successfully reduce the symptoms and disabilities of many mental illnesses. Unfortunately, people distressed by these illnesses often do not seek out services or choose to fully engage in them. One factor that impedes care seeking and undermines the service system is mental illness stigma. In this article, we review the complex elements of stigma in order to understand its impact on participating in care. We then summarize public policy considerations in seeking to tackle stigma in order to improve treatment engagement. Stigma is a complex construct that includes public, self, and structural components. It directly affects people with mental illness, as well as their support system, provider network, and community resources. The effects of stigma are moderated by knowledge of mental illness and cultural relevance. Understanding stigma is central to reducing its negative impact on care seeking and treatment engagement. Separate strategies have evolved for counteracting the effects of public, self, and structural stigma. Programs for mental health providers may be especially fruitful for promoting care engagement. Mental health literacy, cultural competence, and family engagement campaigns also mitigate stigma's adverse impact on care seeking. Policy change is essential to overcome the structural stigma that undermines government agendas meant to promote mental health care. Implications for expanding the research program on the connection between stigma and care seeking are discussed.
Tampubolon, Gindo; Hanandita, Wulung
Community and facility studies in developing countries have generally demonstrated an inverse relationship between poverty and mental health. However, recent population-based studies contradict this. In India and Indonesia the poor and non-poor show no difference in mental health. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using a validated measure of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and a new national sample from Indonesia - a country where widespread poverty and deep inequality meet with a neglected mental health service sector. Results from three-level overdispersed Poisson models show that a 1% decrease in per capita household expenditure was associated with a 0.05% increase in CES-D score (depressive symptoms), while using a different indicator (living on less than $2 a day) it was estimated that the poor had a 5% higher CES-D score than the better off. Individual social capital and religiosity were found to be positively associated with mental health while adverse events were negatively associated. These findings provide support for the established view regarding the deleterious association between poverty and mental health in developed and developing countries.
Van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Otten, Leila S; de Kruijff, Deborah; van de Loo, Aurora JAE; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C
Background Mental resilience can be seen as a trait that enables an individual to recover from stress and to face the next stressor with optimism. People with resilient traits are considered to have a better mental and physical health. However, there are limited data available assessing the relationship between resilient individuals and their perspective of their health and immune status. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between mental resilience, perceived health, and perceived immune status. Methods A total of 779 participants recruited at Utrecht University completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic characteristics, the brief resilience scale for the assessment of mental resilience, the immune function questionnaire (IFQ), and questions regarding their perceived health and immune status. Results When correcting for gender, age, height, weight, smoker status, amount of cigarettes smoked per week, alcohol consumption status, amount of drinks consumed per week, drug use, and frequency of past year drug use, mental resilience was significantly correlated with perceived health (r=0.233, p=0.0001), perceived immune functioning (r=0.124, p=0.002), and IFQ score (r=−0.185, p=0.0001). Conclusion A significant, albeit modest, relationship was found between mental resilience and perceived immune functioning and health. PMID:28356753
McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve
Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition.
Adams, Sara T.; Calista, Joanne L.; Connell, Joy; Encarnación, José; Esparza, Nancy K.; Frohock, Jeanne; Hicks, Ellen; Kim, Saeromi; Kokernak, Gerald; McGrenra, Michael; Mestre, Ray; Pérez, Maria; Pinedo, Tatiana M.; Quagan, Rosemary; Rivera, Christina; Taucer, Patsy; Wang, Ed
In this article, we present the results of a local needs assessment of the mental health experiences, service needs, and barriers to treatment-seeking of the Latino population in Worcester, Massachusetts. Overall, participants reported relatively high rates of experiences with symptoms of mental health problems, they indicated using a range of both formal and alternative mental health services, and they noted a variety of instrumental, attitudinal, and culturally-specific barriers to seeking mental health services. Findings are discussed with regards to the role that community-driven research can play in advancing efforts to provide relevant services to underserved populations. PMID:17279338
We review epidemiological evidence indicating that most people will develop a diagnosable mental disorder, suggesting that only a minority experience enduring mental health. This minority has received little empirical study, leaving the prevalence and predictors of enduring mental health unknown. We turn to the population-representative Dunedin cohort, followed from birth to midlife, to compare people never-diagnosed with mental disorder (N = 171; 17% prevalence) to those diagnosed at 1–2 study waves, the cohort mode (N = 409). Surprisingly, compared to this modal group, never-diagnosed Study members were not born into unusually well-to-do families, nor did their enduring mental health follow markedly sound physical health, or unusually high intelligence. Instead, they tended to have an advantageous temperament/personality style, and negligible family history of mental disorder. As adults, they report superior educational and occupational attainment, greater life satisfaction, and higher-quality relationships. Our findings draw attention to “enduring mental health” as a revealing psychological phenotype and suggest it deserves further study. PMID:27929304
Chun, Thomas H.; Katz, Emily R.; Duffy, Susan J.
SYNOPSIS Children with mental health problems are increasingly being evaluated and treated by both pediatric primary care and pediatric emergency physicians. This article focuses on the epidemiology, evaluation, and management of the two most common pediatric mental health emergencies, suicidal and homicidal/aggressive patients, as well as the equally challenging population of children with autism or other developmental disabilities. PMID:24093903
Jepson, Lisa; Juszczak, Linda; Fisher, Martin
Describes the mental-health and medical services provided at a high-school-based service center. Five years after the center's inception mental health visits had quadrupled. One third of students utilizing the center reported substance abuse within their family. Other reasons for center use included pregnancy, suicidal ideation, obesity,…
Corbett, Chris; Armstrong, Matthew J; Parker, Richard; Webb, Kerry; Neuberger, James M
Depression affects up to 60% of solid-organ recipients and is independently associated with both mortality (hazard ratio for death of ~2) and de novo malignancy after transplantation, although the mechanism is not clear. Both pretransplantation psychosis and depression occurring more than 2 years after transplantation are associated with increased noncompliance and graft loss. It remains to be shown that effective treatment of depression is associated with improved outcomes and quality of life. Immunosuppressive drugs (especially corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors) and physiologic challenges can precipitate deterioration in mental health. All potential transplant candidates should be assessed for mental health problems and preexisting medical conditions that can mimic mental health problems, such as uremic, hepatic, or hypoxic encephalopathy, should be identified and treated appropriately. Expert mental health review of those with identified risk factors (such as previous suicide attempts, history of mental illness or noncompliance with medications) is advisable early in the transplant assessment process to mitigate risk and support the patient. Patients with mental health disorders, when adequately controlled and socially supported, have outcomes similar to the general transplant population. Therefore, exclusion from transplantation based on the diagnosis alone is neither ethically nor medically justified. However, it is ethically and clinically justifiable to deny access to transplantation to those who, despite full support, would have a quality of life that is unacceptable to the candidate or are likely to be noncompliant with treatment or follow-up, which would lead to graft loss.
Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen
This article reviews the historical origins of Attachment Theory and Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory (ETAS Theory), their evolutionary basis and their application in research on religion and mental health. Attachment Theory has been most commonly applied to religion and mental health in research on God as an attachment figure, which has shown that secure attachment to God is positively associated with psychological well-being. Its broader application to religion and mental health is comprehensively discussed by Kirkpatrick (2005). ETAS Theory explains why certain religious beliefs--including beliefs about God and life-after-death--should have an adverse association, an advantageous association, or no association at all with mental health. Moreover, it makes specific predictions to this effect, which have been confirmed, in part. The authors advocate the application of ETAS Theory in research on religion and mental health because it explains how religious and other beliefs related to the dangerousness of the world can directly affect psychiatric symptoms through their affects on specific brain structures.
Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W
Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed.
Hassan, Tariq M.; Asmer, M. Selim; Mazhar, Nadeem; Munshi, Tariq; Tran, Tanya; Groll, Dianne L.
Despite their rigorous training, studies have shown that physicians experience higher rates of mental illness, substance abuse, and suicide compared to the general population. An online questionnaire was sent to a random sample of physicians across Canada to assess physicians' knowledge of the incidence of mental illness among physicians and their attitudes towards disclosure and treatment in a hypothetical situation where one developed a mental illness. We received 139 responses reflecting mostly primary care physicians and nonsurgical specialists. The majority of respondents underestimated the incidence of mental illness in physicians. The most important factors influencing respondent's will to disclose their illness included career implications, professional integrity, and social stigma. Preference for selecting mental health treatment services, as either outpatients or inpatients, was mostly influenced by quality of care and confidentiality, with lower importance of convenience and social stigma. Results from this study suggest that the attitudes of physicians towards becoming mentally ill are complex and may be affected by the individual's previous diagnosis of mental illness and the presence of a family member with a history of mental illness. Other factors include the individual's medical specialty and level of experience. As mental illness is common among physicians, one must be conscious of these when offering treatment options. PMID:27144156
Fischer, E P; Marder, S R; Smith, G R; Owen, R R; Rubenstein, L; Hedrick, S C; Curran, G M
The Veterans Administration (VA) recently introduced its Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) to facilitate the translation of best practices into usual clinical care. The Mental Health QUERI (MHQ) was charged with developing strategic plans for major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia. Twenty percent or more of VA service users are affected by 1 of these 2 disorders, disorders that often have a devastating impact on affected individuals. Despite the increasing availability of efficacious treatments for each disorder, substantial gaps remain between best practices and routine care. In this context, the MHQ identified steps critical to the success of a sustained process of rapid-cycle health care improvement for MDD and schizophrenia, including research initiatives to close gaps in knowledge of best treatment practices, demonstration projects to close gaps in practice and to expand understanding of effective strategies for implementing clinical guidelines, targeted enhancements of the VA information system, and research and dissemination initiatives to increase the availability of resources to support the accelerated incorporation of best practices into routine care. This article presents an overview of the elements in the initial MHQ strategic plans and the rationale behind them.
Skinner, Donald; Sharp, Carla; Marais, Lochner; Serekoane, Motsaathebe; Lenka, Molefi
Background The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is a robust, powerful and internationally recognised diagnostic screening tool for emotional and behaviour problems among children, with the particular advantage that it can be used by non-health professionals. This makes it useful in a South African context characterized by shortages of professional mental health carers. However the cultural and contextual acceptability and potential uses of the SDQ have not yet been examined in the South African context. Methods The aim of the current study was to evaluate the acceptability of the SDQ in a Sesotho speaking area of South Africa. As part of a larger study to standardise the SDQ for use among Sotho speakers, teachers were asked to use the tool to assess learners in their class. Ten teachers were then asked to write a report on their experience of the SDQ and how useful and applicable they found it for their school setting. These findings were discussed at two later meetings with larger groupings of teachers. Reports were analysed using a modified contextualised interpretative content analysis method. Results Teachers found the SDQ very useful in the classroom and easy to administer and understand. They found it contextually relevant and particularly useful in gaining an understanding of the learners and the challenges that learners were facing. It further allowed them to differentiate between scholastic and emotional problems, assisting them in developing relationships with the pupils and facilitating accurate referrals. There were very few concerns raised, with the major problem being that it was difficult to assess items concerning contexts outside of the school setting. The teachers expressed interest in obtaining further training in the interpretation of the SDQ and a greater understanding of diagnostic labels so as to assist their learners. Conclusion The SDQ was found to be acceptable and useful in the context of this very disadvantaged community
Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Mellins, Claude Ann; Dolezal, Curtis; Spiegel, Dina
Rates of mental health problems in mothers and children in families affected by maternal HIV as compared to those not affected by maternal HIV but living in similar inner-city, low-SES, primarily ethnic-minority neighborhoods were examined. In addition, correspondence between mother and child mental health was explored. Interviews were conducted…
Wynaden, Dianne; McAllister, Margaret; Tohotoa, Jenny; Al Omari, Omar; Heslop, Karen; Duggan, Ravani; Murray, Sean; Happell, Brenda; Byrne, Louise
A descriptive study was used to examine the attitudes and experiences of staff and students towards mental health problems. Staff completed the "Attitude towards mental illness survey", and students who self-identified having a mental health problem completed the "Stigma scale". Using an online collection process, data from 270 staff and 201 students showed that the "silence" surrounding mental health problems permeates the university environment and impacts on help seeking behaviors, the provision of support and on the recovery and wellbeing of affected individuals. Universities must decrease stigma and foster social inclusion to build self-esteem in people who have mental health problems.
Daar, Abdallah S; Jacobs, Marian; Wall, Stig; Groenewald, Johann; Eaton, Julian; Patel, Vikram; dos Santos, Palmira; Kagee, Ashraf; Gevers, Anik; Sunkel, Charlene; Andrews, Gail; Daniels, Ingrid; Ndetei, David
Urgent action is needed to address mental health issues globally. In Africa, where mental health disorders account for a huge burden of disease and disability, and where in general less than 1% of the already small health budgets are spent on these disorders, the need for action is acute and urgent. Members of the World Health Organization, including African countries, have adopted a Comprehensive Mental Health Action Plan. Africa now has an historic opportunity to improve the mental health and wellbeing of its citizens, beginning with provision of basic mental health services and development of national mental health strategic plans (roadmaps). There is need to integrate mental health into primary health care and address stigma and violations of human rights. We advocate for inclusion of mental health into the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, and for the convening of a special UN General Assembly High Level Meeting on Mental Health within three years.
Pavalanathan, Umashanthi; De Choudhury, Munmun
Social media is increasingly being adopted in health discourse. We examine the role played by identity in supporting discourse on socially stigmatized conditions. Specifically, we focus on mental health communities on reddit. We investigate the characteristics of mental health discourse manifested through reddit's characteristic ‘throwaway’ accounts, which are used as proxies of anonymity. For the purpose, we propose affective, cognitive, social, and linguistic style measures, drawing from literature in psychology. We observe that mental health discourse from throwaways is considerably disinhibiting and exhibits increased negativity, cognitive bias and self-attentional focus, and lowered self-esteem. Throwaways also seem to be six times more prevalent as an identity choice on mental health forums, compared to other reddit communities. We discuss the implications of our work in guiding mental health interventions, and in the design of online communities that can better cater to the needs of vulnerable populations. We conclude with thoughts on the role of identity manifestation on social media in behavioral therapy. PMID:27376158
Shen, Gordon C
Background: Following the tenets of world polity and innovation diffusion theories, I focus on the coercive and mimetic forces that influence the diffusion of mental health policy across nations. International organizations’ mandates influence government behavior. Dependency on external resources, namely foreign aid, also affects governments’ formulation of national policy. And finally, mounting adoption in a region alters the risk, benefits, and information associated with a given policy. Methods: I use post-war, discrete time data spanning 1950 to 2011 and describing 193 nations’ mental health systems to test these diffusion mechanisms. Results: I find that the adoption of mental health policy is highly clustered temporally and spatially. Results provide support that membership in the World Health Organization (WHO), interdependence with neighbors and peers in regional blocs, national income status, and migrant sub-population are responsible for isomorphism. Aid, however, is an insufficient determinant of mental health policy adoption. Conclusion: This study examines the extent to which mental, neurological, and substance use disorder are addressed in national and international contexts through the lens of policy diffusion theory. It also adds to policy dialogues about non-communicable diseases as nascent items on the global health agenda. PMID:25337601
Pavalanathan, Umashanthi; De Choudhury, Munmun
Social media is increasingly being adopted in health discourse. We examine the role played by identity in supporting discourse on socially stigmatized conditions. Specifically, we focus on mental health communities on reddit. We investigate the characteristics of mental health discourse manifested through reddit's characteristic 'throwaway' accounts, which are used as proxies of anonymity. For the purpose, we propose affective, cognitive, social, and linguistic style measures, drawing from literature in psychology. We observe that mental health discourse from throwaways is considerably disinhibiting and exhibits increased negativity, cognitive bias and self-attentional focus, and lowered self-esteem. Throwaways also seem to be six times more prevalent as an identity choice on mental health forums, compared to other reddit communities. We discuss the implications of our work in guiding mental health interventions, and in the design of online communities that can better cater to the needs of vulnerable populations. We conclude with thoughts on the role of identity manifestation on social media in behavioral therapy.
Ferman, Louis A., Ed.; Gordus, Jeanne P., Ed.
This volume offers a collection of papers which explores the relationships between major economic changes and individual and collective mental and physical well-being, including individual distress, deviant behavior, and other symptoms of underlying pathology. The contributors examine the processes leading from macroeconomic change to social and…
George, Usha; Thomson, Mary S.; Chaze, Ferzana; Guruge, Sepali
The Mental Health Commission of Canada’s (MHCC) strategy calls for promoting the health and wellbeing of all Canadians and to improve mental health outcomes. Each year, one in every five Canadians experiences one or more mental health problems, creating a significant cost to the health system. Mental health is pivotal to holistic health and wellbeing. This paper presents the key findings of a comprehensive literature review of Canadian research on the relationship between settlement experiences and the mental health and well-being of immigrants and refugees. A scoping review was conducted following a framework provided by Arskey and O’Malley (Int J Soc Res Methodol 8:19–32, 2005). Over two decades of relevant literature on immigrants’ health in Canada was searched. These included English language peer-reviewed publications from relevant online databases Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, Healthstar, ERIC and CINAHL between 1990 and 2015. The findings revealed three important ways in which settlement affects the mental health of immigrants and refugees: through acculturation related stressors, economic uncertainty and ethnic discrimination. The recommendations for public health practice and policy are discussed. PMID:26516884
Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Vargas Huicochea, Ingrid; Raviola, Giuseppe; Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus; Kutcher, Stan
This column provides an overview of child and adolescent mental health services in Mexico, where prevalence rates of mental disorders among young people are up to twice as high as U.S. and Canadian rates. The mental health care system in Mexico is underdeveloped and underfunded, and for the approximately 40% of the population with no insurance, access to and quality of care are particularly poor. This column offers policy recommendations aimed at better meeting the needs of this vulnerable population.
Marquez, Patricio V; Saxena, Shekhar
At a conference in April in Washington, D.C., the World Bank Group (WBG), together with the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners kick-started a call to action to governments, international partners, health professionals, and others to find solutions to a rising global mental health problem. Our authors write that mental disorders account for 30 percent of the non-fatal disease burden worldwide and 10 percent of overall disease burden, including death and disability, and that the global cost-estimated to be approximately $2.5 trillion in 2010-is expected to rise to $6 trillion by 2030.
Gitterman, D P; Sturm, R; Scheffler, R M
The 1996 Mental Health Parity Act (MHPA), which became effective in January 1998, is scheduled to expire in September 2001. This paper examines what the MHPA accomplished and steps toward more comprehensive parity. We explain the strategic and self-reinforcing link of parity with managed behavioral health care and conclude that the current path will be difficult to reverse. The paper ends with a discussion of what might be behind the claims that full parity in mental health benefits is insufficient to achieve true equity and whether additional steps beyond full parity appear realistic or even desirable.
Albizu-Garcia, Carmen E.; Alegría, Margarita; Freeman, Daniel; Vera, Mildred
This study addresses whether the predictors of seeking help for a mental health problem differ by gender. An adaptation of Andersen’s Socio-Behavioral Model is used to identify factors associated with seeking care for a mental health problem. Data are derived from two waves of a community survey undertaken in 1992–1993 and in 1993–1994 among a probability sample of adults (18–69 years), residing in poor areas of Puerto Rico. Paired data was used from those individuals who responded to both waves of the survey for a total of 3221 community respondents. Responses from wave 1 were used to predict mental health service use in wave 2. The dependent variable is any use of outpatient mental health services in the year preceding the second interview. Logistic regression was used to model the effects of the independent variables on use. Males and females were found to use mental health services in nearly equal proportions. Gender did not have a main effect on use when other covariates were controlled. Significant interactions with gender were found for several predictors of use. The largest intervention effects were encountered in our need for care indicators. Having a definite need for mental health care and poor self-rated mental health had a larger effect on predicting use of services for men than they do for women. It is concluded that strategies designed to improve access to mental health services for minority disadvantaged populations ought to take into account gender differences in the predictors of use. Studies addressing factors influencing health services utilization for a mental health problem should consider stratifying their sample by gender. Future research should establish whether or not these findings are sustained with other population groups. PMID:11522134
Proctor, Enola K.; McMillen, Curtis; Haywood, Sally; Dore, Peter
Research centers have become a key component of the research infrastructure in schools of social work, including the George Warren Brown School of Social Work at Washington University. In 1993, that school's Center for Mental Health Services Research (CMHSR) received funding from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) as a Social Work…
Lindsey, Michael A.; Browne, Dorothy C.; Thompson, Richard; Hawley, Kristin M.; Graham, Christopher J.; Weisbart, Cindy; Harrington, Donna; Kotch, Jonathan B.
In this study, the authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mental health, alcohol use, and social network support/satisfaction on child mental health needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. The sample included 514 eight-year-old African American children and their caregivers who participated in the…
Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009
The guidelines and supporting rationale presented in this paper were developed from the October 2007 "Best Practices for Mental Health in Child Welfare Consensus Conference" sponsored by Casey Family Programs, the Annie E. Casey Foundation and the REACH Institute (REsource for Advancing Children's Health). The purpose of the conference was to…
Robertson, Peter J.
Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…
Lima, Bruno R.
This paper outlines selected differences between the United States and Latin America health care systems as they relate to primary mental health care. It notes that historically both the United States and Latin America have relied on custodial psychiatric hospitals. The alternative of community care for psychiatric patients is described as it is…
Kraft, David P.
Although the first student health service is credited to Amherst College in 1861, almost 50 years passed before Princeton University established the first mental health service in 1910. At that time, a psychiatrist was hired to help with student personality development. Although other schools subsequently established such services, the first 50…
Furtado, Juarez Pereira; Oda, Wagner Yoshizaki; Borysow, Igor da Costa; Kapp, Silke
The term "territory" and its correlates have become commonplace in the field of Mental Health since the psychiatric reform, a potentially emancipatory milestone in non-hospital-centered ideals. However, in a previous empirical study, we found a lack of consistent concepts and practices (corresponding to the use of this term) in the territorial reinsertion of persons with mental illness. To clarify the term's various uses and its possible correlations in practice, we have conducted a systematic survey of scientific articles and official documents, comparing them to each other and with the concept of territory from Critical Geography. We conclude that in the Mental Health field in Brazil, despite numerous and repeated critical efforts, a functional notion of territory has prevailed, overlooking power relations and symbolic appropriations, increasing the tendency of subjecting the reinsertion of persons with mental illness to a given territory rather than favoring socio-spatial transformations for the coexistence of differences.
Harms, Sheila; Kizza, Ruth; Sebunnya, Joshua; Jack, Susan
The AIDS epidemic has disproportionately affected developing or low-income sub-Saharan African countries. Within the context of the epidemic, children and youth are at risk of losing their parents at an early age. The experience of orphanhood due to AIDS has the potential to negatively impact on a child's mental health. A qualitative study was conducted to comprehensively describe the experience of orphanhood and its impact on mental health from the culturally specific perspective of Ugandan youths. We conducted interviews with a purposeful sample of 13 youths (ages 12 to 18) who had lost one or both parents to AIDS illness and who were also affiliated with a non-governmental organisation providing support to orphans. The orphaned youths experienced significant ongoing emotional difficulties following the death of their parent(s). The youths in this study were unfamiliar with the term 'mental health,' however they easily identified factors associated with good or poor mental health. In general, good mental health was associated with social conduct that is culturally appropriate. Poor mental health was perceived as a form of madness or insanity and it was associated with a loss of basic life necessities, such as access to food, education or shelter. The youths also identified factors that promote more successful orphans. The findings of this study suggest that Western terminologies and symptom constellations in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV may not be applicable in an African cultural context. There are several clinical implications, including the development of a mental health intervention paradigm that emphasises resilience.
Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam T.
Purpose Functional impairment is a key indicator of need for mental health services among children and adolescents, often a stronger predictor of service usage than mental health symptoms themselves. Functional impairment may be of particular importance in low and middle income countries (LMIC) because of its potential to focus policy on treatment of child mental health problems which is generally given low priority in LMIC. However, few studies have assessed functional impairment in LMIC. The present study assessed rates of functional impairment among children in Vietnam, as a case example of an LMIC, as well as effects of other risk/protective factors of particular relevance to LMIC (e.g., whether the family lived in an urban or rural area; family structure variables such as grandparents living with the family). Methods 1,314 parents of children 6–16 years old from 10 Vietnamese provinces were interviewed. Results The overall rate of functional impairment among Vietnamese children was 20%, similar to rates in high income countries such as Germany and the United States, suggesting that LMIC status may not be associated with dramatic increases in functional impairment in children. Functional impairment was significantly greater among mental health cases than non-cases, with increases of over 550% associated with mental health caseness. A number of other risk factors (e.g., marital status) had smaller but significant effects. Conclusions Mental health problems are a major but not the sole contributor to functional impairment among Vietnamese children. The pragmatic significance of this research lies in its potential to affect public awareness and policy related to child mental health in LMIC. PMID:26315942
Berg, Michael B; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Safren, Steven A
Little data exist about the mental health needs of gay and bisexual men. This is due to limitations of existing studies such as small and nonrepresentative samples, failure to assess sexual orientation, and concerns about stigmatization, possibly causing sexual minority individuals to be reluctant to disclose their sexual orientation to researchers. Fenway Community Health is a large urban health center that serves the LGBT community. The large number of gay and bisexual men who present for mental health treatment allows for a unique opportunity to gain insight into mental health, prevention, and intervention needs for this group. The current study is a review of the mental health information from all of the gay and bisexual men who reported that they were HIV-negative during their mental health intake over a six-month period at Fenway Community Health (January to June 2000; N = 92). The most frequent presenting problems were depression, anxiety, and relationship issues. Additionally, presenting problems included current or past abuse, substance abuse, finance and employment, recent loss, and family issues. The most frequent diagnoses were depression, anxiety disorders, and adjustment disorders. These findings support the notion that presenting problems and mental health concerns among gay and bisexual men are similar to those frequently reported by individuals in other mental health facilities, however, specific psychosocial stressors are unique to this population.
Kutcher, Stan; Bagnell, Alexa; Wei, Yifeng
"Mental health literacy is an integral component of health literacy and has been gaining increasing attention as an important focus globally for mental health interventions. In Canada, youth mental health is increasingly recognized as a key national health concern and has received more focused attention than ever before within our health system. This article outlines 2 unique homegrown initiatives to address youth mental health literacy within Canadian secondary schools."
Foster, Juliet L H
This paper focuses on a multi-method qualitative study of the social representations of mental health problems held by clients of the mental health services. Clients appear to represent mental health within representational projects, and, in the course of these projects, situate mental health problems at various points within a two-dimensional representational structure comprising controllability and location. It will be suggested that the element of Otherness, so integral to public representations of mental ill health, is therefore significantly more complicated in clients' representations. Similarly, the interaction between these two dimensions suggests that clients move beyond the professional divide between psychosis and neurosis. The implications of these results will be briefly considered.
Houle, Jason N
Current evidence suggests that the rise in home foreclosures that began in 2007 created feelings of stress, vulnerability, and sapped communities of social and economic resources. Minority and low SES communities were more likely to be exposed to predatory lending and hold subprime mortgages, and were the hardest hit by the foreclosure crisis. Little research has examined whether and how the foreclosure crisis has undermined population mental health. I use data from 2245 counties in 50 U.S. states to examine whether living in high foreclosure areas is associated with residents' mental health and whether the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing disparities in mental health during the recessionary period. I use county-level data from RealtyTrac and other data sources, and individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey from 2006 to 2011. I find that - net of time invariant unobserved between-county differences, national time trends, and observed confounders - a rise in a county's foreclosure rate is associated with a decline in residents' mental health. This association is especially pronounced in counties with a high concentration of low SES and minority residents, which supports the perspective that the foreclosure crisis has the potential to exacerbate existing social disparities in mental health.
Sygna, Karin; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Aamodt, Geir; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun Hjertager
This study examines the relationship between road traffic noise, self-reported sleep quality and mental health. The study is cross-sectional and based on data from a survey conducted in Oslo, Norway, in 2000. Psychological distress (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, HSCL-25) was measured along with self-reported somatic health, sleep quality, noise sensitivity and socioeconomic variables. Questionnaire data were combined with modeled estimates of noise exposure. The total study sample consisted of 2898 respondents. After adjustment for potential confounders and stratifying for sleep quality, we found a positive, but not statistically significant association between noise exposure and symptoms of psychological distress among participants with poor sleep quality (slope=0.06, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.13, per 10 dB increase in noise exposure). In the same sleep quality group, we found a borderline statistically significant association between noise exposure and a symptom level indicating a probable mental disorder (HSCL≥1.55) (odds ratio=1.47, 95% CI: 0.99-1.98, per 10 dB increase in noise exposure). We found no association between road traffic noise and mental health among subjects reporting good and medium sleep quality. The results suggest that road traffic noise may be associated with poorer mental health among subjects with poor sleep. Individuals with poor sleep quality may be more vulnerable to effects of road traffic noise on mental health than individuals with better sleep quality.
Sorrell, Jeanne M
Health care was an important issue for both the Obama and McCain election campaigns. Now that Barack Obama is poised to serve as the 44th President of the United States, many health care providers are focused on what Obama's administration will mean for new health care initiatives. This article focuses specifically on aspects of the Obama and Biden health care plan that affects mental health care for older adults.
Lagomasino, Isabel T; Zatzick, Douglas F; Chambers, David A
Limited financial resources, escalating mental health-related costs and opportunities for capitalizing on advances in health information technologies have brought the theme of efficiency to the forefront of mental health services research and clinical practice. In this introductory article to the journal series stemming from the 20th NIMH Mental Health Services Research Conference, we first delineate the need for a new focus on efficiency in both research and clinical practice. Second, we provide preliminary definitions of efficiency for the field and discuss issues related to measurement. Finally, we explore the interface between efficiency in mental health services research and practice and the NIMH strategic objectives of developing improved interventions for diverse populations and enhancing the public health impact of research. Case examples illustrate how perspectives from dissemination and implementation research may be used to maximize efficiencies in the development and implementation of new service delivery models. Allowing findings from the dissemination and implementation field to permeate and inform clinical practice and research may facilitate more efficient development of interventions and enhance the public health impact of research.
This book contains a detailed report of the recovery principles set out in the Mental Health Commission's Blueprint for Mental Health Services in New Zealand. The competencies, endorsed by the New Zealand government, describe what mental health workers need to know about using the recovery approach in their work with people with mental illness.…
National Inst. of Mental Health (DHEW), Rockville, MD.
The Alternatives Project, a 60-week, mass media, mental health education project, had as its goals community education and increased public awareness of mental health facilities in the community. Sponsored by the River Region Mental Health/Mental Retardation Board in Louisville, Kentucky, the program made use of creatively produced, coordinated…
Cowan, Katherine C.
May is National Mental Health Awareness Month. This is a great time to highlight the importance of mental wellness and school-based mental health services to children's positive learning and development. There is heightened urgency to the imperative to advance school-based mental health and school psychologists' expertise as essential to the…
Ryan, Rob; Garlick, Robyn; Happell, Brenda
There is currently considerable discussion about the impact of the aging population on the demand for health care services, however there is considerably less attention paid to the impact of mental health issues on the needs of the aged population. Nurses comprise the largest professional group within the mental health workforce in Australia. The availability of a high quality mental health nursing workforce will therefore be crucial to meeting the health needs of aging clients in the future, accompanied by an increased pressure to increase the proportion of care delivered in the community. There is however, a paucity of literature on the role and contribution of community mental health nurses specialising in the aged care field. The aim of this paper is to present the findings of a project designed to examine the role of mental health nursing within aged persons' community mental health teams in Victoria, Australia, with particular emphasis on the biopsychosocial interventions used. Fifteen participants from three community mental health services in Victoria participated in a focus group interview to share their insights and experiences. Data analysis revealed two main themes, the role of the nurse, and the specific functions of the nurse. This data is presented as a beginning contribution to the paucity of literature currently available in this important area.
Joska, J A; Sorsdahl, K R
Mental disorders are highly prevalent across all health settings. Where they are co-morbid with other chronic physical disorders, a complex bidirectional relationship exists between them. While mental disorders may result in an increase in adverse healthrelated outcomes, they are amenable to cost-effective treatments. In resource-limited settings, many barriers to the detection and treatment of mental disorders exist. One approach to the effective targeting of the available resources is to utilize a "risk-flag" approach, wherein individuals at-risk of treatment failure are identified and routed into more intensive mental health screening and intervention. This paper discusses how lessons from HIV services may inform how to improve mental health care and integration in HIV settings, as well as in other chronic diseases.
Wahlbeck, Kristian; McDaid, David
The current global economic crisis is expected to produce adverse mental health effects that may increase suicide and alcohol-related death rates in affected countries. In nations with greater social safety nets, the health impacts of the economic downturn may be less pronounced. Research indicates that the mental health impact of the economic crisis can be offset by various policy measures. This paper aims to outline how countries can safeguard and support mental health in times of economic downturn. It indicates that good mental health cannot be achieved by the health sector alone. The determinants of mental health often lie outside of the remits of the health system, and all sectors of society have to be involved in the promotion of mental health. Accessible and responsive primary care services support people at risk and can prevent mental health consequences. Any austerity measures imposed on mental health services need to be geared to support the modernization of mental health care provision. Social welfare supports and active labour market programmes aiming at helping people retain or re-gain jobs can counteract the mental health effects of the economic crisis. Family support programmes can also make a difference. Alcohol pricing and restrictions of alcohol availability reduce alcohol harms and save lives. Support to tackle unmanageable debt will also help to reduce the mental health impact of the crisis. While the current economic crisis may have a major impact on mental health and increase mortality due to suicides and alcohol-related disorders, it is also a window of opportunity to reform mental health care and promote a mentally healthy lifestyle.
WAHLBECK, KRISTIAN; MCDAID, DAVID
The current global economic crisis is expected to produce adverse mental health effects that may increase suicide and alcohol-related death rates in affected countries. In nations with greater social safety nets, the health impacts of the economic downturn may be less pronounced. Research indicates that the mental health impact of the economic crisis can be offset by various policy measures. This paper aims to outline how countries can safeguard and support mental health in times of economic downturn. It indicates that good mental health cannot be achieved by the health sector alone. The determinants of mental health often lie outside of the remits of the health system, and all sectors of society have to be involved in the promotion of mental health. Accessible and responsive primary care services support people at risk and can prevent mental health consequences. Any austerity measures imposed on mental health services need to be geared to support the modernization of mental health care provision. Social welfare supports and active labour market programmes aiming at helping people retain or re-gain jobs can counteract the mental health effects of the economic crisis. Family support programmes can also make a difference. Alcohol pricing and restrictions of alcohol availability reduce alcohol harms and save lives. Support to tackle unmanageable debt will also help to reduce the mental health impact of the crisis. While the current economic crisis may have a major impact on mental health and increase mortality due to suicides and alcohol-related disorders, it is also a window of opportunity to reform mental health care and promote a mentally healthy lifestyle. PMID:23024664
Murphey, David; Barry, Megan; Vaughn, Brigitte
Mental disorders are diagnosable conditions characterized by changes in thinking, mood, or behavior (or some combination of these) that can cause a person to feel stressed out and impair his or her ability to function. These disorders are common in adolescence. This "Adolescent Health Highlight" presents the warning signs of mental disorders;…
Willis, V J
The design environment of mental health facilities can facilitate the human interactions essential to treatment and can help in meeting clients' basic needs for safety and security, for self-esteem, and for the development of interpersonal and social skills. To determine the factors in the design of interior spaces that optimize clients' response to therapy, the author made a study of six Indiana community mental health centers. Drawing on that study and other sources, she presents design recommendations for mental health facilities for such areas as reception and admission areas, corridors and stairwells, therapists' offices, inpatient rooms, and dayrooms. Other discussions cover the relation of color, visual patterning, and light, and the selection of materials and finishes.
Compared with the relationship between neighborhood-level residential segregation and physical health of Hispanic Americans, less is known about how neighborhood residential segregation affects mental health. This study examines if, and how, neighborhood residential segregation is associated with the mental health of Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans in Chicago. Multilevel analyses reveal that neighborhood residential segregation is positively associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety in both groups. Neighborhood segregation, however, has more salient effects on the mental health of Mexican Americans. For Puerto Rican Americans, the effects of neighborhood segregation on mental health become nonsignificant after controlling for neighborhood-level income and individual-level covariates, whereas neighborhood segregation is strongly associated with the mental health of Mexican Americans even after controlling for other covariates. These findings show that living in a Mexican American-dominated community is not beneficial to mental health, in contrast to findings for physical health shown in previous studies.
Edgar, K; Rickford, D
From first contact with the police to release from prison, people with mental ill health who come into conflict with the law often find that their mental health needs are neglected while they are under the authority of the criminal justice system. In 2008, the Prison Reform Trust surveyed independent monitoring boards in England and Wales, asking them to comment on mental health care. Topics included the adequacy of court diversion schemes, assessments carried out in prison reception units, and preparations to ensure continuity of care upon release. The responses documented some of the consequences of neglect in prisons in England and Wales. Over half of the boards felt that they frequently saw prisoners who were too ill to be in prison. Boards also expressed concerns about assessment processes in prison reception areas, which were by no means adequate to identify mental health problems. A number of boards stated that, too often, people with severe mental illnesses are held in segregation units, where they endure an impoverished regime. The boards observed that many prisons lack any means of identifying people who have learning disabilities, and often their disabilities restrict their capacity to engage fully with the regime.
Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Leo, Michael C; Janoff, Shannon L; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Paulson, Robert I
OBJECTIVE The objective was to identify trajectories of recovery from serious mental illnesses. METHODS A total of 177 members (92 women; 85 men) of a not-for-profit integrated health plan participated in a two-year mixed-methods study of recovery (STARS, the Study of Transitions and Recovery Strategies). Diagnoses included schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and affective psychosis. Data sources included self-reported standardized measures, interviewer ratings, qualitative interviews, and health plan data. Recovery was conceptualized as a latent construct, and factor analyses and factor scores were used to calculate recovery trajectories. Individuals with similar trajectories were identified through cluster analyses. RESULTS Four trajectories were identified-two stable (high and low levels of recovery) and two fluctuating (higher and lower). Few demographic or diagnostic factors differentiated clusters at baseline. Discriminant analyses for trajectories found differences in psychiatric symptoms, physical health, satisfaction with mental health clinicians, resources and strains, satisfaction with medications, and mental health service use. Those with higher scores on recovery factors had fewer psychiatric symptoms, better physical health, greater satisfaction with mental health clinicians, fewer strains and greater resources, less service use, better quality of care, and greater satisfaction with medication. Consistent predictors of trajectories included psychiatric symptoms, physical health, resources and strains, and use of psychiatric medications. CONCLUSIONS Having access to good-quality mental health care-defined as including satisfying relationships with clinicians, responsiveness to needs, satisfaction with psychiatric medications, receipt of services at needed levels, support in managing deficits in resources and strains, and care for general medical conditions-may facilitate recovery. Providing such care may improve recovery
Min, Jung-Ah; Lee, Chang-Uk
Mental health is essential for individual and public health. To improve mental health, promotion, prevention, and the treatment of disease are required. These three kinds of interventions are interrelated but independent from one another. Although separate efforts for mental health promotion and prevention are needed as well as the public need of mental health promotion and well-being, psychiatrists usually are not accustomed to mental health promotion and prevention. This review introduces an overview of the concept, subjects according to target populations, and various intervention strategies for mental health promotion and prevention of mental illnesses. Based on literatures to date, understanding of developmental psychology, lifestyle medicine, and biopsychosocial contributors of mental health with a macroscopic perspective might help to practice mental health promotion and illness prevention. PMID:24474978
Schwind, Karen S; Freeman, Sally Ann; Garcia, Molly; Roberts, Ruth
School nurses across the United States continue to see an increase in the number of children and families with behavioral and mental health issues that affect many aspects of overall health and education. When referral to a mental health professional is indicated, there are often few available community mental health providers, long waits for appointments, or both. This article describes how school nurses can leverage school district and community resources and increase their capacity to meet the behavioral and mental health needs of children in the school setting.
Kutcher, S.; Wei, Y.; McLuckie, A.; Bullock, L.
Mental disorders make up close to one-third of the global burden of disease experienced during adolescence. Schools can play an important role in the promotion of positive mental health as well as an integral role in the pathways into mental health care for adolescents. In order for schools to effectively address the mental health problems of…
There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper. PMID:24082243
Lincoln, Karen D.
Research suggests that an individual’s personality traits may mediate the relationship between social support and mental health. This study uses two national data sets to test a conceptual model that integrates personality, social support, negative interactions, and psychological distress. Results suggest that, beyond the influence of personality, social support is negatively associated with psychological distress, and negative interactions are positively associated with such distress. The findings also suggest that personality has direct and indirect effects, through social support and negative interactions, on psychological distress. Findings specify how positive and negative facets of relationships and personality influence mental health outcomes. PMID:21151733
Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sweeton, Jennifer L.; Newman, Elana; Varma, Vandana; Noffsinger, Mary A.; Shaw, Jon A.; Chrisman, Allan K.; Nitiéma, Pascal
This review summarizes current knowledge on the timing of child disaster mental health intervention delivery, the settings for intervention delivery, the expertise of providers, and therapeutic approaches. Studies have been conducted on interventions delivered during all phases of disaster management from pre event through many months post event. Many interventions were administered in schools which offer access to large numbers of children. Providers included mental health professionals and school personnel. Studies described individual and group interventions, some with parent involvement. The next generation of interventions and studies should be based on an empirical analysis of a number of key areas. PMID:26295009
There is an urgent need for development of methods of assessment and management of sex offenders (rapists, child sex offenders, other sexual offenders, and murderers) to mount a society-wide battle against the scourge of sexual offences in India. This paper provides an overview of theories, models, and assessment methods of rapists. It draws upon literature from psychiatry, psychology, criminology, probation, and ethics to provide a framework for understanding reasons behind rape, how mental health issues are implicated, what mental health professionals can do to contribute to crime management, and why this is ethically right and proper.
Solano Murcia, Martha Inés; Vasquez Cardozo, Socorro
The following article arises from the study "Representaciones sociales en el campo de la salud mental" (Social Representations in the Mental Health Field), in which the objective was to address the social representations in the family context; concerning caring, as well as the burden it implies using a qualitative method. The corpus was built based on the analysis and interpretation gathered from families with mental illness members. There were 17 individual interviews, 13 group interviews and one family group of three generations, held regarding the clinical care of the family member. These interviews were held at three different hospitals in Bogota. The representation of "a family" constitutes the structuring of the meanings of family relationships that cope with mental illness built upon the social and historical life of its members. The three comprehensive categories were: a) Family in good times and bad times; b) mental illness in family interactions, and c) Care and burden. Socially speaking, mental illness can lead to dehumanization, in that it discriminates and stigmatizes, even within the family unit. Caring for a family member with mental illness comes about by hierarchical order, self assignation, and by institutionalization. This latter occurs due to lack of caregivers or because the family does not consider their home the best place to care for such a patient.
Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Oses, Jean Pierre; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Jansen, Karen
The scope of this article is to deter mine the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) and Depression among Community Health Agents (CHA) and employees of Psychosocial Care Centers (CAPS). It is a cross-sectional descriptive study involving the target population of Community Health Workers and Psychosocial Care Center workers, linked to the Municipal Health Department of Pelotas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. The presence of common mental disorders was considered when the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ) was > 7 and the occurrence of depression when BDI > 12. In total, 257 professionals participated in the study. Among mental health professionals (n = 119), the prevalence of CMDs was 25.2% and depression was 23.5%, while the prevalence of CMDs was 48.6% and depression was 29% among CHA (n = 138). The ratio of CMDs between the two groups of professionals was statistically different (p < 0.001). In this study, it was observed that the CAPS professionals are more adapted to work issues, with less perceived health problems arising from work and with a lower prevalence of mental disorders compared to CHA.
Lehtonen, Annukka; Restifo, Kathleen
Mindfulness is a form of meditation based on the Buddhist tradition, which has been used over the last two decades to successfully treat a multitude of mental health problems. Bringing mindfulness into parenting (“mindful parenting”) is one of the applications of mindfulness. Mindful parenting interventions are increasingly being used to help prevent and treat mental disorders in children, parenting problems, and prevent intergenerational transmission of mental disorders from parents to children. However, to date, few studies have examined the hypothesized mechanisms of change brought about by mindful parenting. We discuss six possible mechanisms through which mindful parenting may bring about change in parent–child interactions in the context of child and parent mental health problems. These mechanisms are hypothesized to be mediated by the effects of mindfulness on parental attention by: (1) reducing parental stress and resulting parental reactivity; (2) reducing parental preoccupation resulting from parental and/or child psychopathology; (3) improving parental executive functioning in impulsive parents; (4) breaking the cycle of intergenerational transmission of dysfunctional parenting schemas and habits; (5) increasing self-nourishing attention; and (6) improving marital functioning and co-parenting. We review research that has applied mindful parenting in mental health settings, with a focus on evidence for these six mechanisms. Finally, we discuss directions for future research into mindful parenting and the crucial questions that this research should strive to answer. PMID:21125026
Acri, Mary C.; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton
Purpose Untreated parent mental health problems have deleterious effects upon the family, yet caregivers are unlikely to receive services for their emotional health. We conducted a review of treatments and services for children and adolescents that also offered services to parents. Methods Child treatment and service studies were included in the present study if they analyzed parent symptoms or diagnoses over time, and the intervention contained a parent component. Results Of 200 studies reviewed, 20 contained a component for the parent and assessed the parent’s emotional health at multiple time points. Depression and anxiety were the most commonly studied parental mental health problem; most parent components consisted of behavioral strategies in service of the child’s psychological health. Conclusion Major shifts in health care policy affecting mental health services provide an opportunity to create integrated and coordinated health and behavioral health systems. Attention must be given to ensure that the workforce of providers, the administrative structures, and the reimbursement strategies are strengthened and connected to serve the needs of parents/caregivers and children in order to enhance family outcomes. PMID:26527857
Rose, Linda; Alhusen, Jeanne; Bhandari, Shreya; Soeken, Karen; Marcantonio, Kristen; Bullock, Linda; Sharps, Phyllis
The mental health consequences of living with intimate partner violence (IPV) are substantial. Despite the growing awareness of the incidence of depression and PTSD in women experiencing IPV, few studies have examined prospectively the experience of IPV during pregnancy and the impact of the abuse on women’s mental health. As a component of a larger clinical trial of an intervention for pregnant abused women, 27 women participated in a qualitative study of their responses to the abuse in the context of pregnancy and parenting. Results indicate that women’s changing perceptions of self was related to mental distress, mental health, or both mental distress and mental health. PMID:20070224
Furnham, A; Trezise, L
Because of the psychological stress associated with university life and the physical and mental stress associated with migration, researchers have become interested in psychological problems of foreign students. In this study four groups of foreign students from different parts of the world were compared with two British groups on a self-report measure of mental health. No sex differences were found yet the overseas students, as a whole, showed significantly more disturbance than either British control or first-year subjects. However, despite many differences between their countries of origin there were no significant differences between any of the overseas groups on the total scale score or any sub-scores. Further, with the exception of Malaysian students, the British subjects were significantly more satisfied with their social lives than the other groups. These findings are discussed in terms of the literature on life events and illness, culture shock and migration and mental health.
Shore, Jay H; Aldag, Matt; McVeigh, Francis L; Hoover, Ronald L; Ciulla, Robert; Fisher, Ashley
Mental health problems pose challenges for military veterans, returning service members, and military family members including spouses and children. Challenges to meeting mental health needs include improving access to care and improving quality of care. Mobile Health, or "mHealth," can help meet these needs in the garrison and civilian environments. mHealth brings unique capabilities to health care provision through the use of mobile device technologies. This report identifies high-priority mHealth technology development considerations in two categories. First, priority considerations specific to mental health care provision include safety, privacy, evidence-based practice, efficacy studies, and temperament. Second, priority considerations broadly applicable to mHealth include security, outcomes, ease of use, carrier compliance, hardware, provider perspectives, data volume, population, regulation, command policy, and reimbursement. Strategic planning for the advancement of these priority considerations should be coordinated with stated Department of Defense capability needs to maximize likelihood of adoption. This report also summarizes three leading, military programs focused on mHealth projects in mental health, The Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center, The Military Operational Medicine Research Program, United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, and The National Center for Telehealth and Technology.
In spite of recent clinical and research advances, an increased burden of mortality and morbidity related to stress and mental ill health can be noted, especially in European societies and populations undergoing stressful transitions and dramatic changes. A societal syndrome, consisting of depression, suicide, abuse, risk-taking and violent behaviour as well as vascular morbidity and mortality, can be observed, reflecting individual psychopathology related to disturbances of the serotonin metabolism as one of the oldest, most basic cerebral instruments of mankind to survive, to socialize, to cope with stress and danger. In a time where mental health professionals look for new and challenging identities, they have a tendency to abdicate from social psychiatric and public health activities in favour of more prestigious positions in brain research, genetics or advanced psychotherapy. A redefinition, reconceptualization and renaissance of social psychiatry seems timely and necessary, responding to the burden, advances and possibilities related to mental health we find today. It should proceed from the reductionism which often has characterized earlier psychosocial and social psychiatric approaches, utilize modern knowledge about neuroplasticity, psychoimmunology, neuropsychology and neurophilosophy, reflect the interaction between environment and structure, nature and nurture, and integrate different areas of knowledge in a holistic public mental health approach. Political decisions and societal solutions can be more or less in line with basic human preconditions. Consequences of failure to respect this already can be seen. A new awareness and responsibility-taking with regard to basic human ethological, physiological, psychological and existential conditions is needed and has to be concretized in innovative public mental health approaches. PMID:16946915
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Mental Health Services.
This first Report of the Surgeon General on Mental Health represents the initial step in advancing the notion that mental health is fundamental to general health. It states that a review of research on mental health revealed two findings. First, the efficacy of treatment is well documented, and second, a range of treatment exists for most mental…
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child mental health. 1304.24 Section 1304.24..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START... AGENCIES Early Childhood Development and Health Services § 1304.24 Child mental health. (a) Mental...
Sue, Stanley; Cheng, Janice Ka Yan; Saad, Carmel S.; Chu, Joyce P.
The U.S. Surgeon General's report "Mental Health: Culture, Race, and Ethnicity--A Supplement to Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) was arguably the best single scholarly contribution on the mental health of ethnic minority groups in the United States. Over 10 years have now elapsed…
Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen
Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…
Le Tulle, Edith
Mental health needs are expressed well beyond the doors of the psychiatric hospital. The health and social sectors are also confronted with situations of psychological suffering. The local mental health council offers solutions to professionals faced with this issue. The creation of the local mental health council and the collaborative way of working which it promotes give rise to projects aimed at improving mental health care.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH ACTIVITIES REPRESENTING EIGHT MAJOR PROGRAMS OF THE INSTITUTE ARE DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF MEETING THE NEEDS OF NORMAL CHILDREN IN NORMAL ENVIRONMENTS, PROVIDING EARLY TREATMENT OF MENTAL AND EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN CHILDHOOD, AND DEVELOPING TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION PROGRAMS FOR SEVERELY DISTURBED CHILDREN.…
Jorm, Anthony F.
For major physical diseases, it is widely accepted that members of the public will benefit by knowing what actions they can take for prevention, early intervention, and treatment. However, this type of public knowledge about mental disorders ("mental health literacy") has received much less attention. There is evidence from surveys in several…
Russo, Nancy Felipe
Discusses gender differences in mental disorder. Presents a research agenda for women's mental health research in the following areas: (1) diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders; (2) mental health issues for older women; (3) multiple roles; and (4) poverty. Discusses gender bias in research. (JS)
The mental health film festival is based on the respect of the patient as a subject and is a place where psychic suffering can be expressed. As a film is destined to be shown, there is a dilemma between the aesthetic and the therapeutic aspects and, it's in this link that the ethical dimension concerned by this kind of activity takes place.
Henderson, Schuyler W.; Rosario, Katyna
The article explores the insight into child and adolescent behavior offered by clowns. It reviews the Big Apple Circus Clown Care hospital clowning program and evaluates the role clowns could play in pediatric mental health inpatient work and their implications for the broader clinical setting.
Weikel, William J., Ed.; Palmo, Artis J., Ed.
The mental health counseling profession has gained increasing influence in the last 20 years. The purpose of this edited collection of articles is to chart the antecedents to, the present status of, and the future trends for this group of professionals. The book draws together historical tracings, rationales, conceptual models, and other…
Holden, E. Wayne; Blau, Gary M.
Comments on three articles (see records EJ733583, EJ733584, and EJ733585) on the status of children's mental health services in the United States, which appeared in the September 2005 issue of the "American Psychologist." The current authors suggest that, although this series of articles provides important information, the articles fall…
Bentz, Willard K.; And Others
Based on a North Carolina feasibility study (1967-73 in Vance and Franklin Counties) which focused on development of a pattern for providing comprehensive mental health services to rural people, this booklet is the first in a series of nine and deals with methods of gathering preliminary information. Basically, this booklet presents information…
Educating the student body on mental health involves outreach to groups not normally exposed to this information, including athletes, ethnic groups, residence hall inhabitants, fraternities and sororities, and international students. Frontline responders can help facilitate this outreach through initiatives that involve presentations by counselors…
Workman, John F.; And Others
A study was conducted in fall 1980 at Los Angeles Valley College (LAVC) to develop a greater understanding of the mental health/counseling needs of students. Specifically, the study sought to determine which stress-inducing conditions (stressors) had the greatest effect on students and the kinds of interventions and strategies that might be…
Summerlin, Florence A., Comp.
This annotated bibliography cites journal articles, reports, and books on religion and mental health published since 1970. The listing is intended to help psychologists, psychiatrists, clergymen, social workers, teachers, doctors and other professionals respond to requests for information and advice in areas spanning the common ground between…
Clarke, Dave; Ebbett, Erin
Research examining the relationships among Maori cultural identification, drinking behaviour, drinking motivation and mental health is almost non-existent. A review of literature suggests that stronger Maori identification could be associated with lower alcohol consumption on a typical occasion, less frequent drinking, drinking to enhance mood or…
Greist, John H.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Erdman, Harold P.; Jefferson, James W.
Direct patient-computer interviews were among the earliest applications of computing in medicine. Yet patient interviewing and other clinical applications have lagged behind fiscal/administrative uses. Several reasons for delays in the development and implementation of clinical computing programs and their resolution are discussed. Patient interviewing, clinician consultation and other applications of clinical computing in mental health are reviewed.
Padilla, Amado M.; Ruiz, Rene A.
Reviewed from an interdisciplinary viewpoint is the available literature on the mental health of Spanish speaking, Spanish surnammed (SSSS) individuals and communities in the United States. It is reported that over 9 million U.S. residents are of Spanish origin, that the SSSS are usually on the lowest rung of the socioeconomic ladder, that the…
Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1991
A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. Each piece begins with an editorial comment, followed by an introduction which outlines the scope of the problem under consideration. The main body of each lesson presents an analysis of the subject under consideration. A list of further sources…
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.
This guide is concerned with productivity measurement and improvement in mental health centers, and focuses on the relationship between service outputs and available clinical staff, i.e., staff productivity. Staff productivity measures are described as useful in identifying existing levels of productivity, making comparisons to determine the…
Bayes, Marjorie; Neill, T. Kerby
Issues of changing positions and roles for paraprofessionals are considered in the context of the hierarchical structure and process of mental health organizations. Discussion focuses on problems arising when paraprofessionals are promoted in the functional hierarchy while continuing to occupy the lowest level in the professional caste system.…
Frabutt, James M.
One in five youth in the United States is a child of an immigrant and children of immigrants are the most rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population under age 18. Consequently, there is a great need to better understand the psychosocial impact of immigration on children's mental health and adjustment. It is striking, however, that research on…
This paper draws on research which considers the implications for practitioners and managers of implementing new ideas for practice gained from learning and education in mental health in the UK. Using a questionnaire survey followed by eight semi-structured interviews, the research set out to identify the issues facing workers trying to implement change in the workplace as a result of new learning gained from study of an Open University mental health course. The paper argues that much management literature on change within organisations is problematic in this specific context. This is largely because it takes insufficient account of the complexities surrounding work within social care (particularly mental health). Findings show that workers who have undertaken learning in mental health often feel disempowered and isolated when attempting to introduce new ideas for practice into the workplace. The first line manager operates at the intersection of practice and learning and has a key role in enabling and supporting staff through practice as well as service change and professional development. This paper locates the distance learning experience within a wider framework of student/practitioner support, and explores the role of the first line manager in supporting and enabling staff.
Children's mental health covers a wide range of disorders. Some, such as ADHD and autism, tend to manifest themselves when children are young, while others, such as depression and addiction, are more likely to appear during the teenage years. Some respond readily to treatment or tend to improve as children grow older, while others, such as autism,…
Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.
This document contains 19 papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (TCs) that deal with the interface between the mental health establishments and the TC. Papers include: (1) "Psychiatry and the TC" (Jerome Jaffe); (2) "The Chemical Brain" (Sidney Cohen); (3) "Where Does the TC Fail?" (Ab…
Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1992
A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. Each piece begins with an editorial comment, followed by an introduction which outlines the scope of the problem under consideration. The main body of each paper presents a clear, easily understood analysis of the subject under consideration. A…
Flach, Frederic, Ed.
A collection of 12 lessons, this volume covers a wide range of concerns in mental health counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Perspectives on the Essentials of Clinical Supervision" (Stephen A. Anderson); (2) "Adlerian Group Psychotherapy: A Brief Therapy Approach"…
Brooks, Deems M.
The connections between human communication and mental health were first noted 50 to 60 years ago by such early psychiatrists as Alfred Adler, Harry Stack Sullivan, and Karen Horney. They were concerned with understanding those communication processes and skills that make for effective, fully functioning human beings. Adler emphasized faulty…
Waetjen, Walter B., Ed.; Leeper, Robert R., Ed.
This book, comprised of seven chapters, focuses on the problem of planning a curriculum that recognizes and promotes growth of each pupil in the areas of mental health and learning. Chapter one, "Mutuality of Effective Functioning and School Experiences," emphasizes acceptance of pupils' thoughts and feelings and the pupils' challenging of the…
Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Refugees Assistance Program - Mental Health Technical Assistance Center.
This report, based on a survey conducted during the summer and fall of 1986, identifies culturally sensitive training programs for professionals, paraprofessionals, and others who provide mental health services to refugees. An introductory section discusses the language, cultural, racial, experiential, and socioeconomic factors of refugee mental…
Shawahin, Lamise; Ciftci, Ayse
The authors provide a brief overview of counseling and mental health care in Palestine, including their history and a summary of their current status. Finally, a discussion is presented of future trends in the development of the profession with regard to recent changes in the region.
ALTSHULER, KENNETH Z.; RAINER, JOHN D.
A THREE YEAR PILOT PROJECT DESIGNED TO DEMONSTRATE THE VALUE AND FEASIBILITY OF PROVIDING COMPREHENSIVE MENTAL HEALTH (PSYCHIATRIC) SERVICES FOR THE DEAF ESTABLISHED A CLINICAL UNIT FOR THE DEAF WITH INPATIENT, OUTPATIENT, AND AFTERCARE SERVICES. THE CLINIC SERVED 50 PATIENTS (MINIMUM AGE 16) IN THE WARDS AND 96 PATIENTS (ALL AGES) IN THE…
Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn
The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…
Baird, Sarah; de Hoop, Jacobus; Ozler, Berk
We investigate the effects of a positive income shock on mental health among adolescent girls using evidence from a cash transfer experiment in Malawi. Offers of cash transfers strongly reduced psychological distress among baseline schoolgirls. However, these large beneficial effects declined with increases in the transfer amount offered to the…
Khodarahimi, Siamak; Rasti, Ali; Khajehie, Malihe; Sattar, Rea
The present study was to examine the effects of personal and university bounded factors in students mental health in north of Fars province, Iran. The effects of these factors on university students' psychopathology within a survey design were investigated among 300 participants--94 males and 206 females, who were selected through random sampling…
Williams, Carolyn L.
Refugee movements impose tremendous psychological and physical trauma on survivors, making refugees a high risk group for psychopathology and psychosocial adjustment problems. This paper explores the traditional impediments to developing prevention programs for refugees and describes public mental health strategies that could be used for different…
Joshi, Nayan Krishna
This paper examines the impact of local (county-level) house prices on individual self-reported mental health using individual level data from the United States Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 2005 and 2011. Exploiting a fixed-effects model that relies on within-county variations, relative to the corresponding changes in other counties, I find that while individuals are likely to experience worse self-reported mental health when local house prices decline, this association is most pronounced for individuals who are least likely to be homeowners. This finding is not consistent with a prediction from a pure wealth mechanism but rather with the hypothesis that house prices act as an economic barometer. I also demonstrate that the association between self-reported mental health and local house prices is not driven by unemployment or foreclosure. The primary result-that lower local house prices have adverse impact on self-reported mental health of homeowners and renters-is consistent with studies using data from the United Kingdom.
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.
Based on a study of the component parts of the mental health continuing education system, this publication presents guidelines for the following fiscal functions: determining funding needs, obtaining funds, budgeting funds, expending funds, and cost accounting. In addition to considering these components, the guidelines explore principal issues in…
Directions in Mental Health Counseling, 1993
This curriculum guide contains articles from numerous experts in the field of mental health counseling. This issue includes: (1) "Therapeutic Approaches to Anxiety Disorders" (Robert L. DuPont); (2) "The Role of Nutrition in Detoxification from Drugs and Alcohol" (Jeffrey S. Bland); (3) "'Repair' vs. 'Growth' Approaches to…
Olmedo, Esteban L., Ed.; Lopez, Steven, Ed.
This volume is a collection of reports presented at a 1976 meeting held on the issue of Spanish American professional representation in the mental health field in the United States. Paper topics include: (1) Hispanics in psychiatry; (2) the current status of Hispanic social workers; (3) Hispanic psychiatric nursing personnel in the U.S.; (4) the…
Prince, Jonathan D.
Objective: It is now well documented that satisfaction with mental health services is influenced by a variety of other factors (e.g., race, diagnosis, functioning level). Because of a generally brighter outlook, this study examined whether care satisfaction is also influenced by contentment in housing, social relations, or existence in general.…
The professional mental health community, which had romanticized the concept of community control, is presently becoming disenchanted with it due to the lack of facility and skills for working with it. The task is to understand and evaluate community control and to alter only those aspects found destructive to community well-being. (DM)
Ebadi, Seyed Hossein; Keshtiaray, Narges; Aghaei, Asghar; Yousefy, Alireza
Present-day curricular designs have to take the pupils' psychological needs in account, thus becoming melodies of mental health and happiness for the next generation. Emphasizing the findings from previous investigations using the research synthesis methodology, the present study has been conducted aiming at achieving some integrative knowledge…
Riga, Sorin; Riga, Dan; Mihailescu, Alexandra; Motoc, Daniela; Mos, Liana; Schneider, Francisc
Longevity health sciences and mental health are fields of public health and of preventive and integrative medicine. The antagonism between health construction and human pathology is substantiated by two opposite fundamental pathways: the health-longevity tetrad versus the aging-disease cascade. It is necessary that the current paradigm of contemporary medicine be replaced by the advanced paradigm of future medicine. A societal cost-benefit rate is decisive for health-longevity promotion. This is why the WHO public health strategy keeps forwarding the societal medical target into the global health-longevity field.
Tucker, D. K.; le Riche, W. Harding
Various attempts to define the concept of “mental health” are examined. Value judgments permeate much mental health literature. Their use militates against obtaining an objective definition, capable of universal application. The acceptance of a definition including a value judgment implies taking an attitude toward a particular society and its social ideals. Present limits of competence only allow us to describe “mental health” conceptually. Such “untechnical” proposals are liable to be confused with “technical” (“scientific”) propositions. Multiple criteria are likely to be helpful in improving our concept of “mental health”. The intrusion of morals into the world of health is discussed as part of the contemporary intellectual dilemma of determined human behaviour versus human responsibility and the reality of moral values. It is suggested that “mental health” might consist simply of an individual's possession of insight into his own personality, combined with an honest recognition and acceptance of his condition. PMID:14145470
Adler, Amy B; Saboe, Kristin N; Anderson, James; Sipos, Maurice L; Thomas, Jeffrey L
The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health.
Shigemura, Jun; Nomura, Soichiro
The end of the Cold War has brought a dramatic change to the international political situation and the role of the United Nations peacekeeping operations (PKO) has drawn increased attention. While many reports on PKO have focused on political or sociologic considerations, the mental health of the peacekeepers themselves has received little attention and psychiatric problems that can have a negative impact on mission success have been largely ignored. Participation in PKO creates a number of stressors and serious psychiatric and/or physical disorders may result. Yet, there is little research on this topic, either domestically or globally, and the methodology for clinical intervention remains in an early stage of development. We have reviewed previous reports to determine how various stressors before, during and after deployment affect the participants. Research in associated fields (e.g. crisis workers and military personnel) are also reviewed and their application to peacekeeping psychiatry is discussed. It must be admitted that the significance of PKO is arguable and each PKO is unique in terms of the nature of its mission and the local situation. Yet, the relationship between the psychiatric status of the personnel and the characteristics of an individual mission has never been studied. At present, no clear consensus regarding a framework for psychiatric intervention exists. Studies that enhance the recognition and significance of peacekeeping psychiatry are likely to improve the efficacy of PKO.
Richter, L M
Very great advances have occurred in disciplinary and professional knowledge of infant development and its influence on subsequent development. This expertise includes the ways in which early experiences affect the capacity of mature individuals for social adjustment and productive competence, and promising methods of intervention to promote infant mental health and prevent adverse sequelae of risk conditions. However, very little of this knowledge has been applied in work among infants and children living in conditions of poverty and underdevelopment. This lack of application continues despite the enormous threats to the well-being of infants and young children brought about by the combined effects of poverty and the AIDS pandemic, especially in southern Africa. Protein-energy malnutrition, maternal depression, and institutional care of infants and small children are cited as illustrative of areas in which interventions, and their evaluation, are desperately needed in resource-poor countries. An argument is made for the critical importance of considering and addressing psychological factors in care givers and children in conditions of extreme material need. An example is provided of a simple intervention model based on sound developmental principles that can be implemented by trained non-professionals in conditions of poverty and underdevelopment.
Kanehara, Akiko; Umeda, Maki; Kawakami, Norito
Aim The reasons for accessing and maintaining access to mental health services in Japan may be unique in those of other countries. Using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Japan survey data, this study investigated the prevalence of sociodemographic correlates of barriers for the use of, reasons for delayed access to, and reasons for dropping out from mental health care in a Japanese community-based sample. Methods An interview survey was conducted with a random sample of residents living in 11 communities across Japan during the years 2002–2006. Data from 4,130 participants were analyzed. Results The most frequently reported reason for not seeking mental health care was a low perceived need (63.9%). The most common reason for delaying access to help was the wish to handle the problem on one's own (68.8%), while the most common reason for dropping out of care was also a low perceived need (54.2%). Being a woman and of younger age were key sociodemographic barriers to the use of mental health services. Conclusion Low perceived need was a major reason for not seeking, delay in using, and dropout from mental health services in Japan. In addition, low perceived need and structural barriers were more frequently reported than attitudinal barriers, with the exception of a desire to handle the problem on one's own. These findings suggest that to improve therapist-patient communication and quality of mental health care, as well as mental health literacy education in the community, might improve access to care in Japan. PMID:25523280
Lambert, Martin; Härter, Martin; Arnold, Detlef; Dirmaier, Jörg; Tlach, Lisa; Liebherz, Sarah; Sänger, Sylvia; Karow, Anne; Brandes, Andreas; Sielaff, Gyöngyver; Bock, Thomas
Evidence shows that poor mental health literacy and stigmatization have negative consequences on mental health. However, studies on interventions to improve both are often heterogenic in methodology and results. The psychenet-campaign in Hamburg was developed and implemented in collaboration with patients and relatives and comprised multidimensional interventions focusing on education and contact to patients. The main goals were the improvement of mental health literacy and destigmatization and the long-term implementation within Hamburg's mental health care system.
Takamoto, Masahiro; Aikawa, Atsushi
This study examined the effect of coping and appraisal for coping on mental health and later coping in two longitudinal studies. In Study 1 (Time 1: n = 342, Time 2: n = 367) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and assumed coping. In Study 2 (Time 1: n = 161, Time 2: n = 154) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and later coping. The results indicated that coping and coping for appraisal affected mental health and later coping. However, the influence of the coping for appraisal was more limited than selected coping.
Iltis, Ana S.; Misra, Sahana; Dunn, Laura B.; Brown, Gregory K.; Campbell, Amy; Earll, Sarah A.; Glowinski, Anne; Hadley, Whitney B.; Pies, Ronald; DuBois, James M.
Objective Risk communication and management are essential to the ethical conduct of research, yet addressing risks may be time consuming for investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) may reject study designs that appear too risky. This can discourage needed research, particularly in higher risk protocols or those enrolling potentially vulnerable individuals, such as those with some level of suicidality. Improved mechanisms for addressing research risks may facilitate much needed psychiatric research. This article provides mental health researchers with practical approaches to: 1) identify and define various intrinsic research risks; 2) communicate these risks to others (e.g., potential participants, regulatory bodies, society); 3) manage these risks during the course of a study; and 4) justify the risks. Methods As part of a National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded scientific meeting series, a public conference and a closed-session expert panel meeting were held on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. The expert panel reviewed the literature with a focus on empirical studies and developed recommendations for best practices and further research on managing and disclosing risks in mental health clinical trials. IRB review was not required because there were no human subjects. The NIMH played no role in developing or reviewing the manuscript. Results Challenges, current data, practical strategies, and topics for future research are addressed for each of four key areas pertaining to management and disclosure of risks in clinical trials: identifying and defining risks, communicating risks, managing risks during studies, and justifying research risks. Conclusions Empirical data on risk communication, managing risks, and the benefits of research can support the ethical conduct of mental health research and may help investigators better conceptualize and confront risks and to gain IRB approval. PMID:24173618
India, with a population of a billion, has very limited numbers of mental health facilities and professionals in providing mental health care to all the people. The disability associated with mental or brain disorders stops people from working and engaging in other creative activities. Gradual implementation of district mental health programme in a phased manner with support of adequate managerial and financial inputs is the need of the day. Trained mental health care personnel, treatment, care, and rehabilitation facilities should be made available and accessible to the masses. The voluntary organizations should be encouraged to participate in mental health care programme.
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel ] Mental Health Services...., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health,...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel; Mental Health Services in...., Scientific Review Officer, Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health,...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed... of Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel, Mental Health Services... Officer, Division of Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Mental Health; Notice of Closed... Committee: National Institute of Mental Health Special Emphasis Panel, Mental Health Services--Member... Extramural Activities, National Institute of Mental Health, NIH, Neuroscience Center, 6001 Executive...
Sen. Stabenow, Debbie [D-MI
03/29/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S2248-2250) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.
Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…
The Bamford Review of Mental Health and Learning Disability (Northern Ireland) was established in October 2002 to examine all aspects of the law, policy and provisions that affect people with mental health needs or a learning disability in Northern Ireland. Its report "A Comprehensive Legislative Framework," which deals with the reform…
Duran, Ruben, Ed.; And Others
In devising the mental health plan for Chicanos, the social, economic, and political forces that adversely affect their emotional well-being must be considered. While defining mental health needs and proposing ways to meet those needs, the cultural background of the Chicano people must seriously be considered. The plan should stress the importance…
Background Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations. Discussion To realise the greatest population mental health benefits, workplace mental health intervention needs to comprehensively 1) protect mental health by reducing work–related risk factors for mental health problems; 2) promote mental health by developing the positive aspects of work as well as worker strengths and positive capacities; and 3) address mental health problems among working people regardless of cause. We outline the evidence supporting such an integrated intervention approach and consider the research agenda and policy developments needed to move towards this goal, and propose the notion of integrated workplace mental health literacy. Summary An integrated approach to workplace mental health combines the strengths of medicine, public health, and psychology, and has the potential to optimise both the prevention and management of mental health problems in the workplace. PMID:24884425
... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental...
... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental...
... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental...
... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental...
... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Agreement with State mental health authority or mental institutions. 431.620 Section 431.620 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.620 Agreement with State mental...
Tonso, Michael A; Prematunga, Roshani Kanchana; Norris, Stephen J; Williams, Lloyd; Sands, Natisha; Elsom, Stephen J
The international literature suggests workplace violence in mental health settings is a significant issue, yet little is known about the frequency, nature, severity and health consequences of staff exposure to violence in Australian mental health services. To address this gap, we examined these aspects of workplace violence as reported by mental health services employees in Victoria, Australia. The project used a cross-sectional, exploratory descriptive design. A random sample of 1600 Health and Community Services Union members were invited to complete a survey investigating exposure to violence in the workplace, and related psychological health outcomes. Participants comprised employees from multiple disciplines including nursing, social work, occupational therapy, psychology and administration staff. A total of 411 members responded to the survey (26% response rate). Of the total sample, 83% reported exposure to at least one form of violence in the previous 12 months. The most frequently reported form of violence was verbal abuse (80%) followed by physical violence (34%) and then bullying/mobbing (30%). Almost one in three victims of violence (33%) rated themselves as being in psychological distress, 54% of whom reported being in severe psychological distress. The more forms of violence to which victims were exposed, the greater the frequency of reports of psychological distress. Workplace violence is prevalent in mental health facilities in Victoria. The nature, severity and health impact of this violence represents a serious safety concern for mental health employees. Strategies must be considered and implemented by healthcare management and policy makers to reduce and prevent violence.
Over the past twenty-five years, psychiatric services have shifted from hospital to community. Managed care reinforces this trend. Mental illness is better understood and less stigmatized, and services are more commonly used. But many in need do not receive care consistent with evidence-based standards, or at all. Challenges are greatest for people with serious and persistent mental illnesses who depend on generic health and welfare programs and integrated services. Evidence-based rehabilitative care is often unavailable. Failures in community care lead to arrest; jail diversion and treatment are required. Despite progress, implementing an effective, patient-centered care system remains a formidable challenge.
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid
We all have mental health. Mental health relates to how we think, feel, behave and interact with other people. At its simplest, good mental health is the absence of a mental disorder or mental health problem. Adults, children and young people with good mental health are likely to have high levels of mental wellbeing. The World Health Organisation…
... health provider is likely to ask about: Your perceptions. How much your signs and symptoms affect your ... to rule out any underlying health conditions. Others' perceptions. Your perceptions alone might not give you an ...
Armitage, Claire; Fitzgerald, Carole; Cheong, Paula
Surveys have shown that over 90 per cent of the prison population have a diagnosable mental illness, substance abuse problem, or both (ONS 1998). There is general agreement that although there are areas where practice is excellent, practice is not consistent across England and Wales, and often does not equate to standards in the NHS. In 2001 the Department of Health and the prison service set out their joint approach to the modernization of mental health services in prisons (DoH 2001), and proposed mental health in-reach as a means of improving services and achieving the objectives of the NHS Plan (DoH 2000). This article looks at the one of the first prison in-reach services that was launched at HMP Leicester early in 2002, and considers the effect these nurses have had on the care of mentally ill adults at the prison. A case study outlining the in-reach team's approach to one of the prison's greatest challenges, self-harm, is also included.
This essay examines the history of the concept of mental health. Its origin can be traced to Plato, who argued that immorality is to the soul what disease is to the body. The purpose of this argument was to answer those who thought that morality is a set of social conventions, and in that sense, is contrary to nature. Plato responded by turning to those who made a systematic study of nature--the medical writers of his day--and claiming that if proper balance is needed to maintain a healthy body, the same is true of the soul. Thus the natural state of the soul is one in which the various parts agree on which should rule. This does not mean that Plato sought to excuse immoral behavior by treating it as a medical condition, only that he regarded immoral behavior as contrary to nature and thus treatable. Although later attempts to define mental health are not as rigid as Plato's, it is remarkable how many of his insights are still applicable, in particular the claim that morality and mental health, though not identical, are nonetheless linked. A case in point is the experience of wanting something but not liking the fact that you want it. Plato regarded internal conflict of this sort as a paradigm case of psychic dysfunction. I argue that we can regard it as either a moral failing or a mental one.
This paper provides an historical look at the Egyptian contribution to mental health from Pharaonic times through to the Islamic era and up to today. The current situation as regards mental health in Egypt is described.
... news/fullstory_163563.html Tiny Babies May Face Mental Health Problems Later Review found greater likelihood of ADHD, ... weight babies may be at increased risk for mental health problems later in life, a new review suggests. ...
Cassata, D M; Kirkman-Liff, B L
A questionnaire survey of residency trained graduates and nonresidency trained family physicians showed both groups reporting relatively infrequent practice of behavioral medicine. Referrals and counseling sessions/visits produce a combined total of 20 activities per month, or two to four percent of all patient encounters, even though the physicians in the sample reported that 33 percent of their diagnoses were behavioral/psychological. More than 85 percent of the physicians reported access to more than one mental health provider. The six most common health problems encountered in the office were depression, anxiety, obesity, marital discord, alcohol abuse, and sexual problems. Physicians responding to this survey expressed an interest in continuing education programs that emphasize individual, marital, and parenting counseling, and psychopharmacology. There is a major need to improve the mental health component of residency training, which will enable physicians to better manage psychosocial problems in practice settings.
Lohr, W David; Jones, V Faye
Children in foster care have exceptional needs due to their histories of abuse, neglect, and increased exposure to violence. The rates of psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and reactive attachment disorder, are much higher in children in foster care; furthermore, the rate of these children receiving psychotropic medications is 3 times that of children who are not in foster care. Pediatricians, in their role of providing a medical home, play a central role in safeguarding the physical and mental health of these children. By taking a trauma-informed approach to understanding the unique needs and gaps in their health care, pediatricians can improve the mental health and maximize outcome for children in foster care. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(10):e342-e348.].
Uecker, Jeremy E
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.
Fitzsimons, Emla; Goodman, Alissa; Kelly, Elaine; Smith, James P
Using data from the British Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), an ongoing longitudinal study of a cohort of 18,827 children born in the UK in 2000-2001, we investigate important correlates of mental health issues during childhood. MCS respondents were sampled at birth, at age 9 months, and then when they were 3, 5, 7 and 11 years old. Each sweep contains detailed information on the family's SES, parenting activities, developmental indicators, parental relationship status, and indicators of parental mental health. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the related Rutter scale were used to identify behavioral and emotional problems in children. In this paper, childhood problems are separated into four domains: hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer problems. We focus on two aspects of this relationship at ages 5 and 11-the role of temporary and persistent poverty and the role of temporary and persistent mental health problems of mothers and fathers. At ages 11 and 5, without other controls in the model, persistent and transitory poverty have strong estimated associations with all four domains, with somewhat stronger estimated effects for persistent poverty. After a set of controls are added, we document that both persistent levels of poverty and transitions into poverty are strongly associated with levels of and transitions into childhood mental health problems. Similarly, sustained levels and transitions into mothers' mental health problems are strongly associated with levels and transitions into children's mental health problems. This is much less so for fathers.
Cutcliffe, John; Happell, Brenda
Interpersonal relationships, although considered to be the cornerstone of therapeutic engagement, are replete with issues of power; yet, the concept of 'invisible power' within such formal mental health care relationships is seldom explored and/or critiqued in the literature. This paper involves an examination of power in the interpersonal relationship between the mental health nurse and the consumer. Issues of power are emphasized by drawing on examples from clinical experiences, each of which is then deconstructed as an analytical means to uncover the different layers of power. This examination highlights the existence of both obscure and seldomly acknowledged invisible manifestations of power that are inherent in psychiatry and interpersonal mental health nursing. It also identifies that there is an orthodoxy of formal mental health care that perhaps is best described as 'biopsychiatry' (or 'traditional psychiatry'). Within this are numerous serious speech acts and these provide the power for mental health practitioners to act in particular ways, to exercise control. The authors challenge this convention as the only viable discourse: a potentially viable alternative to the current of formal mental health care does exist and, most importantly, this alternative is less tied to the use of invisible power.
Choudhury, Waziul Alam; Quraishi, Firoz Ahmed; Haque, Ziaul
The aim of this paper is to highlight the activities and observations of some NGOs and some dedicated researchers in the field of psychosocial consequences of disaster in Bangladesh, particularly in the coastal areas and the tornado-affected areas of the district of Tangile and Jamalpur during the last two decades. Some of the advantages of the non-governmental organizations' (NGOs) work in relief and development were their linkages with grass-roots people ensuring access to the community and community participation, the flexible approach of work, ability and willingness to learn from people and ability to connect people's lives with their realities. The most remarkable survey carried out by the Social Assistance and Rehabilitation for the Physically Vulnerable (SARPV-Bangladesh) after the 1996 tornado showed, on average, that women are more affected psychologically than men; 66% of the total sample in the disaster area were psychologically traumatized and required emergency services. The study supports the ideas that any disaster will have mental health consequences. Providing scientific psychological services is essential for real recovery from such a disaster. In developing countries like Bangladesh, limitations of mental health professionals and inadequate knowledge and practice about disaster mental health among the medical and paramedical staff, may lead to delays in the psychosocial management and rehabilitation of the survivors. To respond properly to a serious type of disaster like a cyclone or a tornado or recurrent devastating flood, the disaster mental health team should be aware of the socio-economic status, local culture, tradition, language and local livelihood patterns. Integration of the team with the network of various governmental and non-governmental organizations is essential to provide mental health services effectively.
Sanders, Lorraine B
College students, often away from home for the first time, are at risk for mental health disorders that can affect academic performance and quality of life. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the provision of mental health services to students attending colleges on Long Island, NY and to explore information about the policies developed in regards to disclosing mental health information to a student's family in the event of crisis. A descriptive questionnaire was developed for the purpose of this study. Qualified professionals are providing mental health services to students on Long Island college campuses but few policies exist to enhance communication in the event of crisis. Nurses employed in college health centers can work with students and families towards health-promoting behaviors and to proactively plan for the management of health information in the event of a mental health crisis.
Druss, Benjamin G.; Wang, Philip S.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Olfson, Mark; Pincus, Harold A.; Wells, Kenneth B.; Kessler, Ronald C.
Context Epidemiologic surveys have consistently found that approximately half of respondents who obtained treatment for mental or substance use disorders in the year before interview did not meet the criteria for any of the disorders assessed in the survey. Concerns have been raised that this pattern might represent evidence of misallocation of treatment resources. Objective To examine patterns and correlates of 12-month treatment of mental health or substance use problems among people who do not have a 12-month DSM-IV disorder. Design and Setting Data are from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative face-to-face US household survey performed between February 5, 2001, and April 7, 2003, that assessed DSM-IV disorders using a fully structured diagnostic interview, the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Participants A total of 5692 English-speaking respondents 18 years and older. Main Outcome Measures Patterns of 12-month service use among respondents without any 12-month DSM-IV CIDI disorders. Results Of respondents who used 12-month services, 61.2% had a 12-month DSM-IV CIDI diagnosis, 21.1% had a lifetime but not a 12-month diagnosis, and 9.7% had some other indicator of possible need for treatment (subthreshold 12-month disorder, serious 12-month stressor, or lifetime hospitalization).The remaining 8.0% of service users accounted for only 5.6% of all services and even lower proportions of specialty (1.9%−2.4%) and general medical (3.7%) visits compared with higher proportions of human services (18.9%) and complementary and alternative medicine (7.6%) visits. Only 26.5% of the services provided to the 8.0% of presumably low-need patients were delivered in the mental health specialty or general medical sectors. Conclusions Most services provided for emotional or substance use problems in the United States go to people with a 12-month diagnosis or other indicators of need. Patients who
Love, David A; Smith, Paul A
A number of recent studies find that poor health is empirically associated with a safer portfolio allocation. It is difficult to say, however, whether this relationship is truly causal. Both health status and portfolio choice are influenced by unobserved characteristics such as risk attitudes, impatience, information, and motivation, and these unobserved factors, if not adequately controlled for, can induce significant bias in the estimates of asset demand equations. Using the 1992-2006 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, we investigate how much of the connection between health and portfolio choice is causal and how much is due to the effects of unobserved heterogeneity. Accounting for unobserved heterogeneity with fixed effects and correlated random effects models, we find that health does not appear to significantly affect portfolio choice among single households. For married households, we find a small effect (about 2-3 percentage points) from being in the lowest of five self-reported health categories.
Chalke, F. C. R.
In this lecture, as a tribute to the late Samuel Prince, founder of the mental hygiene movement in the Maritime Provinces, the rapprochement between the clergy and mental health profession is discussed. A brief survey of the historical background of the churches' approaches to mental disorder leads to consideration of subjects of present mutual concern. Spiritual and emotional development, responsibility and guilt, law and freedom, psychic structure and sanctity, sexuality, and symbolic representation are among the areas which demand intellectual exploration in depth, jointly, by theologians and social scientists. The need is outlined for training parish clergy to carry out their role in ameliorating emotionally damaging social conditions and of educating and counselling parishioners. PMID:5320919
Klopp, Jonathon; Konrad, Shane; Yanofski, Jason
Identity theft is a serious problem in the United States, and persons with enduring mental illnesses may be particularly vulnerable to becoming victims of this crime. Victims of identity theft experience a variety of consequences that include financial loss and serious emotional distress. Little is known about the impact of identity theft on individuals with mental illnesses. The two cases from a community mental health center presented in this article demonstrate many of the facets that may be associated with an increased risk for becoming the victim of identity theft. A summary of preventive steps as well as steps involved in resolving the crime once one has become a victim are presented. PMID:20806029
Malaspina, Dolores; Gilman, Caitlin; Kranz, Thorsten Manfred
The influence of paternal age on the risk for sporadic forms of Mendelian disorders is well known, but a burgeoning recent literature also demonstrates a paternal age effect for complex neuropsychiatric conditions, including schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder and even for learning potential, expressed as intelligence. Mental illness is costly to the patients, the family and the public health system, accounting for the largest portion of disability costs in our economy. The delayed onset of neuropsychiatric conditions and lack of physical manifestations at birth are common frequencies in the population that have obscured the recognition that a portion of the risks for mental conditions is associated with paternal age. Identification of these risk pathways may be leveraged for knowledge about mental function and for future screening tests. However, only a small minority of at-risk offspring are likely to have such a psychiatric or learning disorder attributable to paternal age, including the children of older fathers. PMID:25956369
Rivera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Currais, Luis
Since the mid-1990s, Spain has started to receive a great number of migrant populations. The migration process can have a significantly negative impact on mental health of immigrant population and, consequently, generate implications for the delivery of mental health services. The aim of this article is to provide empirical evidence to demonstrate that the mental health of immigrants in Spain deteriorates the longer they are resident in the country. An empirical approach to this relationship is carried out with data from the National Survey of Health of Spain 2011-2012 and poisson and negative binomial models. Results show that immigrants who reside <10 years in Spain appear to be in a better state of mental health than that observed for the national population. Studying health disparities in the foreign population and its evolution are relevant to ensure the population's access to health services and care. The need for further research is especially true in the case of the immigrant population's mental health in Spain because there is scant evidence available on their situation.
Willie, Charles V., Ed.; And Others
These 15 essays by leading psychiatrists, sociologists, educators, demographers, and health administrators are organized into four parts: "Overview,""Clinical Context,""Social Context," and "Action Context." Part I includes: "Racism and Mental Health as a Field of Thought and Action," Bernard M.…
Rubin, Lawrence S.
The Maimonides Early Childhood Health-Mental Health Prevention and Treatment Program is described. The program provides a broad range of preventive services to children who are five years of age and younger. Services are organized into Post-Natal and Pre-School Programs. The Post-Natal Program offers group education and counseling, individual…
Taylor, Richard; Page, Andrew; Morrell, Stephen; Harrison, James; Carter, Greg
This paper investigates the relationship between suicide rates and prevalence of mental disorder and suicide attempts, across socio-economic status (SES) groups based on area of residence. Australian suicide data (1996-1998) were analysed in conjunction with area-based prevalences of mental disorder derived from the National Survey of Mental Health and Well-Being (1997). Poisson regression models of suicide risk included age, quintile of area-based SES, urban-rural residence, and country of birth (COB), with males and females analysed separately. Analysis focussed on the association between suicide and prevalences of (ICD-10) affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders and suicide attempts by SES group. Prevalences of other psychiatric symptomatology, substance use problems, health service utilisation, stressful life-events and personality were also investigated. Significant increasing gradients were evident from high to low SES groups for prevalences of affective disorders, anxiety disorders (females only), and substance use disorders (males only); sub-threshold drug and alcohol problems and depression; and suicide attempts and suicide (males only). Prevalences of mental disorder, other sub-threshold mental health items and suicide attempts were significantly associated with suicide, but in most cases associations were reduced in magnitude and became statistically non-significant after adjustment for COB, urban-rural residence, and SES. For male suicide the relative risk (RR) in the lowest SES group compared to the highest was 1.40 (95% CI 1.29-1.52, p<0.001) for all ages, and 1.46 (95% CI 1.27-1.67, p<0.001) for male youth (20-34 years). This relationship was not substantially modified in males when regression models included prevalences of affective disorders, and other selected mental health variables and demographic factors. From a population perspective, SES remained significantly associated with suicide after controlling for the
Ruzek, Josef I; Kuhn, Eric; Jaworski, Beth K; Owen, Jason E; Ramsey, Kelly M
Mobile technologies offer potentially critical ways of delivering mental health support to those experiencing war, ethnic conflict, and human-caused and natural disasters. Research on Internet interventions suggests that effective mobile mental health technologies can be developed, and there are early indications that they will be acceptable to war and disaster survivors, and prove capable of greatly increasing the reach of mental health services. Promising mhealth interventions include video teleconferencing, text messaging, and smartphone-based applications. In addition, a variety of social media platforms has been used during and immediately after disasters to increase agility in responding, and strengthen community and individual resilience. Globally, PTSD Coach has been downloaded over 243,000 times in 96 countries, and together with large-scale use of social media for communication during disasters, suggests the potential for reach of app technology. In addition to enabling improved self-management of post-trauma problems, mobile phone interventions can also enhance delivery of face-to-face care by mental health providers and increase the effectiveness of peer helpers and mutual aid organizations. More research is needed to establish the efficacy of mhealth interventions for those affected by war and disaster. Research should also focus on the identification of active elements and core processes of change, determination of effective ways of increasing adoption and engagement, and explore ways of combining the various capabilities of mobile technologies to maximize their impact.
Kuhn, Eric; Jaworski, Beth K.; Owen, Jason E.; Ramsey, Kelly M.
Mobile technologies offer potentially critical ways of delivering mental health support to those experiencing war, ethnic conflict, and human-caused and natural disasters. Research on Internet interventions suggests that effective mobile mental health technologies can be developed, and there are early indications that they will be acceptable to war and disaster survivors, and prove capable of greatly increasing the reach of mental health services. Promising mhealth interventions include video teleconferencing, text messaging, and smartphone-based applications. In addition, a variety of social media platforms has been used during and immediately after disasters to increase agility in responding, and strengthen community and individual resilience. Globally, PTSD Coach has been downloaded over 243,000 times in 96 countries, and together with large-scale use of social media for communication during disasters, suggests the potential for reach of app technology. In addition to enabling improved self-management of post-trauma problems, mobile phone interventions can also enhance delivery of face-to-face care by mental health providers and increase the effectiveness of peer helpers and mutual aid organizations. More research is needed to establish the efficacy of mhealth interventions for those affected by war and disaster. Research should also focus on the identification of active elements and core processes of change, determination of effective ways of increasing adoption and engagement, and explore ways of combining the various capabilities of mobile technologies to maximize their impact. PMID:28293610
Phillips, Susan D.; Venema, Rachel; Roque, Lorena
This study explores the unmet need for mental health services among children with parents on probation. A group of 77 probationers provided information on 170 children. Information about children's need for mental health services was based on the Child Behavior Checklist and information about children's receipt of mental health services was based…
Pullmann, Michael D.; Kerbs, Jodi; Koroloff, Nancy; Veach-White, Ernie; Gaylor, Rita; Sieler, Dede
The rate of youth with mental health needs is disproportionately high in juvenile justice. Wraparound planning involves families and providers in coordinating juvenile justice, mental health, and other services and supports. This study compares data from two groups of juvenile offenders with mental health problems: 106 youth in a juvenile justice…
Joshanloo, Mohsen; Nosratabadi, Masoud
Empirically, mental health and mental illness are not opposite ends of a single measurement continuum. In view of this fact, Keyes ("J Health Soc Behav," 43:207-202, 2002) operationalizes mental health as a syndrome of symptoms of both positive feelings (emotional well-being) and positive functioning (psychological and social well-being)…
Gary, Lawrence E., Ed.
In this anthology, fourteen articles on mental health and the black community are collected. Topics considered include family life, childhood environment, adolescence, work and adulthood, the black aged, functions of the social network, ecological influences, mental health services, public policy, the black mental health network force, and…
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mental health services... Outpatient Treatment § 17.98 Mental health services. (a) Following the death of a veteran, bereavement... mental health services in connection with treatment of the veteran under 38 U.S.C. 1710, 1712,...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mental health services... Outpatient Treatment § 17.98 Mental health services. (a) Following the death of a veteran, bereavement... mental health services in connection with treatment of the veteran under 38 U.S.C. 1710, 1712,...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mental health services... Outpatient Treatment § 17.98 Mental health services. (a) Following the death of a veteran, bereavement... mental health services in connection with treatment of the veteran under 38 U.S.C. 1710, 1712,...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental health services... Outpatient Treatment § 17.98 Mental health services. (a) Following the death of a veteran, bereavement... mental health services in connection with treatment of the veteran under 38 U.S.C. 1710, 1712,...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mental health services... Outpatient Treatment § 17.98 Mental health services. (a) Following the death of a veteran, bereavement... mental health services in connection with treatment of the veteran under 38 U.S.C. 1710, 1712,...
Tramonte, Michael R.
The goals of this presentation were to help mental health professionals learn more about intervening in aviation disasters, learn about the uniqueness of disaster mental health, and share the presenter's mental health disaster experiences as they relate to aviation disasters. Survivors' emotional phases during the disaster recovery process are…
Jaranson, James M.; Bamford, Pauline
This paper presents the approach used by the Technical Assistance Center (TAC) of the University of Minnesota's Refugee Assistance Program in Mental Health for identifying successful and culturally sensitive mental health service delivery models. It divides these into four categories: the psychiatric model; the community mental health model; the…
Mental health survey just right for managed care. A simple one-page outcome scale developed at the University of Missouri, Columbia, measures four dimensions of mental health--quality of life, symptomatology, level of function, and customer satisfaction. Developed for inpatient and outpatient mental health settings, the tool now is being used by employee assistance programs and managed care companies to profile providers.
Muzekari, Louis H.; And Others
This paper reports the effects of Hurricane Hugo on mental health workers and indigenous community members. The response and perceptions of mental health staff from the South Carolina Department of Mental Health (Go Teams) from areas unaffected by the hurricane were compared and contrasted with those of a subsequent Hugo Outreach Support Team…
Angley, Meghan; Gibson, Crystal; Sipsma, Heather; Kershaw, Trace
Mental health issues often become apparent as adolescents emerge into young adulthood. The use of mental health services is low among adolescents and young adults, and use is particularly low among minorities. In this study, we examine mental health utilization among diverse young parenting couples. The sample consisted of 296 couples. We used the social–personal framework to examine personal, family, partner relationship, and environmental predictors for using mental health services. We used the Actor–Partner Interdependence Model to assess actor and partner effects on mental health utilization. We also examined moderator effects for gender and internalizing and externalizing behaviors. We found that being female, being White, higher income, more conduct problems, and less anxious romantic attachment predicted mental health utilization. Significant moderator effects included depression × gender, depression × medical insurance, and stress × Latino. Implications for community mental health practice include conducting mental health assessments during medical visits and systematic mental health follow-up for individuals and couples with identified mental health and support needs. Future research should include married couples and the spouse’s influence on mental health use and examine relevant parenting factors that may also predict mental health utilization among couples. PMID:26163272
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.
This background paper on children's mental health indicates that less than one-third of the children who have mental health problems receive treatment. Types of mental health problems are discussed, including intellectual, developmental, behavior, emotional, psychophysiological, and adjustment disorders. Enviromental risk factors of poverty and…
Martin, Jennifer Marie
Stigma is a powerful force in preventing university students with mental health difficulties from gaining access to appropriate support. This paper reports on an exploratory study of university students with mental health difficulties that found most students did not disclose their mental health problems to staff at university. This was primarily…
Wilson, F. Robert; Tang, Mei; Schiller, Kelly; Sebera, Kerry
Mental health problems among children in schools are on the increase. To exercise due diligence in their responsibility to monitor and promote mental health among our nation's children, school counselors may learn from triage systems employed in hospitals, clinics, and mental health centers. The School Counselor's Triage Model provides school…
Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid
Delivering mental health programs and services in education is not a new idea but it is time to bring mental health into focus. Momentum is gaining in terms of raising awareness, increasing understanding, and articulating strategies for advancing and integrating mental health. We need to know that all over the world everything is unique and…
Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Whisman, Mark A.
Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the association between marital distress and mental health service utilization in a population-based sample of men and women (N = 1,601). Method: The association between marital distress and mental health care service utilization was evaluated for overall mental health service utilization and for…
DeLoach, Kendra P.; Dvorsky, Melissa; Miller, Elaine; Paget, Michael
Students with emotional and behavioral challenges are significantly impacted by mental health issues. Teachers and other school staff need mental health knowledge to work more effectively with these students. Collaboration with mental health professionals and sharing of information is essential. [For complete volume, see ED539318.
Talo, Seija; And Others
This study of 40 patients with chronic illnesses found that good mental health may aid the patient to benefit from rehabilitation but does not guarantee good future functioning. Poor mental health does not necessarily impede good future functioning, though poor mental health, associated with other aspects of poor functioning, reliably predicts…
Cowen, Emory L., Ed.; And Others
Innovative approaches to mental health problems are described. Conceptualizations about the following areas are outlined: psychiatry, the universe, and the community; theoretical malaise and community mental health; the relation of conceptual models to manpower needs; and mental health manpower and institutional change. Community programs and new…
Siegenthaler, Eliane; Munder, Thomas; Egger, Matthias
Objective: Mental illness in parents affects the mental health of their children. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to prevent mental disorders or psychological symptoms in the offspring were performed. Method: The Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled…
Zunner, Brian; Dworkin, Shari L.; Neylan, Thomas C.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Oyaro, Patrick; Cohen, Craig R.; Abwok, Matilda; Meffert, Susan M.
Background HIV-infected (HIV+) women have high rates of Gender Based Violence (GBV). Studies of GBV find that approximately 50-90% of survivors develop mood and anxiety disorders. Given that women in sub-Saharan African constitute the largest population of HIV+ individuals in the world and the region's high GBV prevalence, mental health research with HIV+ women affected by GBV (HIV+GBV+) in this region is urgently needed. Methods Qualitative methods were used to evaluate the mental health care needs of HIV+GBV+ female patients at an HIV clinic in the Kisumu County, Kenya. Thirty in-depth interviews and four focus groups were conducted with patients, healthcare providers and community leaders. Interviews were transcribed, translated and analyzed using qualitative data software. Results Respondents stated that physical, sexual and emotional violence against HIV+ women was widely prevalent and perpetrated primarily by untested husbands accusing a wife of marital infidelity following her positive HIV test result. Mental health problems among HIV+GBV+ women included depressive, anxiety, traumatic stress symptoms and suicidal thoughts. Participants opined that emotional distress from GBV not only caused HIV treatment default, but also led to poor HIV health even if adherent. Respondents agreed that mental health treatment was needed for HIV+GBV+ women; most agreed that the best treatment modality was individual counseling delivered weekly at the HIV clinic. Limitations Emotional distress may be higher and/or more varied among HIV+GBV+ women who are not engaged in HIV care. Conclusions Mental health care is needed and desired by HIV+GBV+ women in Kisumu County, Kenya. PMID:25574781
Makregiorgos, Helen; Joubert, Lynette; Epstein, Irwin
Perinatal mental health has become the focus for policymakers, government, research, the acute health sector, and health practitioners. The aim of this clinical data-mining study ( Epstein, 2010 ) was to undertake a retrospective exploration into the primary mental health and psychosocial issues experienced by women who were pregnant and accessing obstetric care at one of the largest maternity hospitals in Australia. The study also investigated service pathways and gaps. Aboriginal women were overrepresented, demonstrating their ongoing disadvantage, whereas other linguistically and culturally diverse women were underrepresented, suggesting the existence of barriers to service. Although psychosocial factors tend to be underreported ( Buist et al., 2002 ), the findings highlighted the integral rather than peripheral nature of these factors during pregnancy ( Vilder, 2006 ) and suggest the need for change to systems that work to support women's perinatal mental health.
Science can only offer a limited account of, and prescription for, mental health care. Yet the language of science and faith in the universal applicability of particular scientific methods to the craft of mental health care has come to permeate mental health practice communities. In this paper, the argument that many beliefs held by mental health professionals might be considered to be based on faith rather than science is presented, and the view that culture provides a useful lens for understanding mental health services and these paradoxes is proposed. Clearly there is a grand mental health narrative or colonizing influence of biological psychiatry that in various ways affects all mainstream mental health services. Local health services and professional communities might be considered subcultures. Understanding how mental health professions and practice are embedded in culture might be useful in considering how practice changes and why. Culture and caring practices are mutually embedded in localized subcultures. Therefore, a rich description of context and history is necessary in publication, presentation, or other communications to enable genuine understanding by a global audience. Viewing mental health practice in a cultural context highlights the importance of values and differences, and encourages humility in the face of ambiguity.
Denneson, Lauren M; Corson, Kathryn; Helmer, Drew A; Bair, Matthew J; Dobscha, Steven K
We evaluated the impact of brief structured suicidal ideation (SI) assessments on mental health care among new-to-care Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans. National datasets provided military, demographic, and clinical information. For all new-to-care OEF/OIF veterans administered depression screens (PHQ-2: Patient Health Questionnaire-2) and structured SI assessments in primary care or ambulatory mental health settings of three Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Centers between April 2008 and September 2009 (N=465), generalized estimating equations were used to examine associations between SI and number of subsequent-year specialty mental health visits and antidepressant prescriptions. Approximately one-third of the veterans reported SI. In multivariate models, PTSD and anxiety diagnoses, severe depression symptoms, being married, and SI assessment by a mental health clinician were associated with more mental health visits in the subsequent year. Depression, PTSD, and anxiety diagnoses, and SI assessment by a mental health clinician were associated with receiving antidepressants. Presence of SI did not significantly affect subsequent year mental health utilization when adjusting for diagnostic and clinician variables, but inaugural visits involving mental health clinicians were consistently associated with subsequent mental health care.
Chepuka, Lignet; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Chorwe-Sungani, Genesis; Mambulasa, Janet; Chirwa, Ellen; Tolhurst, Rachel
Background and objectives This study explores the perceptions of a wide range of stakeholders in Malawi towards the mental health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the capacity of health services for addressing these. Design In-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in three areas of Blantyre district, and in two additional districts. A total of 10 FGDs, 1 small group, and 14 IDIs with health care providers; 18 FGDs and 1 small group with male and female, urban and rural community members; 7 IDIs with female survivors; and 26 key informant interviews and 1 small group with government ministry staff, donors, gender-based violence service providers, religious institutions, and police were conducted. A thematic framework analysis method was applied to emerging themes. Results The significant mental health impact of IPV was mentioned by all participants and formal care seeking was thought to be impeded by social pressures to resolve conflict, and fear of judgemental attitudes. Providers felt inadequately prepared to handle the psychosocial and mental health consequences of IPV; this was complicated by staff shortages, a lack of clarity on the mandate of the health sector, as well as confusion over the definition and need for ‘counselling’. Referral options to other sectors for mental health support were perceived as limited but the restructuring of the Ministry of Health to cover violence prevention, mental health, and alcohol and drug misuse under a single unit provides an opportunity. Conclusion Despite widespread recognition of the burden of IPV-associated mental health problems in Malawi, there is limited capacity to support affected individuals at community or health sector level. Participants highlighted potential entry points to health services as well as local and national opportunities for interventions that are culturally appropriate and are built on local structures and resilience. PMID:25226420
Cohen, Beth E.; Maguen, Shira; Bertenthal, Daniel; Shi, Ying; Jacoby, Vanessa; Seal, Karen H.
Background An increasing number of women serve in the military and are exposed to trauma during service that can lead to mental health problems. Understanding how these mental health problems affect reproductive and physical health outcomes will inform interventions to improve care for women veterans. Methods We analyzed national VA data from women Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were new users of VA healthcare from 10/7/2001 through 12/31/2010 (N=71,504). We used ICD-9 codes to categorize veterans into 5 groups by mental health diagnoses (MH Dx), those with: no MH Dx, PTSD, depression, comorbid PTSD and depression, and MH Dx other than PTSD and depression. We determined the association between mental health category and reproductive and other physical health outcomes defined by ICD-9 codes. Categories included sexually transmitted infections, other infections (e.g. urinary tract infections), pain-related conditions (e.g. dysmenorrhea and dsypareunia), and other conditions (e.g. polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, sexual dysfunction). Models were adjusted for sociodemographics and military service factors. Results 31,481 (44%) received at least one mental health diagnosis. Women veterans with any mental health diagnosis had significantly higher prevalences of nearly all categories of reproductive and physical disease diagnoses (p <.0001 for adjusted prevalences). There was a trend of increasing prevalence of disease outcomes in women with PTSD, depression, and comorbid PTSD and depression (p for trend <.0001 for all outcomes). Conclusions Iraq and Afghanistan women veterans with mental health diagnoses had significantly greater prevalences of several important reproductive and physical health diagnoses. These results provide support for VA initiatives to address mental and physical health concerns and improve comprehensive care for women veterans. PMID:22944901
Shankar, Nilani L.; Park, Crystal L.
Stress affects students in multiple ways. This article provides a conceptual overview of the direct (e.g., psychoneuroimmunological, endocrine) and indirect (health behavior) pathways through which stress affects physical health, the psychological effects of stress on mental health, and the cognitive effects of stress (e.g., attention,…
Fone, David L; Dunstan, Frank
Using data on 24,975 respondents to the Welsh Health Survey 1998 aged 17-74 years, we investigated associations between individual mental health status measured using the SF-36 instrument, social class, economic inactivity and the electoral division Townsend deprivation score. In a multilevel modelling analysis, we found mental health was significantly associated with the Townsend score after adjusting for composition, and this effect was strongest in respondents who were economically inactive. Further contextual effects were shown by significant random variability in the slopes of the relation between mental health and economic inactivity at the electoral division level. Our results suggest that the places in which people live affect their mental health, supporting NHS policy that multi-agency planning to reduce inequalities in mental health status should address the wider determinants of health, as well as services for individual patients.
The systematic, population-wide application of preventive measures based on what is known about the causes and outcomes of psychiatric disorders can markedly reduce morbidity from mental ill health among children in the Americas. The actions proposed here rely partly upon increasing access for all women and their children to thoroughly tested obstetric and pediatric care; in part they depend on improving nutrition and opportunities for cognitive stimulation; and in part they call for enhancing the mental health skills of primary care practitioners by appropriate in-service training. There are limits to our knowledge and to the effectiveness of some of our interventions; nonetheless, the greatest barrier to better child mental health is failure to muster the political will to apply what is known to the care of mothers and children in all sectors of society.